Science.gov

Sample records for erice sicily italy

  1. Geomorphological evolution of western Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Agnesi, Valerio; Monteleone, Salvatore

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a morphoevolutionary model for western Sicily. Sicily is a chain-foredeep-foreland system still being built, with tectonic activity involving uplift which tends to create new relief. To reconstruct the morphoevolutionary model, geological, and geomorphological studies were done on the basis of field survey and aerial photographic interpretation. The collected data show large areas characterized by specific geological, geomorphological, and topographical settings with rocks, landforms, and landscapes progressively older from south to north Sicily. The achieved results display: (1) gradual emersion of new areas due to uplift, its interaction with the Quaternary glacio-eustatic oscillations of the sea level, and the following production of a flight of stair-steps of uplifted marine terraces in southern Sicily, which migrates progressively upward and inwards; in response to the uplift (2) triggering of down-cutting processes that gradually dismantle the oldest terraces; (3) competition between uplift and down-cutting processes, which is responsible for the genesis of river valleys and isolated rounded hills in central Sicily; (4) continuous deepening over time that results in the exhumation of older and more resistant rocks in northern Sicily, where the higher heights of Sicily are realized and the older forms are retained; (5) extensional tectonic event in the northern end of Sicily, that produces the collapse of large blocks drowned in the Tyrrhenian Sea and sealed by coastal-marine deposits during the Calabrian stage; (6) trigger of uplift again in the previously subsiding blocks and its interaction with coastal processes and sea level fluctuations, which produce successions of marine terraces during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene stages.

  2. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  3. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  4. Anaplasma phagocytophilum seroprevalence in equids: a survey in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Giannetto, Claudia; Furco, Vincenzo; Alongi, Angela; Torina, Alessandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Equidae and investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Sicily (Southern Italy). During the study blood samples were collected in horses and donkeys housed in five of the nine provinces of Sicilian Island. Of 133 horses and 100 donkeys tested, respectively 9.0% and 6.0% were seroactive (IFAT) with A. phagocytophilum antigen. In only 4.7% of the horses, specific A. phagocytophilum DNA was recorded; in donkey, Anaplasma DNA was not found. Our results indicate a low prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Sicilian equids. This condition does not justify the exclusion of equids from prophylactic plans for this multihost pathogen infection, a zoonosis with a wide distribution in other European countries. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the possible mechanisms that involve the Equidae as host of this pathogen.

  5. Three new species of Collembola from soils of Mediterranean cork-oak forests of Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Giuga, Luca; Jordana, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of soil Collembola from cork-oak (Quercus suber) forests located in eastern Sicily (Italy) are described Neonaphorura alicatai sp. nov., Friesea guarinoi sp. nov. and Arrhopalites antonioi sp. nov..

  6. Iridovirus infection in terrestrial isopods from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Lupetti, Pietro; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Ciolfi, Silvia; Marri, Laura; Gentile, Mariangela; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2013-10-01

    During our researches on systematics and ecology of terrestrial isopods, carried out in western Sicily, some specimens showing a blue-purple coloration were collected; they belonged to four species: Armadillidium decorum Brandt, 1833, Trichoniscus panormidensis Montesanto et al., 2011, Philoscia affinis Verhoeff, 1908, Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi et al., 1992. We hypothesized that such coloration could be due, as reported in literature, to characteristic paracrystalline arrays of virions inside the tissues of blue colored specimens. Ultrastructural observations by transmission electron microscopy, on tissues of A. decorum, showed the presence of electron-dense viral particles, with a diameter of nearly 0.12μm. Dual-axis tomography, performed on specimens of A. decorum, evidenced an icosahedral structure of viral particles matching with that of Isopod Iridescent Virus (IIV). Molecular analysis, on 254bp portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene, allowed to place the virus into IIV-31 group, already known for other oniscidean species. The symptoms of infected individuals and the course of the disease were followed in laboratory, indicating similarities with other studies on Isopod Iridoviruses. Moreover, some notes on reproduction of infected ovigerous females are reported. Our data support unequivocal and direct evidences for the first case of IIV infection in terrestrial isopods reported in Italy.

  7. Paleotsunamis Evidence In The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedile, A.; de Martini, P.; Barbano, M. S.; Pantosti, D.; Gerardi, F.; Del Carlo, P.; Bellucci, L. G.; Gasperini, L.; Sagnotti, L.; Polonia, A.; Pirrotta, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Augusta Bay, in Eastern Sicily (Italy), was repeatedly hit by tsunami waves related to large historical earthquakes (e.g. 1908, 1693, 1169). The area is characterized by coastal lowlands or lagoons, and by a relatively wide continental shelf with a thick late-Holocene record that has been investigated through the acquisition of a tight grid of CHIRP-sonar profiles. Well targeted sediment samples have been collected both offshore and inland. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical and geological data has been carried out in order to recognize, date and correlate key-layers in the sediment column that may be directly or indirectly related to tsunami events. A total of 26 cores were collected inland at a maximum distance of 530 m from the present coastline. The clay and silt dominated stratigraphy is intercalated by at least 5 high-energy or anomalous depositional layers, repeatedly found in several cores. These layers are made of coarse to fine sand with sharp basal contacts and present a bioclastic component made of microfauna (foraminifera) and shell fragments both suggestive of a marine provenance. Chronological constraints on the age of these deposits is based on AMS radiocarbon datings and on the attribution of a tephra layer to the 122 BC Etna eruption (thanks to petro- chemical and morphoscopic analyses). Integrating these data, the inland sequence spans the last 4100 yrs and the two uppermost high-energy events could be related to the AD 1169 and 1693 historical tsunamis. The offshore record was studied from a 6.7 m-long piston-core collected at 70 m water depth. The homogeneous sequence of dark gray mud is interrupted at -3 m by the same Etna tephra deposit found inland. Through the analysis of tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon datings, high resolution paleomagnetic analysis and radioactive tracers, the entire core sequence has been dated back to the last 4500 yrs. Moreover, the quantitative micropaleontological analysis on the benthic

  8. Application of Skylab imagery to some geological and environmental problems in Italy. [and Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Four topics are considered: regional geology of Sicily, volcanic surveillance in southern Italy, hydrogeology (with special regard given to the discovery and mapping of paleoriverbeds), and crop investigation. The discovery of unknown lineaments and structures in Sicily contributes to the geological knowledge of this region and in particular to the mechanical phenomena involving the upper part of the crust. An attempt was made to relate the status of vegetation surrounding Etna volcano to the magmatic gas escapes filtering through the soil. False-color Skylab images were used to analyze the vigor of the Etnean forestal belt vegetation canopy in order to map possible gas-vent ways as well as the 'active' microfractures. In northern Italy, buried channels were mapped in the Venetian Plain, and a tentative cost-benefit evaluation was done in the field of vegetational studies, both disease detection and species inventory were performed in the Po River Delta and in northwestern Italy.

  9. Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

  10. Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F

    2015-05-21

    We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza.

  11. Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

    2009-04-01

    The coast of Sicily region stretches about 1400 km, bathing three different seas: the North tract, from Messina to Capo San Vito wash to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the oriental side, from Messina to Capo Passero, wash to the Ionian Sea, and finally the southern side wash to the Mediterranean. Of these, 395 km are made up of beaches and 970 km from rocky shores. The coastal morph-type were analyzed in relation to their evolutionary trend (backspace or advancement of the seaside), can be summarized as follows: a low shores of torrent plain (Messina), low shores with salt (Trapani), low shores beaches edged with dunal systems, subject to backspace, where urbanization has reduced or eliminated the internal sand dunes, shores on marine terraces, with beaches at the foot (Agrigento) and high shores non-affected of real phenomena of backspace, but subject to often dangerous events of detachment and collapse of blocks (high rocky shores). The marine and coastal environment is a complex and articulated, in balance with the Earth's environment, in which live together, but through different dynamics strongly interacting, ecosystems and marine ecosystems typically transition. The increasing density of population concentrated along the shores, the gradual expansion of activities related to the use of marine and coastal resources, are some of the issues that threaten the delicate balance of nature and the sea coast. The sicilian coastal areas most subject to erosion are those in Ragusa shores areas in south-eastern of Sicily, where the critical areas interesting low coastline and high shores. Following the coast, between Capo Peloro and Milazzo (Messina),where the erosion affects the coast with a low of about 23 km. In the coastal between Capo St. Marco and Capo Feto (Trapani) the critical areas interesting the low coastline and, in part erodible bluffs. One of this case is localized in the town of Mazara del Vallo. In general, the phenomenon erosive affects almost all the sicilian

  12. An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  13. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  14. Crustal structure and seismotectonics of central Sicily (southern Italy): new constraints from instrumental seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgroi, Tiziana; de Nardis, Rita; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of the crustal structure and seismotectonics for central Sicily (southern Italy) through the analysis of the depth distribution and kinematics of the instrumental seismicity, occurring during the period from 1983 to 2010, and its comparison with individual geological structures that may be active in the area. The analysed data set consists of 392 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging from 1.0 to 4.7. We defined a new, detailed 1-D velocity model to relocate the earthquakes that occurred in central Sicily, and we calculated a Moho depth of 37 km and a mean VP/VS ratio of 1.73. The relocated seismic events are clustered mainly in the area north of Caltanissetta (e.g. Mainland Sicily) and in the northeastern sector (Madonie Mountains) of the study area; only minor and greatly dispersed seismicity is located in the western sector, near Belice, and along the southern coast, between Gela and Sciacca. The relocated hypocentral distribution depicts a bimodal pattern: 50 per cent of the events occur within the upper crust at depths less than ˜16 km, 40 per cent of the events occur within the middle and depth crust, at depths between 16 and 32 km, and the remaining 10 per cent occur at subcrustal depths. The energy release pattern shows a similar depth distribution. On the basis of the kinematic analysis of 38 newly computed focal plane solutions, two major geographically distinct seismotectonic domains are distinguished: the Madonie Mountain domain, with prevalent extensional and extensional-oblique kinematics associated with upper crust Late Pliocene-Quaternary faulting, and the Mainland Sicily domain, with prevalent compressional and compressional-oblique kinematics associated with thrust faulting, at mid to deep crust depth, along the north-dipping Sicilian Basal Thrust (SBT). The stress inversion of the Mainland Sicily focal solutions integrated with neighbouring mechanisms available in the literature highlights a regional

  15. Characterization of measles virus strains circulating in Southern Italy (Palermo area, Sicily) between 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Urone, Noemi; Colomba, Claudia; Ferraro, Donatella

    2016-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) was classified in 24 genotypes that show a distinct geographic distribution. Genotypes contain multiple distinct lineages. In 2011 large outbreaks of measles occurred in Italy and in many European countries. Aims of this study are to analyze the intra-genotype variability and to follow the importation and the spread of new MV strains in Sicily. A fragment of 450 bps of MV C-terminal nucleoprotein was sequenced from sera of 73 Sicilian patients with symptomatic measles infections, occurred between 2010 and 2011. Five MV strains were D4 genotype and 68 were D8 genotype. The MV/D4 sequences were related to MV/D4-Enfield variant. Two lineages of MV/D8 genotypes, related to MV/D8-Villupuram variant and to a strain found in Birmingham in 2006 respectively, were identified. This is the first study that reports the co-circulation of different MV genotypes and lineages in Sicily suggesting multiple origins of the outbreak that occurred during 2010 and 2011 years.

  16. The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Anagnostou, Paolo; Busby, George B J; Ferri, Gianmarco; Thomas, Mark G; Taglioli, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Bolnick, Deborah; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Luiselli, Donata; Shepherd, Gillian B; Tusa, Sebastiano; Facella, Antonino; Capelli, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Greek colonisation of South Italy and Sicily (Magna Graecia) was a defining event in European cultural history, although the demographic processes and genetic impacts involved have not been systematically investigated. Here, we combine high-resolution surveys of the variability at the uni-parentally inherited Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in selected samples of putative source and recipient populations with forward-in-time simulations of alternative demographic models to detect signatures of that impact. Using a subset of haplotypes chosen to represent historical sources, we recover a clear signature of Greek ancestry in East Sicily compatible with the settlement from Euboea during the Archaic Period (eighth to fifth century BCE). We inferred moderate sex-bias in the numbers of individuals involved in the colonisation: a few thousand breeding men and a few hundred breeding women were the estimated number of migrants. Last, we demonstrate that studies aimed at quantifying Hellenic genetic flow by the proportion of specific lineages surviving in present-day populations may be misleading. PMID:26173964

  17. Spirocerca lupi isolated from gastric lesions in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrantelli, V; Riili, S; Vicari, D; Percipalle, M; Chetta, M; Monteverde, V; Gaglio, G; Giardina, G; Usai, F; Poglayen, G

    2010-01-01

    Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi 1809) is a cosmopolitan nematode of dogs and wild carnivores. In the past it has been reported in Italy, mainly in southern regions and in Sicily, where the parasite was observed in foxes in 2005. The parasite typically produces nodular masses in the oesophagus and thoracic aorta. During the 2003-2004 hunting season, the authors investigated a total of 55 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) hunted or killed by car accidents in the provinces of Palermo and Agrigento. All the foxes were subjected to necropsy and 6 (9.16%) had S. lupi nodules located exclusively in the gastric wall. The nature of the nodules was determined by opening them and detecting the nematodes inside, which were identified as S. lupi. Some of the nodules were characterized anatomopathologically and histopathologically. The formation of the parasitic nodule in the stomach only suggests a deviation from the route commonly followed by the nematode to reach the oesophagus, the elective anatomical site for completion of its lifecycle. This survey gives a contribution to the epidemiology of this parasite which is severely outdated in Italy and highlights some distinctive features of the life cycle and parasite migration.

  18. About the presence of Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Eastern Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, V; Ruta, F; Khoury, C; Bianchi, R; Depaquit, J; Maroli, M

    2004-09-01

    The note reports the data of a three-year sand fly investigation (1997-99) carried out in Eastern Sicily (Italy) with the aim to study the distribution of Phlebotomus sergenti. The survey involved a densely inhabited area at the foot of Mount Etna and the area of Iblei mounts. A total of 9,095 sand flies, of which 63.4% males, were captured. Five species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi, P. neglectus, P. sergenti and P. papatasi) and one to the genus Sergentomyia (S. minuta) were identified. Both the prevalence and distribution of the species were different within the two areas studied. In Mount Etna area, P. perniciosus (77.7%) was the prevalent species followed by S. minuta (19.8%), P. sergenti (2.0%), P. neglectus (0.3%) and P. papatasi (0.2%). While in Iblei mounts region S. minuta (84.5%) showed the highest prevalence, followed by P. perniciosus (14.4%), P. perfiliewi (0.9%) and P. neglectus (0.1%). Here, P. sergenti was a very rare species (< 0.02). P. sergenti was mostly associated to domestic habitats of peri-urban and urban zones located between two and 750 m a.s.l. The density values of P. sergenti, expressed as number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap, were between 0.3 and 5.5 with the highest value in the hilly collecting sites. The low observed abundance of P. sergenti does not allow to draw any prediction on the role that the species could play in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Sicily.

  19. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L⁻¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L⁻¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L⁻¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L⁻¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L⁻¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L⁻¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure.

  20. Analysis of climate change effects on extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    In this study possible effects of the climate change on the extreme precipitation events have been analyzed by means of the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment) data, a WCRP-sponsored program for the study of climate change effects at regional scales. In particular, some models runs from the EURO-CORDEX and the MED-CORDEX, i.e., two branch of the main project, have been exploited for the analysis of possible effects on extreme rainfall for the area of Sicily (Italy). In order to improve the reliability of reference data retrieved from the CORDEX datasets, a bias correction procedure based on hystorical measurements has been designed. Moreover, a simple cascade temporal downscaling procedure, has been applied for the derivation of sub-daily data. Results highlight that mean annual precipitation for the period 2006-2050 shows a reduction of the average total precipitation for both scenarios, rcp8.5 more than rcp4.5. The precipitation for the shorter durations has shown an increase respect to higher durations. This behaviour is confirmed by many works of the scientific community, which underline this trend. Therefore, results report the indications that in this area the up to date climate predictions are congruent with future scenarios characterized by a decrease of the total amount of precipitation with an increase of the extreme rainfall events.

  1. Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

  2. Predicting storm-triggered debris flow events: application to the 2009 Ionian Peloritan disaster (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, M.; Lombardo, L.; Conoscenti, C.; Agnesi, V.; Rotigliano, E.

    2015-08-01

    The main assumption on which landslide susceptibility assessment by means of stochastic modelling lies is that the past is the key to the future. As a consequence, a stochastic model able to classify past known landslide events should be able to predict a future unknown scenario as well. However, storm-triggered multiple debris flow events in the Mediterranean region could pose some limits on the operative validity of such an expectation, as they are typically resultant of a randomness in time recurrence and magnitude and a great spatial variability, even at the scale of small catchments. This is the case for the 2007 and 2009 storm events, which recently hit north-eastern Sicily with different intensities, resulting in largely different disaster scenarios. The study area is the small catchment of the Itala torrent (10 km2), which drains from the southern Peloritani Mountains eastward to the Ionian Sea, in the territory of the Messina province (Sicily, Italy). Landslides have been mapped by integrating remote and field surveys, producing two event inventories which include 73 debris flows, activated in 2007, and 616 debris flows, triggered by the 2009 storm. Logistic regression was applied in order to obtain susceptibility models which utilize a set of predictors derived from a 2 m cell digital elevation model and a 1 : 50 000 scale geologic map. The research topic was explored by performing two types of validation procedures: self-validation, based on the random partition of each event inventory, and chrono-validation, based on the time partition of the landslide inventory. It was therefore possible to analyse and compare the performances both of the 2007 calibrated model in predicting the 2009 debris flows (forward chrono-validation), and vice versa of the 2009 calibrated model in predicting the 2007 debris flows (backward chrono-validation). Both of the two predictions resulted in largely acceptable performances in terms of fitting, skill and reliability

  3. Predicting storm triggered debris flow events: application to the 2009 Ionian-Peloritan disaster (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, M.; Lombardo, L.; Conoscenti, C.; Rotigliano, R.

    2015-03-01

    The main assumption on which landslide susceptibility assessment by means of stochastic modelling lays is that the past is the key to the future. As a consequence, a stochastic model able to classify a past known landslide scenario should be able to predict a future unknown one as well. However, storm triggered landslide events in the Mediterranean region could pose some limits on the operative validity of such expectation, as they typically result by a randomness in time recurrence and magnitude. This is the case of the 2007/09 couple of storm events, which recently hit north-eastern Sicily resulting in largely different disaster scenarios. The purpose of this study is to test whether a susceptibility model based on stepwise binary logistic regression is able to predict a storm triggered debris flow scenario. The study area is the small catchment of the Itala torrent (10 km2), which drains from the southern Peloritan Mountains eastward to the Ionian sea, in the province of the Messina territory (Sicily, Italy). The shallow landslides activated in the occasion of two close intense rainfall events have been mapped by integrating remote and field surveys, producing two event inventories which include 73 landslides, activated in 2007, and 616 landslides, triggered by the 2009 storm. The set of predictors were derived from a 2 m cell digital elevation model and a 1 : 50 000 scale geologic map. The topic of the research was explored by performing two types of validation procedures: self-validation, based on the random partition of each event inventory and chrono-validation, based on the time partition of the landslide inventory. It was therefore possible to analyse and compare the performances both of the 2007-calibrated model in predicting the 2009 landslides (forward chronovalidation) and vice versa of the 2009-calibrated model in predicting the 2007 landslides (backward chronovalidation). Both the two predictions resulted in largely acceptable performances, in terms

  4. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  5. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard.

  6. Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

  7. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  8. Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Roberto; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work some reliable tsunami scenarios for the city of Catania are proposed on the basis of tectonic considerations and of the historical events that hit the city in the past. The most famous are the tsunamis associated with the 11 January 1693 and the 28 December 1908 earthquakes, of which the source determination is still an open issue, because it is not clear if the tsunamis were generated by the earthquake only or by a landslide or by a combination of both. One remote source based on the 365 A.D. West Hellenic Arc event is also considered in order to complete the possible tsunami scenarios for the town of Catania. The work is focused on the area of the harbour where many human activities and structures are present. Nowadays the harbour is protected by a long jetty opened in the south and here the coast presents two very different morphological aspects: moving southern respect to the harbour the coast is sandy and shallow, while moving northern it is rocky and high. Inundation maps computed on a 40-meters resolution grid are shown in order to identify the areas most exposed to tsunami inundation in this specific area and to study the harbour response to tsunami wave trains of different frequencies. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite difference code UBO-TSUFD, which solves both linear and non-linear shallow water equations on multi-grid domain that allow to increase the grid resolution in the area of interest. The code can compute the inundation of specific areas and it is developed and maintained by the research team itself. The work has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded project SCHEMA

  9. Exploring the effect of absence selection on landslide susceptibility models: A case study in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Cama, Mariaelena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Lombardo, Luigi; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    A statistical approach was employed to model the spatial distribution of rainfall-triggered landslides in two areas in Sicily (Italy) that occurred during the winter of 2004-2005. The investigated areas are located within the Belice River basin and extend for 38.5 and 10.3 km2, respectively. A landslide inventory was established for both areas using two Google Earth images taken on October 25th 2004 and on March 18th 2005, to map slope failures activated or reactivated during this interval. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to prepare 5 m grids of the dependent variables (absence/presence of landslide) and independent variables (lithology and 13 DEM-derivatives). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were applied to model landslide susceptibility whereas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate model performance. To evaluate the robustness of the whole procedure, we prepared 10 different samples of positive (landslide presence) and negative (landslide absence) cases for each area. Absences were selected through two different methods: (i) extraction from randomly distributed circles with a diameter corresponding to the mean width of the landslide source areas; and (ii) selection as randomly distributed individual grid cells. A comparison was also made between the predictive performances of models including and not including the lithology parameter. The models trained and tested on the same area demonstrated excellent to outstanding fit (AUC > 0.8). On the other hand, predictive skill decreases when measured outside the calibration area, although most of the landslides occur where susceptibility is high and the overall model performance is acceptable (AUC > 0.7). The results also showed that the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models is higher when lithology is included in the statistical analysis. Models whose absences were selected using random circles showed a

  10. A neighborhood revealed by geophysical prospection: An example of urbanization at the Phoenician-Punic settlement of Mozia (western Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, D.; Alfonsi, L.; Sapia, V.; Urbini, S.

    2014-05-01

    The archaeological site of Mozia, a small island in front of the western coast of Sicily (Italy), is one of the most important Phoenician-Punic settlements in the Mediterranean; it preserves important vestiges and remains, located in an uncontaminated site, inhabited and car-free. The remains are still partially hidden under vegetation and vineyards.

  11. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice

    PubMed Central

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on “Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health,” a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination polices, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities. PMID:25806425

  12. Evidences of a Lithospheric Fault Zone in the Sicily Channel Continental Rift (Southern Italy) from Instrumental Seismicity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, L.; Calo, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sicily Channel continental rift is located in the African Plate and is submerged by a shallow sea extending from the northern coast of Africa to the southern coast of Sicily (southern Italy). The area is affected by an extensional regime since early Pliocene, which thins the continental crust and produces NW-SE oriented Pantelleria, Linosa and Malta grabens. The rift-related volcanic activity is represented by Pantelleria and Linosa Islands and a series of magmatic manifestations roughly NNE-SSW aligned, from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, in proximity of the Sicilian coast. Recent rapid magmatic ascents occurred along the strip near to the Sicilian coast in a region named Graham Bank. The NNE-SSW strip has already been recognised as a separation belt between the western sector of the rift (Pantelleria graben) and the eastern one (Linosa and Malta grabens). Seismic profiles suggest the presence of near vertical structures associated with strike slip fault zones. Bathymetric data show a 15-20 km wide zone characterised by several shallow basins irregularly alternated by topographic highs. However, evidences of a N-S or NNE-SSW orientated faults have not been found. In this work we re-localised the instrumental seismicity recorded between 1981 and 2012 in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method (Waldhauser, 2001, 2012) and 3D Vp and Vs models (Calò et al., 2013). The statistical analysis of the relocated seismicity together with the study of seismic energy release distribution allows us to describe the main patterns associated with the active faults in the western Sicily Straits. Here we find that most of the events in the Sicily Channel are highly clustered between 12.5°- 13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth between 5-40 km, reaching in some cases 70 km of depth. Seismic events seem to be aligned along a sub-vertical shear zone that is long at least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial

  13. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  14. Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. The frequent flank eruptions occurrence (at an interval of years, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones) lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked with intense urbanization, poses a high volcanic risk. A long-term volcanic hazard assessment, mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano, is the basic tool for the evaluation of this risk. Then, a reliable forecast where the next eruption will occur is needed. A computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations will provide the relative map, thus allowing identification of the areas prone to the highest hazard. Based on these grounds, the use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) showed that a suitable analysis can be explored (Selva et al., 2012). Following an analysis we are performing, a total of 6886 point-vents referring to the last 4.0 ka of Etna flank activity, and spread over an area of 744 km2 (divided into N=2976 squared cell, with side of 500 m), allowed us to estimate a pdf by applying a Gaussian kernel. The probability values represent a complete set of outcomes mutually exclusive and the relative sum is normalized to one over the investigated area; then, the basic assumptions of a Dirichlet distribution (the prior distribution set in the BET_EF code (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008)) still hold. One fundamental parameter is the the equivalent number of data, that depicts our confidence on the best guess probability. The BET_EF code also works with a likelihood function. This is modelled by a Multinomial distribution, with parameters representing the number of vents in each cell and the total number of past data (i.e. the 6886 point-vents). Given the grid of N cells, the final posterior distribution will be evaluated by multiplying the a priori Dirichlet probability distribution with the past data in each cell through the likelihood. The probability hazard map

  15. Statistical Analysis of Mineral Concentration for the Geographic Identification of Garlic Samples from Sicily (Italy), Tunisia and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Rossella; Mottese, Antonio F.; Bua, Giuseppe D.; Salvo, Andrea; Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Vasi, Sebastiano; Giofrè, Salvatore V.; Alfa, Maria; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a statistical analysis of the concentration of mineral elements, by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in different varieties of garlic from Spain, Tunisia, and Italy. Nubia Red Garlic (Sicily) is one of the most known Italian varieties that belongs to traditional Italian food products (P.A.T.) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry. The obtained results suggest that the concentrations of the considered elements may serve as geographical indicators for the discrimination of the origin of the different samples. In particular, we found a relatively high content of Selenium in the garlic variety known as Nubia red garlic, and, indeed, it could be used as an anticarcinogenic agent. PMID:28231115

  16. Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

    2008-10-01

    Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric conductivity and for their Cl(-), Br(-) and F(-) contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl(-) and Br(-), ranging between 5.53 and 1,302 mg/l and between <0.025 and 4.76 mg/l respectively, correlated well with the electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values were found both along the NW and SE coasts, which we attributed to seawater contamination, and in the central part of Sicily, which we attributed to evaporitic rock dissolution. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.023 to 3.28 mg/l, while the highest values (only three exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 1.5 mg/l) generally correlated either with the presence in the area of crystalline (volcanic or metamorphic) or evaporitic rocks or with contamination from hydrothermal activity. Apart from these limited cases of exceeding F(-) levels, the waters of public drinking water supplies in Sicily can be considered safe for human consumption for the analysed parameters. Some limited concern could arise from the intake of bromide-rich waters (about 3% exceeding 1 mg/l) because of the potential formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.

  17. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  18. Geodetic and geological evidence of active tectonics in south-western Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Bruno, V.; Cocorullo, C.; Cultrera, F.; Ferranti, L.; Guglielmino, F.; Guzzetta, L.; Mattia, M.; Monaco, C.; Pepe, F.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated geological, geodetic and marine geophysical data provide evidence of active deformation in south-western Sicily, in an area spatially coincident with the macroseismic zone of the destructive 1968 Belice earthquake sequence. Even though the sequence represents the strongest seismic event recorded in Western Sicily in historical times, focal solutions provided by different authors are inconclusive on possible faulting mechanism, which ranges from thrusting to transpression, and the seismogenic source is still undefined. Interferometric (DInSAR) observations reveal a differential ground motion on a SW-NE alignment between Campobello di Mazara and Castelvetrano (CCA), located just west of the maximum macroseismic sector. In addition, new GPS campaign-mode data acquired across the CCA alignment documents NW-SE contractional strain accumulation. Morphostructural analysis allowed to associate the alignment detected through geodetic measurements with a topographic offset of Pleistocene marine sediments. The on-land data were complemented by new high-resolution marine geophysical surveys, which indicate recent contraction on the offshore extension of the CCA alignment. The discovery of archaeological remains displaced by a thrust fault associated with the alignment provided the first likely surface evidence of coseismic and/or aseismic deformation related to a seismogenic source in the area. Results of the integrated study supports the contention that oblique thrusting and folding in response to NW-SE oriented contraction is still active. Although we are not able to associate the CCA alignment to the 1968 seismic sequence or to the historical earthquakes that destroyed the ancient Greek city of Selinunte, located on the nearby coastline, our result must be incorporated in the seismic hazard evaluation of this densely populated area of Sicily.

  19. Investigation on potential landslide sources along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment for the 1693 tsunami in Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The study of the source of 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (South Italy) is still debated in the scientific community. Macroseismic analyses provide inland location for the epicenter of the earthquake, while historical reports describing 1-2 m waves hitting the coast suggest the existence of at least an offshore extension of the fault. Furthermore, an anomalous water elevation was described in Augusta (between Siracusa and Catania), that was interpreted as the manifestation of a local submarine landslide. The presence of the steep Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, that runs parallel to the eastern coast of Sicily at a short distance from the shoreline and is cut by several canyons and scars, corroborates the hypothesis of a landslide occurrence, though no clear evidence has been found yet. This research, realized in the frame of the project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), aims at assessing the effect of landslide-generated tsunamis on the coastal stretch around Augusta considering different scenarios of collapsing masses along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment. The slide dynamics is computed by means of the numerical code UBO-BLOCK1 (developed by the University of Bologna Tsunami Research Team), and the corresponding tsunami is simulated via the code UBO-TSUFD. The sliding bodies are placed in different positions in order to assess which of them could produce significant effects on the town of Augusta, providing then clues on the possible source area for the hypothesized slide related to the 1693 tsunami. The sensitivity analysis shows the spatial dependence of the coastal tsunami height on the source volume, position, distance from the coast, and on other parameters.

  20. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) bioindicator of lead and copper pollution in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Naccari, C; Giangrosso, G; Macaluso, A; Billone, E; Cicero, A; D'Ascenzi, C; Ferrantelli, V

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Pb and Cu accumulation in muscle and skin samples of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Sicily, for monitoring of environmental metals pollution. Metals determination, carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), showed the presence of Pb and Cu in all samples analyzed. Pb concentrations were similar in muscle (0.04±0.009 mg/kg) and skin (0.03±0.004 mg/kg) samples, while Cu levels resulted higher in muscle (1.842±0.178 mg/kg) than in skin (1.22±0.151 mg/kg). In addition, a comparative analysis of Pb and Cu concentrations was carried out among samples from different areas of Sicily and between female and male, young and old, immature and mature foxes. Metals content found in all muscle and skin samples demonstrates that V. vulpes could be a valid "sentinel" species of rural and suburban areas to study the environmental metals pollution and the habitat quality.

  1. Application and Comparison of Tsunami Vulnerability and Damage Models for the Town of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, which according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting, is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Malta escarpment and by local and remote (e.g., Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason, the area of Siracusa has been selected as one of the test sites to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this frame, this work focuses on the assessment of tsunami vulnerability of (and damage to) the building stock of the town. The analysis is carried out following two different models, namely the SCHEMA and the Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) methods. Topographic and building stock data in the potentially flooded areas are taken from detailed digital databases produced by the region of Sicily, integrated with satellite and photographic imagery from Google Earth and further validated by field surveys. We have explored three inundation scenarios corresponding to a constant-level tsunami flooding with assumed sea level rise of 1, 3 and 5 m, and evaluated the damage to the town buildings using both methods that make use of a 5-degree scale. The main result is that the level of damage of both models is not consistent, and that consistency may be improved if one changes from a 5- to a 3-degree damage scale.

  2. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  3. A molecular survey of Rickettsia felis in fleas from cats and dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites.

  4. A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites. PMID:25203839

  5. Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy): preservation and economic potential.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices.

  6. Quality assessment of freshwater and coastal seawater in the Ionian area of N.E. Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cimino, G; Puleio, M C; Toscano, G

    2002-07-01

    This work was conducted to analyse pressing and competing demands of water in Northeast Sicily, Italy. In this area, looking at the Ionian Sea, freshwaters and coastal seawaters have been studied on the quality and on the transport processes of pollutants. Attention has been focused on chemical and microbial parameters proposed by European Directives for drinking freshwaters and bathing seawaters. The findings show that the ground freshwaters are of good quality but the surface ones, particularly torrents and correlated under-river aquifers, are clearly polluted. The characteristics of the coastal seawaters are according with those of the closely bound up estuarine waters. Contamination is due essentially to discharge of raw sewage in the watercourses by public and private pipes. The impact is usually less evident during the wet season because rain and seastorms dilute the polluting load, but in dry periods this pollution causes loss of habitat and deleterious effects on environment. A database has been developed to provide a graphic and mapping display interface of the area studied and to assist the management of the studied fluvial basins.

  7. Bioclimatic requirements for olive flowering in two Mediterranean regions located at the same latitude (Andalucia, Spain and Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Vazquez, Luis Manuel; Ruga, Luigia; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Fornaciari, Marco; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez, Eugenio; Romano, Bruno; Galan, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is the major area devoted to olive tree crop, and therefore a study of olive flowering is of great interest for the European Community. On the other hand, olive pollen is one of the main causes of pollen allergy in the Mediterranean area. Olive flowering is affected by climatic factors such as temperature and photoperiod, which vary geographically in latitude and altitude. Temperature has been used to study those processes that lead to flowering in the olive tree. The aim of the present paper is firstly the comparison of the flowering full bloom dates in two Mediterranean areas, Sicily (Italy) and Cordoba (Spain), located in the same latitudinal band (37-38 degrees N) and to calculate the heat requirement until flowering by determination of different threshold temperatures and methods of heat accumulation. A delay of the full flowering dates in the Spanish compared with the Italian olive groves was observed. The most suitable threshold temperatures were carried out in a 7 degrees -15 degrees C range by considering the heat accumulation start on 1 January in each olive grove. In particular, some causes were indicated as responsible for the different threshold temperatures recorded in the 2 study areas: First, the different climatic conditions (continental and insular climate) secondly the different cultivars present in the olive groves.

  8. Biodiversity of Indigenous Saccharomyces Populations from Old Wineries of South-Eastern Sicily (Italy): Preservation and Economic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity. In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices. PMID:22393353

  9. The effects of anthropogenic particulate emissions on roadway dust and Nerium oleander leaves in Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Dongarrà, Gaetano; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Triscari, Maurizio; Varrica, Daniela

    2003-10-01

    Complementary studies on the inorganic chemical composition of Nerium oleander leaves collected in the town of Messina (Sicily, Italy) and seven grain-size fractions of local roadway dust have been carried out. Data and maps are presented to show that the particulate matter present in the air of Messina contains trace elements significantly in excess with respect to the average continental earth crust. The anomalies follow the outline of the urban area, the highest concentrations of trace elements being observed where traffic density is highest. Chemical and isotopic analyses of both road dust and Nerium oleander leaves indicate that Pb contamination still characterizes roads with heavy traffic. In addition to Pb, other metals such as Pt, Pd, Sb, Au, Br, Zn, Cu, Mo, and Cd are significantly enriched in roadway dust, indicating their common anthropogenic origin, especially from traffic. SEM/EDS study of some roadway dust particles has shown the presence of gypsum probably of secondary origin, mixed particles formed by coagulation or gas-to-particle conversion, and porous spherical particles apparently emanating from combustion processes.

  10. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Brandon; Henne, Paul D.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calò, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-10-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690-6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000-8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to <250 mg/L from ca. 8190 to 7000 cal yr BP at both sites. After ca. 6250 cal yr BP, the ostracode records are strikingly different. Lago Preola became much more saline, with paleosalinity values that ranged from 2270 to about 24,420 mg/L. We suggest that Lago Preola's change from a freshwater to mesosaline lake at about 6250 cal yr BP was related to sea level rise and resulting intrusion of seawater-influenced groundwater. In contrast, Gorgo Basso remained a freshwater lake. The salinity of Gorgo Basso declined somewhat after 6250 cal yr BP, in comparison to the early Holocene, ranging from about 550 to 1680 mg/L. Cypria ophtalmica, a species capable of rapid swimming and flourishing in waters with low dissolved oxygen levels, became dominant at approximately the time when Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response to increased Greco

  11. Common buzzards (Buteo buteo) bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Naccari, C; Cristani, M; Cimino, F; Arcoraci, T; Trombetta, D

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of toxic (As, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu, Mn and Zn) metals in samples (feathers, liver, kidney, lung, intestine and muscle) of common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily, used as bio-indicators for monitoring environmental metals pollution. All samples of buzzards were collected at the "Recovery Center of Wild Fauna" of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. The quantitative determinations of metals were carried out using an atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained showed the presence of metals in all samples analyzed. For toxic metals the highest levels of Pb and As were found in liver and those of Cd in kidney; for essential metals Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. Significant differences are observed in metal levels between female and male and juvenile and adult bird samples. Highest metal levels found in liver, kidney and muscle can be considered indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in feathers can be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The results obtained suggest that common buzzards (Buteo buteo) may be very useful as bio-indicators for monitoring environmental pollution.

  12. Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on the Peloritani Mountains (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

    2014-10-01

    A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep rock slopes with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that portions of the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the village.

  13. Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on Peloritani Mounts (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

    2013-12-01

    A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep, rock slopes, with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the entire village.

  14. Fault Geometry Inferred From High Precision Relative Locations of Microearthquake Clusters - An Example of Southeastern Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfi, L.; Langer, H.; Gresta, S.

    Between of November 1999 and January 2000, two microearthquake swarms consist- ing of 16 and 41 events, respectively, occurred close to the site Ramacca, Southeastern Sicily (Italy). The hypocenters are located in the depth range 17-25 km, some kilome- tres northward from the border of the foredeep, below the thrust zone of the Sicily mountain chain (the Appennine - Maghrebide chain). The distribution of the hypocen- ters shows two distinct clusters, and the comparison of the waveforms revealed clearly that the two swarms form two distinct families of multiplet events. The strong simi- larities of the waveforms in the families has led us to carry out a precise relocation relative to the two master events of the families, in order to analyse the geometrical structure of the earthquake clusters and their relation to important tectonic structures of the zone. We applied the cross-correlation method to obtain precise readings of the wave onsets. SH-wave onsets were used instead P-waves, as they showed clear onsets and a good signal-to-noise ratio. The residuals of the relative locations show small val- ues, no more than several meters on average. The extension of the clusters was found to be 400 m and 250 m with respect to focal depth, and 200 m with respect to the hor- izontal extension. In particular the hypocenters of the first cluster delineate clearly a NNE striking plane with almost vertical dip, which matches the focal mechanism ob- tained as a composite solution of all events of the cluster. As the standard location for the Ramacca sequence showed considerable gap angles, indicating an unfavourable station geometry with respect to this events, we examined the stability of our results carrying out a Monte Carlo experiment. Varying the onset times randomly in the range of +/- 5 ms we found variation of the locations in longitude being less than 10 m, and no more than 50 m both in latitude and depth. Nevertheless, the overall geometrical characteristics of the

  15. Worst-Case Scenario Tsunami Hazard Assessment in Two Historically and Economically Important Districts in Eastern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Paparo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The portion of the eastern Sicily coastline (southern Italy), ranging from the southern part of the Catania Gulf (to the north) down to the southern-eastern end of the island, represents a very important geographical domain from the industrial, commercial, military, historical and cultural points of view. Here the two major cities of Augusta and Siracusa are found. In particular, the Augusta bay hosts one of the largest petrochemical poles in the Mediterranean, and Siracusa is listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2005. This area was hit by at least seven tsunamis in the approximate time interval from 1600 BC to present, the most famous being the 365, 1169, 1693 and 1908 tsunamis. The choice of this area as one of the sites for the testing of innovative methods for tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment and reduction is then fully justified. This is being developed in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3). We assess the tsunami hazard for the Augusta-Siracusa area through the worst-case credible scenario technique, which can be schematically divided into the following steps: 1) Selection of five main source areas, both in the near- and in the far-field (Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, Messina Straits, Ionian subduction zone, Calabria offshore, western Hellenic Trench); 2) Choice of potential and credible tsunamigenic faults in each area: 38 faults were selected, with properly assigned magnitude, geometry and focal mechanism; 3) Computation of the maximum tsunami wave elevations along the eastern Sicily coast on a coarse grid (by means of the in-house code UBO-TSUFD) and extraction of the 9 scenarios that produce the largest effects in the target areas of Augusta and Siracusa; 4) For each of the 9 scenarios we run numerical UBO-TSUFD simulations over a set of five nested grids, with grid cells size decreasing from 3 km in the open Ionian

  16. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B Brandon; Henne, Paul; Mezquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calo, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690–6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000–8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to <250 mg/L from ca. 8190 to 7000 cal yr BP at both sites. After ca. 6250 cal yr BP, the ostracode records are strikingly different. Lago Preola became much more saline, with paleosalinity values that ranged from 2270 to about 24,420 mg/L. We suggest that Lago Preola's change from a freshwater to mesosaline lake at about 6250 cal yr BP was related to sea level rise and resulting intrusion of seawater-influenced groundwater. In contrast, Gorgo Basso remained a freshwater lake. The salinity of Gorgo Basso declined somewhat after 6250 cal yr BP, in comparison to the early Holocene, ranging from about 550 to 1680 mg/L. Cypria ophtalmica, a species capable of rapid swimming and flourishing in waters with low dissolved oxygen levels, became dominant at approximately the time when Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response

  17. A Natural Laboratory for Offshore Paleotsunami Studies: The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedile, A.; Molisso, F.; Chague-Goff, C.; De Martini, P. M.; Pinzi, S.; Iorio, M.; Sagnotti, L.; Pantosti, D.

    2014-12-01

    The recent results obtained from a 6.7 m-long piston-core (MS06), collected 2.3 km offshore Augusta at a water depth of 72 m and made of an almost homogeneous dark gray mud dated back to the last 4500 yrs, stimulated our curiosity in searching for other similar signatures. In fact, quantitative micropaleontological analysis of benthic foraminifera assemblages highlighted 12 anomalous intervals, marked by peaks with high percentages of displaced epiphytic specimens and an increase in the sandy component. These anomalies were generally accompanied by a significant amount of Posidonia remnants, a localized concentration of molluscs and organic-rich bands. Thus, the twelve anomalous peaks were interpreted as the primary effect of tsunami waves (back-wash). Moreover, five out of the twelve anomalous layers were embedded in age intervals encompassing the dates of major tsunamis that hit eastern Sicily (1908, 1693, and 1169) and the broader Eastern Mediterranean (AD 365 Crete and Santorini at about BP 3600). Seven additional cores were sampled from the northern part of the Augusta Bay, along a transect 60 to 110 m of water depth, to retrieve the details of the MS06 sequence uppermost part. Four out of the seven new cores were selected and studied. Preliminary dating suggests that the sampled sequence spans ca. 400-500 yrs. Moreover, physical properties, ITRAX X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grain size analyses point out the presence of a peculiar interval made of Posidonia remnants, coarse sand and shell debris on the two cores closer to the shore. The two far-off cores seem to be more homogenous but a few thin sandy lenses enriched of Posidonia remnant were also recognized. Further detailed micropaleontological analysis and corroboration with instrumental data are still in progress and will help in discriminating single events potentially related to tsunami back-wash.

  18. Health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy: (An ecological perspective).

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Letteria; Bonanno, Lilla; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-06-15

    Parkinson's disease has a negative impact on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients. Depression, cognitive impairment, coping strategies, dyskinesia, gait disorders and complications of dopaminergic drugs are the variables that most affect health-related quality of life. The ecological model of human development focuses attention on both individual and social environmental factors as targets for health interventions. From this perspective, the aim of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate the influence of gender, family size and perceived autonomy on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy. Ninety Parkinson's disease patients, attending the Movement Disorders Clinic at IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" (Messina), were consecutively enrolled. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subscale (UPDRS-III) scores, the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 Item scores (as a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life), scores on the Short Form (36) Health Survey Questionnaire (as a generic measure), and answers to a brief checklist were recorded. A total of 85 Parkinson's disease patients (49% males and 51% females; mean age 70.8 ± 8.6 years; mean UPDRS-III 24.15 ± 6.55; mean disease duration 5.52 ± 4.65 years) completed the booklet of questionnaires. In the multivariate regression analysis, we included clinical and social variables as independent predictors of health-related quality of life. Our results suggest a potential compounding effect of ecological intrapersonal and interpersonal levels on health-related quality of life outcomes. Gender, self-evaluated autonomy and family size significantly impacted health-related quality of life. If quality of life is used as an indicator of treatment outcomes, an ecological perspective of the case history will be important to disclose relevant prognostic information and trigger personalized health care interventions.

  19. Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Waters and Dissolved Gases in Some Thermal Springs of Sicily and Adjacent Volcanic Islands, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Capasso, Giorgio; Favara, Rocco; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2006-04-01

    Hydrochemical (major and some minor constituents), stable isotope ([InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.], δ13CTDIC total dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved gas composition have been determined on 33 thermal discharges located throughout Sicily (Italy) and its adjacent islands. On the basis of major ion contents, four main water types have been distinguished: (1) a Na-Cl type; (2) a Ca-Mg > Na-SO4-Cl type; (3) a Ca-Mg-HCO3 type and (4) a Na-HCO3 type water. Most waters are meteoric in origin or resulting from mixing between meteoric water and heavy-isotope end members. In some samples, δ 18O values reflect the effects of equilibrium processes between thermal waters and rocks (positive 18O-shift) or thermal waters and CO2 (negative 18O-shift). Dissolved gas composition indicates the occurrence of gas/water interaction processes in thermal aquifers. N2/O2 ratios higher than air-saturated water (ASW), suggest the presence of geochemical processes responsible for dissolved oxygen consumption. High CO2 contents (more than 3000 cc/litre STP) dissolved in the thermal waters indicate the presence of an external source of carbon dioxide-rich gas. TDIC content and δ 13C TDIC show very large ranges from 4.6 to 145.3 mmol/Kg and from 10.0‰ and 2.8‰, respectively. Calculated values indicate the significant contribution from a deep source of carbon dioxide inorganic in origin. Interaction with Mediterranean magmatic CO2 characterized by heavier carbon isotope ratios ([InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] value from -3 to 0‰ vs V-PDB (CAPASSO et al., 1997, GIAMMANCO et al., 1998; INGUAGGIATO et al., 2000) with respect to MORB value and/or input of CO2-derived from thermal decomposition of marine carbonates have been inferred.

  20. Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Vaselli, O.; Rouwet, D.; Pecoraino, G.; Chiodini, G.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, fluid source(s) and processes controlling the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas discharges from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy) were investigated. The main composition of the Etnean and Volcano gas emissions is produced by mixing, to various degrees, of magmatic and hydrothermal components. VOCs are dominated by alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, with minor, though significant, concentrations of O-, S- and Cl(F)-substituted compounds. The main mechanism for the production of alkanes is likely related to pyrolysis of organic-matter-bearing sediments that interact with the ascending magmatic fluids. Alkanes are then converted to alkene and aromatic compounds via catalytic reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydroaromatization, respectively). Nevertheless, an abiogenic origin for the light hydrocarbons cannot be ruled out. Oxidative processes of hydrocarbons at relatively high temperatures and oxidizing conditions, typical of these volcanic-hydrothermal fluids, may explain the production of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, as well as O- and S-bearing heterocycles. By comparing the concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the fumarolic discharges with respect to those of background air, it is possible to highlight that they have a geogenic origin likely due to halogenation of both methane and alkenes. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) abundances appear to be consistent with background air, although the strong air contamination that affects the Mt. Etna fumaroles may mask a possible geogenic contribution for these compounds. On the other hand, no CFCs were detected in the Vulcano gases, which are characterized by low air contribution. Nevertheless, a geogenic source for these compounds cannot be excluded on the basis of the present data.

  1. Health-related quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy: (An ecological perspective)

    PubMed Central

    Spadaro, Letteria; Bonanno, Lilla; Lorenzo, Giuseppe Di; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has a negative impact on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients. Depression, cognitive impairment, coping strategies, dyskinesia, gait disorders and complications of dopaminergic drugs are the variables that most affect health-related quality of life. The ecological model of human development focuses attention on both individual and social environmental factors as targets for health interventions. From this perspective, the aim of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate the influence of gender, family size and perceived autonomy on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy. Ninety Parkinson's disease patients, attending the Movement Disorders Clinic at IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo” (Messina), were consecutively enrolled. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subscale (UPDRS-III) scores, the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 Item scores (as a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life), scores on the Short Form (36) Health Survey Questionnaire (as a generic measure), and answers to a brief checklist were recorded. A total of 85 Parkinson's disease patients (49% males and 51% females; mean age 70.8 ± 8.6 years; mean UPDRS-III 24.15 ± 6.55; mean disease duration 5.52 ± 4.65 years) completed the booklet of questionnaires. In the multivariate regression analysis, we included clinical and social variables as independent predictors of health-related quality of life. Our results suggest a potential compounding effect of ecological intrapersonal and interpersonal levels on health-related quality of life outcomes. Gender, self-evaluated autonomy and family size significantly impacted health-related quality of life. If quality of life is used as an indicator of treatment outcomes, an ecological perspective of the case history will be important to disclose relevant prognostic information and trigger personalized health care

  2. Small angle neutron scattering as fingerprinting of ancient potteries from Sicily (Southern Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Teixeira, J.

    2009-09-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been carried out in order to investigate, in microdestructive way, the mesoscopic structure of a variety of potteries of relevance to cultural heritage coming from different Sicilian (Southern Italy) archeological sites belonging to the 'Strait of Messina' area and dated back to 7th-3rd century B.C. Data have been compared with the mesoscopic parameters extracted for two series of clayey sediments typical of the Strait of Messina area and fired under controlled conditions. The observed agreement between the features of reference and archeological samples allowed us to estimate the maximum firing temperature of the latter. Information on the pore sizes was obtained by the use of the concept of fractal surface, and compared with porosimetry results.

  3. Fluxes and the mass balance of mercury in Augusta Bay (Sicily, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Bonsignore, Maria; Oliveri, Elvira; Barra, Marco; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    The flux (Φ) of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-seawater interface was investigated in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) where uncontrolled industrial discharge from one of the most important chlor-alkali plant in Europe has caused significant negative effects on the environment. Hg fluxes were measured by the deployment of in-situ benthic chamber. The obtained value of 1.3 kmol y-1 clearly emphasizes the role of the sediments as source of Hg for the overlying water column. Moreover, Hg concentrations in the outflowing bottom waters were measured to estimate the export of this pollutant from Augusta Bay to the open sea. The calculated value of 0.54 kmol y-1, corresponding to ∼4% of the anthropogenic input of Hg from coastal point/diffuse sources to the Mediterranean Sea (12.5 kmol y-1; Rajar et al., 2007; UNEP-MAP, 2001), assigns this area a crucial role in the Hg inventory of the entire Mediterranean basin. Finally, a consistent and robust mass balance for Hg in Augusta Bay was provided by combining the obtained data with Hg fluxes at seawater-atmosphere interface.

  4. Water erosion susceptibility mapping by applying Stochastic Gradient Treeboost to the Imera Meridionale River Basin (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angileri, Silvia Eleonora; Conoscenti, Christian; Hochschild, Volker; Märker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion by water constitutes a serious problem affecting various countries. In the last few years, a number of studies have adopted statistical approaches for erosion susceptibility zonation. In this study, the Stochastic Gradient Treeboost (SGT) was tested as a multivariate statistical tool for exploring, analyzing and predicting the spatial occurrence of rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion. This technique implements the stochastic gradient boosting algorithm with a tree-based method. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment located in central-northern Sicily (Italy), where water erosion processes are prevalent, and affect the agricultural productivity of local communities. In order to model soil erosion by water, the spatial distribution of landforms due to rill-interrill and gully erosion was mapped and 12 environmental variables were selected as predictors. Four calibration and four validation subsets were obtained by randomly extracting sets of negative cases, both for rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion models. The results of validation, based on receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves, showed excellent to outstanding accuracies of the models, and thus a high prediction skill. Moreover, SGT allowed us to explore the relationships between erosion landforms and predictors. A different suite of predictor variables was found to be important for the two models. Elevation, aspect, landform classification and land-use are the main controlling factors for rill-interrill erosion, whilst the stream power index, plan curvature and the topographic wetness index were the most important independent variables for gullies. Finally, an ROC plot analysis made it possible to define a threshold value to classify cells according to the presence/absence of the two erosion processes. Hence, by heuristically combining the resulting rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion susceptibility maps, an integrated water erosion susceptibility map was created. The

  5. Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, S.; Esposito, E.; Violante, C.; Sacchi, M.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Sciarrotta, S.

    2009-04-01

    Calabria and Sicily's Coast, particularly in the Messina Strait, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Southern Italy. Since 1783, there have been seven earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 6.0 and 7.2 These earthquakes have produced wide damages on the MCS Intensities scale of X or greater. The high rate of seismic activity in the region is related to the complex geologic setting resulting in a number of different sources of potentially damaging earthquakes. All these earthquake induced numerous and spectacular coseismic environmental effects overall along the coast where the impact was particularly catastrophic. These earthquakes caused several changes in elevation, due to tectonic deformations, landslides and settlements (i.e along both sides of the Messina Straits, 1908 event), relevant landslides (the February6, 1783 event triggered in Scilla, along the cliff of the M. Pacì a huge rock avalanche estimate of 5 Mm3 in the areal zone and 3 Mm3 in the submarine zone (Bozzano et al 2006), that fell into the sea generating a disastrous tsunamis), ground fractures (in the Capo Vaticano promontory area, 1905 event; in Messina Reggio C., Villa S. Giovanni, 1908 event); liquefaction phenomena (in the area of Messina, Ganzirri and Reggio Calabria, 1908 event), and catastrophic tsunamis (five induced by the 1783 Calabrian seismic sequence, other two by 1905 and 1908 events, Graziani et al 2006). The run-up observed ranging from few cm to tens of m: the highest tsunami wave was about 16 m in Scilla (Feb. 6, 1783 tsunami), 13 m in Pellaro (1908 event) and 1,30 m along the Calabrian coast (1905 tsunami) . Portion of the coast were lost, most of them eroded by the tsunamis with a coastline retreat and flooded the shore for several hundred meters inland depositing a large amount of silt and fish, and in some case killing people (i.e 1500 in Scilla and 28 in Messina during the February 6, 1783 tsunami, Barbano 2008; Porfido et al.,2008). Finally, it is

  6. Polymerase chain reaction method for leptospirosis, analysis on samples from an autochthon swine population in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Curró, Vittoria; Vesco, Gesualdo; Caracappa, Santo

    2005-01-01

    We set a method targeting 16 rRNA gene consisting in a single polymerase chain reaction of 40 cycles which is specific for pathogenic leptospira. Negative polymerase chain reaction results were observed with nonpathogenic Leptospira (serovar patoc) and other bacteria species. By this method a survey on a population of autochthon swine herds had been conducted in Sicily particularly on kidney samples of slaughtered animals and on urine samples from live animals. The analysis showed that a prevalence of leptospira up to 40 % can be observed on these animals. Results on other bovine and ovine herds from the same province in Sicily showed a lower prevalence.

  7. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  8. New structural and seismological evidence and interpretation of a lithospheric-scale shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system (central-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Scarfı, L.; Cannavò, F.; Koulakov, I.; Monaco, C.

    2016-06-01

    Geological, gravimetric, and seismological data from the central-eastern Sicily (Italy) provide evidences of a NW-SE oriented shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system. This structure consists of a near 100 km long lithospheric-scale structural and seismic boundary. In the near-surface, it shows Plio-Pleistocene vertical-axis structural rotations, kilometer-scale topographic imprint, progressive wrenching, and large down-faulting. All these features, together with its location south-west of the subduction system, allow us to interpret the shear zone as the upper plate expression of an abandoned Subduction Transform Edge Propagator fault, working before slab detachment, currently reactivated by elastic rebound or mantle upwelling mechanism triggered by slab detachment, to form an incipient transform belt separating compartments characterized by different motion in the modern context of Africa-Europe convergence.

  9. Towards management of coastal erosion problems and human structure impacts using GIS tools: case study in Ragusa Province, Southern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    A geomorphologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 90-km long coastal sector in Southern Sicily, Italy, affected by important erosive processes. Applied methodology allowed the creation of a database involving a range of coastal characteristics thereby providing helpful information on coastal processes and general sediment circulation patterns. Coastal erosion, mainly linked to the construction of ports and harbours, has been locally mitigated by the construction of solid structures which themselves generate significant environmental stress in downdrift areas. In recent times, several nourishment projects have been planned to solve existing erosive problems, yet there is still a lack of a general erosion management plan based on the installation of port and harbour by-passing systems and including the phasing out of current beach cleaning and port maintenance procedures that produce a great quantity of sediments.

  10. Comparative analysis of different techniques for spatial interpolation of rainfall data to create a serially complete monthly time series of precipitation for Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.; Conti, F. Lo; Noto, L. V.; Viola, F.; La Loggia, G.

    2011-06-01

    The availability of good and reliable rainfall data is fundamental for most hydrological analyses and for the design and management of water resources systems. However, in practice, precipitation records often suffer from missing data values mainly due to malfunctioning of raingauge for specific time periods. This is an important issue in practical hydrology because it affects the continuity of rainfall data and ultimately influences the results of hydrologic studies which use rainfall as input. Many methods to estimate missing rainfall data have been proposed in literature and, among these, most are based on spatial interpolation algorithms. In this paper different spatial interpolation algorithms have been evaluated to produce a reasonably good continuous dataset bridging the gaps in the historical series. The algorithms used are deterministic methods such as inverse distance weighting, simple linear regression, multiple regression, geographically weighted regression and artificial neural networks, and geostatistical models such as ordinary kriging and residual ordinary kriging. In some of these methods, the elevation information, provided by a Digital Elevation Model, has been added to improve estimation of missing data. These algorithms have been applied to the mean annual and monthly rainfall data of Sicily (Italy), measured at 247 raingauges. Optimization of different settings of the various interpolation methods has been carried out using a subset of the available rainfall dataset (modeling set) while the remaining subset (validation set) has been used to compare the results obtained by the different algorithms. Validation results indicate that the univariate methods, neglecting the information of elevation, are characterized by the largest errors, which decrease when the elevation is taken into account. The ordinary kriging of residuals from linear regression between precipitation and elevation, which has provided the best performance at annual and monthly

  11. New contributions to the debate on the cause of the January 11th, 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (Italy): earthquake or offshore landslide source (or may be both)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Argnani, A.

    2007-12-01

    Eastern Sicily is among the most exposed regions in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean to tsunami hazard and risk. The historical tsunamis recorded here were generally associated to moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes. The largest tsunami documented in the area occurred on January 11th, 1693. It followed the highest-magnitude earthquake (7.4) of the Italian seismic history. The tsunami, whose first significant motion was a retreat along the entire eastern Sicily coastline, produced the most devastating effects at Augusta (15 meters run-up) and Catania, being relevant at Siracusa and Messina too. A lively debate exists on whether the earthquake was the only source of the tsunami, or other causes (such as submarine landslides, possibly triggered by the earthquake) contributed to the tsunami generation. In the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER, we investigate both hypotheses, starting from suitable onshore and offshore faults as well as from offshore landslide bodies, and hence simulating numerically the ensuing tsunami and comparing the results with the available historical information. We base on the results obtained during recent offshore surveys, in particular the multichannel seismic survey MESC2001, carried out in year 2001 on board the R/V Urania of the Italian National Council of Researches (CNR), which mapped both active normal faults and a number of possible landslide bodies along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, the most prominent tectonic structure found just few kilometres offshore eastern Sicily. From the modelling point of view, the initial condition for the earthquake- generated tsunamis coincides with the vertical coseismic deformation of the seafloor. Instead, the landslide motion is simulated through the Lagrangian block model UBO-BLOCK2, developed at the University of Bologna. Finally, the finite-element code UBO-TSUFE, implemented by the same research team, is used to simulate the tsunami generation and propagation. The main

  12. Staphylococcal food poisoning case and molecular analysis of toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Piraino, Chiara; Alduina, Rosa; Napoli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A case of staphylococcal food poisoning was observed in two individuals of the same family after consumption of primosale, a semiripened sheep cheese produced in Sicily. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the cheese produced enterotoxin C (SEC) and carried both the enterotoxin C (sec) and the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst-1) gene. Following this case, an extensive survey was conducted on 971 food samples (raw milk, cheese, meat, and food preparations). S. aureus was detected in 102 of 971 food samples, from all types of food with the exception of ricotta cheese. The tsst-1 gene was present in 42% of the strains, either alone or in combination with other toxin genes. The enterotoxin C gene was the most represented enterotoxin, but it was only found in dairy products. Six S. aureus isolates carried the sea gene alone, two isolates carried both sea and seb, and one isolate carried both sea and sec. A significant percentage (46%) of all isolates carried a toxin gene, creating significant concern that virulent S. aureus can be transmitted through food in Sicily.

  13. Active thrusting as a possible seismogenic source in Sicily (Southern Italy): Some insights from integrated structural kinematic and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavecchia, Giusy; Ferrarini, Federica; de Nardis, Rita; Visini, Francesco; Barbano, Maria Serafina

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a new seismogenic interpretation of mainland and central-southern Sicily, based on an integrated structural-kinematic-seismological approach. Through analysis of available structural and geophysical data, the tectonic setting, the major kinematic units and the crust geometry of the Sicilian southward-verging fold-and-thrust belt system are schematized in sections and in map form. The depth-contour lines of the outermost basal thrust plane, which dates back to Plio-Pleistocene times with some evidence of Holocene activity, are reconstructed. This plane, here named Sicilian Basal Thrust (SBT), emerges along the southward convex Sciacca-Gela-Catania front and reaches the base of the crust at a depth of about 30 km beneath northern Sicily. Additionally, an important regional upper crust splay, with the same arched shape, has been identified some kilometres northward. In order to detect any possible indication of seismogenic activity linked to ongoing deformation of the SBT and its splay, we analyzed the distribution and kinematics of the instrumental seismicity in the period between 1981 and 2006. Particular attention was given to the background seismicity (Ml up to 4.6) located beneath the sedimentary cover at Mt. Etna, as it allows individuating a northward deepening seismogenic volume undergoing an average N-S compression, which corresponds well with the SBT geometry in section view. A merged dataset of all the known major historical and instrumental events (moment magnitude ≥ 4.5) that occurred above the SBT 0-to-30 km depth-contour lines from 217 B.C. to 2006 was compiled and analyzed. Based on information from instrumental data and/or on speculations on the shape and extent of the historical earthquake macroseismic fields, two major ranges of hypocentral depths have been schematically identified within the merged dataset: an upper crust range (in average < ~ 10 km) and a mid-to-lower crust range. Focal mechanisms available in the literature

  14. Imprint of foreland structure on the deformation of a thrust sheet: The Plio-Pleistocene Gela Nappe (southern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisetti, Francesca C.; Gorman, Andrew R.; Grasso, Mario; Vezzani, Livio

    2009-08-01

    In Sicily, the progressive imbrication of the Apenninic thrust belt above the Pelagian-African Foreland is traced by the southward migration of marine basins that were progressively shortened during the late Miocene-Pleistocene. The outermost and youngest thrust sheet (Gela Nappe) displays a peculiar shortening, with Messinian to early Pliocene E-W folds refolded in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene by approximately N-S folds (subparallel to the transport direction of the thrust sheets). This structural interference is documented in south Sicily within localized belts of refolding spaced ˜5-8 km apart. The significance of this fold interference pattern is highlighted by our analysis of the offshore seismic reflection line M23A (CROP Mare Project) that intersects the Gela Nappe along a trace suborthogonal to the thrust transport direction. Migration and depth conversion of the line reveal multiple imbrications and draping of the allochthonous units above structural highs of the foreland, delimited by inherited N-S faults. The largest faults bound mid-late Miocene extensional basins but were reactivated in compression during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, causing (1) superposed folding along discordant N-S structural trends, (2) compressional extrusion of the whole wedge of the Gela Nappe, and (3) offset of its sole thrust. The reactivation of faults subparallel to the transport direction accommodates differential flexure of the rigid foreland beneath the Apenninic wedge, and these late stage deformations in the foreland are responsible for the superposition of E-W finite shortening onto N-S shortening.

  15. Tsunami hazard assessment for the area of Siracusa and Augusta (eastern Sicily, Italy) by means of numerical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The eastern coast of Sicily is one of the littorals most prone to tsunami hazard in the Mediterranean Sea. The potential tsunamigenic sources are many, all connected to the complex geological pattern of the area, and they span different scales. On the local scale one can find the Hyblaean-Malta Escarpment (HME), characterized by mass failures that have been hypothesized as possible causes of local tsunami generation (see e.g. the deep-sea slide off Augusta that was speculatively associated to the 1693 earthquake). On the medium range, the faults along the HME, the Ionian Sea, the Messina Straits, as a part of the wider Calabrian Arc system, provided several relevant earthquakes in the past, some of which producing large tsunamis, such as the 1693 and the 1908 events. In the far field, the western Hellenic Arc, characterized by the largest earthquakes in the whole Mediterranean Sea, has the potential of big trans-Mediterranean tsunamis capable of severe effects also on the coasts of Sicily. In the framework of the EU-FP7 project ASTARTE, the area embracing the cities of Siracusa and Augusta, located in the southern part of the Ionian coast of Sicily, has been chosen as a test site for the evaluation of the tsunami hazard and risk by means of various techniques. In this work we adopt the worst-case credible scenario approach, which means that after taking into account the possible sources in different zones we select the largest events on the basis of historical and geo- and seismo-tectonical considerations and we compute the corresponding tsunami. The numerical calculations are carried out by means of in-house developed models: UBO-BLOCK to simulate the dynamics of the tsunamigenic slides, a code implementing the Okada equations to compute the co-seismic displacements of the sea floor, UBO-TSUFD to calculate the tsunami propagation over a domain covered by one or more regularly spaced grids with different resolution (the finer grids being nested within the coarser

  16. Pleistocene volcaniclastic units from North-Eastern Sicily (Italy): new evidence for calc-alkaline explosive volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Alessandro; Baldanza, Angela; Casella, Sergio; Pino, Paolo; Rasa', Riccardo; Russo, Selma

    2016-08-01

    A well-preserved volcaniclastic sequence crops out in Pleistocene marine sediments along the Tyrrhenian coastline of the Calabrian-Peloritani arc (Sicily, Italy), testifying the occurrence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The presence of dominant highly vesicular and minor blocky glassy particles indicates that the volcanic clasts were originated by explosive events related to the ascent and violent emission of volatile-rich magmas accompanied by and/or alternated with hydromagmatic fragmentation due to magma-sea water interaction. Field investigations and sedimentological features of the studied volcaniclastic units suggest a deposition from sediment-water density flows. The chemical classification of the pumice clasts indicates prevalent rhyolitic and dacitic compositions with calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The geochemical features of immobile trace elements together with the presence of orthopyroxene are indicative of a provenance from an arc-type environment. The age (from 980-910 to 589 ka), the chemical composition and the evidence of subaerial explosive volcanic activity constrain the origin nature and temporal evolution of the arc-type volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian domain. Finally, the new information here provided contribute to a better understanding of the temporal geodynamic evolution of this sector of the Mediterranean domain.

  17. Personal eating, lifestyle, and family-related behaviors correlate with fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents living in sicily, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Bandini, Lorenzo; Ferranti, Roberta; Bonomo, Maria Concetta; Matalone, Margherita; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle habits and parental modeling have been reported to influence adolescents’ food choices, such as for fruit and vegetable consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association be-tween personal eating (i. e. breakfast and snacking behavior), lifestyle (sedentary and physical activity), and family-related (i. e. consuming meals with parents, family rules, and television use) habits and fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents living in Sicily, southern Italy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted across 14 schools in urban and rural areas, including 1,135 adolescents (12 - 14 years old). Validated instruments were used to assess possible relationships between the study variables and daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher parental education, occupation, and rural environment were positively associated with adolescents’ daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Both types of food consumption were negatively associated with an increased frequency of between-meal and out-of-home eating, and positively with having meals with parents and higher parental influence in adolescents’ food choices. Television viewing habits were not related with adolescents’ vegetable consumption, whereas having a television in their room and commercial advertisings were negatively associated with daily intake of fruits. Although socioeconomic and cultural status may influence fruit and vegetable consumption, personal eating and family-related behaviors may be targeted for implementing recommendations.

  18. Applying geophysical techniques to investigate a segment of a creeping fault in the urban area of San Gregorio di Catania, southern flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imposa, S.; De Guidi, G.; Grassi, S.; Scudero, S.; Barreca, G.; Patti, G.; Boso, D.

    2015-12-01

    In an especially built-up area, such as the lower slopes of Etna volcano, the effects of surface faulting, caused by coseismic ruptures and aseismic creep, contribute significantly to increase the risk to towns and villages and their related infrastructure. This study aims to couple the geophysical and structural characteristics of an active fault zone, joining surficial and deep information, in the area of San Gregorio di Catania (Sicily - Italy). The occurrence of this structure and its associated fracture field were related to variations in the physical and mechanical properties of the hosting rocks. Surface structural survey detected a fracture zone with maximum width of 40 m, characterized with fractures oriented consistently with the kinematics of the fault. The geophysical surveys (ground penetrating radar, seismic tomography, and refraction microtremor), enabled to detect highly fractured rock volumes at variable depth whose occurrence has been linked to the presence of the fault at surface. The integration of various techniques, with different spatial resolution and depth range, allowed to fully reconstruct the 3D geological structure of the site down to about 15 m.

  19. Gully erosion susceptibility assessment by means of GIS-based logistic regression: A case of Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio; Märker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at characterizing susceptibility conditions to gully erosion by means of GIS and multivariate statistical analysis. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment in central-northern Sicily, where agriculture activities are limited by intense erosion. By means of field surveys and interpretation of aerial images, we prepared a digital map of the spatial distribution of 260 gullies in the study area. In addition, from available thematic maps, a 5 m cell size digital elevation model and field checks, we derived 27 environmental attributes that describe the variability of lithology, land use, topography and road position. These attributes were selected for their potential influence on erosion processes, while the dependent variable was given by presence or absence of gullies within two different types of mapping units: 5 m grid cells and slope units (average size = 2.66 ha). The functional relationships between gully occurrence and the controlling factors were obtained from forward stepwise logistic regression to calculate the probability to host a gully for each mapping unit. In order to train and test the predictive models, three calibration and three validation subsets, of both grid cells and slope units, were randomly selected. Results of validation, based on ROC (receiving operating characteristic) curves, attest for acceptable to excellent accuracies of the models, showing better predictive skill and more stable performance of the susceptibility model based on grid cells.

  20. Building stone employed in the historical monuments of Eastern Sicily (Italy). An example: the ancient city centre of Catania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Russo, Laura G.; Giudice, Antonino Lo; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino

    2006-05-01

    An archaeometric study of the stone materials employed in the Late Baroque historical monuments of the ancient city centre of Catania was carried out. Lithological maps of a selection of monuments, transferred to a digital format, revealed that the stone materials are both magmatic and sedimentary rocks, the colours of which are matched in a peculiar type of bichromy. Particular attention focused on sedimentary rocks, which consist of various types of limestone quarried near the city of Syracuse (Hyblean Plateau, south-eastern Sicily). Carbonate rocks were characterised in terms of mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry, by studying rock samples from both monuments and historical extraction sites. Results showed that, although only one name was historically attributed to the above lithotypes (i.e. “Pietra di Siracusa‘’), they were quarried from many locations and, as they belong to various geological formations, they therefore exhibit great variety. In order to examine the durability of Hyblean limestones employed in works of cultural heritage interest, salt crystallisation tests were carried out according to standard procedure norms (UNI EN 12370 (1999) Determination of resistance to crystallisation of salts, 6p). Results are consistent with the forms of deterioration observed in the monuments, and highlight the close relationship between textural characteristics and damage. Our purpose is to provide a basic tool, which may be useful both for conserving monuments of cultural heritage and for their restoration.

  1. ERIC Enfocado (All About ERIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    Written in Spanish, this booklet describes the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) system, who uses ERIC and why, and how to use ERIC. Brief descriptions of the 16 clearinghouses and the services of the ERIC Processing and Reference Facility, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, Oryx Press, and the U. S. Government Printing Office are…

  2. Comparison of Logistic Regression and Random Forests techniques for shallow landslide susceptibility assessment in Giampilieri (NE Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Esposito, Carlo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to define reliable susceptibility models for shallow landslides using Logistic Regression and Random Forests multivariate statistical techniques. The study area, located in North-East Sicily, was hit on October 1st 2009 by a severe rainstorm (225 mm of cumulative rainfall in 7 h) which caused flash floods and more than 1000 landslides. Several small villages, such as Giampilieri, were hit with 31 fatalities, 6 missing persons and damage to buildings and transportation infrastructures. Landslides, mainly types such as earth and debris translational slides evolving into debris flows, were triggered on steep slopes and involved colluvium and regolith materials which cover the underlying metamorphic bedrock. The work has been carried out with the following steps: i) realization of a detailed event landslide inventory map through field surveys coupled with observation of high resolution aerial colour orthophoto; ii) identification of landslide source areas; iii) data preparation of landslide controlling factors and descriptive statistics based on a bivariate method (Frequency Ratio) to get an initial overview on existing relationships between causative factors and shallow landslide source areas; iv) choice of criteria for the selection and sizing of the mapping unit; v) implementation of 5 multivariate statistical susceptibility models based on Logistic Regression and Random Forests techniques and focused on landslide source areas; vi) evaluation of the influence of sample size and type of sampling on results and performance of the models; vii) evaluation of the predictive capabilities of the models using ROC curve, AUC and contingency tables; viii) comparison of model results and obtained susceptibility maps; and ix) analysis of temporal variation of landslide susceptibility related to input parameter changes. Models based on Logistic Regression and Random Forests have demonstrated excellent predictive capabilities. Land use and wildfire

  3. Using Logistic Regression and Random Forests multivariate statistical methods for landslide spatial probability assessment in North-Est Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Esposito, Carlo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    North-East Sicily is strongly exposed to shallow landslide events. On October, 1st 2009 a severe rainstorm (225.5 mm of cumulative rainfall in 9 hours) caused flash floods and more than 1000 landslides, which struck several small villages as Giampilieri, Altolia, Molino, Pezzolo, Scaletta Zanclea, Itala, with 31 fatalities, 6 missing persons and damage to buildings and transportation infrastructures. Landslides, mainly consisting in earth and debris translational slides evolving into debris flows, triggered on steep slopes involving colluvium and regolith materials which cover the underlying metamorphic bedrock of Peloritani Mountains. In this area catchments are small (about 10 square kilometres), elongated, with steep slopes, low order streams, short time of concentration, and discharge directly into the sea. In the past, landslides occurred at Altolia in 1613 and 2000, at Molino in 1750, 1805 and 2000, at Giampilieri in 1791, 1918, 1929, 1932, 2000 and on October 25, 2007. The aim of this work is to define susceptibility models for shallow landslides using multivariate statistical analyses in the Giampilieri area (25 square kilometres). A detailed landslide inventory map has been produced, as the first step, through field surveys coupled with the observation of high resolution aerial colour orthophoto taken immediately after the event. 1,490 initiation zones have been identified; most of them have planimetric dimensions ranging between tens to few hundreds of square metres. The spatial hazard assessment has been focused on the detachment areas. Susceptibility models, performed in a GIS environment, took into account several parameters. The morphometric and hydrologic parameters has been derived from a detailed LiDAR 1×1 m. Square grid cells of 4×4 m were adopted as mapping units, on the basis of the area-frequency distribution of the detachment zones, and the optimal representation of the local morphometric conditions (e.g. slope angle, plan curvature). A

  4. Construction of a Geographical Database of Classical-Archaic Manufactures, Found in the Survey of the Greek Colony Himera (sicily, Italy). Application and Methodologies for AN Experimental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, M. A.; Tardo, V.

    2011-09-01

    This research has analysed the distribution of ceramic finds from classical and archaic ages in the territory of the ancient Greek colony Himera, a town situated near Termini Imerese, in the province of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), which has been the site of systematic excavations carried out by the University of Palermo since the Sixties. The study of about 1500 ceramic fragments, dated back to the 6th-5th century B.C., has allowed to develop an approach to the understanding of the role played by ceramics in the relations between different societies and cultures. Besides the most common analysis factors for the ceramic manufactures, such as their production and distribution, a major factor is the way the manufactures were used. From this wider perspective, a new methodology has been developed about information potential of functional analysis. The interpretation of data about the manufacture distribution was made by means of GIS methodologies, querying the alphanumerical classification database and relating the manufacture typological data to the geo-cartographic ones by means of applying intersite-level spatial analysis. Thus, each archaeological piece of information about the finds can be analysed in relation to the territory geo-morphological features and the obtained data can be processed with specific software environments, in order to suggest reconstruction models for the anthropic landscape, based on the relation between coeval sites and distance from specific environment features — for example, distance from water sources, raw materials, road condition etc. The computer application used for data handling, presentation and analysis, becomes this way a tool of research aimed at the comprehension of settlement dynamics in the historical scenery. This study is the occasion to propose such an analysis system of cultural heritage as a new tool to promote it and to increase its value, applying a territorial context related methodology founded on scientific

  5. Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): ¹H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies.

  6. Mapping rainfall-induced landslides and inundated areas using remote sensing technology and field surveys: the 1 October 2009, Messina, Sicily, event in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Iovine, Giulio; Mondini, Alessandro; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Teresa, Oreste; Fausto, Guzzetti

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, severe meteorologically induced geo-hydrological events are characterized by a complex combination of landslides and floods, and may cause casualties and damage to urban areas and the utility network. On 1 October 2009, a high intensity rainstorm in the Messina area, Sicily, triggered more than 500 shallow landslides in an area of about 60 km2, mostly in the soils mantling the metamorphic and crystalline bedrock of the Peloritan Arc. The high intensity rainfall further resulted in massive erosion and deposition of debris along the ephemeral drainage channels, widespread inundation, and local modification of the coastline. Damage was particularly severe in the several small villages present in the area, including Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Guidomandri, Pèzzolo, Altolìa, and Itàla. Damage to the transportation network was also severe and widespread. The several rainfall-induced landslides and the inundations have resulted in 31 deaths, 6 missing persons, numerous injured persons, and more than 2500 evacuated and homeless people. In the aftermath of the event, we: (i) completed a preliminary field survey in the area most affected by landslides and inundations, documenting the ground effects of the intense rainfall, (ii) acquired satellite imagery, including very-high-resolution optical images taken by QuickBird and high-resolution radar images taken by COSMO-SkyMed, and (iii) acquired stereoscopic aerial photography, including pre-event aerial photographs taken in 1954, 1995, and 2005, and post event, very-large scale images taken by helicopter immediately after the event. In this work, we present preliminary results of the exploitation of multiple remote-sensing technologies and information for the identification, mapping and classification of the rainfall induced landslides, and of the eroded and the inundated areas. Emphasis is given to the critical analysis of the capacity and limits of the available airborne and satellite remote sensing

  7. Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): New insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolembo Ventura, Brunella; Serpelloni, Enrico; Argnani, Andrea; Bonforte, Alessandro; Bürgmann, Roland; Anzidei, Marco; Baldi, Paolo; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Along the ˜500 km long Sicily-Calabria segment of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary GPS data highlight a complex, and debated, kinematic pattern. We focus on eastern Sicily, where the style of crustal deformation rapidly changes in the space of few tens of kilometers. In southeastern Sicily, struck by the 1693 MW˜7.4 earthquake, GPS measurements highlight a steep velocity gradient, with ˜2.4 mm/yr of ˜N-S shortening in ˜10 km, changing to broader extension (˜3 mm/yr in ˜60 km) in northern Sicily and shortening in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. GPS data and kinematic elastic block models highlight a complex fragmentation of the Sicilian domain into three tectonic blocks, which move independently from Nubia, describing an overall clockwise rotation of this crustal domain with respect to Eurasia. Shortening in southeastern Sicily is associated with a system of high-angle reverse faults resulting from tectonic inversion of extensional faults at the northern tip of the Hyblean plateau. Extension in northern Sicily occurs on a broader deformation belt, developed on the former Kumeta-Alcantara line, extending west of Mount Etna toward the southwestern Tyrrhenian Sea, accommodating the faster rotation of the northeastern Sicily block with respect to central Sicily. Although the seismic potential of inland faults is not negligible, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the Malta escarpment is the likely source of the large 1693 earthquake and tsunami. The observed kinematics appears only subordinately driven by the Nubia-Eurasia convergence and the dynamics of the Mediterranean subduction system is likely playing a major role in governing block motions and active tectonics in Sicily.

  8. Crustal deformation along the Northern Hyblean Plateau margin (Sicily, Italy) from GPS measurements and comparison with stress data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.; Palano, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we analyze data from permanent and non-permanent GPS stations collected between 1998 and 2006 on a dense geodetic network covering a large area of the Hyblean Plateau (southern Italy). This is a seismogenetic area, where strong earthquakes destroyed many cities and killed thousands of people in the past. The analysis of geodetic velocities referring to an Eurasian and an African reference frames, reveals the occurrence of active shortening in the northern sector of the plateau along the boundary defined by the Gela-Catania Foredeep, coupled with an active lengthening in the central sector of the plateau itself. Starting from the estimated velocity at each station, the horizontal strain-rate field of the Hyblean Plateau was calculated. The strain rate pattern clearly defines an area of a prevailing N-S compression along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau. Furthermore the central sector of the plateau is affected by a NNW-SSE and NE-SW extensional strain rate pattern. A comparison with seismological and structural data, available for the studied area, allows improving the knowledge of the tectonic processes in the Hyblean Plateau and their implications for seismic hazard.

  9. Constraining fault activity by investigating tectonically-deformed Quaternary palaeoshorelines using a synchronous correlation method: the Capo D'Orlando Fault as a case study (NE Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschis, Marco; Roberts, Gerald P.; Robertson, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    each palaeoshoreline from the initial work by Giunta et al., (2011) using synchronous correlation. This alternative approach suggests that uplift rates were constant through the Late Quaternary, suggesting that the fault slip-rate governing seismic hazard has also been constant. Reference Armijo, R., Meyer, B. G. C. P., King, G. C. P., Rigo, A., & Papanastassiou, D. (1996). Quaternary evolution of the Corinth Rift and its implications for the Late Cenozoic evolution of the Aegean. Geophysical Journal International, 126(1): 11 - 53. Basili R., Valensise, G., Vannoli, P., Burrato, P., Fracassi, U., Mariano, S., Tiberti, M.M., Boschi. E. (2008). The Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS), version 3: summarizing 20 years of research on Italy's earthquake geology, Tectonophysics, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.04.014. Giunta, G., Gueli, A.M., Monaco, C., Orioli, S., Ristuccia, G.M., Stella, G., Troja, S.O. (2011). Middle-Late Pleistocene marine terraces and fault activity in the Sant'Agata di Militello coastal area (north-eastern Sicily). Journal of Geodynamics. 55, 32 - 40. Roberts, G. P., Meschis, M., Houghton, S., Underwood, C., & Briant, R. M. (2013). The implications of revised Quaternary palaeoshoreline chronologies for the rates of active extension and uplift in the upper plate of subduction zones.Quaternary Science Reviews, 78: 169 - 187.

  10. Rare earth elements distribution in grapevine varieties grown on volcanic soils: an example from Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Antone, Carmelisa; Punturo, Rosalda; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical and statistical approach has allowed identifying in rare earth elements (REEs) absorption a good fingerprinting mark for determining the territoriality and the provenance of Vitis vinifera L. in the district of Mount Etna (southern Italy). Our aim is to define the REEs distribution in different parts of the plants which grow in the same volcanic soil and under the same climate conditions, and therefore to assess whether REEs distribution may reflect the composition of the provenance soil or if plants can selectively absorb REEs in order to recognize the fingerprint in the Etna Volcano soils as well as the REEs pattern characteristic of each cultivar of V. vinifera L. The characteristic pattern of REEs has been determined by ICP-MS analyses in the soils and in the selected grapevine varieties for all the following parts: leaves, seeds, juice, skin, and berries. These geochemical criteria, together with the multivariate statistical analysis of the principal component analysis (PCA) and of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) that can be summarized with the box plot, suggest that leaves mostly absorb REEs than the other parts of the plant. This work investigates the various parts of the plant in order to verify if each grape variety presents a characteristic geochemical pattern in the absorption of REEs in relationship with the geochemical features of the soil so to highlight the individual compositional fingerprint. Based on REE patterns, our study is a useful tool that allows characterizing the differences among the grape varieties and lays the foundation for the use of REEs in the geographic origin of the Mount Etna wine district.

  11. Pathogenic microorganisms carried by migratory birds passing through the territory of the island of Ustica, Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Foti, Maria; Rinaldo, Donatella; Guercio, Annalisa; Giacopello, Cristina; Aleo, Aurora; De Leo, Filomena; Fisichella, Vittorio; Mammina, Caterina

    2011-08-01

    Several studies have shown that migratory birds play an important role in the ecology, circulation and dissemination of pathogenic organisms. In October 2006, a health status evaluation was performed on a large population of migratory birds passing through the territory of Ustica (Italy), an island located on the migration route of many species of birds to Africa, and various laboratory tests were conducted. In total, 218 faecal swabs and the internal organs of 21 subjects found dead in nets were collected for bacteriological and virological examination, including avian influenza and Newcastle disease. In addition, 19 pooled fresh faecal samples were collected for mycological examination. The bacteriological analysis produced 183 strains belonging to 28 different species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In particular, Salmonella bongori, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumonia strains were isolated. Almost all of the isolates were susceptible to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprime (99.4%), cefotaxime (98.9%), nalidixic acid (96.7%), chloramphenicol (95.6%), and tetracycline (93.4%). Alternatively, many strains were resistant to ampicillin (42.6%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (42.6%), and streptomycin (43.7%). According to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, all of the samples were negative for the M gene of avian influenza virus. Moreover, isolation tests conducted on specific pathogen free eggs were negative for avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Several hyphomycetes and yeasts belonging to different genera were present in the specimens, and Cryptococcus neoformans was observed in a pooled faecal sample. Antibiotic resistance in wildlife can be monitored to evaluate the impact of anthropic pressure. Furthermore, migratory birds are potential reservoirs of pathogenic agents; thus, they can be regarded as sentinel species and used as environmental health indicators.

  12. Crustal Stress and Strain Distribution in Sicily (Southern Italy) from Joint Analysis of Seismicity and Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presti, D.; Neri, G.; Aloisi, M.; Cannavo, F.; Orecchio, B.; Palano, M.; Siligato, G.; Totaro, C.

    2014-12-01

    An updated database of earthquake focal mechanisms is compiled for the Sicilian region (southern Italy) and surrounding off-shore areas where the Nubia-Eurasia convergence coexists with the very-slow residual rollback of the Ionian subducting slab. High-quality solutions selected from literature and catalogs have been integrated with new solutions estimated in the present work using the Cut And Paste (CAP) waveform inversion method. In the CAP algorithm (Zhao and Helmberger, 1994; Zhu and Helmberger, 1996), each waveform is broken up into Pnl and surface wave segments, which are weighted differently during the inversion procedure. Integration of the new solutions with the ones selected from literature and official catalogs led us to collect a database consisting exclusively of waveform inversion data relative to earthquakes with minimum magnitude 2.6. The seismicity and focal mechanism distributions have been compared with crustal motion and strain data coming from GNSS analyses. For this purpose GNSS-based observations collected over the investigated area by episodic measurements (1994-2013) as well as continuous monitoring (since 2006) were processed by the GAMIT/GLOBK software packages (Herring et al., 2010) following the approach described in Palano et al. (2011). To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern, the estimated GNSS velocities were aligned to a fixed Eurasian reference frame. The good agreement found between seismic and geodetic information contributes to better define seismotectonic domains characterized by different kinematics. Moving from the available geophysical information and from an early application of FEM algorithms, we have also started to investigate stress/strain fields in the crust of the study area including depth dependence and relationships with rupture of the main seismogenic structures.

  13. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of people receiving medical care for HIV infection in an outpatient facility in Sicily, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Carlo, Paola; Guadagnino, Giuliana; Immordino, Palmira; Mazzola, Giovanni; Colletti, Pietro; Alongi, Ilenia; Adamoli, Lucia; Vitale, Francesco; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim The authors examined a cohort of HIV-positive outpatients at the AIDS Center of Palermo University in Italy in order to identify factors related to the frequency of their visits to the outpatient facility for health care services. Methods Two hundred and twenty-four HIV-infected subjects were enrolled in the study. Demographic and HIV disease characteristics were recorded and assessed with the number of days accessed to our outpatients unit in univariate and multivariate analyses. The potential relationship with immunological status was also analyzed stratifying the patients into groups according to their CD4+ T-cell counts (≥500 vs <500/mm3, and ≥200 vs <200/mm3). Results Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that duration of antiretroviral therapy <5 years and hypertension were significantly associated with a CD4+ T-cell count of <500/mm3, whereas geographic origin (Africa) was associated with a CD4+ T-cell count of <200/mm3. Mean number of days the patients sought access to day-care services for laboratory tests was negatively associated with CD4+ T-cell count. Conclusion Patients with low CD4+ T-cell counts showed higher use of health care services, demonstrating how early HIV diagnosis can help to reduce health care costs. The CD4+ T-cell cut-off of 200 cells emphasizes the importance of identifying and managing HIV infection among hard-to-reach groups like vulnerable migrants. In our sample, the illegal status of immigrants does not influence the management of their HIV/AIDS condition, but the lack of European health card that documents the current antiretroviral status, could interfere with the efforts to eradicate AIDS. A better understanding of the major determinants of HIV treatment costs has led to appropriate large-scale actions, which in turn has increased resources and expanded intervention programs. Further guidance should be offered to hard-to-reach groups in order to improve early AIDS diagnosis, and procedures for identifying

  14. Assessment of susceptibility to earth-flow landslide using logistic regression and multivariate adaptive regression splines: A case of the Belice River basin (western Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Ciaccio, Marilena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, terrain susceptibility to earth-flow occurrence was evaluated by using geographic information systems (GIS) and two statistical methods: Logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). LR has been already demonstrated to provide reliable predictions of earth-flow occurrence, whereas MARS, as far as we know, has never been used to generate earth-flow susceptibility models. The experiment was carried out in a basin of western Sicily (Italy), which extends for 51 km2 and is severely affected by earth-flows. In total, we mapped 1376 earth-flows, covering an area of 4.59 km2. To explore the effect of pre-failure topography on earth-flow spatial distribution, we performed a reconstruction of topography before the landslide occurrence. This was achieved by preparing a digital terrain model (DTM) where altitude of areas hosting landslides was interpolated from the adjacent undisturbed land surface by using the algorithm topo-to-raster. This DTM was exploited to extract 15 morphological and hydrological variables that, in addition to outcropping lithology, were employed as explanatory variables of earth-flow spatial distribution. The predictive skill of the earth-flow susceptibility models and the robustness of the procedure were tested by preparing five datasets, each including a different subset of landslides and stable areas. The accuracy of the predictive models was evaluated by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The results demonstrate that the overall accuracy of LR and MARS earth-flow susceptibility models is from excellent to outstanding. However, AUC values of the validation datasets attest to a higher predictive power of MARS-models (AUC between 0.881 and 0.912) with respect to LR-models (AUC between 0.823 and 0.870). The adopted procedure proved to be resistant to overfitting and stable when changes of the learning and validation samples are

  15. Landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility, a simple proxy for landslide hazard? A test in the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Mai, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This study implements a landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility approach in order to investigate the landslide scenario in the catchment of Mili, this being located in the north-easternmost sector of Sicily (Italy). From a detailed geomorphological campaign, thicknesses of mobilised materials at the triggering zone of each mass movement were collected and subsequently used as a dependent variable to be analysed in the framework of spatial predictive models. The adopted modelling methodology consisted of a presence-only learning algorithm which differently from classic presence-absence methods does not rely on stable conditions in order to derive functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. The dependent was pre-processed by reclassifying the crown thickness spectrum into a binary condition expressing thick (values equal or greater than 1m) and thin (values less than 1m) landslide crown classes. The explanatory variables were selected to express triggering-thickness dependency at different scales, these being in close proximity to the triggering point through primary and secondary attributes from a 2m-cell side Lidar HRDEM, at a medium scale through vegetation indexes from multispectral satellite images (ASTER) and a coarser scale through a geological, land use and tectonic maps. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing excellent prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 50 randomly generated replicates. In addition, the role of each predictor was assessed for the two considered classes as relevant differences arose in terms of their contribution to the final models. In this regard, predictor importance, Jack-knife tests and response curves were used to assess the reliability of the models together with their geomorphological reasonability. This work attempts to capitalize on fieldwork data

  16. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Luca, Filippo De; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Background The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. Objective To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. Methods The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Results Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.3–0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.2–0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.19–1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.05–1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), and with the combined exposure index (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). Moreover, cadmium levels showed a robust correlation with OGG1 and MT1A gene expression levels (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001; r = 0.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Finally, OGG1 and MT1A were over-expressed in adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela area compared with controls (p = 0.0004; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents. PMID:24936443

  17. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility. A test for the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Hochschild, Volker; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of a presence only approach, namely Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment, located in the north-eastern Sicily, Italy. This catchment has been recently exposed to three main meteorological extreme events, resulting in the activation of multiple fast landslides, which occurred on the 1st October 2009, 10th March 2010 and 1st March 2011. Differently from the 2009 event, which only marginally hit the catchment, the 2010 and 2011 storms fully involved the area of the Mili catchment. Detailed field data was collected to associate the thickness of mobilised materials at the triggering zone to each mass movement within the catchment. This information has been used to model the landslide susceptibility for two classes of processes clustered into shallow failures for maximum depths of 0.5m and deep ones in case of values equal or greater than 0.5m. As the authors believed that the peculiar geomorphometry of this narrow and steep catchment played a fundamental role in generating two distinct patterns of landslide thicknesses during the initiation phase, a HRDEM was used to extract topographic attributes to express near-triggering geomorphological conditions. On the other hand, medium resolution vegetation indexes derived from ASTER scenes were used as explanatory variables pertaining to a wider spatial neighbourhood, whilst a revised geological map, the land use from CORINE and a tectonic map were used to convey an even wider area connected to the slope instability. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing outstanding prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 20 randomly generated replicates. The validation phase produced indeed average AUC values of 0.91 with a standard deviation of 0.03 for both the modelled landslide

  18. Seismotectonics of Northeastern Sicily and Southern Calabria (Italy): New constraints on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector for the Central Mediterranean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfì, Luciano; Barberi, Graziella; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector of central Mediterranean area, including the Aeolian Islands, southern Calabria and northeastern Sicily, where the convergence between Eurasian and African plates has given rise to a complicated collisional/subduction complex. A high quality dataset of about 3000 earthquakes has been exploited for local earthquake tomography and focal mechanisms computation. Results depict undiscovered details of a network of faults which enables the contemporary existence of adjacent compressional and extensional domains. In particular, tomographic images, seismic events distribution and focal mechanisms pinpoint the geometry and activity of a lithospheric-scale tear faults system which, with a NW-SE trend through Sicily and the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas, represents the southern edge of the Ionian subduction trench zone. At crustal depth, this tearing is well highlighted by a rotation of the maximum horizontal stress, moving across the area from west toward east. In addition, the shallow normal fault regime, characterising the northeastern Sicily mainland, south of the NW-SE lineament, changes in the deeper part of the crust. Indeed, a NE-SW earthquake distribution, NW gently dipping, and inverse fault solutions indicate a still active contractional deformation in the eastern Sicily, caused by the Africa-Eurasia convergence and well framed with the current compressive regime along the southern Tyrrhenian zone and at the front of the Sicilian Chain-Foreland.

  19. Seismotectonics of northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria (Italy): New constraints on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector for the central Mediterranean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfı, L.; Barberi, G.; Musumeci, C.; Patanè, D.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector of central Mediterranean area, including the Aeolian Islands, southern Calabria, and northeastern Sicily, where the convergence between Eurasian and African Plates has given rise to a complicated collisional/subduction complex. A high-quality data set of about 3000 earthquakes has been exploited for local earthquake tomography and focal mechanisms computation together with available source mechanisms from published catalogues. The results depict new details of a network of faults which enables the concurrent existence of adjacent compressional and extensional domains. In particular, tomographic images, seismic events distribution, and focal mechanisms pinpoint the geometry and activity of a lithospheric-scale tear faults system which, with a NW-SE trend through Sicily and the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas, represents the southern edge of the Ionian subduction trench zone. At crustal depth, this tearing is well highlighted by a rotation of the maximum horizontal stress, moving across the area from west toward east. In addition, the shallow normal fault regime, characterizing the southern Calabria and northeastern Sicily mainland, south of the NW-SE lineament, changes in the deeper part of the crust. Indeed, a NE-SW earthquake distribution, gently dipping NW, and inverse fault solutions indicate a still active contractional deformation in eastern Sicily, caused by the Africa-Eurasia convergence and well framed with the current compressive regime along the southern Tyrrhenian zone and at the front of the Sicilian Chain-Foreland.

  20. Monitoring large-scale landslides and their induced hazard with COSMO-SkyMed Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS): a case study in north-western Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, Alessandro; Cigna, Francesca; Jordan, Colm; Sowter, Andrew; Calcaterra, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Landslides detection and mapping are fundamental requirements for every hazard and risk evaluation. Due to their inevitable shortcomings, geomorphological field surveys and airphoto interpretation do not document all the gravitational events. Indeed some unstable slopes are inaccessible to field surveyors, while some landslides are too slow to be detected with the naked eye or interpretation of aerial photographs. In this work, we integrate geomorphological surveys with ground motion data derived by employing COSMO-SkyMed satellite imagery and the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS; Sowter et al., 2013), a new Advanced Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ADInSAR) technique which has been developed recently at the Nottingham University in the UK. The main advantage of ISBAS with respect to other InSAR and SBAS techniques, is the possibility to detect good radar reflectors even in non-urbanized terrain, where ground targets usually look intermittently coherent, meaning they have high coherence only in some interferograms but not in others. ISBAS has proven capable of increasing results over natural, woodland and agricultural terrains and, as a result, it makes it possible to improve the detection of landslide boundaries and the assessment of the state of activity where other InSAR approaches fail. We used COSMO-SkyMed StripMap data covering the period between November 2008 and October 2011, with 3m ground range resolution, 40° look angle and minimum revisiting time of 8 days. The data consist of 38 ascending images (track 133, frame 380) with ground track angle at scene centre of 169.5° from the north-south direction. These have been obtained thanks to an agreement between the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea and the University of Naples 'Federico II'. We tested ISBAS in north-western Sicily (southern Italy), over a 1,530 km2 area where 1,473 landslides have been identified based on optical imagery and field surveys by the

  1. Smoke and Sediments in Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The waters along the shoreline of Sicily appear bright aquamarine in this image from April 7, 2002. Although other satellite images occasionally show lightening along the coast of Sicily and southern Italy, the water is unusually bright in this image. The bright water may have been caused by a recent storm that either stirred up sediment from relatively shallow sea bottom, or could be a springtime phytoplankton bloom. (Distinguishing phytoplankton from sediment is one of the challenges facing NASA researchers who study life in the oceans from satellites.) Another interesting feature of this image is the smoke plume from Mount Etna that is streaming almost directly to the East (right). Mt. Etna is one of the world's most active volcanos, and erupts up to several times a year. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Enriched asthenosphere melting beneath the nascent North African margin: trace element and Nd isotope evidence in middle-late Triassic alkali basalts from central Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Lustrino, Michele; Romano, Vanessa; Tranchina, Annunziata; Villa, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    During the dismembering of the Pangea supercontinent, middle-late Triassic sub-volcanic alkaline rocks were emplaced in central Sicily. These rocks have an alkali basaltic composition and show OIB-like incompatible element patterns in primitive mantle-normalized diagrams (e.g., enrichments in HFSE and LREE coupled with high HFSE/LILE ratios), as well as slightly positive \\varepsilon_{Nd} values. Only subtle effects of crustal contamination at shallow depths emerge from geochemical data. These characteristics are very different compared with the Permian calcalkaline magmas from elsewhere in SW Europe still carrying the geochemical signature of modifications related to the Variscan orogeny. The mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic compositions of the investigated samples from central Sicily are also different from the coeval shoshonitic volcano-plutonic formations of Southern Alps (Dolomites). The incompatible element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are consistent with low-degree partial melting of a moderately depleted asthenospheric mantle source, with a negligible involvement of the thinned continental crust. The studied alkaline basalts represent the only known evidence of a segment of the Triassic rift system associated with early Pangea breakup in central Sicily. The close similarity of the central Sicily Triassic alkali basalts with coeval basalts emplaced along former orogenic sutures across the peri-Mediterranean area suggests a common origin related, at least partly, to asthenospheric passive upwelling following the tectonic collapse of the Variscan Belt. These rocks provide new constraints on the spatial-temporal distribution, magma source evolution and geodynamic meaning of the widespread Permo-Triassic basic magmatism developed after the end of the Variscan Orogeny in southwestern Europe.

  3. Earthquake-triggered landslides along the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (off Augusta, eastern Sicily, Italy) - assessment of the related tsunamigenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Eastern Sicily is affected by earthquakes and tsunamis of local and remote origin, which is known through numerous historical chronicles. Recent studies have put emphasis on the role of submarine landslides as the direct cause of the main local tsunamis, envisaging that earthquakes (in 1693 and 1908) did produce a tsunami, but also that they triggered mass failures that were able to generate an even larger tsunami. The debate is still open, and though no general consensus has been found among scientists so far, this research had the merit to attract attention on possible generation of tsunamis by landslides off Sicily. In this paper we investigate the tsunami potential of mass failures along one sector of the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (HME). facing Augusta. The HME is the main offshore geological structure of the region running almost parallel to the coast, off eastern Sicily. Here, bottom morphology and slope steepness favour soil failures. In our work we study slope stability under seismic load along a number of HME transects by using the Minimun Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method, which is based on the limit-equilibrium theory. The main goal is to identify sectors of the HME that could be unstable under the effect of realistic earthquakes. We estimate the possible landslide volume and use it as input for numerical codes to simulate the landslide motion and the consequent tsunami. This is an important step for the assessment of the tsunami hazard in eastern Sicily and for local tsunami mitigation policies. It is also important in view of tsunami warning system since it can help to identify the minimum earthquake magnitude capable of triggering destructive tsunamis induced by landslides, and therefore to set up appropriate knowledge-based criteria to launch alert to the population.

  4. Binary Logistic Regression Versus Boosted Regression Trees in Assessing Landslide Susceptibility for Multiple-Occurring Regional Landslide Events: Application to the 2009 Storm Event in Messina (Sicily, southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, L.; Cama, M.; Maerker, M.; Parisi, L.; Rotigliano, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events within the Mediterranean region. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), corresponding to the catchments of the Briga and the Giampilieri streams both stretching for few kilometres from the Peloritan ridge (eastern Sicily, Italy) to the Ionian sea. This area was struck on the 1st October 2009 by an extreme climatic event resulting in thousands of rapid shallow landslides, mainly of debris flows and debris avalanches types involving the weathered layer of a low to high grade metamorphic bedrock. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 landslide archive, BLR- and BRT-based susceptibility models were obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation; besides, the models trained in one of the two catchments (Briga) were tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the other (Giampilieri), adopting a spatial partition (SP) based validation procedure. All the validation procedures were based on multi-folds tests so to evaluate and compare the reliability of the fitting, the prediction skill, the coherence in the predictor selection and the precision of the susceptibility estimates. All the obtained models for the two methods produced very high predictive performances, with a general congruence between BLR and BRT in the predictor importance. In particular, the research highlighted that BRT-models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR-models, for RP based modelling, whilst for the SP-based models the difference in predictive skills between the two methods dropped drastically, converging to an analogous excellent performance. However, when looking at the precision of the probability estimates, BLR demonstrated to produce more robust

  5. The CIRCEE-HR survey in the Calabrian arc and offshore E Sicily (Ionian Sea and Southern Italy): investigating active faults, recent deformation and the deep marine paleoseismic record (turbidites)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, M.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.; Gallais, F.; Graindorge, D.; San Pedro, L.

    2013-12-01

    (CIRCEE-HR - Calabrian arc Ionian sea Research and Catastrophic historical EarthquakE s in southern italy - a High Resolution seismic survey) We report on a recent marine geophysical and geological survey conducted onboard the R/V Le Suroit from 2-24 October in the Ionian Sea, offshore Eastern Sicily. The primary aim of the CIRCEE-HR cruise proposal was to conduct a neo-tectonic study of the Calabrian subduction zone offshore Southern Italy, a region struck repeatedly by the most destructive earthquakes in European history. The CIRCEE-HR survey targeted the region struck by the 1693 Catania earthquake (60,000 killed) and the 1908 Messina earthquakes, which produced intensity X-XI shaking and tsunamis. The 1908 (normal faulting mechanism) earthquake triggered a turbidite flow that ruptured submarine cables. The source of some strong historical earthquakes (1169, 1542, 1693) remains unknown. Several crustal scale structures have been proposed as being seismogenic: the Malta escarpment, a lithospheric tear fault (STEP), the subduction fault plane and other related faults. The main objectives of the cruise were therefore to seek evidence of active faults associated with these structures, and to characterize the degree of activity of the Calabria accretionary wedge (sedimentary deformation, dewatering processes) in order to better assess its seismogenic potential. Another major objective is to try to determine the typical recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the region (by coring and dating of turbidites triggered by great earthquakes). The Augias mega-turbidite dated either 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) or 365 AD (Polonia et al., 2013) covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain with a thickness of 10-15m representing a volume of > 100km3. This layer serves as a stratigraphic marker to identify recent deformation in the abyssal domain. The methods applied were 72-channel high-resolution seismic profiles and sub-bottom profiling (chirp) (with 1200km of

  6. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     ... cover at least 160,000 acres in this part of Italy, where rice is the most important crop. These views of the region were acquired on May ... May 8, 2005 - Natural color and composite images of rice cultivation in Northwest Italy. project:  MISR ...

  7. Production technology and provenance study of archaeological ceramics from relevant sites in the Alcantara River Valley (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Di Bella, Marcella; Triscari, Maurizio; Viccaro, Marco

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, volcanic-rich ceramic remains from the archaeological sites of Francavilla, Naxos and Taormina (Province of Messina, North-eastern Sicily) were studied by using inclusions as main provenance marker. Technological features, such as temper choice, vitrification degree and firing temperatures, were investigated by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Information on the production centres was obtained through the identification of the source area of raw materials used as temper. Indeed, petrochemical analysis of the volcanic inclusions within the examined ceramics displayed strong affinities with structures/textures and compositions of the locally outcropping mugearitic products, probably ascribed to the eruptive activity of an eccentric vent of Mt. Etna (Mt. Mojo). A local production for the studied pottery samples has been therefore advanced, assuming that the used volcanic temper was easily available from the alluvial deposits along the Alcantara River stream, which is connected to the lava flow of Mt. Mojo.

  8. Worst-case scenario approach to the tsunami hazard assessment for the coastal areas between Augusta and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The province of Siracusa encompasses a very long portion of the eastern Sicily coastline, ranging from the southern part of the Catania Gulf to the north down to the southern-eastern end of the island, known as Capo Passero. Within this domain, the area comprised between the towns of Augusta and Siracusa has been selected as one of the sites for the testing of innovative methods for tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment and reduction developed in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3). The selection was driven by two main reasons. First, the area was hit by at least seven tsunamis in the approximate time interval from 1600 BC to present, as can be deduced from historical catalogues and paleo-tsunami deposits analysis: the most famous are probably the 21 July 365, 4 February 1169, 11 January 1693 and 28 December 1908 tsunamis. Secondly, as a whole, the test site has a strong relevance from the industrial, commercial, military, historical and cultural points of view: here it is sufficient to mention the huge petrochemical pole in the Augusta bay and the listing of Siracusa as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2005. This contribution deals with the tsunami hazard assessment for the Augusta-Siracusa area, approached through the worst-case credible scenario technique. We selected five main source areas: the choice is driven mainly by the already mentioned fact that historical catalogues and paleo-tsunami studies tell us that the area under investigation can be impacted by tsunamis generated both in the near-field and in the far-field. The five areas include the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment and the Messina Straits in the near-field, the western and eastern lobes of the Ionian subduction zone in the intermediate field, and the western Hellenic Trench in the far-field. In each source area, a selection of possible faults was made, whose characteristics and

  9. Exploitation of the Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS) algorithm with COSMO-SkyMed data for landslide inventory mapping in north-western Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, A.; Cigna, F.; Sowter, A.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2017-03-01

    A large scale study of landslide processes was undertaken by coupling conventional geomorphological field surveys with aerial photographs along with an advanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis of ground instability in north-western Sicily. COSMO-SkyMed satellite images for the period between 2008 and 2011 were processed using the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS) technique, recently developed at the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Nottingham. The use of ISBAS allowed the derivation of ground surface displacements across non-urbanized areas, thus overcoming one of the main limitations of conventional interferometric techniques. ISBAS provides ground motion information not only for urban but also for rural, woodland, grassland and agricultural terrains, which cover > 60% of north-western Sicily, thereby improving by 40 times in some cases, the slope instability investigation capabilities of InSAR methods. ISBAS ground motion data enabled the updating of the landslide inventory for the areas of Piana degli Albanesi and Marineo (over 130 km2), which encompass a number of active, dormant and inactive landslides according to the pre-existing landslide inventory maps produced through aerial photo-interpretation and local field checks. An average of ∼ 7000 ISBAS pixels km- 2 allowed the detection of small displacements in regions difficult to access. In particular, 226 landslides - mainly slides, flows and creep and four badlands were identified, comprising a total area of 25.3 km2. When compared to the previous landslide inventory maps, 84 phenomena were confirmed, 67 new events were detected and 79 previously mapped events were re-assessed, modifying their typology, boundary and/or state of activity. Because the InSAR method used here is designed to measure slow rates of velocity and therefore may not detect fast-moving, events such as falls and topples, the results for Piana degli Albanesi and Marineo demonstrate

  10. An Update of the Evolving Epidemic of blaKPC Carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae in Sicily, Italy, 2014: Emergence of Multiple Non-ST258 Clones

    PubMed Central

    Bonura, Celestino; Giuffrè, Mario; Aleo, Aurora; Fasciana, Teresa; Di Bernardo, Francesca; Stampone, Tomaso; Giammanco, Anna; Palma, Daniela Maria; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background In Italy, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) strains are highly endemic and KPC producing CC258 is reported as the widely predominating clone. In Palermo, Italy, previous reports have confirmed this pattern. However, recent preliminary findings suggest that an epidemiological change is likely ongoing towards a polyclonal KPC-Kp spread. Here we present the results of molecular typing of 94 carbapenem non susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates detected during 2014 in the three different hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Methods and Results Ninety-four consecutive, non replicate carbapenem non susceptible isolates were identified in the three largest acute general hospitals in Palermo, Italy, in the six-month period March-August 2014. They were characterized by PCR for β-lactam, aminoglycoside and plasmid mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genetic determinants. The mgrB gene of the colistin resistant isolates was amplified and sequenced. Clonality was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Eight non-CC258 sequence types (STs) were identified accounting for 60% of isolates. In particular, ST307 and ST273 accounted for 29% and 18% of isolates. CC258 isolates were more frequently susceptible to gentamicin and non-CC258 isolates to amikacin. Colistin non susceptibility was found in 42% of isolates. Modifications of mgrB were found in 32 isolates. Conclusions Concurrent clonal expansion of some STs and lateral transmission of genetic resistance determinants are likely producing a thorough change of the KPC-Kp epidemiology in Palermo, Italy. In our setting mgrB inactivation proved to substantially contribute to colistin resistance. Our findings suggest the need to continuously monitor the KPC-Kp epidemiology and to assess by a nationwide survey the possible shifting towards a polyclonal epidemic. PMID:26177547

  11. Submarine slope earthquake-induced instability and associated tsunami generation potential along the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (offshore eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The stability analysis of offshore margins is an important step for the assessment of natural hazard: the main challenge is to evaluate the potential slope failures and the consequent occurrence of submarine tsunamigenic landslides to mitigate the potential coastal damage to inhabitants and infrastructures. But the limited geotechnical knowledge of the underwater soil and the controversial scientific interpretation of the tectonic units make it often difficult to carry out this type of analysis reliably. We select the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (HME), the main active geological structure offshore eastern Sicily, because the amount of data from historical chronicles, the records about strong earthquakes and tsunami, and the numerous geological offshore surveys carried out in recent years make the region an excellent scenario to evaluate slope failures, mass movements triggered by earthquakes and the consequent tsunamis. We choose several profiles along the HME and analyse their equilibrium conditions using the Minimun Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method (Tinti and Manucci, 2006, 2008; Paparo et al. 2013), that is based on the limit-equilibrium theory. Considering the morphological and geotechnical features of the offshore slopes, we prove that large-earthquake shaking may lead some zones of the HME to instability, we evaluate the expected volumes involved in sliding and compute the associated landslide-tsunami through numerical tsunami simulations. This work was carried out in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  12. Evaluation of a temporal trend heavy metals contamination in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, (1813) along the western coastline of Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Copat, Chiara; Maggiore, Riccardo; Arena, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Stanislao; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    The use of biological species in the monitoring of marine environmental quality allows the evaluation of biologically available levels of contaminants in the ecosystem and the effects of contaminants on living organisms. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is a useful bioindicator because through the lepidochronology technique it is possible to obtain a historical contamination trend of a given area. This study aims to assess the temporal trend contamination by heavy metal investigations on dead sheaths of 100 samples of P. oceanica collected in the Protected Marine Area of "Plemmirio" (Sicily) and in the Siracusa bay. Important results were obtained because data show a significant negative temporal trend for the metals analysed especially for As, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, U and V that in the past had higher concentrations, with a stronger contamination in the Plemmirio area, the site much more exposed to the pollution of the nearby petrochemical complex. This study confirms the relevance of the use of P. oceanica as a biological indicator of metal contamination in coastal ecosystems. Thus the usefulness of P. oceanica as a tracer of spatial metal contamination and as a good tool for water quality evaluation is reinforced.

  13. Tsunami vulnerability and damage for buildings analyzed by means of two methods (PTVA-3 and SCHEMA) in the area of Augusta and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The coast of the eastern Sicily is exposed to tsunamis that can be generated by local earthquakes (e.g. the 1169, 1693, 1908 events) and by earthquakes located in distant seismic zones (see the 365 AD tsunamigenic quake in Western Hellenic Arc). Tsunamis can also be generated by landslides possibly triggered by earthquakes. The Hyblean-Malta steep escarpment running offshore at a small angle with the coast is an ideal place for submarine mass failure occurrences with tsunamigenic effects. The entire eastern coast of Sicily from Messina in the north to Siracusa in the south is under the threat of tsunamis. In the frame of the FP7 European project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), the segment of coast from Augusta to Siracusa was selected to undertake specific and detailed studies of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and damage to test existing methods and develop innovative approaches. The scope of the present work regards vulnerability and damage analyses. We chose to adopt two methods, known in the literature and briefly denoted as PTVA-3 and SCHEMA, that are based on two very different approaches, the former more qualitative and the latter more quantitative. The method PTVA-3 determines the vulnerability and damageability of a building by weighting and ranking a number of attributes covering the structural features of the edifice and the relevant characteristics of the surrounding environment such as the position with respect to the coast, the existence of defensive elements (e.g. walls, breakwaters, vegetation) and also the proximity to potential sources of floating objects that can feed damaging debris flows. On the other hand, the SCHEMA method uses a classification of building and a damage matrix that were derived from experimental fragility and damage curves first established after the Sumatra 2004 tsunami and later refined and adapted to the building stock of the Mediterranean region. The

  14. Integrating facies and structural analyses with subsidence history in a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin: Outcome for paleogeography of the Panormide Southern Tethyan margin (NW Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio; Gasparo Morticelli, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    We illustrate the tectono-sedimentary evolution of a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin in a fold and thrust belt present setting (Cala Rossa basin). Detailed stratigraphy and facies analysis of Upper Triassic-Eocene successions outcropping in the Palermo Mts (NW Sicily), integrated with structural analysis, restoration and basin analysis, led to recognize and describe into the intraplatform basin the proximal and distal depositional areas respect to the bordered carbonate platform sectors. Carbonate platform was characterized by a rimmed reef growing with progradational trends towards the basin, as suggested by the several reworked shallow-water materials interlayered into the deep-water succession. More, the occurrence of thick resedimented breccia levels into the deep-water succession suggests the time and the characters of synsedimentary tectonics occurred during the Late Jurassic. The study sections, involved in the building processes of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt, were restored in order to obtain the original width of the Cala Rossa basin, useful to reconstruct the original geometries and opening mechanisms of the basin. Basin analysis allowed reconstructing the subsidence history of three sectors with different paleobathymetry, evidencing the role exerted by tectonics in the evolution of the narrow Cala Rossa basin. In our interpretation, a transtensional dextral Lower Jurassic fault system, WNW-ESE (present-day) oriented, has activated a wedge shaped pull-apart basin. In the frame of the geodynamic evolution of the Southern Tethyan rifted continental margin, the Cala Rossa basin could have been affected by Jurassic transtensional faults related to the lateral westward motion of Africa relative to Europe.

  15. A multidisciplinary approach to detect active pathways for magma migration and eruption at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) before the 2001 and 2002-2003 eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alparone, S.; Andronico, D.; Giammanco, S.; Lodato, L.

    2004-08-01

    lines affecting eastern Sicily; they would be important pathways for magma uprise to the surface that will keep on feeding the eruptive activity of Etna in the near future. This study also pointed out the high instability of the southern slope of Etna, a sector where the potential hazard by lava flow invasion will remain high also in the near future.

  16. Predicting the impacts of climate change on plant dynamics and tree-grass-shrub competition using a Cellular Automata model in a Mediterranean catchment in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, L. V.; Caracciolo, D.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding and predicting vegetation change along ecosystem boundaries is among paramount challenges in ecohydrology. In this study, Cellular-Automaton Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) is implemented in a small upland catchment in Sicily, IT, where north-facing slopes are characterized by quercus (trees), and south-facing slopes exhibit plant coexistence, composed of Opuntia ficus-indaca (shrub) and grasses, to examine the control of solar radiation on plant development and predict potential trajectories of vegetation change under the stress of global warming. CATGraSS is driven by stochastic rainfall and variable solar radiation on topography, represented by a fine-scale gridded domain where vegetation type at each cell is represented individually. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or remain empty. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Spatially explicit treatment of solar radiation, and a lower limit to soil moisture storage imposed by bedrock depth lead to spatial organization in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff, and plant type. CATGraSS is first calibrated at the field site driven by stochastic climate that represent the current climate at the study site. Calibrated model results are examined against Google-Earth images. Implications of future climate change are examined using the advanced weather generator (AWE-GEN). AWE-GEN characterizes the statistical characteristics of selected climate variables and their change over time based on a multi-model ensemble of outputs from General Circulation Models (GCMs). Stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve GCMs adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario for the future scenarios 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. Future vegetation changed is predicted to bring a dramatic reorganization of the plant composition based mainly on the topography

  17. The Advancement of Intraplate Tectonic Motion Detection by the Use of Atmospherically Corrected InSAR Time-series and its Decomposition into a 3D Field Vector in South-East Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, A.; Bekaert, D. P.; Bonforte, A.; Guglielmino, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Stramondo, S.; Zucca, F.

    2014-12-01

    This study provides insights into the advancements gained by applying a tropospheric correction to a time-series InSAR small baseline network processed using the StaMPS software for the Hyblean Plateau in south-east Sicily, Italy. The contribution of the atmosphere is one of the major error sources in repeat-pass InSAR in general. For time-series analysis spatial and temporal "filtering" of the interferometric phase can be used to address atmospheric signals. This however might be at the cost of smoothing and removal of the "tectonic deformation". We applied a tropospheric correction to each interferogram based on estimates of the ERA-Interim weather model, provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). This approach is part of the InSAR Atmospheric Correction Toolbox (Bekaert et al, in prep) and converts the tropospheric water vapor content into the phase-delay of the radar line-of-sight. For the analysis we used 49 descending and 58 ascending Envisat SAR images, which cover the time period from 2003 until 2010. In addition, we have processed 30 SAR images of RADARSAT-2 for the period between 2010-2012. Furthermore, we used the different viewing geometries and the integration of GPS data to decompose the single line-of-sight velocities into a 3-dimensional field vector by applying the SISTEM approach (Guglielmino et al. 2011). First results reveal that the atmospherically corrected data retain the deformation signal along geological structures like the Scicli-Ragusa fault whilst the standard filtering approach is canceling out these very slow deformation patterns. Simultaneously, the variability of the signal in space is diminished and thus gives more confidence on the deformation patterns observed by the SAR. Consequently, the decomposition of the line-of-sight velocities and the integration with the GPS data allows us to retrieve a more realistic deformation field.

  18. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... coast of Sicily, to the southwest of mainland Italy. Major eruptions have been issuing from both summit and flank vents. Fine ash falling ... repeated caldera collapse, and partially buried by younger volcanic structures. Eruptions are related to a complex tectonic situation, ...

  19. Coastal dynamics in western Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

  1. Isoleucine epimerization ages of the dwarf elephants of Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluomini, Giorgio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1985-07-01

    The isoleucine epimerization reaction has been used to date tooth enamel from dwarf elephants collected from the Sicilian caves of Spinagallo and Puntali. Elephant teeth from the Isernia la Pineta deposit in central Italy, dated at ˜700 ka by potassium-argon (K-Ar) and paleomagnetics, were used for calibration of the isoleucine epimerization rate. The ages determined for the dwarf elephants found at the Spinagallo Cave are considerably older than the more robust dwarf species found at the Puntali Cave. These dates suggest that more than one invasion of continental elephants have taken place on Sicily. The subsequent isolation of the continental species has apparently produced varying stages of dwarfism.

  2. ERIC as Navigator: Comments from an ERIC Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.

    This paper evaluates the online services provided by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, from the perspective of a psychology professor at Blue Ridge Community College in North Carolina. The author praises the ERIC site for its helpful links and virtual library, and also discusses ERIC's potential for a variety of users. He focuses on…

  3. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  4. A facies distribution model controlled by a tectonically inherited sea bottom topography in the carbonate rimmed shelf of the Upper Tithonian-Valanginian Southern Tethyan continental margin (NW Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio

    2016-08-01

    The Upper Tithonian-Valanginian shallow-water carbonates outcropping in the Palermo Mts (NW Sicily) consist of several facies associations reflecting different depositional environments of a carbonate rimmed shelf, pertaining to the Southern Tethyan continental margin. The reconstructed depositional model, based on the sedimentological features, cyclic facies arrangement and biota distribution, shows that a wide protected lagoon, dominated by algae, molluscs and scattered patch reefs, was bordered landward by a tidal flat, where stromatolitic algal mats were cyclically subaerial exposed, and seaward by a marine sand belt and reef complex. Oolitic packstone-grainstone lithofacies, cyclically subjected to subaerial exposure, suggests the occurrence of a barrier island, located nearly to the lagoonal carbonate shoreline, allowing the development of narrow embayments with restricted circulation. In the outer platform, the oolitic lithofacies of the marine sand belt pass landward into the protected lagoon, where washover oolite sands occur, and seaward into a high-energy zone (back-reef apron) gradually merging in the reef complex. In the latter, coral framestone occupied the inner sector (reef flat), while the facies association dominated by boundstone with Ellipsactinia sp. developed in the outer sectors (reef wall), adjacent to the fore-reef and upper slope environments. Stratigraphic evidence, associated with the recognized facies associations, helped to reconstruct the geo-tectonic setting of the carbonate platform, where the distribution of the depositional facies along the shelf and their extension were influenced by the tectonically-inherited sea bottom topography. In a regime of extensional tectonics, localized and thin succession of high-energy prograding oolite sand belt depositional facies occupied structural highs (footwall uplift), while the largely diffused and thick low energy aggrading peritidal-to-lagoonal depositional facies developed in subsiding

  5. 76 FR 3012 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material Originating in Italy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    .... (eds.), Historia Numorum: Italy (London, 2001). Others appear in G.F. Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily... coins (Aes Grave)--Cast bronze coins of Rome, Etruscan, and Italian cities from the 4th century B.C....

  6. Impacts of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes on the Etna Region (Eastern Sicily, Italy): An example of recovery and response of a small area to extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Azzaro, Raffaele; De Beni, Emanuela; Chester, David; Duncan, Angus

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we trace the impact of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes in eastern Sicily, their effects on the people living in the Etna region and, more particularly, in the city of Catania and its hinterland. The former event was the largest historic eruption of Etna, having a flow field with an area of ca. 40 km2 and a maximum flow length of ca. 17 km, whereas the latter - occurring only 24 years later - killed between 11,000 and 20,000 of Catania's estimated 20-27,000 inhabitants, plus many more in smaller settlements. Using a combination of field-based research, contemporary accounts and archival sources, the authors are able to draw a number of conclusions. First, the 1669 eruption, although it did not kill or injure, was economically the most devastating of historical eruptions. Although it affected a limited area, inundation by lava meant that land was effectively sterilized for centuries and, in a pre-industrial agriculturally-based economy, recovery could not occur quickly without outside assistance from the State. Indeed some of the worst affected municipalities (i.e. Comuni) were only able to support populations that were much reduced in size. Secondly, much of the damage caused to buildings by volcanic earthquakes was effectively masked, because most of the settlements affected were quickly covered by lava flows. The vulnerability to volcanic earthquakes of traditionally constructed buildings has, however, remained a serious example of un-ameliorated risk exposure through to the present day. A third conclusion is that the 1693 earthquakes, although more serious with respect to the number of people and the area they affected in terms of mortality, morbidity and their immediate economic impact, saw a rapid and sustained recovery. This was due in part to the fact that, in contrast to lava flows, an earthquake does not sterilize land, but more significant was the reduction in population numbers which served both to release and concentrate funds

  7. The ERIC Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Deborah Jean

    1986-01-01

    Includes an annotated bibliography of documents in the ERIC system that (1) provide insight on the value of role playing and dramatic play in the classroom and (2) suggest a variety of classroom activities that use improvisation as tool to help children retain ideas, emotions, or any academic lessons. (JD)

  8. Positive Discipline. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. Discussion focuses on: (1) 12 methods of discipline that promote self-worth; (2) the process of creating a positive climate that promotes self-discipline; (3) harmful and negative disciplinary methods; and (4)…

  9. How America Saved Italy and the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    wrote about Naples post-Allied liberation. There, mobs of men, women and children beat each other over candy Allied soldiers threw their way, and boys...Sicily and Italy. For further reading see Gene Santoro’s Mafia Allies: The True Story of America’s Secret Alliance with the Mob in World War II. 73

  10. Grabbing ERIC by the Tail: Introducing the ERIC Commissioned Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David

    2001-01-01

    Explains the origin of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) commissioned papers that appear in this journal issue that assess the ERIC program. Discusses the need to unify the system by transforming the database into a knowledge base with a unified metadata framework that would include a variety of multimedia materials. (LRW)

  11. ERIC Data Access System (EDAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Pal V.

    The ERIC Data Access System (EDAS) is an information retrieval system developed at Eastern Illinois University to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database and make it available to Eastern faculty and students in a convenient and timely fashion. This paper describes briefly why and how Eastern developed and implemented…

  12. ERIC/EECE Newsletter, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Laurel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2003 issues of the newsletter of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE). Each issue contains a feature article and one or more short articles on topics related to early childhood education, calls for papers, announcements about Internet resources, news items about and list…

  13. ERIC/IT Update, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC/IT Update, 2001

    2001-01-01

    The majority of this publication is comprised of 13 feature articles covering a wide range of topics in the areas of educational technology and library and information sciences. Also offered are related abstracts found in the ERIC Database and the latest news at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, including the publication of…

  14. Quantifying probabilities of eruptions at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancato, Alfonso

    2010-05-01

    One of the major goals of modern volcanology is to set up sound risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard must be managed with reliable estimates of quantitative long- and short-term eruption forecasting, but the large number of observables involved in a volcanic process suggests that a probabilistic approach could be a suitable tool in forecasting. The aim of this work is to quantify probabilistic estimate of the vent location for a suitable lava flow hazard assessment at Mt. Etna volcano, through the application of the code named BET (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008). The BET_EF model is based on the event tree philosophy assessed by Newhall and Hoblitt (2002), further developing the concept of vent location, epistemic uncertainties, and a fuzzy approach for monitoring measurements. A Bayesian event tree is a specialized branching graphical representation of events in which individual branches are alternative steps from a general prior event, and evolving into increasingly specific subsequent states. Then, the event tree attempts to graphically display all relevant possible outcomes of volcanic unrest in progressively higher levels of detail. The procedure is set to estimate an a priori probability distribution based upon theoretical knowledge, to accommodate it by using past data, and to modify it further by using current monitoring data. For the long-term forecasting, an a priori model, dealing with the present tectonic and volcanic structure of the Mt. Etna, is considered. The model is mainly based on past vent locations and fracture location datasets (XX century of eruptive history of the volcano). Considering the variation of the information through time, and their relationship with the structural setting of the volcano, datasets we are also able to define an a posteriori probability map for next vent opening. For short-term forecasting vent opening hazard assessment, the monitoring has a leading role, primarily based on seismological and volcanological data, integrated with strain, geochemical, gravimetric and magnetic parameters. In the code, is necessary to fix an appropriate forecasting time window. On open-conduit volcanoes as Mt. Etna, a forecast time window of a month (as fixed in other applications worldwide) seems unduly long, because variations of the state of the volcano (significant variation of a specific monitoring parameter could occur in time scale shorter than the forecasting time window) are expected with shorter time scale (hour, day or week). This leads to set a week as forecasting time window, coherently with the number of weeks in which an unrest has been experienced. The short-term vent opening hazard assessment will be estimated during an unrest phase; the testing case (2001 July eruption) will include all the monitoring parameters collected at Mt. Etna during the six months preceding the eruption. The monitoring role has been assessed eliciting more than 50 parameters, including seismic activity, ground deformation, geochemistry, gravity, magnetism, and distributed inside the first three nodes of the procedure. Parameter values describe the Mt. Etna volcano activity, being more detailed through the code, particularly in time units. The methodology allows all assumptions and thresholds to be clearly identified and provides a rational means for their revision if new data or information are incoming. References Newhall C.G. and Hoblitt R.P.; 2002: Constructing event trees for volcanic crises, Bull. Volcanol., 64, 3-20, doi: 10.1007/s0044500100173. Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y.

  15. 82D Airborne Division in Sicily and Italy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-11-01

    of Mount Vesuvius to *tho cast, bypassing the city, while 504 ren turned west, captured Castollamare. Tho 504th entered Naples- on October 1st...assembly area, D Corpany:. mounted British tanks and the bal- ance of the battalion moved out on foot at 1450 hour. The’ battalion continued the march

  16. The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Mariangela

    2008-01-01

    Background The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. Methods This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers and in general 'experts' with herbs and 'magic' rituals. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis. Results The author has highlighted the importance of how, in some parts of Sicily, some ailments like helminthiasis and other correlated pathologies like scantu are 'treated' and, especially within the rural social classes, by folk medicine remedies, herbal practises, particular prayers, rituals and spells. Conclusion As regards health/illness, it should be noted that in the last ten years conventional medicine has provided very satisfactory results even resolving potentially mortal pathologies. However, in certain social classes, there is no real collaboration between conventional and folk medicine; so for some senior citizens, the 'healer' with his rituals and empirical and magical herbs is still the person to turn to for the 'cure' of particular ailments. Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant if the aim is to recoup a cultural identity which is already in decline. It is significant to report a piece: on 14 October 2007 the news on a well-known national Italian TV channel reported an interview with a 94 year-old man from Arbatax (Sardinia) referred to as a 'healer' because both his townspeople and others from all over the world go to him for his cures. He is not paid except in kind and has been known to cure St. Anthony's fire, burns, scalding and marine

  17. ERIC Digests: An Annotated Bibliography of All ERIC Digests Announced in the ERIC Database through March 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Elizabeth, Comp.; Brandhorst, Ted, Comp.

    Digests prepared by clearinghouses of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) began to emerge seriously in 1984 as one of the most desirable and popular products of the various clearinghouses. Although ERIC Digests were not initially listed in the ERIC database because of their brevity, today they are entered routinely. This…

  18. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  19. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  20. ERIC User Services Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O., Comp.

    This manual explains how the user services functions, usually performed by a User Services Coordinator, can be conducted in the 16 ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouses and the various adjunct ERIC Clearinghouses. It provides guidelines, suggestions, and examples of how ERIC components currently perform the user services…

  1. The ERIC Search: A Programmed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Cynthia; Arnold, Joann

    This text is intended as a guide for searching ERIC using the SilverPlatter CD-ROM database. The text describes the content and function of the ERIC database and demonstrates fundamental search techniques by following an example of a successful ERIC computer search. The search begins with the choice of a topic, the formulation of a search…

  2. Cataloging. ERIC Processing Manual, Section V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Carolyn R., Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for ERIC catalogers and editors engaged in capturing bibliographic data for the documents and journal articles entered into the ERIC database. A general discussion of the principles of ERIC cataloging, definitions used, use of mandatory vs. optional data elements, etc. is provided in the Introduction. The body…

  3. Information for Education Writers from ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Charles H.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system provides information to education writers for newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. ERIC can be used to find the names of reliable sources in a given field, as well as background information for an in-depth article or broadcast. The ERIC collection of documents on microfiche is…

  4. Data Entry. ERIC Processing Manual, Section IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Carolyn R., Ed.

    Documents and journal articles acquired by the ERIC Clearinghouses are processed (cataloged, indexed, abstracted/annotated) for retrieval and use by the educational community. The bibliographic data resulting from this processing are provided by the ERIC Clearinghouses on a regular basis to the ERIC Processing and Reference Facility. The ERIC…

  5. Acquisitions. ERIC Processing Manual, Section II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Grace, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for the process of acquiring documents to be considered for inclusion in the ERIC database. The differing responsibilities of the Government, the ERIC Clearinghouses, and the ERIC Facility are delineated. The various methods by which documentary material can be obtained are described and preferences outlined.…

  6. [Psychiatric institutions in the regno delle due Sicilie].

    PubMed

    Leoni, F

    1993-01-01

    Before 1510 there wasn't a single hospital in Southern Italy which took in mental patients, with the possible exception of L'ospedale degli Incurabili, which in any case dealt with other kinds of illnesses as well. Finally, in 1813 the decision was taken to found an institution in the city of Aversa which would deal exclusively with mental patients. This institution was put under the control of Giovanni Maria Linguiti. He took care of all patients using his therapeutic methods, with such excellent results that his reputation spread outside the kingdom. In 1816 in Sicily, an attempt was made to repeat the success of Aversa, but not until 1824 was it decided that L'ospizio di Santa Teresa should care for mental patients. Don Pietro Pisani was delegated to coordinate that hospital and, in 1827, he published a number of theories and guidelines concerning mental healthcare similar to those of Linguiti. In December 1864 a Royal Decree forced through parliament a statute which laid down the rules for the reorganization of these hospitals. Finally in August 1874, after numerous financial difficulties and struggles between political bodies and health service management, a Royal Decree was established and a new guiding statute was passed.

  7. Risk assessment of treated municipal wastewater reuse in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Rosa; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Consoli, Simona; Licciardello, Feliciana; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, the restrictive approach for treated wastewater reuse in agriculture has led to some difficulties in promoting this practice. In order to assess the health risk associated with the use of wastewater in agriculture, an experiment was conducted in an open field near the constructed wetland (CW) system of San Michele di Ganzaria (Eastern Sicily), during the irrigation seasons 2004-2009. In particular the impact on tomato crops of drip and sub-drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater, as well as effects of wastewater reuse on the irrigation system, main production features, hydrological soil behaviour, and microbial soil and products contamination were investigated. Notwithstanding the fact that globally CW effluents did not match microbiological standards for wastewater reuse of Italian legislation, the median infection risk (function of the recommended tolerable additional disease burden of 10(-6) DALY (disability-adjusted life year) loss per person per year) suggested by the 2006 World Health Organization Guidelines for rotavirus, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium for lettuce irrigation under unrestricted irrigation scenario was achieved.

  8. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  9. Infant Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    This ERIC Digest briefly reviews studies of maternal employment, child care settings, and links between children's development and family and child care influences. Studies of maternal employment suggest that infants' positive relationships with caregivers may compensate for insecure attachments with mothers. If future research supports this…

  10. The Shy Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marion C.; Van Trieste, Karen

    This ERIC digest: (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness among children; (2) briefly reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness; (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness; and (4) suggests ways for parents and teachers to help the shy child by accepting the whole child, building…

  11. Teaching about Ecosystems. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    Ecosystems are available to educators as interactive units and as such the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the Excellence in Environmental Education: Guidelines for Learning (EEE) put considerable emphasis on ecosystems. This ERIC Digest describes the NSES and EEE guidelines for grades 5-8 and 9-12 to provide a basic ecosystem…

  12. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  13. The Only Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Karen

    Smaller families in general (including the one-child option) are becoming more popular. This ERIC Digest focuses on changing trends in family size, reasons for choosing to have only one child, differences between only children and those with siblings, and the advantages of being an only child. Changing family patterns, economic concerns, and new…

  14. The Wired Campus. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This ERIC Digest examines some of the trends and issues in academic information systems design and describes the policies of several universities that are taking creative advantage of these systems as educational tools. The current emphasis on microcomputers in campus information networks instead of terminals connected to a mainframe computer is…

  15. Grandma Moses Meets Eric Carle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This activity features artwork by "Grandma Moses" in which children will learn the picture plane in terms of foreground, middle ground, and background. The teacher also introduces the children to Eric Carle's colorful collaged images in his books. Using the two artists' methods, children experimented and invented new techniques and colors. As the…

  16. Teaching about Oceans. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This ERIC Digest is designed for teachers in grades K-12 to share a rationale for teaching about oceans and briefly introduce the kinds of resources available to assist with such efforts. Topics include: (1) Why teach about oceans?; (2) Where can I get resources for teaching about the ocean?; (3) Who is doing marine education in my area?; (4) What…

  17. Serologic and molecular characterization of Anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from Sicily.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Torina, Alessandra; Caracappa, Santo; Tumino, Giovanni; Furlá, Roberto; Almazán, Consuelo; Kocan, Katherine M

    2005-11-05

    Although Anaplasma marginale was known to be endemic in Italy, the diversity of Anaplasma spp. from this area have not been characterized. In this study, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. antibodies in randomly selected farm animals collected on the island of Sicily was determined by use of a MSP5 cELISA for Anaplasma spp. and an immunofluorescence test specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Genetic variation among strains of Anaplasma spp. from animals and ticks was characterized using the A. marginale msp1alpha and the Anaplasma spp. msp4 genes. Eight species of ticks were collected and tested by PCR. Seropositivity for Anaplasma spp. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in bovine and ovine samples. All the donkeys were seropositive for A. phagocytophilum but not for Anaplasma spp. Four A. marginale genotypes were identified by msp4 sequences from bovine and tick samples. Two new genotypes of Anaplasma ovis were characterized in sheep. The sequences of A. phagocytophilum from three donkeys proved to be identical to the sequence of the MRK equine isolate from California. Six A. marginale genotypes were found in cattle and one tick using the A. marginale msp1alpha sequences. All genotypes had four repeated sequences in the N-terminal portion of the MSP1a, except for one that had five repeats. The Italian strains of A. marginale contained three repeat sequences that were not reported previously. Definition of the diversity of Anaplasma spp. in Sicily reported, herein is fundamental to development of control strategies for A. marginale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum in Sicily.

  18. Perspectives on ERIC and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Susan Imel is retired from Ohio State University. From December 1981 until December 2003, she was the Adult Education Specialist at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education and Director from 1987 through 2003. This essay begins with a brief overview of the ERIC system including goals for the clearinghouses, followed by a…

  19. A Profile of ERIC Microfiche Collection Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Eleanor V.

    Data is presented on 254 standing order customers (SOC's) representing 47 percent of those sites or organizations which have placed orders or subscriptions with the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) to receive, on a regular and continuous basis, the entire microfiche output. ERIC SOC's were asked…

  20. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education; Publications, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    Beginning with general information on the scope and subject coverage of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education (ERIC/AE) and on principal periodicals covering the literature, this annotated bibliography lists 74 literature reviews, research registers, ERIC/AE current and basic information sources, Central ERIC and Government Printing Office…

  1. Groundwater Nitrate Contamination Risk Assessment in Canicattì area (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Cusimano, Gioacchino; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    Groundwaters play a dominant role in the Sicily, because as most part of Mediterranean countries this island is interested by the phenomenon of desertification and the quality of the groundwater reservoir is one of the most important aim for the management policy strategies. During last decade most of the Italian regions the nitrate levels in river and groundwaters have increased gradually over mainly as a consequence of large-scale agricultural application of manure and fertilizers, thereby threatening drinking water quality. The excessive use of chemicals and fertilizers increases the risk to pollution of surface and groundwater from diffuse source, an important reflex to human health and the environment. The studied area is located in Canicattì (central Sicily, Italy), the current land use (grape, olive grove and almond) is the main source of groundwater pollution. In order to investigate the effect of the over farming on the groundwater quality we report the study on the potential risk of contamination from nitrate of agricultural origin through the join of the application of two parametric methods: the IPNOA method (the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk from Agricultural sources) applied to define the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and the SINTACS method applied to determine the aquifer vulnerability to contamination.

  2. Geomagnetic secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, J. C.; Bucur, I.; Thompson, J. F. C.

    1985-12-01

    The variation of geomagnetic field direction in Sicily during the past 700 yr has tentatively been determined using lavas of known date from Mount Etna1. Additional palaeomagnetic studies on several hundred volcanic samples, combined with archaeomagnetic investigations carried out on Norman buildings, have improved the previous results and permit a reconstruction of the geomagnetic variation curve to about AD 1000. This curve agrees well with those obtained for other European countries2-6 and may be used as a reference for checking the ages attributed to archaeological structures as well as volcanic products in southern Italy during the past 1,000 yr. The present results cast serious doubts on the true ages of numerous historically dated lavas from Mount Etna, most of which are at least several centuries older than previously believed. The conclusions have implications for the succession of eruptions, effusion rates, magmatic evolution, and so on, and demonstrate the inconsistency of eruptive models based on historical records alone.

  3. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in

  4. Isonymy and the genetic structure of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, A; Pavesi, A; Scapoli, C; Conterio, F; Siri, G; Barrai, I

    1994-01-01

    The genetic structure of Sicily was analysed through the distribution of surnames of 758,793 users registered in the Italian Telephone Company, corresponding to 371 communes of the island. Estimates of the coefficient of consanguinity due to random isonymy, of Fisher's a, an indicator of abundance of surnames, and of Karlin-McGregor's v, an indicator of immigration rates, were obtained for each commune. Four different estimates of genetic distance between all possible pairs of communes within each province were also obtained, and their relationship with geographic distance was studied. The logarithmic transformation of Lasker's coefficient of relationship showed correlations with the log of geographic distance which range between -0.78 and -0.40; the strongest, for the province of Catania, was attributed to the presence of Mount Etna, and the weakest, for Palermo, to the high population density of this province.

  5. Genetic models of poljes in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological and geological studies have been carried out to contribute to the recognition of controlling causes and to the definition of genetic models for poljes of Sicily. A polje is a kilometric closed depression developed mainly on karst rocks, with a conspicuously flat and alluviated bottom affected by intermittent flooding. A polje is usually characterised by relatively steep slopes enclosing an almost perfectly horizontal floor, caused by lateral solution planation related to flooding events. The origin of a polje is due to dissolution of the land surface, although geological structure generally influences its genesis. These large depressions are often elongated according to the direction of main faults, in consequence of a control due to tectonics or to differential erosion. The performed researches have shown the existence of at least seven poljes located along the north-western (chain zone) and the southern (deformed foredeep zone) areas of Sicily. These large karst depressions are developed on Mesozoic limestone/dolomitic rocks within the chain zone and on Messinian gypsum rocks within the deformed foredeep zone. They are up to 4 km in length, can reach surfaces of 3-8 km2 and are around hundred metres deep, with steep slopes and a flat bottom. Generally, they are open, occasionally active depressions and their genesis seems to be strongly controlled by structure. In particular, the studied poljes occur in two different geological/geomorphological settings: a) in graben-like tectonic depressions, where important fault slopes/scarps border the flat bottom; b) in complex depressions controlled by structure, where wide fault line slopes/scarps or large inclined degraded structural surfaces mark the poljes. Finally, landscape analysis leads to the proposition of two main genetic models in which the development of poljes is primarily due to tectonics or differential erosion followed by dissolution.

  6. ERIC/EECE Report: Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Brad

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes five documents and four articles in the ERIC database that examine parents' involvement in their children's education. Topics include strategies for better parenting, school readiness, increasing parent involvement, and parent education programs. (MDM)

  7. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  8. Patriotism: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of nine items from the ERIC database on the subject of patriotism. Includes articles on such topics as Americanism, citizenship education, and environmentalism. Explains how to obtain copies of the documents. (SG)

  9. Women's Suffrage: A Sampler of ERIC Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the resources available from the ERIC System on issues related to women's suffrage and women's rights. Includes an annotated bibliography of six resources, including lesson plans and historiography reviews. (CFR)

  10. ERIC Clearinghouse Scope of Interest Guide. ERIC Processing Manual, Appendix A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.; And Others

    This guide identifies and describes the subject areas covered by the ERIC Clearinghouses. Each Clearinghouse scope statement is provided in the following three-part format: (1) Formal Statement--A comprehensive and detailed description of the scope areas, mainly for use by the ERIC Facility in assigning documents (on the basis of their subject…

  11. Instructional Materials on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Part Two. Information Sheets on ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    This set of information sheets on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is designed for use by persons responsible for instructing potential ERIC users and contributors. Adaptable for reproduction as overhead projection transparencies, the sheets are classified in two dimensions to provide for greater flexibility. The set of 50…

  12. Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scirè, Salvatore; Ciliberto, Enrico; Crisafulli, Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Ventura, Giancarlo Della

    2011-08-01

    Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (μ-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic tails consisting of a few C atoms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the occurrence of minor S═O (either sulphonyl or sulphoxide) functional groups in the OM. Solubility tests in toluene, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses confirm the presence of asphaltene structures. It is proposed that asphaltenes derive from the in situ aromatization (with decrease in H/C ratio) of previous light aliphatic hydrocarbons. Field evidence excludes that hydrocarbon from an external source percolated through the xenolith bearing tuff-breccia. The discriminating presence of hydrocarbon in a particular type of xenolith only and the lack of hydrocarbon in the host breccia matrix, are also inconsistent with an interaction between the ascending eruptive system and a supposed deep-seated oil reservoir. Assuming that the Hyblean unexposed basement consists of mantle ultramafics and mafic intrusive rocks having hosted an early abyssal-type hydrothermal system, one can put forward the hypothesis that the hydrocarbon production was related to hydrothermal activity in a serpentinite system. Although a bacteriogenesis or thermogenesis cannot be ruled out, the coexisting serpentine, Ni-Fe ores and hydrocarbon strongly suggest a Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis. Subsequent variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the system, for example an increase in the water/rock ratio, gave rise to partial oxidation and late carbonation of the serpentinite

  13. Two new freshwater eutardigrade species from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

    2015-02-11

    Two new species of freshwater Eutardigrada are described from Sicily: Isohypsibius rusticus sp. nov. and Isohypsibius zappalai sp. nov. The former species has eye spots, ornamented body surface with many, variously sized tubercles; bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Isohypsibius type; pharyngeal bulb with apophyses and two rod-shaped macroplacoids; microplacoid absent; claws, of the Isohypsibius type, well developed, with long and thin common basal portion; main branches of all claws without free accessory points; very thin lunules present; cuticular bars on the legs absent. Isohypsibius zappalai sp. nov. has eye spots; entire body surface with small tubercles rounded in shape, fairly uniformly sized and tending to form transverse lines; bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Isohypsibius type, pharyngeal bulb with apophyses and two macroplacoids; microplacoid absent; claws of the Isohypsibius type, well developed, with long common basal portion and both main and secondary branches with a wide proximal portion. Main branches of all claws with accessory points; small, flexible lunules present; cuticular bars on the legs absent.

  14. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  15. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  16. ERIC User Services: Changes and Evaluation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) user services and evaluation efforts of them. Identifies changes that would increase ERIC's competitive edge in the networked environment and recommends an evaluation framework for ERIC to monitor progress to its strategic goals. (LRW)

  17. Document Preparation (for Filming). ERIC Processing Manual, Appendix B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.; And Others

    The technical report or "fugitive" literature collected by ERIC is produced using a wide variety of printing techniques, many formats, and variable degrees of quality control. Since the documents processed by ERIC go on to be microfilmed and reproduced in microfiche and paper copy for sale to users, it is essential that the ERIC document…

  18. Reminiscences from the Field: The Continuing Story of ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colker, Laura J.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) was born in the mid-1960s and is today the world's largest and most popular educational database. The history of ERIC's early development has been told in Del Trester's 1981 narrative, "ERIC--The First Fifteen Years: 1964-1979, A History of the Educational Resources Information Center."…

  19. Summary of the Presentation "ERIC: How Can It Help Me?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Peter A.

    This is a summary of a presentation on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). The presentation provided information on how the user can gain access to the ERIC microfiche collection at libraries throughout the United States, and to reprints through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS). Use of the Thesaurus of ERIC…

  20. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  1. Adult, Career, and Vocational Education: An Internet Guide. ERIC Digest No. 196.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O.

    This ERIC Digest is an annotated list of 40 websites and listservs devoted to adult, career, and vocational education. The following websites and listservs are included: six ERIC sites (ACCESS ERIC; AskERIC; the Education Resource Organizations Directory; the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education; ORYX Press/Current Index…

  2. Distributing the ERIC Database on SilverPlatter Compact Disc--A Brief Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted

    This description of the development of the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) compact disc by two companies, SilverPlatter and ORI, Inc., provides background information on ERIC and the ERIC database, discusses reasons for choosing to put the ERIC database on compact discs, and describes the formulation of an ERIC CD-ROM team as part of…

  3. Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates using ERIC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Andrade, Giovanna Ivo; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2011-12-15

    Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious sheep and goats disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and characterized by abscesses in superficial and visceral lymph nodes. C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from these hosts have been shown to be very difficult to type by the existing methods. The aim of this study is evaluating the potential of the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated in sheep. One hundred and twenty seven isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis were isolated from lesions suspected to have had caseous lymphadenitis collected from sheep at the slaughterhouse. Animals were from 24 flocks in 13 municipalities of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Species identification of the isolates was performed by routine biochemical tests and mPCR. Fingerprint was performed by RAPD using ERIC-1R, ERIC-2 and ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primers. Seventeen different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 21 genotypes by ERIC 2-PCR and 21 genotypes by ERIC 1+2-PCR. Hunter-Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI) found for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, ERIC 1+2 PCR were 0.69, 0.87, and 0.84, respectively. For most herds evaluated observed at most three different genotypes among isolates from animals of these property, in all ERIC-PCR assays. However a few flocks observed between four and nine genotypes per flock. The W Kendall value found for correlation among the three techniques of ERIC-PCR was 0.91 (P<5.0 x 10(-6)). The results show that ERIC-PCR has good discriminatory power and advantages over other DNA-based typing methods, making it a useful tool to discriminate C. pseudotuberculosis isolates.

  4. Erice: its past and present roles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    In the depths of the cold war there were few places where it was possible, let alone acceptable, to discuss global problems and their solution. Erice provided such a venue. Prof. Zichichi built it by inviting friends of international statue to visit Erice to discuss fundamental problems in science, technology, and society. Gradually the discussions were broadened to the more sensitive issues of global war and its consequences, which ranged from strategic forces and their stability to missile defenses and their impacts. Erice was one of the few places that these problems and their possible solutions could be discussed in a dispassionate and productive manner. Much of the reason these discussions remained objective and productive was Prof. Zichichi's 'gentle' prodding of participants towards a useful solution that all could accept. All was not deadly serious. I often accompanied Dr. Teller to the meetings, which he enjoyed enormously because they recalled the free-wheeling discussions he participated in when quantum physics was in its infancy. It was also pleasant to see him interact with Prof. Lee, who still gave Dr. Teller the deference due his old professor, and Dr. Garwin, who had worked with Dr. Teller in Los Alamos. By the end of the cold war Erice was recognized as a valuable site for such discussions. Perhaps for that reason, when the transfer of power in the Soviet Union evolved into an attempted coup, President Yeltsin sent a large contingent of scientists in his own plane to participate in the Erice seminar. It soon appeared that this contingent was not chosen randomly, but might contain many of the scientists who knew their missile launch codes. Despite their senior status, they quickly proved themselves to be competent scientists and enthusiastic participants. A by product to that interaction developed the following year when the Russian economy faltered and its science needed external support lest nuclear scientists leave Russia. U.S. scientific

  5. Tectonic expression of an active slab tear from high-resolution seismic and bathymetric data offshore Sicily (Ionian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, Marc-André; Dominguez, Stephane; Lepinay, Bernard Mercier; Pinheiro, Luis; Gallais, Flora; Babonneau, Nathalie; Cattaneo, Antonio; Le Faou, Yann; Barreca, Giovanni; Micallef, Aaron; Rovere, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Subduction of a narrow slab of oceanic lithosphere beneath a tightly curved orogenic arc requires the presence of at least one lithospheric scale tear fault. While the Calabrian subduction beneath southern Italy is considered to be the type example of this geodynamic setting, the geometry, kinematics and surface expression of the associated lateral, slab tear fault offshore eastern Sicily remain controversial. Results from a new marine geophysical survey conducted in the Ionian Sea, using high-resolution bathymetry and seismic profiling reveal active faulting at the seafloor within a 140 km long, two-branched fault system near Alfeo Seamount. The previously unidentified 60 km long NW trending North Alfeo Fault system shows primarily strike-slip kinematics as indicated by the morphology and steep-dipping transpressional and transtensional faults. Available earthquake focal mechanisms indicate dextral strike-slip motion along this fault segment. The 80 km long SSE trending South Alfeo fault system is expressed by one or two steeply dipping normal faults, bounding the western side of a 500+ m thick, 5 km wide, elongate, syntectonic Plio-Quaternary sedimentary basin. Both branches of the fault system are mechanically capable of generating magnitude 6-7 earthquakes like those that struck eastern Sicily in 1169, 1542, and 1693.

  6. International Early Childhood Resources from ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents annotated bibliography of recent ERIC documents/journal articles providing international early-childhood resources. Topics of documents include day care and infant attachment, multicultural child care, drug-use prevention, and early language learning. Journal article topics include very able preschoolers, children's causality beliefs,…

  7. Indexing. ERIC Processing Manual, Section VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jim, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for subject indexing in the ERIC system. The principle of "subject access" is discussed with particular reference to "coordinate indexing," which involves designating subject content by unit terms (or tags) that may be put together or "coordinated" for subsequent retrieval. The nature…

  8. Recent Department of Education Publications in ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Gregory, Comp.; And Others

    Produced quarterly by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), this annotated bibliography announces the availability of selected new documents produced or sponsored by the Department of Education that address topics of national importance. Topics featured in this edition are: (1) the National Education Goals (readiness for school;…

  9. Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  10. Children's Television: The Best of ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.

    This is the most recent in a series of retrospective bibliographies on television and children. It includes an annotated listing of research reviews, position papers, and planning documents entered in the ERIC system in the years 1974-1977. Over 100 documents are listed in 14 categories: helping children to learn from television, new experimental…

  11. Teaching the Bill of Rights. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This ERIC Digest on teaching about the Bill of Rights in the schools examines the status, the deficiencies, and means to improve citizenship education. Currently, the Bill of Rights is taught at least four times during the elementary and secondary grades. Constitutional rights and liberties are stressed in K-12 curriculum goals for social studies…

  12. Format Proliferation in Public Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Norm

    More choice in formats for library customers may mean more constraints on choices in materials acquisition. An increase in the number of formats libraries provide may, over time, substantially alter the quality and diversity of library collections. This ERIC Digest examines some of the costs and challenges presented by format proliferation and…

  13. Teaching and Learning Economics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    This ERIC Digest on economics education discusses: (1) the economic literacy of secondary school students; (2) the improvement of the economic curriculum; (3) the improvement of social studies teachers' training and teaching methods; and (4) the implications of improved economics education. A national survey sponsored by the Joint Council on…

  14. The ERIC At Stanford Newsletter, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources.

    The issues from the year 1969 of "Now Available," the newsletter of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Clearinghouse on Educational Media and Technology, are bound together as one document. The newsletters contain announcements of the Clearinghouse's output published in "Research in Education." Author, title,…

  15. Eric Garcia: Warrior with a Pen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Eric Garcia's large-scale oil paintings, drawings, installations, prints, and political cartoons examine versions of American history that have been overlooked and whitewashed. Aware that dominant history reflects a strategy of power, Garcia embraces the confluence of history, culture, and politics to challenge historical mythologies and…

  16. Trends in Peace Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    This ERIC Digest reviews the development and current status of peace education in the United States. After briefly surveying the peace education movement from its origins with a small group of educators in New England in the 1800s through its stigmatization as being anti-American during periods of hot and cold war, the Digest devotes more…

  17. Eric Carle-Inspired Insect Collages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamountain, Eileen; Turner, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students create collage insects inspired by the work of Eric Carle (The Very Hungry Caterpillar). Connects art, language arts, and science. Discusses how students make paper to use as the collage material and how students create the insects. (CMK)

  18. Imperialism: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) resources related to imperialism and the Spanish-American War. Materials selected include books, academic journals, theme issues, videos, workbooks, and curriculum guides. Includes information on locating, ordering, and reproducing these resources. (MJP)

  19. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  20. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Multi-angle Portrayals of Mt. Etna's Plume     View Larger Image ... (MISR) capture the energetic eruption of Sicily's Mount Etna volcano on October 29, 2002. Viewing Etna's eruptive activities at ...

  1. A new Kinematic Approach to Calculate Seismic Hazard Scenarios (Intensity and Peak Ground Displacement); an Example in SE Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirovich, L.; Pettenati, F.

    2007-05-01

    The part of the seismic hazard map of Italy (http:zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it/mappa_ps_apr04/italia.html) that regards SE Sicily has recently been modified on the basis also of the new location of the source of one of the strongest earthquakes that ever struck the Mediterranean basin (in 1693 in SE Sicily; 54,000 casualties; see Sirovich and Pettenati, 2001 in BSSA). That source was located inland according to the KF geophysical inversion of the regional damage patterns of the earthquake of Jan. 11, 1693 and of its destructive foreshock of Jan. 9 (see Gentile et al., 2004 in BSSA, and Sirovich and Pettenati, 2004 in JGR, for the genetic KF inversion technique). The damage patterns of Jan. 9 and 11, 1693 had been evaluated by three different groups of historians and seismologists on three different intensity scales. (Detailed information was available from the reports of the Officers of the "Regno delle Due Sicilie" of the time as well as from many other documents). Previously, both earthquakes were traditionally ascribed to the well known Malta Escarpment, the most prominent physiographical and structural feature of the area, which is found offshore, south-east of Sicily. However, given the inland damage of 1693, an offshore epicenter would imply a mean radius of 45 km for the virtual area of degree XI (70 km for degree X) and, thus, a magnitude of 8.3±0.2 with a fault length of approximately 280 km. This fault source would cross the NE part of Sicily from the southern Jonian Sea to the Island of Lipari in the Tyrrhenian Sea; but tectonically this seems unrealistic. All the inversion tests, however, pointed to a complex source inland which could have hosted both earthquakes. Here, we used our kinematic KF model in the direct mode in a parametric, deterministic-Montecarlo way to produce a seismic hazard scenario, in terms of maximum ground displacement. This scenario will be compared with PSHA results for long recurrence times in the frame of a project of the Civil

  2. 75 FR 37386 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Final Results of the 13th (2008) Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Eric B. Greynolds to Melissa G. Skinner, dated August 4, 2004, which is on file in the Department's.... (``Garofalo'') received countervailable subsidies and that F.lli De Cecco di Filippo Fara San Martino S.p.A... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''), and 19 CFR 351.225(b). See Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice...

  3. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  4. Diversity of rhizobia nodulating wild shrubs of Sicily and some neighbouring islands.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Lanza, Angela; Bonnì, Maria Laura; Marsala, Salvatore; Puglia, Anna Maria; Quatrini, Paola

    2008-10-01

    Legume shrubs have great potential for rehabilitation of semi-arid degraded soils in Mediterranean ecosystems as they establish mutualistic symbiosis with N-fixing rhizobia. Eighty-eight symbiotic rhizobia were isolated from seven wild legume shrubs native of Sicily (Southern Italy) and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) by analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) polymorphism. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most Genisteae symbionts are related to Bradyrhizobium canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii. Teline monspessulana was the only Genistea nodulated by Mesorhizobium strains, and Anagyris foetida (Thermopsideae) was promiscuosly nodulated by Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Bradyrhizobium strains. Analysis of the nodulation gene nodA assigned most Mediterranean Genisteae bradyrhizobia to clade II but also to clades IV, I and III, which included, so far, sequences of (sub)tropical and Australian isolates. The high diversity and low host specificity observed in most wild legumes isolates suggest that preferential associations may establish in the field depending on differences in the benefits conferred to the host and on competition ability. Once identified, these beneficial symbiosis can be exploited for rehabilitation of arid, low productive and human-impacted soils of the Mediterranean countries.

  5. Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas.

  6. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Audra, Philippe; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Plan, Lukas; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Anoux, Catherine; Nobécourt, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where condensation-corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies. Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological, geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg and Kraushöhle caves in Austria.

  7. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from ass' milk in Sicily: case report, safety and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, F; Passantino, A

    2008-07-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii (Es) infections are likely to involve newborns and infants, causing meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. Contamination of infant formulae milk during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. Es has been isolated from environmental sources and from food other than infant formula and milk powder, but why it is associated only with the consumption of infant formulae, is unclear. According to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, Es is considered a microorganisms of greatest concern in infant formulae and follow-on formulae. Es is included between "safety criteria". The isolation of two strains of Es from 50 samples of ass' milk in Sicily is described. The antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates revealed a multiple resistance profile, including fluoroquinolones, commonly used to treat the infections. The authors underline the importance of survey because in Italy ass' milk is considered one of the solutions for infants suffering from hypersensitivity to milk protein of some animal species. There is scarce information about the ecology and the uncertainty concerning the source of infection in the children and adults; the authors are concerned that ass' milk could become a high-risk food.

  8. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily. PMID:17397527

  9. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

    2007-03-30

    In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily.

  10. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana

    2017-03-01

    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  11. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  12. Analysis of spatial and temporal rainfall trends in Sicily during the 1921-2012 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Bono, Enrico; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Freni, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation patterns worldwide are changing under the effects of global warming. The impacts of these changes could dramatically affect the hydrological cycle and, consequently, the availability of water resources. In order to improve the quality and reliability of forecasting models, it is important to analyse historical precipitation data to account for possible future changes. For these reasons, a large number of studies have recently been carried out with the aim of investigating the existence of statistically significant trends in precipitation at different spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, the existence of statistically significant trends in rainfall from observational datasets, which were measured by 245 rain gauges over Sicily (Italy) during the 1921-2012 period, was investigated. Annual, seasonal and monthly time series were examined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric statistical test to detect statistically significant trends at local and regional scales, and their significance levels were assessed. Prior to the application of the Mann-Kendall test, the historical dataset was completed using a geostatistical spatial interpolation technique, the residual ordinary kriging, and then processed to remove the influence of serial correlation on the test results, applying the procedure of trend-free pre-whitening. Once the trends at each site were identified, the spatial patterns of the detected trends were examined using spatial interpolation techniques. Furthermore, focusing on the 30 years from 1981 to 2012, the trend analysis was repeated with the aim of detecting short-term trends or possible changes in the direction of the trends. Finally, the effect of climate change on the seasonal distribution of rainfall during the year was investigated by analysing the trend in the precipitation concentration index. The application of the Mann-Kendall test to the rainfall data provided evidence of a general decrease in precipitation in Sicily during the

  13. Coexisting shortening and extension along the "Africa-Eurasia" plate boundary in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffaro, M.; Riguzzi, F.; Scrocca, D.; Doglioni, C.

    2009-04-01

    We performed geodetic strain rate field analyses along the "Africa (Sicily microplate)"-"Eurasia (Tyrrhenian microplate)" plate boundary in Sicily (southern Italy), using new GPS velocities from a data set spanning maximum ten years (1998-2007). Data from GPS permanent stations maintained from different institutions and the recent RING network, settled in Italy in the last five years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, were included into the analysis. Two dimensional strain and rotation rate fields were estimated by the distance weighted approach on a regularly spaced grid (30*30km), estimating the strain using all stations, but data from each station are weighted by their distance from the grid node by a constant a=70km that specifies how the effect of a station decays with distance from the node grid interpolation. Results show that most of the shortening of the Africa-Eurasia relative motion is distributed in the northwestern side offshore Sicily, whereas the extension becomes comparable with shortening on the western border of the Capo d'Orlando basin, and grater in the northeastern side, offshore Sicily, as directly provided by GPS velocities which show a larger E-ward component of sites located in Calabria with respect to those located either in northern Sicily or in the Ustica-Aeolian islands. Moreover, where shortening and extension have mostly a similar order of magnitude, two rotation rate fields can be detected, CCW in the northwestern side of Sicily, and CW in the northeastern one respectively. Also, 2-D dilatation field records a similar pattern, with negative values (shortening) in the northwestern area of Sicily close to the Ustica island, and positive values (extension) in the northeastern and southeastern ones, respectively. Principal shortening and extension rate axes are consistent with long-term geological features: seismic reflection profiles acquired in the southern Tyrrhenian seismogenic belt show active extensional faults

  14. ERIC SilverPlatter: Is It User Friendly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rholes, Julia M.; Caldwell-Wood, Naomi

    This study conducted at Texas A&M University compares two types of training approaches using ERIC SilverPlatter (ERIC SP). Education students received either: (1) a one hour training session on basic search commands and strategies, or (2) a four page instructional handout that described basic search commands, Boolean logic, and special…

  15. A Library User's Guide to ERIC. 1980 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert M.

    Use of the ERIC database is explained in the 1980 edition of the guide. Presented first are the major components of the ERIC document collection and journal index, including the thesaurus, indexes, and source materials. A step-by-step procedure for searching Resources in Education (document index) and Current Index to Journals in Education by…

  16. The ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, 1995 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, Washington, DC.

    The Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is one of the 16 subject-oriented clearinghouses operated by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. In its early years, ERIC was primarily an archive of education literature, but is has evolved into a…

  17. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  18. Congressional History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC/ChESS resources related to the history of the United States Congress. Materials selected include books, academic journals, theme issues, workbooks, and curriculum guides. Includes information on locating, ordering, and reproduction of these resources. Also includes information for contacting ERIC/ChESS.…

  19. Computer Cache: ERIC and the Library Media Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Erica K.

    1986-01-01

    Description of how library media specialists can assist teachers and administrators in retrieving useful information by using ERIC highlights its organization, the types of materials available that are especially useful to classroom teachers, and ways that it can be accessed online. A list of ERIC Clearinghouses with addresses is included. (EM)

  20. The crustal velocity field mosaic of the Alpine Mediterranean area (Italy): Insights from new geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farolfi, Gregorio; Del Ventisette, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    A new horizontal crustal velocity field of Alpine Mediterranean area was determined by continuous long time series (6.5 years) of 113 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. The processing was performed using state-of-the-art absolute antenna phase center correction model and recomputed precise IGS orbits available since April 2014. Moreover, a new more accurate tropospheric mapping function for geodetic applications was adopted. Results provide a new detailed map of the kinematics throughout the entire study area. This area is characterized by a complex tectonic setting driven by the interaction of Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Alps, Corsica, Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea (which is covered only by interpolation data) show small velocity residuals with respect to the Eurasian plate. The whole Apennines axis discriminates two different velocity patterns, the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian area. The area around Messina Strait, which separates peninsular Italy and Sicily, represents a poorly understood region. Results identify an important boundary zone between two different domains, Calabria and Sicily, which are characterized by different crustal motions. The northeastern part of Sicily and Calabria move like Adriatic area, whilst the rest of Sicily, Malta and Lampedusa are dominated by African motion.

  1. American Indian Education, A Selected Bibliography (with ERIC Abstracts). ERIC/CRESS Supplement No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    Compiled to provide access to some of the latest resource material, research findings, and/or developments in American Indian education, this bibliography, a supplement to six previous ERIC/CRESS bibliographies cites materials available through "Resources in Education" (RIE) and "Current Index to Journals in Education" (CIJE). Part 1 of the…

  2. New Access Points to ERIC--CD-ROM Versions. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Pamela W.

    This digest reviews three CD-ROM (compact disc-read only memory) versions of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database currently being delivered or tested and provides information for comparison. However, no attempt is made to recommend any one product. The advantages and disadvantages of the acquisition of CD-ROM databases are…

  3. New perspectives on primary magmas and related mantle sources from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Giuseppe; Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Ferlito, Carmelo

    2014-05-01

    Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcano in the world and the understanding of its eruptive dynamics is fundamental to reduce volcanic risk related to the frequent volcanic events. In this respect the complete evolution of Mt. Etna magmatismand the reconstruction of its mantle source was considered performing a detailed sampling from Tholeiitic to Recent Mongibello periods. Backward mass balance fractionation models, starting from real and primitive analyzed magmas, allowed to reconstruct the "primary" and un-fractionated melt compositions.The Tholeiitic suite did not necessitate a backward reconstruction for the presence of real primary un-fractionated compositions. The least differentiated products for each alkaline period were identified and about 17 to 19% of a solid assemblage made up of Ol (87 to 100%) and Cpx (up to 13%) was added to re-equilibrate the basalts with mantle olivine (Fo87). A further subtraction of an average 23.3% of a solid assemblage constituted by Ol (7-18%), Cpx (26-55%) and Plag (21-48%) is needed to get to the most differentiated erupted lavas. To reach the most evolved terms ishypothesized the involvement of 27% Ol, 14% Cpx, 29% Opx, 15% Plg and 15% Cr-sp for a total amount of 53.1% of Gabbroic material.On average an estimation of about 40% of material should be considered beneath the volcanic edifice taking into account the entire volume of the products emitted by the volcano. Thus if according to [1] the whole volcano edifice amounts to about 370 km3, about 150 km3 of magma should be left behind from the magma on its way from the mantle to the surface. Although Etnean alkaline lavas appear enriched in K, Rb, Th and U and depleted in Ti, Y and Yb with respect to the Iblean magmas, their overall composition appear quite similar.Thus partial melting models were developed for each Etnean magmatic period, based on a mantle composition similar to that of the nearbyIblean lithosphere. Results indicate twodifferent sources for Tholeiitic and Alkaline suites analogously to the modeling developed by[2]. Tholeiitic magmas can be reproduced by about 17% of an amphibole-bearing peridotite source, while Alkaline magmas can be reproduced by melting of about 7% an amphibole-phlogopite-bearing peridotite source. Our result are in agreement with those recently advanced by [3] indicating a large similarity between Mt. Etna and Mt. Iblei mantle sources. [1] Neri and Rossi (1992) Quaderni di geofisica - Istituto nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia 20. [2] Beccaluva et al. (1998) J. Petrology 39, 1547-1576. [3] Correale et al. (2014) Lithos, 243-258.

  4. Deep-level magma dehydration and ascent rates at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, P.; Perinelli, C.; Putirka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magma ascent velocity, v (dH/dt; H = depth, t = time),can be determined from ascent rate (dP/dt), and rate of cooling (dT/dt): v= 1/(rgpg) (dP/dT)(dT/dt) where r is magma density, P is pressure, T is temperature and g is the acceleration of gravity. This equation for v provides a key to investigating the relationships between initial ascent rate of magma and the depths of magma dehydration, and v can be calculated using pressure and temperature (P - PH2O - T) estimates from mineral-liquid thermobarometry, and cooling rates inferred from Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) theory. For recent Mt. Etna lava flows, both dP/dT and dT/dt have been well characterized based, respectively, on clinopyroxene thermobarometry, and clinopyroxene CSDs (the latter yields dT/dt = 2x10-6 °C/s). Deep-level (>20 km) magma ascent rates range from practically 0 (where clinopyroxene P - T estimates form a cluster, and so dP/dT ≈ 0), to about 10 m/hr for flows that yield very steep P - T trajectories. Many lava flows at Mt. Etna yield P - T paths that follow a hydrous (about 3% water) clinopyroxene saturation surface, which closely approximates water contents obtained from melt inclusions. Independent assessments of deep level water content yield ascent rates of ~1 m/hr, in agreement with the slowest rates derived for magma effusion or vapor-driven ascent (~0.001 to >0.2 m/s, or 3.6 to 720 m/hr). Changes in P - T slopes, as obtained by pyroxene thermobarometry, indicate an upward acceleration of magma, which may be due to the onset of deep-level magma dehydration linked to the non-ideal behavior of water and CO2 mixtures that induce a deep-level maximum of water loss at P ≈ 0.4 MPa at T ≈ 1200 ° C for a CO2 content >1000ppm. Melt inclusion data on CO2 and H2O contents are successfully reproduced and interpreted in a context of magma dehydration induced by a CO2 flux possibly deriving by decarbonation reaction of the carbonate fraction of the Capo D'Orlando flysch.

  5. Experimental constraints on the origin of pahoehoe "cicirara" lavas at Mt. Etna Volcano (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetere, F.; Mollo, S.; Giacomoni, P. P.; Iezzi, G.; Coltorti, M.; Ferlito, C.; Holtz, F.; Perugini, D.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-05-01

    We present results from phase equilibria experiments conducted on the most primitive pahoehoe "cicirara" trachybasaltic lava flow ever erupted at Mt. Etna Volcano. This lava is characterized by a pahoehoe morphology in spite of its high content of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts (>40 vol%) with the occurrence of centimetre-sized plagioclases (locally named cicirara for their chick-pea-like appearance). Our experiments have been performed at 400 MPa, 1100-1150 °C and using H2O and CO2 concentrations corresponding to the water-undersaturated crystallization conditions of Etnean magmas. Results show that olivine does not crystallize from the melt, whereas titanomagnetite is the liquidus phase followed by clinopyroxene or plagioclase as a function of melt-water concentration. This mineralogical feature contrasts with the petrography of pahoehoe cicirara lavas suggesting early crystallization of olivine and late formation of titanomagnetite after plagioclase and/or in close association with clinopyroxene. The lack of olivine produces MgO-rich melt compositions that do not correspond to the evolutionary behaviour of cicirara magmas. Moreover, in a restricted thermal path of 50 °C and over the effect of decreasing water concentrations, we observe abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystallization leading to trace element enrichments unlikely for natural products. At the same time, the equilibrium compositions of our mineral phases are rather different from those of natural cicirara phenocrysts and microphenocrysts. The comparison between our water-undersaturated data and those from previous degassing experiments conducted on a similar Etnean trachybasaltic composition demonstrates that pahoehoe cicirara lavas originate from crystal-poor, volatile-rich magmas undergoing abundant degassing and cooling in the uppermost part of the plumbing system and at subaerial conditions where most of the crystallization occurs after the development of pahoehoe surface crusts.

  6. Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandura, D.; Montalto, P.; Brancato, A.; Cannavo, F.; Coltelli, M.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Proietti, C.

    2014-12-01

    The frequent flank eruptions occurrence at Mt. Etna lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked to a population of nearly one million people dwell on its flanks, poses a high volcanic risk. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management), we developed a near real-time computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations that provide the identification of the areas prone to the highest vent opening hazard. The use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) provide us a long-term hazard map mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano. The near real-time additional seismic and ground deformation data allow the long-term hazard map switches into a short-term future vent opening one. The short-term hazard map was computed starting from the evaluation of deformation field over Etna surface. Analytical inversion of deformation and seismic data is performed to find the parameters of a magmatic source in an elastic, isotropic and homogeneous half-space and forward model is performed to computed the displacement field over Etna surface. We modelled the final intrusion of the Mount Etna May 2008 eruption that was accompanied by a violent seismic swarm and marked by ground deformation recorded at GPS stations. Results suggest a good accordance between the higher probability area and the real vent occurrence.

  7. [Evaluation of mercury exposure in populations living near the industrial Augusta Bay (Sicily Region, Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: valutare e quantificare l'esposizione umana al mercurio (Hg) ed esplorare i fattori chiave che influenzano la contaminazione nelle popolazioni residenti in prossimità della Rada di Augusta, un'area a elevato rischio ambientale a causa degli effetti degli sversamenti incontrollati di Hg da parte di uno dei più grandi impianti cloro-soda d'Europa. DISEGNO: un campione di residenti nei comuni di Augusta, Priolo e Melilli (Sicilia orientale) è stato selezionato per lo studio di biomonitoraggio umano. Un questionario dettagliato è stato somministrato a ogni partecipante per raccogliere informazioni anagrafiche sulle abitudini di vita e alimentari. I livelli di Hg in sangue e capelli, usati come traccianti di esposizione a metilmercurio, sono stati messi in relazione al consumo di pesce locale. Il contenuto di Hg nelle urine è stato utilizzato per esplorare eventuali esposizioni atmosferiche a Hg inorganico. Una regressione lineare multivariata è stata applicata con l'obiettivo di esplorare i fattori che influenzano l'esposizione umana al Hg. L'approccio tossicocinetico è stato impiegato al fine di calcolare la dose settimanale provvisoria tollerabile ( provisional tolerable weekly intake, PTWI) e di predire le concentrazioni di Hg attese nel sangue degli individui con una dieta alimentare basata esclusivamente su pesce locale.

  8. Seasonal Variability of Transport Through Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    We have investigated the transport variability through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Corsica) with a very high resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea. A numerical simulation of the Mediterranean circulation has been done with a 1/16o horizontal grid mesh, 43 vertical z-level model. Initial hydrological conditions were provided by the Mediterranean MODB5 climatology. The model has been run eleven years. It has been forced in a yearly perpetual mode by the daily sea surface fluxes from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis during the year March 1998 - February 1999. This study has been supported by the french MERCA- TOR project and SHOM. We grateful the PAM team of CERFACS (Toulouse, France). Analysis is focused on three major straits which play an important role in control- ling the circulation through mass transport exchanges. Model results are compared to recent observations and good agreement is obtained. It demonstrates advantages to improve resolution in numerical models. Gibraltar and Sicily strait transports are largely baroclinic. The transport through the Gibraltar Strait is forced by density difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic water (AW) penetrates the Mediterranean Sea while Mediterranean Outflow Water flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This transport is hy- draulically maximal, with a semi-annual signal, and its seasonal variation is weak. The Sicily Strait transport is probably first forced by the AW coming from the West rather than the density gradient between the western and eastern mediterranean seas. AW inflow (i.e. Eastern Mediterranean Overflow Water outflow) is maximum in late Fall and minimum in late Winter. In opposite to previous straits, the northward Cor- sica Strait transport presents strong seasonal variability, and thus a strong barotropic component related to the wind stress curl.

  9. Effects of prophylaxis with iodised salt in an area of endemic goitre in north-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Regalbuto, C; Scollo, G; Pandini, G; Ferrigno, R; Pezzino, V

    2010-05-01

    In developed countries, the use of iodised salt represents the best prophylaxis of endemic goitre in areas exposed to iodine deficiency. In the present study we re-evaluated goitre prevalence and iodine intake 10 years after the introduction of iodised salt in an area of goitre endemia in north-eastern Sicily (Italy), and we compared these results with those obtained in previous surveys. Three centres with known moderate goitre endemia (Bronte, Nicosia, and Gagliano) and three other smaller ones with severe goitre endemia (Sperlinga, Villadoro, and Maniace) were studied. We surveyed 697 schoolchildren. Goitre prevalence was assessed by thyroid palpation and by a thyroid ultrasound scan. Iodine urinary excretion was also measured. Iodised salt consumption was 44% of total salt consumption. Goitre prevalence assessed by thyroid palpation was significantly decreased in all towns studied compared to previous surveys. However, the persistence of a mild goitre endemia was observed in some small rural centres (5.8% in Sperlinga/Villadoro, and 11.4% in Maniace). Goitre prevalence evaluated by thyroid ultrasound scan was greater than 5% in all centres of the endemic area and was always greater than that assessed by thyroid palpation. Iodine urinary excretion was above 100 microg/l in all localities studied. In conclusion, our studies indicate a progressive reduction in goitre prevalence over a period of about 30 years in schoolchildren in a well-characterised endemic area in northeastern Sicily. The decrease in goitre prevalence was associated with a significant increase in urinary iodine excretion. However, it may be speculated that iodine deficiency is the pre-eminent, but not the exclusive cause of goitre endemia in this area.

  10. Is a destructive earthquake imminent in southeastern Sicily?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Achilli, Vladimiro; Broccio, Franco; Baldi, Paolo

    1991-03-01

    Southeastern Sicily, which has frequently experienced ruinous earthquakes in historic times, has only been site of minor activity in the last two centuries. Two precision levelling surveys that we carried out in 1983 and 1989 detected high rates of crustal deformation. The usual hypothesis of tectonic stationarity applied to both the time series of historical earthquakes and deformation rates would favour the imminence of an I ⩾ IX event. On the other hand, the characteristic patterns of recent seismicity strongly oppose this conclusion, suggesting that the apparent contradiction is caused by a tectonic nonstationarity, an issue that seems also confirmed by palaeogeodetic data.

  11. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Haseltine

    2016-07-12

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  12. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Haseltine

    2009-09-16

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  13. Evaluation of ERIC-PCR as Genotyping Method for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Santana, Jordana A.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Guimarães, Alessandro S.; Moawad, Mohamed S.; Selim, Salah A.; Garaldi, Ana Luiza M.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Ribeiro, Márcio G.; Gouveia, Aurora M. G.; Azevedo, Vasco; Heinemann, Marcos B.; Lage, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations. PMID:24901343

  14. Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy.

  15. Introduction and prolonged circulation of G12 rotaviruses in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, G M; Bonura, F; DI Bernardo, F; Cascio, A; Ferrera, G; Dones, P; Saporito, L; Collura, A; Terranova, D M; Valenzise, M; Allù, M T; Casuccio, N; Palermo, M; Bányai, K; Martella, V; DE Grazia, S

    2016-07-01

    Genotype G12 strains are now considered to be the sixth most prevalent human rotaviruses worldwide. In two Sicilian cities, Palermo and Messina, surveillance of rotavirus circulation performed since 1985 and 2009, respectively, did not detect G12 strains until 2012. From 2012 to 2014 rotavirus infection was detected in 29·7% of 1647 stool samples collected from children admitted for acute gastroenteritis to three Sicilian hospitals in Palermo, Messina and Ragusa. In 2012, G12P[8] was first detected in Palermo and then in Messina where it represented the second most frequent genotype (20% prevalence) after G1P[8]. Thereafter, G12 strains continued to circulate in Sicily, showing a marked prevalence in Ragusa (27·8%) in 2013 and in Palermo (21%) and Messina (16·6%) in 2014. All but one of the Sicilian G12 strains carried a P[8] VP4 genotype, whereas the single non-P[8] rotavirus strain was genotyped as G12P[9]. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 and VP4 sequences allowed distinction of several genetic lineages and separation of the G12P[8] strains into three cluster combinations. These findings indicate independent introductions of G12 rotavirus strains in Sicily in recent years.

  16. Shallow landslides and debris flows triggering and rainfall thresholds using a quasi-dynamic wetness index: a case study in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Aronica, G. T.; Penna, D.; Borga, M.; Brigandı, G.

    2012-04-01

    This work aims analyze the geomorphic impact of the flash flood event which affected the area of Giampilieri (Sicily, Italy) on October 1, 2009. The event was caused by a deep cyclone developed in the Southern part of the Mediterranean basin producing an intense rainstorm over the Ionic sea coast of Sicily. The analysis of the event suggested that more than 220 mm of rain fell in less than 4 hours with a peak of about 110 mm/hr in 5 minutes. Its probability was estimated as the equivalent of a 1 in 100 year return period. The shallow landslides triggered by the precipitation were analyzed by using a model for the prediction of both topographic and climatic control on shallow landslide initiation processes. The model uses a 'quasi-dynamic' wetness index to predict the spatial distribution of soil saturation in response to a rainfall of specified duration. The model is coupled with a simple scaling GEV model for the assessment of the relationship between rainfall amount and corresponding exceedance probability. This allows to characterize the rainfall predicted to cause instability in each topographic element by duration and frequency of occurrence. The application of the model to the study area provides a way to identify the relative potential for shallow landsliding as well as to evaluate rainfall thresholds for debris flow triggering.

  17. Meet EPA Microbiologist Eric Villegas, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eric Villegas, Ph.D. is a research microbiologist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His recent work focuses on next generation sequencing technology to better understand risks associated with waterborne parasites.

  18. Benefits of Art and Music Education. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Annotates 13 recent documents and journals from the ERIC database that discuss the benefits of art and music education to children's development and academic achievement. Includes art and music education Internet sites. (LBT)

  19. Freedom of Expression: A Troublesome Imperative. ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Polito, Carolyn M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 19 items from ERIC identifying troublesome paradoxes regarding the media and freedom of expression. Items are categorized by issues identified as relevant to radio and television, commercial advertising, and the press. (JMF)

  20. ERIC Resources for Teaching about the Seventies and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cheryl; Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights a variety of ERIC materials to use for instruction and reflection about the 1970s. Materials cover Watergate, environmental issues, drug use, the new ethnicity, terrorism, the Vietnam War, and women's employment. (LS)

  1. Communication in the Classroom: Research and Observation. ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC resources on the following topics: teacher communication; research on classroom interaction; using systematic observations to improve teaching; different systems of classroom observations; and research on classroom observation techniques. (PD)

  2. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010-2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-04-13

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country.

  3. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  4. Molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotype 1 circulating in Italy and its connection with northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Alessio; Sghaier, Soufien; Ancora, Massimo; Marcacci, Maurilia; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Portanti, Ottavio; Mangone, Iolanda; Teodori, Liana; Leone, Alessandra; Camma', Cesare; Petrini, Antonio; Hammami, Salah; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Western BTV-1 emerged in the Mediterranean basin in 2006 and it has since been isolated in southern and northern European countries. Six BTV-1 strains isolated from infected sheep in Italy between 2006 and 2013 and a BTV-1 strain isolated from an infected sheep in Tunisia in 2011 were fully sequenced. The seven strains were shown to be nearly identical in each gene segment. The Seg-2 sequences of the BTV-1 strains group according to the year of isolation reflecting the time of BTV incursions in Italy. Combined results suggest that BTV-1 strains isolated in Sardinia, Sicily and mainland Italy in 2012 and 2013 have a direct northern African origin. The Italian strains originated from a strain closely related to a BTV-1 strain isolated in Tunisia in 2011. Better surveillance programs with northern and sub-Saharan African countries should be implemented making the control of spread of BTV easier and effective.

  5. Eric Kandel: the future of memory.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Erik

    2005-04-01

    Watching ice floes glide by on the Hudson River from Eric Kandel's office, one gets a sense of placid reflection tempered by constant action-an apt analogy for Kandel's ability to calmly manage several ongoing projects and commitments at once. In addition to his well-lauded, ongoing research at Columbia University Medical Center's New York State Psychiatric Institute, Kandel has written several books on neurobiology, behavior, and memory. In addition to being a Nobel Laureate Scientist, he is well-known as an editor of the seminal textbook Principles of Neural Science. He and his colleagues are in the midst of working on a new edition of Principles, and he is working on a scientific autobiography. MI sat down with Dr. Kandel and discussed with him a range of topics including childhood and early career influences, intramural research at the NIH, the HHMI, ethical considerations of altering memory and, of course, Aplysia.

  6. Radon Concentration by SSNTD in South-East Sicily Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immè, G.; Catalano, R.; Gianino, C.; Filincieri, R.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.

    Radon levels in buildings vary widely from area to area also depending on local geology. Thus, it is important to assess the radon prone area of a geographic region on the basis of geological data and to search for any possible correlation between the local geology and the indoor radon concentrations. We report about indoor radon measurements in Ragusa, a municipality of the SE Sicily, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern region of the African Plate), carried out in collaboration with schools. The survey was performed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and a well-established methodology for chemical etching and reading, developed at the Radioactivity Laboratory of the Department of Physics - University of Catania.

  7. Financing Preschool for All Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svestka, Sherlie S.

    This digest compares the efforts of the United States and of other member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to finance center- and facility-based preschool. In many OECD countries, public preschool is more widely available than in the United States. For example, in France, 100%, and in Italy,…

  8. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    permanent displacement potentially induced by an seismic scenario. Such methodologies found on the consideration that the conditions of seismic stability and the post-seismic functionality of engineering structures are tightly related to the entity of the permanent deformations that an earthquake can induce. Regarding the existing simplified procedures among slope stability models, Newmark's model is often used to derive indications about slope instabilities due to earthquakes. In this way, we have evaluated the seismically-induced landslides hazard in Sicily (Central Mediterranean) using the Newmark-like model. In order to determine the map distribution of the seismic ground-acceleration from an earthquake scenario, the attenuation-law of Sabetta & Pugliese has been used, analyzing some seismic recordings occurred in Italy. Also, by evaluating permanent displacements, the correlation of Ambraseys & Menu has been assumed. The seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily has been carried out using GIS application, also considering max seismic ground-acceleration peak distribution (in terms of exceedance probability for fixed time), slope acclivity, cohesion/angle of internal friction of outcropping rocks, allowing the zoning of the unstable slopes under seismic forces.

  9. Evidence for Tunisian-Like Pestiviruses Presence in Small Ruminants in Italy Since 2007.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Purpari, G; Agnello, S; Di Marco, P; Di Bella, S; Volpe, E; Mira, F; de Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, A C; Vullo, S; Guercio, A

    2016-04-03

    The genus Pestivirus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, includes ssRNA+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in pigs, cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic and wild ruminants. Like most of the RNA viruses, pestivirus has high genome variability with practical consequences on disease epidemiology, diagnosis and control. In addition to the officially recognized species in the genus Pestivirus, such as BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BDV and CSFV, other pestiviruses have been detected. Furthermore, most of the ruminant pestiviruses show low or absent species specificity observed in serological tests and are able to infect multiple species. Particularly, small ruminants are receptive hosts of the most heterogeneous group of pestiviruses. The aim of this study was to carry out the molecular characterization of pestiviruses isolated from sheep and goats in Sicily, Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of two viral genomic regions (a fragment of 5'-UTR and the whole N(pro) regions) revealed the presence of different pestivirus genotypes in the analysed goat and sheep herds. Two of five viral isolates were clustered with BVDV-1d viruses, a strain widespread in Italy, but never reported in Sicily. The other three isolates formed a distinct cluster with high similarity to Tunisian isolates, recently proposed as a new pestivirus species. This represents the first evidence for Tunisian-like pestivirus presence in small ruminants in Italy. Furthermore, one of the isolates was collected from a goat, representing the first isolation of Tunisian-like pestivirus from this species.

  10. A polyphasic approach to the identification of ochratoxin A-producing black Aspergillus isolates from vineyards in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, C; Torta, L; Catara, V

    2008-09-30

    Aspergillus strains belonging to section Nigri isolated during a two year survey in eight Sicilian vineyards located on the slopes of Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy) were analysed analyzed in order to characterize species responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of grapes. The polyphasic approach permitted analysis of biodiversity of Aspergillus isolates in relation to their morphology, ochratoxigenicity and genetic variability. We assessed OTA production by A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. japonicus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A. carbonarius isolates were the strongest OTA producers. A subset of 66 representative strains was selected for further DNA-based characterization. PCR assays using species-specific primers discriminated between A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. japonicus on the basis of the target sequences for each species. The PCR-based methods matched morphological characterization in identifying all the black aspergilli (BA) isolates tested, whereas RFLP analysis with RsaI of isolates positive to PCRs with A. niger specific primers identified three A. tubingensis isolates. The identification of thirteen isolates was further confirmed by ITS analysis. By this method, each of the isolates was identified and assigned to an Aspergillus species. The fAFLP analysis of 40 isolates highlighted the power of this technique to discriminate different species and single strains, to verify the presence of mixed populations in the same vineyard, through homogeneous species clusters. No correlation was observed between the clusters and OTA production level or origin.

  11. Evidence for non-uniform uplift rates in southern Italy on glacial-cycle timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, F.; Ferranti, L.; Lambeck, K.; Verrubbi, V.

    2003-04-01

    Many studies of sea level change, with accurate positional measurements and precise datings have been published for Italy in the past decade. The use of markers whose formation positions are closely linked to mean sea level allows precise estimates to be made of local sea-level change. If the data is from tectonically active zones then these observations must be corrected for tectonic vertical movements. Examples include the records from Huon Penisula, Barbados and Tahiti. Often the corrections are based on a long term rates estimated from Quaternary data and in the best cases the last integlacial (~125 ka BP) shoreline is used as reference level. Uncertainties in these tectonic corrections may in some instances exceed the accuracy of the age-height measurements of the more recent shorelines. In the Mediterranean tectonically active coastlines occur in many locations, including Crete (Pirazzoli et al., 1982), southwest coast of Greece (Dia et al.,1997, Kershaw et al.,2002) and southern Italy (Miyauchi et al.,1994). Other coastal areas such as south eastern Spain (Zazo et al., 2001), Sardinia (Antonioli et al.,1999) and southern Latium (Hearty and Dai Prà, 1986) appear to be stable on the glacial timescales. We have obtained new Holocenic uplift rate for eastern Sicily and southern Calabria using Holocene and earlier interglacial observational data from Sicily (Taormina and St. Alessio Cape, Stewart et al., 1997, Antonioli et al., in print 2003) and Calabria (Scilla, Antonioli et al., submitted 2002, and Ioppolo, unpublished data) together with new models for the eustatic and glacio-hydro-isostatic contributions to Holocene sea level change where the latter have been calibrated against data from 30 sites in Italy (Lambeck et al.,submitted).For both regions of eastern Sicily and southern Calabria the Holocene uplift rates are greater than the long term average rates based on the position of the last (MIS 5.5) and earlier interglacial shorelines.

  12. Vocational Training in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This document on vocational training in Italy contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of Italy. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in Italy, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…

  13. Three Trends in the Social Studies: A View from ERIC/ChESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education (ERIC/ChESS). Identifies three trends pertaining to the teaching and learning of history, geography, and civics in elementary and secondary schools. Examines pertinent issues in each trend area, and states that through regular use of ERIC/ChESS resources, teachers can…

  14. ERIC Annual Report, 2002: Summarizing the Recent Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarte, Lynn; Starcher, Heather

    This ERIC Annual Report presents both accomplishments and historical perspectives, as 2001 marks 35 years of ERIC service in delivering educational research and information to the public. This annual report describes the developments in the database of educational literature, the growing variety of ERIC Web-based products and user services, and…

  15. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on the Use of Futurism in Educational Planning. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Thirty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives.

    Futurism is a process of speculation on alternative possibilities for the future. Such a process leads to a clearer conception of future needs and resources. Applied to education, futurism can aid in longrange planning on a local, district, State, or national level. ERIC abstracts on the application of futurism to educational planning, announced…

  16. Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The incidence of human TBDs in Italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available. Methods Samples (n = 561) were collected from humans in four main geographical areas of Italy (i.e., northwestern, northeastern, southern Italy, and Sicily), which represent a variety of environments. After being morphologically identified, ticks were molecularly tested with selected protocols for the presence of pathogens of the genera Rickettsia, Babesia, Theileria, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia and Anaplasma. Results Ticks belonged to 16 species of the genera Argas, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, with Ixodes ricinus (59.5%) being the species most frequently retrieved, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21.4%). Nymphs were the life stage most frequently retrieved (41%), followed by adult females (34.6%). The overall positivity to any pathogen detected was 18%. Detected microorganisms were Rickettsia spp. (17.0%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%), Borrelia afzelii (0.5%), Borrelia valaisiana (0.3%), C. N. mikurensis (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.6%). Conclusions Results indicate that people living in the Italian peninsula are at risk of being bitten by different tick species, which may transmit a plethora of TBD causing pathogens and that co-infections may also occur. PMID:25023709

  17. A statistical analysis of eruptive activity on Mount Etna, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Lucy; James, Mike R.; Pinkerton, Harry; Tawn, Jonathan A.

    2009-10-01

    A rigorous analysis of the timing and location of flank eruptions of Mount Etna on Sicily is important for the creation of hazard maps of the densely populated area surrounding the volcano. In this paper, we analyse the temporal, volumetric and spatial data on eruptive activity on Etna. Our analyses are based on the two most recent and robust historical data catalogues of flank eruption activity on Etna, with one from 1669 to 2008 and the other from 1610 to 2008. We use standard statistical methodology and modelling techniques, though a number of features are new to the analysis of eruption data. Our temporal analysis reveals that flank eruptions on Mount Etna between 1610 and 2008 follow an inhomogeneous Poisson process, with intensity of eruptions increasing nearly linearly since the mid-1900s. Our temporal analysis reveals no evidence of cyclicity over this period. An analysis of volumetric lava flow rates shows a marked increase in activity since 1971. This increase, which coincides with the formation of the Southeast Crater (SEC), appears to be related to increased activity on and around the SEC. This has significant implications for hazard analysis on Etna.

  18. Astronomically oriented megaliths of the Monte Jato area (Sicily).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, A.; Polcaro, V. F.; Mercadante, F.; Lo Cascio, P.; Maurici, F.

    An imposing megalith is visible from many kilometres of distance near the top of the hill named Monte Arcivocalotto (Sicily). It is made by a single sandstone slab, shaped in triangular form with a large circular hole pierced at the centre. It is known to local people as U Campanaru ("The Bell Tower") and it was considered as a magic place until recently. The megalith is oriented toward the sunrise of the winter solstice, when the Sun rises at the hole centre, becoming visible from a very large distance. At a few kilometres, on the top of another hill, significantly named "Cozzo Perciata" ("Hill of the pierced one") a similar megalith was standing until to a few decades ago. It is presently collapsed, probably by a lighting, but the remains clearly show that it is oriented toward the summer solstice sunrise. Both megaliths have to be considered in the framework of the Eneolithic / Early Bronze Age worship centre of Pizzo Pietralunga, located halfway between Monte Arcivocalotto and Cozzo Perciata.

  19. The great heterogeneity of thalassemia molecular defects in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Giambona, A; Lo Gioco, P; Marino, M; Abate, I; Di Marzo, R; Renda, M; Di Trapani, F; Messana, F; Siciliano, S; Rigano, P

    1995-05-01

    This paper reports the results of 1428 beta-thalassemia chromosomes studied in Sicily during a hemoglobinopathy control program starting in 1983. Molecular screening was performed by direct restriction enzyme analysis, allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, reverse dot blot analysis (RDB) and, for the rare or new mutations, by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Using these approaches 1410 (98.7%) out of 1428 beta-globin gene defects were characterized, involving 22 different beta-thalassemia mutations. Three of these were present at high frequency (beta(0)39, IVS1, 110 and IVS1,6); the other beta-globin gene defects were found at lower frequency. In the latter, we found a smaller group of mutations at a frequency lower than 10% (IVS1, 1, IVS2, 745, beta S) and a larger one at a frequency lower than 2% [-87, IVS1,2, IVS2,1, fr 6, fr 8 (-AA), fr 44, fr 76, -101, IVS1, 116, IVS1, 3'end G-C, IVS1,5 G-A, IVS1,5 G-C, cod 30, Lepore, delta beta, beta C]. The possible origin of this very large number of mutations is discussed, taking into account the historical point of view. Moreover, this approach has made a first trimester prenatal diagnosis program possible in our region in practically all cases, with a great improvement in general thalassemia management.

  20. Space Radar Image of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this radar image to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This image was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles).

  1. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  2. Slide Activity along the eastern slope of the Gela Basin (offshore Sicily): First results from expedition MSM-15/3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, K.; Strasser, M.; Freudenthal, T.; Foglini, F.; Trincardi, F.; Minisini, D.; Msm15/3 Working Group

    2010-12-01

    Submarine slides occur at all sediment bearing margins worldwide (Camerlenghi et al., 2009; Masson et al., 2006). Although numerous studies have dealt with mapping and monitoring of submarine landslide as well as investigations of trigger mechanisms and sediment failure processes, many open questions persist why a given slope fails whereas adjacent remains stable. Besides large slide events, smaller scaled mid-size slides became recently of particular importance because especially these local slides enable investigation of physical and kinematical processes during failure and to test a wide range of different trigger mechanisms. Hence, during the research expedition MSM15/3 we drilled two distinct landslides in the Gela Basin offshore south of Sicily (Italy) utilizing the MARUM sea floor drill rig (MeBo). These so-called ‘Twin Slides’ have previously been identified in water depth between 200 - 800m on the basis of side-scan sonar, Chirp seismics, swath bathymetry and shallow core data. Besides, these landslides are described as multiple failures likely controlled by specific stratigraphic surfaces acting as glide planes (Minisini et al., 2007; Minisini and Trincardi, 2009). Nevertheless, failure planes are located in depth inaccessible by conventional coring and we therefore lack groundtruthing of the geophysical data. Therefore, MeBo was deployed to drill e.g. critical subsurface intervals. A systematic MeBo drilling transect from the undisturbed slope apron to the depositional area of these landslide masses recovers up to 55 meter long cores, including the failure planes and stacked mass transport deposits in the proximal and distal areas, respectively. Sedimentological, geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical analysis of these core materials will enable (1) an age dating and estimation of the recurrence rate of mid-sized slide events and (2) a sediment physical characterization to gain a deeper insight into kinematics and physical processes during failure

  3. Fish Distribution and Habitat Complexity on Banks of the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea) from Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) Explorations

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Valentina; Battaglia, Pietro; Altobelli, Chiara; Perzia, Patrizia; Romeo, Teresa; Canese, Simonepietro; Andaloro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The Strait of Sicily was recognized internationally as an “Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area” by the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2014. However, basic aspects of its fish diversity are still unknown and most of the information comes from traditional trawl surveys. This paper provides the first detailed description, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), of the composition and depth distribution of the demersal fish assemblages found on banks of the Strait of Sicily and the related habitat complexity from 35 to 240 m depth. A total of 24 families and 52 fish species were recorded and depth was consistently associated with a significant proportion of the variation of the fish assemblage. The highest species richness was observed at the shallowest depth layer (0–50 m) and significantly decreased, remaining almost constant, in deeper layers. Similarly the highest abundance was recorded at 0–50 m, where C. julis represented the most abundant species, and decreased progressively throughout the whole depth gradient. Although the factor habitat complexity explained only a small proportion of the fish assemblage variation, significant differences among different degrees of habitat complexity were observed, together with a general positive trend for species richness and abundance with increasing habitat complexity. The ROV also allowed us to observe some rare or poorly known fish species such as Scorpaenodes arenai, Hyporthodus haifensis, Myliobatis aquila, Gadella maraldi, Epinephelus caninus and Lappanella fasciata. These findings show that banks serve as reservoirs for fish abundance and biodiversity and that immediate environmental conservation and management actions represent a priority not only for Italy but also for other countries which share the same area. PMID:27936221

  4. Paleoseismological investigation offshore eastern Sicily and south Calabria (Ionian Sea).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Pedro, Laurine; Babonneau, Nathalie; Gutscher, Marc-André; Cattaneo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The Ionian Sea is a deep and narrow basin in the Central Mediterranean Sea, bounded by two accretionary wedges formed by the Calabrian and the Hellenic subduction zones, respectively to the North West and to the East. Eastern Sicily and Calabria have been repeatedly struck by destructive historical earthquakes and tsunamis (1693 AD Catania M7.4, 1908 AD Messina M7.2). The latter triggered a submarine landslide and turbidity current that ruptured submarine cables. In the Ionian Sea, preliminary sedimentological studies show that recent turbidite deposits could be directly correlated with large historical earthquakes. Other thick deposits imaged in seismic data as thick transparent layers in the Ionian abyssal plain have been termed megaturbidites or homogenites. This study is focused on the interpretation of turbidites and megaturbidites on the basis of new sediment cores located in the northwestern Ionian Sea. Understanding the sources and the origin of these deposits is crucial to interpret the paleoseismological record contained in the deep sediments of the Ionian Sea. The objective is to improve our understanding of the chronology and origin of large catastrophic events, which have affected the area. New data, including piston cores and CHIRP echosounder profiles, were collected during the CIRCEE cruise, with R/V Le Suroit in October 2013, in the western Ionian Sea, including the western part of Calabrian accretionary wedge and the base of the Malta Escarpment. With a wide regional distribution of the cores, this new dataset allows to refine the interpretation of gravity deposits in terms of sedimentary processes and to establish an event stratigraphy based on radiocarbon dating. The Augias megaturbidite was completely sampled in six cores: the origin of this deposit is associated to the 365 AD Crete mega-thrust earthquake. The sedimentological study and correlation of turbidite deposits provide the opportunity to obtain a paleoseismological record extending

  5. Evaluation of a seismic quiescence pattern in southeastern sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.; Achilli, V.; Baldi, P.

    1985-07-01

    Southeastern Sicily experienced a very peculiar seismic activity in historic times, with a long series of ruinous earthquakes. A last large event, with magnitude probably in excess of 7.5, occurred on Jan., 11, 1693, totally destroying the city of Catania and killing 60,000 people. Only a few moderate events were reported since then, and a seismic gap issue has been proposed on this basis. A close scrutiny of the available data further shows that all significant seismic activity ceased after year 1850, suggesting one of the largest quiescence patterns ever encountered. This is examined together with the complex tectonic setting of the region, characterized by a wrenching mechanism with most significant seismicity located in its northern graben structure. An attempt to ascertain the imminence and the size of a future earthquake through commonly accepted empirical relations based on size and duration of the quiescence pattern did not provide any feasible result. A precision levelling survey which we recently completed yielded a relative subsidence of ~ 3 mm/yr, consistent with an aseismic slip on the northern graben structure at a rate of ~ 15 mm/yr. Comparing these results with sedimentological and tidal data suggests that the area is undergoing an accelerated deformation process; this issue is further supported by Rikitake's ultimate strain statistics. If the imminence of a damaging ( M = 5.4) event is strongly favoured by Weibull statistics applied to the time series of occurrence of large events, the accumulated strain does not appear sufficient for a large earthquake ( M ⪸ 7.0). Within the limits of reliability of present semi-empirical approaches we conclude that the available evidence is consistent with the occurrence of a moderate-to-large ( M ≅ 6.0) event in the near future. Several questions regarding the application of simple models to real (and complex) tectonic settings remain nevertheless unanswered.

  6. A Global Perspective on Human Rights Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This ERIC Digest outlines what is meant by the phrase human rights and the origin of the concept. It also traces the delineation of the concept of human rights from the 17th century antecedent of "natural rights" to its eventual incarnation as inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and…

  7. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  8. Integrating 21st Century Access to ERIC Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the development of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) dataset and the relationship between that dataset and the disparate services that have emerged as a result of the Internet and the Web. Discusses the technical infrastructure; database content; services and resources; creating a unified knowledge base; and metadata…

  9. The Gilded Age: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Gilded Age and directions for obtaining the full text of these materials; topics include, but are not limited to, immigration, the 1896 presidential election, the Populist movement, the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and the development of…

  10. Rural Philosophy for Education: Wendell Berry's Tradition. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    This ERIC Digest reviews past and present rural educational philosophy, focusing on the views of Wendell Berry, a Kentucky farmer and novelist who in recent years has emerged as a leading American philosopher. The major difference underlying rural and urban living is the relationship of people with nature. Rural living is much more closely related…

  11. Infant Day Care: The Critical Issues. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Abbey; Fein, Greta

    Discussed in this ERIC Digest are the quality of infant day care and aspects of the debate on infant attachment. Characteristics of current infant day care provisions are reported. Program quality is discussed in terms of: (1) structural features, such as group size, staff-child ratios, caregiver training, equipment, space; (2) dynamic aspects,…

  12. The Early Republic: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Early Republic. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of the materials about "The Federalist Papers," the Bill of Rights, the Constitutional Convention, Thomas Jefferson, and other topics. (CMK)

  13. The Making of a Missionary: Eric Ashby and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Examines the work of Eric Ashby, a missionary of the technology age in Great Britain, an analyst of status quo and change proponents of higher education,; and an implementer of technology curricula. He warned in the 1950s that if Western academies did not adapt to/with technology, they would not survive. (KDR)

  14. ERIC Directory of Education-Related Information Centers, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeg, Michael, Ed.; Boston, Carol, Ed.

    The "ERIC Directory of Education-Related Information Centers" is a guide to 450 organizations that provide information relevant to education or that focus on topics and disciplines closely related to education, such as educational administration, parent participation, and nontraditional education. The directory includes both federally…

  15. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 3, Lessons 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    The last half of a course in subject indexing for the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system is presented in this volume. The demonstration of indexing techniques, lesson 3, uses a typical document (given in full in an appendix in volume 1) to show how indexing concepts are chosen in practice and converted into terms contained in…

  16. Teaching about the Constitutional Rights of Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This ERIC digest presents a rationale for teaching students about their rights and responsibilities as citizens under the U.S. Constitution. Social studies teachers have a special role in shaping the lives of young citizens and influencing whether students become politically involved adults. Specific constitutional rights such as the right of a…

  17. Experiential Learning of Mathematics: Using Manipulatives. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartshorn, Robert; Boren, Sue

    This ERIC digest examines recent research about the use of manipulatives to teach mathematics. "Manipulatives" refers to objects that can be touched and moved by students to introduce or reinforce a mathematical concept. The digest also speculates on some of the challenges affecting future use of manipulatives. Since the 19th century,…

  18. Consejeria de los directores (Principal Mentoring). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although…

  19. Capital Outlay: A Critical Concern in Rural Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, James; Howley, Craig B.

    This digest, which is based primarily on the 1989 ERIC/CRESS monograph entitled "Achievement of Equity in Capital Outlay Financing: A Policy Analysis for the States," by D. Thompson G. Stewart, D. Honeyman, and R. Wood, addresses possible solutions to the emerging problem of capital outlay financing, with special attention to facilities…

  20. The Great Depression: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the Great Depression. Includes both background information and teaching materials on such topics as an overview of the New Deal, the arts and the Great Depression, and information on the Civilian Conservation Corps. Offers directions for accessing the materials. (CMK)

  1. Proprietary Schools: Programs, Policies and Prospects. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John B.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    This digest summarizes the ERIC report concerning proprietary school education. Many proprietary schools offer no degrees and many of their courses are less than one year. They are profit oriented and market driven with decision making centralized in the ownership. The curricula are job-skills oriented and comprise programs in office, technology…

  2. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  3. Learning Resources Centers: Best of ERIC. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Richard L.

    This selected annotated bibliography lists almost two hundred documents, added to the ERIC data base since 1972, which deal with adaptations of the learning resources center concept to specific situations. The bibliography is divided into ten sections: (1) elementary and secondary schools; (2) colleges and universities; (3) personnel and training;…

  4. ERIC Abstractor/Indexer Workbook. Revised Edition. 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Barbara; Meredith, Sydney J.; Rios, Betty Rose

    Eight documents of representative types and three journal articles are included in this self-instructional training workbook for abstractor/indexers. Introductory materials provide an overview of informative and indicative abstracting styles and the principles of indexing utilized by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Detailed…

  5. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs talks about ARRA funding at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Isaacs, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Argonne is set to receive over $150 million in stimulus funds. Director Eric Isaacs describes how these funds will be put to good use—hiring employees and contractors, cleaning up the nuclear footprint, and investing in technologies for America's future. More info on Argonne and ARRA here: http://www.anl.gov/recovery/index.html

  6. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Isaccs

    2009-09-17

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  7. K-8 Science and Mathematics Education. The ERIC Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Review, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme. This issue focuses on science and mathematics education for students in grades K-8. Articles include: "The New Three R's: The Importance of Science and Mathematics Education" (Steven J. Rakow); "When Should Children…

  8. Teaching Poetry: Generating Genuine, Meaningful Responses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenbach, Charlie

    Although many teachers force-feed the "meaning" of poetry to puzzled students or teach poetry by way of dissecting poetic techniques, more productive approaches to the study of poetry exist, as reflected in the literature in the ERIC database. Units of study can be organized around particular kinds of inquiry instead of around a literary…

  9. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  10. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Isaccs

    2016-07-12

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  11. Building Academically Strong Gifted Programs in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhman, Anna; Fundis, Ronald

    This ERIC Digest discusses relevant issues and alternatives for rural school districts trying to develop strong programs for their most academically talented students. Although rural schools are more often constrained by high costs and material shortages than are urban schools, there are opportunities inherent in the lower teacher-student ratios…

  12. Internet Resources for K-8 Students: Update 2000. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Blythe

    Although there are many content-rich resource sites for elementary and middle school students on the World Wide Web, finding such sites can often be difficult. This ERIC Digest describes more than 50 K-8 curriculum related Web sites of special interest to students, teachers, parents and librarians. Sites are listed under the following categories:…

  13. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  14. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Eric Chiang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Mark; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present this interview with Eric Chiang, Associate Professor of Economics, Director of Instructional Technology, and Technology Director for the Online MBA Program at Florida Atlantic University. He has authored 26 peer-reviewed research publications and is the author of "CoreEconomics," an economic principles textbook now in…

  15. Resources for Teaching and Learning about Exotic Species. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyonyong; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    Exotic species are organisms transported by humans, wildlife, wind, and water into regions where they did not historically exist. This ERIC Digest describes available materials and resources for teaching and learning about these exotic species. Sixteen Internet sources are provided along with six videotape resources. The digest also provides…

  16. Teaching about the Pacific Rim. ERIC Digest No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest examines: (1) the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim"; (2) reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum; and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. The terms, Pacific Rim and Pacific Basin, are used. interchangeably; however, the "Rim" refers to those nations…

  17. Teaching about the Life and Health of Cells. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    Modern technology in life and health sciences brings a new understanding to the study of cells and as a result, the National Science Education Standards emphasize understanding of science and technology. This ERIC Digest describes the central role of cell biology (cytology) in understanding these areas and explains conceptual difficulties and…

  18. Public History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on public history. Includes background information and teaching materials on such topics as museum resources in K-12 social studies, using historic sites to study western women's history, and teaching about the Oregon Trail. (CMK)

  19. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs talks about ARRA funding at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Argonne is set to receive over $150 million in stimulus funds. Director Eric Isaacs describes how these funds will be put to good use—hiring employees and contractors, cleaning up the nuclear footprint, and investing in technologies for America's future. More info on Argonne and ARRA here: http://www.anl.gov/recovery/index.html

  20. Science/Technology/Society in the Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Phillip A.

    The current trend to include the relationships of science and technology to human societies in the social studies curriculum is the focus of this ERIC Digest. The Digest discusses: (1) major themes in education on science/technology/society (STS); (2) the rationale for emphasizing STS in the social studies; and (3) how to include STS in the…

  1. The Case Method in Teacher Education: Alaskan Models. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith

    This ERIC digest discusses the theoretical basis of case teaching and examines its strengths and limitations as a tool for teacher education. Case teaching presents authentic, concrete teaching problems for students to analyze. The study of a classroom fight, for example, might draw discussion of racial, ethical, political, and other community…

  2. DSM-5 and ADHD - an interview with Eric Taylor.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2013-09-12

    In this podcast we talk to Prof Eric Taylor about the changes to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in DSM-5 and how these changes will affect clinical practice. The podcast for this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/sites/2999/download/Taylor.mp3.

  3. Mastery Learning and Mastery Testing: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M., Comp.

    This 136-item annotated bibliography on mastery learning and mastery testing is the result of a computer search of the ERIC data base in February 1977. All entries are listed alphabetically by author. An abstract or annotation is provided for each entry. A subject index is included reflecting the major emphasis of each citation. (RC)

  4. Marketing Perspectives for "ERIC-Like" Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehl, Philip G.

    1972-01-01

    An understanding of marketing'' can provide valuable insignts into the capability of success or failure of ERIC-Like information systems. Three marketing perspectives are examined that contribute to a better understanding of the role such systems can play in satisfying user needs (Author/KE)

  5. Recent International Documents and Journal Articles from the ERIC Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Annotates recent international documents and journal articles from the ERIC database. Document topics include racial equality, and balancing early childhood education and work. Journal article topics include foster care in Iraqi Kurdistan; child care in Sweden; teacher-child interaction in Australian centers; teacher education in Brazil, Iceland,…

  6. Sport in History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a sampling of eight entries from the ERIC database that deal with the history of sport. Includes works discussing baseball as a representation of societal value, lesson plans, and works dealing with race and cultural themes. Provides instructions for obtaining the documents listed. (DK)

  7. Preparing School Administrators. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    Issues involved in improving administrator preparation programs are described in this ERIC Digest. A literature review identifies appropriate skills and methods for administrator training and summarizes recommendations such as application of theory to practice and development of full-time internships, school/university collaboration, mentorships,…

  8. The Bread & Butter of the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David

    An increasing amount of national attention is focused on connecting K-12 schools to the Internet, while at the same time, there is some debate on the benefits of using it in the classroom. Most teachers know the Internet is a source of information, but may not know how it works or how to use it. This ERIC Digest provides a framework to explain…

  9. Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyonyong

    This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems…

  10. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  11. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

  12. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  13. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-10-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  14. Distance Education at the Elementary and Secondary Level. A Select ERIC Bibliography. ERIC/IR Mini-Bib.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Nancy R., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 10 articles and documents selected through a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database. They are: (1) "The Use of Computers in the Instructional Process in Australian Distance Education" (Geoff Arger and Debbie Clayton); (2) "Distance Education Technologies: All That Glitters Is Not…

  15. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  16. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity.

  17. Metasomatizing effects of serpentinization-related hydrothermal fluids in abyssal peridotites: new contributions from Hyblean peridotite xenoliths (southeastern Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Ottolini, Luisa; Carbone, Serafina; Scavo, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    We studied a partially serpentinized peridotite xenolith, found in the diatreme tuff-breccia deposit at Valle Guffari (Hyblean Plateau, southeastern Sicily, Italy), which is representative of the Hyblean peridotite xenolith suite. We also considered all published (21) whole-rock analyses of Hyblean peridotites, to investigate the metasomatizing effects of seawater-related hydrothermal fluids in the Hyblean basement, an in-situ remnant of the ultraslow-spreading Permian Tethys. In detail, we analyzed the serpentine veins by different techniques (scanning electron microscopy-SEM, electron-probe microanalysis-EPMA, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction-XRPD) to determine the crystal-chemical composition and the structure of the veins. In addition, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was applied to measure the abundance of trace elements. Serpentine veins are made up of two Fe-rich polytypes, chrysotile 2Mc1 and lizardite 1T. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element compositions of both serpentine polytypes are lower than 1, except for a modest light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment, and also in some fluid-mobile elements (FME: B, Rb, Sr, U). Conversely, the whole-rock composition of the studied peridotite xenolith is enriched with LREE and other trace elements (B, Sr, P, Th, U, Pb), like most Hyblean peridotites. The REE and multi-element patterns of Hyblean peridotites are akin to those of hydrothermal sediments from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and St. Demetrio hill (northern Hyblean Plateau), and abyssal peridotites (serpentinites) whose trace element abundance is generally ascribed to melt-rock interaction. The integrated interpretation of the data and the documentation of hydrothermal minerals [(Na,S)-rich apatite, carbonates] in serpentine veins indicate that serpentinization-related hydrothermal fluids do have a primary role in metasomatism (mainly for the abundance of LREE and high field strength elements-HFSE) of ancient (Permian Tethys) and

  18. Knowledge Discovery and Digital Cartography for the ALS (Linguistic Atlas of Sicily) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Antonio; Pirrone, Roberto; Russo, Giuseppe

    In this paper the latest developments of the ALS (Linguistic Atlas of Sicily) project are presented. The ALS project has the purpose to define methodologies and tools to allow researches in the socio-linguistic field. Different types of variables (both quantitative and qualitative) are involved.

  19. Sensitivity of the sea circulation to the atmospheric forcing in the Sicily Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Hiba; Arsouze, Thomas; Béranger, Karine; Boukthir, Moncef; Drobinski, Philippe; Lebeaupin-Brossier, Cindy; Mairech, Hanen

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the sea surface circulation in the Sicily Channel to surface winds, using a 15-year long (1994-2008) air-sea coupled numerical simulation. Analysis is based on the clustering of six main wind regimes over the Sicily Channel domain. The analysis of the corresponding sea current clusters shows that sea circulation in this area is sensitive to surface wind patterns. This wind modulates the strength of the two main branches of the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel (i.e. the Atlantic Tunisian Current and the Atlantic Ionian Stream). The modulation of these two currents depends on the wind regime, and displays a strong seasonal variability. It is also shown that the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel is strongly controlled by the thermohaline circulation and the bathymetry (geostrophic current). However, the contribution to the total current of its ageostrophic component forced by the surface winds is significant, with a correlation coefficient varying from 0.3 to 0.7.

  20. Sicily 2002 balloon campaign: a test of the HASI instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettanini, C.; Fulchignoni, M.; Angrilli, F.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Antonello, M.; Bastianello, S.; Bianchini, G.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Flamini, E.; Gaborit, V.; Aboudan, A.

    2004-01-01

    A mock-up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere as part of the Huygens Cassini Mission was successfully launched and recovered on 30th May 2002 after a stratospheric balloon launch from the Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Trapani, Sicily. To simulate the Huygens mission at Titan, the probe was lifted to an altitude of 32 km and then released to perform a 45 min parachute decelerated descent. The probe was hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 76 acquired sensor channels and sampled during the ascent, drift and descent phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system was developed, based on PC architecture and soft-real-time application. Sensors channels were sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software was developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy. The main goal of this flight was to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test for HASI hardware in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those of the Titan atmosphere as well as the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI during ground landing. Aerodynamic study of the probe has contributed in achieving descent velocity and spin rate profiles close to the ones envisioned for the Huygens Titan descent. Profiles have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe through the Earth's atmosphere during parachute aided descent. Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. Passive thermal control of the probe has also been designed and implemented in order to guarantee proper temperature ranges on critical components

  1. Sedimentological and morphological approach for the study of coastal dynamics: a case study in the south of the Sicily (Punta Granitola, Portopalo of Menfi).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferruzza, G.; Fallo, L.; Giaramita, L.; Vaccaro, F.

    2009-04-01

    A geomorphologic and sedimentologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 19 - km long coast sector in Southern Sicily, Italy, affected by important erosion processes. The methodology that we applied allowed the creation of a database involving a range of coastal characteristics helpful to reconstruct coastal processes and general sediment circulations patterns. The littoral zone studied belongs to the Trapani Province, South East of Sicily, Italy, and is situated between Punta Granitola and Porto Palo of Menfi. Coastal orientation varies from W/SW-E/NE in the western sector, between Punta Granitola and Triscina, to W-E in the central sector between Triscina and Belice River and to W/NW-E/SE between Belice River and Portopalo. In the investigated area houses, roads and other human structures, which have appeared in the last 30 - 40 years, are exceedingly close to shore line. More over at the same time harbours and artificial barrier were constructed. All these human structures have probably halted the littoral transport. The first goal of this work was the general knowledge of morphological characteristics of shore line and of the broad sediment circulation patterns. To this end the landform characteristic were obtained thought several field observations and the analysis of recent aerial photographs and topographic maps of different years. The ESRI® ArcMap 9.2. software was used for geo-referencing and for the elaboration of the topographic maps and of the aerial photographs. The ESRI® ArcMap 9.2. was later used for integration, digitalization and finally for the analysis of data. All data were presented as Universal Transverse Mercatore Coordinates, with the European 1950 datum (zone 33N). Moreover we performed a preliminary sedimentological study of this coast line. On this base we have identified 7 km of unimodal sand beach, situated between Punta Granitola and Triscina, where we have carried out a more detailed morphological

  2. Contemporary and concurrent extension and compression in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Mariucci, M.; Pierdominici, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the latest updating and the complete collection of data on the contemporary stress orientations in Italy. Data are relative to different stress indicators: borehole breakouts from deep drillings, crustal earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data. With respect to the previous compilation, performed in 2004, 206 new entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in the most part of the territory, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. With an increase of 37% with respect to the previous compilation, now the global Italian dataset consists of 499 records with a reliable quality for stress maps. The total dataset includes the following active stress indicators: 56% borehole breakouts, 39% single earthquake focal mechanisms, and 5% represented by formal inversions of focal mechanisms, faults and overcoring data. A quality ranking between A and E is assigned to each stress data, with A being the highest quality and E the lowest. Only A-, B- and C-quality stress indicators are considered consistent for analyzing stress patterns. Depth interval of the entire dataset is between 0 to 40 km. The results in map are reported in terms of minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) because most of earthquakes present an extensional regime. Concerning breakouts, their orientations correspond to Shmin; since all the considered faults are normal faults, we assume the Shmin direction as perpendicular to the fault strike when no information on slip direction is available. The achieved results can be summarized in 3 main points: i) in some areas of Italy (Sicily, Friuli and Po Plain in the northern Italy), the alignment of horizontal stresses closely matches the ~N-S direction of ongoing crustal motions with respect to stable European plate. This result can be associated to the first-order stress field that drives the plate movement; ii) along the entire Apenninic belt - from north to south- a diffuse

  3. Impact of universal vaccination against varicella in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Castiglia, Paolo; Gallo, Tolinda; Giuffrida, Sandro; Locuratolo, Francesco; Tafuri, Silvio; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco; Bonanni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination (UVV) has been decided but postponed, as a national programme, until 2015, when data from Regions which have already implemented it will be available. Starting from 2003, eight Italian Regions (Basilicata, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Veneto) have progressively introduced UVV, in their immunization programme, with different schedules in children aged 13–15 months and 5–6 years, currently a two-dose schedule is adopted by all Regions. In June 2013, an Interregional Group on Varicella Vaccination (IGVV) has been established in order to assess the effectiveness of varicella vaccination with standardized and shared tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence and hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications in the period 2003–2012 in order to support the Italian decision makers on the future national adoption. Preliminary data showed that a general reduction of incidence and hospitalization rates was observed in the study period, resulting in relevant savings for the National Health Service. Immunization coverage with first dose at 24 months of age was high in all Regions (84%–95%) in 2012. Adverse events due to varicella vaccines were rare and without permanent sequelae. Underreporting of varicella cases and delays in the administration of the first dose of varicella vaccines were the main critical issues. In conclusion, solid evidences in support of universal UVV arise from the experiences available today in Italy. PMID:25483517

  4. A Transitional Model for the Evaluation of West Nile Virus Transmission in Italy.

    PubMed

    Calistri, P; Savini, L; Candeloro, L; Di Sabatino, D; Cito, F; Bruno, R; Danzetta, M L

    2016-10-01

    In August 2008, after 10 years of apparent silence, West Nile virus (WNV) infection re-emerged in northern Italy, spreading through the territories of three regions. In the following years, new cases occurred in the same area and additional foci of infection were observed in central and southern Italy, involving also Sicily and Sardinia islands. The Italian Ministry of Health ordered to test by RT-PCR all blood and organ donors from 15th June to 15th November of each year in the infected areas. The period at risk of WNV transmission was defined on the basis of literature data, but a more scientific estimation of the transmission season, under Italian circumstances, needs to be performed. A transitional model previously developed by other Authors was applied and adapted to Italian circumstances, to describe and quantify the WNV transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes. Culex spp. was considered the main vector, and mosquito parameters were adapted to this genus. Magpies (Pica pica) were considered the main bird host. The model was partially validated through the results of the entomological surveys carried out in central Italy and in Po Valley. The results of the transitional model permitted to calculate the basic reproduction number (R0 ) during 2010 for the whole Italian territory at 1 km of spatial resolution, estimating the risk of WNV transmission during the year and creating detailed risk maps for Italy. The mean values of R0 for the whole Italy varied between 0.4 and 4.8, with values >1 from the end of May to the middle of September. The coastal and flat zones of Italy showed the highest R0 values. Although partially validated, the model showed a substantial acceptable capacity of defining the period at major risk of WNV transmission in Italy, helping Public health authorities in the application of appropriate and timely control and preventive measures.

  5. Simulation of debris flow events in Sicily by cellular automata model SCIDDICA_SS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelliere, A.; Lupiano, V.; Peres, D. J.; Stancanelli, L.; Avolio, M.; Foti, E.; Di Gregorio, S.

    2013-12-01

    Debris flow models are widely used for hazard mapping or for evaluating the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures. Several models analyze the dynamics of debris flow runout solving Partial Differential Equations. In use of such models, difficulties arise in estimating kinematic geotechnical soil parameters for real phenomena. In order to overcome such difficulties, alternative semi-empirical approaches can be employed, such as macroscopic Cellular Automata (CA). In particular, for CA simulation purposes, the runout of debris flows emerges from local interactions in a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves within a spatial and temporal discretum. The attributes of each cell (substates) describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is splitted into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the CA transition function. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. In this study, we present an application of the macroscopic CA semi-empirical model SCIDDICA_SS3 to the Peloritani Mountains area in Sicily island, Italy. The model was applied using detailed data from the 1 October 2009 debris flow event, which was triggered by a rainfall event of about 250 mm falling in 9 hours, that caused the death of 37 persons. This region is characterized by river valleys with large hillslope angles (30°-60°), catchment basins of small extensions (0.5-12 km2) and soil composed by metamorphic material, which is easy to be eroded. CA usage implies a calibration phase, that identifies an optimal set of parameters capable of adequately play back the considered case, and a validation phase, that tests the model on a sufficient (and different) number of cases similar in terms of physical and geomorphological properties. The performance of the model can be measured in terms of a fitness

  6. Lieutenant General Patton’s Seventh Army in Sicily 1943: The Maturation of an American Operational Artist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    study of his operational art in Sicily leads to two questions. How did Patton’s experience during the Sicilian Campaign influence his ability to...important evolutionary step in George S. Patton’s maturation as an operational artist. The study of his operational art in Sicily leads to two questions...he had it. ― Brigadier General Oscar W. Koch, G-2: Intelligence for Patton1 On 26 December 1944, the lead

  7. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi.

  8. Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Andrea; Alparone, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. More than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered 'burst-type', i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group 'v', located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more 'tectonic' behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group 'v' and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the late seismogram windows, highlighted by cross correlation analysis, as well as in delays, increasing proportionally to lapse time, detected by coda wave interferometry. Such variations, mainly evident at the stations located in the north-eastern flank of volcano, were likely due to medium changes taking place in this region. In particular, medium velocity decreases were inferred to occur in 2002-2003, followed by successive increases. The velocity decrease was interpreted as being caused by the opening or enlargement of cracks, produced by intruding magma bodies, ground intense deformation and/or VT earthquake activity, accompanying the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption. On the other hand, the subsequent velocity increases were interpreted as resulting from healing processes.

  9. Modelling of The Deep Gravity-movement of Niscemi (caltanisetta, Sicily, Italy): The Decisive Role of Tectonic Deformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, V.; Toni, G.; Fragale, F.; Rijillo, R.

    The Niscemi slide occurred on 12.10.1997 at the end of a dry season, and two days after very heavy rainfall (218 mm). This movement remobilised an ancient landslide, historically documented on 19.3.1791, with the same kinematic features but with less steps. The mass consists mainly of overconsolidated clays, sometimes overlapped with sands. Seismic reflection, partly carried out by AGIP, has allowed isopach recon- struction of the postorogenic-sedimentary cover (Gela nappe). This deep geological structure seems to control the slide shape with back-thrusts and discontinuities, usu- ally present in a geological medium, that behave as natural barriers against tectonic stresses. In geotechnics, we can say also that from a brittle stress-strain behaviour, it is possible to pass on to a ductile one, following phenomenons of hardening. The subse- quent formation of zones with different shape and thickness of materials in the plastic state is responsible for the upsetting of superficial masses, that does not lead to the usual wedge shaped slide as an accumulation zone. Finally, further superficial move- ments might be stimulated by exceptional rainy events, able to give an high hydrostatic pressure along main trenches and to modify the efficacy of mobilizing friction

  10. Salinity variations in the water resources fed by the Etnean volcanic aquifers (Sicily, Italy): natural vs. anthropogenic causes.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, in an attempt to reveal possible changes connected to natural or anthropogenic causes, the main results of hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out at Mount Etna are evaluated. We report on the salinity contents of the groundwaters that flow in fractured volcanics, which make up the flanks of the volcano. These waters, analyzed for major ion chemistry, were sampled regularly from 1994 to 2004. Basing on nonparametric Sen's slope estimator, time series of groundwater composition reveal that the salinity of most of the Etnean aquifers increased by 0.5% to 3.5% each year during this period. This change in the water chemistry is clearly referable to the overexploitation of the aquifers. This increasing trend needs to be inverted urgently; otherwise, it will cause a shortage of water in the near future, because the maximum admissible concentration of salinity for drinking water will be exceeded.

  11. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in hair total mercury concentrations between sampling areas (p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  12. Sedimentary structures formed by upper-regime flows on a Pleistocene carbonate ramp (Favignana Calcarenite, Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slootman, Arnoud; Moscariello, Andrea; Cartigny, Matthieu; de Boer, Poppe

    2015-04-01

    Antidune, chute-and-pool and cyclic step deposits are found in the outcrops of the Pleistocene calcarenite wedge of Favignana Island. These deposits were formed on a prograding carbonate ramp. Three zones are identified: inner-mid ramp (shoreface), ramp slope, and outer ramp (offshore). The ramp slope dips 3° to 10° and drops 30-40 m over 400-600 m. The ramp slope and outer ramp show a succession of bioturbated dune cross beds with up to 10 m-thick, intercalated event beds containing supercritical-flow structures. Grain sizes range from coarse sand to granules, with large rhodoliths (algal balls) and shells as gravel-sized clasts. It is our aim to provide insight into the processes that create upper-regime flow structures and the hydraulic parameters of their generating flows. During normal storms, wind-driven currents generated submarine dunes that migrated across the sea floor. During exceptional high-energy events (megastorms, tsunamis), large amounts of skeletal debris from the carbonate factory were transported towards the top of the ramp slope, where under the effect of gravity sustained supercritical sediment gravity flows were generated. In a case study of bedform evolution, we present the formation of a large downstream-asymmetric bedform with two antidunes superimposed on its upstream flank. A stepwise flow reconstruction reveals the progressive steepening of the antidunes until critical steepness is reached, and the first and, shortly after, the second antidune wave breaks. The two hydraulic jumps thus formed, developed a temporary cyclic step morphology (i.e. hydraulic jump, accelerating subcritical flow, supercritical chute, hydraulic jump etc.). The bedform geometries are used to reconstruct the nature of the catastrophic events that were active on the ramp slope. The wave length of the antidunes is measured from outcrop, which, through hydraulic equations, allows for estimation of mean flow velocity as a function of sediment concentration in the flow. Using published experimental Froude numbers for breaking antidune waves, average flow thickness and sediment flux is computed. The ratio of bed volume and sediment flux provides an estimate for the duration of the sediment gravity flows. We show that applying hydraulic equations to upper-regime sedimentary structures in coarse-grained carbonate sandstones reveal that about half of the ramp deposits, that formed over ca. 350 thousand years, were deposited in not more than tens of hours. Our results provide renewed insight into the evolution of the Favignana Calcarenite and other carbonate ramp deposits.

  13. At Home with ERIC: Online Searching from Your Home Computer. "Knowledge Index" Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Stupp, Emma; Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This manual provides information to aid home computer owners in performing literature searches of ERIC and other education and social science databases, such as the DIALOG Information Services "Knowledge Index" System. Assuming some familiarity with printed ERIC indexes or online searches, this manual is divided into five chapters. It is…

  14. At Home with ERIC: Online Searching from Your Home Computer. "After Dark" Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Stupp, Emma; Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This manual provides information to aid home computer owners in performing literature searches of ERIC and other education and social science databases using the BRS Information Technologies "After Dark" system. Assuming some familiarity with printed ERIC indexes or online searches, this manual is divided into five chapters. It is…

  15. The Learning Environment. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management Number 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Annotations of ERIC literature on the learning environment are presented in this document. Materials were selected for inclusion from the ERIC catalogs Resources in Education (RIE) and Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE). The 10 publications are as follows: "School Is for Teachers: Enhancing the School Environment," by Buck Adams and…

  16. ERIC Annual Report-1988. Summarizing the Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krekeler, Nancy A.; Stonehill, Robert M.; Thomas, Robert L.

    This is the second in a series of annual reports summarizing the activities and accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) program, which is funded and managed by the Office of Educational Resources and Improvement in the U.S. Department of Education. The report begins by presenting background information on ERIC's…

  17. A Parent's Guide to the ERIC Database. Where To Turn with Your Questions about Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; And Others

    This guide explains what the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database is and how it can be used by parents to learn more about schooling and parenting. The guide also presents descriptions of 55 articles and documents that can be obtained through ERIC. The cited resources are particularly relevant to parents' concerns about meeting…

  18. Women's Issues Searching with DIALOG OnDisc ERIC: Natural Language and Controlled Vocabulary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…

  19. ERIC--The First 15 Years. A History of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trester, Delmer J.

    This account of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) provides information on its background and origin, and traces the development of the system from initial planning in 1962 through mid-1979. Although this is essentially an overview of the growth of the system, some of the more complex aspects of the ERIC story are included in the…

  20. Teacher Collegiality. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management Number 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This brochure provides brief descriptions of 11 recent documents and journal articles selected from the ERIC database by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management (University of Oregon), all on the broad topic of teacher collegiality. The works reviewed are as follows: "A New Model for Professionalizing Teacher Evaluation," by…

  1. Computer-Based Education: The Best of ERIC, June 1976-1982. Revised and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    This revision of the annotated bibliography, "Computer-Based Education: The Best of ERIC, June 1976-August 1980," includes 224 new entries as well as most of the 156 ERIC documents and journal articles originally cited. The new materials reflect the increased activity in the field with contributions about new technology (artificial…

  2. The Drug Problem and the Schools. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Sixteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    ERIC abstracts on the drug problem and the schools, announced in RIE through December 1970, are presented. The key terms used in compiling this collection are "drug abuse" and "drug addiction." The following information is presented for each document: Author, title, place of publication, publisher, publication date, number of pages, ERIC document…

  3. Women's Issues in an Era of Inclusion. ERIC/ChESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief annotated bibliography of sources addressing women's issues within the ERIC database. The sources include journal articles, monographs, ERIC Digests, and folksong collections. They cover aspects of women and education, including women in the curriculum, women's suffrage, and women's history. (MJP)

  4. Give Us an "E" for Educational Dissemination (ERIC, Experimentation, Extension, Equity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, William

    Educational dissemination has contributed a number of innovative concepts and strategies to information science. Much-misunderstood ERIC, which combines research reports with policy documents and teaching materials, is one of the first and best examples of a field-oriented rather than discipline-oriented database. Building on ERIC, federal…

  5. Trophic transfer of trace elements in an isotopically constructed food chain from a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Costa, Valentina; Tramati, Cecilia; Gianguzza, Paola; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Trace element accumulation is particularly important in coastal and transitional environments, which act as contaminant buffers between the continental and marine systems. We compared trace element transfer to the biota in two locations with different open-sea exposures in a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Italy) using isotopically reconstructed food chains. Samples of sediment, macroalgae, seagrasses, invertebrates, fish, and bird feathers were sampled in July 2006 and analysed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) and trace elements (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], total mercury [THg], and lead [Pb]). Trophic magnification factors were calculated through the relationships between trace elements and δ(15)N in consumers. As and Pb were greater in organic matter sources (sediments and primary producers), whereas Cd and THg were greater in bird feathers. At the food chain level, an insignificant trophic transfer was found for all elements, suggesting biodilution rather than biomagnification. Sediments were more contaminated in the location with lower open-sea exposure. Macroalgae and seagrasses overall mirrored the spatial pattern highlighted in sediments, whereas differences between the two locations became further decreased moving toward higher trophic levels, indicating that trophic transfer of sediment and macrophyte-bound trace elements to the coastal lagoon food chain may be of relatively minor importance.

  6. A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

  7. [Skeleton or mummy: practices and structures for secondary burial in southern Italy in modern and contemporary age].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial,first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of existence to another. Recent archeological research documents the persistence of secondary burial rites in Southern Italy during the Modern Age. A survey conducted in the province of Messina in Eastern Sicily has identified two surviving architectural structures appointed for the treatment of the bodies: the 'sitting colatoio' aimed at favoring the skeletonisation and the 'horizontal colatoio' used to obtain mummification by dehydration. Both these structures controlled the corpse's decay and transformed the body in a stable and durable simulacra of the dead.

  8. Evidence of canine leptospirosis in kennels in Sicily, by PCR method.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Domenico; Percipalle, Maurizio; Concetta, Leone Maria; Li Vecchi, Luisa; Curro, Victoria; Vitale, María; Vicenzo, Ferrantelli

    2007-01-01

    Stray dogs in kennels in western Sicily were monitored for zoonotic diseases presence; considering life conditions before their capture they are particularly exposed to the environment and so they can give good epidemiological information on disease prevalence. Leptospira pathogen specific PCR had been used to identify potential reservoirs of pathogenic serovars and provide a preliminary picture of the prevalence of the disease among stray dogs.

  9. Paleogeography and structure of the central Mediterranean: Sicily and its offshore area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, R.; Di Stefano, P.; Sulli, A.; Vitale, F. P.

    1996-08-01

    The geology of the mainland and offshore of Sicily is illustrated by a few geologic sections and seismic profiles across the late Cenozoic orogenic belt of central and western Sicily and across the Sardinia Channel and Sicily Straits. This belt is the result of several tectonic events. Deformation involved mainly the sedimentary cover of the old African continental margin characterized by a broad basinal domain, flanked along its external (southern) margin by a shallow-water carbonate platform attached to Africa in the Triassic. Compressional deformation started in the more internal basinal rock assemblages overlying a thinned crust. The most important structural characteristic of the early phase of thrusting is the duplex pile forming the bulk of the chain in Central Western Sicily. The structure consists of a basal allochthon, made up of Permian to Middle Triassic layers, an intermediate duplex wedge, composed of competent Mesozoic carbonates, and a roof complex, including Upper Mesozoic-Lower Tertiary less competent rocks. Large-scale clockwise rotation of the thrusts accompanied transpressional movements in the hinterland during the Pliocene. Right oblique reverse faults modified the previous tectonic contacts between the allochthons in the hinterland zones. Contemporaneous south-directed imbrications affected the southern external areas, progressively incorporating foreland and piggyback basins. Development of the Gela Thrust System appears to be linked to the transpressional event; its accretion is also related to contemporaneous underthrusting at deeper levels of Mesozoic carbonate substratum. The older buried thrust sheets were pushed up to the surface breaching the deformed Tertiary cover of the Gela TS. Northwards in the belt post-Messinian normal growth faults opened half graben whose sedimentary fill underwent structural inversion. Alternation of extension and compression tectonics characterizes the Sicilian continental margin in the last million years.

  10. Holocene millennial-scale productivity variations in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incarbona, Alessandro; di Stefano, Enrico; Patti, Bernardo; Pelosi, Nicola; Bonomo, Sergio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Tranchida, Giorgio; Zgozi, Salem; Bonanno, Angelo

    2008-09-01

    The calcareous nannofossil assemblages of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 963D from the central Mediterranean Sea have been investigated to document oceanographic changes in surface waters. The studied site is located in an area sensitive to large-scale atmospheric and climatic systems and to high- and low-latitude climate connection. It is characterized by a high sedimentation rate (the achieved mean sampling resolution is <70 years) that allowed the Sicily Channel environmental changes to be examined in great detail over the last 12 ka BP. We focused on the species Florisphaera profunda that lives in the lower photic zone. Its distribution pattern shows repeated abundance fluctuations of about 10-15%. Such variations could be related to different primary production levels, given that the study of the distribution of this species on the Sicily Channel seafloor demonstrates the significant correlation to productivity changes as provided by satellite imagery. Productivity variations were quantitatively estimated and were interpreted on the basis of the relocation of the nutricline within the photic zone, led by the dynamics of the summer thermocline. Productivity changes were compared with oceanographic, atmospheric, and cosmogenic nuclide proxies. The good match with Holocene master records, as with ice-rafted detritus in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the near-1500-year periodicity suggest that the Sicily Channel environment responded to worldwide climate anomalies. Enhanced Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, which has been reported as one of the most important forcing mechanisms for Holocene coolings in previous Mediterranean studies, had a remarkable impact on the water column dynamics of the Sicily Channel.

  11. Patterns of tectonic stress in Sicily from borehole breakout observations and finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragg, Steffen; Grasso, Mario; Müller, Birgit

    1999-08-01

    The orientation of in situ tectonic stress was deduced from borehole breakout analysis of 22 wells from onshore Sicily. The results allow us to distinguish the stress field of different geological units: (1) A nearly NNW (148°) orientation is detected in the Hyblean Plateau. (2) A NNE SHmax direction characterizes the Gela area. To the north, within the thrust belt (around Mount Judica), the SHmax direction swings to NE. In the northeastern segment of the foredeep, the Catania Plain, the direction of SHmax is roughly parallel to the NE trending grabens that mark the northern margin of the Hyblean Plateau. (3) The southwestern segment of the foredeep has no preferential SHmax orientation and may act as a transition zone with isotropic horizontal stresses. (4) In western Sicily a SHmax orientation from N-S to NW-SE is observed. This fits well the kinematics of the SE migrating Egadi and Adventure thrust belts and the direction of shortening inferred from the modern seismicity of the area. A three-dimensional finite element modeling, including the most important tectonic features, was performed. Modeling results of the stress field indicate that the NNW trending SHmax is locally influenced by the variation of crustal thickness and local zones of weakness. In addition, the Pantelleria Rift causes a rotation of the regional NW-SE stress orientation to NNE along the northern rim of the rift system, including large on-shore areas in the adjacent central south Sicily.

  12. [The mummification in Sicily during the late Modern Age (XVIII-XIX century)].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio; Giuffra, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    Sicily is one of the Italian regions richest in mummified corpses. In addition to the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, a true unicum for their exceptional number of individuals, several other mummies collections, dated back to the late Modern Age, are present in many churches, convents and funerary chapels. The Sicilian mummies are the result of a particular treatment, obtained by drying the body in favourable microclimatic conditions without evisceration, a method which permitted equally to achieve a good state of preservation. The mummification was an extremely diffuse phenomenon in Sicily during the 18th and 19th centuries, not only among the privileged classes, but also among the middle-class. Besides the "Cappuccini Catacombs" of Palermo, at present the sites of Sicilian mummies known in scientific literature are restricted to Comiso (Ragusa) and Savoca (Messina); up to now in fact this historical-biological heritage has not been properly surveyed. In this article we present the first results of a survey carried out in the Messina's province during July 2005. The research enabled us to investigate this cultural phenomenon, to document the architectural structures appointed to the mummification process and to enrich the knowledge about the presence of mummified bodies in eastern Sicily during the Modern Age.

  13. Mitochondrial lineage sorting in action – historical biogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genes are among the most commonly used markers in studies of species’ phylogeography and to draw conclusions about taxonomy. The Hyles euphorbiae complex (HEC) comprises six distinct mitochondrial lineages in the Mediterranean region, of which one exhibits a cryptic disjunct distribution. The predominant mitochondrial lineage in most of Europe, euphorbiae, is also present on Malta; however, it is nowadays strangely absent from Southern Italy and Sicily, where it is replaced by 'italica'. A separate biological entity in Italy is further corroborated by larval colour patterns with a congruent, confined suture zone along the Northern Apennines. By means of historic DNA extracted from museum specimens, we aimed to investigate the evolution of the mitochondrial demographic structure of the HEC in Italy and Malta throughout the Twentieth Century. Results At the beginning of the Twentieth Century, the European mainland lineages were also present at a moderate frequency in Southern Italy and Sicily. The proportion of 'italica' then steadily increased in this area from below 60 percent to near fixation in about 120 years. Thus, geographical sorting of mitochondrial lineages in the HEC was not as complete then as the current demography suggests. The pattern of an integral 'italica' core region and a disjunct euphorbiae distribution evolved very recently. To explain these strong demographic changes, we propose genetic drift due to anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation in combination with an impact from recent climate warming that favoured the spreading of the potentially better adapted 'italica' populations. Conclusions The pattern of geographically separated mitochondrial lineages is commonly interpreted as representing long term separated entities. However, our results indicate that such a pattern can emerge surprisingly quickly, even in a widespread and rather common taxon. We thus caution against drawing hasty taxonomic conclusions from

  14. [Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].

    PubMed

    Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of

  15. Religious slaughter in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Mattiacci, C; De Angelis, G; Marini, P; Cuccurese, A; Rossi, R; Catanese, B

    2010-06-01

    This research aims to understand the prevalence of religious slaughter practices in Italy. Two different ways of slaughtering animals are identified. Conventional slaughter is performed with prior stunning; kosher slaughter is practiced without stunning. Halal slaughter is performed for most animals without stunning. Halal slaughter with prior stunning is acceptable for 5.90% of small ruminants. For Halal slaughter in Italy, the terms "religious slaughter with stunning" and "religious slaughter without stunning" should be used to differentiate religious slaughter practices, keeping animal welfare in perspective.

  16. Recent, allopatric, homoploid hybrid speciation: the origin of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae) in the British Isles from a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily.

    PubMed

    James, Juliet K; Abbott, Richard J

    2005-12-01

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs through stabilization of a hybrid segregate (or segregates) isolated by premating and/or postmating barriers from parent taxa. Theory predicts that ecological and spatial isolation are of critical importance during homoploid hybrid speciation, and all confirmed homoploid hybrid species are ecologically isolated from their parents. Until recently, such species have been identified long after they originated, and consequently it has not been possible to determine the relative importance of spatial and ecological isolation during their origin. Here we present evidence for the recent origin (within the past 300 years) of a new homoploid hybrid species, Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae), in the British Isles, following long-distance dispersal of hybrid material from a hybrid zone between S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius on Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy. Historical records show that such hybrid material from Sicily was introduced to the Oxford Botanic Garden in Britain in the early part of the 18th century and that S. squalidus began to spread from there after approximately 90 years. A survey of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA/intersimple sequence repeats (RAPD/ISSR) marker variation demonstrated that S. squalidus is a diploid hybrid derivative of S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius that grow at high and low altitudes, respectively, on Mount Etna and that form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes. Senecio squalidus contained 11 of 13 RAPD/ISSR markers that were recorded at high frequency in S. chrysanthemifolius but were absent or occurred at low frequency in S. aethnensis, and 10 of 13 markers for which the reverse was true. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that all individuals of S. squalidus surveyed were of mixed ancestry with relatively high mean proportions of ancestry derived from both S. chrysanthemifolius and S. aethnensis (0.644 and 0.356, respectively). We argue that long-distance isolation of hybrid material from

  17. Beginning Reading in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Teaching practices in Italy, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…

  18. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  19. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996

    PubMed Central

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844

  20. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  1. Assessment of mercury exposure in human populations: A status report from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Barra, Marco; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigate mercury concentrations in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human hair (HgH) of 224 individuals from a coastal area (Eastern Sicily, SE Italy) strongly affected by Hg contamination from one of the largest chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The factors affecting the distribution of Hg and the extent of the exposure of individuals have been explored with a multidisciplinary approach. Multiple regression analyses, together with evidence of high levels of HgB (exceeding the HBMI recommended levels in 50% of cases) and HgH (exceeding the EPA reference dose in 70% of cases), primarily suggest that the consumption of local fish is the main source of Hg for humans. no. significant exposure to inorganic mercury was identified. Toxicokinetic calculations produced a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level that, in most cases, exceeds international recommendations, particularly for residents in the studied area.

  2. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  3. Tracing mercury pathways in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) by total concentration and isotope determination.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M; Tamburrino, S; Oliveri, E; Marchetti, A; Durante, C; Berni, A; Quinci, E; Sprovieri, M

    2015-10-01

    The mercury (Hg) pollution of sediments is the main carrier of Hg for the biota and, subsequently, for the local fish consumers in Augusta Bay area (SE Sicily, Italy), a coastal marine system affected by relevant sewage from an important chlor-alkali factory. This relationship was revealed by the determination of Mass Dependent (MDF) and Mass Independent Fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in sediment, fish and human hair samples. Sediments showed MDF but no MIF, while fish showed MIF, possibly due to photochemical reduction in the water column and depending on the feeding habitat of the species. Benthic and demersal fish exhibited MDF similar to that of sediments in which anthropogenic Hg was deposited, while pelagic organisms evidenced higher MDF and MIF due to photoreduction. Human hair showed high values of δ(202)Hg (offset of +2.2‰ with respect to the consumed fish) and Δ(199)Hg, both associated to fish consumption.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  5. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

  6. Salinization processes in a coastal aquifer system (Siracusa, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti Caputo, D.; Vaccaro, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Syracuse area (Southeastern Sicily, Italy) is famous since ancient times for its natural springs, like Aretusa and Ciane, as well as for the hydraulic management handicraft know from 480 B.C. Unfortunately, the recent hyper-exploitation of the underground water resources and the concomitant decrease of the precipitations caused a general lowering of the piezometric level of the aquifers therefore enhancing the intrusion of marine salty waters. In the present work, numerous hydrochemical parameters have been investigated, among which the pH, the total dissolved solid, the electric conductivity, the temperature and the concentration of Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl and SO4. The data have been collected from five well fields located at different distances from the coast. Analyses have been performed in order to understand the relationships between the intense exploitation and the geochemical characteristics of the underground water resources. Our results obtained by applying classical geochemical methodologies integrated with techniques of multivariate statistics emphasise, firstly, the predominance of the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical facies. Secondly, we could determine the evolution of mixing phenomena between salty and fresh waters approaching the coast line (San Nicola field). This behaviour is mainly associated to the pumping increase. Obviously, this intrusive process characterised by chlorides concentrations larger than 2000 mg/l affects all the coastal natural environment and generates severe problems to the entire aqueduct network.

  7. Application and comparison of tsunami vulnerability models in the gulf of Siracusa, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano; Rallo, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, that according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Hyblean-Malta escarpment and by local and remote (Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason the area of Siracusa and Augusta has been selected as one of the test sites where to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this context, this work focuses on the tsunami vulnerability of buildings that are found in the coastal zone subject to inundation in the Gulf of Siracusa. The classification of buildings is carried out following two different schemes, namely the SCHEMA and PTVA (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment) method. The former was developed in the frame of the EU project SCHEMA and applied to a number of sites, including the city of Catania which is located along the same coast of Sicily, to the north of the area under study here. The latter was proposed by Papathoma (2003) and applied in the original form in the city of Heraklion, Crete, and in subsequent refined versions in Stromboli, Tyrrhenian sea, and in other regions of the world (United States, Australia and Indian Ocean). In our study, the classification of buildings in the potentially flooded areas starts from digital databases (e.g. CTR and CTN) produced by the region of Sicily, which provides building size and location and some other few parameters. In a second step, use is made of satellite imagery which allows a better classification, usually sufficient for the SCHEMA method but not for the PTVA approach. The next step consists in a field survey in the most exposed areas to determine the attributes necessary for the PTVA method and also to confirm the data obtained in the second step. This study highlights similarities and differences of the two vulnerability models, also posing attention to the resources that each classification

  8. Interplay of plate convergence and arc migration in the central Mediterranean (Sicily and Calabria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2016-04-01

    Key components in the current geodynamic setting of the central Mediterranean are continuous, slow Africa-Eurasia plate convergence (~5 mm/yr) and arc migration. This combination encompasses roll-back, tearing and detachment of slabs, and leads to back-arc opening and orogeny. Since ~30 Ma the Apennnines-Calabrian and Gibraltar subduction zones have shaped the western-central Mediterranean region. Lithospheric tearing near slab edges and the accompanying surface expressions (STEP faults) are key in explaining surface dynamics as observed in geologic, geophysical and geodetic data. In the central Mediterranean, both the narrow Calabrian subduction zone and the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front show convergence, with a transfer (shear) zone connecting the distinct SW edge of the former with the less distinct, eastern limit of the latter (similar, albeit on a smaller scale, to the situation in New Zealand with oppositely verging subduction zones and the Alpine fault as the transfer shear zone). The ~NNW-SSE oriented transfer zone (Aeolian-Sisifo-Tindari(-Ionian) fault system) shows transtensive-to-strike slip motion. Recent seismicity, geological data and GPS vectors in the central Mediterranean indicate that the region can be subdivided into several distinct domains, both on- and offshore, delineated by deformation zones and faults. However, there is discussion about the (relative) importance of some of these faults on the lithospheric scale. We focus on finding the best-fitting assembly of faults for the transfer zone connecting subduction beneath Calabria and convergence north of Sicily in the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front. This includes determining whether the Alfeo-Etna fault, Malta Escarpment and/or Ionian fault, which have all been suggested to represent the STEP fault of the Calabrian subduction zone, are key in describing the observed deformation patterns. We first focus on the present-day. We use geodynamic models to reproduce observed GPS

  9. Isolation and characterization of unusual Mycoplasma spp. from captive Eurasian Griffon (Gyps fulvus) in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Loria, G R; Ferrantelli, E; Giardina, G; Li Vecchi, L; Sparacino, L; Oliveri, F; McAuliffe, L; Nicholas, R A J

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasmas have been isolated from birds of prey during clinical examinations, but their significance to the health of raptors is unclear. We report the isolation and characterization of four mycoplasmas found in the upper respiratory tract of four sick Eurasian Griffon (Gyps fulvus) that were housed in a Sicilian rehabilitation center at Ficuzza, near Palermo in Sicily, before reintroduction into the wild. These included Mycoplasma gallinarum, an unidentified mycoplasma highly similar to Mycoplasma glycophilum, and two unidentified mycoplasmas with similarities to Mycoplasma falconis and Mycoplasma gateae.

  10. Helping Children Deal with Trauma and Terrorism. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes selected ERIC documents, journal articles, and World Wide Web resources that discuss ways to help children deal with traumatic events, both natural and human-caused, including the effects of terrorism. (DLH)

  11. Photographer: Dominic Hart/Eric James Congressman Norm Mineta and Congresswomen Anna Escho Visit Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Photographer: Dominic Hart/Eric James Congressman Norm Mineta and Congresswomen Anna Escho Visit Bay Area & Monte Vista High School, Cupertino, California to promote communications superhighway along with VP Al Gore

  12. ERIC/ChESS: Participatory Citizenship in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes instructional resources that are available through the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) system for teaching effective citizen participation. Materials highlight decision making, reflective thinking and civic responsibility. Includes two curriculum guides and a simulation for citizenship decision making. (SLM)

  13. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  14. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  16. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  17. Hb Southern Italy: coexistence of two missence mutations (the Hb Sun Prairie alpha2 130 Ala --> Pro and Hb Caserta alpha2 26 Ala --> Thr) in a single HBA2 gene.

    PubMed

    Passarello, Cristina; Giambona, Antonino; Prossomariti, Luciano; Ammirabile, Massimiliano; Pucci, Piero; Renda, Disma; Pagano, Leonilde; Maggio, Aurelio

    2008-10-01

    This study describes a new molecular condition in the alpha(2)-globin gene (HBA2) found in six unrelated families from Southern Italy (Campania and Sicily). This new double mutant form of haemoglobin is called Hb Southern Italy and originated from the coexistence of two known mutations occurring in the same globin gene, HBA2 26 G-->A (Hb Caserta) and HBA2 130 G-->C (Hb Sun Prairie). Hb Sun Prairie was originally observed in Indian patients in either the homozygous state, with severe hemolytic anemia, and in the heterozygous state with microcytosis, or in asymptomatic cases as an alpha-thalassemia carrier phenotype. Hb Caserta was observed for the first time in a Casertian family (South Italy) that displayed a slowmigrating haemoglobin upon investigation. We report the clinical phenotype and molecular study of this new double mutant form of haemoglobin in heterozygous and homozygous subjects, as well as in association with alpha degrees delectional thalassemia.

  18. Review of the Italian current legislation on research biobanking activities on the eve of the participation of national biobanks’ network in the legal consortium BBMRI-ERIC.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Alessia; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The ethical-legal framework of research biobanking activities is still scarcely defined in Italy, and this constitutes a major obstacle to exploit the potential benefits of existing bioresource patrimony at the national and international levels. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI), which aims to become a major interface between biological samples and data and top-level biological and medical research, is undertaking the crucial transformation to the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) legal entity. In this scenario, there is a need to address the national legal and ethical concerns that are strictly correlated with the use of human biosources in research across European countries participating (and not) in BBMRI. In this perspective, this article aims to review the legal framework applying to research biobanking in Italy, including both "soft" nonbinding instruments and binding regulations. Since ethical and societal aspects impact biobanking research activities, the article discusses both the critical ethical and legal open issues that need to be implemented at the national level.

  19. Review of the Italian Current Legislation on Research Biobanking Activities on the Eve of the Participation of National Biobanks' Network in the Legal Consortium BBMRI-ERIC

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Alessia; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2013-01-01

    The ethical-legal framework of research biobanking activities is still scarcely defined in Italy, and this constitutes a major obstacle to exploit the potential benefits of existing bioresource patrimony at the national and international levels. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI), which aims to become a major interface between biological samples and data and top-level biological and medical research, is undertaking the crucial transformation to the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) legal entity. In this scenario, there is a need to address the national legal and ethical concerns that are strictly correlated with the use of human biosources in research across European countries participating (and not) in BBMRI. In this perspective, this article aims to review the legal framework applying to research biobanking in Italy, including both “soft” nonbinding instruments and binding regulations. Since ethical and societal aspects impact biobanking research activities, the article discusses both the critical ethical and legal open issues that need to be implemented at the national level. PMID:23840925

  20. Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia Sardinia Sicily area during spring 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammari, C.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Stefani, A.; Brahim, M.

    1999-10-01

    Within the framework of the Tunisian - EC SALTO/AVICENNE project, four hydrological sections were performed between Tunisia, Sardinia and Sicily with a 10-20 km sampling interval in April-June 1995. To our knowledge, it is the first time that sections were repeated there at such a high frequency. These data significantly increase the number of observations available on the Tunisian side of the Channels of Sardinia and Sicily, and allow reliable specification of the hydrological characteristics of the area. For the first time, and as confirmed by infrared satellite images, these data sets show (i) the large mesoscale variability of the surface flow entering the study area, as expected from the characteristics of the Algerian Current upstream, (ii) the rapid changes it undergoes around northeastern Tunisia, as it shifts roughly from southward to eastward within less than a few weeks. These data also show a large heterogeneity at intermediate levels, clearly associated with waters of very different origins that follow converging routes and mix in both the study area and the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. They finally document the fundamental importance of bathymetric features of relatively small scale such as the Skerki passage.

  1. Analysis of subsidence and modeling of Oil Formation in the Ragusa basin (Iblean Plateau, southeast Sicily)

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, I.; Brosse, E.; Delahaye, S.; Roure, F. ); Mattavelli, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The Iblean plateau (southeastern Sicily) was part of the Apulian (African) margin of the Ligurian Tethys during the Mesozoic and played the role of a foreland during the Tertiary Alpine compression. From the Tortonian until the Holocene, the Apulian platform has been subducting northward underneath the European plate. Both the thickness and nature of the Apulian crust are poorly known. Subsurface data, from wildcat wells in the Ragusa petroleum basin, and backstripping have been used to quantify the vertical movements and thinning of the Apulian margin in southeastern Sicily. After quiet tectonics during the Middle Triassic, a rifting phase was initiated in the Hettangien, and lasted until the end of the Lias. Tectonic synrift subsidence can be great (up to 800 m in the wells analyzed). By contrast, the postrift subsidence, which gives an image of the lithospheric thermal anomaly, is very low. Comparison with some other current passive margin evolution, such as the Gulf of Lions, suggests that the Iblean plateau remained quite far away from the main axis of the rift. In this general tectonic context, the burial history of the source rocks, i,e., the Noto (Rhaetian) and Streppenosa (mainly Hettangien) formations are quite different from one area of the Ragusa basin to another. Early Jurassic subsidence rates were relatively higher in the center and in the south, and this could have resulted in early oil kitchens in local grabens. On the contrary, in the north, oil formation is a very recent phenomenon, induced by the overthrust of the Maghrebidic (Apenninic) nappes.

  2. The relationships between soft-sediment deformation structures and synsedimentary extensional tectonics in Upper Triassic deep-water carbonate succession (Southern Tethyan rifted continental margin - Central Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio; Gasparo Morticelli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    We describe soft-sediment deformation structures into the Upper Triassic cherty limestone outcropping in the Pizzo Lupo section (Central Sicily, Italy), pertaining to the deep-water palaeodomain of the Southern Tethyan margin. In the study section, mainly consisting of thin-bedded mudstone/marl alternations with bedded chert intercalations, some lithofacies have been separated on the basis of the abundance of the calcium carbonate/clay content and the overall textural features. The deformational structures, displaying different deformational styles as folded and faulted beds, disturbed layers, clastic dikes, and slumps occur mainly in the deformed horizons that involve marl-dominated lithofacies. Small-scale water-escape structures involve beds with nodular fabric. Synsedimentary faults affect the mud-limestone dominated lithofacies, which are characterized by fault-rotating blocks producing lateral thinning. These bodies appear to have moved coherently along an overall planar surface. We relate these soft-sediment deformations to slump sheets, associated with down-slope sliding of sedimentary masses. The deformation mechanism and driving force for these soft-sediment deformations are due essentially to gravitational instability and dewatering. Detailing, rotational (slump) and translational (glide) slides and water-escape are the main processes causing the distinguished deformational styles. The synsedimentary extensional tectonics that affected the Upper Triassic pelagic deposits was the triggering process responsible for the instability of the seafloor inducing loss of coherence of the unconsolidated sediments on the sea bottom, developing a large number of gravity-driven slides. The analysis of both of these SSDSs and their relationships with the structural scenario allow us to hypothesise that they are seismically-induced.

  3. Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like substances and selected brominated flame retardant congeners in the fat and livers of black pigs farmed within the Nebrodi Regional Park of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Iacovella, Nicola; Abate, Vittorio; Aronica, Vincenzo; Di Marco, Vincenzo; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    An observational study was designed to assess the bioaccumulation of polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCB), and 13 selected polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in autochthonous pigs reared in the Nebrodi Park of Sicily (Italy). Perirenal fat and liver samples were drawn from animals representative of three different outdoor farming systems and from wild pigs and then analyzed for the chemicals mentioned previously. The highest concentrations of PCDD + PCDF and DL-PCB were detected in the fat (0.45 and 0.35 pg World Health Organization toxicity equivalents [WHO-TE] per g of fat base [FB], respectively) and livers (12.7 and 3.28 pg WHO-TE per g FB) of the wild group, whereas the free-ranging group showed the lowest levels (0.05 and 0.03 pg WHO-TE per g FB in fat and 0.78 and 0.27 pg WHO-TE per g FB in livers). The sum of PBDE congeners was highest in wild pigs (0.52 ng/g FB in fat and 5.64 ng/g FB in livers) and lowest in the farmed group (0.14 ng/g FB in fat and 0.28 ng/g FB in livers). The contamination levels in fat and livers of outdoor pigs had mean concentration values lower than those levels reported for intensively indoor-farmed animals. In wild pigs, bioaccumulation was associated with their free grazing in areas characterized by bush fires. The results of this study aid to emphasize the quality of the environment as a factor to guarantee food safety in typical processed pig meat products, specifically from outdoor and extensive Nebrodi farming systems.

  4. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  5. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  6. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  7. Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science

  8. Middle Pleistocene ostracod assemblages from Lake Trasimeno, Perugia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiano, Marta; Gliozzi, Elsa; Buratti, Nicoletta; Ariztegui, Daniel; Cirilli, Simonetta

    2014-05-01

    Sicily and now in the Panicarola core (this study) suggesting most probably a period of cool waters. Further ostracod identifications as well as geochemical analyses on their valves will provide a more detailed reconstruction of the timing and magnitude of paleoclimatic changes in central Italy.

  9. Rpas and Tls Tecniques for Archaeological Survey: the Case Study of the Archaeological Site of Eraclea Minoa (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Sciortino, R.; Garraffa, A.

    2017-02-01

    Digital documentation and 3D modelling of archaeological sites are important for understanding, definition and recognition of the values of the sites and of the archaeological finds. The most part of archaeological sites are outdoor location, but a cover to preserve the ruins protects often parts of the sites. The possibility to acquire data with different techniques and merge them by using a single reference system allows creating multi-parties models in which 3D representations of the individual objects can be inserted. The paper presents the results of a recent study carried out by Geomatics Laboratory of University of Palermo for the digital documentation and 3D modelling of Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. This site is located near Agrigento, in the south of Sicily (Italy) and is one of the most famous ancient Greek colonies of Sicily. The paper presents the results of the integration of different data source to survey the Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. The application of two highly versatile recording systems, the TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) and the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System), allowed the Eraclea Minoa site to be documented in high resolution and with high accuracy. The integration of the two techniques has demonstrated the possibility to obtain high quality and accurate 3D models in archaeological survey.

  10. OTIS Basic Index Access System (OBIAS); A System for Retrieval of Information From the ERIC and CIJE Data Bases Utilizing a Direct Access Inverted Index of Descriptors and a Reformatted Direct Access ERIC-CIJE File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Paula

    The OTIS Basic Index Access System (OBIAS) for searching the ERIC data base is described. This system offers two advantages over the previous system. First, search time has been halved, reducing the cost per search to an estimated $10 on a batch basis. Second, the "OTIS ERIC Descripter Catalog" which contains all descriptors used in the…

  11. The Retriever, Volume 1, Number 1, Fall 1966. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools (CRESS) Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    The Educational Research Information Center (ERIC) is an educational information retrieval system. ERIC represents a decentralized, nationwide network of information Clearinghouses. Each Clearinghouse has its own area of subject specialization and retrieval responsibility, and is committed to acquiring, abstracting, indexing, storing, retrieving,…

  12. An Interactive Information Retrieval System; Case Studies on the Use of DIALOG to Search the ERIC Document File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timbie, Michele; Coombs, Don H.

    The first interactive (on-line) computerized use of the ERIC files by the U.S. Office of Education is reported in the form of an evaluation of the DIALOG system conducted at the ERIC Clearinghouse for Educational Media and Technology. Descriptions of the purposes of the study, of the DIALOG system (developed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co.),…

  13. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 2, Lesson 1-Introduction to Indexing; Lesson 2-How to Index a Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    This volume contains the first two lessons of a course in subject indexing based upon the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Thesaurus, Lesson 1 is an introduction to indexing, containing definitions and concepts related to the theory of indexing and information retrieval as well as an introduction to the ERIC Thesaurus. Lesson 2 is…

  14. Project To Design a Marketing Plan for Promoting Educators' Awareness of and Access to ERIC Products. Proposed Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The proposed strategy, which is designed to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the costs of marketing the Information Analysis Products (IAPs) produced by the 16 ERIC Clearinghouses, is based on a study of the concept of centralized versus decentralized ordering of selected ERIC products. The experiment measured four variables--postage,…

  15. A Parent's Guide to the ERIC Database. Where To Turn with Your Questions about Schooling. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; And Others

    This guide explains what the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database is and how it can be used by parents to learn more about schooling and parenting. The guide also presents sample records of 55 documents in the ERIC database. The cited resources are particularly relevant to parents' concerns about meeting children's basic needs,…

  16. Project To Design a Marketing Plan for Promoting Educators' Awareness of and Access to ERIC Products: Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Designed to assess the current and potential markets for ERIC products and develop a marketing plan based on the study findings, the project described obtained data through two surveys, as well as background information from the National Institute of Education. Interviews with ERIC Clearinghouse staff during site visits provided data on the…

  17. Integrated management of TYLCV/TYLCSV on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, A; Ferrara, L; Caligiuri, G; Comes, S; Momol, M T; Olson, S M; Crescenzi, A

    2006-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), vectored by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, is a major disease of tomato in Sardinia and Sicily, and is becoming a serious threat in Southern Italy too. TYLCSV was first reported in Calabria region in 1991, but apparently it was an occasional outbreak, and B. tabaci was not detected. Later, during the 2003-2004 winter, a serious epidemic was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Cosenza province. TYLCV was first described in Sicily in 2003 and during 2004 in continental Italy. Both viruses were detected in winter 2005-2006 on the Basilicata Ionic coast, in the Metapontum area, both in protected and in open field tomato crops. Experiments were conducted in Calabria Region, Southern Italy, under controlled conditions in a group of greenhouses where several tomato crops were grown hydroponically to determine the separate and integrated effects of UV-reflective mulch (UVRM), Acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) and the two insecticides Imidacloprid (ADMIRE 2F) and Thiamethoxam (ACTARA 25WG). Highly UV-reflective mulch covered plots were treated with Actigard and insecticides, both alone or in combination. TYLC disease incidence was determined from late August 2005 to late January 2006. The highly UVRM alone was effective in reducing disease incidence of about 28.6% at the end of October, and of 31.7% at the end of January. However, Actigard with UVRM significantly reduced TYLC disease incidence to 70% and 48.5%, in 2 months and 5 months after the first treatment, respectively. The insecticides with UVRM, resulted in a moderate reduction of disease incidence (22.5%) at the end of October. At the end of January a reduction in disease incidence due to insecticide applications was not significant. The use of Actigard combined with the insecticides on UVRM reduced the disease incidence (63.4% with Admire and 56.1% with Actara) at the end

  18. Atmospheric Stability & Turbulence from Temperature Profiles over Sicily During Summer 2002 & 2003 HASI Balloon Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Angrilli, F.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results and interpretation of the temperature measurements data retrieved during the balloon campaigns (in 2002 and in 2003) for testing HASI (Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument), launched from the Italian Space Agency Base in Trapani (Sicily), are presented. Both ascending and descending phases are analysed; data reveal interesting features near the tropopause (present in the region between 11km-14km), where temperature cooling can be related to layers with strong winds (2002 flight); in the troposphere a multistratified structure of the temperature field is observed and discussed (particularly in the 2003 flight) Finally, stability and turbulence of the atmosphere are analysed; the buoyancy N2 parameters for both the flights show lowers value respect to standard tropospheric values corresponding to a lower stability of the atmosphere; still there is a higher stability above the tropopause. The energy spectrum of temperature data is consistent with the Kolmogorov theory: the characteristic k(sup -5/3) behaviour is reproduced.

  19. [Acute poisoning with methomyl and other pesticides in the province of Ragusa, Sicily].

    PubMed

    Miceli, G; Ravalli, P; Settimi, L; Ballard, T J; Bascherini, S

    2001-01-01

    In 1995-96, the Occupational Medicine Service of the province of Ragusa, Sicily, examined all cases of pesticide poisonings among persons seen in two local emergency departments, identifying 86 cases due to unintentional pesticide exposure. Methomyl, a highly toxic carbamate, was indicated for 51% of all cases. The most frequently reported symptoms included nausea and vomiting (48%), excessive perspiration (33%), and dyspnea (16%). Fifty-nine cases (69%) were hospitalized, 5 in intensive care. The methomyl cases occurred more frequently during summer months while the cases from all other pesticides showed no seasonal patterns. These observations point out the relevance of identifying acute pesticide poisonings in the province of Ragusa and suggest that ongoing registration of these events should be a public health priority.

  20. Integrated three-dimensional models for noninvasive monitoring and valorization of the Morgantina silver treasure (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberghina, Maria Francesca; Alberghina, Filippo; Allegra, Dario; Di Paola, Francesco; Maniscalco, Laura; Milazzo, Giuseppe; Milotta, Filippo L. M.; Pellegrino, Lorella; Schiavone, Salvatore; Stanco, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The Morgantina silver treasure belonging to the Archaeological Museum of Aidone (Sicily) was involved in a three-dimensional (3-D) survey and diagnostics campaign for monitoring the collection over time in anticipation of their temporary transfer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York for a period of 4 years. Using a multidisciplinary approach, a scientific and methodological protocol based on noninvasive techniques to achieve a complete and integrated knowledge of the precious items and their conservation state, as well as to increase their valorization, has been developed. All acquired data, i.e., 3-D models, ultraviolet fluorescence, x-ray images, and chemical information, will be made available, in an integrated way, within a web-oriented platform, which will present an in-progress tool to deepen existing archaeological knowledge and production technologies and to obtain referenced information of the conservation state before and after moving of the collection from its exposure site.

  1. Neolithic ceramic findings from western Sicily. Chemical-physical and mineralogical characterization.

    PubMed

    Rivarola, E; Bellia, S; Donato, I D; Orecchio, S; Ponterio, R; Tusa, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that is part of a wider research program regarding the knowledge of the initial living phases of Sicilian agricultural and pastoral societies. Three ceramic samples attributed to the medium initial Neolithic (NEO1 and NEO2) and to the first neolithic (NEO3), recovered in two different archaeological sites of the western Sicily, have been analysed. Chemical, mineralogical and spectroscopic data point out a similarity between NEO1 and NEO3 samples; compositional and morphological differences instead have been observed in the NEO2 sample. The firing temperatures of the samples have been estimated by Mössbauer spectroscopy; they are lower than 500 degrees C for the samples NEO1 and NEO3, and about 700 degrees C for NEO2.

  2. Uniparental Markers in Italy Reveal a Sex-Biased Genetic Structure and Different Historical Strata

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Harmant, Christine; Useli, Antonella; Sanz, Paula; Yang-Yao, Daniele; Manry, Jeremy; Ciani, Graziella; Luiselli, Donata; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David; Pettener, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Located in the center of the Mediterranean landscape and with an extensive coastal line, the territory of what is today Italy has played an important role in the history of human settlements and movements of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Populated since Paleolithic times, the complexity of human movements during the Neolithic, the Metal Ages and the most recent history of the two last millennia (involving the overlapping of different cultural and demic strata) has shaped the pattern of the modern Italian genetic structure. With the aim of disentangling this pattern and understanding which processes more importantly shaped the distribution of diversity, we have analyzed the uniparentally-inherited markers in ∼900 individuals from an extensive sampling across the Italian peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily. Spatial PCAs and DAPCs revealed a sex-biased pattern indicating different demographic histories for males and females. Besides the genetic outlier position of Sardinians, a North West–South East Y-chromosome structure is found in continental Italy. Such structure is in agreement with recent archeological syntheses indicating two independent and parallel processes of Neolithisation. In addition, date estimates pinpoint the importance of the cultural and demographic events during the late Neolithic and Metal Ages. On the other hand, mitochondrial diversity is distributed more homogeneously in agreement with older population events that might be related to the presence of an Italian Refugium during the last glacial period in Europe. PMID:23734255

  3. Feline lungworm Oslerus rostratus (Strongylida: Filaridae) in Italy: first case report and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Giannelli, Alessio; Annoscia, Giada; Varcasia, Antonio; Giannetto, Salvatore; Mazzullo, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-10-01

    Oslerus rostratus syn. Anafilaroides rostratus (Strongylida: Filaroididae) is a metastrongyloid transmitted by snails, which localizes in peri-bronchial tissues and in the lung parenchyma of wild as well as domestic cats. In Europe, this nematode has been reported only on two occasions, being diagnosed in cats from Majorca Island and in northern Spain. Here, we describe a case of O. rostratus infection in a necropsied 4-year-old cat in Sicily (southern Italy). At the inspection of lungs, slender and greyish nematodes (four females and two males) were found embedded in the peri-bronchial tissues and in the bronchial walls. Parasites were morphological and molecularly identified as O. rostratus, with their 18S sequences being identical among them and showing a high homology (99%) with those available in public databases. At the histology, nematodes were encapsulated in a pseudo-cystic formation surrounded by an interstitial inflammatory process and fibrous tissue. Lung lesions were mainly represented by peri-luminal fibrosis, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the bronchial mucosa and glands, respectively. This first record of O. rostratus infection from Italy indicates that this parasite should be included in the differential diagnosis of feline of lungworm infection.

  4. Benthic Foraminifera as bio-indicators of anthropogenic impacts in coastal environments: Acqua dei Corsari area case study (Palermo, Italy).

    PubMed

    Musco, Marianna; Cuttitta, Angela; Bicchi, Erica; Quinci, Enza Maria; Sprovieri, Mario; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Traina, Anna; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gherardi, Serena; Mercurio, Pietro; Siragusa, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2017-04-15

    This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TSstd). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station. Diversity and density of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were not affected by the presence of pollutants, while tolerant species increased with organic (TOC and PAHs) or chemical (As and Pb) concentrations. Moreover, the calibration of the %TSstd formula to >125μm foraminiferal assemblage, gives a detailed description of environmental quality along the transect, representing a good and sensitive tool to evaluate marine coastal environment.

  5. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  6. Straight talk with... Eric Green. Interview by Erica Westly.

    PubMed

    Green, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Eric Green, the new head of the US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), has been involved with genomics since the term was first coined in the 1980s. He started at the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a postdoc and was a key contributor to the Human Genome Project. Nearly a decade ago, when Green was part of a team that produced one of the first human genome sequences, the potential for genomics-related medical applications seemed limitless. But most disorders have proved to be too complex to benefit from our current understanding of genomics, and some critics have argued that researchers have put too much emphasis on uncovering the genetic underpinnings of diseases. Recent demand for comparative effectiveness research in medicine has further complicated the debate, leading former head of NHGRI Francis Collins to worry that genomic differences could get "lost in the wash." Erica Westly spoke with Green about where he sees the genomics field heading and what role he thinks the NHGRI should have in the American health care system.

  7. Gastric cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

    1991-01-01

    Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.

  8. Foreword: The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) (Erice, 20 26 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, Giorgio; Vattuone, Luca

    2008-06-01

    The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) took place from 20 26 July 2007 as an event of the International School of Solid State Physics at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice (Italy). The format and special environment of the conference have contributed to its transition from a traditional, medium-size conference into a more effective workshop, with a series of lectures reporting the most recent developments in the field, two poster sessions presenting recent results and even works in progress being discussed. The papers collected in this issue cover the highlights of the conference very thoroughly. Quite a few novel aspects concerning vibrations at surfaces are represented here, for example: new aspects in surface phonon spectroscopy, such as the very recent progress in inelastic x-ray scattering, the first observation of the boson peak in disordered surfaces, progress in the theory of atom scattering inelastic resonances, the action spectroscopy, the study of polycrystalline surfaces with electron energy-loss spectroscopy etc; parallel developments in experimental vibrational studies of adsorbed phases, either inorganic or organic, with those in ab initio theoretical simulations; the theory of enhanced electron--phonon interaction in low dimensions (2D and 1D); the extension from the traditional realm of surface vibrations and spectroscopy to other aspects of surface dynamics, like friction and various nonlinear effects, and to relevant dynamical phenomena occurring at interfaces. Other novelties presented at the conference, but already published in recent issues of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, are also worth mentioning: the spin-echo spectroscopy with 3He allowing for slow-dynamics spectroscopy at very high, unprecedented resolutions (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19 300301 and 305010; the first demonstration of dissociative surface trapping of molecules (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19

  9. The interdisciplinary role of space geodesy; Proceedings of the International Workshop, Erice, Italy, July 23-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Ivan I. (Editor); Zerbini, Susanna (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The current status of space geodesy and research plans for the 1990s are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to the short-term and long-term dynamics of the solid earth, interactions between space geodesy and other disciplines and programs (geodynamics, earth structure, ocean physics, atmosphere and climate, planetary science, and fundamental physics), instrumentation, data analysis, reference coordinate systems, and education. Also provided are overviews of the French, ESA, and NASA geodetic research programs and descriptions of the Soviet Glonass navigation satellites, the WEGENER/MEDLAS observation program, and the Lageos II laser-ranging satellites. Diagrams, graphs, maps, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  10. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  11. Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

  12. Rediscovery and identity of Pumilomyia protrahenda De Stefani (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in Sicily with redescription and reassessment of its taxonomic position

    PubMed Central

    Skuhravá, Marcela; Massa, Bruno; Cerasa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A population of the gall midge Pumilomyia protrahenda De Stefani, 1919 causing galls on Artemisia arborescens (Asteraceae) was discovered near Palermo (Sicily) in 2008. This species had not been found since 1918. Detailed study of morphological characters of adults, larvae and pupae revealed that Pumilomyia protrahenda belongs to the genus Rhopalomyia Rübsaamen, 1892, tribe Rhopalomyiini. The monotypic genus Pumilomyia De Stefani, 1919 is therefore synonymized under Rhopalomyia Rübsaamen, 1892. Rhopalomyia protrahenda comb. n. is redescribed, with important morphological characters illustrated. Adults have one-segmented palpi, antennae with 12–13 short flagellomeres and long legs with simple tarsal claws. A neotype is designated in the present paper because the type of this species is lost. The host plant has a circum-Mediterranean distribution but the gall midge is currently known only from Sicily, where it completes several generations between January and May. PMID:27667957

  13. Geochemistry and habitat of the oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. )

    1990-10-01

    All varieties of liquid petroleum, ranging from condensates (> 50{degree}API) to immature sulfur-rich heavy oils (as low as 5{degree} API), have been found in Italy. However, nonbiodegraded heavy oils account for about 70% of the total original oil in place. Geochemical analyses indicate that 11 oil groups are present in the Italian basins and two main types of source rocks have been identified: Triassic carbonates and Tertiary shales. About 95% of the oils were originated from Middle and Upper Triassic carbonates containing type II kerogen (about 1% total organic carbon (TOC) and 500 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC). Only a relatively minor amount of oil was generated by Tertiary shales containing type III kerogen with TOC generally less than 1%. Timing of generation and migration and bulk properties of oils were controlled by geodynamic histories of the three main Italian geologic settings: (1) Apennine and Southern Alp thrust belts, (2) foredeep (depression bordering the thrust belts), and (3) foreland (nondeformed African continental margin). Within the Apennine thrust belts, deep burial during the Neogene resulted in the generation of substantially lighter oils, not only from deeply buried Triassic but sometimes also from Tertiary source rocks. In the late Neogene, foredeep depocenters located in the central Adriatic and southern Sicily, high subsidence (up to 1,000 m/m.y.), a low geothermal gradient (22C/km) and compressional tectonics caused the generation of immature heavy oils generally at depths below 5,000 m and temperatures greater than 100C. Rapid burial and higher geothermal gradients (32C/km), which occurred since the Jurassic, resulted in the generation of light oils from the Late Cretaceous to the Oligocene in the southern sector of Adriatic foreland.

  14. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  15. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) from the Ionian sandy coasts of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Conti, Erminia; Dattilo, Sandro; Costa, Giovanni; Puglisi, Concetto

    2016-07-01

    The Ionian beaches of Sicily are of particular ecological interest because they include the basin of the largest active volcano in Europe and hosts both sites subject to natural protection constraints, as well as important industrial settlements. Consequently, the possibilities for these areas to become polluted are numerous. The sandhopper Talitrus saltator has proven to be a good bioindicator of contamination by numerous trace metals on some European coasts. Nevertheless, no data are available for the populations inhabiting the shores of the southern Mediterranean. Now, as metal accumulation has been shown to vary intraspecifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate trace metal accumulation in adults of T. saltator inhabiting Ionian coastal areas of Sicily and make an assessment of natural and anthropogenic metal pollution of this strip of coast. We also extended our survey to As, Co, Mo, Se, Sn and V never investigated before in this species. Significant differences in metal concentration among sites were found in both sand samples and amphipod tissues. The highest metal content was observed near the mouth of Simeto, the longest river of Sicily which collects waters coming from the volcanic territory of Mount Etna. The bioaccumulation of Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in T. saltator is fully confirmed; it is also proven for As and Mo and assumed for Cr, Fe, Mn and V. Our outcomes let us to evaluate the prevailing influence of telluric contamination of the Ionian sandy shores of Sicily by trace metals. We also come to the conclusion that in the northern sites, pollution originates from volcanic emission while anthropogenic influence prevails in the southern ones.

  16. Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

  17. Active geodynamics of the central Mediterranean Sea: Tensional tectonic evidences in western Sicily from mantle-derived helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, A.; Favara, R.; Italiano, F.; Nuccio, P. M.; Paonita, A.; Rizzo, A.

    2005-02-01

    We report results on the measured high 3He/4He isotope ratio in western Sicily, interpreted together with the heat data. The study of this sector of the Europe-Africa interaction is crucial to a better understanding of the tectonics and the geodynamical evolution of the central Mediterranean area. The estimated mantle-derived helium fluxes in the investigated areas are up to 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than those of a stable continental area. The highest flux, found in the southernmost area near the Sicily Channel, where recent eruptions of the Ferdinandea Island occurred 20 miles out to sea off Sciacca, has been associated with a clear excess of heat flow. Our results indicate that there is an accumulation of magma below the continental crust of western Sicily that is possibly intruding and out-gassing through roughly N-S trending deep fault systems linked to the mantle, that have an extensional component. Although the identification of these faults is not sufficiently constrained by our data, they could possibly be linked to the pre-existing faults that originated during the Mesozoic extensional-transtensional tectonic phases.

  18. Paleoseismological investigation offshore eastern Sicily and Calabria (Ionian Sea) and possible origin of megaturbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, M. A.; San Pedro, L.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.

    2014-12-01

    E Sicily and Calabria have been repeatedly struck by destructive historical earthquakes and tsunamis (1693 Catania M7.4, 1908 Messina 7.2). The latter triggered a submarine landslide and turbidity current that ruptured submarine cables. We present the preliminary results of a paleoseismological investigation on a set of deep marine sediment cores from the Ionian Sea acquired during the CIRCEE survey (R/V Le Suroit in Oct. 2013). The objective is to improve our understanding of the chronology and origin of large catastrophic events, which have affected the area. One of the thickest and well known deposits is the up to 10-12 m thick Augias "homogenite" (or megaturbidite) which covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain and represents a volume of ~100km3. The origin of this deposit once thought to be associated to the Santorini collapse event dated at 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) is enigmatic and more recent work suggests it may have been caused by the 365 AD Crete mega-thrust earthquake (Polonia et al., 2013) In order to better understand the extreme events that led to such deposits in the Ionian abyssal plain and along the Sicily/ Malta slope, our study aims to correlate the megaturbidites observed in the slope and in the deep Ionian basin by CHIRP echosounder profiles and sedimentary facies analysis. Seismic profiles show several superposed acoustically transparent units identified as megaturbidites. The Augias megaturbidite was completely sampled in 6 new cores. An older megaturbidite, possibly the Deeper Transparent Layer (DTL), is also sampled in 3 new cores. Geochemical signatures, thicknesses and grain sizes show wide variability for the same deposit among the cores. For example, the thickness of the Augias deposit varies between 70 cm and 605 cm, and the lithology and sedimentary structures of the base of the deposit is also highly variable, ranging from massive and laminated medium sand to silty-clay. For the two megaturbidites described in the cores

  19. The Top 10 Reasons to Pursue a Career in Science & Technology - by Eric Isaacs

    ScienceCinema

    Isaacs, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Eric Isaacs, director of Argonne National Laboratory and a physicist by training, spoke to recipients of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Fellowships. Among the topics: Why choose a career in science and tech? More info on the fellowships, which are offered every year: http://scgf.orau.gov/index.html August 9, 2010

  20. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  1. Encore: A Selction of Articles from ERIC/ECE Newsletters (Jan. 1971-Dec. 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    This compilation of articles from newsletters issued by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, (January 1971 - December 1972) includes a wide variety of topics such as: teachers' developmental stages, family day care in Pasadena, television violence, children's altruistic lying, and the Home Start program. Also included is a complete…

  2. School Security. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The 12 items in this annotated bibliography are entries in the ERIC system concerning school crime and how to improve school security. The articles and documents focus on a number of issues, including (1) how to reduce vandalism, (2) the principal's role in school crime management, (3) factors correlated with disruption in schools, (4) the…

  3. Computer Science and Technology: Investigation of Technology-Based Improvement of the ERIC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treu, Siegfried

    The results of a one year study to identify potential technology-based improvements in the operation, access, and utilization of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are described. Both current problem areas and future possibilities are considered with respect to the dichotomy: system components and the total system. Emphasis is on…

  4. Salaries for Part-Time Faculty: New Trends. An ERIC Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John

    1976-01-01

    The equal pay for equal work argument has resulted in a trend toward higher part-time teacher salaries, approaching full-time salary equivalents. This article reviews trends around the country, and makes predictions based on documents included in the ERIC system. (NHM)

  5. A High School Student's Bill of Rights. Teaching Resources in the ERIC Database (TRIED) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Designed to tap the rich collection of instructional techniques in the ERIC database, this compilation of lesson plans focuses on teaching high school students their Constitutional rights and responsibilities. The 40 lesson plans in the book cover the courts and basic rights, the rights of criminal suspects, the rights of minors and education law,…

  6. Energy Management. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The twelve items in this annotated bibliography on energy use in the schools are entries in the ERIC system. Most of the publications and articles cited highlight techniques for conserving energy in existing school buildings. Some publications center on building energy efficient schools. Other topics touched on include economy in school…

  7. ERIC Annual Report--1991. Summarizing the Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert L.; And Others

    This report, which covers fiscal years 1990 and 1991, is the fourth in a series summarizing the activities and accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) program, which is funded and managed by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement in the U.S. Department of Education. Highlights of the 2 years include a…

  8. Radio in Foreign Language Education. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.; Wood, Richard E.

    The present study is an updating of Robert J. Nelson's ERIC Focus Report No. 11 (1969) "Using Radio to Develop and Maintain Competence in a Foreign Language." Two major areas are examined: (1) the concepts behind the use of radio in language teaching and how this application of radio reflects changes in the theory and practice of foreign language…

  9. Teaching Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graseck, Susan

    This ERIC Digest discusses issues relating to teaching about U.S. foreign policy in the changing international environment following the end of the Cold War era and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The document treats: (1) the need and rationale for teaching and learning about current foreign policy issues; (2) main themes in foreign policy…

  10. Michael Eric Dyson: A Scholar and a Hip-Hop Preacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Michael Eric Dyson, an African American man who grew up in the ghetto and eventually received a PhD from Princeton University. Today, he is a professor at DePaul University, the author of a radically revisionist new biography of Martin Luther King, Jr., a lecturer and talk show guest, a Baptist preacher, and a self-styled hip-hop…

  11. Information Resources on Microcomputer Applications for Media Centers. A Selected ERIC Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Pamela, Comp.

    Citations in this annotated bibliography were selected from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) indexes, Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE), and Resources in Education (RIE). Titles include: (1) "Computer Applications in the Library Media Center: An Introduction to Electronic Spreadsheets" (Keith E. Bernhard);…

  12. Guia Para Ver La Television En Familia (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  13. Managing Declining Enrollment. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Four documents and seven journal articles on the management of enrollment decline, selected from those recently made available through the ERIC system, are described briefly in this report. Topics covered in the items listed include what can be done at the state level, suggestions for projecting enrollment, how instructional space is being…

  14. Current Research in Environmental Education. ERIC/SMEAC Environmental Education Digest No. 1, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    This digest describes a selection of environmental education research studies that were included in the ERIC system in 1985. It is noted that much of the reported research in environmental education continues to deal with the affective domain, but that there are stronger efforts toward relating affective components with knowledge gain,…

  15. The Principal's Role in Innovation and Change. ERIC Highlights for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Sara

    Lengthy abstracts of two journal articles and two Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) microfiche documents on the principal's role in educational innovation and change are presented. The introduction lists eight points on the principal's role which are suggested by the articles and documents. Summaries are provided for the following:…

  16. Eric's Journey: A Restructured School's Inclusion Program and a Student with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Don H.

    1998-01-01

    Profiles a Milford, Connecticut, middle school's efforts to help Eric Kowalchick, a developmentally disabled adolescent, develop life skills and friendships, prepare for work, pursue school and community club memberships, and attend high school classes. The school's mainstreaming program is a success, thanks to an institutional mission understood…

  17. Use of the Spanish Language in the United States: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiestevan, Stina

    This ERIC digest examines the Spanish-speaking group in the United States, its growth through net immigration and natural increase, and its eventual decline as speakers shift to English. The Hispanic population is growing rapidly, but data suggest that U.S. Hispanics do learn and speak English. Research predicts that by the year 2001 the…

  18. Teaching Problem Solving--Secondary School Science. ERIC/SMEAC Science Education Digest No. 2, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E.

    Problem solving is often identified as a goal of science education. What is considered problem solving varies from teacher to teacher. The ultimate goal of problem-solving education has been identified as a means of helping students develop higher-order thinking skills. This ERIC digest focuses on problem solving in secondary school science as…

  19. Family Lives and Parental Involvement in Migrant Students' Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavkin, Nancy Feyl

    This ERIC digest describes the lives of migrant families, migrant students' education, and migrant parents' involvement in their children's education. Migrant families tend to travel along well-established geographic routes which can be identified as the East Coast Stream, the Mid-Continent Stream, and the Western Stream. In 1986, the average…

  20. Cerebral Dominance and Its Psychological and Educational Implications: An ERIC Abstract Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    This abstract bibliography cites recent ERIC documents and journal articles concerning the differentiated functioning of the brain hemispheres. Entries include resumes from Resources in Education (RIE), October 1973 through December 1977, and citations from Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE), November 1974 through December 1977.…

  1. The Top 10 Reasons to Pursue a Career in Science & Technology - by Eric Isaacs

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Eric Isaacs, director of Argonne National Laboratory and a physicist by training, spoke to recipients of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Fellowships. Among the topics: Why choose a career in science and tech? More info on the fellowships, which are offered every year: http://scgf.orau.gov/index.html August 9, 2010

  2. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and…

  3. Career Academies: Educating Urban Students for Career Success. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Gary

    This ERIC Digest reviews the school restructuring tool of career academies serving the non-college bound student. The career academy movement began with the Electrical Academy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The model was exported to California where it became the basis for the Peninsula Academies in the Sequoia Union High School District and from…

  4. Gaining Control of Violence in the Schools: A View from the Field. ERIC Digest No. 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    This ERIC digest presents a summary of discussions from urban educators who addressed the issue of school violence at a National Education Association meeting held May 19, 1994. These educators note that American society is steeped in violence, particularly in urban areas, where children experience frustration, helplessness, and anger, and where…

  5. Finding Education and Training Technology: A Gap between ERIC and NTIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Clesson B.

    1993-01-01

    Shows civilian applications for Department of Defense education and training efforts and instructional technology. A search showing a gap between the ERIC and NTIS (National Technical Information Service) databases covering government documents is described. Suggestions for additional research and an overview of federal statutes which include…

  6. Using Literature To Teach History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David

    1999-01-01

    Recommends a list of ERIC documents and journals covering topics such as justifications for using historical fiction, African-American history and culture, Native Americans, the Civil War, and the Holocaust. Includes units, lists of novels, and other teaching resources that range from the elementary to the secondary grades. (CMK)

  7. The Use of ERIC Tapes in Scandinavia, Searching With Thesaurus Terms in Natural Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tell, Bjorn V.; And Others

    Since February 1971 the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, has been running the ERIC data base mainly for SDI purposes. The implementation of the data base into the generalized search system, ABACUS, is described. One hundred and fifty-eight users received SDI service at present, 99 from governmental and educational institutions, 23 from…

  8. Computer Databases: Applications for the Social Studies. ERIC Digest No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    This ERIC Digest examines the uses of databases in the social studies, including what a database is and how to use it, types of databases available for social studies classroom use, and the role this educational tool can play in achieving the goals and objectives of the social studies. A distinction between print and computerized database files…

  9. Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components. ERIC/CASS Counseling Digest Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne, Ed.

    This document contains a collection of ERIC Digests on supervision, a topic of critical professional importance for counselors. Following an introductory article by the guest editor, L. DiAnne Borders, "Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components," 19 digests address a different facet of supervision. The 19 digests are: (1)…

  10. Computer-Based Education. The Best of ERIC, June 1976-August 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    This bibliography contains annotations of reports, reviews, conference proceedings, other documents, and journal articles on computer based education (CBE), most of which were derived from a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. Covering June 1976 through August 1980, this compilation serves as an update to two…

  11. Reflecting on Attention-Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder and Disablement in Education with Eric Fromm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon the thought of Eric Fromm, this paper argues that efforts to understand and counter behaviour that causes difficulties in education should begin in a critical and reflective engagement with both the conditions of human freedom and the character of educational institutions and society as a whole. Fromm's critique of dominating ideas…

  12. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  13. Instructional Facilities for the Information Age. An ERIC Information Analysis Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    Intended to assist educators and trainers who must make recommendations about facilities to architects and school authorities, this ERIC information analysis project summarizes research on the design of both classrooms and individualized learning spaces that will optimize learning. Six teaching/learning space topics are considered: (1) light and…

  14. Racism in African Children's Literature: A Critique of Eric Campbell's "The Year of the Leopard Song."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense

    Eric Campbell, an English teacher, spent most of his working life in New Guinea and in East Africa, where he lived in the shadow of Kilimanjaro. He now lives in England and writes about Africa. People could expect an objective, and perhaps, a dispassionate account or depiction of African children and adults--their individual lives and…

  15. ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education, Information Bulletins, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.

    Included are the four information bulletins produced by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education for the calendar year 1980. The first issue contains an interpretative summary from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics project "Priorities in School Mathematics" as well as announcements of…

  16. The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

  17. The Role of Business in the Schools. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management Number 102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Annotations of ERIC literature on the role of business in the schools are presented in this document. The following 10 items are reviewed: "What Reform Talk Does: Creating New Inequalities in Education," by Michael W. Apple; "Guidelines for Business Involvement in the Schools," by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development;…

  18. Improving Students' Thinking Skills. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management Number 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Among the 12 documents selected for this annotated bibliography of documents and journal articles in the ERIC database is an expert's argument that the brain's multipath and multimodal capacities are ignored by educators. Another writer fears that the "back-to-basics" movement may have eclipsed the prominence earlier accorded to thinking…

  19. Academic Freedom in American Higher Education: Rights, Responsibilities and Limitations. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Robert K.

    This brief report summarizes a longer document with the same title in the ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report series. Academic freedom provides the foundation for faculty scholarship and teaching, making it possible for educators to exchange ideas and concepts freely in the classroom, to explore and disseminate new knowledge, and to speak out both…

  20. Errores que cometen los lideres educacionales (Mistakes Educational Leaders Make). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Clete; Pickett, Winston; Boothe, Diana

    Most administrator training programs focus on what educational leaders should do rather than what they should not do. To help administrators in their roles, an overview of mistakes to avoid is offered in this ERIC digest in Spanish. The emphasis on the negative stems from the belief that undesirable behaviors are far fewer than desirable ones. The…

  1. Socioeconomic and Social Aspects of Rural Youth: A Selected Topics Bibliography of ERIC Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    Resource materials, research documents, and developments related to the socioeconomic and social aspects of rural youth both in the US and internationally are cited in this bibliography of ERIC documents (including such subjects as status projections, mental health, occupations, dropouts, ethnicity, abortion, delinquency, education, environmental…

  2. Overcoming Risk: An Annotated Bibliography of Publications Developed by ERIC Clearinghouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy, Ed.; Howley, Craig, Ed.

    This publication contains two essays and an annotated bibliography of publications about risk. The entries in the bibliography were produced by the various clearinghouses in the ERIC system. The first essay, "Who Is at Risk? Definitions, Demographics, and Decisions," by Aaron M. Pallas, categorizes personal, family, and environmental factors that…

  3. JiJi De GuanJiao FangFa (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. Discussion focuses on: (1) 12 methods of discipline that promote self-worth; (2) the process of creating a positive climate that promotes self-discipline; (3) harmful and negative disciplinary methods; and (4)…

  4. Graviquakes in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, P.; Barba, S.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the mechanics of crustal normal fault-related earthquakes, and show that they represent dissipation of gravitational potential energy (graviquakes) and their magnitude increases with the involved volume (delimited by the seismogenic fault and an antithetic dilated wedge in its hangingwall), and the fault dip. The magnitude increases with the deepening of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT), which in turn enlarges the involved volume. The fault dip seems rather controlled by the static friction of the involved crustal layers. We apply the model to the extensional area of the Italian peninsula, whose geodynamics is controlled by the Alpine and Apennines subduction zones. The latter has a well-developed backarc basin and a large part of the accretionary prism is affected by on-going extensional tectonics, which is responsible for most of peninsular Italy seismicity. Analyzing the seismic record of the Apennines, the length of seismogenic normal faults tends to be at most about 3 times the hypocenter depth. We compile a map of the brittle-ductile transition depth and, assuming a fixed 45° or 60° fault dip and a dilated wedge developed during the interseismic period almost perpendicular to the fault plane, we compute the maximum volume of the hangingwall collapsing at the coseismic stage, and estimate the maximum expected magnitude. Lower magnitude values are obtained in areas with thinner brittle layer and higher heat flow. Moreover, lower magnitude relative to those theoretically expected may occur in areas of higher strain rate where faults may creep faster due to lower frictional values.

  5. Inner vs. outer wedge-top depozone "sequences" in the Late Miocene (late Tortonian-early Messinian) Sicilian Foreland Basin System; new data from the Terravecchia Formation of NW Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugliotta, C.

    2012-04-01

    The wedge-top depozone belongs to the innermost portion of a Foreland Basin System (FBS) (DeCelles and Giles, 1996) and includes all sediments, typically coarse-grained proximal facies, that bury the active frontal part of a fold and thrust belt. The Terravecchia Formation (Flores, 1959; Schmidt Di Friedberg, 1962, 1964-1965; Catalano, 1979) is a composite lithostratigraphic unit widespread in Sicily (southern Italy) which has been recently considered (Gugliotta, 2010) as a part of the stratigraphic record of the Late Miocene (late Tortonian to early Messinian) Sicilian wedge-top depozone and represent the main object of this paper. Two end-member wedge-top "sequences" the (i) the inner wedge-top sequence (IWS) and (ii) the outer wedge-top sequence (OWS), respectively, were recognized in the Terravecchia Formation outcropping in different sectors of NW Sicily and here described and compared on the base of both their depositional and deformative pattern. The differences existing between the IWS and OWS clearly reflect the tectono-depositional evolution of sedimentary basins located at different position across the wedge-top depozone. The more coarse grained and IWS was deposited filling narrow and often oversupplied basins located in the inner sectors of the wedge-top depozone. In these basins the sedimentary evolution has been strongly controlled by a syn-sedimentary transpressional tectonics which produced, since the late Tortonian, the development of "local scale" intraformational angular unconformities. Contemporaneously, the more fine-grained OWS was deposited filling relatively wide and mainly shallow-water marine basins, probably open to major marine areas, located in a less external position of the wedge-top depozone. In these external areas during the late Tortonian-early Messinian the transpressional tectonics was active but still confined to the deeper structural layers producing long wavelength deformation and "basin-scale" unconformities. Integrating

  6. Evaluation of the ERIC-PCR as a probable method to differentiate Avibacterium paragallinarum serovars.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Julius Eduard; Hitzeroth, Arina Corli; Bragg, Robert Richard; Boucher, Charlotte Enastacia

    2016-11-21

    Infectious coryza an upper respiratory tract-disease in chickens, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, leads to huge economic losses. The disease is controlled through vaccination, but vaccination efficacy is dependent on correct identification of the infecting serovar, as limited cross-protection is reported amongst some serovars. Current identification methods include the heamagglutination inhibition (HI) test, which is demanding, and could be subjective. To overcome this, molecular typing methods proposed are the Multiplex PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) PCR, but low reproducibility is reported. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) PCR has been suggested for molecular groupings of various bacterial species. This study focuses on evaluating the ERIC-PCR as probable method to differentiate between different Av. paragallinarum serovars by grouping with reference isolates, based on clonal relations. The ERIC-PCR was performed on 12 reference isolates and 41 field isolates originating from South Africa and South America. The data indicates that the ERIC-PCR is not ideal for the differentiation nor molecular typing of Av. paragallinarum serovars, as no correlation is drawn upon comparison of banding patterns of field isolates and reference strains. However, the results do indicate isolates from the same origin sharing unique banding patterns, indicating potential clonal relationship, but when compared to the reference isolates dominant in the specific area, no correlation could be drawn. Furthermore, although the ERIC-PCR serves a purpose in epidemiological studies, it has proved to have little application in differentiating amongst serovars of Av. paragallinarum and to group untyped field strains with known reference strains.

  7. Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with residential exposure to volcanic and related soils in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Pelser, Colleen; Dazzi, Carmelo; Graubard, Barry I.; Lauria, Carmela; Vitale, Francesco; Goedert, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Before AIDS, endemic (African) Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was noted to occur in volcanic areas and was postulated to result from dirt chronically embedded in the skin of the lower extremities. The primary cause of all KS types is KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, but co-factors contribute to the neoplasia. We investigated whether residential exposure volcanic or related soils was associated with the risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) in Sicily. Methods Risk of incident cKS (n=141) compared to population-based KSHV seropositive controls (n=123) was estimated for residential exposure to four types of soil, categorized with maps from the European Soil Database and direct surveying. Questionnaire data provided covariates. Results Residents in communities high in luvisols were approximately 2.7-times more likely to have cKS than those in communities with no luvisols. Risk was not specific for cKS on the limbs, but it was elevated approximately 4–5-fold with frequent bathing or tap water drinking in high luvisols communities. Risk was unrelated to communities high in andosols, tephra, or clay soils. Conclusions Iron and alumino-silicate clay, major components of luvisols, may increase cKS risk, but formal investigation and consideration of other soil types and exposures are needed. PMID:19576540

  8. Geology of the Strait of Sicily: An example of geological mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Yutsis, V.V. )

    1988-08-01

    The Strait of Sicily is a comparatively shallow-water threshold which divides the Mediterranean into western and eastern deep-water hollows. The author composed a geologic map of the bottom of the Sicilian Strait and adjacent aquatories with a scale of 1:500,000. This map is based on the geologic-geophysical data of Soviet and foreign investigations (including more than 15,000 km of seismic reflection profiles, dredging, sampling, and drilling data) and their seismostratigraphic interpretation. Most of this region is underlain by the continental crust with a thick sedimentary cover. The most widespread sediments are Pliocene-Quaternary. On the map they are shown only in basins where thickness exceeds 200 m (Hammamet, Gabes, Tunisian, etc). Additionally, there are mapped outcrops of Messinian evaporites at the steep slopes of the Malta escarpment, Pantelleria and Malta grabens, Adventure and Skerki banks, etc. Also shown are outcrops of Paleogene, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Upper Triassic rocks. This new geologic map should generate great interest because of the high petroleum potential of this region.

  9. Morphologic Variability of two Adjacent Mass-Transport Deposits: Twin Slides, Gela Basin (Sicily Channel).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minisini, D.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Canu, M.; Foglini, F.

    2006-12-01

    Integrating geophysical, sedimentological, structural and paleontological data, we reconstruct the age, size and internal geometry of two adjacent and recent mass-transport deposits (Twin Slides) exposed on the seafloor of Gela Basin (Sicily Channel). Twin Slides are coeval (late-Holocene), and were likely triggered by an earthquake. Twin Slides originated from the mobilization of Pleistocene slope units, are only 6 km apart from each other, have their headscarps in similar water depth (230 m), and have a comparable run out distance (ca. 10 km). Both slides suggest a multistage evolution, but differ in internal organization and morphological expression. The northern slide shows a deposit characterised by pressure ridges in the toe region suggesting a component of plastic deformation, while the southern slide is characterised by large blocks and a reduced thickness of displaced masses. We ascribe the difference in deformation style and resulting morphology to the stratigraphic architecture of the Pleistocene progradational units involved in failure. In the case of the blocky southern slide the units affected by failure are slightly older (Eemian or pre-Emian) and more consolidated; furthermore, in the area where the headscarp is located these units appear affected by shallow faulting likely resulting in the definition of large blocks. The northern slide, instead, affects progradational units of the Last Glacial Maximum in an area where these units are more than 100 m thick and, possibly, underconsolidated.

  10. Frequent failure of the continental slope: The Gela Basin (Sicily Channel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minisini, D.; Trincardi, F.

    2009-09-01

    Evaluating the recurrence of sediment failure on continental margins is important to better understand the evolution of margins and to assess the geologic risk of slope failure and, possibly, tsunami hazard. This paper proposes an integrated morphological and stratigraphic reconstruction of slope failures to evaluate their timing, frequency, and responsible mechanisms. Data from seismic stratigraphy, sediment cores, and seafloor geomorphology document multiple slide scars as well as buried and exposed mass transport deposits that originated during the Quaternary period on the continental slope of the Gela Basin in the Sicily Channel (central Mediterranean). The very high resolution data provide clues to recognize (1) successive phases of failure that have impacted on the same location, (2) main geological factors conducive to recurrent sediment failure in the area, including, in particular, specific stratigraphic surfaces acting as glide planes and high pore pressure gradients likely generated by high sediment accumulation rates atop mass transport complexes, and (3) a set of failed sediments that have been deposited since the Last Glacial Maximum defining a return interval on the order of 3-4 ka.

  11. Adaptation and selection in the Senecio (Asteraceae) hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Adrian C; Bridle, Jon R; Wang, Ai-Lan; Hiscock, Simon J; Abbott, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Hybrid zone theory provides a powerful theoretical framework for measuring and testing gene flow and selection. The Senecio aethnensis and Senecio chrysanthemifolius hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily, was investigated to identify phenotypic traits under divergent selection and to assess the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic selection against hybrids to hybrid zone maintenance. Senecio samples from 14 sites across Mount Etna were analyzed for 24 quantitative traits classified into four groups (QTGs), six allozymes and seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci to describe patterns of variation throughout the hybrid zone. Narrower cline widths or shifts in cline centre position were observed for three QTGs relative to the molecular clines, indicating that these traits are likely to be under extrinsic environmental selection. Altitude was key to describing species distributions, but dispersal and intrinsic selection against hybrids explained patterns at smaller spatial scales. The hybrid zone was characterized by strong selection against hybrids, high dispersal rates, recent species contact and few loci differentiating QTGs based on indirect measures. These results support the hypothesis that extrinsic and intrinsic selection against hybrids maintains the hybrid zone and species distinctiveness despite gene flow between the two Senecio species on Mount Etna.

  12. Climate forcing of volcano lateral collapse: evidence from Mount Etna, Sicily.

    PubMed

    Deeming, K R; McGuire, B; Harrop, P

    2010-05-28

    In this study, we present evidence for early Holocene climatic conditions providing circumstances favourable to major lateral collapse at Mount Etna, Sicily. The volcano's most notable topographic feature is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 8 km cliff-bounded amphitheatre excavated from the eastern flank of the volcano. Its origin due to prehistoric lateral collapse is corroborated by stürtzstrom deposits adjacent to the amphitheatre's downslope outlet, but the age, nature and cause of amphitheatre excavation remain matters for debate. Cosmogenic (3)He exposure ages determined for eroded surfaces within an abandoned watershed flanking the Valle del Bove support channel abandonment ca 7.5 ka BP, as a consequence of its excavation in a catastrophic collapse event. Watershed development was largely dictated by pluvial conditions during the early Holocene, which are also implicated in slope failure. A viable trigger is magma emplacement into rift zones in the eastern flank of a water-saturated edifice, leading to the development of excess pore pressures, consequent reduction in sliding resistance, detachment and collapse. Such a mechanism is presented as one potential driver of future lateral collapse in volcanic landscapes forecast to experience increased precipitation or melting of ice cover as a consequence of anthropogenic warming.

  13. The 1928 eruption of Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, and the destruction of the town of Mascali.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A M; Dibben, C; Chester, D K; Guest, J E

    1996-03-01

    In November 1928 there was an eruption of Mount Etna, Sicily, which led to lava largely destroying the town of Mascali, situated low on the eastern flank of the volcano. Destruction of the town took just over a day but there was an orderly evacuation of its inhabitants and, with help from the military, families were able to remove furniture and fittings from their houses. Evacuees were relocated to nearby towns staying with relatives, friends or in hired apartments. Rebuilding Mascali provided an opportunity for the fascist government of the time to demonstrate efficient centralised planning. A completely new town was built on a grid-iron plan with many of the buildings reflecting the 'fascist architecture' of the time. The town was complete by 1937 and housing condztzons were very advanced in comparison with other towns in the region. The 1928 eruption is important as it was the most destructive on Etna since 1669 when the city of Catania was overwhelmed. In terms of hazard and risk assessment the 1928 eruption demonstrates that lava can reach the lower flanks of the volcano within a short period after the onset of an eruption.

  14. Lagrangian simulations and interannual variability of anchovy egg and larva dispersal in the Sicily Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palatella, Luigi; Bignami, Francesco; Falcini, Federico; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S.; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2014-02-01

    The interannual variability in the transport of anchovy eggs and larvae in the Sicily Channel, relatively to the period 1999-2012, is studied by means of numerical simulations of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) circulation model provided by INGV. Subgrid-scale dynamics not resolved by the MFS model is parameterized in terms of kinematic fields. The latter affect small-scale tracer relative dispersion, while leaving the mean large-scale advection substantially unchanged. A Lagrangian Transport Index (LTI) can be defined to characterize the efficiency of the main currents, e.g., the Atlantic Ionian Stream, in connecting spawning and nursery areas to each other. In our case, this indicator comes from the first arrival time statistics of tracers traveling from a spawning area near Sciacca to a nursery area in proximity of Cape Passero. We observe, on the basis of LTI values, that there are years when the Lagrangian connectivity is very efficient (2004, 2008, 2012) and years when it is weak (2000, 2001, 2003, 2010). Lagrangian indicators like the LTI concur to explain observed fluctuations of larval density and, also, can be employed, more in general, in multivariate models of population dynamics.

  15. Metals content in otoliths of Dicentrarchus labrax from two fish farms of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Traina, A; Oliveri, E; Salvagio Manta, D; Barra, M; Mazzola, S; Cuttitta, A

    2015-06-01

    Otoliths of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two different fish farms of Sicily were collected and analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Metal content (Ba, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, and Zn) was measured in order to test the potential use of biogenic carbonates as proxies of dissimilar environmental conditions since the fish farms are implanted in opposite coastal marine areas (Gulf of Castellammare and Gulf of Gela) characterized by different oceanographic features and human activities. Cluster analysis discriminates samples as different groups on the basis of metal content. Results show that concentrations of Sr in the otoliths have a similar range of distribution and not significantly different between the two farms. Otherwise, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Cd show higher concentrations in otoliths collected from fish reared in the farm in the southern coast (Gulf of Gela), an area subject to a great anthropogenic pressure. Zn is the only element with higher values in the otoliths from the farm in the northern coast (Gulf of Trappeto) probably due to industrial effluent. In this work, obtained data confirm the high potential of trace elements measurements in these biogenic carbonates as proxies of different environmental conditions.

  16. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances.

  17. Eruptions of the last 2200 years at Vulcano and Vulcanello (Aeolian Islands, Italy) dated by high-accuracy archeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Simone; Tanguy, Jean-Claude; Rosi, Mauro

    2006-12-01

    The recent eruptive history of the Vulcano island (Southern Italy) was investigated through the high-accuracy "large sample" archeomagnetic method (Tanguy, J.C., Le Goff, M., Principe, C., Arrighi, S., Chillemi, V., Paiotti, A., La Delfa, S., Patanè, G., 2003. Archeomagnetic dating of Mediterranean volcanics of the last 2100 years: validity and limits. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 211, 111-124; Tanguy, J.C., Principe, C., Arrighi, S., 2005. Comment on "Historical measurements of the Earth's magnetic field compared with remanence directions from lava flows in Italy over the last four centuries" by R. Lanza, A. Meloni, and E. Tema. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 152, 116-120; Arrighi, S., 2004. The large sample archeomagnetic method applied to Neapolitan volcanoes and Aeolian Islands. PhD Thesis. University of Pisa, Italy, pp. 1-186). Age determination is based upon directional geomagnetic variation reconstructed from historically dated lavas in Southern Italy, and from archeological sites in Western Europe (Gallet, Y., Genevey, A., Le Goff, M., 2002. Three millennia of directional variation of the Earth's magnetic field in Western Europe as revealed by archeological artefacts. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 131, 81-89) relocated to Sicily. Results in the present paper were obtained on 12 sites including 185 samples weighing 0.5-1 kg, distributed over the Vulcanello platform lavas and pyroclastic cones, and on the lava flows from the Fossa cone. It is shown that the Vulcanello platform was built by nearly continuous activity between AD 1000 and 1250, which is more than a millennium younger than believed until now from questionable interpretation of imprecise historical accounts. Most of the lavas from the Fossa cone, whose ages were rather hypothetical or known with a large uncertainty, have erupted within the same period. However, the last "Pietre Cotte" obsidian flow is confirmed to date from 1720 ± 30, in agreement with historical data (1739).

  18. Multi-Temporal Evaluation of Landslide Movements and Impacts on Buildings in San Fratello (Italy) By Means of C-Band and X-Band PSI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Silvia; Ciampalini, Andrea; Raspini, Federico; Bardi, Federica; Di Traglia, Federico; Moretti, Sandro; Casagli, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    This work provides a multi-temporal and spatial investigation of landslide effects in the San Fratello area (Messina province within the Sicily region, Italy), by means of C-band and X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, integrated with in situ field checks and a crack pattern survey. The Sicily region is extensively affected by hydrogeological hazards since several landslides regularly involved local areas across time. In particular, intense and catastrophic landslide phenomena have recently occurred in the San Fratello area; the last event took place in February 2010, causing large economic damage. Thus, the need for an accurate ground motions and impacts mapping and monitoring turns out to be significantly effective, in order to better identify active unstable areas and to help proper risk-mitigation measures planning. The combined use of historical and recent C-band satellites and current X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors of a new generation permits spatially and temporally detection of landslide-induced motions on a local scale and to properly provide a complete multi-temporal evaluation of their effects on the area of interest. PSI ground motion rates are cross-compared with local failures and damage of involved buildings, recently recognized by in situ observations. As a result, the analysis of landslide-induced movements over almost 20 years and the validation of radar data with manufactured crack patterns, permits one to finally achieve a complete and reliable assessment in the San Fratello test site.

  19. Interview with eric R. Kandel: from memory, free will, and the problem with Freud to fortunate decisions.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Eric R

    2008-04-24

    Eric R. Kandel shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard in 2000 for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Eric Kandel was rewarded for his discoveries of molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. He is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Senior Investigator at Columbia Universities Center for Neurobiology and Behavior. In this interview given at Hertie Foundation's Neuroforum 2008 on April 18, 2008 in Frankfurt, Germany, Nobel Prize Laureate Eric R. Kandel takes us on an enlighting journey ranging from memory, free will, the problem with Freud , to scientific challenges and the rise of European science. Starting with short- and long-term memory basics, underlying molecular mechanisms, and events affecting the formation of long-term memory, Eric Kandel then shares his thoughts on the issue of free will and makes a strong case for its existence. In addition to his outstanding scientific career, Eric Kandel developed an interest in business and today serves as scientific advisor at Memory Pharmaceuticals. Eric Kandel then talks about the use and abuse of drugs in children and the merging of scientific disciplines. In one of the most intriguing parts of the interview, Kandel shares his thoughts on Freud, Freud's mistakes, and the unique situation that the generations following Freud did not develop Freud's work further. The interview then turns to more scientific aspects and Eric Kandel talks about his confidence and courage during the initial phases of his scientific career, studying learning and memory, and employing a strictly reductionistic approach, best characterized by his simple model organism Aplysia. Eric Kandel then describes one of the most challenging phases in his scientific career when adult neurogenesis was discovered in the hippocampus, a structure so integral to Kandel's work. The final parts of the interview cover today's absence of epic battles and

  20. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  1. Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)

    PubMed Central

    Mannino, Marcello A.; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P.; Sineo, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness

  2. High-resolution and Deep Crustal Imaging Across The North Sicily Continental Margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agate, M.; Bertotti, G.; Catalano, R.; Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.

    Three multichannel seismic reflection profiles across the North Sicily continental mar- gin have been reprocessed and interpreted. Data consist of an unpublished high pene- tration seismic profile (deep crust Italian CROP Project) and a high-resolution seismic line. These lines run in the NNE-SSW direction, from the Sicilian continental shelf to the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain (Marsili area), and are tied by a third, high penetration seismic line MS104 crossing the Sisifo High. The North Sicily continental margin represents the inner sector of the Sicilian-Maghrebian chain that is collapsed as con- sequence of extensional tectonics. The chain is formed by a tectonic wedge (12-15 km thick. It includes basinal Meso-Cenozoic carbonate units overthrusting carbonate platform rock units (Catalano et al., 2000). Presently, main culmination (e.g. Monte Solunto) and a number of tectonic depressions (e.g. Cefalù basin), filled by >1000 m thick Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary wedge, are observed along the investigated tran- sect. Seismic attributes and reflector pattern depicts a complex crustal structure. Be- tween the coast and the M. Solunto high, a transparent to diffractive band (assigned to the upper crust) is recognised above low frequency reflective layers (occurring be- tween 9 and 11 s/TWT) that dips towards the North. Their bottom can be correlated to the seismological (African?) Moho discontinuity which is (26 km deep in the Sicilian shelf (Scarascia et al., 1994). Beneath the Monte Solunto ridge, strongly deformed re- flectors occurring between 8 to 9.5 s/TWT (European lower crust?) overly the African (?) lower crust. The resulting geometry suggests underplating of the African crust respect to the European crust (?). The already deformed crustal edifice is dissected by a number of N-dipping normal faults that open extensional basins and are associ- ated with crustal thinning. The Plio-Pleistocene fill of the Cefalù basin can be subdi- vided into three subunits by

  3. Gela submarine slide: A major basin-wide event in the plio-quaternary foredeep of Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincardi, F.; Argnani, A.

    1990-03-01

    The 1,500-km2 Gela slide and associated debris flow deposits cover most of the Gela foredeep basin (Sicily channel). The head of the slide follows the tip of the arcuate Gela nappe. A basin-wide detachment surface extends from the extensional slide head to a distal, contractional zone. The slide may be the result of a gravitational collapse which affected the sediments overlaying a remarkable decollement horizon. Mass movement processes resulted in the mobilization of a sedimentary sequence already deposited within the foredeep basin.

  4. Potential tsunami impact on a refinery in North-Eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, A. M.; Franchello, G.; Krausmann, E.

    2009-04-01

    Industrial facilities located in coastal areas subject to tsunami hazards may be at risk of tsunami impact and damage. Furthermore, if hazardous materials are present these can be accidentally released impacting nearby residents and dispersing into the environment. We have analysed the potential impact of two tsunami scenarios originating in the Tyrrhenian Sea and their consequences at an industrial facility located on the coast in North-Eastern Sicily. The results of the tsunami simulations indicate that in both scenarios there would be between 30-45 storage tanks at the industrial facility (potentially exposing up to 1.4 million m3 of chemicals) subject to flooding, with tanks closer to the beach suffering up to 1.6 m inundation. Flow velocities in most areas are less than 1 m/s. This indicates that any damage would occur due to hydrostatic uplift forces due to buoyancy particularly in the western part of the facility where inundation levels are higher and storage tanks are less protected. Damage to the facility due to impact of floating debris may be a problem at the eastern most tip of the refinery where the distance between the waterline and the refinery fence line is less than 20 m. Foundation soils and foundation systems could also be at risk from shear- and liquefaction-induced scour in this section of the plant. The likelihood for hazardous materials releases from inundated storage tanks is low but could occur due to breakage of connected pipelines and flanges due to floating off of storage tanks and other connected appurtenances. Flooding of electrical equipment such as control panels, pumps and motors, not raised above the inundation level could suffer water intrusion.

  5. Timing and magnitude of rotations in the frontal thrust systems of southwestern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, F.; Maniscalco, R.; Mattei, M.; di Stefano, A.; Butler, R. W. H.; Funiciello, R.

    1999-12-01

    We report new paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results from upper Tortonian to middle Pleistocene sediments which were deposited upon and adjacent to active thrust structures in southwestern Sicily. The data show that the Plio-Pleistocene sediments from the Belice and Menfi basins (covering the Saccense shelf limestones) underwent any internal shortening after the early Pleistocene (Santernian), as well as any net rotation. Sediments around this area (which overlie basinal Meso-Cenozoic successions) record systematic rotations: one upper Tortonian site to the west is ˜30° counterclockwise rotated, while to the east, lower Pliocene to middle lower Pleistocene sites within the Gela Nappe domain show 25° to 56° clockwise (CW) rotations. These data show that the ductile basinal sediments were bent and rotated around the rigid Saccense carbonates during the thin-skinned southward propagation of the orogenic front. We document here that the coastal sediments from the southwestern Gela Nappe underwent both a post middle early Pleistocene ˜30°CW rotation and a post middle Pleistocene E-W to ESE-WNW flattening (revealed by AMS). Our data then constrain to the late Pleistocene-Holocene the age of the last shortening episode occurring in the southwestern Gela Nappe front. Pleistocene rotations of similar amount also characterize the Sicanian domain, implying that it was incorporated in the Gela Nappe wedge during the recentmost episodes of deformation. This evidence allows us to better understand the very large (up to 114°) post Mesozoic rotations reported by Channell et al. [1980, 1990] for the Sicanian limestones, as related to both Miocene (or older?) deformational episodes and the Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Gela Nappe.

  6. Gela submarine slide: gigantic basin-wide event in the Plio-Quaternary foredeep of Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Argnani, A.; Trincardi, F.

    1988-08-01

    The Gela basin is a Pliocene-Quaternary foredeep basin located at the front of the Maghrebian fold-thrust belt of Sicily, filled with 2,500 m-thick shallowing-upward marine sediments. An important contribution to the basin fill comes from a huge, basin-wide submarine slide which extends for 3,500 km/sup 2/ and thickens as much as 450 m; the estimated sediment volume involved in the slide is close to 1,000 km/sup 3/. The authors investigation used more than 3,000 km of multichannel and single-channel seismic reflection profiles. The slide depositional geometries and facies relationships have been reconstructed from seismic interpretation to provide insight into transport and emplacement mechanisms. Apparently, the slide was not simply deposited via mass transfer from the slope into the basin. Indeed, the bulk of the slide is composed of basin sediments plastically deformed under the gravitational force driven by the correspondent slope sediments. Such a deformation occurred above an extremely effective decollement surface which controlled the slide distribution throughout the basin. More localized decollement planes are, however, present within the slide body and contributed to its complex deformation. The slide can thus be considered the result of a generalized gravitational collapse which affected the sediments lying above a peculiar decollement horizon. A general uplift characterized the late Quaternary evolution of the area, and volcanic activity was quite widespread and documented in the historical record. A punctuated episode of energy release (volcanic related ), superimposed to the uplift trend, may have triggered the slide in conjunction with potentially easy detachment of a decollement.

  7. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, "NEMO-SN1", deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz-1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9-22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise.

  8. Formation of secondary carbonates and native sulphur in sulphate-rich Messinian strata, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenbalg, S. B.; Brunner, B.; Rouchy, J. M.; Birgel, D.; Pierre, C.; Böttcher, M. E.; Caruso, A.; Immenhauser, A.; Peckmann, J.

    2010-05-01

    Microbially formed authigenic carbonates accompanied by native sulphur are present in the 'Calcare Solfifero' below a thick succession of gypsum deposited during the Messinian salinity crisis in Sicily. We sampled these carbonates and associated sulphur in five former sulphur mines to subject them to a detailed petrographic and geochemical study in order to explore their different modes of formation. Native sulphur formed in conjunction with microbial sulphate reduction, which is reflected in its depletion in 34S ( δ34S values as low as - 2‰ vs. V-CDT) and an enrichment of 34S in the residual sulphate ( δ34S values as high as + 61‰). The oxidation of organic matter by sulphate reduction increased alkalinity, inducing precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals. A set of authigenic limestones lacking sulphate minerals, but characterized by pseudomorphs after gypsum and high δ18O values (as high as + 9‰ vs. V-PDB) reflects syngenetic mineral formation within evaporitic settings. Low δ13C values (as low as - 52‰ vs. V-PDB) reveal that these carbonate phases were formed by microbial sulphate reduction coupled to the oxidation of biogenic methane. Another set of authigenic carbonates that replaced sulphate minerals is typified by low δ18O values (as low as - 4‰). These carbonates formed epigenetically during later diagenesis following compaction. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite by meteoric waters delivered the sulphate for microbial sulphate reduction. Low carbon isotope values of these carbonates (- 29 to - 5‰) indicate that carbonate was derived from the oxidation of crude oil and possibly minor methane, partly involving different degrees of admixture of dissolved carbonate from other sources. Although the studied rocks with their vast amounts of secondary carbonate minerals and sulphur seem to indicate a similar genesis at first glance - having formed by biogeochemical transformations of sulphate and hydrocarbons - this study reveals that these

  9. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  10. Evaluation of groundwater contamination in a coastal area of south-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Antoci, Maria Lucia; Brugaletta, Luana; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was under taken to evaluate the groundwater resources contamination due to intensive agricultural practices (particularly greenhouses). The study-area is located in the coastal area of the Ragusa province (South-East Sicily), where numerous existing greenhouses may cause the contamination of groundwater systems (unconfined and confined aquifers) beneath the cropped land. The pollution risk is mainly related with the seepage process of macro-elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), held in the irrigation water and the massive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that may pass through the unsaturated zone of the soil profile. Moreover, the area is characterized by the presence of several wells (about 15 wells/km²) for agricultural use that cause the aquifer overexploitation and the consequent risk of seawater intrusion. The agriculture practices adopted in the study area (irrigation volumes, fertilizer concentrations, use of pesticides…) were monitored since February 2009; moreover, the pollution risk of the aquifers was evaluated through the analysis of groundwater water samples collected (monthly) in the monitoring wells; in particular, nitrogen compounds, soluble phosphorous (PO₄²⁻), potassium, as well as the main pesticides commonly used in the study area, were measured.The results show that electrical conductivity and chloride concentration values can cause reduction of production and leaf damage problems, respectively, for most of the monitored farm systems. The high nitrogen compounds concentrations observed in the monitored wells can cause health and environmental problems. Moreover high pesticide contamination of groundwater was found in two of the five monitored wells.

  11. Sicily 2002 Balloon Flight Campaign: A Test of the HASI Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettanini, C.

    A mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30 th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere and furthermore to investigate impact at ground to check the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI in the surface phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system has been developed, based on PC architecture and soft -real-time application. Sensors channels have been sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software has been developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy.

  12. Correlation of welded ignimbrites on Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) using paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Fabio; di Chiara, Anita; Rotolo, Silvio G.

    2012-03-01

    Although the oldest volcanic rocks exposed at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) are older than 300 ka, most of the island is covered by the 45-50 ka Green Tuff ignimbrite, thought to be related to the Cinque Denti caldera, and younger lavas and scoria cones. Pre-50 ka rocks (predominantly rheomorphic ignimbrites) are exposed at isolated sea cliffs, and their stratigraphy and chronology are not completely resolved. Based on volcanic stratigraphy and K/Ar dating, it has been proposed that the older La Vecchia caldera is related to ignimbrite Q (114 ka), and that ignimbrites F, D, and Z (106, 94, and 79 ka, respectively) were erupted after caldera formation. We report here the paleomagnetic directions obtained from 23 sites in ignimbrite P (133 ka) and four younger ignimbrites, and from an uncorrelated (and loosely dated) welded lithic breccia thought to record a caldera-forming eruption. The paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field recorded by ignimbrites is used as correlative tool, with an estimated time resolution in the order of 100 years. We find that ignimbrites D and Z correspond, in good agreement with recent Ar/Ar ages constraining the D/Z eruption to 87 ka. The welded lithic breccia correlates with a thinner breccia lying just below ignimbrite P at another locality, implying that collapse of the La Vecchia caldera took place at ~130-160 ka. This caldera was subsequently buried by ignimbrites P, Q, F, and D/Z. Paleomagnetic data also show that the northern caldera margin underwent a ~10° west-northwest (outwards) tilting after emplacement of ignimbrite P, possibly recording magma resurgence in the crust.

  13. Climate, environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadori, Laura; Giraudi, Carlo; Masi, Alessia; Magny, Michel; Ortu, Elena; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the interrelationship between the natural and human history of Sicily over the last 2000 years. It presents a close comparison of the data from the key multi-proxy site of Lago di Pergusa - located inland in the eastern part of Sicily - with the existing archaeological and textual evidence on the socio-economic processes. The article also includes a review of the available natural proxy archives from the Central Mediterranean. On the basis of the isotope and pollen data from the Lago di Pergusa core PRG2, we identified two humid periods (ca. 450-750 AD and ca. 1400-1800 AD) as well as a dry one (ca. 1100-1350 AD); our evidence corresponds closely with other environmental palaeoclimate proxies from the Mediterranean region. In our synthesis of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence from southern Italy, we argue that during both periods of increased humidity - that is during the late antique-Byzantine times and during the late medieval and early modern periods - intense agricultural use of the Sicilian landscape developed on an unprecedented scale. This in turn contributed to the impressive demographic and economic expansion visible during these periods. A sudden period of aridity followed the first of these eras of humidity-related agricultural growth. This climatic shift, dated to around 750 AD, corresponds to a decrease in synanthropic taxa and a recovery of arboreal vegetation. We argue that in this case a climatic change contributed to socio-economic decline. Moreover, as this change occurred prior to the Arab invasion of Sicily in AD 827, the environmental processes may help to explain the collapse of Byzantine society on Sicily which, in turn made the Muslim conquest possible. After this event, there occurred a longer period of agricultural decline, lasting until around 1000 AD, after which we see the first signs of a slow recovery. Ongoing research in nearby archaeological sites will help defining if it was a local

  14. The Tyrrhenian stage geodinamic evolution of Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen (Southern Apennines and Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentini, F.; Carbone, S.; Barreca, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the Central Mediterranean region the foreland domains are represented by two continental blocks, the Apulian Block to the north and the Pelagian Block to the south, respectively belonging to the Adria and to the Africa plates. They are separated since Permo-Triassic times by the oceanic crust of the Ionian Sea. The Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen is located between two oceanic crusts: the old Ionian crust, at present time subducting beneath the Calabrian Arc, and the new crust of the opening Tyrrhenian Sea. The orogenic belt is represented by a multilayer allochthonous edifice, composed of the Calabride Chain (CC) tectonically overlying the Apenninic-Maghrebian Chain (AMC), which in turn overthrust onto the Upper Miocene and Pliocene top-levels of a deep seated thrust system, originating by the deformation of the innermost carbonates of the Pelagian/Apulian blocks (External Thrust System: ETS). The AMC tectonic units derive from the orogenic transport during Oligo-Miocene times of sedimentary sequences deposited in palaeogeographical domains located between the Europe and the Afro-Adriatic plates. These units are composed of Meso-Cenozoic shallow-water carbonate successions detached from a continental type crust sector, the Panormide/Apenninic Block, recognizable by means of seismic lines shot in the Tyrrhenian offshore of Southern Apennines and Northern Sicily. The Meso-Cenozoic basinal units, that compose the AMC, can be distinguished into two main groups of sequences, originally located on oceanic crusts separated by the Panormide/Apenninic Block: the external ones (Ionides) related to an original basin belonging to branches of the Ionian Palaeobasin involved in the orogenesis, and the internal ones ascribed to the Alpine Tethys (Sicilide Units). The terrigenous deposits of the basinal sequences belonging to the Ionides are represented by Tertiary foreland/foredeep deposits, whose relationships with the substratum are occasionally preserved, although large

  15. Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Personality, Self-Efficacy in Problem Solving, and the Perception of Skills and Competences in High School Students in Sicily, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrone, Concetta; Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Various theories of intelligence and personality (TIP) help explain the implicit beliefs that an individual develops about the functioning of his intelligence and personality. Such beliefs are defined "implicit" because the individual might not be fully aware of his or her belief system. The results from scientific research on the TIP…

  16. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals in tissues of the mullet Liza aurata in lake Ganzirri and Straits of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Licata, Patrizia; Bella, Giuseppa Di; Dugo, Giacomo; Naccari, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in fish living in lake Ganzirri and the Straits of Messina, using the mullet Liza aurata as a "biological indicator". Different tissues of Liza aurata, which include the muscle, gill and vertebral column, were taken for analyses. Quantitative determination of the organochlorine compounds was performed by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of "essential" and "toxic" heavy metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. For the mullets of lake Ganzirri, the study showed DDE in three samples of gills and one of muscle, at concentrations below the MRL; no appreciable residues of PCBs (Aroclor 1232 series) were found. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were much higher than those of the "toxic" metals. No traces of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were found in the individuals from the Straits of Messina. Therefore, these results indicate that these two environments are not at toxicological risk.

  17. Heavy metals content by ICP-OES in Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus from the Strait of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Furci, Patrizia; Cicero, Nicola; Pollicino, Gianmichele; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    In this study copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and vanadium content was measured in the muscles and gills of 24 fishes (Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus) caught in the Strait of Messina, by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with microwave digestion techniques. In general, it was found that arsenic was higher than other analytes in all fish species, particularly its content was much higher in S. aurita than in the other two exemplary species. Lead and cadmium were always detected with values below the legal limits (CE no. 1881/2006 and subsequent modification CE no. 629/2008).

  18. Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC): bioinformatics support for research on biodefense-relevant enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Jeremy D; Plunkett, Guy; Anderson, Bradley D; Baumler, David J; Biehl, Bryan S; Burland, Valerie; Cabot, Eric L; Darling, Aaron E; Mau, Bob; Neeno-Eckwall, Eric C; Pot, David; Qiu, Yu; Rissman, Anna I; Worzella, Sara; Zaremba, Sam; Fedorko, Joel; Hampton, Tom; Liss, Paul; Rusch, Michael; Shaker, Matthew; Shaull, Lorie; Shetty, Panna; Thotakura, Silpa; Whitmore, Jon; Blattner, Frederick R; Greene, John M; Perna, Nicole T

    2008-01-01

    ERIC, the Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (www.ericbrc.org), is a new web portal serving as a rich source of information about enterobacteria on the NIAID established list of Select Agents related to biodefense-diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis. More than 30 genomes have been completely sequenced, many more exist in draft form and additional projects are underway. These organisms are increasingly the focus of studies using high-throughput experimental technologies and computational approaches. This wealth of data provides unprecedented opportunities for understanding the workings of basic biological systems and discovery of novel targets for development of vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics. ERIC brings information together from disparate sources and supports data comparison across different organisms, analysis of varying data types and visualization of analyses in human and computer-readable formats.

  19. Evaluation of Biofilm Formation Among Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates and Molecular Characterization by ERIC-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Kimia; Kazemian, Hossein; Heidari, Hamid; Rezagholizadeh, Fereshteh; Saee, Yasaman; Shirvani, Fariba; Houri, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most frequently recovered etiologic agents from nosocomial infections. This opportunistic pathogen can generate a thick layer of biofilm as one of its important virulence factors, enabling the bacteria to attach to living or abiotic surfaces, which contributes to drug resistance. Objectives: The resistance of biofilm-mediated infections to effective chemotherapy has adverse effects on patient outcomes and survival. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biofilm-formation capacity of clinical K. pneumoniae isolates and to perform a molecular characterization using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) to determine the dominant biofilm-producing genotype. Patients and Methods: In the present study, 94 K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Biofilm formation was assayed by a modified procedure, then ERIC-PCR was carried out. Results: The distributions of the clinical specimens used in this study were 61.7% from urine, 18.1% from wounds, 11.7% from sputum, and 8.5% from blood. Among these isolates, 33% formed fully established biofilms, 52.1% were categorized as moderately biofilm-producing, 8.5% formed weak biofilms, and 6.4% were non-biofilm-producers. Genotyping of K. pneumoniae revealed 31 different ERIC types. Biofilm-formation ability in a special ERIC type was not observed. Conclusions: Our results indicated that an enormous proportion of K. pneumoniae isolated from sputum and surgical-wound swabs produced fully established biofilms. It is reasonable to assume the existence of a relationship between the site of infection and the formation of biofilm. A high level of genetic diversity among the K. pneumoniae strains was observed. PMID:27099694

  20. Environmental health literacy within the Italian Asbestos Project: experience in Italy and Latin American contexts. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Comba, Pietro; De Castro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of multidisciplinary approaches to foster scientific research in public health and strengthen its impact on society is nowadays unavoidable. Environmental health literacy (EHL) may be defined as the ability to search for, understand, evaluate, and use environmental health information to promote the adoption of informed choices, the reduction of health risks, the improvement of quality of life and the protection of the environment. Both public health and environmental health literacy involve access to and dissemination of scientific information (including research findings), individual and collective decision-making and critical thinking. Specific experiences in environmental health literacy have been developed within the Italian National Asbestos Project (Progetto Amianto) in Latin American countries where the use of asbestos is still permitted, and in Italy where a specific effort in EHL has been dedicated to the risks caused by the presence of fluoro-edenite fibers in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily). Taking into account the different geographical and socio-economic contexts, both public health and environmental health literacy were addressed to a wide range of stakeholders, within and outside the health domain.