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Sample records for erice sicily italy

  1. Geomorphological evolution of western Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Agnesi, Valerio; Monteleone, Salvatore

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a morphoevolutionary model for western Sicily. Sicily is a chain-foredeep-foreland system still being built, with tectonic activity involving uplift which tends to create new relief. To reconstruct the morphoevolutionary model, geological, and geomorphological studies were done on the basis of field survey and aerial photographic interpretation. The collected data show large areas characterized by specific geological, geomorphological, and topographical settings with rocks, landforms, and landscapes progressively older from south to north Sicily. The achieved results display: (1) gradual emersion of new areas due to uplift, its interaction with the Quaternary glacio-eustatic oscillations of the sea level, and the following production of a flight of stair-steps of uplifted marine terraces in southern Sicily, which migrates progressively upward and inwards; in response to the uplift (2) triggering of down-cutting processes that gradually dismantle the oldest terraces; (3) competition between uplift and down-cutting processes, which is responsible for the genesis of river valleys and isolated rounded hills in central Sicily; (4) continuous deepening over time that results in the exhumation of older and more resistant rocks in northern Sicily, where the higher heights of Sicily are realized and the older forms are retained; (5) extensional tectonic event in the northern end of Sicily, that produces the collapse of large blocks drowned in the Tyrrhenian Sea and sealed by coastal-marine deposits during the Calabrian stage; (6) trigger of uplift again in the previously subsiding blocks and its interaction with coastal processes and sea level fluctuations, which produce successions of marine terraces during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene stages.

  2. Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

  3. Emergence and phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F; Rubio, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events.

  4. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  5. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum seroprevalence in equids: a survey in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Giannetto, Claudia; Furco, Vincenzo; Alongi, Angela; Torina, Alessandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Equidae and investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Sicily (Southern Italy). During the study blood samples were collected in horses and donkeys housed in five of the nine provinces of Sicilian Island. Of 133 horses and 100 donkeys tested, respectively 9.0% and 6.0% were seroactive (IFAT) with A. phagocytophilum antigen. In only 4.7% of the horses, specific A. phagocytophilum DNA was recorded; in donkey, Anaplasma DNA was not found. Our results indicate a low prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Sicilian equids. This condition does not justify the exclusion of equids from prophylactic plans for this multihost pathogen infection, a zoonosis with a wide distribution in other European countries. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the possible mechanisms that involve the Equidae as host of this pathogen.

  7. Three new species of Collembola from soils of Mediterranean cork-oak forests of Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Giuga, Luca; Jordana, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of soil Collembola from cork-oak (Quercus suber) forests located in eastern Sicily (Italy) are described Neonaphorura alicatai sp. nov., Friesea guarinoi sp. nov. and Arrhopalites antonioi sp. nov..

  8. Mediterranean diet adherence rates in Sicily, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Raciti, Teodoro; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    To assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet and nutrient intakes in a population of Sicily, southern Italy and to evaluate possible determinants, particularly socio-cultural and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional. Urban and rural areas of eastern Sicily. Between May 2009 and December 2010, 3090 adults were randomly recruited through the collaboration of fourteen general practitioners. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the MedDietScore. Nutrient intakes were assessed through the 24 h recall of the previous day's dietary intake. Rural participants were barely more adherent to the Mediterranean diet than their urban counterparts (mean scores were 27·8 and 27·2, respectively, P = 0·037). The MedDietScore was correlated with intakes of MUFA, fibre and vitamin C, as well as with consumption of non-refined cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy products, alcohol and nuts. Regression analysis revealed that older and more educated people were more likely to be in the highest tertile of MedDietScore (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·59 and OR = 1·29; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·58, respectively). A significant difference in quantity (moderate) and quality (red wine and beer) of alcohol was found according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Finally, more active participants were 1·5 times more likely to form part of the high-adherence group. A slow but concrete moving away from traditional patterns has been observed in younger people and low educated people. Public health interventions should focus on these target populations in order to improve the quality of their diet.

  9. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Eastern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, S.; Piatanesi, A.; Romano, F.; Basili, R.; Kastelic, V.; Tiberti, M. M.; Valensise, G.

    2009-12-01

    We applied the method for Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA), first introduced by Rikitake and Aida (1988), to the coasts of eastern Sicily (Italy), and focusing on important cities such as Messina, Catania, and Augusta. The method has been very recently improved by González et al. (2009) to explicitly include inundation. Our approach considers both far- and near-field sources. Based on the approach described by Lorito et al. (2008), we identified a few Source Zones (SZ), each of which is characterized by a Typical Fault (TF) floating within it and capable of generating the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE). Some of the MCE recall historical events such as the 1908 Messina, the 1693 Catania and the 365 AD Crete earthquakes. We calculated the combined probability for all considered SZs by assigning a recurrence interval to each of them and a Poisson distribution of the inter-event times. We performed the PTHA for different damage metrics, such as runup, current speed, momentum and Froude number, with probability of exceedance of given thresholds being evaluated for different time intervals.

  10. Parents' attitudes and behaviours towards recommended vaccinations in Sicily, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since a long time, Italy has maintained a dual system to administer childhood immunisations, that is a certain number of mandatory vaccinations and a number of recommended vaccinations. The study aimed to explore the issues surrounding parental acceptance or non-acceptance of the recommended vaccinations for children. Methods Parents of children aged 3-5 years of day-care centres in Sicily were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. Determinants of the attitude towards recommended vaccinations and social influence on the decision-making process were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1,500 selected parents, 81.0% participated in the study. Prior to the survey, the majority of children (97.6%) received recommended vaccines. Most parents (74.4%) received information about vaccinations from Family Paediatricians, showed a good knowledge about the side effects of the vaccines (73.1%), did not worry about their potential dangerousness (53.0%) and would have accepted their children to be vaccinated even if it was not required for day care (84.1%). The majority (79.9%) were not disposed to follow the advises of the anti-vaccination movements. Parents' background characteristics, sources of information and social influence were not significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccines for childhood. Conclusions This study suggests that health information by Family Paediatricians is significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccinations. PMID:21569424

  11. Parents' attitudes and behaviours towards recommended vaccinations in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Coniglio, Maria Anna; Platania, Marco; Privitera, Donatella; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Pignato, Sarina

    2011-05-12

    Since a long time, Italy has maintained a dual system to administer childhood immunisations, that is a certain number of mandatory vaccinations and a number of recommended vaccinations. The study aimed to explore the issues surrounding parental acceptance or non-acceptance of the recommended vaccinations for children. Parents of children aged 3-5 years of day-care centres in Sicily were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. Determinants of the attitude towards recommended vaccinations and social influence on the decision-making process were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Of the 1,500 selected parents, 81.0% participated in the study. Prior to the survey, the majority of children (97.6%) received recommended vaccines. Most parents (74.4%) received information about vaccinations from Family Paediatricians, showed a good knowledge about the side effects of the vaccines (73.1%), did not worry about their potential dangerousness (53.0%) and would have accepted their children to be vaccinated even if it was not required for day care (84.1%). The majority (79.9%) were not disposed to follow the advises of the anti-vaccination movements. Parents' background characteristics, sources of information and social influence were not significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccines for childhood. This study suggests that health information by Family Paediatricians is significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccinations. © 2011 Coniglio et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Paleotsunamis Evidence In The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedile, A.; de Martini, P.; Barbano, M. S.; Pantosti, D.; Gerardi, F.; Del Carlo, P.; Bellucci, L. G.; Gasperini, L.; Sagnotti, L.; Polonia, A.; Pirrotta, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Augusta Bay, in Eastern Sicily (Italy), was repeatedly hit by tsunami waves related to large historical earthquakes (e.g. 1908, 1693, 1169). The area is characterized by coastal lowlands or lagoons, and by a relatively wide continental shelf with a thick late-Holocene record that has been investigated through the acquisition of a tight grid of CHIRP-sonar profiles. Well targeted sediment samples have been collected both offshore and inland. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical and geological data has been carried out in order to recognize, date and correlate key-layers in the sediment column that may be directly or indirectly related to tsunami events. A total of 26 cores were collected inland at a maximum distance of 530 m from the present coastline. The clay and silt dominated stratigraphy is intercalated by at least 5 high-energy or anomalous depositional layers, repeatedly found in several cores. These layers are made of coarse to fine sand with sharp basal contacts and present a bioclastic component made of microfauna (foraminifera) and shell fragments both suggestive of a marine provenance. Chronological constraints on the age of these deposits is based on AMS radiocarbon datings and on the attribution of a tephra layer to the 122 BC Etna eruption (thanks to petro- chemical and morphoscopic analyses). Integrating these data, the inland sequence spans the last 4100 yrs and the two uppermost high-energy events could be related to the AD 1169 and 1693 historical tsunamis. The offshore record was studied from a 6.7 m-long piston-core collected at 70 m water depth. The homogeneous sequence of dark gray mud is interrupted at -3 m by the same Etna tephra deposit found inland. Through the analysis of tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon datings, high resolution paleomagnetic analysis and radioactive tracers, the entire core sequence has been dated back to the last 4500 yrs. Moreover, the quantitative micropaleontological analysis on the benthic

  13. Application of Skylab imagery to some geological and environmental problems in Italy. [and Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Four topics are considered: regional geology of Sicily, volcanic surveillance in southern Italy, hydrogeology (with special regard given to the discovery and mapping of paleoriverbeds), and crop investigation. The discovery of unknown lineaments and structures in Sicily contributes to the geological knowledge of this region and in particular to the mechanical phenomena involving the upper part of the crust. An attempt was made to relate the status of vegetation surrounding Etna volcano to the magmatic gas escapes filtering through the soil. False-color Skylab images were used to analyze the vigor of the Etnean forestal belt vegetation canopy in order to map possible gas-vent ways as well as the 'active' microfractures. In northern Italy, buried channels were mapped in the Venetian Plain, and a tentative cost-benefit evaluation was done in the field of vegetational studies, both disease detection and species inventory were performed in the Po River Delta and in northwestern Italy.

  14. Application of Skylab imagery to some geological and environmental problems in Italy. [and Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Four topics are considered: regional geology of Sicily, volcanic surveillance in southern Italy, hydrogeology (with special regard given to the discovery and mapping of paleoriverbeds), and crop investigation. The discovery of unknown lineaments and structures in Sicily contributes to the geological knowledge of this region and in particular to the mechanical phenomena involving the upper part of the crust. An attempt was made to relate the status of vegetation surrounding Etna volcano to the magmatic gas escapes filtering through the soil. False-color Skylab images were used to analyze the vigor of the Etnean forestal belt vegetation canopy in order to map possible gas-vent ways as well as the 'active' microfractures. In northern Italy, buried channels were mapped in the Venetian Plain, and a tentative cost-benefit evaluation was done in the field of vegetational studies, both disease detection and species inventory were performed in the Po River Delta and in northwestern Italy.

  15. Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

  16. Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F

    2015-05-21

    We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza.

  17. Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

    2009-04-01

    The coast of Sicily region stretches about 1400 km, bathing three different seas: the North tract, from Messina to Capo San Vito wash to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the oriental side, from Messina to Capo Passero, wash to the Ionian Sea, and finally the southern side wash to the Mediterranean. Of these, 395 km are made up of beaches and 970 km from rocky shores. The coastal morph-type were analyzed in relation to their evolutionary trend (backspace or advancement of the seaside), can be summarized as follows: a low shores of torrent plain (Messina), low shores with salt (Trapani), low shores beaches edged with dunal systems, subject to backspace, where urbanization has reduced or eliminated the internal sand dunes, shores on marine terraces, with beaches at the foot (Agrigento) and high shores non-affected of real phenomena of backspace, but subject to often dangerous events of detachment and collapse of blocks (high rocky shores). The marine and coastal environment is a complex and articulated, in balance with the Earth's environment, in which live together, but through different dynamics strongly interacting, ecosystems and marine ecosystems typically transition. The increasing density of population concentrated along the shores, the gradual expansion of activities related to the use of marine and coastal resources, are some of the issues that threaten the delicate balance of nature and the sea coast. The sicilian coastal areas most subject to erosion are those in Ragusa shores areas in south-eastern of Sicily, where the critical areas interesting low coastline and high shores. Following the coast, between Capo Peloro and Milazzo (Messina),where the erosion affects the coast with a low of about 23 km. In the coastal between Capo St. Marco and Capo Feto (Trapani) the critical areas interesting the low coastline and, in part erodible bluffs. One of this case is localized in the town of Mazara del Vallo. In general, the phenomenon erosive affects almost all the sicilian

  18. An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  19. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  20. Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys in the Historical Center of Augusta (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Leucci, Giovanni; Fragalà, Giovanni; Cacciaguerra, Giuseppe; De Giorgi, Lara

    2013-04-01

    Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman and medieval landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Augusta, a town near Syracuse (Sicily), was founded by emperor Frederick of Suavia between 1232 and 1239. In medieval period, the area of Giardini Pubblici was the downtown and untill the XVII Cent. AD it was occupied by two urban blocks of buildings. In 1670 they were demolished to allow free area firing line from the near castle. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman and medieval landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. Particularly the geophysical surveys undertaken in the historical center of Augusta, by means Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR), allowed a 3D reconstruction of archaeological structures in the subsoil until the depth of about 4m. The geophysical survey has identified the building of medieval and modern urban settlement of Augusta and has allowed to recreate the urban plan and its transformation.

  1. Crustal structure and seismotectonics of central Sicily (southern Italy): new constraints from instrumental seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgroi, Tiziana; de Nardis, Rita; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of the crustal structure and seismotectonics for central Sicily (southern Italy) through the analysis of the depth distribution and kinematics of the instrumental seismicity, occurring during the period from 1983 to 2010, and its comparison with individual geological structures that may be active in the area. The analysed data set consists of 392 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging from 1.0 to 4.7. We defined a new, detailed 1-D velocity model to relocate the earthquakes that occurred in central Sicily, and we calculated a Moho depth of 37 km and a mean VP/VS ratio of 1.73. The relocated seismic events are clustered mainly in the area north of Caltanissetta (e.g. Mainland Sicily) and in the northeastern sector (Madonie Mountains) of the study area; only minor and greatly dispersed seismicity is located in the western sector, near Belice, and along the southern coast, between Gela and Sciacca. The relocated hypocentral distribution depicts a bimodal pattern: 50 per cent of the events occur within the upper crust at depths less than ˜16 km, 40 per cent of the events occur within the middle and depth crust, at depths between 16 and 32 km, and the remaining 10 per cent occur at subcrustal depths. The energy release pattern shows a similar depth distribution. On the basis of the kinematic analysis of 38 newly computed focal plane solutions, two major geographically distinct seismotectonic domains are distinguished: the Madonie Mountain domain, with prevalent extensional and extensional-oblique kinematics associated with upper crust Late Pliocene-Quaternary faulting, and the Mainland Sicily domain, with prevalent compressional and compressional-oblique kinematics associated with thrust faulting, at mid to deep crust depth, along the north-dipping Sicilian Basal Thrust (SBT). The stress inversion of the Mainland Sicily focal solutions integrated with neighbouring mechanisms available in the literature highlights a regional

  2. Phenotypic characterization and ERIC-PCR based genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae isolates recovered from American foulbrood outbreaks in honey bees from Italy.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Stefano; Formato, Giovanni; Milito, Marcella; Trevisiol, Karin; Salogni, Cristian; Carra, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a widespread and severe bacterial brood disease of honey bees. The genomic characterization of P. larvae strains by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) is able to differentiate four genotypes (ERIC I, ERIC II, ERIC III, ERIC IV). The information on the presence of P. larvae ERIC genotypes worldwide is few. We have characterized P. larvae strains isolated in Italy from AFB outbreaks to obtain information on ERIC genotypes and phenotypes of the strains circulating in the country. A total of 117 P. larvae isolates from 115 AFB outbreaks occurring in 2008-2012 were subjected to phenotypic and genetic characterization. The genomic characterization allowed the identification of ERIC I and ERIC II genotypes. Examining the data of Northern and Central Italy separately it was noted that in Northern Italy most outbreaks were caused by the ERIC I genotype (78.6%), followed by the ERIC II genotype (18.6%) and by co-infections (ERIC I + ERIC II) (2.6%). In Central Italy, only outbreaks caused by the ERIC I genotype were observed. With regard to phenotypic characteristics all examined strains of ERIC II genotype fermented fructose while no strains of ERIC I genotype possessed this ability. Both P. larvae ERIC I and ERIC II genotypes were isolated from the AFB outbreaks, but ERIC II genotype was isolated only in Northern Italy. The fermentation of fructose seems to be a genotype-specific biochemical marker.

  3. Scenario-Based Tsunami Hazard Assessment from Earthquake and Landslide Sources for Eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Paparo, M. A.; Zaniboni, F.

    2016-12-01

    Eastern Sicily was theatre of the most damaging tsunamis that ever struck Italy, such as the 11 January 1693 and the 28 December 1908 tsunamis. Tectonic studies and paleotsunami investigations extended historical records of tsunami occurrence back of several thousands of years. Tsunami sources relevant for eastern Sicily are both local and remote, the latter being located in the Ionian Greece and in the Western Hellenic Arc. Here in 365 A.D. a large earthquake generated a tsunami that was seen in the whole eastern and central Mediterranean including the Sicilian coasts. The objective of this study is the evaluation of tsunami hazard along the coast of eastern Sicily, central Mediterranean, Italy via a scenario-based technique, which has been preferred to the PTHA approach because, when dealing with tsunamis induced by landslides, uncertainties are usually so large to undermine the PTHA results. Tsunamis of earthquake and landslide origin are taken into account for the entire coast of Sicily, from the Messina to the Siracusa provinces. Landslides are essentially local sources and can occur underwater along the unstable flanks of the Messina Straits or along the steep slopes of the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment. The method is based on a two-step procedure. After a preliminary step where very many earthquake and landslide sources are taken into account and tsunamis are computed on a low-resolution grid, the worst-case scenarios are selected and tsunamis are simulated on a finer-resolution grid allowing for a better calculation of coastal wave height and tsunami penetration. The final result of our study is given in the form of aggregate fields computed from individual scenarios. Also interesting is the contribution of the various tsunami sources in different localities along the coast. It is found that the places with the highest level of hazard are the low lands of La Playa south of Catania and of the Bay of Augusta, which is in agreement also with historical

  4. Exploiting teleconnection indices for probabilistic forecasting of drought class transitions in Sicily region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    In the present study two probabilistic models for short-medium term drought forecasting able to include information provided by teleconnection indices are proposed and applied to Sicily region (Italy). Drought conditions are expressed in terms of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at different aggregation time scales. More specifically, a multivariate approach based on normal distribution is developed in order to estimate: 1) on the one hand transition probabilities to future SPEI drought classes and 2) on the other hand, SPEI forecasts at a generic time horizon M, as functions of past values of SPEI and the selected teleconnection index. To this end, SPEI series at 3, 4 and 6 aggregation time scales for Sicily region are extracted from the Global SPEI database, SPEIbase , available at Web repository of the Spanish National Research Council (http://sac.csic.es/spei/database.html), and averaged over the study area. In particular, SPEIbase v2.3 with spatial resolution of 0.5° lat/lon and temporal coverage between January 1901 and December 2013 is used. A preliminary correlation analysis is carried out to investigate the link between the drought index and different teleconnection patterns, namely: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian (SCA) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EA-WR) patterns. Results of such analysis indicate a strongest influence of NAO on drought conditions in Sicily with respect to other teleconnection indices. Then, the proposed forecasting methodology is applied and the skill in forecasting of the proposed models is quantitatively assessed through the application of a simple score approach and of performance indices. Results indicate that inclusion of NAO index generally enhance model performance thus confirming the suitability of the models for short- medium term forecast of drought conditions.

  5. Characterization of measles virus strains circulating in Southern Italy (Palermo area, Sicily) between 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Urone, Noemi; Colomba, Claudia; Ferraro, Donatella

    2016-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) was classified in 24 genotypes that show a distinct geographic distribution. Genotypes contain multiple distinct lineages. In 2011 large outbreaks of measles occurred in Italy and in many European countries. Aims of this study are to analyze the intra-genotype variability and to follow the importation and the spread of new MV strains in Sicily. A fragment of 450 bps of MV C-terminal nucleoprotein was sequenced from sera of 73 Sicilian patients with symptomatic measles infections, occurred between 2010 and 2011. Five MV strains were D4 genotype and 68 were D8 genotype. The MV/D4 sequences were related to MV/D4-Enfield variant. Two lineages of MV/D8 genotypes, related to MV/D8-Villupuram variant and to a strain found in Birmingham in 2006 respectively, were identified. This is the first study that reports the co-circulation of different MV genotypes and lineages in Sicily suggesting multiple origins of the outbreak that occurred during 2010 and 2011 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Anagnostou, Paolo; Busby, George B J; Ferri, Gianmarco; Thomas, Mark G; Taglioli, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Bolnick, Deborah; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Luiselli, Donata; Shepherd, Gillian B; Tusa, Sebastiano; Facella, Antonino; Capelli, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Greek colonisation of South Italy and Sicily (Magna Graecia) was a defining event in European cultural history, although the demographic processes and genetic impacts involved have not been systematically investigated. Here, we combine high-resolution surveys of the variability at the uni-parentally inherited Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in selected samples of putative source and recipient populations with forward-in-time simulations of alternative demographic models to detect signatures of that impact. Using a subset of haplotypes chosen to represent historical sources, we recover a clear signature of Greek ancestry in East Sicily compatible with the settlement from Euboea during the Archaic Period (eighth to fifth century BCE). We inferred moderate sex-bias in the numbers of individuals involved in the colonisation: a few thousand breeding men and a few hundred breeding women were the estimated number of migrants. Last, we demonstrate that studies aimed at quantifying Hellenic genetic flow by the proportion of specific lineages surviving in present-day populations may be misleading. PMID:26173964

  7. Ancient and recent admixture layers in Sicily and Southern Italy trace multiple migration routes along the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Pagani, Luca; Sazzini, Marco; De Fanti, Sara; Quagliariello, Andrea; Gnecchi Ruscone, Guido Alberto; Guichard, Etienne; Ciani, Graziella; Bortolini, Eugenio; Barbieri, Chiara; Cilli, Elisabetta; Petrilli, Rosalba; Mikerezi, Ilia; Sineo, Luca; Vilar, Miguel; Wells, Spencer; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide

    2017-05-16

    The Mediterranean shores stretching between Sicily, Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans witnessed a long series of migration processes and cultural exchanges. Accordingly, present-day population diversity is composed by multiple genetic layers, which make the deciphering of different ancestral and historical contributes particularly challenging. We address this issue by genotyping 511 samples from 23 populations of Sicily, Southern Italy, Greece and Albania with the Illumina GenoChip Array, also including new samples from Albanian- and Greek-speaking ethno-linguistic minorities of Southern Italy. Our results reveal a shared Mediterranean genetic continuity, extending from Sicily to Cyprus, where Southern Italian populations appear genetically closer to Greek-speaking islands than to continental Greece. Besides a predominant Neolithic background, we identify traces of Post-Neolithic Levantine- and Caucasus-related ancestries, compatible with maritime Bronze-Age migrations. We argue that these results may have important implications in the cultural history of Europe, such as in the diffusion of some Indo-European languages. Instead, recent historical expansions from North-Eastern Europe account for the observed differentiation of present-day continental Southern Balkan groups. Patterns of IBD-sharing directly reconnect Albanian-speaking Arbereshe with a recent Balkan-source origin, while Greek-speaking communities of Southern Italy cluster with their Italian-speaking neighbours suggesting a long-term history of presence in Southern Italy.

  8. Spectroscopic techniques applied to the characterization of decorated potteries from Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barilaro, D.; Barone, G.; Crupi, V.; Donato, M. G.; Majolino, D.; Messina, G.; Ponterio, R.

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the characterization of decorated pottery samples from Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy), a renowned production centre of this kind of artwork. These fragments were found during archaeological excavations and were attributed to historical periods extremely far in time from each other (from XVIII century b.C. to XVI a.C.). Therefore, we expect that the manufacture techniques result rather different over so long time. The measurements, performed by Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) absorbance and micro-Raman scattering, allowed us a non-destructive study of so precious artefacts. Some pigments were identified, various elements of ceramic paste and glazed layer were characterized.

  9. Organic contamination in clams, Venerupis aurea laeta and Cerastoderma edule glaucum, from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Licata, Patrizia; Pellizzeri, Vito; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Turco, Vincenzo

    2017-07-10

    Two species of edible clams Venerupis aurea laeta and Cerastoderma edule glaucum from Ganzirri Lake (Sicily, Italy) were investigated to determine OCP and PCB residues by GC-MS. Thirty-five samples were examined for two years in order to perform: a) their actual contamination; b) the daily dietary exposure of seafood consumers to the pollutants in question. In all the clams analysed in this study, PCB and OCP (4,4'-DDE) residues are always below the limits fixed by law. It seems that there is some seasonality of concentrations observed. In fact the more high concentrations of residues are detected in the hot months, for both species and years. Given the consumption of clams and the values obtained in this study for the two species analysed, it is possible estimate that the average daily dietary intake of NDL-PCB and of 4,4'-DDE for adults is really low.

  10. Ticks and associated pathogens collected from cats in Sicily and Calabria (Italy).

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Persichetti, Maria-Flaminia; Serrano, Lorena; Altet, Laura; Reale, Stefano; Gulotta, Laura; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2015-10-07

    Limited information is available about the species of ticks infesting the cat and the pathogens that they harbor. The aims of the present study were to identify the species of ticks removed from cats living in Sicily and Calabria (Italy) and to detect DNA of vector-borne pathogens in the same ticks. Morphological identification of 132 adult ticks collected throughout the year from cats was carried out. Real-time PCRs for Hepatozoon felis, Piroplasmid, Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum were performed from each individual tick. Ticks belonging to Rhipicephalus (R. sanguineus sensu lato, R. pusillus) and Ixodes (I. ricinus, I. ventalloi) genera were identified. Ixodes ventalloi was the most frequently found tick species (47 %). The positivity rate to at least one pathogen was 14.4 % (19/132 ticks). Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp. (R. monacensis and R. helvetica), Bartonella spp. (B. clarridgeiae), Piroplasmid (Babesia vogeli), and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. (E. canis) DNAs were amplified in 8.3, 5.3, 1.5, 0.75 and 0.75 % of ticks, respectively. Hepatozoon felis, Anaplasma spp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. DNAs were not detected. Four (21.1 %) out of nineteen positive ticks were co-infected. This study provides novel data about ticks infesting cats and the DNA of pathogens that they harbor. In Southern Italy, anti-tick prophylaxis should be implemented throughout the year in cats without neglecting winter time.

  11. Spirocerca lupi isolated from gastric lesions in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrantelli, V; Riili, S; Vicari, D; Percipalle, M; Chetta, M; Monteverde, V; Gaglio, G; Giardina, G; Usai, F; Poglayen, G

    2010-01-01

    Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi 1809) is a cosmopolitan nematode of dogs and wild carnivores. In the past it has been reported in Italy, mainly in southern regions and in Sicily, where the parasite was observed in foxes in 2005. The parasite typically produces nodular masses in the oesophagus and thoracic aorta. During the 2003-2004 hunting season, the authors investigated a total of 55 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) hunted or killed by car accidents in the provinces of Palermo and Agrigento. All the foxes were subjected to necropsy and 6 (9.16%) had S. lupi nodules located exclusively in the gastric wall. The nature of the nodules was determined by opening them and detecting the nematodes inside, which were identified as S. lupi. Some of the nodules were characterized anatomopathologically and histopathologically. The formation of the parasitic nodule in the stomach only suggests a deviation from the route commonly followed by the nematode to reach the oesophagus, the elective anatomical site for completion of its lifecycle. This survey gives a contribution to the epidemiology of this parasite which is severely outdated in Italy and highlights some distinctive features of the life cycle and parasite migration.

  12. About the presence of Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Eastern Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, V; Ruta, F; Khoury, C; Bianchi, R; Depaquit, J; Maroli, M

    2004-09-01

    The note reports the data of a three-year sand fly investigation (1997-99) carried out in Eastern Sicily (Italy) with the aim to study the distribution of Phlebotomus sergenti. The survey involved a densely inhabited area at the foot of Mount Etna and the area of Iblei mounts. A total of 9,095 sand flies, of which 63.4% males, were captured. Five species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi, P. neglectus, P. sergenti and P. papatasi) and one to the genus Sergentomyia (S. minuta) were identified. Both the prevalence and distribution of the species were different within the two areas studied. In Mount Etna area, P. perniciosus (77.7%) was the prevalent species followed by S. minuta (19.8%), P. sergenti (2.0%), P. neglectus (0.3%) and P. papatasi (0.2%). While in Iblei mounts region S. minuta (84.5%) showed the highest prevalence, followed by P. perniciosus (14.4%), P. perfiliewi (0.9%) and P. neglectus (0.1%). Here, P. sergenti was a very rare species (< 0.02). P. sergenti was mostly associated to domestic habitats of peri-urban and urban zones located between two and 750 m a.s.l. The density values of P. sergenti, expressed as number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap, were between 0.3 and 5.5 with the highest value in the hilly collecting sites. The low observed abundance of P. sergenti does not allow to draw any prediction on the role that the species could play in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Sicily.

  13. Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

  14. Analysis of climate change effects on extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    In this study possible effects of the climate change on the extreme precipitation events have been analyzed by means of the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment) data, a WCRP-sponsored program for the study of climate change effects at regional scales. In particular, some models runs from the EURO-CORDEX and the MED-CORDEX, i.e., two branch of the main project, have been exploited for the analysis of possible effects on extreme rainfall for the area of Sicily (Italy). In order to improve the reliability of reference data retrieved from the CORDEX datasets, a bias correction procedure based on hystorical measurements has been designed. Moreover, a simple cascade temporal downscaling procedure, has been applied for the derivation of sub-daily data. Results highlight that mean annual precipitation for the period 2006-2050 shows a reduction of the average total precipitation for both scenarios, rcp8.5 more than rcp4.5. The precipitation for the shorter durations has shown an increase respect to higher durations. This behaviour is confirmed by many works of the scientific community, which underline this trend. Therefore, results report the indications that in this area the up to date climate predictions are congruent with future scenarios characterized by a decrease of the total amount of precipitation with an increase of the extreme rainfall events.

  15. Ensuring very shallow-water sediment properties: case study from Capo Granitola harbour, Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzo, Michele; Cavuoto, Giuseppe; Tarallo, Daniela; Di Fiore, Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    We present high-resolution Vp models of the Capo Granitola harbor, Sicily (Italy) obtained by first arrival traveltime tomography. Seismic data were collected along four hydrophone arrays on the sea-bottom and via a Watergun as seismic source, in order to plan dredging operations in the harbor. Using a hydrophone spacing of 2.5 m and shot spacing of 5 m, very high resolution quality data were recorded. Seismic tomography expands existing knowledge of the harbour subsoil with a penetration of about 20 m, illuminating the Lower Pleistocene bedrock (Marsala calcarenites) that corresponds to high-Vp regions (Vp > 4.5 km/s). Low Vp (1.8-4.5 km/s) deposits belonging to terraced calcarenites (Upper Pleistocene in age) are also well imaged; they are about 8 m thick and lie below loose sand deposits (Vp = 1.5 km/s). The substratum has an articulated morphology; Vp images unravel small steps in the basement probably related to structural discontinuities (e.g., faults). Processing data with 3D techniques enables images of the structure and the thickness of the lithotypes to be reconstructed, thus leading to large-scale, realistic estimates of the total quantity of material to be excavated or dredged. Tomographic profiles permit clear discrimination of the soft sediment above the basement and thus allow the determination of the total volume of sediment above the seismic bedrock, estimated at about 265,000 m3.

  16. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L⁻¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L⁻¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L⁻¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L⁻¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L⁻¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L⁻¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure.

  17. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  18. Predicting storm-triggered debris flow events: application to the 2009 Ionian Peloritan disaster (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, M.; Lombardo, L.; Conoscenti, C.; Agnesi, V.; Rotigliano, E.

    2015-08-01

    The main assumption on which landslide susceptibility assessment by means of stochastic modelling lies is that the past is the key to the future. As a consequence, a stochastic model able to classify past known landslide events should be able to predict a future unknown scenario as well. However, storm-triggered multiple debris flow events in the Mediterranean region could pose some limits on the operative validity of such an expectation, as they are typically resultant of a randomness in time recurrence and magnitude and a great spatial variability, even at the scale of small catchments. This is the case for the 2007 and 2009 storm events, which recently hit north-eastern Sicily with different intensities, resulting in largely different disaster scenarios. The study area is the small catchment of the Itala torrent (10 km2), which drains from the southern Peloritani Mountains eastward to the Ionian Sea, in the territory of the Messina province (Sicily, Italy). Landslides have been mapped by integrating remote and field surveys, producing two event inventories which include 73 debris flows, activated in 2007, and 616 debris flows, triggered by the 2009 storm. Logistic regression was applied in order to obtain susceptibility models which utilize a set of predictors derived from a 2 m cell digital elevation model and a 1 : 50 000 scale geologic map. The research topic was explored by performing two types of validation procedures: self-validation, based on the random partition of each event inventory, and chrono-validation, based on the time partition of the landslide inventory. It was therefore possible to analyse and compare the performances both of the 2007 calibrated model in predicting the 2009 debris flows (forward chrono-validation), and vice versa of the 2009 calibrated model in predicting the 2007 debris flows (backward chrono-validation). Both of the two predictions resulted in largely acceptable performances in terms of fitting, skill and reliability

  19. Predicting storm triggered debris flow events: application to the 2009 Ionian-Peloritan disaster (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, M.; Lombardo, L.; Conoscenti, C.; Rotigliano, R.

    2015-03-01

    The main assumption on which landslide susceptibility assessment by means of stochastic modelling lays is that the past is the key to the future. As a consequence, a stochastic model able to classify a past known landslide scenario should be able to predict a future unknown one as well. However, storm triggered landslide events in the Mediterranean region could pose some limits on the operative validity of such expectation, as they typically result by a randomness in time recurrence and magnitude. This is the case of the 2007/09 couple of storm events, which recently hit north-eastern Sicily resulting in largely different disaster scenarios. The purpose of this study is to test whether a susceptibility model based on stepwise binary logistic regression is able to predict a storm triggered debris flow scenario. The study area is the small catchment of the Itala torrent (10 km2), which drains from the southern Peloritan Mountains eastward to the Ionian sea, in the province of the Messina territory (Sicily, Italy). The shallow landslides activated in the occasion of two close intense rainfall events have been mapped by integrating remote and field surveys, producing two event inventories which include 73 landslides, activated in 2007, and 616 landslides, triggered by the 2009 storm. The set of predictors were derived from a 2 m cell digital elevation model and a 1 : 50 000 scale geologic map. The topic of the research was explored by performing two types of validation procedures: self-validation, based on the random partition of each event inventory and chrono-validation, based on the time partition of the landslide inventory. It was therefore possible to analyse and compare the performances both of the 2007-calibrated model in predicting the 2009 landslides (forward chronovalidation) and vice versa of the 2009-calibrated model in predicting the 2007 landslides (backward chronovalidation). Both the two predictions resulted in largely acceptable performances, in terms

  20. Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

  1. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard.

  2. High prevalence of Anisakis simplex hypersensitivity and allergy in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Enrico; Sberna, Maria Eva; Sichili, Stefania; Intravaia, Rossella; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Liuzzo, Maria Teresa; Picardi, Giuseppe; Fichera, Silvia; Crimi, Nunzio

    2016-02-01

    Anisakis simplex can elicit allergic reactions when ingested in raw or marinated fish. The prevalence of A simplex hypersensitivity and allergy in Sicily (Italy), an area where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is very common, has not been investigated thus far. To investigate the prevalence of A simplex sensitization and its clinical relevance in a large group of unselected patients. All consecutive patients referred to the authors' allergy clinic during a 22 month-period were included in the study, evaluated for sensitization to A simplex and other allergens depending on their clinical history, and investigated for allergic symptoms after the ingestion of raw or marinated fish. Of 3,419 patients screened, 527 (15.4%) were sensitized to A simplex and 29 of these (5.5% of sensitized patients) had a history of A simplex allergy. Approximately 30% of patients had mono-sensitization to A simplex. Co-sensitization to house dust mites or molds yielded an odds ratio of 1.98 or 3.18, respectively, for allergy to A simplex. A high prevalence of A simplex sensitization in a large proportion of patients with mono-sensitization was found, confirming that eating habits influence sensitization to this nematode. Allergic symptoms from A simplex ingestion in raw or marinated fish were quite frequent, with symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to anaphylaxis. Patients sensitized to A simplex were more prone to have allergic symptoms when they had co-sensitization to house dust mites or molds, suggesting possible cross-reactive but clinically relevant allergens between these allergenic sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Popular uses of wild plant species for medicinal purposes in the Nebrodi Regional Park (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Licata, Mario; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Letizia Gargano, Maria; Venturella, Giuseppe; La Bella, Salvatore

    2014-11-18

    The area of the Nebrodi Regional Park (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy) has been quantitatively investigated in an ethnobotanical study for the first time. A total of 90 wild species are used for medicinal purposes and the uses of 5 species have not previously been reported in ethnobotanical studies in Italy (e.g., the use of Arisarum vulgare O. Targ. Tozz. for the treatment of rheumatic pains, the use of Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke for the treatment of liver diseases). The aim of this paper was to understand to what extent current knowledge on the medicinal use of plants is still an element of the culture within the rural populations of the Nebrodi Park. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out in the local communities within the Nebrodi Regional Park with local people retained experts in rural traditions. A total of 226 people over the age of 60 were interviewed. Local plant uses were evaluated using ethnobotanical indices (e.g., cultural importance index, index of ethnobotanical diversity, informant consensus factor) and then compared with uses in other localities in Sicily, Italy and the Mediterranean area. Results Local communities use a total number of 90 wild species belonging to 44 plant families as medicinal remedies. The majority of the species are used as treatments against gastrointestinal system. The cultural importance index showed that Malva sylvestris (1.31) and Clinopodium nepeta (0.86) are the most important species to the Nebrodi area in terms of medicinal use. The use of Brassica rupestris Raf. for therapeutic purposes is limited to Sicily and it is an innovative finding of this study. The research shows an ongoing process of cultural erosion in an advanced stage, but quantitative indices still highlight only for those species was a natural remedy deemed highly effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Roberto; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work some reliable tsunami scenarios for the city of Catania are proposed on the basis of tectonic considerations and of the historical events that hit the city in the past. The most famous are the tsunamis associated with the 11 January 1693 and the 28 December 1908 earthquakes, of which the source determination is still an open issue, because it is not clear if the tsunamis were generated by the earthquake only or by a landslide or by a combination of both. One remote source based on the 365 A.D. West Hellenic Arc event is also considered in order to complete the possible tsunami scenarios for the town of Catania. The work is focused on the area of the harbour where many human activities and structures are present. Nowadays the harbour is protected by a long jetty opened in the south and here the coast presents two very different morphological aspects: moving southern respect to the harbour the coast is sandy and shallow, while moving northern it is rocky and high. Inundation maps computed on a 40-meters resolution grid are shown in order to identify the areas most exposed to tsunami inundation in this specific area and to study the harbour response to tsunami wave trains of different frequencies. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite difference code UBO-TSUFD, which solves both linear and non-linear shallow water equations on multi-grid domain that allow to increase the grid resolution in the area of interest. The code can compute the inundation of specific areas and it is developed and maintained by the research team itself. The work has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded project SCHEMA

  5. [Mortality excess analysis for year 2015 in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Pinzone, Filippo; Cusimano, Rosanna; Casuccio, Nicolò; Mancuso, Adriana; Pitarresi, Angela

    2017-01-01

    a death number increment compared to the previous years was observed in Italy for the year 2015; its causes are under study. to verify if the mortality occurred in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) for the year 2015 was greater than the one observed in the previous period (years 2009-2014) and to find which death causes it would be attributable to. observed number of deaths in 2015 were compared with expected numbers calculated with the traditional analysis of direct adjusted rates, and with a 90% predictive interval estimated fitting a Generalized Additive Model (GAM), via a quasi-Poisson distribution of the observed deaths in the period 2009-2014; various measures of the environmental temperature were used as regressor. The latter method was used also to analyse causes of death. all deaths occurred in residents in Palermo Province in the years 2009-2015. for each population subgroup based on sex and residence, direct adjusted rates for 2015 were lower than those observed in the previous period, but for women resident in towns outside Palermo (observed/estimated ratio: 1.04; 95%IC 1.00-1.08). GAM analysis shows mortality excesses only in men aged more than 64 years; in Palermo residents, excesses were shown in the 2nd week of December; in residents in towns of the Province excesses were shown in the 2nd and 3rd week of February and in the 1st and 2nd week of August. In the death causes analysis, mortality excesses were shown for pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia in the 1st and 2nd weeks of January; 3rd week of February; in the 1st, 2nd and 4th week of August; and in the 1st week of October. For infectious diseases, these excesses were observed in the 1st week of March. it is plausible that in some weeks of the year 2015 there have been a mortality excess; however, as all-year mortality is lower or equal to that of the previous periods, the Authors believe that there is an harvesting effect, that is a mortality displacement that does not affect total

  6. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  7. Exploring the effect of absence selection on landslide susceptibility models: A case study in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Cama, Mariaelena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Lombardo, Luigi; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    A statistical approach was employed to model the spatial distribution of rainfall-triggered landslides in two areas in Sicily (Italy) that occurred during the winter of 2004-2005. The investigated areas are located within the Belice River basin and extend for 38.5 and 10.3 km2, respectively. A landslide inventory was established for both areas using two Google Earth images taken on October 25th 2004 and on March 18th 2005, to map slope failures activated or reactivated during this interval. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to prepare 5 m grids of the dependent variables (absence/presence of landslide) and independent variables (lithology and 13 DEM-derivatives). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were applied to model landslide susceptibility whereas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate model performance. To evaluate the robustness of the whole procedure, we prepared 10 different samples of positive (landslide presence) and negative (landslide absence) cases for each area. Absences were selected through two different methods: (i) extraction from randomly distributed circles with a diameter corresponding to the mean width of the landslide source areas; and (ii) selection as randomly distributed individual grid cells. A comparison was also made between the predictive performances of models including and not including the lithology parameter. The models trained and tested on the same area demonstrated excellent to outstanding fit (AUC > 0.8). On the other hand, predictive skill decreases when measured outside the calibration area, although most of the landslides occur where susceptibility is high and the overall model performance is acceptable (AUC > 0.7). The results also showed that the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models is higher when lithology is included in the statistical analysis. Models whose absences were selected using random circles showed a

  8. A neighborhood revealed by geophysical prospection: An example of urbanization at the Phoenician-Punic settlement of Mozia (western Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, D.; Alfonsi, L.; Sapia, V.; Urbini, S.

    2014-05-01

    The archaeological site of Mozia, a small island in front of the western coast of Sicily (Italy), is one of the most important Phoenician-Punic settlements in the Mediterranean; it preserves important vestiges and remains, located in an uncontaminated site, inhabited and car-free. The remains are still partially hidden under vegetation and vineyards.

  9. Evidences of a Lithospheric Fault Zone in the Sicily Channel Continental Rift (Southern Italy) from Instrumental Seismicity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, L.; Calo, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sicily Channel continental rift is located in the African Plate and is submerged by a shallow sea extending from the northern coast of Africa to the southern coast of Sicily (southern Italy). The area is affected by an extensional regime since early Pliocene, which thins the continental crust and produces NW-SE oriented Pantelleria, Linosa and Malta grabens. The rift-related volcanic activity is represented by Pantelleria and Linosa Islands and a series of magmatic manifestations roughly NNE-SSW aligned, from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, in proximity of the Sicilian coast. Recent rapid magmatic ascents occurred along the strip near to the Sicilian coast in a region named Graham Bank. The NNE-SSW strip has already been recognised as a separation belt between the western sector of the rift (Pantelleria graben) and the eastern one (Linosa and Malta grabens). Seismic profiles suggest the presence of near vertical structures associated with strike slip fault zones. Bathymetric data show a 15-20 km wide zone characterised by several shallow basins irregularly alternated by topographic highs. However, evidences of a N-S or NNE-SSW orientated faults have not been found. In this work we re-localised the instrumental seismicity recorded between 1981 and 2012 in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method (Waldhauser, 2001, 2012) and 3D Vp and Vs models (Calò et al., 2013). The statistical analysis of the relocated seismicity together with the study of seismic energy release distribution allows us to describe the main patterns associated with the active faults in the western Sicily Straits. Here we find that most of the events in the Sicily Channel are highly clustered between 12.5°- 13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth between 5-40 km, reaching in some cases 70 km of depth. Seismic events seem to be aligned along a sub-vertical shear zone that is long at least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial

  10. A Reappraisal of Seismicity and Eruptions of Pantelleria Island and the Sicily Channel (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Barbano, Maria Serafina; Pirrotta, Claudia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Larocca, Graziano; Platania, Pier Raffaele

    2017-07-01

    Three main tectonic depressions (the Pantelleria, Linosa and Malta troughs), the expression of a continental rift, characterize the Sicily Channel, a region with recent volcanic activity attested by the Pantelleria and Linosa volcanic islands, as well as numerous seamounts. To understand the seismic and eruptive behaviour of this area, we compare historical and instrumental seismicity retrieved from catalogues with recordings from both a mobile seismic network and a permanent station deployed at Pantelleria. A review of historical eruptions affecting the Sicily Channel is also presented. Recent instrumental seismicity shows that the Sicily Channel is characterized by a low level of seismicity, with earthquakes mainly occurring as isolated events, rather than swarms as observed during the few documented eruptive periods. The results of a seismic survey in 2006-2007, as well as the signals recorded by a permanent station in 2010-2014, enable stating that also Pantelleria is characterized by a very low rate of seismicity. The available, though scant, historical information suggests a recurrence time of about a century for the volcanic activity and that eruptions are usually preceded by seismic swarms. In the only historical known eruption of Pantelleria, in addition to shocks, uplifting and increasing fumarole activity, were observed. Notwithstanding the lack of eruptions over the past century, and despite the low recent seismic rate, we believe that the geophysical monitoring of the Sicily Channel needs improving since it is an area of potentially high seismic and volcanic hazard given the presence of several active submarine eruptive centres.

  11. Probabilistic forecasting of drought class transitions in Sicily (Italy) using Standardized Precipitation Index and North Atlantic Oscillation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Cancelliere, Antonino; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    Since the mid-90s the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has found widespread use to monitor drought periods at different time scales. Recently, some efforts have been made to analyze the role of SPI for drought forecasting, as well as to estimate transition probabilities between SPI drought classes. In the present paper probabilistic models for short and middle term forecasting of SPI drought class transition probabilities are presented and extended in order to include information provided by an exogenous variable, such as an index of large scale atmospheric circulation pattern like, for instance, the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO). In particular, the proposed models result from evaluating conditional probability of future SPI classes with respect to current SPI (and NAO) classes or current SPI (and NAO) values, under the hypothesis of multivariate normal distribution of the underlying joint variables. SPI series are computed on average areal precipitation in Sicily region (Italy). As a significant negative correlation exists between NAO and SPI series in Sicily during recent decades, the proposed models are calibrated on the period from 1979 to 2008. Both SPI and NAO values are categorized in four classes. Transition probabilities to future SPI classes are evaluated based on SPI and NAO current classes or values and compared to the corresponding probabilities when NAO is neglected. Results indicate that drought transition probabilities in Sicily are generally affected by NAO index. In particular, transition probabilities related to persisting or worsening drought conditions significantly increase as NAO index tends toward extremely positive values. On the other hand transition probabilities to a less severe drought class decrease as NAO values increase. Furthermore, application of a simple score approach to quantitatively assess the skill in forecasting of the proposed models shows that assessing transition probabilities to future SPI classes from

  12. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  13. Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. The frequent flank eruptions occurrence (at an interval of years, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones) lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked with intense urbanization, poses a high volcanic risk. A long-term volcanic hazard assessment, mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano, is the basic tool for the evaluation of this risk. Then, a reliable forecast where the next eruption will occur is needed. A computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations will provide the relative map, thus allowing identification of the areas prone to the highest hazard. Based on these grounds, the use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) showed that a suitable analysis can be explored (Selva et al., 2012). Following an analysis we are performing, a total of 6886 point-vents referring to the last 4.0 ka of Etna flank activity, and spread over an area of 744 km2 (divided into N=2976 squared cell, with side of 500 m), allowed us to estimate a pdf by applying a Gaussian kernel. The probability values represent a complete set of outcomes mutually exclusive and the relative sum is normalized to one over the investigated area; then, the basic assumptions of a Dirichlet distribution (the prior distribution set in the BET_EF code (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008)) still hold. One fundamental parameter is the the equivalent number of data, that depicts our confidence on the best guess probability. The BET_EF code also works with a likelihood function. This is modelled by a Multinomial distribution, with parameters representing the number of vents in each cell and the total number of past data (i.e. the 6886 point-vents). Given the grid of N cells, the final posterior distribution will be evaluated by multiplying the a priori Dirichlet probability distribution with the past data in each cell through the likelihood. The probability hazard map

  14. Modelling a strike-slip fault system affecting porous carbonates in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilona, A.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Johnson, G.; Shackleton, R.

    2012-12-01

    Investigating the deformation processes as well as the characteristics and distribution of their end-products is a crucial issue to improve geo-fluid exploitation in carbonate reservoirs (≈50% of natural geo-fluids). Indeed, besides the primary controls on the petrophysical properties of limestones, which are due to nature and organization/shape of the constituent elements (i.e. grains, pores, cement, clay minerals), both containment and migration of fluids in these rocks are influenced by fault zones and fractures. In this contribution we integrate quantitative structural analysis and numerical modelling approaches aiming at testing a new workflow useful to create a 3D discrete fracture network (DFN) model of a reservoir starting from outcrop data collected in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy). The presence of several quarries in the Island provides 3D exposures of ≈25 m-thick Lower-Pleistocene high-porosity grainstones crosscut by two conjugate sets of strike-slip faults. This fault system, documented by Tondi et al. (2012), is comprised of three types of structure: single compactive shear bands (CSB); zones of bands (ZB); and, faults. CSBs are narrow tabular features with porosity less than the surrounding host rocks, and have thicknesses and displacements on the order of a few mm. The growth process for these structures involves localizing further deformation within zones of closely-spaced CSBs and, possibly, along continuous slip surfaces within fault rocks overprinting older ZBs. The transitions from one growth step to another are recorded by different values of the dimensional parameters (i.e. length, thickness and displacement) for the structures. These transitions are also reflected by the ratios and distributions of the dimensional parameters. The DFN model was built by means of the Fracture Modelling module of the commercial software package Move from Midland Valley©. The analysis of an aerial photo was performed firstly to delimit the

  15. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice.

    PubMed

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on "Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health," a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination policies, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities.

  16. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice

    PubMed Central

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on “Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health,” a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination polices, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities. PMID:25806425

  17. Statistical Analysis of Mineral Concentration for the Geographic Identification of Garlic Samples from Sicily (Italy), Tunisia and Spain.

    PubMed

    Vadalà, Rossella; Mottese, Antonio F; Bua, Giuseppe D; Salvo, Andrea; Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Vasi, Sebastiano; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Alfa, Maria; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-03-15

    We performed a statistical analysis of the concentration of mineral elements, by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in different varieties of garlic from Spain, Tunisia, and Italy. Nubia Red Garlic (Sicily) is one of the most known Italian varieties that belongs to traditional Italian food products (P.A.T.) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry. The obtained results suggest that the concentrations of the considered elements may serve as geographical indicators for the discrimination of the origin of the different samples. In particular, we found a relatively high content of Selenium in the garlic variety known as Nubia red garlic, and, indeed, it could be used as an anticarcinogenic agent.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Mineral Concentration for the Geographic Identification of Garlic Samples from Sicily (Italy), Tunisia and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Rossella; Mottese, Antonio F.; Bua, Giuseppe D.; Salvo, Andrea; Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Vasi, Sebastiano; Giofrè, Salvatore V.; Alfa, Maria; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a statistical analysis of the concentration of mineral elements, by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in different varieties of garlic from Spain, Tunisia, and Italy. Nubia Red Garlic (Sicily) is one of the most known Italian varieties that belongs to traditional Italian food products (P.A.T.) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry. The obtained results suggest that the concentrations of the considered elements may serve as geographical indicators for the discrimination of the origin of the different samples. In particular, we found a relatively high content of Selenium in the garlic variety known as Nubia red garlic, and, indeed, it could be used as an anticarcinogenic agent. PMID:28231115

  19. Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

    2008-10-01

    Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric conductivity and for their Cl(-), Br(-) and F(-) contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl(-) and Br(-), ranging between 5.53 and 1,302 mg/l and between <0.025 and 4.76 mg/l respectively, correlated well with the electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values were found both along the NW and SE coasts, which we attributed to seawater contamination, and in the central part of Sicily, which we attributed to evaporitic rock dissolution. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.023 to 3.28 mg/l, while the highest values (only three exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 1.5 mg/l) generally correlated either with the presence in the area of crystalline (volcanic or metamorphic) or evaporitic rocks or with contamination from hydrothermal activity. Apart from these limited cases of exceeding F(-) levels, the waters of public drinking water supplies in Sicily can be considered safe for human consumption for the analysed parameters. Some limited concern could arise from the intake of bromide-rich waters (about 3% exceeding 1 mg/l) because of the potential formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.

  20. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  1. Geodetic and geological evidence of active tectonics in south-western Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Bruno, V.; Cocorullo, C.; Cultrera, F.; Ferranti, L.; Guglielmino, F.; Guzzetta, L.; Mattia, M.; Monaco, C.; Pepe, F.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated geological, geodetic and marine geophysical data provide evidence of active deformation in south-western Sicily, in an area spatially coincident with the macroseismic zone of the destructive 1968 Belice earthquake sequence. Even though the sequence represents the strongest seismic event recorded in Western Sicily in historical times, focal solutions provided by different authors are inconclusive on possible faulting mechanism, which ranges from thrusting to transpression, and the seismogenic source is still undefined. Interferometric (DInSAR) observations reveal a differential ground motion on a SW-NE alignment between Campobello di Mazara and Castelvetrano (CCA), located just west of the maximum macroseismic sector. In addition, new GPS campaign-mode data acquired across the CCA alignment documents NW-SE contractional strain accumulation. Morphostructural analysis allowed to associate the alignment detected through geodetic measurements with a topographic offset of Pleistocene marine sediments. The on-land data were complemented by new high-resolution marine geophysical surveys, which indicate recent contraction on the offshore extension of the CCA alignment. The discovery of archaeological remains displaced by a thrust fault associated with the alignment provided the first likely surface evidence of coseismic and/or aseismic deformation related to a seismogenic source in the area. Results of the integrated study supports the contention that oblique thrusting and folding in response to NW-SE oriented contraction is still active. Although we are not able to associate the CCA alignment to the 1968 seismic sequence or to the historical earthquakes that destroyed the ancient Greek city of Selinunte, located on the nearby coastline, our result must be incorporated in the seismic hazard evaluation of this densely populated area of Sicily.

  2. Fourth case of louse-borne relapsing fever in Young Migrant, Sicily, Italy, December 2015. Mini Review Article.

    PubMed

    Colomba, C; Scarlata, F; Di Carlo, P; Giammanco, A; Fasciana, T; Trizzino, M; Cascio, A

    2016-10-01

    Currently louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is primarily found in limited endemic foci in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan; no case of imported LBRF has been reported in Europe in the 9 years prior to 2015. The aim of our paper is to describe a new case of imported LBRF detected in Sicily, Italy, and to review all cases reported in migrants arrived in Europe in the last 10 years. Mini review of all published cases of louse-borne relapsing fever in Europe in the last 10 years. A computerized search without language restriction was conducted using PubMed combining the terms '(louse-borne relapsing fever or LBRF or recurrentis) and (refugee or Europe or migrant)' without limits. Furthermore, the 'Ahead-of-Print Articles' of the top 10 journals (ranked by Impact factor - Web of Science) of Infectious diseases and of Epidemiology were checked. Our search identified 26 cases of LBRF between July and October 2015 in migrants recently arrived in Europe: 8 had been described in Italy; 1 in Switzerland; 2 in the Netherlands; 15 in Germany. We describe data regarding the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, therapy and outcome of these patients and of the new case. LBRF by Borrelia recurrentis should be considered among the clinical hypotheses in migrants presenting with fever, headache, chills, sweating, arthralgia, myalgia, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on potential landslide sources along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment for the 1693 tsunami in Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The study of the source of 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (South Italy) is still debated in the scientific community. Macroseismic analyses provide inland location for the epicenter of the earthquake, while historical reports describing 1-2 m waves hitting the coast suggest the existence of at least an offshore extension of the fault. Furthermore, an anomalous water elevation was described in Augusta (between Siracusa and Catania), that was interpreted as the manifestation of a local submarine landslide. The presence of the steep Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, that runs parallel to the eastern coast of Sicily at a short distance from the shoreline and is cut by several canyons and scars, corroborates the hypothesis of a landslide occurrence, though no clear evidence has been found yet. This research, realized in the frame of the project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), aims at assessing the effect of landslide-generated tsunamis on the coastal stretch around Augusta considering different scenarios of collapsing masses along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment. The slide dynamics is computed by means of the numerical code UBO-BLOCK1 (developed by the University of Bologna Tsunami Research Team), and the corresponding tsunami is simulated via the code UBO-TSUFD. The sliding bodies are placed in different positions in order to assess which of them could produce significant effects on the town of Augusta, providing then clues on the possible source area for the hypothesized slide related to the 1693 tsunami. The sensitivity analysis shows the spatial dependence of the coastal tsunami height on the source volume, position, distance from the coast, and on other parameters.

  4. Genotyping of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated in Northern Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Bonura, Celestino; Ferraro, Donatella; Barbaro, Roberta; Calà, Cinzia; Distefano, Salvatore; Casuccio, Nicolò; Belfiore, Santina; Giammanco, Anna

    2008-04-01

    During a three-year period, from April 2002 to May 2005, one hundred-forty-seven samples, taken from technical systems of water distribution at point of use, were repeatedly collected at six different sites in Northern Sicily and assayed for the presence of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and serogroups 2 to 14. At the first samplings, the water distribution systems of all the sites were heavily contaminated, and disinfection treatments by the superheat and flush method were therefore performed. Treatments were always successful against L. pneumophila sg.1, but only in a few cases against all other serogroups. Eighty-six strains of L. pneumophila sg. 1, isolated from 26 of these samples, were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and sequence-based typing (SBT) procedure. Perfectly overlapping results were obtained by both the procedures and four genotypes were identified, accounting for all the isolates. The easy transferability of the SBT data through a web-based database made it possible to identify the presence in Northern Sicily of the two SBT types most commonly circulating in Europe.

  5. Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy.

    PubMed

    Manta, Daniela Salvagio; Angelone, Massimo; Bellanca, Adriana; Neri, Rodolfo; Sprovieri, Mario

    2002-12-02

    Concentrations of V, Mn, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg and Sb were measured on 70 topsoil samples collected from green areas and parks in the city of Palermo (Sicily) in order to: (1) assess the distribution of these heavy metals in the urban environment; (2) discriminate natural and anthropic contributions; and (3) identify possible sources of pollution. Mineralogy, physico-chemical parameters, and major element contents of the topsoils were determined to highlight the influence of 'natural' features on the heavy metal concentrations and their distribution. Medians of Pb, Zn, Cu and Hg concentrations of the investigated urban soils are 202, 138, 63 and 0.68 mgkg(-1), respectively. These values are higher, in some case by different orders of size, than those of unpolluted soils in Sicily that average 44, 122, 34 and 0.07 mg kg(-1). An ensemble of basic and multivariate statistical analyses (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) was performed to reduce the multidimensional space of variables and samples, thus defining two sets of heavy metals as tracers of natural and anthropic influences. Results demonstrate that Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and Hg can be inferred to be tracers of anthropic pollution, whereas Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, V and Cd were interpreted to be mainly inherited from parent materials. Maps of pollutant distribution were constructed for the whole urban area pointing to vehicle traffic as the main source of diffuse pollution and also showing the contribution of point sources of pollution to urban topsoils.

  6. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) bioindicator of lead and copper pollution in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Naccari, C; Giangrosso, G; Macaluso, A; Billone, E; Cicero, A; D'Ascenzi, C; Ferrantelli, V

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Pb and Cu accumulation in muscle and skin samples of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Sicily, for monitoring of environmental metals pollution. Metals determination, carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), showed the presence of Pb and Cu in all samples analyzed. Pb concentrations were similar in muscle (0.04±0.009 mg/kg) and skin (0.03±0.004 mg/kg) samples, while Cu levels resulted higher in muscle (1.842±0.178 mg/kg) than in skin (1.22±0.151 mg/kg). In addition, a comparative analysis of Pb and Cu concentrations was carried out among samples from different areas of Sicily and between female and male, young and old, immature and mature foxes. Metals content found in all muscle and skin samples demonstrates that V. vulpes could be a valid "sentinel" species of rural and suburban areas to study the environmental metals pollution and the habitat quality.

  7. Application and Comparison of Tsunami Vulnerability and Damage Models for the Town of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, which according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting, is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Malta escarpment and by local and remote (e.g., Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason, the area of Siracusa has been selected as one of the test sites to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this frame, this work focuses on the assessment of tsunami vulnerability of (and damage to) the building stock of the town. The analysis is carried out following two different models, namely the SCHEMA and the Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) methods. Topographic and building stock data in the potentially flooded areas are taken from detailed digital databases produced by the region of Sicily, integrated with satellite and photographic imagery from Google Earth and further validated by field surveys. We have explored three inundation scenarios corresponding to a constant-level tsunami flooding with assumed sea level rise of 1, 3 and 5 m, and evaluated the damage to the town buildings using both methods that make use of a 5-degree scale. The main result is that the level of damage of both models is not consistent, and that consistency may be improved if one changes from a 5- to a 3-degree damage scale.

  8. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  9. A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites. PMID:25203839

  10. The impact of ten years of infant universal Varicella vaccination in Sicily, Italy (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Amodio, Emanuele; Tramuto, Fabio; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Sciuto, Valentina; De Donno, Antonella; Guido, Marcello; Rota, Maria Cristina; Gabutti, Giovanni; Vitale, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Universal varicella vaccination in Sicily was introduced in infant population since 2003, with a rapidly increasing coverage. Aim of the present study was to analyze changes in the epidemiology of varicella since the introduction of universal vaccination. The study was performed by analyzing Sicilian administrative/clinical data on varicella case notifications and hospitalizations from 2003 to 2012 (ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes 052 and 052.×). MMR+V and V coverage were also calculated for each birth cohort. Moreover, blood samples drawn in 2013/2014 from general population stratified by age were tested for varicella antibodies. From 2003 to 2012, 15 433 varicella cases were notified with a decreasing temporal trend (1.1/1000 population in 2003 to 0.1/1000 in 2012) (P < 0.001). In the same period, a total of 1145 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of varicella, with a 6-fold reduced risk of hospitalization over time (from 4.8 to 0.8/100 000 population per year; P < 0.001). Varicella vaccination coverage rates increased from 40% (2001 birth cohort) to 85% (2010 birth cohort), and inversely correlated with both notification and hospitalization rates (P < 0.001). Finally, 80.0% of subjects enrolled in the seroepidemiological survey were positive for varicella and seroprevalence increased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001). The results show the impact of infant universal varicella vaccination in Sicily. Noteworthy, notifications and hospitalizations for varicella have significantly decreased after the introduction of universal vaccination, confirming the effectiveness of the adopted strategy.

  11. A molecular survey of Rickettsia felis in fleas from cats and dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites.

  12. The effects of anthropogenic particulate emissions on roadway dust and Nerium oleander leaves in Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Dongarrà, Gaetano; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Triscari, Maurizio; Varrica, Daniela

    2003-10-01

    Complementary studies on the inorganic chemical composition of Nerium oleander leaves collected in the town of Messina (Sicily, Italy) and seven grain-size fractions of local roadway dust have been carried out. Data and maps are presented to show that the particulate matter present in the air of Messina contains trace elements significantly in excess with respect to the average continental earth crust. The anomalies follow the outline of the urban area, the highest concentrations of trace elements being observed where traffic density is highest. Chemical and isotopic analyses of both road dust and Nerium oleander leaves indicate that Pb contamination still characterizes roads with heavy traffic. In addition to Pb, other metals such as Pt, Pd, Sb, Au, Br, Zn, Cu, Mo, and Cd are significantly enriched in roadway dust, indicating their common anthropogenic origin, especially from traffic. SEM/EDS study of some roadway dust particles has shown the presence of gypsum probably of secondary origin, mixed particles formed by coagulation or gas-to-particle conversion, and porous spherical particles apparently emanating from combustion processes.

  13. Bioclimatic requirements for olive flowering in two Mediterranean regions located at the same latitude (Andalucia, Spain and Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Vazquez, Luis Manuel; Ruga, Luigia; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Fornaciari, Marco; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez, Eugenio; Romano, Bruno; Galan, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is the major area devoted to olive tree crop, and therefore a study of olive flowering is of great interest for the European Community. On the other hand, olive pollen is one of the main causes of pollen allergy in the Mediterranean area. Olive flowering is affected by climatic factors such as temperature and photoperiod, which vary geographically in latitude and altitude. Temperature has been used to study those processes that lead to flowering in the olive tree. The aim of the present paper is firstly the comparison of the flowering full bloom dates in two Mediterranean areas, Sicily (Italy) and Cordoba (Spain), located in the same latitudinal band (37-38 degrees N) and to calculate the heat requirement until flowering by determination of different threshold temperatures and methods of heat accumulation. A delay of the full flowering dates in the Spanish compared with the Italian olive groves was observed. The most suitable threshold temperatures were carried out in a 7 degrees -15 degrees C range by considering the heat accumulation start on 1 January in each olive grove. In particular, some causes were indicated as responsible for the different threshold temperatures recorded in the 2 study areas: First, the different climatic conditions (continental and insular climate) secondly the different cultivars present in the olive groves.

  14. Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy): preservation and economic potential.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices.

  15. Biodiversity of Indigenous Saccharomyces Populations from Old Wineries of South-Eastern Sicily (Italy): Preservation and Economic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity. In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices. PMID:22393353

  16. Quality assessment of freshwater and coastal seawater in the Ionian area of N.E. Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cimino, G; Puleio, M C; Toscano, G

    2002-07-01

    This work was conducted to analyse pressing and competing demands of water in Northeast Sicily, Italy. In this area, looking at the Ionian Sea, freshwaters and coastal seawaters have been studied on the quality and on the transport processes of pollutants. Attention has been focused on chemical and microbial parameters proposed by European Directives for drinking freshwaters and bathing seawaters. The findings show that the ground freshwaters are of good quality but the surface ones, particularly torrents and correlated under-river aquifers, are clearly polluted. The characteristics of the coastal seawaters are according with those of the closely bound up estuarine waters. Contamination is due essentially to discharge of raw sewage in the watercourses by public and private pipes. The impact is usually less evident during the wet season because rain and seastorms dilute the polluting load, but in dry periods this pollution causes loss of habitat and deleterious effects on environment. A database has been developed to provide a graphic and mapping display interface of the area studied and to assist the management of the studied fluvial basins.

  17. Effect of solid waste landfill organic pollutants on groundwater in three areas of Sicily (Italy) characterized by different vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Indelicato, Serena; Orecchio, Santino; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bellomo, Sergio; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Di Stefano, Vita; Favara, Rocco; Candela, Esterina Gagliano; La Pica, Leonardo; Morici, Sabina; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Pisciotta, Antonino; Scaletta, Claudio; Vita, Fabio; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Bongiorno, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the presence and levels of hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater located close to solid waste landfills. Eighty-two environmental contaminants, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 29 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs) and 10 furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs) were monitored in areas characterised by different geological environments surrounding three municipal solid waste landfills (Palermo, Siculiana and Ragusa) in Sicily (Italy) in three sampling campaigns. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs were always below the legal threshold. Overall, the Fl/Fl + Py diagnostic ratio revealed that PAHs had a petrogenic origin. VOC levels, except for two notable exceptions near Palermo landfill, were always below the legal limit. As concerns PCB levels, several samples were found positive with levels exceeding the legal limits. It is worth noting that the % PCB distribution differs from that of commercial compositions. In parallel, some samples of groundwater containing PCDDs and PCDFs exceeding the legal threshold were also found. Among the 17 congeners monitored, the most abundant were the highest molecular weight ones.

  18. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Brandon; Henne, Paul D.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calò, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-10-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690-6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000-8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to <250 mg/L from ca. 8190 to 7000 cal yr BP at both sites. After ca. 6250 cal yr BP, the ostracode records are strikingly different. Lago Preola became much more saline, with paleosalinity values that ranged from 2270 to about 24,420 mg/L. We suggest that Lago Preola's change from a freshwater to mesosaline lake at about 6250 cal yr BP was related to sea level rise and resulting intrusion of seawater-influenced groundwater. In contrast, Gorgo Basso remained a freshwater lake. The salinity of Gorgo Basso declined somewhat after 6250 cal yr BP, in comparison to the early Holocene, ranging from about 550 to 1680 mg/L. Cypria ophtalmica, a species capable of rapid swimming and flourishing in waters with low dissolved oxygen levels, became dominant at approximately the time when Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response to increased Greco

  19. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the microbial flora from the conjunctiva of healthy donkeys from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Foti, Maria; Fisichella, Vittorio; Giacopello, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    To describe the bacterial flora present in the normal conjunctiva of donkeys from Sicily (Italy). A total of 46 healthy donkeys housed in 3 locations within the territory of Palermo (Sicily, Italy) were studied. Donkeys ranged from 2 to 13 years of age, with a median age of 6 years. Forty-six conjunctival swabs were obtained from both eyes of each animal, and specimens were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of methicillin (1 μg) and oxacillin (5 μg) on Staphylococcus spp. isolates was evaluated, and a specific PCR assay, which allows the detection of mecA gene specific for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, was performed. Forty of 46 (86.9%) donkeys were positive for bacteria. Eighty bacterial isolates, representing 9 bacteria genera, were successfully cultured. The most frequently recovered bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (52/80 isolates; 65%). Several strains (20/80 isolates; 25%) belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were also isolated, among which the most frequently isolated genus was Enterobacter (eight isolates). Of the 52 Staphylococcus spp. isolates, 14 (26.9%) strains were oxacillin/methicillin resistant. The mecA gene was detected in 6/52 (11.5%) strains. This study contributes to the knowledge about normal ocular flora and MRSA occurrence in donkey farms in Sicily. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Assessment of the microbiological quality of fresh produce on sale in Sicily, Italy: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cardamone, Cinzia; Aleo, Aurora; Mammina, Caterina; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Di Noto, Anna Maria

    2015-12-01

    Fresh produce occupies an increasingly important place in the human food supply because of its health-promoting nutritional properties. Most fresh produce is eaten raw or after minimal processing and, consequently, pathogen contamination can represent a serious health risk. There has been an increase in foodborne outbreaks and cases associated with fresh produce, but literature data about the prevalence of pathogen contamination are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to assess the hygienic quality and the prevalence of the most common bacterial pathogens in fresh produce sold in retail markets in Sicily. A total of 125 samples of different types of vegetables were examined by standardized microbiological methods. The aerobic mesophilic count ranged between 2 log and 7 log cfu g(-1) and the Enterobacteriaceae counts between < 1 log and 6 log cfu g(-1), with statistically significant differences between unprocessed and minimally processed products (p < 0.05). Escherichia coli was detected only in leaf vegetables at a concentration of 2 log - 3 log cfu g(-1). Enterococci were found at a concentration of 2 log - 4 log cfu g(-1). Coagulase positive Staphylococci and sulphite-reducing Clostridia were not detected in any sample. Three samples tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella veneziana. Our study provides updated data on the microbiological quality of retail vegetables and confirms the need to implement strategies to increase microbial safety of fresh produce.

  1. Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on the Peloritani Mountains (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

    2014-10-01

    A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep rock slopes with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that portions of the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the village.

  2. Common buzzards (Buteo buteo) bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Naccari, C; Cristani, M; Cimino, F; Arcoraci, T; Trombetta, D

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of toxic (As, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu, Mn and Zn) metals in samples (feathers, liver, kidney, lung, intestine and muscle) of common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily, used as bio-indicators for monitoring environmental metals pollution. All samples of buzzards were collected at the "Recovery Center of Wild Fauna" of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. The quantitative determinations of metals were carried out using an atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained showed the presence of metals in all samples analyzed. For toxic metals the highest levels of Pb and As were found in liver and those of Cd in kidney; for essential metals Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. Significant differences are observed in metal levels between female and male and juvenile and adult bird samples. Highest metal levels found in liver, kidney and muscle can be considered indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in feathers can be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The results obtained suggest that common buzzards (Buteo buteo) may be very useful as bio-indicators for monitoring environmental pollution.

  3. Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on Peloritani Mounts (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

    2013-12-01

    A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep, rock slopes, with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the entire village.

  4. Worst-Case Scenario Tsunami Hazard Assessment in Two Historically and Economically Important Districts in Eastern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Paparo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The portion of the eastern Sicily coastline (southern Italy), ranging from the southern part of the Catania Gulf (to the north) down to the southern-eastern end of the island, represents a very important geographical domain from the industrial, commercial, military, historical and cultural points of view. Here the two major cities of Augusta and Siracusa are found. In particular, the Augusta bay hosts one of the largest petrochemical poles in the Mediterranean, and Siracusa is listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2005. This area was hit by at least seven tsunamis in the approximate time interval from 1600 BC to present, the most famous being the 365, 1169, 1693 and 1908 tsunamis. The choice of this area as one of the sites for the testing of innovative methods for tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment and reduction is then fully justified. This is being developed in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3). We assess the tsunami hazard for the Augusta-Siracusa area through the worst-case credible scenario technique, which can be schematically divided into the following steps: 1) Selection of five main source areas, both in the near- and in the far-field (Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, Messina Straits, Ionian subduction zone, Calabria offshore, western Hellenic Trench); 2) Choice of potential and credible tsunamigenic faults in each area: 38 faults were selected, with properly assigned magnitude, geometry and focal mechanism; 3) Computation of the maximum tsunami wave elevations along the eastern Sicily coast on a coarse grid (by means of the in-house code UBO-TSUFD) and extraction of the 9 scenarios that produce the largest effects in the target areas of Augusta and Siracusa; 4) For each of the 9 scenarios we run numerical UBO-TSUFD simulations over a set of five nested grids, with grid cells size decreasing from 3 km in the open Ionian

  5. Fault Geometry Inferred From High Precision Relative Locations of Microearthquake Clusters - An Example of Southeastern Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfi, L.; Langer, H.; Gresta, S.

    Between of November 1999 and January 2000, two microearthquake swarms consist- ing of 16 and 41 events, respectively, occurred close to the site Ramacca, Southeastern Sicily (Italy). The hypocenters are located in the depth range 17-25 km, some kilome- tres northward from the border of the foredeep, below the thrust zone of the Sicily mountain chain (the Appennine - Maghrebide chain). The distribution of the hypocen- ters shows two distinct clusters, and the comparison of the waveforms revealed clearly that the two swarms form two distinct families of multiplet events. The strong simi- larities of the waveforms in the families has led us to carry out a precise relocation relative to the two master events of the families, in order to analyse the geometrical structure of the earthquake clusters and their relation to important tectonic structures of the zone. We applied the cross-correlation method to obtain precise readings of the wave onsets. SH-wave onsets were used instead P-waves, as they showed clear onsets and a good signal-to-noise ratio. The residuals of the relative locations show small val- ues, no more than several meters on average. The extension of the clusters was found to be 400 m and 250 m with respect to focal depth, and 200 m with respect to the hor- izontal extension. In particular the hypocenters of the first cluster delineate clearly a NNE striking plane with almost vertical dip, which matches the focal mechanism ob- tained as a composite solution of all events of the cluster. As the standard location for the Ramacca sequence showed considerable gap angles, indicating an unfavourable station geometry with respect to this events, we examined the stability of our results carrying out a Monte Carlo experiment. Varying the onset times randomly in the range of +/- 5 ms we found variation of the locations in longitude being less than 10 m, and no more than 50 m both in latitude and depth. Nevertheless, the overall geometrical characteristics of the

  6. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B Brandon; Henne, Paul; Mezquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calo, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690–6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000–8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to <250 mg/L from ca. 8190 to 7000 cal yr BP at both sites. After ca. 6250 cal yr BP, the ostracode records are strikingly different. Lago Preola became much more saline, with paleosalinity values that ranged from 2270 to about 24,420 mg/L. We suggest that Lago Preola's change from a freshwater to mesosaline lake at about 6250 cal yr BP was related to sea level rise and resulting intrusion of seawater-influenced groundwater. In contrast, Gorgo Basso remained a freshwater lake. The salinity of Gorgo Basso declined somewhat after 6250 cal yr BP, in comparison to the early Holocene, ranging from about 550 to 1680 mg/L. Cypria ophtalmica, a species capable of rapid swimming and flourishing in waters with low dissolved oxygen levels, became dominant at approximately the time when Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response

  7. A Natural Laboratory for Offshore Paleotsunami Studies: The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedile, A.; Molisso, F.; Chague-Goff, C.; De Martini, P. M.; Pinzi, S.; Iorio, M.; Sagnotti, L.; Pantosti, D.

    2014-12-01

    The recent results obtained from a 6.7 m-long piston-core (MS06), collected 2.3 km offshore Augusta at a water depth of 72 m and made of an almost homogeneous dark gray mud dated back to the last 4500 yrs, stimulated our curiosity in searching for other similar signatures. In fact, quantitative micropaleontological analysis of benthic foraminifera assemblages highlighted 12 anomalous intervals, marked by peaks with high percentages of displaced epiphytic specimens and an increase in the sandy component. These anomalies were generally accompanied by a significant amount of Posidonia remnants, a localized concentration of molluscs and organic-rich bands. Thus, the twelve anomalous peaks were interpreted as the primary effect of tsunami waves (back-wash). Moreover, five out of the twelve anomalous layers were embedded in age intervals encompassing the dates of major tsunamis that hit eastern Sicily (1908, 1693, and 1169) and the broader Eastern Mediterranean (AD 365 Crete and Santorini at about BP 3600). Seven additional cores were sampled from the northern part of the Augusta Bay, along a transect 60 to 110 m of water depth, to retrieve the details of the MS06 sequence uppermost part. Four out of the seven new cores were selected and studied. Preliminary dating suggests that the sampled sequence spans ca. 400-500 yrs. Moreover, physical properties, ITRAX X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grain size analyses point out the presence of a peculiar interval made of Posidonia remnants, coarse sand and shell debris on the two cores closer to the shore. The two far-off cores seem to be more homogenous but a few thin sandy lenses enriched of Posidonia remnant were also recognized. Further detailed micropaleontological analysis and corroboration with instrumental data are still in progress and will help in discriminating single events potentially related to tsunami back-wash.

  8. Soil geochemical survey of abandoned mining sites in the Eastern-Central Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Consenza, A.; Lima, A.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.; Albanese, S.; Messina, A.; De Vivo, B.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation focused on topsoils (n = 122) and vertical profiles (n = 6) distributed over an area of 250 km2 in the eastern-central Peloritani Mountains, northeastern Sicily. Georeferenced concentration of 53 elements (including potentially harmful ones), determined by ICP-MS after an aqua regia leach, were used to produce geochemical maps by means of a GIS-aided spatial interpolation process. Results show that there are two distinct areas: the larger, located between the Fiumendinisi, Budali and Ali villages, and the other between C. Postlioni and Femmina Morta, which contain anomalous As (up to 727 mg/kg), Sb (up to 60 mg/kg), Ag (up to 1 mg/kg) and Au (up to 0.1 mg/kg) concentrations. Most of the investigated areas have high contamination levels for As, Zn, Sb, and Pb that exceed the threshold values (As = 20 mg/kg, Zn = 150 mg/kg, Sb = 10 mg/kg and Pb = 100 mg/kg) established for soils by the Italian Environmental Law (Decreto Legislativo 2006, number 152).The isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb have been measured in selected soils on both leaches [using 1M HNO3–1.75M HCl (50:50)] and residues thereof. Soil leach reflects possible anthropogenic contamination, whereas soil residues indicate geogenic contributions. Results suggest that most of contamination in the soils is related to the presence of sulphide and sulphosalt rock-forming minerals in the surveyed area. The soil fraction contains a Pb value >1600 mg/kg and has ratios of 1.1695 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.4606 for 208Pb/207Pb. Only one soil leach isotopic composition could reflect possible anthropogenic contamination. The correlation among As, Zn, Pb contents v. Pb isotopic signatures of 206Pb/207Pb indicates that surface and deep soils collected from profiles are dominated by geogenic compositions.

  9. Stratigraphic palaeobiology around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary at Altavilla Milicia (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Stefano; Benvenuti, Marco; Garilli, Vittorio; Uchman, Alfred; Pollina, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene around Altavilla Milicia, near Palermo (Sicily), includes a thick siliciclastic succession rich with shell beds, dominated by molluscs, brachiopods and annelids in fine-grained, totally bioturbated sandstones. Taphonomy of fossil assemblages indicates the importance of taphonomic feedback and within-habitat time-averaging in proximity of maximum flooding intervals. The trace fossil suite is characterized by the abundance of Thalassinoides paradoxicus boxworks and by local occurence of Scalichnus, Piscichnus, ?Scolicia, ?Bichordites, Ophiomorpha, ?Gyrolithes, Palaeophycus, Diopatrichnus and ?Taenidium. These trace fossils are typical of the archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies, with local elements of the proximal Cruziana ichnofacies, which point to deposition mainly below the fairweather wave base. Three depositional sequences, characterized by geometries driven by the interplay of eustatism and regional tectonics, were recognized through sedimentary facies analysis. Biostratigraphic data frame the oldest sequence in the upper Pliocene, whereas the thickest part of the succession, occupied by the second sedimentary sequence, includes biozone NN16b/17 of calcareous nannoplankton stratigraphy, thereby comprising the base of the Pleistocene. Transgressive deposits of the third and uppermost sequence are marked by encrusted and bioeroded pebbles with sparse oyster shells. The whole time interval is characterized by glacio-eustatic fluctuations in the 50-100 m range and with 100 ky-periodicity. We performed a multivariate analysis of 22 samples yielding 92 species of mollusks collected in the first and second sequences. Clustering and ordination analysis allowed to recognize a gradient controlled by depth-related environmental variables. At one end of the continuum we have a very-shallow water assemblage dominated by the bivalve Loripes orbiculatus, indicating an organic-rich seagrass bottom. Opposite in the continuum is an offshore assemblage

  10. Health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy: (An ecological perspective).

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Letteria; Bonanno, Lilla; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-06-15

    Parkinson's disease has a negative impact on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients. Depression, cognitive impairment, coping strategies, dyskinesia, gait disorders and complications of dopaminergic drugs are the variables that most affect health-related quality of life. The ecological model of human development focuses attention on both individual and social environmental factors as targets for health interventions. From this perspective, the aim of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate the influence of gender, family size and perceived autonomy on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy. Ninety Parkinson's disease patients, attending the Movement Disorders Clinic at IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" (Messina), were consecutively enrolled. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subscale (UPDRS-III) scores, the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 Item scores (as a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life), scores on the Short Form (36) Health Survey Questionnaire (as a generic measure), and answers to a brief checklist were recorded. A total of 85 Parkinson's disease patients (49% males and 51% females; mean age 70.8 ± 8.6 years; mean UPDRS-III 24.15 ± 6.55; mean disease duration 5.52 ± 4.65 years) completed the booklet of questionnaires. In the multivariate regression analysis, we included clinical and social variables as independent predictors of health-related quality of life. Our results suggest a potential compounding effect of ecological intrapersonal and interpersonal levels on health-related quality of life outcomes. Gender, self-evaluated autonomy and family size significantly impacted health-related quality of life. If quality of life is used as an indicator of treatment outcomes, an ecological perspective of the case history will be important to disclose relevant prognostic information and trigger personalized health care interventions.

  11. Health-related quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy: (An ecological perspective)

    PubMed Central

    Spadaro, Letteria; Bonanno, Lilla; Lorenzo, Giuseppe Di; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has a negative impact on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients. Depression, cognitive impairment, coping strategies, dyskinesia, gait disorders and complications of dopaminergic drugs are the variables that most affect health-related quality of life. The ecological model of human development focuses attention on both individual and social environmental factors as targets for health interventions. From this perspective, the aim of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate the influence of gender, family size and perceived autonomy on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients in northeastern Sicily, Italy. Ninety Parkinson's disease patients, attending the Movement Disorders Clinic at IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo” (Messina), were consecutively enrolled. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subscale (UPDRS-III) scores, the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 Item scores (as a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life), scores on the Short Form (36) Health Survey Questionnaire (as a generic measure), and answers to a brief checklist were recorded. A total of 85 Parkinson's disease patients (49% males and 51% females; mean age 70.8 ± 8.6 years; mean UPDRS-III 24.15 ± 6.55; mean disease duration 5.52 ± 4.65 years) completed the booklet of questionnaires. In the multivariate regression analysis, we included clinical and social variables as independent predictors of health-related quality of life. Our results suggest a potential compounding effect of ecological intrapersonal and interpersonal levels on health-related quality of life outcomes. Gender, self-evaluated autonomy and family size significantly impacted health-related quality of life. If quality of life is used as an indicator of treatment outcomes, an ecological perspective of the case history will be important to disclose relevant prognostic information and trigger personalized health care

  12. Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Vaselli, O.; Rouwet, D.; Pecoraino, G.; Chiodini, G.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, fluid source(s) and processes controlling the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas discharges from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy) were investigated. The main composition of the Etnean and Volcano gas emissions is produced by mixing, to various degrees, of magmatic and hydrothermal components. VOCs are dominated by alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, with minor, though significant, concentrations of O-, S- and Cl(F)-substituted compounds. The main mechanism for the production of alkanes is likely related to pyrolysis of organic-matter-bearing sediments that interact with the ascending magmatic fluids. Alkanes are then converted to alkene and aromatic compounds via catalytic reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydroaromatization, respectively). Nevertheless, an abiogenic origin for the light hydrocarbons cannot be ruled out. Oxidative processes of hydrocarbons at relatively high temperatures and oxidizing conditions, typical of these volcanic-hydrothermal fluids, may explain the production of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, as well as O- and S-bearing heterocycles. By comparing the concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the fumarolic discharges with respect to those of background air, it is possible to highlight that they have a geogenic origin likely due to halogenation of both methane and alkenes. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) abundances appear to be consistent with background air, although the strong air contamination that affects the Mt. Etna fumaroles may mask a possible geogenic contribution for these compounds. On the other hand, no CFCs were detected in the Vulcano gases, which are characterized by low air contribution. Nevertheless, a geogenic source for these compounds cannot be excluded on the basis of the present data.

  13. Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Waters and Dissolved Gases in Some Thermal Springs of Sicily and Adjacent Volcanic Islands, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Capasso, Giorgio; Favara, Rocco; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2006-04-01

    Hydrochemical (major and some minor constituents), stable isotope ([InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.], δ13CTDIC total dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved gas composition have been determined on 33 thermal discharges located throughout Sicily (Italy) and its adjacent islands. On the basis of major ion contents, four main water types have been distinguished: (1) a Na-Cl type; (2) a Ca-Mg > Na-SO4-Cl type; (3) a Ca-Mg-HCO3 type and (4) a Na-HCO3 type water. Most waters are meteoric in origin or resulting from mixing between meteoric water and heavy-isotope end members. In some samples, δ 18O values reflect the effects of equilibrium processes between thermal waters and rocks (positive 18O-shift) or thermal waters and CO2 (negative 18O-shift). Dissolved gas composition indicates the occurrence of gas/water interaction processes in thermal aquifers. N2/O2 ratios higher than air-saturated water (ASW), suggest the presence of geochemical processes responsible for dissolved oxygen consumption. High CO2 contents (more than 3000 cc/litre STP) dissolved in the thermal waters indicate the presence of an external source of carbon dioxide-rich gas. TDIC content and δ 13C TDIC show very large ranges from 4.6 to 145.3 mmol/Kg and from 10.0‰ and 2.8‰, respectively. Calculated values indicate the significant contribution from a deep source of carbon dioxide inorganic in origin. Interaction with Mediterranean magmatic CO2 characterized by heavier carbon isotope ratios ([InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] value from -3 to 0‰ vs V-PDB (CAPASSO et al., 1997, GIAMMANCO et al., 1998; INGUAGGIATO et al., 2000) with respect to MORB value and/or input of CO2-derived from thermal decomposition of marine carbonates have been inferred.

  14. Small angle neutron scattering as fingerprinting of ancient potteries from Sicily (Southern Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Teixeira, J.

    2009-09-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been carried out in order to investigate, in microdestructive way, the mesoscopic structure of a variety of potteries of relevance to cultural heritage coming from different Sicilian (Southern Italy) archeological sites belonging to the 'Strait of Messina' area and dated back to 7th-3rd century B.C. Data have been compared with the mesoscopic parameters extracted for two series of clayey sediments typical of the Strait of Messina area and fired under controlled conditions. The observed agreement between the features of reference and archeological samples allowed us to estimate the maximum firing temperature of the latter. Information on the pore sizes was obtained by the use of the concept of fractal surface, and compared with porosimetry results.

  15. Neutrophil-rich gastric carcinoma in the integrated cancer registry of eastern Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ieni, Antonio; Branca, Giovanni; Parisi, Antonino; Fedele, Francesco; Irato, Eleonora; Venuti, Antonio; Caruso, Rosario A

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil-rich carcinoma is a variant of gastric carcinoma that has not been well-studied or characterized. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the incidence and clinicopathological findings compared to ordinary gastric carcinoma. A population-based series of 430 gastric cancers, identified between 2003 and 2006 from the province of Messina (insular Italy; population, 662,450), was used. The number of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils was assessed in a semi-quantitative manner using the mean value of 20 non-overlapping high-power fields (magnification, 400; 0.08 mm(2)). Tumors with >10 neutrophils per 20 high-power fields were arbitrarily considered as neutrophil-rich gastric carcinomas. Moreover, MUC1 immunohistochemical expression was investigated to show possible correlation with neutrophil infiltration in gastric carcinomas. Among 193 gastric cancers resected for curative purposes, 30 (15.54%) were represented by neutrophil-rich gastric carcinomas. These tumors occurred more frequently in patients aged more than 72 years (p<0.05), showing an inverse correlation with mucinous subtype according to the WHO classification (p<0.001) and expressed MUC1. However, intensity and distribution of MUC1 was heterogeneous, and independent of neutrophil infiltration within the tumor stroma. Neutrophil-rich carcinoma seems to represent a distinctive morphological variant of gastric carcinoma, although the true mechanism for the infiltration of neutrophils is still unclear. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Fluxes and the mass balance of mercury in Augusta Bay (Sicily, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Bonsignore, Maria; Oliveri, Elvira; Barra, Marco; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    The flux (Φ) of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-seawater interface was investigated in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) where uncontrolled industrial discharge from one of the most important chlor-alkali plant in Europe has caused significant negative effects on the environment. Hg fluxes were measured by the deployment of in-situ benthic chamber. The obtained value of 1.3 kmol y-1 clearly emphasizes the role of the sediments as source of Hg for the overlying water column. Moreover, Hg concentrations in the outflowing bottom waters were measured to estimate the export of this pollutant from Augusta Bay to the open sea. The calculated value of 0.54 kmol y-1, corresponding to ∼4% of the anthropogenic input of Hg from coastal point/diffuse sources to the Mediterranean Sea (12.5 kmol y-1; Rajar et al., 2007; UNEP-MAP, 2001), assigns this area a crucial role in the Hg inventory of the entire Mediterranean basin. Finally, a consistent and robust mass balance for Hg in Augusta Bay was provided by combining the obtained data with Hg fluxes at seawater-atmosphere interface.

  17. Water erosion susceptibility mapping by applying Stochastic Gradient Treeboost to the Imera Meridionale River Basin (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angileri, Silvia Eleonora; Conoscenti, Christian; Hochschild, Volker; Märker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion by water constitutes a serious problem affecting various countries. In the last few years, a number of studies have adopted statistical approaches for erosion susceptibility zonation. In this study, the Stochastic Gradient Treeboost (SGT) was tested as a multivariate statistical tool for exploring, analyzing and predicting the spatial occurrence of rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion. This technique implements the stochastic gradient boosting algorithm with a tree-based method. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment located in central-northern Sicily (Italy), where water erosion processes are prevalent, and affect the agricultural productivity of local communities. In order to model soil erosion by water, the spatial distribution of landforms due to rill-interrill and gully erosion was mapped and 12 environmental variables were selected as predictors. Four calibration and four validation subsets were obtained by randomly extracting sets of negative cases, both for rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion models. The results of validation, based on receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves, showed excellent to outstanding accuracies of the models, and thus a high prediction skill. Moreover, SGT allowed us to explore the relationships between erosion landforms and predictors. A different suite of predictor variables was found to be important for the two models. Elevation, aspect, landform classification and land-use are the main controlling factors for rill-interrill erosion, whilst the stream power index, plan curvature and the topographic wetness index were the most important independent variables for gullies. Finally, an ROC plot analysis made it possible to define a threshold value to classify cells according to the presence/absence of the two erosion processes. Hence, by heuristically combining the resulting rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion susceptibility maps, an integrated water erosion susceptibility map was created. The

  18. International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment, Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture: Erice, Sicily, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    The International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment was founded at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture (EMCSC), the seat of the World Laboratory Mediterranean Branch, in 1989. The School primarily organizes and hosts training courses and advanced study courses addressing state-of-the-art technologies to clean the environment, minimize waste generation, prevent pollution, and identify strategies to choose environmentally resilient sites and processes for new industrial installations. The School also participates in facilitating multi-national research projects for developing countries under the auspices of the World Laboratory and other sponsoring agencies.

  19. Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, S.; Esposito, E.; Violante, C.; Sacchi, M.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Sciarrotta, S.

    2009-04-01

    Calabria and Sicily's Coast, particularly in the Messina Strait, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Southern Italy. Since 1783, there have been seven earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 6.0 and 7.2 These earthquakes have produced wide damages on the MCS Intensities scale of X or greater. The high rate of seismic activity in the region is related to the complex geologic setting resulting in a number of different sources of potentially damaging earthquakes. All these earthquake induced numerous and spectacular coseismic environmental effects overall along the coast where the impact was particularly catastrophic. These earthquakes caused several changes in elevation, due to tectonic deformations, landslides and settlements (i.e along both sides of the Messina Straits, 1908 event), relevant landslides (the February6, 1783 event triggered in Scilla, along the cliff of the M. Pacì a huge rock avalanche estimate of 5 Mm3 in the areal zone and 3 Mm3 in the submarine zone (Bozzano et al 2006), that fell into the sea generating a disastrous tsunamis), ground fractures (in the Capo Vaticano promontory area, 1905 event; in Messina Reggio C., Villa S. Giovanni, 1908 event); liquefaction phenomena (in the area of Messina, Ganzirri and Reggio Calabria, 1908 event), and catastrophic tsunamis (five induced by the 1783 Calabrian seismic sequence, other two by 1905 and 1908 events, Graziani et al 2006). The run-up observed ranging from few cm to tens of m: the highest tsunami wave was about 16 m in Scilla (Feb. 6, 1783 tsunami), 13 m in Pellaro (1908 event) and 1,30 m along the Calabrian coast (1905 tsunami) . Portion of the coast were lost, most of them eroded by the tsunamis with a coastline retreat and flooded the shore for several hundred meters inland depositing a large amount of silt and fish, and in some case killing people (i.e 1500 in Scilla and 28 in Messina during the February 6, 1783 tsunami, Barbano 2008; Porfido et al.,2008). Finally, it is

  20. Polymerase chain reaction method for leptospirosis, analysis on samples from an autochthon swine population in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Curró, Vittoria; Vesco, Gesualdo; Caracappa, Santo

    2005-01-01

    We set a method targeting 16 rRNA gene consisting in a single polymerase chain reaction of 40 cycles which is specific for pathogenic leptospira. Negative polymerase chain reaction results were observed with nonpathogenic Leptospira (serovar patoc) and other bacteria species. By this method a survey on a population of autochthon swine herds had been conducted in Sicily particularly on kidney samples of slaughtered animals and on urine samples from live animals. The analysis showed that a prevalence of leptospira up to 40 % can be observed on these animals. Results on other bovine and ovine herds from the same province in Sicily showed a lower prevalence.

  1. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  2. New structural and seismological evidence and interpretation of a lithospheric-scale shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system (central-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Scarfı, L.; Cannavò, F.; Koulakov, I.; Monaco, C.

    2016-06-01

    Geological, gravimetric, and seismological data from the central-eastern Sicily (Italy) provide evidences of a NW-SE oriented shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system. This structure consists of a near 100 km long lithospheric-scale structural and seismic boundary. In the near-surface, it shows Plio-Pleistocene vertical-axis structural rotations, kilometer-scale topographic imprint, progressive wrenching, and large down-faulting. All these features, together with its location south-west of the subduction system, allow us to interpret the shear zone as the upper plate expression of an abandoned Subduction Transform Edge Propagator fault, working before slab detachment, currently reactivated by elastic rebound or mantle upwelling mechanism triggered by slab detachment, to form an incipient transform belt separating compartments characterized by different motion in the modern context of Africa-Europe convergence.

  3. Towards management of coastal erosion problems and human structure impacts using GIS tools: case study in Ragusa Province, Southern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    A geomorphologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 90-km long coastal sector in Southern Sicily, Italy, affected by important erosive processes. Applied methodology allowed the creation of a database involving a range of coastal characteristics thereby providing helpful information on coastal processes and general sediment circulation patterns. Coastal erosion, mainly linked to the construction of ports and harbours, has been locally mitigated by the construction of solid structures which themselves generate significant environmental stress in downdrift areas. In recent times, several nourishment projects have been planned to solve existing erosive problems, yet there is still a lack of a general erosion management plan based on the installation of port and harbour by-passing systems and including the phasing out of current beach cleaning and port maintenance procedures that produce a great quantity of sediments.

  4. Comparative analysis of different techniques for spatial interpolation of rainfall data to create a serially complete monthly time series of precipitation for Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.; Conti, F. Lo; Noto, L. V.; Viola, F.; La Loggia, G.

    2011-06-01

    The availability of good and reliable rainfall data is fundamental for most hydrological analyses and for the design and management of water resources systems. However, in practice, precipitation records often suffer from missing data values mainly due to malfunctioning of raingauge for specific time periods. This is an important issue in practical hydrology because it affects the continuity of rainfall data and ultimately influences the results of hydrologic studies which use rainfall as input. Many methods to estimate missing rainfall data have been proposed in literature and, among these, most are based on spatial interpolation algorithms. In this paper different spatial interpolation algorithms have been evaluated to produce a reasonably good continuous dataset bridging the gaps in the historical series. The algorithms used are deterministic methods such as inverse distance weighting, simple linear regression, multiple regression, geographically weighted regression and artificial neural networks, and geostatistical models such as ordinary kriging and residual ordinary kriging. In some of these methods, the elevation information, provided by a Digital Elevation Model, has been added to improve estimation of missing data. These algorithms have been applied to the mean annual and monthly rainfall data of Sicily (Italy), measured at 247 raingauges. Optimization of different settings of the various interpolation methods has been carried out using a subset of the available rainfall dataset (modeling set) while the remaining subset (validation set) has been used to compare the results obtained by the different algorithms. Validation results indicate that the univariate methods, neglecting the information of elevation, are characterized by the largest errors, which decrease when the elevation is taken into account. The ordinary kriging of residuals from linear regression between precipitation and elevation, which has provided the best performance at annual and monthly

  5. New contributions to the debate on the cause of the January 11th, 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (Italy): earthquake or offshore landslide source (or may be both)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Argnani, A.

    2007-12-01

    Eastern Sicily is among the most exposed regions in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean to tsunami hazard and risk. The historical tsunamis recorded here were generally associated to moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes. The largest tsunami documented in the area occurred on January 11th, 1693. It followed the highest-magnitude earthquake (7.4) of the Italian seismic history. The tsunami, whose first significant motion was a retreat along the entire eastern Sicily coastline, produced the most devastating effects at Augusta (15 meters run-up) and Catania, being relevant at Siracusa and Messina too. A lively debate exists on whether the earthquake was the only source of the tsunami, or other causes (such as submarine landslides, possibly triggered by the earthquake) contributed to the tsunami generation. In the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER, we investigate both hypotheses, starting from suitable onshore and offshore faults as well as from offshore landslide bodies, and hence simulating numerically the ensuing tsunami and comparing the results with the available historical information. We base on the results obtained during recent offshore surveys, in particular the multichannel seismic survey MESC2001, carried out in year 2001 on board the R/V Urania of the Italian National Council of Researches (CNR), which mapped both active normal faults and a number of possible landslide bodies along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, the most prominent tectonic structure found just few kilometres offshore eastern Sicily. From the modelling point of view, the initial condition for the earthquake- generated tsunamis coincides with the vertical coseismic deformation of the seafloor. Instead, the landslide motion is simulated through the Lagrangian block model UBO-BLOCK2, developed at the University of Bologna. Finally, the finite-element code UBO-TSUFE, implemented by the same research team, is used to simulate the tsunami generation and propagation. The main

  6. Staphylococcal food poisoning case and molecular analysis of toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Piraino, Chiara; Alduina, Rosa; Napoli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A case of staphylococcal food poisoning was observed in two individuals of the same family after consumption of primosale, a semiripened sheep cheese produced in Sicily. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the cheese produced enterotoxin C (SEC) and carried both the enterotoxin C (sec) and the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst-1) gene. Following this case, an extensive survey was conducted on 971 food samples (raw milk, cheese, meat, and food preparations). S. aureus was detected in 102 of 971 food samples, from all types of food with the exception of ricotta cheese. The tsst-1 gene was present in 42% of the strains, either alone or in combination with other toxin genes. The enterotoxin C gene was the most represented enterotoxin, but it was only found in dairy products. Six S. aureus isolates carried the sea gene alone, two isolates carried both sea and seb, and one isolate carried both sea and sec. A significant percentage (46%) of all isolates carried a toxin gene, creating significant concern that virulent S. aureus can be transmitted through food in Sicily.

  7. Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek-Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brai, M.; Casaletto, M. P.; Gennaro, G.; Marrale, M.; Schillaci, T.; Tranchina, L.

    2010-09-01

    In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the most important Greek-Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery in “ summa cavea”. The chemical, physical and structural characterization was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), both in situ and ex situ. Results showed that the deterioration of stone materials is due to the aggressive action of the environment agents. Soluble salts, such as chlorides, sulphates and nitrates, were found in efflorescence samples. Mortars were affected by a decomposition process induced by sulphates’ attack.

  8. Active thrusting as a possible seismogenic source in Sicily (Southern Italy): Some insights from integrated structural kinematic and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavecchia, Giusy; Ferrarini, Federica; de Nardis, Rita; Visini, Francesco; Barbano, Maria Serafina

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a new seismogenic interpretation of mainland and central-southern Sicily, based on an integrated structural-kinematic-seismological approach. Through analysis of available structural and geophysical data, the tectonic setting, the major kinematic units and the crust geometry of the Sicilian southward-verging fold-and-thrust belt system are schematized in sections and in map form. The depth-contour lines of the outermost basal thrust plane, which dates back to Plio-Pleistocene times with some evidence of Holocene activity, are reconstructed. This plane, here named Sicilian Basal Thrust (SBT), emerges along the southward convex Sciacca-Gela-Catania front and reaches the base of the crust at a depth of about 30 km beneath northern Sicily. Additionally, an important regional upper crust splay, with the same arched shape, has been identified some kilometres northward. In order to detect any possible indication of seismogenic activity linked to ongoing deformation of the SBT and its splay, we analyzed the distribution and kinematics of the instrumental seismicity in the period between 1981 and 2006. Particular attention was given to the background seismicity (Ml up to 4.6) located beneath the sedimentary cover at Mt. Etna, as it allows individuating a northward deepening seismogenic volume undergoing an average N-S compression, which corresponds well with the SBT geometry in section view. A merged dataset of all the known major historical and instrumental events (moment magnitude ≥ 4.5) that occurred above the SBT 0-to-30 km depth-contour lines from 217 B.C. to 2006 was compiled and analyzed. Based on information from instrumental data and/or on speculations on the shape and extent of the historical earthquake macroseismic fields, two major ranges of hypocentral depths have been schematically identified within the merged dataset: an upper crust range (in average < ~ 10 km) and a mid-to-lower crust range. Focal mechanisms available in the literature

  9. The fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy): health impact and clues for environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Comba, Pietro; Scondotto, Salvatore; Musmeci, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Subsequently to the observation of a localized excess of mortality from malignant pleural neoplasms in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily), previously unknown amphibolic fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition were detected as naturally occurring soil contaminants. Less then two years after the initial report, ISS provided a set of public health recommendations that were complied by regional and local institutions. The recognition of Biancavilla as a National Priority Contaminated Site in 2002 opened the way to clean-up interventions. An up-dating of epidemiological studies, exposure assessment investigations and in vivo and in vitro mechanistic studies on fluoro-edenite fibres is provided in this issue. Scientific evidence can provide a sound foundation to public health action and environmental remediation. Finally, it is now necessary to properly tune the response of the health system to the community needs in terms of diagnostic procedures and medical treatment.

  10. Imprint of foreland structure on the deformation of a thrust sheet: The Plio-Pleistocene Gela Nappe (southern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisetti, Francesca C.; Gorman, Andrew R.; Grasso, Mario; Vezzani, Livio

    2009-08-01

    In Sicily, the progressive imbrication of the Apenninic thrust belt above the Pelagian-African Foreland is traced by the southward migration of marine basins that were progressively shortened during the late Miocene-Pleistocene. The outermost and youngest thrust sheet (Gela Nappe) displays a peculiar shortening, with Messinian to early Pliocene E-W folds refolded in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene by approximately N-S folds (subparallel to the transport direction of the thrust sheets). This structural interference is documented in south Sicily within localized belts of refolding spaced ˜5-8 km apart. The significance of this fold interference pattern is highlighted by our analysis of the offshore seismic reflection line M23A (CROP Mare Project) that intersects the Gela Nappe along a trace suborthogonal to the thrust transport direction. Migration and depth conversion of the line reveal multiple imbrications and draping of the allochthonous units above structural highs of the foreland, delimited by inherited N-S faults. The largest faults bound mid-late Miocene extensional basins but were reactivated in compression during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, causing (1) superposed folding along discordant N-S structural trends, (2) compressional extrusion of the whole wedge of the Gela Nappe, and (3) offset of its sole thrust. The reactivation of faults subparallel to the transport direction accommodates differential flexure of the rigid foreland beneath the Apenninic wedge, and these late stage deformations in the foreland are responsible for the superposition of E-W finite shortening onto N-S shortening.

  11. Tsunami hazard assessment for the area of Siracusa and Augusta (eastern Sicily, Italy) by means of numerical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The eastern coast of Sicily is one of the littorals most prone to tsunami hazard in the Mediterranean Sea. The potential tsunamigenic sources are many, all connected to the complex geological pattern of the area, and they span different scales. On the local scale one can find the Hyblaean-Malta Escarpment (HME), characterized by mass failures that have been hypothesized as possible causes of local tsunami generation (see e.g. the deep-sea slide off Augusta that was speculatively associated to the 1693 earthquake). On the medium range, the faults along the HME, the Ionian Sea, the Messina Straits, as a part of the wider Calabrian Arc system, provided several relevant earthquakes in the past, some of which producing large tsunamis, such as the 1693 and the 1908 events. In the far field, the western Hellenic Arc, characterized by the largest earthquakes in the whole Mediterranean Sea, has the potential of big trans-Mediterranean tsunamis capable of severe effects also on the coasts of Sicily. In the framework of the EU-FP7 project ASTARTE, the area embracing the cities of Siracusa and Augusta, located in the southern part of the Ionian coast of Sicily, has been chosen as a test site for the evaluation of the tsunami hazard and risk by means of various techniques. In this work we adopt the worst-case credible scenario approach, which means that after taking into account the possible sources in different zones we select the largest events on the basis of historical and geo- and seismo-tectonical considerations and we compute the corresponding tsunami. The numerical calculations are carried out by means of in-house developed models: UBO-BLOCK to simulate the dynamics of the tsunamigenic slides, a code implementing the Okada equations to compute the co-seismic displacements of the sea floor, UBO-TSUFD to calculate the tsunami propagation over a domain covered by one or more regularly spaced grids with different resolution (the finer grids being nested within the coarser

  12. Pleistocene volcaniclastic units from North-Eastern Sicily (Italy): new evidence for calc-alkaline explosive volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Alessandro; Baldanza, Angela; Casella, Sergio; Pino, Paolo; Rasa', Riccardo; Russo, Selma

    2016-08-01

    A well-preserved volcaniclastic sequence crops out in Pleistocene marine sediments along the Tyrrhenian coastline of the Calabrian-Peloritani arc (Sicily, Italy), testifying the occurrence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The presence of dominant highly vesicular and minor blocky glassy particles indicates that the volcanic clasts were originated by explosive events related to the ascent and violent emission of volatile-rich magmas accompanied by and/or alternated with hydromagmatic fragmentation due to magma-sea water interaction. Field investigations and sedimentological features of the studied volcaniclastic units suggest a deposition from sediment-water density flows. The chemical classification of the pumice clasts indicates prevalent rhyolitic and dacitic compositions with calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The geochemical features of immobile trace elements together with the presence of orthopyroxene are indicative of a provenance from an arc-type environment. The age (from 980-910 to 589 ka), the chemical composition and the evidence of subaerial explosive volcanic activity constrain the origin nature and temporal evolution of the arc-type volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian domain. Finally, the new information here provided contribute to a better understanding of the temporal geodynamic evolution of this sector of the Mediterranean domain.

  13. Applying geophysical techniques to investigate a segment of a creeping fault in the urban area of San Gregorio di Catania, southern flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imposa, S.; De Guidi, G.; Grassi, S.; Scudero, S.; Barreca, G.; Patti, G.; Boso, D.

    2015-12-01

    In an especially built-up area, such as the lower slopes of Etna volcano, the effects of surface faulting, caused by coseismic ruptures and aseismic creep, contribute significantly to increase the risk to towns and villages and their related infrastructure. This study aims to couple the geophysical and structural characteristics of an active fault zone, joining surficial and deep information, in the area of San Gregorio di Catania (Sicily - Italy). The occurrence of this structure and its associated fracture field were related to variations in the physical and mechanical properties of the hosting rocks. Surface structural survey detected a fracture zone with maximum width of 40 m, characterized with fractures oriented consistently with the kinematics of the fault. The geophysical surveys (ground penetrating radar, seismic tomography, and refraction microtremor), enabled to detect highly fractured rock volumes at variable depth whose occurrence has been linked to the presence of the fault at surface. The integration of various techniques, with different spatial resolution and depth range, allowed to fully reconstruct the 3D geological structure of the site down to about 15 m.

  14. Personal eating, lifestyle, and family-related behaviors correlate with fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents living in sicily, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Bandini, Lorenzo; Ferranti, Roberta; Bonomo, Maria Concetta; Matalone, Margherita; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle habits and parental modeling have been reported to influence adolescents’ food choices, such as for fruit and vegetable consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association be-tween personal eating (i. e. breakfast and snacking behavior), lifestyle (sedentary and physical activity), and family-related (i. e. consuming meals with parents, family rules, and television use) habits and fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents living in Sicily, southern Italy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted across 14 schools in urban and rural areas, including 1,135 adolescents (12 - 14 years old). Validated instruments were used to assess possible relationships between the study variables and daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher parental education, occupation, and rural environment were positively associated with adolescents’ daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Both types of food consumption were negatively associated with an increased frequency of between-meal and out-of-home eating, and positively with having meals with parents and higher parental influence in adolescents’ food choices. Television viewing habits were not related with adolescents’ vegetable consumption, whereas having a television in their room and commercial advertisings were negatively associated with daily intake of fruits. Although socioeconomic and cultural status may influence fruit and vegetable consumption, personal eating and family-related behaviors may be targeted for implementing recommendations.

  15. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  16. Gully erosion susceptibility assessment by means of GIS-based logistic regression: A case of Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio; Märker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at characterizing susceptibility conditions to gully erosion by means of GIS and multivariate statistical analysis. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment in central-northern Sicily, where agriculture activities are limited by intense erosion. By means of field surveys and interpretation of aerial images, we prepared a digital map of the spatial distribution of 260 gullies in the study area. In addition, from available thematic maps, a 5 m cell size digital elevation model and field checks, we derived 27 environmental attributes that describe the variability of lithology, land use, topography and road position. These attributes were selected for their potential influence on erosion processes, while the dependent variable was given by presence or absence of gullies within two different types of mapping units: 5 m grid cells and slope units (average size = 2.66 ha). The functional relationships between gully occurrence and the controlling factors were obtained from forward stepwise logistic regression to calculate the probability to host a gully for each mapping unit. In order to train and test the predictive models, three calibration and three validation subsets, of both grid cells and slope units, were randomly selected. Results of validation, based on ROC (receiving operating characteristic) curves, attest for acceptable to excellent accuracies of the models, showing better predictive skill and more stable performance of the susceptibility model based on grid cells.

  17. Building stone employed in the historical monuments of Eastern Sicily (Italy). An example: the ancient city centre of Catania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Russo, Laura G.; Giudice, Antonino Lo; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino

    2006-05-01

    An archaeometric study of the stone materials employed in the Late Baroque historical monuments of the ancient city centre of Catania was carried out. Lithological maps of a selection of monuments, transferred to a digital format, revealed that the stone materials are both magmatic and sedimentary rocks, the colours of which are matched in a peculiar type of bichromy. Particular attention focused on sedimentary rocks, which consist of various types of limestone quarried near the city of Syracuse (Hyblean Plateau, south-eastern Sicily). Carbonate rocks were characterised in terms of mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry, by studying rock samples from both monuments and historical extraction sites. Results showed that, although only one name was historically attributed to the above lithotypes (i.e. “Pietra di Siracusa‘’), they were quarried from many locations and, as they belong to various geological formations, they therefore exhibit great variety. In order to examine the durability of Hyblean limestones employed in works of cultural heritage interest, salt crystallisation tests were carried out according to standard procedure norms (UNI EN 12370 (1999) Determination of resistance to crystallisation of salts, 6p). Results are consistent with the forms of deterioration observed in the monuments, and highlight the close relationship between textural characteristics and damage. Our purpose is to provide a basic tool, which may be useful both for conserving monuments of cultural heritage and for their restoration.

  18. Comparison of Logistic Regression and Random Forests techniques for shallow landslide susceptibility assessment in Giampilieri (NE Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Esposito, Carlo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to define reliable susceptibility models for shallow landslides using Logistic Regression and Random Forests multivariate statistical techniques. The study area, located in North-East Sicily, was hit on October 1st 2009 by a severe rainstorm (225 mm of cumulative rainfall in 7 h) which caused flash floods and more than 1000 landslides. Several small villages, such as Giampilieri, were hit with 31 fatalities, 6 missing persons and damage to buildings and transportation infrastructures. Landslides, mainly types such as earth and debris translational slides evolving into debris flows, were triggered on steep slopes and involved colluvium and regolith materials which cover the underlying metamorphic bedrock. The work has been carried out with the following steps: i) realization of a detailed event landslide inventory map through field surveys coupled with observation of high resolution aerial colour orthophoto; ii) identification of landslide source areas; iii) data preparation of landslide controlling factors and descriptive statistics based on a bivariate method (Frequency Ratio) to get an initial overview on existing relationships between causative factors and shallow landslide source areas; iv) choice of criteria for the selection and sizing of the mapping unit; v) implementation of 5 multivariate statistical susceptibility models based on Logistic Regression and Random Forests techniques and focused on landslide source areas; vi) evaluation of the influence of sample size and type of sampling on results and performance of the models; vii) evaluation of the predictive capabilities of the models using ROC curve, AUC and contingency tables; viii) comparison of model results and obtained susceptibility maps; and ix) analysis of temporal variation of landslide susceptibility related to input parameter changes. Models based on Logistic Regression and Random Forests have demonstrated excellent predictive capabilities. Land use and wildfire

  19. A Late Holocene record of tsunamis in the Augusta Bay area (eastern Sicily, Italy): historical vs geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Martini, P.; Barbano, M.; Smedile, A.; Gerardi, F.; Pantosti, D.; Del Carlo, P.; Pirrotta, C.

    2009-12-01

    The importance of hazard plans based on realistic inundation scenarios was dramatically highlighted in December 2004. These scenarios are generally based on numerical models of tsunami wave propagation that can become more realistic and accurate when calibrated with the distribution of true inundated locations and the frequency of event occurrence. This information is generally acquired by historical reports, usually limited to the past few hundreds years, but we believe that it can be properly and fully obtained also from geological investigations. We present results coming from two different approaches, on one side we collected detailed information on historical tsunamis in eastern Sicily; on the other side, through geological investigation, we found evidence for a 4 ka long record of tsunami deposits in two different sites, Augusta Hospital and Priolo Reserve, along the Augusta Bay coast. The research was carried out through a multi-theme study consisting of historical analysis, geomorphologic and geologic surveys, coring campaigns and several laboratory analyses (paleontological, radiometric, X-Ray, magnetic susceptibility, tephra, etc.). From the historical research, we discovered that the study area experienced at least four tsunamis (in 1908, 1693, 1542 and 1169) during the past millennium (period for which the historical tsunamis record can be considered complete) with a maximum inundation distance of about 170 m, recorded at the Augusta town during the 1693 event. Thus, a historical tsunami recurrence interval of about 250 years for the past millennium can be derived from written reports (note that considering the whole historical dataset it becomes ~400 years long). From the geological research, summarizing and combining all the geological data collected in the field, we found seven distinct tsunami deposits, all characterized by sediments coarser than above and below, by a clear marine origin and often by sharp erosional basal contacts. Our findings are

  20. Using Logistic Regression and Random Forests multivariate statistical methods for landslide spatial probability assessment in North-Est Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Esposito, Carlo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    North-East Sicily is strongly exposed to shallow landslide events. On October, 1st 2009 a severe rainstorm (225.5 mm of cumulative rainfall in 9 hours) caused flash floods and more than 1000 landslides, which struck several small villages as Giampilieri, Altolia, Molino, Pezzolo, Scaletta Zanclea, Itala, with 31 fatalities, 6 missing persons and damage to buildings and transportation infrastructures. Landslides, mainly consisting in earth and debris translational slides evolving into debris flows, triggered on steep slopes involving colluvium and regolith materials which cover the underlying metamorphic bedrock of Peloritani Mountains. In this area catchments are small (about 10 square kilometres), elongated, with steep slopes, low order streams, short time of concentration, and discharge directly into the sea. In the past, landslides occurred at Altolia in 1613 and 2000, at Molino in 1750, 1805 and 2000, at Giampilieri in 1791, 1918, 1929, 1932, 2000 and on October 25, 2007. The aim of this work is to define susceptibility models for shallow landslides using multivariate statistical analyses in the Giampilieri area (25 square kilometres). A detailed landslide inventory map has been produced, as the first step, through field surveys coupled with the observation of high resolution aerial colour orthophoto taken immediately after the event. 1,490 initiation zones have been identified; most of them have planimetric dimensions ranging between tens to few hundreds of square metres. The spatial hazard assessment has been focused on the detachment areas. Susceptibility models, performed in a GIS environment, took into account several parameters. The morphometric and hydrologic parameters has been derived from a detailed LiDAR 1×1 m. Square grid cells of 4×4 m were adopted as mapping units, on the basis of the area-frequency distribution of the detachment zones, and the optimal representation of the local morphometric conditions (e.g. slope angle, plan curvature). A

  1. ERIC Enfocado (All About ERIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    Written in Spanish, this booklet describes the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) system, who uses ERIC and why, and how to use ERIC. Brief descriptions of the 16 clearinghouses and the services of the ERIC Processing and Reference Facility, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, Oryx Press, and the U. S. Government Printing Office are…

  2. Mapping rainfall-induced landslides and inundated areas using remote sensing technology and field surveys: the 1 October 2009, Messina, Sicily, event in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Iovine, Giulio; Mondini, Alessandro; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Teresa, Oreste; Fausto, Guzzetti

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, severe meteorologically induced geo-hydrological events are characterized by a complex combination of landslides and floods, and may cause casualties and damage to urban areas and the utility network. On 1 October 2009, a high intensity rainstorm in the Messina area, Sicily, triggered more than 500 shallow landslides in an area of about 60 km2, mostly in the soils mantling the metamorphic and crystalline bedrock of the Peloritan Arc. The high intensity rainfall further resulted in massive erosion and deposition of debris along the ephemeral drainage channels, widespread inundation, and local modification of the coastline. Damage was particularly severe in the several small villages present in the area, including Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Guidomandri, Pèzzolo, Altolìa, and Itàla. Damage to the transportation network was also severe and widespread. The several rainfall-induced landslides and the inundations have resulted in 31 deaths, 6 missing persons, numerous injured persons, and more than 2500 evacuated and homeless people. In the aftermath of the event, we: (i) completed a preliminary field survey in the area most affected by landslides and inundations, documenting the ground effects of the intense rainfall, (ii) acquired satellite imagery, including very-high-resolution optical images taken by QuickBird and high-resolution radar images taken by COSMO-SkyMed, and (iii) acquired stereoscopic aerial photography, including pre-event aerial photographs taken in 1954, 1995, and 2005, and post event, very-large scale images taken by helicopter immediately after the event. In this work, we present preliminary results of the exploitation of multiple remote-sensing technologies and information for the identification, mapping and classification of the rainfall induced landslides, and of the eroded and the inundated areas. Emphasis is given to the critical analysis of the capacity and limits of the available airborne and satellite remote sensing

  3. Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): ¹H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies.

  4. Construction of a Geographical Database of Classical-Archaic Manufactures, Found in the Survey of the Greek Colony Himera (sicily, Italy). Application and Methodologies for AN Experimental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, M. A.; Tardo, V.

    2011-09-01

    This research has analysed the distribution of ceramic finds from classical and archaic ages in the territory of the ancient Greek colony Himera, a town situated near Termini Imerese, in the province of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), which has been the site of systematic excavations carried out by the University of Palermo since the Sixties. The study of about 1500 ceramic fragments, dated back to the 6th-5th century B.C., has allowed to develop an approach to the understanding of the role played by ceramics in the relations between different societies and cultures. Besides the most common analysis factors for the ceramic manufactures, such as their production and distribution, a major factor is the way the manufactures were used. From this wider perspective, a new methodology has been developed about information potential of functional analysis. The interpretation of data about the manufacture distribution was made by means of GIS methodologies, querying the alphanumerical classification database and relating the manufacture typological data to the geo-cartographic ones by means of applying intersite-level spatial analysis. Thus, each archaeological piece of information about the finds can be analysed in relation to the territory geo-morphological features and the obtained data can be processed with specific software environments, in order to suggest reconstruction models for the anthropic landscape, based on the relation between coeval sites and distance from specific environment features — for example, distance from water sources, raw materials, road condition etc. The computer application used for data handling, presentation and analysis, becomes this way a tool of research aimed at the comprehension of settlement dynamics in the historical scenery. This study is the occasion to propose such an analysis system of cultural heritage as a new tool to promote it and to increase its value, applying a territorial context related methodology founded on scientific

  5. Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): New insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolembo Ventura, Brunella; Serpelloni, Enrico; Argnani, Andrea; Bonforte, Alessandro; Bürgmann, Roland; Anzidei, Marco; Baldi, Paolo; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Along the ˜500 km long Sicily-Calabria segment of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary GPS data highlight a complex, and debated, kinematic pattern. We focus on eastern Sicily, where the style of crustal deformation rapidly changes in the space of few tens of kilometers. In southeastern Sicily, struck by the 1693 MW˜7.4 earthquake, GPS measurements highlight a steep velocity gradient, with ˜2.4 mm/yr of ˜N-S shortening in ˜10 km, changing to broader extension (˜3 mm/yr in ˜60 km) in northern Sicily and shortening in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. GPS data and kinematic elastic block models highlight a complex fragmentation of the Sicilian domain into three tectonic blocks, which move independently from Nubia, describing an overall clockwise rotation of this crustal domain with respect to Eurasia. Shortening in southeastern Sicily is associated with a system of high-angle reverse faults resulting from tectonic inversion of extensional faults at the northern tip of the Hyblean plateau. Extension in northern Sicily occurs on a broader deformation belt, developed on the former Kumeta-Alcantara line, extending west of Mount Etna toward the southwestern Tyrrhenian Sea, accommodating the faster rotation of the northeastern Sicily block with respect to central Sicily. Although the seismic potential of inland faults is not negligible, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the Malta escarpment is the likely source of the large 1693 earthquake and tsunami. The observed kinematics appears only subordinately driven by the Nubia-Eurasia convergence and the dynamics of the Mediterranean subduction system is likely playing a major role in governing block motions and active tectonics in Sicily.

  6. Crustal deformation along the Northern Hyblean Plateau margin (Sicily, Italy) from GPS measurements and comparison with stress data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.; Palano, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we analyze data from permanent and non-permanent GPS stations collected between 1998 and 2006 on a dense geodetic network covering a large area of the Hyblean Plateau (southern Italy). This is a seismogenetic area, where strong earthquakes destroyed many cities and killed thousands of people in the past. The analysis of geodetic velocities referring to an Eurasian and an African reference frames, reveals the occurrence of active shortening in the northern sector of the plateau along the boundary defined by the Gela-Catania Foredeep, coupled with an active lengthening in the central sector of the plateau itself. Starting from the estimated velocity at each station, the horizontal strain-rate field of the Hyblean Plateau was calculated. The strain rate pattern clearly defines an area of a prevailing N-S compression along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau. Furthermore the central sector of the plateau is affected by a NNW-SSE and NE-SW extensional strain rate pattern. A comparison with seismological and structural data, available for the studied area, allows improving the knowledge of the tectonic processes in the Hyblean Plateau and their implications for seismic hazard.

  7. Constraining fault activity by investigating tectonically-deformed Quaternary palaeoshorelines using a synchronous correlation method: the Capo D'Orlando Fault as a case study (NE Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschis, Marco; Roberts, Gerald P.; Robertson, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    each palaeoshoreline from the initial work by Giunta et al., (2011) using synchronous correlation. This alternative approach suggests that uplift rates were constant through the Late Quaternary, suggesting that the fault slip-rate governing seismic hazard has also been constant. Reference Armijo, R., Meyer, B. G. C. P., King, G. C. P., Rigo, A., & Papanastassiou, D. (1996). Quaternary evolution of the Corinth Rift and its implications for the Late Cenozoic evolution of the Aegean. Geophysical Journal International, 126(1): 11 - 53. Basili R., Valensise, G., Vannoli, P., Burrato, P., Fracassi, U., Mariano, S., Tiberti, M.M., Boschi. E. (2008). The Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS), version 3: summarizing 20 years of research on Italy's earthquake geology, Tectonophysics, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.04.014. Giunta, G., Gueli, A.M., Monaco, C., Orioli, S., Ristuccia, G.M., Stella, G., Troja, S.O. (2011). Middle-Late Pleistocene marine terraces and fault activity in the Sant'Agata di Militello coastal area (north-eastern Sicily). Journal of Geodynamics. 55, 32 - 40. Roberts, G. P., Meschis, M., Houghton, S., Underwood, C., & Briant, R. M. (2013). The implications of revised Quaternary palaeoshoreline chronologies for the rates of active extension and uplift in the upper plate of subduction zones.Quaternary Science Reviews, 78: 169 - 187.

  8. Crustal Stress and Strain Distribution in Sicily (Southern Italy) from Joint Analysis of Seismicity and Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presti, D.; Neri, G.; Aloisi, M.; Cannavo, F.; Orecchio, B.; Palano, M.; Siligato, G.; Totaro, C.

    2014-12-01

    An updated database of earthquake focal mechanisms is compiled for the Sicilian region (southern Italy) and surrounding off-shore areas where the Nubia-Eurasia convergence coexists with the very-slow residual rollback of the Ionian subducting slab. High-quality solutions selected from literature and catalogs have been integrated with new solutions estimated in the present work using the Cut And Paste (CAP) waveform inversion method. In the CAP algorithm (Zhao and Helmberger, 1994; Zhu and Helmberger, 1996), each waveform is broken up into Pnl and surface wave segments, which are weighted differently during the inversion procedure. Integration of the new solutions with the ones selected from literature and official catalogs led us to collect a database consisting exclusively of waveform inversion data relative to earthquakes with minimum magnitude 2.6. The seismicity and focal mechanism distributions have been compared with crustal motion and strain data coming from GNSS analyses. For this purpose GNSS-based observations collected over the investigated area by episodic measurements (1994-2013) as well as continuous monitoring (since 2006) were processed by the GAMIT/GLOBK software packages (Herring et al., 2010) following the approach described in Palano et al. (2011). To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern, the estimated GNSS velocities were aligned to a fixed Eurasian reference frame. The good agreement found between seismic and geodetic information contributes to better define seismotectonic domains characterized by different kinematics. Moving from the available geophysical information and from an early application of FEM algorithms, we have also started to investigate stress/strain fields in the crust of the study area including depth dependence and relationships with rupture of the main seismogenic structures.

  9. Rare earth elements distribution in grapevine varieties grown on volcanic soils: an example from Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Antone, Carmelisa; Punturo, Rosalda; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical and statistical approach has allowed identifying in rare earth elements (REEs) absorption a good fingerprinting mark for determining the territoriality and the provenance of Vitis vinifera L. in the district of Mount Etna (southern Italy). Our aim is to define the REEs distribution in different parts of the plants which grow in the same volcanic soil and under the same climate conditions, and therefore to assess whether REEs distribution may reflect the composition of the provenance soil or if plants can selectively absorb REEs in order to recognize the fingerprint in the Etna Volcano soils as well as the REEs pattern characteristic of each cultivar of V. vinifera L. The characteristic pattern of REEs has been determined by ICP-MS analyses in the soils and in the selected grapevine varieties for all the following parts: leaves, seeds, juice, skin, and berries. These geochemical criteria, together with the multivariate statistical analysis of the principal component analysis (PCA) and of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) that can be summarized with the box plot, suggest that leaves mostly absorb REEs than the other parts of the plant. This work investigates the various parts of the plant in order to verify if each grape variety presents a characteristic geochemical pattern in the absorption of REEs in relationship with the geochemical features of the soil so to highlight the individual compositional fingerprint. Based on REE patterns, our study is a useful tool that allows characterizing the differences among the grape varieties and lays the foundation for the use of REEs in the geographic origin of the Mount Etna wine district.

  10. Pathogenic microorganisms carried by migratory birds passing through the territory of the island of Ustica, Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Foti, Maria; Rinaldo, Donatella; Guercio, Annalisa; Giacopello, Cristina; Aleo, Aurora; De Leo, Filomena; Fisichella, Vittorio; Mammina, Caterina

    2011-08-01

    Several studies have shown that migratory birds play an important role in the ecology, circulation and dissemination of pathogenic organisms. In October 2006, a health status evaluation was performed on a large population of migratory birds passing through the territory of Ustica (Italy), an island located on the migration route of many species of birds to Africa, and various laboratory tests were conducted. In total, 218 faecal swabs and the internal organs of 21 subjects found dead in nets were collected for bacteriological and virological examination, including avian influenza and Newcastle disease. In addition, 19 pooled fresh faecal samples were collected for mycological examination. The bacteriological analysis produced 183 strains belonging to 28 different species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In particular, Salmonella bongori, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumonia strains were isolated. Almost all of the isolates were susceptible to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprime (99.4%), cefotaxime (98.9%), nalidixic acid (96.7%), chloramphenicol (95.6%), and tetracycline (93.4%). Alternatively, many strains were resistant to ampicillin (42.6%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (42.6%), and streptomycin (43.7%). According to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, all of the samples were negative for the M gene of avian influenza virus. Moreover, isolation tests conducted on specific pathogen free eggs were negative for avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Several hyphomycetes and yeasts belonging to different genera were present in the specimens, and Cryptococcus neoformans was observed in a pooled faecal sample. Antibiotic resistance in wildlife can be monitored to evaluate the impact of anthropic pressure. Furthermore, migratory birds are potential reservoirs of pathogenic agents; thus, they can be regarded as sentinel species and used as environmental health indicators.

  11. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of people receiving medical care for HIV infection in an outpatient facility in Sicily, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Carlo, Paola; Guadagnino, Giuliana; Immordino, Palmira; Mazzola, Giovanni; Colletti, Pietro; Alongi, Ilenia; Adamoli, Lucia; Vitale, Francesco; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim The authors examined a cohort of HIV-positive outpatients at the AIDS Center of Palermo University in Italy in order to identify factors related to the frequency of their visits to the outpatient facility for health care services. Methods Two hundred and twenty-four HIV-infected subjects were enrolled in the study. Demographic and HIV disease characteristics were recorded and assessed with the number of days accessed to our outpatients unit in univariate and multivariate analyses. The potential relationship with immunological status was also analyzed stratifying the patients into groups according to their CD4+ T-cell counts (≥500 vs <500/mm3, and ≥200 vs <200/mm3). Results Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that duration of antiretroviral therapy <5 years and hypertension were significantly associated with a CD4+ T-cell count of <500/mm3, whereas geographic origin (Africa) was associated with a CD4+ T-cell count of <200/mm3. Mean number of days the patients sought access to day-care services for laboratory tests was negatively associated with CD4+ T-cell count. Conclusion Patients with low CD4+ T-cell counts showed higher use of health care services, demonstrating how early HIV diagnosis can help to reduce health care costs. The CD4+ T-cell cut-off of 200 cells emphasizes the importance of identifying and managing HIV infection among hard-to-reach groups like vulnerable migrants. In our sample, the illegal status of immigrants does not influence the management of their HIV/AIDS condition, but the lack of European health card that documents the current antiretroviral status, could interfere with the efforts to eradicate AIDS. A better understanding of the major determinants of HIV treatment costs has led to appropriate large-scale actions, which in turn has increased resources and expanded intervention programs. Further guidance should be offered to hard-to-reach groups in order to improve early AIDS diagnosis, and procedures for identifying

  12. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Buccheri, Cecilia; Casuccio, Alessandra; Giammanco, Santo; Giammanco, Marco; La Guardia, Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina

    2007-04-03

    Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively) answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the

  13. Assessment of susceptibility to earth-flow landslide using logistic regression and multivariate adaptive regression splines: A case of the Belice River basin (western Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Ciaccio, Marilena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, terrain susceptibility to earth-flow occurrence was evaluated by using geographic information systems (GIS) and two statistical methods: Logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). LR has been already demonstrated to provide reliable predictions of earth-flow occurrence, whereas MARS, as far as we know, has never been used to generate earth-flow susceptibility models. The experiment was carried out in a basin of western Sicily (Italy), which extends for 51 km2 and is severely affected by earth-flows. In total, we mapped 1376 earth-flows, covering an area of 4.59 km2. To explore the effect of pre-failure topography on earth-flow spatial distribution, we performed a reconstruction of topography before the landslide occurrence. This was achieved by preparing a digital terrain model (DTM) where altitude of areas hosting landslides was interpolated from the adjacent undisturbed land surface by using the algorithm topo-to-raster. This DTM was exploited to extract 15 morphological and hydrological variables that, in addition to outcropping lithology, were employed as explanatory variables of earth-flow spatial distribution. The predictive skill of the earth-flow susceptibility models and the robustness of the procedure were tested by preparing five datasets, each including a different subset of landslides and stable areas. The accuracy of the predictive models was evaluated by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The results demonstrate that the overall accuracy of LR and MARS earth-flow susceptibility models is from excellent to outstanding. However, AUC values of the validation datasets attest to a higher predictive power of MARS-models (AUC between 0.881 and 0.912) with respect to LR-models (AUC between 0.823 and 0.870). The adopted procedure proved to be resistant to overfitting and stable when changes of the learning and validation samples are

  14. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility. A test for the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Hochschild, Volker; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of a presence only approach, namely Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment, located in the north-eastern Sicily, Italy. This catchment has been recently exposed to three main meteorological extreme events, resulting in the activation of multiple fast landslides, which occurred on the 1st October 2009, 10th March 2010 and 1st March 2011. Differently from the 2009 event, which only marginally hit the catchment, the 2010 and 2011 storms fully involved the area of the Mili catchment. Detailed field data was collected to associate the thickness of mobilised materials at the triggering zone to each mass movement within the catchment. This information has been used to model the landslide susceptibility for two classes of processes clustered into shallow failures for maximum depths of 0.5m and deep ones in case of values equal or greater than 0.5m. As the authors believed that the peculiar geomorphometry of this narrow and steep catchment played a fundamental role in generating two distinct patterns of landslide thicknesses during the initiation phase, a HRDEM was used to extract topographic attributes to express near-triggering geomorphological conditions. On the other hand, medium resolution vegetation indexes derived from ASTER scenes were used as explanatory variables pertaining to a wider spatial neighbourhood, whilst a revised geological map, the land use from CORINE and a tectonic map were used to convey an even wider area connected to the slope instability. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing outstanding prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 20 randomly generated replicates. The validation phase produced indeed average AUC values of 0.91 with a standard deviation of 0.03 for both the modelled landslide

  15. Landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility, a simple proxy for landslide hazard? A test in the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Mai, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This study implements a landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility approach in order to investigate the landslide scenario in the catchment of Mili, this being located in the north-easternmost sector of Sicily (Italy). From a detailed geomorphological campaign, thicknesses of mobilised materials at the triggering zone of each mass movement were collected and subsequently used as a dependent variable to be analysed in the framework of spatial predictive models. The adopted modelling methodology consisted of a presence-only learning algorithm which differently from classic presence-absence methods does not rely on stable conditions in order to derive functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. The dependent was pre-processed by reclassifying the crown thickness spectrum into a binary condition expressing thick (values equal or greater than 1m) and thin (values less than 1m) landslide crown classes. The explanatory variables were selected to express triggering-thickness dependency at different scales, these being in close proximity to the triggering point through primary and secondary attributes from a 2m-cell side Lidar HRDEM, at a medium scale through vegetation indexes from multispectral satellite images (ASTER) and a coarser scale through a geological, land use and tectonic maps. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing excellent prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 50 randomly generated replicates. In addition, the role of each predictor was assessed for the two considered classes as relevant differences arose in terms of their contribution to the final models. In this regard, predictor importance, Jack-knife tests and response curves were used to assess the reliability of the models together with their geomorphological reasonability. This work attempts to capitalize on fieldwork data

  16. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Luca, Filippo De; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Background The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. Objective To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. Methods The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Results Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.3–0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.2–0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.19–1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.05–1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), and with the combined exposure index (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). Moreover, cadmium levels showed a robust correlation with OGG1 and MT1A gene expression levels (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001; r = 0.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Finally, OGG1 and MT1A were over-expressed in adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela area compared with controls (p = 0.0004; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents. PMID:24936443

  17. Seismotectonics of Northeastern Sicily and Southern Calabria (Italy): New constraints on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector for the Central Mediterranean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfì, Luciano; Barberi, Graziella; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector of central Mediterranean area, including the Aeolian Islands, southern Calabria and northeastern Sicily, where the convergence between Eurasian and African plates has given rise to a complicated collisional/subduction complex. A high quality dataset of about 3000 earthquakes has been exploited for local earthquake tomography and focal mechanisms computation. Results depict undiscovered details of a network of faults which enables the contemporary existence of adjacent compressional and extensional domains. In particular, tomographic images, seismic events distribution and focal mechanisms pinpoint the geometry and activity of a lithospheric-scale tear faults system which, with a NW-SE trend through Sicily and the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas, represents the southern edge of the Ionian subduction trench zone. At crustal depth, this tearing is well highlighted by a rotation of the maximum horizontal stress, moving across the area from west toward east. In addition, the shallow normal fault regime, characterising the northeastern Sicily mainland, south of the NW-SE lineament, changes in the deeper part of the crust. Indeed, a NE-SW earthquake distribution, NW gently dipping, and inverse fault solutions indicate a still active contractional deformation in the eastern Sicily, caused by the Africa-Eurasia convergence and well framed with the current compressive regime along the southern Tyrrhenian zone and at the front of the Sicilian Chain-Foreland.

  18. Seismotectonics of northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria (Italy): New constraints on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector for the central Mediterranean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfı, L.; Barberi, G.; Musumeci, C.; Patanè, D.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector of central Mediterranean area, including the Aeolian Islands, southern Calabria, and northeastern Sicily, where the convergence between Eurasian and African Plates has given rise to a complicated collisional/subduction complex. A high-quality data set of about 3000 earthquakes has been exploited for local earthquake tomography and focal mechanisms computation together with available source mechanisms from published catalogues. The results depict new details of a network of faults which enables the concurrent existence of adjacent compressional and extensional domains. In particular, tomographic images, seismic events distribution, and focal mechanisms pinpoint the geometry and activity of a lithospheric-scale tear faults system which, with a NW-SE trend through Sicily and the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas, represents the southern edge of the Ionian subduction trench zone. At crustal depth, this tearing is well highlighted by a rotation of the maximum horizontal stress, moving across the area from west toward east. In addition, the shallow normal fault regime, characterizing the southern Calabria and northeastern Sicily mainland, south of the NW-SE lineament, changes in the deeper part of the crust. Indeed, a NE-SW earthquake distribution, gently dipping NW, and inverse fault solutions indicate a still active contractional deformation in eastern Sicily, caused by the Africa-Eurasia convergence and well framed with the current compressive regime along the southern Tyrrhenian zone and at the front of the Sicilian Chain-Foreland.

  19. Smoke and Sediments in Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The waters along the shoreline of Sicily appear bright aquamarine in this image from April 7, 2002. Although other satellite images occasionally show lightening along the coast of Sicily and southern Italy, the water is unusually bright in this image. The bright water may have been caused by a recent storm that either stirred up sediment from relatively shallow sea bottom, or could be a springtime phytoplankton bloom. (Distinguishing phytoplankton from sediment is one of the challenges facing NASA researchers who study life in the oceans from satellites.) Another interesting feature of this image is the smoke plume from Mount Etna that is streaming almost directly to the East (right). Mt. Etna is one of the world's most active volcanos, and erupts up to several times a year. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Smoke and Sediments in Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The waters along the shoreline of Sicily appear bright aquamarine in this image from April 7, 2002. Although other satellite images occasionally show lightening along the coast of Sicily and southern Italy, the water is unusually bright in this image. The bright water may have been caused by a recent storm that either stirred up sediment from relatively shallow sea bottom, or could be a springtime phytoplankton bloom. (Distinguishing phytoplankton from sediment is one of the challenges facing NASA researchers who study life in the oceans from satellites.) Another interesting feature of this image is the smoke plume from Mount Etna that is streaming almost directly to the East (right). Mt. Etna is one of the world's most active volcanos, and erupts up to several times a year. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Monitoring large-scale landslides and their induced hazard with COSMO-SkyMed Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS): a case study in north-western Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, Alessandro; Cigna, Francesca; Jordan, Colm; Sowter, Andrew; Calcaterra, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Landslides detection and mapping are fundamental requirements for every hazard and risk evaluation. Due to their inevitable shortcomings, geomorphological field surveys and airphoto interpretation do not document all the gravitational events. Indeed some unstable slopes are inaccessible to field surveyors, while some landslides are too slow to be detected with the naked eye or interpretation of aerial photographs. In this work, we integrate geomorphological surveys with ground motion data derived by employing COSMO-SkyMed satellite imagery and the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS; Sowter et al., 2013), a new Advanced Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ADInSAR) technique which has been developed recently at the Nottingham University in the UK. The main advantage of ISBAS with respect to other InSAR and SBAS techniques, is the possibility to detect good radar reflectors even in non-urbanized terrain, where ground targets usually look intermittently coherent, meaning they have high coherence only in some interferograms but not in others. ISBAS has proven capable of increasing results over natural, woodland and agricultural terrains and, as a result, it makes it possible to improve the detection of landslide boundaries and the assessment of the state of activity where other InSAR approaches fail. We used COSMO-SkyMed StripMap data covering the period between November 2008 and October 2011, with 3m ground range resolution, 40° look angle and minimum revisiting time of 8 days. The data consist of 38 ascending images (track 133, frame 380) with ground track angle at scene centre of 169.5° from the north-south direction. These have been obtained thanks to an agreement between the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea and the University of Naples 'Federico II'. We tested ISBAS in north-western Sicily (southern Italy), over a 1,530 km2 area where 1,473 landslides have been identified based on optical imagery and field surveys by the

  2. Enriched asthenosphere melting beneath the nascent North African margin: trace element and Nd isotope evidence in middle-late Triassic alkali basalts from central Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Lustrino, Michele; Romano, Vanessa; Tranchina, Annunziata; Villa, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    During the dismembering of the Pangea supercontinent, middle-late Triassic sub-volcanic alkaline rocks were emplaced in central Sicily. These rocks have an alkali basaltic composition and show OIB-like incompatible element patterns in primitive mantle-normalized diagrams (e.g., enrichments in HFSE and LREE coupled with high HFSE/LILE ratios), as well as slightly positive \\varepsilon_{Nd} values. Only subtle effects of crustal contamination at shallow depths emerge from geochemical data. These characteristics are very different compared with the Permian calcalkaline magmas from elsewhere in SW Europe still carrying the geochemical signature of modifications related to the Variscan orogeny. The mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic compositions of the investigated samples from central Sicily are also different from the coeval shoshonitic volcano-plutonic formations of Southern Alps (Dolomites). The incompatible element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are consistent with low-degree partial melting of a moderately depleted asthenospheric mantle source, with a negligible involvement of the thinned continental crust. The studied alkaline basalts represent the only known evidence of a segment of the Triassic rift system associated with early Pangea breakup in central Sicily. The close similarity of the central Sicily Triassic alkali basalts with coeval basalts emplaced along former orogenic sutures across the peri-Mediterranean area suggests a common origin related, at least partly, to asthenospheric passive upwelling following the tectonic collapse of the Variscan Belt. These rocks provide new constraints on the spatial-temporal distribution, magma source evolution and geodynamic meaning of the widespread Permo-Triassic basic magmatism developed after the end of the Variscan Orogeny in southwestern Europe.

  3. Earthquake-triggered landslides along the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (off Augusta, eastern Sicily, Italy) - assessment of the related tsunamigenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Eastern Sicily is affected by earthquakes and tsunamis of local and remote origin, which is known through numerous historical chronicles. Recent studies have put emphasis on the role of submarine landslides as the direct cause of the main local tsunamis, envisaging that earthquakes (in 1693 and 1908) did produce a tsunami, but also that they triggered mass failures that were able to generate an even larger tsunami. The debate is still open, and though no general consensus has been found among scientists so far, this research had the merit to attract attention on possible generation of tsunamis by landslides off Sicily. In this paper we investigate the tsunami potential of mass failures along one sector of the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (HME). facing Augusta. The HME is the main offshore geological structure of the region running almost parallel to the coast, off eastern Sicily. Here, bottom morphology and slope steepness favour soil failures. In our work we study slope stability under seismic load along a number of HME transects by using the Minimun Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method, which is based on the limit-equilibrium theory. The main goal is to identify sectors of the HME that could be unstable under the effect of realistic earthquakes. We estimate the possible landslide volume and use it as input for numerical codes to simulate the landslide motion and the consequent tsunami. This is an important step for the assessment of the tsunami hazard in eastern Sicily and for local tsunami mitigation policies. It is also important in view of tsunami warning system since it can help to identify the minimum earthquake magnitude capable of triggering destructive tsunamis induced by landslides, and therefore to set up appropriate knowledge-based criteria to launch alert to the population.

  4. The CIRCEE-HR survey in the Calabrian arc and offshore E Sicily (Ionian Sea and Southern Italy): investigating active faults, recent deformation and the deep marine paleoseismic record (turbidites)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, M.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.; Gallais, F.; Graindorge, D.; San Pedro, L.

    2013-12-01

    (CIRCEE-HR - Calabrian arc Ionian sea Research and Catastrophic historical EarthquakE s in southern italy - a High Resolution seismic survey) We report on a recent marine geophysical and geological survey conducted onboard the R/V Le Suroit from 2-24 October in the Ionian Sea, offshore Eastern Sicily. The primary aim of the CIRCEE-HR cruise proposal was to conduct a neo-tectonic study of the Calabrian subduction zone offshore Southern Italy, a region struck repeatedly by the most destructive earthquakes in European history. The CIRCEE-HR survey targeted the region struck by the 1693 Catania earthquake (60,000 killed) and the 1908 Messina earthquakes, which produced intensity X-XI shaking and tsunamis. The 1908 (normal faulting mechanism) earthquake triggered a turbidite flow that ruptured submarine cables. The source of some strong historical earthquakes (1169, 1542, 1693) remains unknown. Several crustal scale structures have been proposed as being seismogenic: the Malta escarpment, a lithospheric tear fault (STEP), the subduction fault plane and other related faults. The main objectives of the cruise were therefore to seek evidence of active faults associated with these structures, and to characterize the degree of activity of the Calabria accretionary wedge (sedimentary deformation, dewatering processes) in order to better assess its seismogenic potential. Another major objective is to try to determine the typical recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the region (by coring and dating of turbidites triggered by great earthquakes). The Augias mega-turbidite dated either 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) or 365 AD (Polonia et al., 2013) covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain with a thickness of 10-15m representing a volume of > 100km3. This layer serves as a stratigraphic marker to identify recent deformation in the abyssal domain. The methods applied were 72-channel high-resolution seismic profiles and sub-bottom profiling (chirp) (with 1200km of

  5. Binary Logistic Regression Versus Boosted Regression Trees in Assessing Landslide Susceptibility for Multiple-Occurring Regional Landslide Events: Application to the 2009 Storm Event in Messina (Sicily, southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, L.; Cama, M.; Maerker, M.; Parisi, L.; Rotigliano, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events within the Mediterranean region. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), corresponding to the catchments of the Briga and the Giampilieri streams both stretching for few kilometres from the Peloritan ridge (eastern Sicily, Italy) to the Ionian sea. This area was struck on the 1st October 2009 by an extreme climatic event resulting in thousands of rapid shallow landslides, mainly of debris flows and debris avalanches types involving the weathered layer of a low to high grade metamorphic bedrock. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 landslide archive, BLR- and BRT-based susceptibility models were obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation; besides, the models trained in one of the two catchments (Briga) were tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the other (Giampilieri), adopting a spatial partition (SP) based validation procedure. All the validation procedures were based on multi-folds tests so to evaluate and compare the reliability of the fitting, the prediction skill, the coherence in the predictor selection and the precision of the susceptibility estimates. All the obtained models for the two methods produced very high predictive performances, with a general congruence between BLR and BRT in the predictor importance. In particular, the research highlighted that BRT-models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR-models, for RP based modelling, whilst for the SP-based models the difference in predictive skills between the two methods dropped drastically, converging to an analogous excellent performance. However, when looking at the precision of the probability estimates, BLR demonstrated to produce more robust

  6. Production technology and provenance study of archaeological ceramics from relevant sites in the Alcantara River Valley (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Di Bella, Marcella; Triscari, Maurizio; Viccaro, Marco

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, volcanic-rich ceramic remains from the archaeological sites of Francavilla, Naxos and Taormina (Province of Messina, North-eastern Sicily) were studied by using inclusions as main provenance marker. Technological features, such as temper choice, vitrification degree and firing temperatures, were investigated by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Information on the production centres was obtained through the identification of the source area of raw materials used as temper. Indeed, petrochemical analysis of the volcanic inclusions within the examined ceramics displayed strong affinities with structures/textures and compositions of the locally outcropping mugearitic products, probably ascribed to the eruptive activity of an eccentric vent of Mt. Etna (Mt. Mojo). A local production for the studied pottery samples has been therefore advanced, assuming that the used volcanic temper was easily available from the alluvial deposits along the Alcantara River stream, which is connected to the lava flow of Mt. Mojo.

  7. Worst-case scenario approach to the tsunami hazard assessment for the coastal areas between Augusta and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The province of Siracusa encompasses a very long portion of the eastern Sicily coastline, ranging from the southern part of the Catania Gulf to the north down to the southern-eastern end of the island, known as Capo Passero. Within this domain, the area comprised between the towns of Augusta and Siracusa has been selected as one of the sites for the testing of innovative methods for tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment and reduction developed in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3). The selection was driven by two main reasons. First, the area was hit by at least seven tsunamis in the approximate time interval from 1600 BC to present, as can be deduced from historical catalogues and paleo-tsunami deposits analysis: the most famous are probably the 21 July 365, 4 February 1169, 11 January 1693 and 28 December 1908 tsunamis. Secondly, as a whole, the test site has a strong relevance from the industrial, commercial, military, historical and cultural points of view: here it is sufficient to mention the huge petrochemical pole in the Augusta bay and the listing of Siracusa as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2005. This contribution deals with the tsunami hazard assessment for the Augusta-Siracusa area, approached through the worst-case credible scenario technique. We selected five main source areas: the choice is driven mainly by the already mentioned fact that historical catalogues and paleo-tsunami studies tell us that the area under investigation can be impacted by tsunamis generated both in the near-field and in the far-field. The five areas include the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment and the Messina Straits in the near-field, the western and eastern lobes of the Ionian subduction zone in the intermediate field, and the western Hellenic Trench in the far-field. In each source area, a selection of possible faults was made, whose characteristics and

  8. Exploitation of the Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS) algorithm with COSMO-SkyMed data for landslide inventory mapping in north-western Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, A.; Cigna, F.; Sowter, A.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2017-03-01

    A large scale study of landslide processes was undertaken by coupling conventional geomorphological field surveys with aerial photographs along with an advanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis of ground instability in north-western Sicily. COSMO-SkyMed satellite images for the period between 2008 and 2011 were processed using the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS) technique, recently developed at the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Nottingham. The use of ISBAS allowed the derivation of ground surface displacements across non-urbanized areas, thus overcoming one of the main limitations of conventional interferometric techniques. ISBAS provides ground motion information not only for urban but also for rural, woodland, grassland and agricultural terrains, which cover > 60% of north-western Sicily, thereby improving by 40 times in some cases, the slope instability investigation capabilities of InSAR methods. ISBAS ground motion data enabled the updating of the landslide inventory for the areas of Piana degli Albanesi and Marineo (over 130 km2), which encompass a number of active, dormant and inactive landslides according to the pre-existing landslide inventory maps produced through aerial photo-interpretation and local field checks. An average of ∼ 7000 ISBAS pixels km- 2 allowed the detection of small displacements in regions difficult to access. In particular, 226 landslides - mainly slides, flows and creep and four badlands were identified, comprising a total area of 25.3 km2. When compared to the previous landslide inventory maps, 84 phenomena were confirmed, 67 new events were detected and 79 previously mapped events were re-assessed, modifying their typology, boundary and/or state of activity. Because the InSAR method used here is designed to measure slow rates of velocity and therefore may not detect fast-moving, events such as falls and topples, the results for Piana degli Albanesi and Marineo demonstrate

  9. Submarine slope earthquake-induced instability and associated tsunami generation potential along the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (offshore eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The stability analysis of offshore margins is an important step for the assessment of natural hazard: the main challenge is to evaluate the potential slope failures and the consequent occurrence of submarine tsunamigenic landslides to mitigate the potential coastal damage to inhabitants and infrastructures. But the limited geotechnical knowledge of the underwater soil and the controversial scientific interpretation of the tectonic units make it often difficult to carry out this type of analysis reliably. We select the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (HME), the main active geological structure offshore eastern Sicily, because the amount of data from historical chronicles, the records about strong earthquakes and tsunami, and the numerous geological offshore surveys carried out in recent years make the region an excellent scenario to evaluate slope failures, mass movements triggered by earthquakes and the consequent tsunamis. We choose several profiles along the HME and analyse their equilibrium conditions using the Minimun Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method (Tinti and Manucci, 2006, 2008; Paparo et al. 2013), that is based on the limit-equilibrium theory. Considering the morphological and geotechnical features of the offshore slopes, we prove that large-earthquake shaking may lead some zones of the HME to instability, we evaluate the expected volumes involved in sliding and compute the associated landslide-tsunami through numerical tsunami simulations. This work was carried out in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  10. Evaluation of a temporal trend heavy metals contamination in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, (1813) along the western coastline of Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Copat, Chiara; Maggiore, Riccardo; Arena, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Stanislao; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    The use of biological species in the monitoring of marine environmental quality allows the evaluation of biologically available levels of contaminants in the ecosystem and the effects of contaminants on living organisms. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is a useful bioindicator because through the lepidochronology technique it is possible to obtain a historical contamination trend of a given area. This study aims to assess the temporal trend contamination by heavy metal investigations on dead sheaths of 100 samples of P. oceanica collected in the Protected Marine Area of "Plemmirio" (Sicily) and in the Siracusa bay. Important results were obtained because data show a significant negative temporal trend for the metals analysed especially for As, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, U and V that in the past had higher concentrations, with a stronger contamination in the Plemmirio area, the site much more exposed to the pollution of the nearby petrochemical complex. This study confirms the relevance of the use of P. oceanica as a biological indicator of metal contamination in coastal ecosystems. Thus the usefulness of P. oceanica as a tracer of spatial metal contamination and as a good tool for water quality evaluation is reinforced.

  11. An Update of the Evolving Epidemic of blaKPC Carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae in Sicily, Italy, 2014: Emergence of Multiple Non-ST258 Clones

    PubMed Central

    Bonura, Celestino; Giuffrè, Mario; Aleo, Aurora; Fasciana, Teresa; Di Bernardo, Francesca; Stampone, Tomaso; Giammanco, Anna; Palma, Daniela Maria; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background In Italy, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) strains are highly endemic and KPC producing CC258 is reported as the widely predominating clone. In Palermo, Italy, previous reports have confirmed this pattern. However, recent preliminary findings suggest that an epidemiological change is likely ongoing towards a polyclonal KPC-Kp spread. Here we present the results of molecular typing of 94 carbapenem non susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates detected during 2014 in the three different hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Methods and Results Ninety-four consecutive, non replicate carbapenem non susceptible isolates were identified in the three largest acute general hospitals in Palermo, Italy, in the six-month period March-August 2014. They were characterized by PCR for β-lactam, aminoglycoside and plasmid mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genetic determinants. The mgrB gene of the colistin resistant isolates was amplified and sequenced. Clonality was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Eight non-CC258 sequence types (STs) were identified accounting for 60% of isolates. In particular, ST307 and ST273 accounted for 29% and 18% of isolates. CC258 isolates were more frequently susceptible to gentamicin and non-CC258 isolates to amikacin. Colistin non susceptibility was found in 42% of isolates. Modifications of mgrB were found in 32 isolates. Conclusions Concurrent clonal expansion of some STs and lateral transmission of genetic resistance determinants are likely producing a thorough change of the KPC-Kp epidemiology in Palermo, Italy. In our setting mgrB inactivation proved to substantially contribute to colistin resistance. Our findings suggest the need to continuously monitor the KPC-Kp epidemiology and to assess by a nationwide survey the possible shifting towards a polyclonal epidemic. PMID:26177547

  12. Tsunami vulnerability and damage for buildings analyzed by means of two methods (PTVA-3 and SCHEMA) in the area of Augusta and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The coast of the eastern Sicily is exposed to tsunamis that can be generated by local earthquakes (e.g. the 1169, 1693, 1908 events) and by earthquakes located in distant seismic zones (see the 365 AD tsunamigenic quake in Western Hellenic Arc). Tsunamis can also be generated by landslides possibly triggered by earthquakes. The Hyblean-Malta steep escarpment running offshore at a small angle with the coast is an ideal place for submarine mass failure occurrences with tsunamigenic effects. The entire eastern coast of Sicily from Messina in the north to Siracusa in the south is under the threat of tsunamis. In the frame of the FP7 European project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), the segment of coast from Augusta to Siracusa was selected to undertake specific and detailed studies of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and damage to test existing methods and develop innovative approaches. The scope of the present work regards vulnerability and damage analyses. We chose to adopt two methods, known in the literature and briefly denoted as PTVA-3 and SCHEMA, that are based on two very different approaches, the former more qualitative and the latter more quantitative. The method PTVA-3 determines the vulnerability and damageability of a building by weighting and ranking a number of attributes covering the structural features of the edifice and the relevant characteristics of the surrounding environment such as the position with respect to the coast, the existence of defensive elements (e.g. walls, breakwaters, vegetation) and also the proximity to potential sources of floating objects that can feed damaging debris flows. On the other hand, the SCHEMA method uses a classification of building and a damage matrix that were derived from experimental fragility and damage curves first established after the Sumatra 2004 tsunami and later refined and adapted to the building stock of the Mediterranean region. The

  13. Raised Holocene paleo-shorelines along the Capo Schisò coast, Taormina: New evidence of recent co-seismic deformation in northeastern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Cecilia Rita; Scicchitano, Giovanni; Ferranti, Luigi; Monaco, Carmelo

    2012-04-01

    Detailed mapping of geomorphological, biological and archaeological sea-level markers around the Capo Schisò volcanic headland, a few kilometers south of Taormina, north-eastern Sicily, has documented the occurrence of three Holocene paleo-shorelines raised at different altitudes. The uppermost shoreline (PS1) is represented by a fossiliferous beach deposit that is heavily eroded and only few small sections, at elevations ranging between ˜3 and ˜5 m above the present sea-level, are visible. The middle shoreline (PS2) was found at a maximum altitude of ˜3 m and is represented by algal rims, remnants of barnacle bands and vermetid concretions, and by a fossiliferous beach deposit. The lowermost shoreline (PS3) includes remnants of algal rims, vermetid concretions, fossil barnacle bands and a beachrock, and reaches an elevation of 1.60-1.80 m. New radiocarbon dating results, integrated with published ages from nearby paleo-shoreline outcrops, constrains for the Taormina region an average uplift rate of 1.7-1.8 mm/yr in the last 5 ka, and the occurrence of three co-seismic uplift events at 4.4-3.9 ka, 2.1-1.8 ka and ≤1.0 ka ago. Abrupt displacements are tentatively attributed to footwall uplift along an offshore normal fault, but further investigations are needed to better constrain the causative source of past earthquakes. Notwithstanding, based on coastal tectonic analysis, this paper provides a new assessment of age and recurrence time of Holocene earthquakes in a historically strong seismogenic area.

  14. Integrating facies and structural analyses with subsidence history in a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin: Outcome for paleogeography of the Panormide Southern Tethyan margin (NW Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio; Gasparo Morticelli, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    We illustrate the tectono-sedimentary evolution of a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin in a fold and thrust belt present setting (Cala Rossa basin). Detailed stratigraphy and facies analysis of Upper Triassic-Eocene successions outcropping in the Palermo Mts (NW Sicily), integrated with structural analysis, restoration and basin analysis, led to recognize and describe into the intraplatform basin the proximal and distal depositional areas respect to the bordered carbonate platform sectors. Carbonate platform was characterized by a rimmed reef growing with progradational trends towards the basin, as suggested by the several reworked shallow-water materials interlayered into the deep-water succession. More, the occurrence of thick resedimented breccia levels into the deep-water succession suggests the time and the characters of synsedimentary tectonics occurred during the Late Jurassic. The study sections, involved in the building processes of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt, were restored in order to obtain the original width of the Cala Rossa basin, useful to reconstruct the original geometries and opening mechanisms of the basin. Basin analysis allowed reconstructing the subsidence history of three sectors with different paleobathymetry, evidencing the role exerted by tectonics in the evolution of the narrow Cala Rossa basin. In our interpretation, a transtensional dextral Lower Jurassic fault system, WNW-ESE (present-day) oriented, has activated a wedge shaped pull-apart basin. In the frame of the geodynamic evolution of the Southern Tethyan rifted continental margin, the Cala Rossa basin could have been affected by Jurassic transtensional faults related to the lateral westward motion of Africa relative to Europe.

  15. A multidisciplinary approach to detect active pathways for magma migration and eruption at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) before the 2001 and 2002-2003 eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alparone, S.; Andronico, D.; Giammanco, S.; Lodato, L.

    2004-08-01

    lines affecting eastern Sicily; they would be important pathways for magma uprise to the surface that will keep on feeding the eruptive activity of Etna in the near future. This study also pointed out the high instability of the southern slope of Etna, a sector where the potential hazard by lava flow invasion will remain high also in the near future.

  16. Predicting the impacts of climate change on plant dynamics and tree-grass-shrub competition using a Cellular Automata model in a Mediterranean catchment in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, L. V.; Caracciolo, D.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding and predicting vegetation change along ecosystem boundaries is among paramount challenges in ecohydrology. In this study, Cellular-Automaton Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) is implemented in a small upland catchment in Sicily, IT, where north-facing slopes are characterized by quercus (trees), and south-facing slopes exhibit plant coexistence, composed of Opuntia ficus-indaca (shrub) and grasses, to examine the control of solar radiation on plant development and predict potential trajectories of vegetation change under the stress of global warming. CATGraSS is driven by stochastic rainfall and variable solar radiation on topography, represented by a fine-scale gridded domain where vegetation type at each cell is represented individually. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or remain empty. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Spatially explicit treatment of solar radiation, and a lower limit to soil moisture storage imposed by bedrock depth lead to spatial organization in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff, and plant type. CATGraSS is first calibrated at the field site driven by stochastic climate that represent the current climate at the study site. Calibrated model results are examined against Google-Earth images. Implications of future climate change are examined using the advanced weather generator (AWE-GEN). AWE-GEN characterizes the statistical characteristics of selected climate variables and their change over time based on a multi-model ensemble of outputs from General Circulation Models (GCMs). Stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve GCMs adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario for the future scenarios 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. Future vegetation changed is predicted to bring a dramatic reorganization of the plant composition based mainly on the topography

  17. Seismogenic rotational slumps and translational glides in pelagic deep-water carbonates. Upper Tithonian-Berriasian of Southern Tethyan margin (W Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilone, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs), which reflect sediment mobilization processes, are helpful to identify punctual events of paleoenvironmental stresses. In the upper Tithonian-Berriasian calpionellid pelagic limestone of the Lattimusa Fm. outcropping in the Barracù section (W Sicily), paleoenvironmental restoration reveals the occurrence of a deep-water flat basin, characterised by undeformed planar bedding, laterally passing to a gentle slope where the deformed horizons alternate with undeformed beds. Here, two types of gravity slides have been differentiated on the basis of different kinds of SSDSs, brittle deformation, involved lithofacies, geometry and morphology. Type 1 slump sheets, involving marl-limestone couplets, are characterised by chaotic stratification, truncated beds, recumbent folds, tension gashes, clastic dikes and small-scale listric normal faults and thrusts. They moved downslope as a rotational slump, displaying the typical wedge-shaped morphology, becoming thicker toe-wards. Type 2 slump sheets, involving bed packages of lime mudstone, are characterised by arcuate slump scars developing downwards as listric normal faults, associated with rotational beds and bulging. Displaying tabular geometries, they moved coherently along an overall bedding parallel detachment surface as a translational glide characterised by sediment creep. Regional geology indicates that the basin (Sicanian), bordered by a stepped carbonate platform, was affected by synsedimentary tectonics throughout the Mesozoic. The synsedimentary extensional tectonics that affect the Upper Triassic-Jurassic deposits with steeped normal faults, causing tilt-block and instability of the seafloor through fluidization processes, triggered the rotational slumps of the lower portion of the section. Seismic shocks, induced by outside sector tectonics, like those recorded in the adjacent Busambra stepped carbonate platform margin, triggered the rotational slumps that are not

  18. Active learning innovative for the study of climatic variations in Sicily (Italy) and micro-climates in confined environments. Digitized construction of agro-meteorological laboratory and entrepreneurial development of methodical home automation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimi, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    In education to issues of environmental sustainability and the use of renewable energy resources, there are the existing laboratory teaching methodologies in Superior School "A. Volta" in Palermo (Italy) for acquisition, processing and control network of agro-meteorological data on the local area. This station was planned to allow students practical multidisciplinary learning experiences in the field of agro-meteorological applications. The School started a few months ago a project of MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education) that updates the lab through the most innovative digital technologies in the field of mechatronics, domotic and sustainable energy, that are supported by the latest needs of scientific-educational multimedia. It is an educational training that intends to implement a data collection center agro-meteorological on "digital platforms," informational purposes and applications, on current issues of climate changes and their consequences in Sicily (Italy). This active learning will interconnect the data collected from the station weather and climate of the school with those locally and regionally, with "weather-climatic patterns" correlations that are implemented in the Mediterranean area (International Program "GAW-Global Atmosphere Watch"). For this reason were enabled synergies with two major public scientific research and acquisition services-data disclosure (ENEA and SIAS-Agrometeorological Information Service, Sicily Region), both to energy efficiency of the School Station, both to support data and digital applications in GIS, with agro-meteorological services to companies operating in the agricultural and environmental sustainability, high consideration themes in European Programming. A branch of this training course is the entrepreneurship education, carried out by a few years in School with the development of "experimental models" for the creation of "innovation clusters" to make entrepreneurial experience since school, creating/managing mini

  19. The Advancement of Intraplate Tectonic Motion Detection by the Use of Atmospherically Corrected InSAR Time-series and its Decomposition into a 3D Field Vector in South-East Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, A.; Bekaert, D. P.; Bonforte, A.; Guglielmino, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Stramondo, S.; Zucca, F.

    2014-12-01

    This study provides insights into the advancements gained by applying a tropospheric correction to a time-series InSAR small baseline network processed using the StaMPS software for the Hyblean Plateau in south-east Sicily, Italy. The contribution of the atmosphere is one of the major error sources in repeat-pass InSAR in general. For time-series analysis spatial and temporal "filtering" of the interferometric phase can be used to address atmospheric signals. This however might be at the cost of smoothing and removal of the "tectonic deformation". We applied a tropospheric correction to each interferogram based on estimates of the ERA-Interim weather model, provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). This approach is part of the InSAR Atmospheric Correction Toolbox (Bekaert et al, in prep) and converts the tropospheric water vapor content into the phase-delay of the radar line-of-sight. For the analysis we used 49 descending and 58 ascending Envisat SAR images, which cover the time period from 2003 until 2010. In addition, we have processed 30 SAR images of RADARSAT-2 for the period between 2010-2012. Furthermore, we used the different viewing geometries and the integration of GPS data to decompose the single line-of-sight velocities into a 3-dimensional field vector by applying the SISTEM approach (Guglielmino et al. 2011). First results reveal that the atmospherically corrected data retain the deformation signal along geological structures like the Scicli-Ragusa fault whilst the standard filtering approach is canceling out these very slow deformation patterns. Simultaneously, the variability of the signal in space is diminished and thus gives more confidence on the deformation patterns observed by the SAR. Consequently, the decomposition of the line-of-sight velocities and the integration with the GPS data allows us to retrieve a more realistic deformation field.

  20. Degassing vs. eruptive styles at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): Volatile stocking, gas fluxing, and the shift from low-energy to highly-explosive basaltic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Roberto; Métrich, Nicole; Di Renzo, Valeria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; Arienzo, Ilenia

    2017-04-01

    Basaltic magmas can transport and release large amounts of volatiles into the atmosphere, especially in subduction zones, where slab-derived fluids enrich the mantle wedge. Depending on magma volatile content, basaltic volcanoes thus display a wide spectrum of eruptive styles, from common Strombolian-type activity to Plinian events. Mt. Etna in Sicily, is a typical basaltic volcano where the volatile control on such a variable activity can be investigated. Based on a melt inclusion study in products from Strombolian or lava-fountain activity to Plinian eruptions, here we show that for the same initial volatile content, different eruptive styles reflect variable degassing paths throughout the composite Etnean plumbing system. The combined influence of i) crystallization, ii) deep degassing and iii) CO2 gas fluxing can explain the evolution of H2O, CO2, S and Cl in products from such a spectrum of activity. Deep crystallization produces the CO2-rich gas fluxing the upward magma portions, which will become buoyant and easily mobilized in small gas-rich batches stored within the plumbing system. When reaching gas dominated conditions (i.e., a gas/melt mass ratio of 0.3 and CO2,gas/H2Ogas molar ratio 5 ), these will erupt effusively or mildly explosively, whilst in case of the 122 BC Plinian eruption, open-system degassing conditions took place within the plumbing system, such that continuous CO2-fluxing determined gas accumulation on top of the magmatic system. The emission of such a cap in the early eruptive phase triggered the arrival of deep H2O-rich whose fast decompression and bubble nucleation lead to the highly explosive character, enhanced by abundant microlite crystallization and consequent increase of magma effective viscosity. This could explain why open system basaltic systems like Etna may experience highly explosive or even Plinian episodes during eruptions that start with effusive to mildly explosive phases. The proposed mechanism also determines a

  1. Invading Sicily: A Tale of Branches and Sequels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Enna Nicosia Troina San Fratello Santo Stefano Reggio di Calabria Corleone Trapani MOUNT ETNA C A R O N I E M O U N T A I N S VizziniNiscemi Ragusa...have been an amphibious landing in Calabria , on the toe of Italy, behind Axis forces fleeing Sicily. Kesselring had no means of meeting such a threat...and con- fessed, “A secondary attack on Calabria would have enabled the Sicily landing to be developed into an overwhelming Allied victory.”16 But in

  2. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  3. Coastal dynamics in western Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown

  4. ERIC/IT Update, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC/IT Update, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains two issues of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology (ERIC/IT) serial publication, "Update." Each issue includes feature articles; ERIC/IT News; information about new books published in cooperation with ERIC/IT; abstracts of new ERIC Digests, with links to full-text versions of the Digests; a…

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

  6. Access Points to ERIC: An Update. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, B. J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

    This digest describes the traditional, new, and emerging points of access to the ERIC system: (1) traditional print access; (2) online access through commercial vendors; (3) CD-ROM; and (4) ERIC Digests Online. Also described are services offered by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources (ERIC/IR) that provide access to the system--ERIC…

  7. Isoleucine epimerization ages of the dwarf elephants of Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluomini, Giorgio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1985-07-01

    The isoleucine epimerization reaction has been used to date tooth enamel from dwarf elephants collected from the Sicilian caves of Spinagallo and Puntali. Elephant teeth from the Isernia la Pineta deposit in central Italy, dated at ˜700 ka by potassium-argon (K-Ar) and paleomagnetics, were used for calibration of the isoleucine epimerization rate. The ages determined for the dwarf elephants found at the Spinagallo Cave are considerably older than the more robust dwarf species found at the Puntali Cave. These dates suggest that more than one invasion of continental elephants have taken place on Sicily. The subsequent isolation of the continental species has apparently produced varying stages of dwarfism.

  8. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  9. Municipal waste management in Sicily: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Messineo, Antonio; Panno, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  10. A facies distribution model controlled by a tectonically inherited sea bottom topography in the carbonate rimmed shelf of the Upper Tithonian-Valanginian Southern Tethyan continental margin (NW Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio

    2016-08-01

    The Upper Tithonian-Valanginian shallow-water carbonates outcropping in the Palermo Mts (NW Sicily) consist of several facies associations reflecting different depositional environments of a carbonate rimmed shelf, pertaining to the Southern Tethyan continental margin. The reconstructed depositional model, based on the sedimentological features, cyclic facies arrangement and biota distribution, shows that a wide protected lagoon, dominated by algae, molluscs and scattered patch reefs, was bordered landward by a tidal flat, where stromatolitic algal mats were cyclically subaerial exposed, and seaward by a marine sand belt and reef complex. Oolitic packstone-grainstone lithofacies, cyclically subjected to subaerial exposure, suggests the occurrence of a barrier island, located nearly to the lagoonal carbonate shoreline, allowing the development of narrow embayments with restricted circulation. In the outer platform, the oolitic lithofacies of the marine sand belt pass landward into the protected lagoon, where washover oolite sands occur, and seaward into a high-energy zone (back-reef apron) gradually merging in the reef complex. In the latter, coral framestone occupied the inner sector (reef flat), while the facies association dominated by boundstone with Ellipsactinia sp. developed in the outer sectors (reef wall), adjacent to the fore-reef and upper slope environments. Stratigraphic evidence, associated with the recognized facies associations, helped to reconstruct the geo-tectonic setting of the carbonate platform, where the distribution of the depositional facies along the shelf and their extension were influenced by the tectonically-inherited sea bottom topography. In a regime of extensional tectonics, localized and thin succession of high-energy prograding oolite sand belt depositional facies occupied structural highs (footwall uplift), while the largely diffused and thick low energy aggrading peritidal-to-lagoonal depositional facies developed in subsiding

  11. ERIC as Navigator: Comments from an ERIC Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.

    This paper evaluates the online services provided by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, from the perspective of a psychology professor at Blue Ridge Community College in North Carolina. The author praises the ERIC site for its helpful links and virtual library, and also discusses ERIC's potential for a variety of users. He focuses on…

  12. Catalog of ERIC Clearinghouse Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbon, Terri, Ed.

    The "Catalog of ERIC Clearinghouse Publications" lists approximately 500 titles of publications prepared by the ERIC Clearinghouses and currently available in original copies from them. It is the equivalent of a "Books-in-Print" for the ERIC Clearinghouses. The titles listed range across the past several years. Titles are…

  13. Impacts of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes on the Etna Region (Eastern Sicily, Italy): An example of recovery and response of a small area to extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Azzaro, Raffaele; De Beni, Emanuela; Chester, David; Duncan, Angus

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we trace the impact of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes in eastern Sicily, their effects on the people living in the Etna region and, more particularly, in the city of Catania and its hinterland. The former event was the largest historic eruption of Etna, having a flow field with an area of ca. 40 km2 and a maximum flow length of ca. 17 km, whereas the latter - occurring only 24 years later - killed between 11,000 and 20,000 of Catania's estimated 20-27,000 inhabitants, plus many more in smaller settlements. Using a combination of field-based research, contemporary accounts and archival sources, the authors are able to draw a number of conclusions. First, the 1669 eruption, although it did not kill or injure, was economically the most devastating of historical eruptions. Although it affected a limited area, inundation by lava meant that land was effectively sterilized for centuries and, in a pre-industrial agriculturally-based economy, recovery could not occur quickly without outside assistance from the State. Indeed some of the worst affected municipalities (i.e. Comuni) were only able to support populations that were much reduced in size. Secondly, much of the damage caused to buildings by volcanic earthquakes was effectively masked, because most of the settlements affected were quickly covered by lava flows. The vulnerability to volcanic earthquakes of traditionally constructed buildings has, however, remained a serious example of un-ameliorated risk exposure through to the present day. A third conclusion is that the 1693 earthquakes, although more serious with respect to the number of people and the area they affected in terms of mortality, morbidity and their immediate economic impact, saw a rapid and sustained recovery. This was due in part to the fact that, in contrast to lava flows, an earthquake does not sterilize land, but more significant was the reduction in population numbers which served both to release and concentrate funds

  14. The ERIC Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Deborah Jean

    1986-01-01

    Includes an annotated bibliography of documents in the ERIC system that (1) provide insight on the value of role playing and dramatic play in the classroom and (2) suggest a variety of classroom activities that use improvisation as tool to help children retain ideas, emotions, or any academic lessons. (JD)

  15. Positive Discipline. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. Discussion focuses on: (1) 12 methods of discipline that promote self-worth; (2) the process of creating a positive climate that promotes self-discipline; (3) harmful and negative disciplinary methods; and (4)…

  16. Grabbing ERIC by the Tail: Introducing the ERIC Commissioned Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David

    2001-01-01

    Explains the origin of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) commissioned papers that appear in this journal issue that assess the ERIC program. Discusses the need to unify the system by transforming the database into a knowledge base with a unified metadata framework that would include a variety of multimedia materials. (LRW)

  17. Grabbing ERIC by the Tail: Introducing the ERIC Commissioned Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David

    2001-01-01

    Explains the origin of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) commissioned papers that appear in this journal issue that assess the ERIC program. Discusses the need to unify the system by transforming the database into a knowledge base with a unified metadata framework that would include a variety of multimedia materials. (LRW)

  18. ERIC/EECE Newsletter, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Laurel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2003 issues of the newsletter of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE). Each issue contains a feature article and one or more short articles on topics related to early childhood education, calls for papers, announcements about Internet resources, news items about and list…

  19. ERIC Data Access System (EDAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Pal V.

    The ERIC Data Access System (EDAS) is an information retrieval system developed at Eastern Illinois University to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database and make it available to Eastern faculty and students in a convenient and timely fashion. This paper describes briefly why and how Eastern developed and implemented…

  20. ERIC/IT Update, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC/IT Update, 2001

    2001-01-01

    The majority of this publication is comprised of 13 feature articles covering a wide range of topics in the areas of educational technology and library and information sciences. Also offered are related abstracts found in the ERIC Database and the latest news at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, including the publication of…

  1. The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted

    This paper begins with an overview of ERIC that provides background on the system's decentralized structure, the bibliographic database, document availability, and ERIC publications. The historical development of ERIC from the early 1960s is described and illustrated with a chronology of selected major ERIC events from 1965 to 1991 and a table…

  2. 82D Airborne Division in Sicily and Italy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-11-01

    the capture of TrAPA RI, the Comrbat Toara patrolled the city and surround- R.-E _ -T . ,. I. . ... R- ESTR I-CTED -- weII -- - y3 - di.ng areas...PTIo3 ,1t TR 1 NI, He and his staff labored cea- selesly vwith the, conc urrent nroblen--, of the coir.g operations d th0ose of rea1sscetably a.:nd re

  3. Quantifying probabilities of eruptions at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancato, Alfonso

    2010-05-01

    One of the major goals of modern volcanology is to set up sound risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard must be managed with reliable estimates of quantitative long- and short-term eruption forecasting, but the large number of observables involved in a volcanic process suggests that a probabilistic approach could be a suitable tool in forecasting. The aim of this work is to quantify probabilistic estimate of the vent location for a suitable lava flow hazard assessment at Mt. Etna volcano, through the application of the code named BET (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008). The BET_EF model is based on the event tree philosophy assessed by Newhall and Hoblitt (2002), further developing the concept of vent location, epistemic uncertainties, and a fuzzy approach for monitoring measurements. A Bayesian event tree is a specialized branching graphical representation of events in which individual branches are alternative steps from a general prior event, and evolving into increasingly specific subsequent states. Then, the event tree attempts to graphically display all relevant possible outcomes of volcanic unrest in progressively higher levels of detail. The procedure is set to estimate an a priori probability distribution based upon theoretical knowledge, to accommodate it by using past data, and to modify it further by using current monitoring data. For the long-term forecasting, an a priori model, dealing with the present tectonic and volcanic structure of the Mt. Etna, is considered. The model is mainly based on past vent locations and fracture location datasets (XX century of eruptive history of the volcano). Considering the variation of the information through time, and their relationship with the structural setting of the volcano, datasets we are also able to define an a posteriori probability map for next vent opening. For short-term forecasting vent opening hazard assessment, the monitoring has a leading role, primarily based on seismological and volcanological data, integrated with strain, geochemical, gravimetric and magnetic parameters. In the code, is necessary to fix an appropriate forecasting time window. On open-conduit volcanoes as Mt. Etna, a forecast time window of a month (as fixed in other applications worldwide) seems unduly long, because variations of the state of the volcano (significant variation of a specific monitoring parameter could occur in time scale shorter than the forecasting time window) are expected with shorter time scale (hour, day or week). This leads to set a week as forecasting time window, coherently with the number of weeks in which an unrest has been experienced. The short-term vent opening hazard assessment will be estimated during an unrest phase; the testing case (2001 July eruption) will include all the monitoring parameters collected at Mt. Etna during the six months preceding the eruption. The monitoring role has been assessed eliciting more than 50 parameters, including seismic activity, ground deformation, geochemistry, gravity, magnetism, and distributed inside the first three nodes of the procedure. Parameter values describe the Mt. Etna volcano activity, being more detailed through the code, particularly in time units. The methodology allows all assumptions and thresholds to be clearly identified and provides a rational means for their revision if new data or information are incoming. References Newhall C.G. and Hoblitt R.P.; 2002: Constructing event trees for volcanic crises, Bull. Volcanol., 64, 3-20, doi: 10.1007/s0044500100173. Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y.

  4. The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Mariangela

    2008-01-01

    Background The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. Methods This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers and in general 'experts' with herbs and 'magic' rituals. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis. Results The author has highlighted the importance of how, in some parts of Sicily, some ailments like helminthiasis and other correlated pathologies like scantu are 'treated' and, especially within the rural social classes, by folk medicine remedies, herbal practises, particular prayers, rituals and spells. Conclusion As regards health/illness, it should be noted that in the last ten years conventional medicine has provided very satisfactory results even resolving potentially mortal pathologies. However, in certain social classes, there is no real collaboration between conventional and folk medicine; so for some senior citizens, the 'healer' with his rituals and empirical and magical herbs is still the person to turn to for the 'cure' of particular ailments. Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant if the aim is to recoup a cultural identity which is already in decline. It is significant to report a piece: on 14 October 2007 the news on a well-known national Italian TV channel reported an interview with a 94 year-old man from Arbatax (Sardinia) referred to as a 'healer' because both his townspeople and others from all over the world go to him for his cures. He is not paid except in kind and has been known to cure St. Anthony's fire, burns, scalding and marine

  5. The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Mariangela

    2008-09-29

    The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers and in general 'experts' with herbs and 'magic' rituals. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis. The author has highlighted the importance of how, in some parts of Sicily, some ailments like helminthiasis and other correlated pathologies like scantu are 'treated' and, especially within the rural social classes, by folk medicine remedies, herbal practises, particular prayers, rituals and spells. As regards health/illness, it should be noted that in the last ten years conventional medicine has provided very satisfactory results even resolving potentially mortal pathologies. However, in certain social classes, there is no real collaboration between conventional and folk medicine; so for some senior citizens, the 'healer' with his rituals and empirical and magical herbs is still the person to turn to for the 'cure' of particular ailments. Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant if the aim is to recoup a cultural identity which is already in decline.It is significant to report a piece: on 14 October 2007 the news on a well-known national Italian TV channel reported an interview with a 94 year-old man from Arbatax (Sardinia) referred to as a 'healer' because both his townspeople and others from all over the world go to him for his cures. He is not paid except in kind and has been known to cure St. Anthony's fire, burns, scalding and marine fungal infections, by smearing his

  6. Active faulting in the Calabrian arc and eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Carmelo; Tortorici, Luigi

    2000-04-01

    The Calabrian arc and eastern Sicily are areas of the central Mediterranean where the effects of Quaternary tectonics are well preserved. The most impressive tectonic feature in this region is represented by a major normal fault belt that runs more or less continuously along the inner side of the Calabrian arc, extending through the Strait of Messina along the Ionian coast of Sicily as far as the Hyblean Plateau. The distinct normal fault segments within the belt, which during Pleistocene times have controlled the evolution of major marine sedimentary basins, have lengths ranging from 10 to 45 km. They exhibit huge fault scarps which defines the fronts of the main mountain ranges of the region (Catena Costiera, Aspromonte, Serre, Peloritani and Hyblean). Morphological features of fault scarps, and the age of the faulted rocks, suggest slip rates of 0.5-1.2 mm/year for the last 700 kyear (Middle Pleistocene-Holocene), reaching values of about 2.0 mm/year in the areas of active volcanism. From a seismological point a view, the Calabrian arc and eastern Sicily represent a very active area which is characterized by crustal earthquakes, the largest of which reached in the last nine centuries an intensity of X-XI (6 < M ≤ 7.4). The occurrence of intermediate and deep focus earthquakes located along the inner side of the arc, beneath the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, is associated to the existence of a slab of Ionian lithosphere. The distribution of crustal seismicity shows that most of the events which have occurred in the area, are located in the hangingwalls of the main Quaternary normal faults hence suggesting a strong relationship between seismic activity and the growth of extensional structures. Geological observations, together with seismological data, indicate that normal faulting in the area results from the development of a main rift zone, related to an overall ESE-WNW extension, which also controls the evolutionary history of the magmatism in this sector of

  7. Biting. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This column summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources, that discuss issues related to the problem of children biting in preschool. (Contains 13 annotated summaries.) (SD)

  8. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  9. Late Quaternary uplift of northeastern Sicily: relation with the active normal faulting deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Stefano; De Guidi, Giorgio

    2003-11-01

    The evaluation of the vertical displacement-rate of the Late Quaternary marine terraces along the Ionian coast of northeastern Sicily (southern Italy) has been adopted as a tool to reconstruct the Late Quaternary deformation affecting the aseismic area, intervening between the Calabrian arc and the eastern Sicily seismogenic regions. The methodology adopted, based on computer elaboration of the field data, provided the amount of the uplift recorded since 124 ka, partitioned in the time, with the resolution of the oxygen isotope timescale (OIT) stages. The main result of the analysis is the recognition of a recently deformed sector of the coast, corresponding to the area of underlap between the seismogenic faults of southern Calabria and eastern Sicily. The deformation path of the Late Quaternary shorelines is consistent with the occurrence of an active normal fault in the off-shore of the area. This tectonic feature, that crosses through a main crustal barrier, represents the link between the two sets of seismogenic faults that cut through the weakened sectors of the crust. The resulting picture clearly indicates the influence of crustal properties on the geometry of the active fault belt and on the distribution of the main seismic events along the active "Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone".

  10. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  11. Scrapie incidence and PRNP polymorphisms: rare small ruminant breeds of Sicily with TSE protecting genetic reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Migliore, Sergio; La Giglia, Maria; Alberti, Placido; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Langeveld, Jan P M

    2016-07-15

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of several mammalian species, including humans. In Italy, the active surveillance through rapid tests on brain stem from small ruminants started in 2002 on randomly selected samples of healthy slaughtered animals. Sampling number was proportionally related to the regional small ruminant population. Of the twenty Italian regions, Sicily has the second largest population of small ruminants which is mainly constituted by crossbreed animals (>70 %). Sicily contains also three native sheep breeds Pinzirita, Comisana and Valle del Belice. Native goat breeds are Girgentana, Messinese, Argentata dell'Etna, Maltese and Rossa Mediterranea. The polymorphisms of prion protein gene (PRNP) may influence disease susceptibility and breeding programs for genetic TSE resistance are being applied in sheep. Protective alleles have been recently reported for goats also. These differ from those in sheep and may allow breeding programs in the near future. In this paper the data of active surveillance for scrapie control in general population of small ruminants in Sicily are reported together with the analysis on the polymorphism of PRNP in a number of Sicilian autochthonous breeds. The evaluation of the frequency of protective alleles is fundamental for the implementation of a TSE resistance breeding program. TSE surveillance in small ruminants in Sicily showed a of total fifty seven scrapie outbreaks from 1997 to 2014 involving mainly crossbreed animals. The PRNP polymorphism analysis in autochthonous breeds showed protective allele frequencies of 30-40 % ARR in sheep and 12-18 % K222 in three of the four goat breeds; these breeds are distributed over limited areas of the island. The study on PRNP polymorphisms in Sicilian small ruminant population showed higher frequency of the protective alleles compared to most other European breeds. Our results suggest that PRNP genetic variety in Sicilian sheep

  12. ERIC Digests: An Annotated Bibliography of All ERIC Digests Announced in the ERIC Database through March 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Elizabeth, Comp.; Brandhorst, Ted, Comp.

    Digests prepared by clearinghouses of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) began to emerge seriously in 1984 as one of the most desirable and popular products of the various clearinghouses. Although ERIC Digests were not initially listed in the ERIC database because of their brevity, today they are entered routinely. This…

  13. Data Entry. ERIC Processing Manual, Section IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Carolyn R., Ed.

    Documents and journal articles acquired by the ERIC Clearinghouses are processed (cataloged, indexed, abstracted/annotated) for retrieval and use by the educational community. The bibliographic data resulting from this processing are provided by the ERIC Clearinghouses on a regular basis to the ERIC Processing and Reference Facility. The ERIC…

  14. Cataloging. ERIC Processing Manual, Section V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Carolyn R., Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for ERIC catalogers and editors engaged in capturing bibliographic data for the documents and journal articles entered into the ERIC database. A general discussion of the principles of ERIC cataloging, definitions used, use of mandatory vs. optional data elements, etc. is provided in the Introduction. The body…

  15. ERIC User Services Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O., Comp.

    This manual explains how the user services functions, usually performed by a User Services Coordinator, can be conducted in the 16 ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouses and the various adjunct ERIC Clearinghouses. It provides guidelines, suggestions, and examples of how ERIC components currently perform the user services…

  16. The ERIC Search: A Programmed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Cynthia; Arnold, Joann

    This text is intended as a guide for searching ERIC using the SilverPlatter CD-ROM database. The text describes the content and function of the ERIC database and demonstrates fundamental search techniques by following an example of a successful ERIC computer search. The search begins with the choice of a topic, the formulation of a search…

  17. ERIC Education Library's New Look Debuts Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the newly revamped version of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), the nation's largest electronic education library. ERIC made its debut last September with promises of more offerings to come from the federal project. In the move to upgrade and streamline ERIC, the Department of Education shut down the 16…

  18. Information for Education Writers from ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Charles H.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system provides information to education writers for newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. ERIC can be used to find the names of reliable sources in a given field, as well as background information for an in-depth article or broadcast. The ERIC collection of documents on microfiche is…

  19. How to Use Eric. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Louise

    This booklet defines the ERIC system and gives directions on the use of "Research in Education." It also tells about the Eric Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), its use, and its products. In addition, it tells what types of materials ERIC Clearinghouses process. A list of the 19 Clearinghouses, with a description of their specific interests and…

  20. Acquisitions. ERIC Processing Manual, Section II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Grace, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for the process of acquiring documents to be considered for inclusion in the ERIC database. The differing responsibilities of the Government, the ERIC Clearinghouses, and the ERIC Facility are delineated. The various methods by which documentary material can be obtained are described and preferences outlined.…

  1. [Psychiatric institutions in the regno delle due Sicilie].

    PubMed

    Leoni, F

    1993-01-01

    Before 1510 there wasn't a single hospital in Southern Italy which took in mental patients, with the possible exception of L'ospedale degli Incurabili, which in any case dealt with other kinds of illnesses as well. Finally, in 1813 the decision was taken to found an institution in the city of Aversa which would deal exclusively with mental patients. This institution was put under the control of Giovanni Maria Linguiti. He took care of all patients using his therapeutic methods, with such excellent results that his reputation spread outside the kingdom. In 1816 in Sicily, an attempt was made to repeat the success of Aversa, but not until 1824 was it decided that L'ospizio di Santa Teresa should care for mental patients. Don Pietro Pisani was delegated to coordinate that hospital and, in 1827, he published a number of theories and guidelines concerning mental healthcare similar to those of Linguiti. In December 1864 a Royal Decree forced through parliament a statute which laid down the rules for the reorganization of these hospitals. Finally in August 1874, after numerous financial difficulties and struggles between political bodies and health service management, a Royal Decree was established and a new guiding statute was passed.

  2. Risk assessment of treated municipal wastewater reuse in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Rosa; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Consoli, Simona; Licciardello, Feliciana; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, the restrictive approach for treated wastewater reuse in agriculture has led to some difficulties in promoting this practice. In order to assess the health risk associated with the use of wastewater in agriculture, an experiment was conducted in an open field near the constructed wetland (CW) system of San Michele di Ganzaria (Eastern Sicily), during the irrigation seasons 2004-2009. In particular the impact on tomato crops of drip and sub-drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater, as well as effects of wastewater reuse on the irrigation system, main production features, hydrological soil behaviour, and microbial soil and products contamination were investigated. Notwithstanding the fact that globally CW effluents did not match microbiological standards for wastewater reuse of Italian legislation, the median infection risk (function of the recommended tolerable additional disease burden of 10(-6) DALY (disability-adjusted life year) loss per person per year) suggested by the 2006 World Health Organization Guidelines for rotavirus, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium for lettuce irrigation under unrestricted irrigation scenario was achieved.

  3. The surface circulation in the Sicily Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ismail, S.; Gana, S.; Sammari, C.

    Six hydrological cruises March April May July August and October were realized in the section between Cap- Bon and Mazara Dell Vallo during 2003 our section covers only the half of the Channel The analysis of thermohaline parameters the daily composites NOAA AVHRR images and the satellite track of drifter buoys allowed us to confirm that the AW inflowing into the Sicily Channel circulates along two principal ways The first one is anticlockwise along the continental slope The second is in the central part of the channel and its trajectory is more complicated and follows a multiple vortex structures This circulation is permanent between Tunisia and Sicily and presents a very high variability The incoming AW is in general warmer than resident water and remained close to the Tunisian slope The analysis of all this data confirms the necessity to complete those results by altimetric and thermohaline data in extended area around the strait This allows us to better estimate the water masses transport across the Sicily Channel

  4. Glossary of Terms (with Acronym List). ERIC Processing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.; And Others

    This Glossary contains an alphabetic list of some 291 terms used in the ERIC Processing Manual (EPM) or in connection with the generation of the ERIC database and the work of the ERIC Clearinghouses and other ERIC contractors. Each term is defined as it is used in the ERIC context. Appended to the Glossary is a list of 203 commonly-appearing…

  5. China's Vocational Universities. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Anning

    This ERIC Digest describes the development and characteristics of vocational universities (VUs) in China. In response to the demand for increased numbers of trained technical workers in the 1980's, VUs developed and the higher vocational education system in China was reformed. Currently, 101 vocational universities are in existence in China. These…

  6. The Wired Campus. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This ERIC Digest examines some of the trends and issues in academic information systems design and describes the policies of several universities that are taking creative advantage of these systems as educational tools. The current emphasis on microcomputers in campus information networks instead of terminals connected to a mainframe computer is…

  7. Grandma Moses Meets Eric Carle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This activity features artwork by "Grandma Moses" in which children will learn the picture plane in terms of foreground, middle ground, and background. The teacher also introduces the children to Eric Carle's colorful collaged images in his books. Using the two artists' methods, children experimented and invented new techniques and colors. As the…

  8. The Only Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Karen

    Smaller families in general (including the one-child option) are becoming more popular. This ERIC Digest focuses on changing trends in family size, reasons for choosing to have only one child, differences between only children and those with siblings, and the advantages of being an only child. Changing family patterns, economic concerns, and new…

  9. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  10. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  11. Teaching about Oceans. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This ERIC Digest is designed for teachers in grades K-12 to share a rationale for teaching about oceans and briefly introduce the kinds of resources available to assist with such efforts. Topics include: (1) Why teach about oceans?; (2) Where can I get resources for teaching about the ocean?; (3) Who is doing marine education in my area?; (4) What…

  12. On Standardized Testing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Vito

    This ERIC Digest was adapted from the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) 1991 position paper on standardized testing. Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk" in 1983, standardized testing programs have expanded greatly. Tests may be of pencil-and-paper or performance-oriented varieties. The purposes of tests…

  13. Infant Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    This ERIC Digest briefly reviews studies of maternal employment, child care settings, and links between children's development and family and child care influences. Studies of maternal employment suggest that infants' positive relationships with caregivers may compensate for insecure attachments with mothers. If future research supports this…

  14. Grandma Moses Meets Eric Carle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This activity features artwork by "Grandma Moses" in which children will learn the picture plane in terms of foreground, middle ground, and background. The teacher also introduces the children to Eric Carle's colorful collaged images in his books. Using the two artists' methods, children experimented and invented new techniques and colors. As the…

  15. The Shy Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marion C.; Van Trieste, Karen

    This ERIC digest: (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness among children; (2) briefly reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness; (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness; and (4) suggests ways for parents and teachers to help the shy child by accepting the whole child, building…

  16. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  17. Teaching about Ecosystems. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    Ecosystems are available to educators as interactive units and as such the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the Excellence in Environmental Education: Guidelines for Learning (EEE) put considerable emphasis on ecosystems. This ERIC Digest describes the NSES and EEE guidelines for grades 5-8 and 9-12 to provide a basic ecosystem…

  18. Invite ERIC into Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durling, Janet

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of some ideas gleaned from ERIC by a professor in Australia and suggestions for use of the system by teachers and schools. Cultural materials, games, techniques used by other teachers, and resumes of journal articles are among the items discussed. (AMH)

  19. Surface denudation rate of gypsum in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Studies on surface denudation rate of karst rocks were carried out for many years with different methods, although researches on limestones are much more numerous than those on gypsum. In Sicily the most large and complete Messinian evaporite succession of Gruppo Gessoso - Solfifero outcrops and since 1993-1994 surface denudation measurements were performed on different types of gypsum by the Micro-Erosion Meter (M.E.M.) method. MEM stations were placed on natural sites representing different lithological features of gypsum outcrops of the Island: 1) selenite gypsum with centimetre-sized crystals; 2) selenite gypsum with sub-centimetre crystals; 3) gypsum arenite; 4) microcrystalline gypsum; and 5) gypsum laminite (balatino type). The measuring stations are positioned in three localities in western and central Sicily: Santa Ninfa (Trapani), Ciminna (Palermo) and Campofranco (Caltanissetta). The average lowering rates vary in the different lithofacies: from 0.25 mm yr-1 in microcrystalline gypsum to 0.74 mm yr-1 in selenite gypsum with centimetre-sized crystals. The average surface denudation rates are 0.40 mm yr-1 in balatino gypsum and gypsum arenite, and 0.37 mm yr-1 in selenite gypsum with sub-centimetre crystals. These different values are connected to several factors such as: rock texture, dip of gypsum surfaces, climatic conditions, troubles on the measurement sites (e.g.: presence of lichens, soil, remains of vegetation, etc.). The aim of this paper is to show the results of roughly twenty years of experimental measurements, and to compare the surface denudation rate of gypsum in Sicily with those of other evaporite areas characterised by different climatic settings.

  20. Magnetic signature of the Sicily Channel volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodolo, E.; Civile, D.; Zanolla, C.; Geletti, R.

    2012-03-01

    Widespread Late Miocene to Quaternary volcanic activity is know to have occurred in the Sicily Channel continuing up to historical time. New magnetic anomaly data acquired in the Pantelleria Graben, one of the three main tectonic depressions forming the WNW-trending Sicily Channel rift system, integrated with available profiles, are used to identify and map volcanic bodies in this sector of the northern African margin. Some of these manifestations, both outcropping at the sea-floor or buried beneath a variable thickness of Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover, have been imaged by seismic reflection profiles. Three main positive magnetic anomalies have been found: to the S-E of the Pantelleria Island, the largest emerged caldera of the Sicily Channel, along the eastern margin of the Nameless Bank, and at the north-western termination of the Linosa Graben. Only the anomaly located off the south-eastern coast of the Pantelleria Island, associated with a large outcropping body gradually buried beneath a substantially undisturbed Upper Pliocene-Quaternary sediments, aligns with the trend of the tectonic depression. 2-D geophysical models produced along seismic transects perpendicularly crossing the Pantelleria Graben have allowed to derive its deep crustal structure, and detect the presence of buried magmatic bodies which generate the anomalies. Marginal faults seem to have played a major role in focussing magma emplacement in this sector of the Sicily Channel. The other anomalies represent off-axis volcanic episodes and generally do not show evident magmatic manifestations at the sea-floor. These magnetic maxima seem to follow a NNE-SSW-trending belt extending from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, where pre-existing crustal anisotropies may have conditioned magma emplacement both at deep and shallow crustal levels. In general, data analysis has shown that there is a structural control on magma emplacement, with the major magmatic features located in specific locations

  1. Serologic and molecular characterization of Anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from Sicily.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Torina, Alessandra; Caracappa, Santo; Tumino, Giovanni; Furlá, Roberto; Almazán, Consuelo; Kocan, Katherine M

    2005-11-05

    Although Anaplasma marginale was known to be endemic in Italy, the diversity of Anaplasma spp. from this area have not been characterized. In this study, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. antibodies in randomly selected farm animals collected on the island of Sicily was determined by use of a MSP5 cELISA for Anaplasma spp. and an immunofluorescence test specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Genetic variation among strains of Anaplasma spp. from animals and ticks was characterized using the A. marginale msp1alpha and the Anaplasma spp. msp4 genes. Eight species of ticks were collected and tested by PCR. Seropositivity for Anaplasma spp. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in bovine and ovine samples. All the donkeys were seropositive for A. phagocytophilum but not for Anaplasma spp. Four A. marginale genotypes were identified by msp4 sequences from bovine and tick samples. Two new genotypes of Anaplasma ovis were characterized in sheep. The sequences of A. phagocytophilum from three donkeys proved to be identical to the sequence of the MRK equine isolate from California. Six A. marginale genotypes were found in cattle and one tick using the A. marginale msp1alpha sequences. All genotypes had four repeated sequences in the N-terminal portion of the MSP1a, except for one that had five repeats. The Italian strains of A. marginale contained three repeat sequences that were not reported previously. Definition of the diversity of Anaplasma spp. in Sicily reported, herein is fundamental to development of control strategies for A. marginale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum in Sicily.

  2. Perception of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of epilepsy among teachers and high school and college students in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Buccheri, Teresa; Quattropani, Maria C

    2015-12-01

    The study was aimed at investigating perception of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of epilepsy among college students of the University of Messina in Sicily (Italy), high school students, and teachers from Sicily in order to structure health educational programs to remediate inadequate knowledge and stigma about epilepsy. Participants in this study consisted of 932 subjects (571 males, 361 females) aged between 13 and 63 years old (M 21.75 ± 8.7): 571 college students aged between 18 and 35 years old (M 21.54 ± 2.59), 62 teachers aged between 38 and 63 years old (M 51.18 ± 6.27), and 299 high school students aged between 13 and 19 years old (M 16.05 ± 1.67). Measures were two anonymous questionnaires to collect sociodemographic information and to assess knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perception of epilepsy. Analyses were performed with descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, frequency counts, and percentages) and Mann-Whitney U-test nonparametric for two independent samples. This study provides general information about psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Sicily which provides the basis for further studies and the development of interventions to eliminate prejudices against persons with epilepsy and related myths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Groundwater Nitrate Contamination Risk Assessment in Canicattì area (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Cusimano, Gioacchino; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    Groundwaters play a dominant role in the Sicily, because as most part of Mediterranean countries this island is interested by the phenomenon of desertification and the quality of the groundwater reservoir is one of the most important aim for the management policy strategies. During last decade most of the Italian regions the nitrate levels in river and groundwaters have increased gradually over mainly as a consequence of large-scale agricultural application of manure and fertilizers, thereby threatening drinking water quality. The excessive use of chemicals and fertilizers increases the risk to pollution of surface and groundwater from diffuse source, an important reflex to human health and the environment. The studied area is located in Canicattì (central Sicily, Italy), the current land use (grape, olive grove and almond) is the main source of groundwater pollution. In order to investigate the effect of the over farming on the groundwater quality we report the study on the potential risk of contamination from nitrate of agricultural origin through the join of the application of two parametric methods: the IPNOA method (the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk from Agricultural sources) applied to define the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and the SINTACS method applied to determine the aquifer vulnerability to contamination.

  4. Numerical simulation of dike ascent below Etna and the Hyblean plateau, Sicily.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Marco; Rivalta, Eleonora; Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2017-04-01

    Mt. Etna in Italy is an active intraplate volcano whose melting source has been debated. The ideal model should adequately explain the location of Mt. Etna, offset by several tens of km from the proposed asthenospheric tear below the Malta Escarpment (ME), address the earlier Hyblean volcanism more to the south, and explain the overall northward migration over time of the eastern Sicilian volcanism. We simulate numerically magma pathways in eastern Sicily from Moho depth to surface, accounting for regional tectonics and crustal decompression due to the deepening of the ME. Our models show that the overall northward migration of volcanism and the shorter-term westward migration of the eruptive vents within the Hyblean and Etnean phases may arise from variations in the ratio of tectonic extension (or compression) stress to crustal decompression, σT/Pu. If variations consistent with the stress history of Eastern Sicily are considered, a melt pooling region located below the ME may be reconciled with the location of both the Hyblean and Etnean surface volcanism and with the orientation of feeder dikes in the field. Our results show that evaluating the variations in the stress history of the crust may be critical to explain intraplate volcanism and its wandering.

  5. Geomagnetic secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, J. C.; Bucur, I.; Thompson, J. F. C.

    1985-12-01

    The variation of geomagnetic field direction in Sicily during the past 700 yr has tentatively been determined using lavas of known date from Mount Etna1. Additional palaeomagnetic studies on several hundred volcanic samples, combined with archaeomagnetic investigations carried out on Norman buildings, have improved the previous results and permit a reconstruction of the geomagnetic variation curve to about AD 1000. This curve agrees well with those obtained for other European countries2-6 and may be used as a reference for checking the ages attributed to archaeological structures as well as volcanic products in southern Italy during the past 1,000 yr. The present results cast serious doubts on the true ages of numerous historically dated lavas from Mount Etna, most of which are at least several centuries older than previously believed. The conclusions have implications for the succession of eruptions, effusion rates, magmatic evolution, and so on, and demonstrate the inconsistency of eruptive models based on historical records alone.

  6. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in

  7. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives.

    PubMed

    Stöck, Matthias; Sicilia, Alessandra; Belfiore, Natalia M; Buckley, David; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Lo Valvo, Mario; Arculeo, Marco

    2008-02-23

    Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in sympatry in northern

  8. Isonymy and the genetic structure of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, A; Pavesi, A; Scapoli, C; Conterio, F; Siri, G; Barrai, I

    1994-01-01

    The genetic structure of Sicily was analysed through the distribution of surnames of 758,793 users registered in the Italian Telephone Company, corresponding to 371 communes of the island. Estimates of the coefficient of consanguinity due to random isonymy, of Fisher's a, an indicator of abundance of surnames, and of Karlin-McGregor's v, an indicator of immigration rates, were obtained for each commune. Four different estimates of genetic distance between all possible pairs of communes within each province were also obtained, and their relationship with geographic distance was studied. The logarithmic transformation of Lasker's coefficient of relationship showed correlations with the log of geographic distance which range between -0.78 and -0.40; the strongest, for the province of Catania, was attributed to the presence of Mount Etna, and the weakest, for Palermo, to the high population density of this province.

  9. Perspectives on ERIC and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Susan Imel is retired from Ohio State University. From December 1981 until December 2003, she was the Adult Education Specialist at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education and Director from 1987 through 2003. This essay begins with a brief overview of the ERIC system including goals for the clearinghouses, followed by a…

  10. Elementary and Secondary Teachers Use ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dale W.; And Others

    The experiences with ERIC which are profiled for three public school systems reflect specific user requirements in different environments. In "Meeting Professional Education Information Needs: A Profile of How the Alexandria, Virginia City Public Schools Use the ERIC System," Dale Brown discusses the types of searches used by…

  11. Faculty: ERIC Trends, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Educational Research Information Center (ERIC) Trends are analyses of higher education literature contained in the ERIC database, describing major concerns in institutional practice. There has been little real change in the literature on faculty in the last 5 years. Workload for faculty remains higher than many professions, and faculty often…

  12. A Profile of ERIC Microfiche Collection Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Eleanor V.

    Data is presented on 254 standing order customers (SOC's) representing 47 percent of those sites or organizations which have placed orders or subscriptions with the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) to receive, on a regular and continuous basis, the entire microfiche output. ERIC SOC's were asked…

  13. Perspectives on ERIC and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Susan Imel is retired from Ohio State University. From December 1981 until December 2003, she was the Adult Education Specialist at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education and Director from 1987 through 2003. This essay begins with a brief overview of the ERIC system including goals for the clearinghouses, followed by a…

  14. How To Conduct a Search Through ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    This 24-page booklet is the third component in a set of instructional materials related to the purposes, organization, and uses of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center). The booklet is designed to instruct the reader in ways of using the comprehensive ERIC indexing system in the search for information or materials relevant to his needs.…

  15. Genetic models of poljes in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological and geological studies have been carried out to contribute to the recognition of controlling causes and to the definition of genetic models for poljes of Sicily. A polje is a kilometric closed depression developed mainly on karst rocks, with a conspicuously flat and alluviated bottom affected by intermittent flooding. A polje is usually characterised by relatively steep slopes enclosing an almost perfectly horizontal floor, caused by lateral solution planation related to flooding events. The origin of a polje is due to dissolution of the land surface, although geological structure generally influences its genesis. These large depressions are often elongated according to the direction of main faults, in consequence of a control due to tectonics or to differential erosion. The performed researches have shown the existence of at least seven poljes located along the north-western (chain zone) and the southern (deformed foredeep zone) areas of Sicily. These large karst depressions are developed on Mesozoic limestone/dolomitic rocks within the chain zone and on Messinian gypsum rocks within the deformed foredeep zone. They are up to 4 km in length, can reach surfaces of 3-8 km2 and are around hundred metres deep, with steep slopes and a flat bottom. Generally, they are open, occasionally active depressions and their genesis seems to be strongly controlled by structure. In particular, the studied poljes occur in two different geological/geomorphological settings: a) in graben-like tectonic depressions, where important fault slopes/scarps border the flat bottom; b) in complex depressions controlled by structure, where wide fault line slopes/scarps or large inclined degraded structural surfaces mark the poljes. Finally, landscape analysis leads to the proposition of two main genetic models in which the development of poljes is primarily due to tectonics or differential erosion followed by dissolution.

  16. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education; Publications, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    Beginning with general information on the scope and subject coverage of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education (ERIC/AE) and on principal periodicals covering the literature, this annotated bibliography lists 74 literature reviews, research registers, ERIC/AE current and basic information sources, Central ERIC and Government Printing Office…

  17. Quick Guide to ERIC Tools for the Graduate Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This collection serves as a quick guide to Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) tools graduate students may find useful. The guide contains example screens and information on each of these: (1) ACCESS ERIC Home Page, the hub of the ERIC system, which links to all Clearinghouses and support components; (2) the ERIC system slide show home…

  18. The changing phenotype of iodine deficiency disorders: a review of thirty-five years of research in north-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Sturniolo, Giacomo; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) still represent a major public health problem, with almost 30% of the world population being exposed to the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency (ID). In Italy, despite a sustained policy of iodine prophylaxis, more than 10% of people is still affected with goiter, and a presumably higher rate of subjects may suffer from minor cognitive deficits due to inadequate iodine supply during antenatal life. This review of systematic observational studies carried out over thirty-five years (1980-2015) in a sentinel ID area in North-eastern Sicily highlights the changing phenotypes of IDD in this region. Over the years profound improvements in nutritional iodine status in North-eastern Sicily has occurred, due to both silent and active iodine prophylaxis. Endemic cretinism, resulting from severe iodine deficiency, has been progressively replaced by less serious deficits of intellectual and cognitive abilities, which nevertheless deserve proper attention.

  19. Crustal structure and deformation across a mature slab tear zone: the case of southern Tyrrhenian subduction (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Di Bona, Massimo; Govoni, Aladino; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    We compute S velocity profiles of the crust across the Messina Strait (Italy), the tear zone at the southern end of the Ionian subduction zone. Separating Sicily from Calabria, the Messina Strait hosted some of the strongest earthquakes to ever occur in Italy. Here the motion of the Ionian slab with respect to Sicily creates a complex tectonic setting characterized by lithospheric tearing. We show velocity models of the crust, computed from teleseismic receiver function inversion, outlining the differences between Sicily and Calabria. Strong deformation across the Messina Strait between 10-15 and 30 km depth is expressed by strong anisotropy (up to 10%), developed in a ductile shear zone of the crust. The top of these ductile weaker layers could limit the depth extent of future ruptures.

  20. Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scirè, Salvatore; Ciliberto, Enrico; Crisafulli, Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Ventura, Giancarlo Della

    2011-08-01

    Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (μ-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic tails consisting of a few C atoms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the occurrence of minor S═O (either sulphonyl or sulphoxide) functional groups in the OM. Solubility tests in toluene, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses confirm the presence of asphaltene structures. It is proposed that asphaltenes derive from the in situ aromatization (with decrease in H/C ratio) of previous light aliphatic hydrocarbons. Field evidence excludes that hydrocarbon from an external source percolated through the xenolith bearing tuff-breccia. The discriminating presence of hydrocarbon in a particular type of xenolith only and the lack of hydrocarbon in the host breccia matrix, are also inconsistent with an interaction between the ascending eruptive system and a supposed deep-seated oil reservoir. Assuming that the Hyblean unexposed basement consists of mantle ultramafics and mafic intrusive rocks having hosted an early abyssal-type hydrothermal system, one can put forward the hypothesis that the hydrocarbon production was related to hydrothermal activity in a serpentinite system. Although a bacteriogenesis or thermogenesis cannot be ruled out, the coexisting serpentine, Ni-Fe ores and hydrocarbon strongly suggest a Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis. Subsequent variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the system, for example an increase in the water/rock ratio, gave rise to partial oxidation and late carbonation of the serpentinite

  1. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  2. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  3. Two new freshwater eutardigrade species from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

    2015-02-11

    Two new species of freshwater Eutardigrada are described from Sicily: Isohypsibius rusticus sp. nov. and Isohypsibius zappalai sp. nov. The former species has eye spots, ornamented body surface with many, variously sized tubercles; bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Isohypsibius type; pharyngeal bulb with apophyses and two rod-shaped macroplacoids; microplacoid absent; claws, of the Isohypsibius type, well developed, with long and thin common basal portion; main branches of all claws without free accessory points; very thin lunules present; cuticular bars on the legs absent. Isohypsibius zappalai sp. nov. has eye spots; entire body surface with small tubercles rounded in shape, fairly uniformly sized and tending to form transverse lines; bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Isohypsibius type, pharyngeal bulb with apophyses and two macroplacoids; microplacoid absent; claws of the Isohypsibius type, well developed, with long common basal portion and both main and secondary branches with a wide proximal portion. Main branches of all claws with accessory points; small, flexible lunules present; cuticular bars on the legs absent.

  4. Adolescents: Your Children and Mine. ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demo, Mary Penasack

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 10 items from the ERIC collection covering various aspects of adolescence: the impact of pop music, attitudes about drinking, television viewing, the effect of the new morality, the adolescent learning process, popular books, attitudes toward school, and others. (JMF)

  5. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  6. Patriotism: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of nine items from the ERIC database on the subject of patriotism. Includes articles on such topics as Americanism, citizenship education, and environmentalism. Explains how to obtain copies of the documents. (SG)

  7. Women's Suffrage: A Sampler of ERIC Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the resources available from the ERIC System on issues related to women's suffrage and women's rights. Includes an annotated bibliography of six resources, including lesson plans and historiography reviews. (CFR)

  8. Patriotism: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of nine items from the ERIC database on the subject of patriotism. Includes articles on such topics as Americanism, citizenship education, and environmentalism. Explains how to obtain copies of the documents. (SG)

  9. Early Childhood Curricula. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources that describe, evaluate, or compare various curricula or instructional methods, such as Creative Curriculum, High/Scope, the Montessori Method, Waldorf Schools, and Direct Instruction. (Author)

  10. ERIC/EECE Report: Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Brad

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes five documents and four articles in the ERIC database that examine parents' involvement in their children's education. Topics include strategies for better parenting, school readiness, increasing parent involvement, and parent education programs. (MDM)

  11. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  12. Instructional Materials on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Part Two. Information Sheets on ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    This set of information sheets on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is designed for use by persons responsible for instructing potential ERIC users and contributors. Adaptable for reproduction as overhead projection transparencies, the sheets are classified in two dimensions to provide for greater flexibility. The set of 50…

  13. ERIC Clearinghouse Scope of Interest Guide. ERIC Processing Manual, Appendix A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.; And Others

    This guide identifies and describes the subject areas covered by the ERIC Clearinghouses. Each Clearinghouse scope statement is provided in the following three-part format: (1) Formal Statement--A comprehensive and detailed description of the scope areas, mainly for use by the ERIC Facility in assigning documents (on the basis of their subject…

  14. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    SL3-87-355 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emanating from its crest. (The altitude is approximate because the height of the volcano changes with each eruption). On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of color infrared film in which vegetation appears red. This is very evident on the slopes of Etna, in the Monti Nebrodi area at upper let, and in the local areas in the lower part of the picture. Studies of Mount Etna and related volcanic features will be undertaken by Professor Roberto Cassinis of Servizio Geologio d?Italia, Rome. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Incidence of Crohn's disease and CARD15 mutation in a small township in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Cottone, M; Renda, M C; Mattaliano, A; Oliva, L; Fries, W; Criscuoli, V; Modesto, I; Scimeca, D; Maggio, A; Casà, A; Maisano, S; Mocciaro, F; Sferrazza, A; Orlando, A

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been shown to be lower in Southern than in Northern Europe. Data on the frequency of the NOD2/CARD15 mutations for Mediterranean area are very scant. To determine the incidence of CD from 1979 to 2002 in a township in Sicily together with the allele frequency of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in patients, family members and controls, and to determine the allele frequency of these mutations in sporadic CD from other areas of Sicily in comparison with a control population. Casteltermini is a small town close to Agrigento (Sicily) with a population of 9,130 inhabitants. All the diagnoses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) made from 1979 to 2002 were obtained through the local health authority. NOD2/CARD15 mutations were studied in 23 out of the 29 patients with CD in Casteltermini, in 60 family members and in 64 controls. NOD2/CARD15 was also studied in 80 sporadic cases of CD disease among Sicilians outside Casteltermini and 118 healthy controls. From 1979 to 2002, 29 patients with CD and 13 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were registered. The 6-year mean incidence of CD ranged from 8.0 to 17 new cases for every 100,000 inhabitants, whereas the mean incidence of UC ranged from five new cases to 7.8 for every 100,000 inhabitants. The allele frequencies of NOD2/CARD15 mutations (L1007finsC, G908R, R702W) were 8.7, 4.3 and 8.7%, respectively, in CD cases; 5.0, 4.2 and 3.1% in family members; 1.6, 2.3 and 3.1% in controls. In sporadic Sicilian CD patients outside Casteltermini the allele frequency was 7.5, 8.1, 6.2% whereas in control population it was 3.3, 1.6, 1.6%. A high incidence of CD compared with UC was observed in this small town in Southern Italy. The frequency of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in CD is similar to other Caucasian population studied so far.

  16. Mt. Etna, Sicily as seen from STS-62

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-05

    STS062-85-195 (4-18 March 1994) --- A thin plume of steam blows southward from the summit of Mt. Etna, the active volcano on the island of Sicily. The summit is capped with snow but the dark lava flow along the eastern flank (the 1991-93 flow) is clearly visible. The coastal city south of Etna is Catania.

  17. Reminiscences from the Field: The Continuing Story of ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colker, Laura J.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) was born in the mid-1960s and is today the world's largest and most popular educational database. The history of ERIC's early development has been told in Del Trester's 1981 narrative, "ERIC--The First Fifteen Years: 1964-1979, A History of the Educational Resources Information Center."…

  18. ERIC User Services: Changes and Evaluation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) user services and evaluation efforts of them. Identifies changes that would increase ERIC's competitive edge in the networked environment and recommends an evaluation framework for ERIC to monitor progress to its strategic goals. (LRW)

  19. Document Preparation (for Filming). ERIC Processing Manual, Appendix B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.; And Others

    The technical report or "fugitive" literature collected by ERIC is produced using a wide variety of printing techniques, many formats, and variable degrees of quality control. Since the documents processed by ERIC go on to be microfilmed and reproduced in microfiche and paper copy for sale to users, it is essential that the ERIC document…

  20. ERIC User Services: Changes and Evaluation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) user services and evaluation efforts of them. Identifies changes that would increase ERIC's competitive edge in the networked environment and recommends an evaluation framework for ERIC to monitor progress to its strategic goals. (LRW)

  1. Summary of the Presentation "ERIC: How Can It Help Me?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Peter A.

    This is a summary of a presentation on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). The presentation provided information on how the user can gain access to the ERIC microfiche collection at libraries throughout the United States, and to reprints through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS). Use of the Thesaurus of ERIC…

  2. Tectonic expression of an active slab tear from high-resolution seismic and bathymetric data offshore Sicily (Ionian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, Marc-André; Dominguez, Stephane; Lepinay, Bernard Mercier; Pinheiro, Luis; Gallais, Flora; Babonneau, Nathalie; Cattaneo, Antonio; Le Faou, Yann; Barreca, Giovanni; Micallef, Aaron; Rovere, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Subduction of a narrow slab of oceanic lithosphere beneath a tightly curved orogenic arc requires the presence of at least one lithospheric scale tear fault. While the Calabrian subduction beneath southern Italy is considered to be the type example of this geodynamic setting, the geometry, kinematics and surface expression of the associated lateral, slab tear fault offshore eastern Sicily remain controversial. Results from a new marine geophysical survey conducted in the Ionian Sea, using high-resolution bathymetry and seismic profiling reveal active faulting at the seafloor within a 140 km long, two-branched fault system near Alfeo Seamount. The previously unidentified 60 km long NW trending North Alfeo Fault system shows primarily strike-slip kinematics as indicated by the morphology and steep-dipping transpressional and transtensional faults. Available earthquake focal mechanisms indicate dextral strike-slip motion along this fault segment. The 80 km long SSE trending South Alfeo fault system is expressed by one or two steeply dipping normal faults, bounding the western side of a 500+ m thick, 5 km wide, elongate, syntectonic Plio-Quaternary sedimentary basin. Both branches of the fault system are mechanically capable of generating magnitude 6-7 earthquakes like those that struck eastern Sicily in 1169, 1542, and 1693.

  3. An Overview of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills. ERIC/RCS White Paper No. 1 (1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is a national network of 16 specialized clearinghouses and several central ERIC service facilities, each of which is charged with enhancing the ERIC database of educational resources by identifying hard-to-find materials including research reports, curriculum guides, conference papers,…

  4. Erice: its past and present roles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    In the depths of the cold war there were few places where it was possible, let alone acceptable, to discuss global problems and their solution. Erice provided such a venue. Prof. Zichichi built it by inviting friends of international statue to visit Erice to discuss fundamental problems in science, technology, and society. Gradually the discussions were broadened to the more sensitive issues of global war and its consequences, which ranged from strategic forces and their stability to missile defenses and their impacts. Erice was one of the few places that these problems and their possible solutions could be discussed in a dispassionate and productive manner. Much of the reason these discussions remained objective and productive was Prof. Zichichi's 'gentle' prodding of participants towards a useful solution that all could accept. All was not deadly serious. I often accompanied Dr. Teller to the meetings, which he enjoyed enormously because they recalled the free-wheeling discussions he participated in when quantum physics was in its infancy. It was also pleasant to see him interact with Prof. Lee, who still gave Dr. Teller the deference due his old professor, and Dr. Garwin, who had worked with Dr. Teller in Los Alamos. By the end of the cold war Erice was recognized as a valuable site for such discussions. Perhaps for that reason, when the transfer of power in the Soviet Union evolved into an attempted coup, President Yeltsin sent a large contingent of scientists in his own plane to participate in the Erice seminar. It soon appeared that this contingent was not chosen randomly, but might contain many of the scientists who knew their missile launch codes. Despite their senior status, they quickly proved themselves to be competent scientists and enthusiastic participants. A by product to that interaction developed the following year when the Russian economy faltered and its science needed external support lest nuclear scientists leave Russia. U.S. scientific

  5. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  6. Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates using ERIC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Andrade, Giovanna Ivo; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2011-12-15

    Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious sheep and goats disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and characterized by abscesses in superficial and visceral lymph nodes. C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from these hosts have been shown to be very difficult to type by the existing methods. The aim of this study is evaluating the potential of the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated in sheep. One hundred and twenty seven isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis were isolated from lesions suspected to have had caseous lymphadenitis collected from sheep at the slaughterhouse. Animals were from 24 flocks in 13 municipalities of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Species identification of the isolates was performed by routine biochemical tests and mPCR. Fingerprint was performed by RAPD using ERIC-1R, ERIC-2 and ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primers. Seventeen different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 21 genotypes by ERIC 2-PCR and 21 genotypes by ERIC 1+2-PCR. Hunter-Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI) found for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, ERIC 1+2 PCR were 0.69, 0.87, and 0.84, respectively. For most herds evaluated observed at most three different genotypes among isolates from animals of these property, in all ERIC-PCR assays. However a few flocks observed between four and nine genotypes per flock. The W Kendall value found for correlation among the three techniques of ERIC-PCR was 0.91 (P<5.0 x 10(-6)). The results show that ERIC-PCR has good discriminatory power and advantages over other DNA-based typing methods, making it a useful tool to discriminate C. pseudotuberculosis isolates.

  7. A new Kinematic Approach to Calculate Seismic Hazard Scenarios (Intensity and Peak Ground Displacement); an Example in SE Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirovich, L.; Pettenati, F.

    2007-05-01

    The part of the seismic hazard map of Italy (http:zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it/mappa_ps_apr04/italia.html) that regards SE Sicily has recently been modified on the basis also of the new location of the source of one of the strongest earthquakes that ever struck the Mediterranean basin (in 1693 in SE Sicily; 54,000 casualties; see Sirovich and Pettenati, 2001 in BSSA). That source was located inland according to the KF geophysical inversion of the regional damage patterns of the earthquake of Jan. 11, 1693 and of its destructive foreshock of Jan. 9 (see Gentile et al., 2004 in BSSA, and Sirovich and Pettenati, 2004 in JGR, for the genetic KF inversion technique). The damage patterns of Jan. 9 and 11, 1693 had been evaluated by three different groups of historians and seismologists on three different intensity scales. (Detailed information was available from the reports of the Officers of the "Regno delle Due Sicilie" of the time as well as from many other documents). Previously, both earthquakes were traditionally ascribed to the well known Malta Escarpment, the most prominent physiographical and structural feature of the area, which is found offshore, south-east of Sicily. However, given the inland damage of 1693, an offshore epicenter would imply a mean radius of 45 km for the virtual area of degree XI (70 km for degree X) and, thus, a magnitude of 8.3±0.2 with a fault length of approximately 280 km. This fault source would cross the NE part of Sicily from the southern Jonian Sea to the Island of Lipari in the Tyrrhenian Sea; but tectonically this seems unrealistic. All the inversion tests, however, pointed to a complex source inland which could have hosted both earthquakes. Here, we used our kinematic KF model in the direct mode in a parametric, deterministic-Montecarlo way to produce a seismic hazard scenario, in terms of maximum ground displacement. This scenario will be compared with PSHA results for long recurrence times in the frame of a project of the Civil

  8. Italy of censuses.

    PubMed

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  9. Distributing the ERIC Database on SilverPlatter Compact Disc--A Brief Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted

    This description of the development of the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) compact disc by two companies, SilverPlatter and ORI, Inc., provides background information on ERIC and the ERIC database, discusses reasons for choosing to put the ERIC database on compact discs, and describes the formulation of an ERIC CD-ROM team as part of…

  10. Adult, Career, and Vocational Education: An Internet Guide. ERIC Digest No. 196.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O.

    This ERIC Digest is an annotated list of 40 websites and listservs devoted to adult, career, and vocational education. The following websites and listservs are included: six ERIC sites (ACCESS ERIC; AskERIC; the Education Resource Organizations Directory; the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education; ORYX Press/Current Index…

  11. Locating Education and Literacy Statistics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O.

    Although the ERIC database includes descriptions of documents containing education statistics, it is not designed to provide answers to specific statistical questions. The single best alternative source for statistics regarding all aspects of education and literacy is the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), part of the U.S. Department…

  12. Format Proliferation in Public Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Norm

    More choice in formats for library customers may mean more constraints on choices in materials acquisition. An increase in the number of formats libraries provide may, over time, substantially alter the quality and diversity of library collections. This ERIC Digest examines some of the costs and challenges presented by format proliferation and…

  13. The ERIC At Stanford Newsletter, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources.

    The issues from the year 1969 of "Now Available," the newsletter of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Clearinghouse on Educational Media and Technology, are bound together as one document. The newsletters contain announcements of the Clearinghouse's output published in "Research in Education." Author, title,…

  14. Fundamental Skills in Science: Measurement. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest concerns the fundamental science process skills of measurement. One only has to glance around the home or workplace to realize that measurement is fundamental to everyday life. International tests and student scores on measurement, measurement and curriculum standards, student difficulties and misconceptions, the challenge to…

  15. Teaching the Bill of Rights. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This ERIC Digest on teaching about the Bill of Rights in the schools examines the status, the deficiencies, and means to improve citizenship education. Currently, the Bill of Rights is taught at least four times during the elementary and secondary grades. Constitutional rights and liberties are stressed in K-12 curriculum goals for social studies…

  16. Teaching about Inner Asia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, David

    This ERIC Digest discusses: (1) reasons for learning about Inner Asia; (2) how to include Inner Asia in the curriculum; and (3) strategies for teaching about Inner Asia. U.S. students have difficulties in interpreting current events that occur in this region, because they lack knowledge of the history, geography, and cultures of Inner Asia. This…

  17. Delivery Systems for Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This ERIC digest provides a brief overview of the video, audio, and computer technologies that are currently used to deliver instruction for distance education programs. The video systems described include videoconferencing, low-power television (LPTV), closed-circuit television (CCTV), instructional fixed television service (ITFS), and cable…

  18. Children's Television: The Best of ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.

    This is the most recent in a series of retrospective bibliographies on television and children. It includes an annotated listing of research reviews, position papers, and planning documents entered in the ERIC system in the years 1974-1977. Over 100 documents are listed in 14 categories: helping children to learn from television, new experimental…

  19. Recent Department of Education Publications in ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Gregory, Comp.; And Others

    Produced quarterly by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), this annotated bibliography announces the availability of selected new documents produced or sponsored by the Department of Education that address topics of national importance. Topics featured in this edition are: (1) the National Education Goals (readiness for school;…

  20. Teaching and Learning Economics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    This ERIC Digest on economics education discusses: (1) the economic literacy of secondary school students; (2) the improvement of the economic curriculum; (3) the improvement of social studies teachers' training and teaching methods; and (4) the implications of improved economics education. A national survey sponsored by the Joint Council on…

  1. Eric Carle-Inspired Insect Collages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamountain, Eileen; Turner, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students create collage insects inspired by the work of Eric Carle (The Very Hungry Caterpillar). Connects art, language arts, and science. Discusses how students make paper to use as the collage material and how students create the insects. (CMK)

  2. International Early Childhood Resources from ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents annotated bibliography of recent ERIC documents/journal articles providing international early-childhood resources. Topics of documents include day care and infant attachment, multicultural child care, drug-use prevention, and early language learning. Journal article topics include very able preschoolers, children's causality beliefs,…

  3. Simulation and Gaming: The Best of ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Don H., Comp.

    Most of the 101 citations included in this annotated bibliography on simulation and gaming were derived from a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) indexes. Entries were published between 1972 and 1975. The bibliography is divided into nine sections: theory and research; social studies materials; environment, land use, and…

  4. Eric Garcia: Warrior with a Pen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Eric Garcia's large-scale oil paintings, drawings, installations, prints, and political cartoons examine versions of American history that have been overlooked and whitewashed. Aware that dominant history reflects a strategy of power, Garcia embraces the confluence of history, culture, and politics to challenge historical mythologies and…

  5. ERIC/ChESS Documents in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes eight items from the ERIC database. Materials featured cover a holistic approach to U.S. sea experience, effects of post-war changes upon individuals, the case for a core curriculum, celebration of the U.S. Constitution's Bicentennial, western civilization, the Cold War, a topical approach to history, and oral history of immigrants and…

  6. Indexing. ERIC Processing Manual, Section VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jim, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for subject indexing in the ERIC system. The principle of "subject access" is discussed with particular reference to "coordinate indexing," which involves designating subject content by unit terms (or tags) that may be put together or "coordinated" for subsequent retrieval. The nature…

  7. Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  8. Searching the ERIC Data Base at UNM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Sandra H.

    The University of New Mexico (UNM) General Library supports the locally-managed ERIC search service. During the 1973/1974 fiscal year, more than 3,000 searches were processed by the UNM Division of Computer and Information Science using a specially developed retrieval program, GANDALF (General Alpha-Numeric Direct Access Library Facility). This…

  9. Eric Garcia: Warrior with a Pen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Eric Garcia's large-scale oil paintings, drawings, installations, prints, and political cartoons examine versions of American history that have been overlooked and whitewashed. Aware that dominant history reflects a strategy of power, Garcia embraces the confluence of history, culture, and politics to challenge historical mythologies and…

  10. Imperialism: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) resources related to imperialism and the Spanish-American War. Materials selected include books, academic journals, theme issues, videos, workbooks, and curriculum guides. Includes information on locating, ordering, and reproducing these resources. (MJP)

  11. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…

  12. Risk Management. ERIC Digest, Number 86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to protect an…

  13. Eric Carle-Inspired Insect Collages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamountain, Eileen; Turner, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students create collage insects inspired by the work of Eric Carle (The Very Hungry Caterpillar). Connects art, language arts, and science. Discusses how students make paper to use as the collage material and how students create the insects. (CMK)

  14. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  15. Trends in Peace Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    This ERIC Digest reviews the development and current status of peace education in the United States. After briefly surveying the peace education movement from its origins with a small group of educators in New England in the 1800s through its stigmatization as being anti-American during periods of hot and cold war, the Digest devotes more…

  16. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily. PMID:17397527

  17. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

    2007-03-30

    In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily.

  18. Investigating the Hurst-Kolmogorov behavior of Sicily's climatological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglioni, M.; Lombardo, F.; Mineo, C.

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that many geophysical processesexhibit long-term persistence(LTP, also calledlong-range dependence). Overlooking this type of behaviorcan lead to wrong inferences and false claims about the properties of processes studied in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, meteorology, and engineering. In this light, the present study investigates the statistical properties of precipitation and temperature datasets from Sicily (Italy),in order to analyzethe presence of LTP. The case study region(i.e., the largest island in the Mediterranean)is characterized by typical Mediterranean climate with mild winter and severe drought conditions in summer time. The latter have become one of the most challenging issuesall over the Mediterranean region due to the growth of population, contamination of water supplies, and expansion of agricultural, energy and industrial sectors. The severity and duration of the drought eventsare clearly influenced by the presence of LTP in precipitation and temperature processes. Improving understanding ofsuch phenomenonis therefore central to new research challenges related to the estimation and management of water resources.

  19. Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas.

  20. Diversity of rhizobia nodulating wild shrubs of Sicily and some neighbouring islands.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Lanza, Angela; Bonnì, Maria Laura; Marsala, Salvatore; Puglia, Anna Maria; Quatrini, Paola

    2008-10-01

    Legume shrubs have great potential for rehabilitation of semi-arid degraded soils in Mediterranean ecosystems as they establish mutualistic symbiosis with N-fixing rhizobia. Eighty-eight symbiotic rhizobia were isolated from seven wild legume shrubs native of Sicily (Southern Italy) and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) by analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) polymorphism. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most Genisteae symbionts are related to Bradyrhizobium canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii. Teline monspessulana was the only Genistea nodulated by Mesorhizobium strains, and Anagyris foetida (Thermopsideae) was promiscuosly nodulated by Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Bradyrhizobium strains. Analysis of the nodulation gene nodA assigned most Mediterranean Genisteae bradyrhizobia to clade II but also to clades IV, I and III, which included, so far, sequences of (sub)tropical and Australian isolates. The high diversity and low host specificity observed in most wild legumes isolates suggest that preferential associations may establish in the field depending on differences in the benefits conferred to the host and on competition ability. Once identified, these beneficial symbiosis can be exploited for rehabilitation of arid, low productive and human-impacted soils of the Mediterranean countries.

  1. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from ass' milk in Sicily: case report, safety and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, F; Passantino, A

    2008-07-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii (Es) infections are likely to involve newborns and infants, causing meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. Contamination of infant formulae milk during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. Es has been isolated from environmental sources and from food other than infant formula and milk powder, but why it is associated only with the consumption of infant formulae, is unclear. According to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, Es is considered a microorganisms of greatest concern in infant formulae and follow-on formulae. Es is included between "safety criteria". The isolation of two strains of Es from 50 samples of ass' milk in Sicily is described. The antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates revealed a multiple resistance profile, including fluoroquinolones, commonly used to treat the infections. The authors underline the importance of survey because in Italy ass' milk is considered one of the solutions for infants suffering from hypersensitivity to milk protein of some animal species. There is scarce information about the ecology and the uncertainty concerning the source of infection in the children and adults; the authors are concerned that ass' milk could become a high-risk food.

  2. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Audra, Philippe; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Plan, Lukas; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Anoux, Catherine; Nobécourt, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where condensation-corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies. Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological, geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg and Kraushöhle caves in Austria.

  3. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  4. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana

    2017-03-01

    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  5. Analysis of spatial and temporal rainfall trends in Sicily during the 1921-2012 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Bono, Enrico; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Freni, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation patterns worldwide are changing under the effects of global warming. The impacts of these changes could dramatically affect the hydrological cycle and, consequently, the availability of water resources. In order to improve the quality and reliability of forecasting models, it is important to analyse historical precipitation data to account for possible future changes. For these reasons, a large number of studies have recently been carried out with the aim of investigating the existence of statistically significant trends in precipitation at different spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, the existence of statistically significant trends in rainfall from observational datasets, which were measured by 245 rain gauges over Sicily (Italy) during the 1921-2012 period, was investigated. Annual, seasonal and monthly time series were examined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric statistical test to detect statistically significant trends at local and regional scales, and their significance levels were assessed. Prior to the application of the Mann-Kendall test, the historical dataset was completed using a geostatistical spatial interpolation technique, the residual ordinary kriging, and then processed to remove the influence of serial correlation on the test results, applying the procedure of trend-free pre-whitening. Once the trends at each site were identified, the spatial patterns of the detected trends were examined using spatial interpolation techniques. Furthermore, focusing on the 30 years from 1981 to 2012, the trend analysis was repeated with the aim of detecting short-term trends or possible changes in the direction of the trends. Finally, the effect of climate change on the seasonal distribution of rainfall during the year was investigated by analysing the trend in the precipitation concentration index. The application of the Mann-Kendall test to the rainfall data provided evidence of a general decrease in precipitation in Sicily during the

  6. Setting the stage for the EPOS ERIC: Integration of the legal, governance and financial framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Freda, Carmela; Giardini, Domenico; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kohler, Elisabeth; Kontkanen, Pirjo; Lauterjung, Jörn; Pedersen, Helle; Saleh, Kauzar; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2017-04-01

    EPOS - the European Plate Observing System - is the ESFRI infrastructure serving the need of the solid Earth science community at large. The EPOS mission is to create a single sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework. Thematic Core Services (TCS) and Integrated Core Services (Central Hub, ICS-C and Distributed, ICS-D) are key elements, together with NRIs (National Research Infrastructures), in the EPOS architecture. Following the preparatory phase, EPOS has initiated formal steps to adopt an ERIC legal framework (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). The statutory seat of EPOS will be in Rome, Italy, while the ICS-C will be jointly operated by France, UK and Denmark. The TCS planned so far cover: seismology, near-fault observatories, GNSS data and products, volcano observations, satellite data, geomagnetic observations, anthropogenic hazards, geological information modelling, multiscale laboratories and geo-energy test beds for low carbon energy. In the ERIC process, EPOS and all its services must achieve sustainability from a legal, governance, financial, and technical point of view, as well as full harmonization with national infrastructure roadmaps. As EPOS is a distributed infrastructure, the TCSs have to be linked to the future EPOS ERIC from legal and governance perspectives. For this purpose the TCSs have started to organize themselves as consortia and negotiate agreements to define the roles of the different actors in the consortium as well as their commitment to contribute to the EPOS activities. The link to the EPOS ERIC shall be made by service agreements of dedicated Service Providers. A common EPOS data policy has also been developed, based on the general principles of Open Access and paying careful attention to licensing issues, quality control, and intellectual property rights, which shall apply to the data, data products

  7. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  8. Microbially-induced Fe and Mn oxides in condensed pelagic sediments (Middle-Upper Jurassic, Western Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Préat, A.; Mamet, B.; Di Stefano, P.; Martire, L.; Kolo, K.

    2011-06-01

    This article presents a petrographic comparison of the Rosso Ammonitico facies of Western Sicily and the original Rosso Ammonitico Veronese of Northern Italy based on a total of 27 sections. The Rosso Ammonitico has been the subject of numerous controversies that range from bathyal to shallow-water platform sedimentation. Therefore it seemed interesting to verify if the term Rosso Ammonitico has the same geologic connotation from region to region. The Middle-Upper Jurassic Rosso Ammonitico of Western Sicily is a condensed succession formed during a period of extensional synsedimentary tectonics related to the spreading of the Ionian Ocean. Slope-to-basin or pelagic carbonate deposits characterize the sedimentation which consists of reddish mudstones and wackestones. The abundant fauna is composed of radiolarians, protoglobigerinids, Saccocoma, Bositra associated with ammonites. A few ferruginous hardgrounds, Fe-Mn oxide crusts and Mn-coated condensation horizons are also present. The red matrices contain abundant Fe-Mn encrusted, microbored and bioeroded bioclasts. Sporadic Fe-Mn oncolites composed of amorphous Mn-minerals and goethite are also conspicuous. The matrix, as well as the shells and the fillings of the complex associated veinlets, are frequently altered into calcite microsparite. Submicronic iron bacterial and fungal filaments associated with mineralized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are observed in the matrix. They record dysaerobic microenvironments at or near the sediment-water interfaces. Early mineralized discontinuities enhanced by subsequent pressure dissolution are reported in the succession. Mn-(Ni) bacterial filaments are exceptionally observed in the cortex of the Fe-Mn oncolites. As a consequence of an early lithification, the Mn filaments are poorly preserved. The pigmentation of the rock is due to the dispersion of submicronic oxyhydroxides (now goethite and amorphous iron) formed by bacterial mediation during early diagenesis

  9. Coexisting shortening and extension along the "Africa-Eurasia" plate boundary in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffaro, M.; Riguzzi, F.; Scrocca, D.; Doglioni, C.

    2009-04-01

    We performed geodetic strain rate field analyses along the "Africa (Sicily microplate)"-"Eurasia (Tyrrhenian microplate)" plate boundary in Sicily (southern Italy), using new GPS velocities from a data set spanning maximum ten years (1998-2007). Data from GPS permanent stations maintained from different institutions and the recent RING network, settled in Italy in the last five years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, were included into the analysis. Two dimensional strain and rotation rate fields were estimated by the distance weighted approach on a regularly spaced grid (30*30km), estimating the strain using all stations, but data from each station are weighted by their distance from the grid node by a constant a=70km that specifies how the effect of a station decays with distance from the node grid interpolation. Results show that most of the shortening of the Africa-Eurasia relative motion is distributed in the northwestern side offshore Sicily, whereas the extension becomes comparable with shortening on the western border of the Capo d'Orlando basin, and grater in the northeastern side, offshore Sicily, as directly provided by GPS velocities which show a larger E-ward component of sites located in Calabria with respect to those located either in northern Sicily or in the Ustica-Aeolian islands. Moreover, where shortening and extension have mostly a similar order of magnitude, two rotation rate fields can be detected, CCW in the northwestern side of Sicily, and CW in the northeastern one respectively. Also, 2-D dilatation field records a similar pattern, with negative values (shortening) in the northwestern area of Sicily close to the Ustica island, and positive values (extension) in the northeastern and southeastern ones, respectively. Principal shortening and extension rate axes are consistent with long-term geological features: seismic reflection profiles acquired in the southern Tyrrhenian seismogenic belt show active extensional faults

  10. Existence of Paenibacillus larvae genotypes ERIC I-ST2, ERIC I-ST15 and ERIC II-ST10 in the western region of Aichi prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    HIRAI, Yuko; SUZUKI, Toshinari; INABA, Nanami; MINOGUCHI, Naokazu; TAKAMATSU, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    American foulbrood is the most destructive honeybee bacterial disease. The etiological agent, Paenibacillus larvae, has been classified into four genotypes by a repetitive-element PCR (ERIC I-IV) and 21 sequence types by multilocus sequence typing (ST1-21). In this study, we genotyped Japanese P. larvae isolates for the first time and revealed the presence of three genotypes (ERIC I-ST2, ERIC I-ST15 and ERIC II-ST10) in the western region of Aichi prefecture. ERIC I-ST15 and ERIC II-ST10 are globally distributed types, whereas the ERIC I-ST2 isolate was the first isolate of this genotype identified outside the native range of the European honeybee. The ERIC I and II isolates differed in phenotypes including cell morphology, and these may be useful for predicting ERIC types. PMID:27020320

  11. Seasonal Variability of Transport Through Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    We have investigated the transport variability through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Corsica) with a very high resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea. A numerical simulation of the Mediterranean circulation has been done with a 1/16o horizontal grid mesh, 43 vertical z-level model. Initial hydrological conditions were provided by the Mediterranean MODB5 climatology. The model has been run eleven years. It has been forced in a yearly perpetual mode by the daily sea surface fluxes from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis during the year March 1998 - February 1999. This study has been supported by the french MERCA- TOR project and SHOM. We grateful the PAM team of CERFACS (Toulouse, France). Analysis is focused on three major straits which play an important role in control- ling the circulation through mass transport exchanges. Model results are compared to recent observations and good agreement is obtained. It demonstrates advantages to improve resolution in numerical models. Gibraltar and Sicily strait transports are largely baroclinic. The transport through the Gibraltar Strait is forced by density difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic water (AW) penetrates the Mediterranean Sea while Mediterranean Outflow Water flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This transport is hy- draulically maximal, with a semi-annual signal, and its seasonal variation is weak. The Sicily Strait transport is probably first forced by the AW coming from the West rather than the density gradient between the western and eastern mediterranean seas. AW inflow (i.e. Eastern Mediterranean Overflow Water outflow) is maximum in late Fall and minimum in late Winter. In opposite to previous straits, the northward Cor- sica Strait transport presents strong seasonal variability, and thus a strong barotropic component related to the wind stress curl.

  12. The crustal velocity field mosaic of the Alpine Mediterranean area (Italy): Insights from new geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farolfi, Gregorio; Del Ventisette, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    A new horizontal crustal velocity field of Alpine Mediterranean area was determined by continuous long time series (6.5 years) of 113 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. The processing was performed using state-of-the-art absolute antenna phase center correction model and recomputed precise IGS orbits available since April 2014. Moreover, a new more accurate tropospheric mapping function for geodetic applications was adopted. Results provide a new detailed map of the kinematics throughout the entire study area. This area is characterized by a complex tectonic setting driven by the interaction of Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Alps, Corsica, Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea (which is covered only by interpolation data) show small velocity residuals with respect to the Eurasian plate. The whole Apennines axis discriminates two different velocity patterns, the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian area. The area around Messina Strait, which separates peninsular Italy and Sicily, represents a poorly understood region. Results identify an important boundary zone between two different domains, Calabria and Sicily, which are characterized by different crustal motions. The northeastern part of Sicily and Calabria move like Adriatic area, whilst the rest of Sicily, Malta and Lampedusa are dominated by African motion.

  13. Is a destructive earthquake imminent in southeastern Sicily?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Achilli, Vladimiro; Broccio, Franco; Baldi, Paolo

    1991-03-01

    Southeastern Sicily, which has frequently experienced ruinous earthquakes in historic times, has only been site of minor activity in the last two centuries. Two precision levelling surveys that we carried out in 1983 and 1989 detected high rates of crustal deformation. The usual hypothesis of tectonic stationarity applied to both the time series of historical earthquakes and deformation rates would favour the imminence of an I ⩾ IX event. On the other hand, the characteristic patterns of recent seismicity strongly oppose this conclusion, suggesting that the apparent contradiction is caused by a tectonic nonstationarity, an issue that seems also confirmed by palaeogeodetic data.

  14. View of southerly portion of Island of Sicily

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-20

    AST-17-1378 (20 July 1975) --- A near vertical view of the most southerly portion of the Island of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. This view includes the towns of Gala, Pachino, Avela and Pozzalo. The photograph was taken at an altitude of 228 kilometers (141 statute miles) with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using high-definition aerial Ektachrome SO-242 type film.

  15. New perspectives on primary magmas and related mantle sources from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Giuseppe; Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Ferlito, Carmelo

    2014-05-01

    Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcano in the world and the understanding of its eruptive dynamics is fundamental to reduce volcanic risk related to the frequent volcanic events. In this respect the complete evolution of Mt. Etna magmatismand the reconstruction of its mantle source was considered performing a detailed sampling from Tholeiitic to Recent Mongibello periods. Backward mass balance fractionation models, starting from real and primitive analyzed magmas, allowed to reconstruct the "primary" and un-fractionated melt compositions.The Tholeiitic suite did not necessitate a backward reconstruction for the presence of real primary un-fractionated compositions. The least differentiated products for each alkaline period were identified and about 17 to 19% of a solid assemblage made up of Ol (87 to 100%) and Cpx (up to 13%) was added to re-equilibrate the basalts with mantle olivine (Fo87). A further subtraction of an average 23.3% of a solid assemblage constituted by Ol (7-18%), Cpx (26-55%) and Plag (21-48%) is needed to get to the most differentiated erupted lavas. To reach the most evolved terms ishypothesized the involvement of 27% Ol, 14% Cpx, 29% Opx, 15% Plg and 15% Cr-sp for a total amount of 53.1% of Gabbroic material.On average an estimation of about 40% of material should be considered beneath the volcanic edifice taking into account the entire volume of the products emitted by the volcano. Thus if according to [1] the whole volcano edifice amounts to about 370 km3, about 150 km3 of magma should be left behind from the magma on its way from the mantle to the surface. Although Etnean alkaline lavas appear enriched in K, Rb, Th and U and depleted in Ti, Y and Yb with respect to the Iblean magmas, their overall composition appear quite similar.Thus partial melting models were developed for each Etnean magmatic period, based on a mantle composition similar to that of the nearbyIblean lithosphere. Results indicate twodifferent sources for Tholeiitic and Alkaline suites analogously to the modeling developed by[2]. Tholeiitic magmas can be reproduced by about 17% of an amphibole-bearing peridotite source, while Alkaline magmas can be reproduced by melting of about 7% an amphibole-phlogopite-bearing peridotite source. Our result are in agreement with those recently advanced by [3] indicating a large similarity between Mt. Etna and Mt. Iblei mantle sources. [1] Neri and Rossi (1992) Quaderni di geofisica - Istituto nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia 20. [2] Beccaluva et al. (1998) J. Petrology 39, 1547-1576. [3] Correale et al. (2014) Lithos, 243-258.

  16. Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandura, D.; Montalto, P.; Brancato, A.; Cannavo, F.; Coltelli, M.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Proietti, C.

    2014-12-01

    The frequent flank eruptions occurrence at Mt. Etna lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked to a population of nearly one million people dwell on its flanks, poses a high volcanic risk. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management), we developed a near real-time computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations that provide the identification of the areas prone to the highest vent opening hazard. The use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) provide us a long-term hazard map mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano. The near real-time additional seismic and ground deformation data allow the long-term hazard map switches into a short-term future vent opening one. The short-term hazard map was computed starting from the evaluation of deformation field over Etna surface. Analytical inversion of deformation and seismic data is performed to find the parameters of a magmatic source in an elastic, isotropic and homogeneous half-space and forward model is performed to computed the displacement field over Etna surface. We modelled the final intrusion of the Mount Etna May 2008 eruption that was accompanied by a violent seismic swarm and marked by ground deformation recorded at GPS stations. Results suggest a good accordance between the higher probability area and the real vent occurrence.

  17. Experimental constraints on the origin of pahoehoe "cicirara" lavas at Mt. Etna Volcano (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetere, F.; Mollo, S.; Giacomoni, P. P.; Iezzi, G.; Coltorti, M.; Ferlito, C.; Holtz, F.; Perugini, D.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-05-01

    We present results from phase equilibria experiments conducted on the most primitive pahoehoe "cicirara" trachybasaltic lava flow ever erupted at Mt. Etna Volcano. This lava is characterized by a pahoehoe morphology in spite of its high content of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts (>40 vol%) with the occurrence of centimetre-sized plagioclases (locally named cicirara for their chick-pea-like appearance). Our experiments have been performed at 400 MPa, 1100-1150 °C and using H2O and CO2 concentrations corresponding to the water-undersaturated crystallization conditions of Etnean magmas. Results show that olivine does not crystallize from the melt, whereas titanomagnetite is the liquidus phase followed by clinopyroxene or plagioclase as a function of melt-water concentration. This mineralogical feature contrasts with the petrography of pahoehoe cicirara lavas suggesting early crystallization of olivine and late formation of titanomagnetite after plagioclase and/or in close association with clinopyroxene. The lack of olivine produces MgO-rich melt compositions that do not correspond to the evolutionary behaviour of cicirara magmas. Moreover, in a restricted thermal path of 50 °C and over the effect of decreasing water concentrations, we observe abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystallization leading to trace element enrichments unlikely for natural products. At the same time, the equilibrium compositions of our mineral phases are rather different from those of natural cicirara phenocrysts and microphenocrysts. The comparison between our water-undersaturated data and those from previous degassing experiments conducted on a similar Etnean trachybasaltic composition demonstrates that pahoehoe cicirara lavas originate from crystal-poor, volatile-rich magmas undergoing abundant degassing and cooling in the uppermost part of the plumbing system and at subaerial conditions where most of the crystallization occurs after the development of pahoehoe surface crusts.

  18. Deep-level magma dehydration and ascent rates at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, P.; Perinelli, C.; Putirka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magma ascent velocity, v (dH/dt; H = depth, t = time),can be determined from ascent rate (dP/dt), and rate of cooling (dT/dt): v= 1/(rgpg) (dP/dT)(dT/dt) where r is magma density, P is pressure, T is temperature and g is the acceleration of gravity. This equation for v provides a key to investigating the relationships between initial ascent rate of magma and the depths of magma dehydration, and v can be calculated using pressure and temperature (P - PH2O - T) estimates from mineral-liquid thermobarometry, and cooling rates inferred from Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) theory. For recent Mt. Etna lava flows, both dP/dT and dT/dt have been well characterized based, respectively, on clinopyroxene thermobarometry, and clinopyroxene CSDs (the latter yields dT/dt = 2x10-6 °C/s). Deep-level (>20 km) magma ascent rates range from practically 0 (where clinopyroxene P - T estimates form a cluster, and so dP/dT ≈ 0), to about 10 m/hr for flows that yield very steep P - T trajectories. Many lava flows at Mt. Etna yield P - T paths that follow a hydrous (about 3% water) clinopyroxene saturation surface, which closely approximates water contents obtained from melt inclusions. Independent assessments of deep level water content yield ascent rates of ~1 m/hr, in agreement with the slowest rates derived for magma effusion or vapor-driven ascent (~0.001 to >0.2 m/s, or 3.6 to 720 m/hr). Changes in P - T slopes, as obtained by pyroxene thermobarometry, indicate an upward acceleration of magma, which may be due to the onset of deep-level magma dehydration linked to the non-ideal behavior of water and CO2 mixtures that induce a deep-level maximum of water loss at P ≈ 0.4 MPa at T ≈ 1200 ° C for a CO2 content >1000ppm. Melt inclusion data on CO2 and H2O contents are successfully reproduced and interpreted in a context of magma dehydration induced by a CO2 flux possibly deriving by decarbonation reaction of the carbonate fraction of the Capo D'Orlando flysch.

  19. Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability Through the Use of GIS Tools in South Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martínez Del Pozo, José Ángel

    2009-03-01

    This study assessed coastal erosion vulnerability along a 90-km sector, which included both erosional and accretionary beaches, and different levels of human occupation. Two aerial photogrammetric flights were used to reconstruct coastal evolution between 1977 and 1999. During this period, extensive accretion was recorded updrift of human structures at harbors and ports, e.g., Scoglitti (105.6 m), Donnalucata (52.8 m), and Pozzallo (94.6 m). Conversely, erosion was recorded in downdrift areas, with maximum values at Modica Stream mouth (63.8 m) and Point Castellazzo (35.2 m). Assessments were subsequently divided into four categories ranging from “high erosion” to “accretion.” Several sources were examined to assess human activities and land use. The latter was mapped and divided into four categories, ranging from “very high” to “no capital” land use. Subsequently, coastal erosion vulnerability was assessed by combining land use categories with recorded coastline behavior. Results showed “very high” to “high” vulnerability along 5.8% and 16.6%, respectively, of the littoral, while 20.9% and 56.7%, respectively, was found to exhibit “medium” and “low/very low” vulnerability. A very good agreement between predicted coastal vulnerability and coastal trend had been observed over recent years. Furthermore, several human structures and activities are located within the “imminent collapse zone (ICZ)” which reached maximum values of 17.5 m at Modica Stream and 13.5 m at Point Braccetto.

  20. A new empirical model for estimating calanchi Erosion in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraballo-Arias, N. A.; Conoscenti, C.; Di Stefano, C.; Ferro, V.

    2015-02-01

    Calanchi (plural of calanco) are typical badland landforms of the Italian landscape. They consist of dense networks of V-shaped valleys, with a sparse or absent vegetation cover, which frequently develop on unconsolidated or poorly consolidated clayey deposits. In this paper, the dimensional analysis and the incomplete self-similarity theory were used to deduce a model relating the volume of sediments eroded from the calanchi area to a set of geometric attributes of their tributary areas. The morphometric characteristics of 209 calanchi basins were used to calibrate and validate the model. The predictive skill of the model was assessed by calculating the mean square error and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient. The model was found to provide a reliable prediction of eroded volume from basins entirely covered by calanchi landforms as well as from basins only partially affected by badland erosion processes. Furthermore, as the residuals between the calculated and the measured volume of the eroded material are normally distributed, the deterministic model may be considered complete, meaning that no other variables are necessary to explain the studied physical process. In other words, the model is able to predict erosion volume in calanchi landforms from a deterministic point of view.

  1. [Evaluation of mercury exposure in populations living near the industrial Augusta Bay (Sicily Region, Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: valutare e quantificare l'esposizione umana al mercurio (Hg) ed esplorare i fattori chiave che influenzano la contaminazione nelle popolazioni residenti in prossimità della Rada di Augusta, un'area a elevato rischio ambientale a causa degli effetti degli sversamenti incontrollati di Hg da parte di uno dei più grandi impianti cloro-soda d'Europa. DISEGNO: un campione di residenti nei comuni di Augusta, Priolo e Melilli (Sicilia orientale) è stato selezionato per lo studio di biomonitoraggio umano. Un questionario dettagliato è stato somministrato a ogni partecipante per raccogliere informazioni anagrafiche sulle abitudini di vita e alimentari. I livelli di Hg in sangue e capelli, usati come traccianti di esposizione a metilmercurio, sono stati messi in relazione al consumo di pesce locale. Il contenuto di Hg nelle urine è stato utilizzato per esplorare eventuali esposizioni atmosferiche a Hg inorganico. Una regressione lineare multivariata è stata applicata con l'obiettivo di esplorare i fattori che influenzano l'esposizione umana al Hg. L'approccio tossicocinetico è stato impiegato al fine di calcolare la dose settimanale provvisoria tollerabile ( provisional tolerable weekly intake, PTWI) e di predire le concentrazioni di Hg attese nel sangue degli individui con una dieta alimentare basata esclusivamente su pesce locale.

  2. A unique lower mantle source for Southern Italy volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoux, Anita; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pinti, Daniele L.; Albarède, Francis

    2007-07-01

    The Southern Italy volcanism is characterized by the unusual occurrence of volcanic rocks with ocean-island basalt (OIB)-like characteristics, in particular at Etna and Iblean Mts in Sicily. The geochemical properties of the source of the Italian magmatism are usually explained by a north-south binary mixing between a mantle- and a crustally-derived end-members. The nature of the mantle end-member is, however, not agreed upon. One type of interpretation invokes a mixture of depleted mantle (DMM) and high U/Pb (HIMU) end-members [Gasperini, D., Blichert-Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albarède, F., 2002. Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: Evidence from the geochemistry of Italian basaltic volcanics, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2367-2386], whereas an alternative view holds that the mantle end-member is unique and homogeneous, and similar to the FOZO- or C-type end-member identified in oceanic basalts [Bell, K., Castorina, F., Lavecchia, G., Rosatelli, G., Stoppa, F., 2004. Is there a mantle plume below Italy? EOS 85, 541-547]. Because mixing does not produce linear relationships between the isotopic compositions of different elements, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the Pb isotope compositions of the Italian volcanics inclusive 36 of Sicily volcanoes. We demonstrate that HIMU cannot be an end-member of the Italian volcanics, but rather that the common component C (˜FOZO), which we interpret as reflecting the lower mantle, best represents the mantle source of the Italian magmatism. Our PCA calculation shows that the first principal component alone, which we take to be a mixture of two geochemical end-members, C and a crustally-derived component, explains 99.4% of the whole data variability. In contrast, the DMM end-member (the second principal component) is only present in the volcanics from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor. The C-like end-member, well represented by the Etna and Iblean Mts (Sicily), has relatively low 3He/ 4

  3. Effects of prophylaxis with iodised salt in an area of endemic goitre in north-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Regalbuto, C; Scollo, G; Pandini, G; Ferrigno, R; Pezzino, V

    2010-05-01

    In developed countries, the use of iodised salt represents the best prophylaxis of endemic goitre in areas exposed to iodine deficiency. In the present study we re-evaluated goitre prevalence and iodine intake 10 years after the introduction of iodised salt in an area of goitre endemia in north-eastern Sicily (Italy), and we compared these results with those obtained in previous surveys. Three centres with known moderate goitre endemia (Bronte, Nicosia, and Gagliano) and three other smaller ones with severe goitre endemia (Sperlinga, Villadoro, and Maniace) were studied. We surveyed 697 schoolchildren. Goitre prevalence was assessed by thyroid palpation and by a thyroid ultrasound scan. Iodine urinary excretion was also measured. Iodised salt consumption was 44% of total salt consumption. Goitre prevalence assessed by thyroid palpation was significantly decreased in all towns studied compared to previous surveys. However, the persistence of a mild goitre endemia was observed in some small rural centres (5.8% in Sperlinga/Villadoro, and 11.4% in Maniace). Goitre prevalence evaluated by thyroid ultrasound scan was greater than 5% in all centres of the endemic area and was always greater than that assessed by thyroid palpation. Iodine urinary excretion was above 100 microg/l in all localities studied. In conclusion, our studies indicate a progressive reduction in goitre prevalence over a period of about 30 years in schoolchildren in a well-characterised endemic area in northeastern Sicily. The decrease in goitre prevalence was associated with a significant increase in urinary iodine excretion. However, it may be speculated that iodine deficiency is the pre-eminent, but not the exclusive cause of goitre endemia in this area.

  4. Southern Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-359 (22 June 1973) --- This rare cloud free view of southern Italy (41.0N, 16.0E) shows almost all of the famous `boot' configuration of the peninsula up to just north of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. The land mass of this historic peninsula contrasts sharply with the sparkling blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Analysis of mosses and soils for quantifying heavy metal concentrations in Sicily: a multivariate and spatial analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Battaini, Francesca; Giani, Elisa; Papa, Ester; Jones, Robert J A; Preatoni, Damiano; Cenci, Roberto M

    2006-01-01

    The use of vegetal organisms as indicators of contamination of the environment is partially replacing traditional monitoring techniques. Amongst the vegetal organisms available, mosses appear to be good bioindicators and are used for monitoring anthropogenic and natural fall-out on soils. This study has two objectives: the evaluation of the concentrations of heavy metals in soils and mosses of the Sicily Region, in Italy and the identification of the origin of fall-out of heavy metals. Mosses and the surface soil were sampled at 28 sites, only the youngest segments of Hylocomium splendens and Hypnum cupressiforme, corresponding to the plant tissues produced during the last 3 years, were taken. The elements Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were analysed by ICP-MS and Hg by AAS. Statistical analysis was by PCA and spatial representation by GIS. In the mosses sampled in Sicily, the highest concentrations of Cd were found around the cities of Palermo and Messina. The highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the northern part of the island between Trapani and Messina, similar to the distribution of Cu. Different areas with the highest concentrations of Ni were found near the south coast, in the vicinity of Palermo and around the Volcano Etna. The highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south-west coast near Agrigento, where important chemical plants and petroleum refineries are located. Except for a few locations, Zn fall-out was found to be evenly distributed throughout Sicily. The sites where the concentrations of heavy metals cause greatest concern have been revealed by the PCA analysis and portrayed using GIS. Also of some concern is the diffuse and anthropogenic origin of Hg and Cd. The combined approach of using soil and mosses, together with pedological interpretation and application of multivariate statistical techniques has provided valuable insight into the environmental aspects of heavy metal deposition in a region of southern Europe. Further insight into

  6. Desperately Seeking ERIC. Leaders Sharing--Research Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadel, Robert

    2005-01-01

    You may or may not be aware that ERIC, the Educational Resources Information Center, had a complete makeover during the last year or so. The old ERIC stood for "Educational Research and Information Clearinghouse," and it was run by a private company that leased its database of information and selected full-text articles to subscribers…

  7. Congressional History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC/ChESS resources related to the history of the United States Congress. Materials selected include books, academic journals, theme issues, workbooks, and curriculum guides. Includes information on locating, ordering, and reproduction of these resources. Also includes information for contacting ERIC/ChESS.…

  8. Computer Applications to ERIC Clearinghouse Document Collections: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magisos, Joel H.; Berkebile, Lonnie A.

    The purpose of this project was to develop computer techniques for the production of VT-ERIC publications and to report these techniques so that they might be used by other ERIC Clearinghouses for production of their publications. The Clearinghouse needed to: (1) generate bibliographies from its own collection upon which to base information…

  9. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  10. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  11. A "New" ERIC Thesaurus, Fine Tuned for Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Notes the history of the ERIC indexing vocabulary and the Identifier Cleanup undertaken to reduce scattering in the identifier field. Described in detail is the Vocabulary Improvement Project to review and revise the controlled vocabulary and produce a new Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors. (CWM)

  12. Handling and Shipping. ERIC Processing Manual, Section IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.; And Others

    Rules and guidelines are provided for the handling and shipping of document and journal article information intended for announcement in ERIC's abstract journals "Resources in Education" and "Current Index to Journals in Education." The handling and shipping involved takes place between the ERIC Facility and the ERIC…

  13. The ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, 1995 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, Washington, DC.

    The Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is one of the 16 subject-oriented clearinghouses operated by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. In its early years, ERIC was primarily an archive of education literature, but is has evolved into a…

  14. ERIC SilverPlatter: Is It User Friendly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rholes, Julia M.; Caldwell-Wood, Naomi

    This study conducted at Texas A&M University compares two types of training approaches using ERIC SilverPlatter (ERIC SP). Education students received either: (1) a one hour training session on basic search commands and strategies, or (2) a four page instructional handout that described basic search commands, Boolean logic, and special…

  15. A Library User's Guide to ERIC. 1980 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert M.

    Use of the ERIC database is explained in the 1980 edition of the guide. Presented first are the major components of the ERIC document collection and journal index, including the thesaurus, indexes, and source materials. A step-by-step procedure for searching Resources in Education (document index) and Current Index to Journals in Education by…

  16. Adult ESL Literacy Resources in the ERIC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    The guide provides a quick reference to the database, services, and additional resources of the ERIC System that may be of use in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy work. It first explains the role of the National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education, then describes the ERIC database and the kinds of adult ESL literacy materials…

  17. Computer Cache: ERIC and the Library Media Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Erica K.

    1986-01-01

    Description of how library media specialists can assist teachers and administrators in retrieving useful information by using ERIC highlights its organization, the types of materials available that are especially useful to classroom teachers, and ways that it can be accessed online. A list of ERIC Clearinghouses with addresses is included. (EM)

  18. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

    1980-01-01

    Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

  19. New Access Points to ERIC--CD-ROM Versions. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Pamela W.

    This digest reviews three CD-ROM (compact disc-read only memory) versions of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database currently being delivered or tested and provides information for comparison. However, no attempt is made to recommend any one product. The advantages and disadvantages of the acquisition of CD-ROM databases are…

  20. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on Citizen Involvement in the Control of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    ERIC abstracts on citizen involvement in the control of schools, announced in RIE through Novermber 1970, are presented. The key terms used in compiling this collection are "citizen participation,""decentralization,""parent participation,""parent school relationship,""school community relationship," and "school district autonomy." The following…

  1. American Indian Education, A Selected Bibliography (with ERIC Abstracts). ERIC/CRESS Supplement No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    Compiled to provide access to some of the latest resource material, research findings, and/or developments in American Indian education, this bibliography, a supplement to six previous ERIC/CRESS bibliographies cites materials available through "Resources in Education" (RIE) and "Current Index to Journals in Education" (CIJE). Part 1 of the…

  2. Introduction and prolonged circulation of G12 rotaviruses in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, G M; Bonura, F; DI Bernardo, F; Cascio, A; Ferrera, G; Dones, P; Saporito, L; Collura, A; Terranova, D M; Valenzise, M; Allù, M T; Casuccio, N; Palermo, M; Bányai, K; Martella, V; DE Grazia, S

    2016-07-01

    Genotype G12 strains are now considered to be the sixth most prevalent human rotaviruses worldwide. In two Sicilian cities, Palermo and Messina, surveillance of rotavirus circulation performed since 1985 and 2009, respectively, did not detect G12 strains until 2012. From 2012 to 2014 rotavirus infection was detected in 29·7% of 1647 stool samples collected from children admitted for acute gastroenteritis to three Sicilian hospitals in Palermo, Messina and Ragusa. In 2012, G12P[8] was first detected in Palermo and then in Messina where it represented the second most frequent genotype (20% prevalence) after G1P[8]. Thereafter, G12 strains continued to circulate in Sicily, showing a marked prevalence in Ragusa (27·8%) in 2013 and in Palermo (21%) and Messina (16·6%) in 2014. All but one of the Sicilian G12 strains carried a P[8] VP4 genotype, whereas the single non-P[8] rotavirus strain was genotyped as G12P[9]. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 and VP4 sequences allowed distinction of several genetic lineages and separation of the G12P[8] strains into three cluster combinations. These findings indicate independent introductions of G12 rotavirus strains in Sicily in recent years.

  3. ERIC Online Retrieval System. Use of the DIALOG Online Information Retrieval System with ERIC Research in Education Files. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roger K.

    The utility of computer based on-line retrieval of material from the ERIC document files was tested by members of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Media and Technology at Stanford University and by the Region IX office of the U.S. Office of Education in San Francisco. The DIALOG retrieval system developed by the Information Sciences Group of…

  4. Catalog of ERIC Clearinghouse Publications, 2000. A Catalog of Free and Low-Cost ERIC Clearinghouse Materials Currently in Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Silvia, Ed.

    This Catalog highlights more than 1,200 available education titles produced directly by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. The titles are arranged by ERIC component and cover a broad range of subject areas related to education. The Catalog provides ordering information and prices (subject to change) for each title and…

  5. [Infectious diseases in general practice and antibiotic prescription. Observational study in Sicily].

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, G; Arcorac, V; Cutroneo, P; Inferrera, S; Alecci, U; Bonfiglio, S; Marino, S; Marino, P; Caputi, A P

    1998-01-01

    Drug utilisation studies have shown wide differences, among different countries, in the prescribing behaviour in general practice. In Italy, for instance, the choice of antibiotic prescription seems to show a wider use of parental antibiotic. Aim of this study was to describe antibiotic prescribing pattern and therapeutic doses used by Sicilian general practitioners (GPs) and evaluate their prescribing attitudes regarding the use of parental ones. Each practitioner had to fill a questionnaire for each therapeutic intervention ended with an antibiotic prescription during a period of 6 months. Diagnosis and drugs were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC), respectively. On 9395 prescriptions performed by 76 doctors of 25 Sicilian towns, the analysis indicated that acute respiratory symptoms represent the commonest indication (31.7%) for a medical consultation, and that Macrolides [such as azithromycin (8.8%) and clarithromycin (8.3%)], Penicillin [such as amoxycillin (7.1%%) and co-amoxiclav (8.4%)], III generation of Cephalosporins [such as cefixime (5.5%) and ceftriaxone (5.1%)] represent the most common used therapeutic groups. The choice of the route of administration was influenced by age of the patients and, more significantly, by symptoms and signs of the disease, rather than by bacteria suspected to cause the disease. In conclusion, our data clearly indicate lack of knowledge of antibacterial therapy guidelines among GPs in Sicily, as well as the need of an independent educational training in order to improve knowledge of antibiotics and to decrease the cost of the health care.

  6. Anthropogenic sinkholes in the Marsala area (western Sicily) linked to underground quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamini, M.; Di Maggio, C.; Lollino, P.; Madonia, G.; Parise, M.; Vattano, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marsala territory (western Sicily) is characterized by the presence of a Lower Pleistocene (Calabrian) calcarenite succession (Marsala Calcarenite Fm). It can be divided into three lithofacies that show the regressive evolution of the depositional system: a) coarse to fine yellow bio- and lithoclastic calcarenites, b) sands, and c) gray sandy clays. At least 80 m-thick, this succession gently dips (5-10°) towards the south and the south-west. At some locations the Marsala Calcarenite is covered by Middle and Upper Pleistocene marine terraced deposits. Since the Roman period, due to the great abundance of calcarenite rocks, and to the facility of extraction, the Marsala area has been characterized by a high number of quarries for the extraction of this building materials. Many of them were excavated underground, at depth varying from a few meters to about 25 m, and are arranged in one or two levels, following the galleries and pillars excavation technique. With time, the underground quarries have been progressively abandoned for the decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock mass, the interaction with the groundwater, the high costs of extraction, and the dangers and difficulties encountered in working underground. Since the 1960's the quarries have been affected by instability processes, visible through collapses and deformations of vaults and pillars. These phenomena often propagate upward reaching the topographic surface and forming sinkholes which affect and severely damage the built-up area. In particular, two case studies of sinkholes related to different underground quarries will be analyzed in this paper. The aim is to provide a description of the most significant processes and factors responsible of the instability processes based on field surveys, as well as to understand the generation mechanisms of these anthropogenic sinkholes by means of numerical modeling, based on rock laboratory testing data, that represents in these

  7. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Haseltine

    2016-07-12

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  8. Eric Boe and Bob Behnken Dragon Tour

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-08

    Astronaut Bob Behnken emerges from the hatch of a SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft in manufacturing at SpaceX's headquarters and factory in Hawthorne, California. Behnken is one of four NASA astronauts selected to train with Boeing and SpaceX ahead of flight tests for NASA's Commercial Crew Program. Along with Behnken, Eric Boe, Doug Hurley and Suni Williams are working with the companies on their independent spacecraft and launch vehicles being developed to take astronauts to the International Space Station. Photo credit: SpaceX

  9. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Haseltine

    2009-09-16

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  10. Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy.

  11. Shallow landslides and debris flows triggering and rainfall thresholds using a quasi-dynamic wetness index: a case study in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Aronica, G. T.; Penna, D.; Borga, M.; Brigandı, G.

    2012-04-01

    This work aims analyze the geomorphic impact of the flash flood event which affected the area of Giampilieri (Sicily, Italy) on October 1, 2009. The event was caused by a deep cyclone developed in the Southern part of the Mediterranean basin producing an intense rainstorm over the Ionic sea coast of Sicily. The analysis of the event suggested that more than 220 mm of rain fell in less than 4 hours with a peak of about 110 mm/hr in 5 minutes. Its probability was estimated as the equivalent of a 1 in 100 year return period. The shallow landslides triggered by the precipitation were analyzed by using a model for the prediction of both topographic and climatic control on shallow landslide initiation processes. The model uses a 'quasi-dynamic' wetness index to predict the spatial distribution of soil saturation in response to a rainfall of specified duration. The model is coupled with a simple scaling GEV model for the assessment of the relationship between rainfall amount and corresponding exceedance probability. This allows to characterize the rainfall predicted to cause instability in each topographic element by duration and frequency of occurrence. The application of the model to the study area provides a way to identify the relative potential for shallow landsliding as well as to evaluate rainfall thresholds for debris flow triggering.

  12. Venice, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-24

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time. This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03860

  13. Boot of Italy taken during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-25

    ISS006-E-33736 (25 February 2003) --- The boot of Italy crosses the image in this southwest-looking view taken by an Expedition Six crewmember onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The spine of Italy is highlighted with snow and the largely cloud-covered Mediterranean Sea is at the top. The Adriatic Sea transverses most of the bottom of the image and Sicily appears top left beyond the toe of the boot. The heel lies out of the left side of the image. Corsica and Sardinia appear right of center partly under cloud. The floor of the Po River valley, lower right, is obscured by haze. Experience gained from similar haze events, in which atmospheric pressure, humidity and visibility and atmospheric chemistry were known, suggests that the haze as industrial smog. Industrial haze from the urban region of the central and upper Po valley accumulates to visible concentrations under conditions of high atmospheric pressure and the surrounding mountains prevent easy dispersal. This view illustrates the markedly different color and texture of cloud versus industrial aerosol haze.

  14. Evaluation of ERIC-PCR as Genotyping Method for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Santana, Jordana A.; Ribeiro, Dayana; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Guimarães, Alessandro S.; Moawad, Mohamed S.; Selim, Salah A.; Garaldi, Ana Luiza M.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Ribeiro, Márcio G.; Gouveia, Aurora M. G.; Azevedo, Vasco; Heinemann, Marcos B.; Lage, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations. PMID:24901343

  15. Mt. Etna, Sicily as seen from STS-64

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-19

    STS064-71-037 (9-20 Sept. 1994) --- Mt. Etna on Sicily displays a steam plume from its summit. Geologists attribute the volcano's existence to the collision of tectonic plates. Unlike the sudden, explosive eruption at Rabaul, Mt. Etna's activity is ongoing and is generally not explosive - Etna's slopes have been settled with villages and cultivated land for centuries. Other Mediterranean volcanoes (like Santorini) have experienced large catastrophic eruptions. Etna recently finished a two-year eruption (ending in 1993), marked by relatively gentle lava flows down the eastern flank. It has been continually degassing since then, according to the geologists, producing an omnipresent steam plume, as seen here. The 1993 flow is difficult to identify in this image because it lies within shadows on the eastern flank, but small cinder cones on the western flank mark earlier episodes of volcanic activity. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  16. Seasonal variation of air kerma rate in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Basile, S; Brai, M; Marrale, M; Rizzo, S

    2008-07-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry has been used to measure air kerma in 29 sites in Sicily. Four three month measurement campaigns have been carried out in order to assess seasonal variations. Average annual values between 20 and 90 nGy h(-1), after cosmic background subtraction, are reported. Average annual values are strongly dependent on site lithology, and we find that winter data are generally the highest, while spring and autumn rates are generally the lowest with very similar trends in any site. Summer values generally lay in between. Largest seasonal variations are found in sites along the southern coast of the island, probably because of stronger action of winds affecting radon, along with its progeny, concentrations at ground level.

  17. Radon Concentration by SSNTD in South-East Sicily Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immè, G.; Catalano, R.; Gianino, C.; Filincieri, R.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.

    Radon levels in buildings vary widely from area to area also depending on local geology. Thus, it is important to assess the radon prone area of a geographic region on the basis of geological data and to search for any possible correlation between the local geology and the indoor radon concentrations. We report about indoor radon measurements in Ragusa, a municipality of the SE Sicily, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern region of the African Plate), carried out in collaboration with schools. The survey was performed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and a well-established methodology for chemical etching and reading, developed at the Radioactivity Laboratory of the Department of Physics - University of Catania.

  18. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010-2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-04-13

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotype 1 circulating in Italy and its connection with northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Alessio; Sghaier, Soufien; Ancora, Massimo; Marcacci, Maurilia; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Portanti, Ottavio; Mangone, Iolanda; Teodori, Liana; Leone, Alessandra; Camma', Cesare; Petrini, Antonio; Hammami, Salah; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Western BTV-1 emerged in the Mediterranean basin in 2006 and it has since been isolated in southern and northern European countries. Six BTV-1 strains isolated from infected sheep in Italy between 2006 and 2013 and a BTV-1 strain isolated from an infected sheep in Tunisia in 2011 were fully sequenced. The seven strains were shown to be nearly identical in each gene segment. The Seg-2 sequences of the BTV-1 strains group according to the year of isolation reflecting the time of BTV incursions in Italy. Combined results suggest that BTV-1 strains isolated in Sardinia, Sicily and mainland Italy in 2012 and 2013 have a direct northern African origin. The Italian strains originated from a strain closely related to a BTV-1 strain isolated in Tunisia in 2011. Better surveillance programs with northern and sub-Saharan African countries should be implemented making the control of spread of BTV easier and effective.

  20. Aerial view after September 11, 2001. Photograph by Eric J. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view after September 11, 2001. Photograph by Eric J. Tilford, U.S. Navy, September 17, 2001. - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  1. Meet EPA Microbiologist Eric Villegas, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eric Villegas, Ph.D. is a research microbiologist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His recent work focuses on next generation sequencing technology to better understand risks associated with waterborne parasites.

  2. ERIC Resources for Teaching about the Seventies and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cheryl; Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights a variety of ERIC materials to use for instruction and reflection about the 1970s. Materials cover Watergate, environmental issues, drug use, the new ethnicity, terrorism, the Vietnam War, and women's employment. (LS)

  3. ERIC Resources for Teaching about the Seventies and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cheryl; Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights a variety of ERIC materials to use for instruction and reflection about the 1970s. Materials cover Watergate, environmental issues, drug use, the new ethnicity, terrorism, the Vietnam War, and women's employment. (LS)

  4. Freedom of Expression: A Troublesome Imperative. ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Polito, Carolyn M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 19 items from ERIC identifying troublesome paradoxes regarding the media and freedom of expression. Items are categorized by issues identified as relevant to radio and television, commercial advertising, and the press. (JMF)

  5. Benefits of Art and Music Education. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Annotates 13 recent documents and journals from the ERIC database that discuss the benefits of art and music education to children's development and academic achievement. Includes art and music education Internet sites. (LBT)

  6. Communication in the Classroom: Research and Observation. ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC resources on the following topics: teacher communication; research on classroom interaction; using systematic observations to improve teaching; different systems of classroom observations; and research on classroom observation techniques. (PD)

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of Mediterranean background aerosol at the Capogranitola observatory (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Gilardoni, Stefania; Paglione, Marco; Sandrini, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Zanca, Nicola; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Ielpo, Piera; Fossum, Kirsten; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is characterized by elevated aerosol amounts and co-existence of different aerosol types, both natural and anthropogenic, while it is one of the most climatically sensitive areas. Therefore, it offers ideal conditions for studying aerosol processes and aerosol-climate interactions. An intensive aerosol physico-chemical characterization campaign was held at the Environmental-Climatic Observatory at Capo Granitola (Sicily; 37.5753° N, 12.6595° E) during April 2016, under the framework of the project Air-Sea Lab. The Observatory is located at the coast-line, facing the Strait of Sicily, and is part of the national I-AMICA network (http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?lang=en). Sub-micrometer aerosol chemical composition was measured by high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), for the first time at Capogranitola. Sea-salt concentration was estimated from AMS measurements following Ovadnevaite et al. (2012). For a complete mass closure of the submicron aerosol, black carbon (BC) concentration was derived from multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP) measurements. Positive matrix factorization was deployed to investigate organic aerosol (OA) sources at the site. Aerosol chemical composition confirms that Capogranitola is a representative background site, with generally low contribution of BC and nitrate and highly oxidized OA. In particular, aerosol sampled in the marine sector (130-310°) is less affected by local sources and it is likely representative of the central Mediterranean background. Aerosol in background conditions is dominated by sulfate and OA (37% and 31%), followed by ammonium (12%), sea-salt (10%), BC (6%) and nitrate (3%). The average reconstructed sub-micrometer aerosol mass in background conditions is 3.7±2.3 μg m-3. OA source apportionment shows a minor contribution from primary sources, with hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), from fossil fuel combustion, contributing for 3% and biomass burning OA (BBOA) for

  8. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    permanent displacement potentially induced by an seismic scenario. Such methodologies found on the consideration that the conditions of seismic stability and the post-seismic functionality of engineering structures are tightly related to the entity of the permanent deformations that an earthquake can induce. Regarding the existing simplified procedures among slope stability models, Newmark's model is often used to derive indications about slope instabilities due to earthquakes. In this way, we have evaluated the seismically-induced landslides hazard in Sicily (Central Mediterranean) using the Newmark-like model. In order to determine the map distribution of the seismic ground-acceleration from an earthquake scenario, the attenuation-law of Sabetta & Pugliese has been used, analyzing some seismic recordings occurred in Italy. Also, by evaluating permanent displacements, the correlation of Ambraseys & Menu has been assumed. The seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily has been carried out using GIS application, also considering max seismic ground-acceleration peak distribution (in terms of exceedance probability for fixed time), slope acclivity, cohesion/angle of internal friction of outcropping rocks, allowing the zoning of the unstable slopes under seismic forces.

  9. Eric Kandel: the future of memory.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Erik

    2005-04-01

    Watching ice floes glide by on the Hudson River from Eric Kandel's office, one gets a sense of placid reflection tempered by constant action-an apt analogy for Kandel's ability to calmly manage several ongoing projects and commitments at once. In addition to his well-lauded, ongoing research at Columbia University Medical Center's New York State Psychiatric Institute, Kandel has written several books on neurobiology, behavior, and memory. In addition to being a Nobel Laureate Scientist, he is well-known as an editor of the seminal textbook Principles of Neural Science. He and his colleagues are in the midst of working on a new edition of Principles, and he is working on a scientific autobiography. MI sat down with Dr. Kandel and discussed with him a range of topics including childhood and early career influences, intramural research at the NIH, the HHMI, ethical considerations of altering memory and, of course, Aplysia.

  10. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  11. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  12. Disease management of type 2 diabetes: a follow-up analysis in a sanitary district of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Colucci, A; Bianco, A; Pomara, F; Petrucci, M; Grosso, F; De Vita, A; Adamo, V; Palma, A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the Disease management of type 2 diabetes in a sanitary district of the Sicily Region (Italy). In a population of 9 698 subjects, we selected patients with known type 2 diabetes: a cohort of 385 subjects, (206 women and 179 men) following up for one year. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the analyzed population was 3.97%. A great lot of cohort was on a diet. After one year, a per cent reduction of obese and overweight subjects was observed. No differences were observed for Body Mass Index (BMI) at the beginning and at the end of the study. After one year, through educational meetings with the doctor, a significant increase of knowledge on the patient's conditions and on the diabetes complications was verified, but our data showed persistent poor attention by doctors. The poor knowledge of patients led to a difficult disease management. After one year, a great lot of cohort used antistroke and cardiovascular disease therapy, reducing significantly the cardiovascular disease risk. However, our study also highlights a gap between the therapeutic guidelines and the actual treatment, with wide variability in the delivery of secondary prevention. CONCLUSION. Our study showed that a persevering warning and a constant adjournment of doctors improves the disease management, reducing complications risk in type 2 diabetes patients.

  13. A polyphasic approach to the identification of ochratoxin A-producing black Aspergillus isolates from vineyards in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, C; Torta, L; Catara, V

    2008-09-30

    Aspergillus strains belonging to section Nigri isolated during a two year survey in eight Sicilian vineyards located on the slopes of Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy) were analysed analyzed in order to characterize species responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of grapes. The polyphasic approach permitted analysis of biodiversity of Aspergillus isolates in relation to their morphology, ochratoxigenicity and genetic variability. We assessed OTA production by A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. japonicus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A. carbonarius isolates were the strongest OTA producers. A subset of 66 representative strains was selected for further DNA-based characterization. PCR assays using species-specific primers discriminated between A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. japonicus on the basis of the target sequences for each species. The PCR-based methods matched morphological characterization in identifying all the black aspergilli (BA) isolates tested, whereas RFLP analysis with RsaI of isolates positive to PCRs with A. niger specific primers identified three A. tubingensis isolates. The identification of thirteen isolates was further confirmed by ITS analysis. By this method, each of the isolates was identified and assigned to an Aspergillus species. The fAFLP analysis of 40 isolates highlighted the power of this technique to discriminate different species and single strains, to verify the presence of mixed populations in the same vineyard, through homogeneous species clusters. No correlation was observed between the clusters and OTA production level or origin.

  14. Mediterranean salt giants beyond the evaporite model: The Sicily perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo Manuella, Fabio; Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Hovland, Martin; Johnsen, Hans-Konrad; Rueslåtten, Håkon

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean salt giants, occurring both in sub-seafloor and in onshore settings (the "Gessoso Solfifera Group"), are traditionally explained by repeated cycles of desiccation and replenishment of the entire basin. However, such hypotheses are strongly biased by mass balance calculations and geodynamic considerations. In addition, any hypothesis without full desiccation, still based on the evaporite model, should consider that seawater brines start to precipitate halite when 2/3 of the seawater has evaporated, and hence the level of the basin cannot be the same as the adjacent ocean. On the other hand, hydrothermal venting of hot saline brines onto the seafloor can precipitate salt in a deep marine basin if a layer of heavy brine exists along the seafloor. This process, likely related to sub-surface boiling or supercritical out-salting (Hovland et al., 2006), is consistent with geological evidence in the Red Sea "Deeps" (Hovland et al., 2015). Although supercritical out-salting and phase separation can sufficiently explain the formation of several marine salt deposits, even in deep marine settings, the Mediterranean salt giant formations can also be explained by the serpentinization model (Scribano et al., 2016). Serpentinization of abyssal peridotites does not involve seawater salts, and large quantities of saline brines accumulate in pores and fractures of the sub-seafloor serpentinites. If these rocks undergo thermal dehydration, for example, due to igneous intrusions, brines and salt slurries can migrate upwards as hydrothermal plumes, eventually venting at the seafloor, giving rise to giant salt deposits over time. These hydrothermal processes can take place in a temporal sequence, as it occurred in the "Caltanissetta Basin" (Sicily). There, salt accumulation associated with serpentinization started during Triassic times (and even earlier), and venting of heavy brines onto the seafloor eventually occurred in the Messinian via the hydrothermal plume mechanism

  15. Financing Preschool for All Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svestka, Sherlie S.

    This digest compares the efforts of the United States and of other member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to finance center- and facility-based preschool. In many OECD countries, public preschool is more widely available than in the United States. For example, in France, 100%, and in Italy,…

  16. Evidence for Tunisian-Like Pestiviruses Presence in Small Ruminants in Italy Since 2007.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Purpari, G; Agnello, S; Di Marco, P; Di Bella, S; Volpe, E; Mira, F; de Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, A C; Vullo, S; Guercio, A

    2017-08-01

    The genus Pestivirus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, includes ssRNA+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in pigs, cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic and wild ruminants. Like most of the RNA viruses, pestivirus has high genome variability with practical consequences on disease epidemiology, diagnosis and control. In addition to the officially recognized species in the genus Pestivirus, such as BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BDV and CSFV, other pestiviruses have been detected. Furthermore, most of the ruminant pestiviruses show low or absent species specificity observed in serological tests and are able to infect multiple species. Particularly, small ruminants are receptive hosts of the most heterogeneous group of pestiviruses. The aim of this study was to carry out the molecular characterization of pestiviruses isolated from sheep and goats in Sicily, Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of two viral genomic regions (a fragment of 5'-UTR and the whole N(pro) regions) revealed the presence of different pestivirus genotypes in the analysed goat and sheep herds. Two of five viral isolates were clustered with BVDV-1d viruses, a strain widespread in Italy, but never reported in Sicily. The other three isolates formed a distinct cluster with high similarity to Tunisian isolates, recently proposed as a new pestivirus species. This represents the first evidence for Tunisian-like pestivirus presence in small ruminants in Italy. Furthermore, one of the isolates was collected from a goat, representing the first isolation of Tunisian-like pestivirus from this species. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Evidence for non-uniform uplift rates in southern Italy on glacial-cycle timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, F.; Ferranti, L.; Lambeck, K.; Verrubbi, V.

    2003-04-01

    Many studies of sea level change, with accurate positional measurements and precise datings have been published for Italy in the past decade. The use of markers whose formation positions are closely linked to mean sea level allows precise estimates to be made of local sea-level change. If the data is from tectonically active zones then these observations must be corrected for tectonic vertical movements. Examples include the records from Huon Penisula, Barbados and Tahiti. Often the corrections are based on a long term rates estimated from Quaternary data and in the best cases the last integlacial (~125 ka BP) shoreline is used as reference level. Uncertainties in these tectonic corrections may in some instances exceed the accuracy of the age-height measurements of the more recent shorelines. In the Mediterranean tectonically active coastlines occur in many locations, including Crete (Pirazzoli et al., 1982), southwest coast of Greece (Dia et al.,1997, Kershaw et al.,2002) and southern Italy (Miyauchi et al.,1994). Other coastal areas such as south eastern Spain (Zazo et al., 2001), Sardinia (Antonioli et al.,1999) and southern Latium (Hearty and Dai Prà, 1986) appear to be stable on the glacial timescales. We have obtained new Holocenic uplift rate for eastern Sicily and southern Calabria using Holocene and earlier interglacial observational data from Sicily (Taormina and St. Alessio Cape, Stewart et al., 1997, Antonioli et al., in print 2003) and Calabria (Scilla, Antonioli et al., submitted 2002, and Ioppolo, unpublished data) together with new models for the eustatic and glacio-hydro-isostatic contributions to Holocene sea level change where the latter have been calibrated against data from 30 sites in Italy (Lambeck et al.,submitted).For both regions of eastern Sicily and southern Calabria the Holocene uplift rates are greater than the long term average rates based on the position of the last (MIS 5.5) and earlier interglacial shorelines.

  18. Damage assessment of the Sicily and Calabria coasts evaluated on the 1783 Scilla landslide-tsunami scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Zaniboni, Filippo; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    In 1783 a series of destructive waves generated by the collapse of a coastal cliff close to the town of Scilla (Calabria, southern Italy), hit the main beach of the city and caused about 1500 casualties. The slide was triggered during the night by an earthquake, which was only of medium size and less than the five strongest shocks of the three-month long sequence affecting the Calabria region in that period. The local devastating effects are very well described in the coeval reports, surprisingly detailed in the reconstruction of the sliding mass and of the effects of the tsunami. Apart from Scilla itself, tens of kilometers of the Tyrrhenian Calabria and northern Sicily coasts were reported to suffer the effects of the tsunami. In the northernmost point of Sicily, named Capo Peloro, the inundation involved hundreds of meters inland, causing severe damage to properties and fatalities. Also in the harbor of Messina, about 15 km SW of the source, evidence of tsunami was reported. We have simulated the 1783 landslide by means of the code UBO-BLOCK1 and tsunami on a 10-m resolution grid by means of the tsunami simulation code UBO-TSUFD allowing to compute coastal inundation. In the area where the numerical inundation resulted to be most severe, which fits with historical accounts, we have evaluated damage and losses considering the today's level of population and built environment. This exercise shows that if an episode like the 1783 Scilla landslide would occur today the effects could be even more dramatic since the vulnerability of the coast has increased very much in terms of population and of buildings, and this even if the Scilla tsunami is known to be among the ones causing the highest number of fatalities in the Italian tsunami history. Though the repetition of the Scilla tsunamigenic landslide with same volume and same position can be considered unlikely, the occurrence of a similar slide detaching from the nearby mountainous coast triggered by an earthquake

  19. Mount Etna, Sicily taken from Atlantis during STS-106

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-04

    STS106-706-055 (8-20 September 2000) --- One of the STS-106 crew members on board the Space Shuttle Atlantis used a handheld 70mm camera to photograph this image of the Etna Volcano on Sicily. Mt. Etna is known as the volcano with the longest record of volcanic activity with the first being in 1500 BC. It has erupted many times since then and is almost continuously venting gas and steam, as shown in this view. Astronauts can almost be assured of seeing some venting whenever they fly in orbit. Mt. Etna appears as a cone with an almost circular base in this near-vertical view. The Salso River winds around the western and southern flanks of the volcano. The city of Catania appears as a diffuse gray patch at the foot of the volcano where the river meets the Mediterranean Sea. Mt. Etna has a complex of cones at its summit, which is nearly 3300 meters above sea level. Its slopes are a patchwork of colors, the darker colors being lava flows of different ages. Greens are patches of forest on slopes which have not been disrupted by lava and ash in the last few decades. Mt. Etna is a constructional landform which has been built upwards for millennia; it contrasts subtly but distinctly in this view with the surrounding lower hills which are water-eroded landforms everywhere sculpted into V-shaped valleys by the erosive power of flowing water of streams.

  20. The great heterogeneity of thalassemia molecular defects in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Giambona, A; Lo Gioco, P; Marino, M; Abate, I; Di Marzo, R; Renda, M; Di Trapani, F; Messana, F; Siciliano, S; Rigano, P

    1995-05-01

    This paper reports the results of 1428 beta-thalassemia chromosomes studied in Sicily during a hemoglobinopathy control program starting in 1983. Molecular screening was performed by direct restriction enzyme analysis, allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, reverse dot blot analysis (RDB) and, for the rare or new mutations, by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Using these approaches 1410 (98.7%) out of 1428 beta-globin gene defects were characterized, involving 22 different beta-thalassemia mutations. Three of these were present at high frequency (beta(0)39, IVS1, 110 and IVS1,6); the other beta-globin gene defects were found at lower frequency. In the latter, we found a smaller group of mutations at a frequency lower than 10% (IVS1, 1, IVS2, 745, beta S) and a larger one at a frequency lower than 2% [-87, IVS1,2, IVS2,1, fr 6, fr 8 (-AA), fr 44, fr 76, -101, IVS1, 116, IVS1, 3'end G-C, IVS1,5 G-A, IVS1,5 G-C, cod 30, Lepore, delta beta, beta C]. The possible origin of this very large number of mutations is discussed, taking into account the historical point of view. Moreover, this approach has made a first trimester prenatal diagnosis program possible in our region in practically all cases, with a great improvement in general thalassemia management.

  1. Astronomically oriented megaliths of the Monte Jato area (Sicily).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, A.; Polcaro, V. F.; Mercadante, F.; Lo Cascio, P.; Maurici, F.

    An imposing megalith is visible from many kilometres of distance near the top of the hill named Monte Arcivocalotto (Sicily). It is made by a single sandstone slab, shaped in triangular form with a large circular hole pierced at the centre. It is known to local people as U Campanaru ("The Bell Tower") and it was considered as a magic place until recently. The megalith is oriented toward the sunrise of the winter solstice, when the Sun rises at the hole centre, becoming visible from a very large distance. At a few kilometres, on the top of another hill, significantly named "Cozzo Perciata" ("Hill of the pierced one") a similar megalith was standing until to a few decades ago. It is presently collapsed, probably by a lighting, but the remains clearly show that it is oriented toward the summer solstice sunrise. Both megaliths have to be considered in the framework of the Eneolithic / Early Bronze Age worship centre of Pizzo Pietralunga, located halfway between Monte Arcivocalotto and Cozzo Perciata.

  2. A statistical analysis of eruptive activity on Mount Etna, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Lucy; James, Mike R.; Pinkerton, Harry; Tawn, Jonathan A.

    2009-10-01

    A rigorous analysis of the timing and location of flank eruptions of Mount Etna on Sicily is important for the creation of hazard maps of the densely populated area surrounding the volcano. In this paper, we analyse the temporal, volumetric and spatial data on eruptive activity on Etna. Our analyses are based on the two most recent and robust historical data catalogues of flank eruption activity on Etna, with one from 1669 to 2008 and the other from 1610 to 2008. We use standard statistical methodology and modelling techniques, though a number of features are new to the analysis of eruption data. Our temporal analysis reveals that flank eruptions on Mount Etna between 1610 and 2008 follow an inhomogeneous Poisson process, with intensity of eruptions increasing nearly linearly since the mid-1900s. Our temporal analysis reveals no evidence of cyclicity over this period. An analysis of volumetric lava flow rates shows a marked increase in activity since 1971. This increase, which coincides with the formation of the Southeast Crater (SEC), appears to be related to increased activity on and around the SEC. This has significant implications for hazard analysis on Etna.

  3. Christopher Columbus--Bridge between the Old and New Worlds: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database about Christopher Columbus. Includes items on Columbus' voyages, his contacts with the New World, ecological imperialism, and the explorer's experiences in Jamaica. Explains how to obtain ERIC documents. (SG)

  4. Vocational Training in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This document on vocational training in Italy contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of Italy. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in Italy, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…

  5. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on the Use of Futurism in Educational Planning. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Thirty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives.

    Futurism is a process of speculation on alternative possibilities for the future. Such a process leads to a clearer conception of future needs and resources. Applied to education, futurism can aid in longrange planning on a local, district, State, or national level. ERIC abstracts on the application of futurism to educational planning, announced…

  6. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on the Use of Futurism in Educational Planning. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Thirty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives.

    Futurism is a process of speculation on alternative possibilities for the future. Such a process leads to a clearer conception of future needs and resources. Applied to education, futurism can aid in longrange planning on a local, district, State, or national level. ERIC abstracts on the application of futurism to educational planning, announced…

  7. Three Trends in the Social Studies: A View from ERIC/ChESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education (ERIC/ChESS). Identifies three trends pertaining to the teaching and learning of history, geography, and civics in elementary and secondary schools. Examines pertinent issues in each trend area, and states that through regular use of ERIC/ChESS resources, teachers can…

  8. ERIC Annual Report, 2002: Summarizing the Recent Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarte, Lynn; Starcher, Heather

    This ERIC Annual Report presents both accomplishments and historical perspectives, as 2001 marks 35 years of ERIC service in delivering educational research and information to the public. This annual report describes the developments in the database of educational literature, the growing variety of ERIC Web-based products and user services, and…

  9. ERIC/CASS Virtual Libraries: Online Resources for Parents, Teachers, and Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Bleuer, Jeanne C.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is a federally funded program inaugurated in 1966 to serve as the nation's archive of important education documents. ERIC clearinghouses identify, select, and prepare entries describing education-related materials for the ERIC database; provide information in response to mail, telephone, and…

  10. Information Needs in the 21st Century: Will ERIC Be Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the ways in which federal policy with regard to the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) must change and the massive restructuring ERIC will require in order to continue to meet the information needs of the education community. Suggests that ERIC's success has been largely due to activities beyond its contracted scope and…

  11. ERIC Annual Report, 2000: Summarizing the Recent Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarte, Lynn

    This 2000 annual report, summarizing the accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system in 1999, begins with a section that highlights progress towards meeting goals, as well as selected statistics. The second section, comprising the bulk of the report, provides an overview of ERIC, including the ERIC database, user…

  12. Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The incidence of human TBDs in Italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available. Methods Samples (n = 561) were collected from humans in four main geographical areas of Italy (i.e., northwestern, northeastern, southern Italy, and Sicily), which represent a variety of environments. After being morphologically identified, ticks were molecularly tested with selected protocols for the presence of pathogens of the genera Rickettsia, Babesia, Theileria, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia and Anaplasma. Results Ticks belonged to 16 species of the genera Argas, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, with Ixodes ricinus (59.5%) being the species most frequently retrieved, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21.4%). Nymphs were the life stage most frequently retrieved (41%), followed by adult females (34.6%). The overall positivity to any pathogen detected was 18%. Detected microorganisms were Rickettsia spp. (17.0%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%), Borrelia afzelii (0.5%), Borrelia valaisiana (0.3%), C. N. mikurensis (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.6%). Conclusions Results indicate that people living in the Italian peninsula are at risk of being bitten by different tick species, which may transmit a plethora of TBD causing pathogens and that co-infections may also occur. PMID:25023709

  13. Slide Activity along the eastern slope of the Gela Basin (offshore Sicily): First results from expedition MSM-15/3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, K.; Strasser, M.; Freudenthal, T.; Foglini, F.; Trincardi, F.; Minisini, D.; Msm15/3 Working Group

    2010-12-01

    Submarine slides occur at all sediment bearing margins worldwide (Camerlenghi et al., 2009; Masson et al., 2006). Although numerous studies have dealt with mapping and monitoring of submarine landslide as well as investigations of trigger mechanisms and sediment failure processes, many open questions persist why a given slope fails whereas adjacent remains stable. Besides large slide events, smaller scaled mid-size slides became recently of particular importance because especially these local slides enable investigation of physical and kinematical processes during failure and to test a wide range of different trigger mechanisms. Hence, during the research expedition MSM15/3 we drilled two distinct landslides in the Gela Basin offshore south of Sicily (Italy) utilizing the MARUM sea floor drill rig (MeBo). These so-called ‘Twin Slides’ have previously been identified in water depth between 200 - 800m on the basis of side-scan sonar, Chirp seismics, swath bathymetry and shallow core data. Besides, these landslides are described as multiple failures likely controlled by specific stratigraphic surfaces acting as glide planes (Minisini et al., 2007; Minisini and Trincardi, 2009). Nevertheless, failure planes are located in depth inaccessible by conventional coring and we therefore lack groundtruthing of the geophysical data. Therefore, MeBo was deployed to drill e.g. critical subsurface intervals. A systematic MeBo drilling transect from the undisturbed slope apron to the depositional area of these landslide masses recovers up to 55 meter long cores, including the failure planes and stacked mass transport deposits in the proximal and distal areas, respectively. Sedimentological, geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical analysis of these core materials will enable (1) an age dating and estimation of the recurrence rate of mid-sized slide events and (2) a sediment physical characterization to gain a deeper insight into kinematics and physical processes during failure

  14. Hydrological and erosional response of a small catchment in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Marcello Zimbone, Santo; Barbagallo, Salvatore; Gallart, Francesc

    2014-05-01

    More than 1/5 of the Italian territory is at risk of desertification involving over 40% of the South. Climate change is expected to worsen the desertification trend already observed. In Sicily, for instance, the semi-arid territory extension had been gradually increasing in the period from 1931 to 2000 up to 20% of the regional territory. Parallel to this, territories classified as humid decreased by 30%. A better knowledge of soil erosion by water is essential for planning effective soil and water conservation practices in semi-arid environment, where accurate soil loss predictions are difficult particularly in the absence of minimal data. In order to give a contribute to the understanding of hydrological and erosional dynamics in Mediterranean areas, a monitoring program of a small catchment started in 1996. The Cannata catchment (1.30 km2) is a mountainous tributary, ephemeral in flow, of the Flascio River located in eastern Sicily. Climate is Mediterranean semi-arid with a mean annual precipitation (1996-2005), measured in three different sites, equal to 715 ± 163 mm mainly falling between October and January. Mean monthly temperature is between 3°C (January) and 24°C (August). Land use monitoring highlighted the prevalence of pasture areas (ranging between 87% and 92% of the catchment area during the monitoring period). In the Cannata catchment the elevation ranges between 903 m and 1270 m above mean sea level with an average land slope of 21%. Water discharge has been measured continuously for about 10 years at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrometrograph station connected to a runoff water automatic sampler for the measurement of sediment concentration in the flow. Precipitation has a typically Mediterranean seasonal pattern, being minimal in summer and maximal in winter. Monthly runoff follows the pattern of precipitation although somewhat delayed during autumn due to the effect of water deficit in summer. The analysis of the 170 runoff

  15. Evaluation of a seismic quiescence pattern in southeastern sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.; Achilli, V.; Baldi, P.

    1985-07-01

    Southeastern Sicily experienced a very peculiar seismic activity in historic times, with a long series of ruinous earthquakes. A last large event, with magnitude probably in excess of 7.5, occurred on Jan., 11, 1693, totally destroying the city of Catania and killing 60,000 people. Only a few moderate events were reported since then, and a seismic gap issue has been proposed on this basis. A close scrutiny of the available data further shows that all significant seismic activity ceased after year 1850, suggesting one of the largest quiescence patterns ever encountered. This is examined together with the complex tectonic setting of the region, characterized by a wrenching mechanism with most significant seismicity located in its northern graben structure. An attempt to ascertain the imminence and the size of a future earthquake through commonly accepted empirical relations based on size and duration of the quiescence pattern did not provide any feasible result. A precision levelling survey which we recently completed yielded a relative subsidence of ~ 3 mm/yr, consistent with an aseismic slip on the northern graben structure at a rate of ~ 15 mm/yr. Comparing these results with sedimentological and tidal data suggests that the area is undergoing an accelerated deformation process; this issue is further supported by Rikitake's ultimate strain statistics. If the imminence of a damaging ( M = 5.4) event is strongly favoured by Weibull statistics applied to the time series of occurrence of large events, the accumulated strain does not appear sufficient for a large earthquake ( M ⪸ 7.0). Within the limits of reliability of present semi-empirical approaches we conclude that the available evidence is consistent with the occurrence of a moderate-to-large ( M ≅ 6.0) event in the near future. Several questions regarding the application of simple models to real (and complex) tectonic settings remain nevertheless unanswered.

  16. Vega field and potential of Ragusa basin, Offshore Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, M. Jr.; Livraga, G.

    1984-09-01

    Vega, the largest single oil field in the Mediterranean Sea, is located between the southeastern coast of Sicily and the Island of Malta. The field lies entirely in Italian waters. Its discovery in October 1980 was based on interpretation of a very poor-quality seismic survey which, nevertheless, roughly outlined a relatively small structure. A limestone and dolomite fractured reservoir of the Inici, or Siracusa Formation, of Late Jurasic age, may contain in excess of 1 billion bbl of heavy crude (15.5 API) within a productive area of approximately 10,000 acres (4000 ha.). Reservoir properties are excellent, with permeabilities in darcys. The field extends northwest-southeast for 8.5 mi (14 km) and averages 1.7 mi (3 km) in width, according to the 3D seismic survey (2000 km) shot soon after the discovery well was drilled. The gross oil column reaches approximately 820 ft (250 m). The southeasternmost part of the Vega structure is not yet completely defined, and an additional 3D seismic survey is in progress. Should the new seismic results confirm expectations, the Vega structure could extend over 10 mi (17 km). The overlying Inici reservoir consists of dolomite and underlain by limestone in the southwestern part of the basin, and entirely of limestone in the northwestern portion of the basin. The Inici Formation represents the platform facies of the open-sea Villagonia and Giardini sediments. The Cammarata-Pozzillo (discovered in 1959), Perla (1979), Vega (1980), and Prezioso (1983) heavy crude oil fields are related to this formation. The potential for discovery of other fields similar to Vega in the Ragusa basin is excellent.

  17. Paleoseismological investigation offshore eastern Sicily and south Calabria (Ionian Sea).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Pedro, Laurine; Babonneau, Nathalie; Gutscher, Marc-André; Cattaneo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The Ionian Sea is a deep and narrow basin in the Central Mediterranean Sea, bounded by two accretionary wedges formed by the Calabrian and the Hellenic subduction zones, respectively to the North West and to the East. Eastern Sicily and Calabria have been repeatedly struck by destructive historical earthquakes and tsunamis (1693 AD Catania M7.4, 1908 AD Messina M7.2). The latter triggered a submarine landslide and turbidity current that ruptured submarine cables. In the Ionian Sea, preliminary sedimentological studies show that recent turbidite deposits could be directly correlated with large historical earthquakes. Other thick deposits imaged in seismic data as thick transparent layers in the Ionian abyssal plain have been termed megaturbidites or homogenites. This study is focused on the interpretation of turbidites and megaturbidites on the basis of new sediment cores located in the northwestern Ionian Sea. Understanding the sources and the origin of these deposits is crucial to interpret the paleoseismological record contained in the deep sediments of the Ionian Sea. The objective is to improve our understanding of the chronology and origin of large catastrophic events, which have affected the area. New data, including piston cores and CHIRP echosounder profiles, were collected during the CIRCEE cruise, with R/V Le Suroit in October 2013, in the western Ionian Sea, including the western part of Calabrian accretionary wedge and the base of the Malta Escarpment. With a wide regional distribution of the cores, this new dataset allows to refine the interpretation of gravity deposits in terms of sedimentary processes and to establish an event stratigraphy based on radiocarbon dating. The Augias megaturbidite was completely sampled in six cores: the origin of this deposit is associated to the 365 AD Crete mega-thrust earthquake. The sedimentological study and correlation of turbidite deposits provide the opportunity to obtain a paleoseismological record extending

  18. Space Radar Image of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this radar image to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This image was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles).

  19. Space Radar Image of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this radar image to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international "Decade Volcanoes" project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This image was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01776

  20. First results of an INGV project for the integrated analysis of the active tectonics in SW Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, Mario; Giovanni, Barreca; Carla, Bottari; Valentina, Bruno; Pierfrancesco, Burrato; Fabrizio, Cultrera; Luigi, Dardanelli; Sofia, De Gregorio; Luigi, Ferranti; Laura, Guzzetta; Paolo, Madonia; Carmelo, Monaco; Claudia, Pipitone; Fabrizio, Pepe; Francesco, Guglielmino

    2017-04-01

    of Sicily and 2) to verify the active deformation of the creeping segment already identified by Barreca et al. (2014) between Campobello and Castelvetrano. We re-surveyed the IGM (Istituto Geografico Militare) benchmarks of this area and a new dataset of benchmarks already measured in 2007 by the University of Palermo for cartographic applications. Finally, the SENTINEL 1A TOPSAR Advanced DinSAR analysis covering the 2014-2016 time spanning, confirms the presence of a lineament running NNE-SSW between Campobello and Castelvetrano, showing meaningful LOS displacements. Barreca G., Bruno V., Cocorullo C., Cultrera F., Ferranti L., Guglielmino F., Guzzetta L., Mattia M., Monaco C., Pepe F., (2014) Geodetic and geological evidence of active tectonics in south-western Sicily (Italy). Journal of Geodynamics, 82, 138-149

  1. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  2. New findings of Late Glacial Etna pumice fall deposits in NE Sicily and implications for distal tephra correlations in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carlo, Paola; Branca, Stefano; D'Oriano, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Pumice fall deposits found in the Nebrodi Mountains and along the Alcantara River, close to the town of Randazzo (NE Sicily), have been studied to derive information about their volcanic source and age. The geochemical Na-alkaline affinity of juvenile products, benmoreite to trachyte, clearly indicates they originated from Etna volcano (Sicily). Major (EMPA) and trace (LA-ICP-MS) element compositional data on matrix glasses indicate that the investigated deposits have a compositional affinity consistent with the tephra deposits of unit D produced by the Ellittico caldera-forming eruptions between ca. 17 and 19 cal ka BP. Furthermore, their compositions correspond to the distal tephra equivalent found in some lacustrine and marine cores in Central Italy (Y-1, TM-11), Tyrrhenian Sea (Et-1; MD10α) and Adriatic Sea (Pal94-66-358; Pal94-8-353). We applied the principal components analysis (PCA), a statistical tool able to reduce the variability of a complex system, to compare the compositions of the proximal samples with the possible distal counterparts found in drill cores of the Mediterranean area. On the basis of northward dispersal of the studied deposits and their geochemical features, we suggest they represent a previously unreported sub-Plinian/Plinian eruption of Ellittico volcano producing medial-distal pumice fall deposits in the Nebrodi Mountains and close to Randazzo, named here the D1c layer. The discovery of these deposits helps solve the problem of distal correlations of the northerly dispersed tephra from Etna related to unit D, for which no definitive attribution with proximal units was given in previous studies. The results presented here add to the knowledge of the eruptive history of the volcano and contribute to expanding the proximal geochemical glass dataset for distal tephra correlation in the Mediterranean region during the Late Glacial period.

  3. Fish Distribution and Habitat Complexity on Banks of the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea) from Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) Explorations.

    PubMed

    Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Battaglia, Pietro; Altobelli, Chiara; Perzia, Patrizia; Romeo, Teresa; Canese, Simonepietro; Andaloro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The Strait of Sicily was recognized internationally as an "Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area" by the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2014. However, basic aspects of its fish diversity are still unknown and most of the information comes from traditional trawl surveys. This paper provides the first detailed description, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), of the composition and depth distribution of the demersal fish assemblages found on banks of the Strait of Sicily and the related habitat complexity from 35 to 240 m depth. A total of 24 families and 52 fish species were recorded and depth was consistently associated with a significant proportion of the variation of the fish assemblage. The highest species richness was observed at the shallowest depth layer (0-50 m) and significantly decreased, remaining almost constant, in deeper layers. Similarly the highest abundance was recorded at 0-50 m, where C. julis represented the most abundant species, and decreased progressively throughout the whole depth gradient. Although the factor habitat complexity explained only a small proportion of the fish assemblage variation, significant differences among different degrees of habitat complexity were observed, together with a general positive trend for species richness and abundance with increasing habitat complexity. The ROV also allowed us to observe some rare or poorly known fish species such as Scorpaenodes arenai, Hyporthodus haifensis, Myliobatis aquila, Gadella maraldi, Epinephelus caninus and Lappanella fasciata. These findings show that banks serve as reservoirs for fish abundance and biodiversity and that immediate environmental conservation and management actions represent a priority not only for Italy but also for other countries which share the same area.

  4. Fish Distribution and Habitat Complexity on Banks of the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea) from Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) Explorations

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Valentina; Battaglia, Pietro; Altobelli, Chiara; Perzia, Patrizia; Romeo, Teresa; Canese, Simonepietro; Andaloro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The Strait of Sicily was recognized internationally as an “Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area” by the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2014. However, basic aspects of its fish diversity are still unknown and most of the information comes from traditional trawl surveys. This paper provides the first detailed description, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), of the composition and depth distribution of the demersal fish assemblages found on banks of the Strait of Sicily and the related habitat complexity from 35 to 240 m depth. A total of 24 families and 52 fish species were recorded and depth was consistently associated with a significant proportion of the variation of the fish assemblage. The highest species richness was observed at the shallowest depth layer (0–50 m) and significantly decreased, remaining almost constant, in deeper layers. Similarly the highest abundance was recorded at 0–50 m, where C. julis represented the most abundant species, and decreased progressively throughout the whole depth gradient. Although the factor habitat complexity explained only a small proportion of the fish assemblage variation, significant differences among different degrees of habitat complexity were observed, together with a general positive trend for species richness and abundance with increasing habitat complexity. The ROV also allowed us to observe some rare or poorly known fish species such as Scorpaenodes arenai, Hyporthodus haifensis, Myliobatis aquila, Gadella maraldi, Epinephelus caninus and Lappanella fasciata. These findings show that banks serve as reservoirs for fish abundance and biodiversity and that immediate environmental conservation and management actions represent a priority not only for Italy but also for other countries which share the same area. PMID:27936221

  5. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Metasomatizing effects of serpentinization-related hydrothermal fluids in abyssal peridotites: new contributions from Hyblean peridotite xenoliths (southeastern Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Ottolini, Luisa; Carbone, Serafina; Scavo, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    We studied a partially serpentinized peridotite xenolith, found in the diatreme tuff-breccia deposit at Valle Guffari (Hyblean Plateau, southeastern Sicily, Italy), which is representative of the Hyblean peridotite xenolith suite. We also considered all published (21) whole-rock analyses of Hyblean peridotites, to investigate the metasomatizing effects of seawater-related hydrothermal fluids in the Hyblean basement, an in-situ remnant of the ultraslow-spreading Permian Tethys. In detail, we analyzed the serpentine veins by different techniques (scanning electron microscopy-SEM, electron-probe microanalysis-EPMA, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction-XRPD) to determine the crystal-chemical composition and the structure of the veins. In addition, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was applied to measure the abundance of trace elements. Serpentine veins are made up of two Fe-rich polytypes, chrysotile 2Mc1 and lizardite 1T. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element compositions of both serpentine polytypes are lower than 1, except for a modest light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment, and also in some fluid-mobile elements (FME: B, Rb, Sr, U). Conversely, the whole-rock composition of the studied peridotite xenolith is enriched with LREE and other trace elements (B, Sr, P, Th, U, Pb), like most Hyblean peridotites. The REE and multi-element patterns of Hyblean peridotites are akin to those of hydrothermal sediments from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and St. Demetrio hill (northern Hyblean Plateau), and abyssal peridotites (serpentinites) whose trace element abundance is generally ascribed to melt-rock interaction. The integrated interpretation of the data and the documentation of hydrothermal minerals [(Na,S)-rich apatite, carbonates] in serpentine veins indicate that serpentinization-related hydrothermal fluids do have a primary role in metasomatism (mainly for the abundance of LREE and high field strength elements-HFSE) of ancient (Permian Tethys) and

  7. Knowledge Discovery and Digital Cartography for the ALS (Linguistic Atlas of Sicily) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Antonio; Pirrone, Roberto; Russo, Giuseppe

    In this paper the latest developments of the ALS (Linguistic Atlas of Sicily) project are presented. The ALS project has the purpose to define methodologies and tools to allow researches in the socio-linguistic field. Different types of variables (both quantitative and qualitative) are involved.

  8. Sensitivity of the sea circulation to the atmospheric forcing in the Sicily Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Hiba; Arsouze, Thomas; Béranger, Karine; Boukthir, Moncef; Drobinski, Philippe; Lebeaupin-Brossier, Cindy; Mairech, Hanen

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the sea surface circulation in the Sicily Channel to surface winds, using a 15-year long (1994-2008) air-sea coupled numerical simulation. Analysis is based on the clustering of six main wind regimes over the Sicily Channel domain. The analysis of the corresponding sea current clusters shows that sea circulation in this area is sensitive to surface wind patterns. This wind modulates the strength of the two main branches of the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel (i.e. the Atlantic Tunisian Current and the Atlantic Ionian Stream). The modulation of these two currents depends on the wind regime, and displays a strong seasonal variability. It is also shown that the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel is strongly controlled by the thermohaline circulation and the bathymetry (geostrophic current). However, the contribution to the total current of its ageostrophic component forced by the surface winds is significant, with a correlation coefficient varying from 0.3 to 0.7.

  9. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  10. Sicily 2002 balloon campaign: a test of the HASI instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettanini, C.; Fulchignoni, M.; Angrilli, F.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Antonello, M.; Bastianello, S.; Bianchini, G.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Flamini, E.; Gaborit, V.; Aboudan, A.

    2004-01-01

    A mock-up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere as part of the Huygens Cassini Mission was successfully launched and recovered on 30th May 2002 after a stratospheric balloon launch from the Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Trapani, Sicily. To simulate the Huygens mission at Titan, the probe was lifted to an altitude of 32 km and then released to perform a 45 min parachute decelerated descent. The probe was hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 76 acquired sensor channels and sampled during the ascent, drift and descent phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system was developed, based on PC architecture and soft-real-time application. Sensors channels were sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software was developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy. The main goal of this flight was to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test for HASI hardware in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those of the Titan atmosphere as well as the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI during ground landing. Aerodynamic study of the probe has contributed in achieving descent velocity and spin rate profiles close to the ones envisioned for the Huygens Titan descent. Profiles have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe through the Earth's atmosphere during parachute aided descent. Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. Passive thermal control of the probe has also been designed and implemented in order to guarantee proper temperature ranges on critical components

  11. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer J; Wood, Rachel A; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO(2) onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO(2) leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO(2) seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO(2) stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO(2) degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO(2) poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO(2) seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO(2) flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO(2) seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  12. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

  13. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  14. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-10-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  15. Public History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on public history. Includes background information and teaching materials on such topics as museum resources in K-12 social studies, using historic sites to study western women's history, and teaching about the Oregon Trail. (CMK)

  16. Capital Outlay: A Critical Concern in Rural Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, James; Howley, Craig B.

    This digest, which is based primarily on the 1989 ERIC/CRESS monograph entitled "Achievement of Equity in Capital Outlay Financing: A Policy Analysis for the States," by D. Thompson G. Stewart, D. Honeyman, and R. Wood, addresses possible solutions to the emerging problem of capital outlay financing, with special attention to facilities…

  17. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  18. A Global Perspective on Human Rights Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This ERIC Digest outlines what is meant by the phrase human rights and the origin of the concept. It also traces the delineation of the concept of human rights from the 17th century antecedent of "natural rights" to its eventual incarnation as inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and…

  19. Teaching about the Life and Health of Cells. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    Modern technology in life and health sciences brings a new understanding to the study of cells and as a result, the National Science Education Standards emphasize understanding of science and technology. This ERIC Digest describes the central role of cell biology (cytology) in understanding these areas and explains conceptual difficulties and…

  20. K-8 Science and Mathematics Education. The ERIC Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Review, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme. This issue focuses on science and mathematics education for students in grades K-8. Articles include: "The New Three R's: The Importance of Science and Mathematics Education" (Steven J. Rakow); "When Should Children…

  1. Science/Technology/Society in the Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Phillip A.

    The current trend to include the relationships of science and technology to human societies in the social studies curriculum is the focus of this ERIC Digest. The Digest discusses: (1) major themes in education on science/technology/society (STS); (2) the rationale for emphasizing STS in the social studies; and (3) how to include STS in the…

  2. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  3. DSM-5 and ADHD - an interview with Eric Taylor.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2013-09-12

    In this podcast we talk to Prof Eric Taylor about the changes to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in DSM-5 and how these changes will affect clinical practice. The podcast for this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/sites/2999/download/Taylor.mp3.

  4. Mastery Learning and Mastery Testing: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M., Comp.

    This 136-item annotated bibliography on mastery learning and mastery testing is the result of a computer search of the ERIC data base in February 1977. All entries are listed alphabetically by author. An abstract or annotation is provided for each entry. A subject index is included reflecting the major emphasis of each citation. (RC)

  5. Preparing School Administrators. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    Issues involved in improving administrator preparation programs are described in this ERIC Digest. A literature review identifies appropriate skills and methods for administrator training and summarizes recommendations such as application of theory to practice and development of full-time internships, school/university collaboration, mentorships,…

  6. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Isaccs

    2016-07-12

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  7. Post-Modernism, Art Educators, and Art Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Ronald N.

    This ERIC digest explores aspects of post-modernism in art and art education. The adoption of post-modern attitudes by art educators must result in the generation of different, but no less difficult questions about the nature of formal education. Support for this argument comes from recent art education publications supplemented by relevant, but…

  8. Recent International Documents and Journal Articles from the ERIC Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Annotates recent international documents and journal articles from the ERIC database. Document topics include racial equality, and balancing early childhood education and work. Journal article topics include foster care in Iraqi Kurdistan; child care in Sweden; teacher-child interaction in Australian centers; teacher education in Brazil, Iceland,…

  9. Tips for Social Studies Teachers: Activities from ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    Action-oriented learning activities, most drawn from resources in the ERIC system, are designed to stimulate elementary and junior high school students' interest and participation while conveying important social studies content and skills. The activities are organized into six sections. The first section focuses on developing social studies…

  10. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Isaccs

    2009-09-17

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  11. Teaching about the Pacific Rim. ERIC Digest No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest examines: (1) the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim"; (2) reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum; and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. The terms, Pacific Rim and Pacific Basin, are used. interchangeably; however, the "Rim" refers to those nations…

  12. Recruiting and Selecting Principals. ERIC Digest Series Number EA27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    This ERIC Digest is an overview of the process of recruiting and selecting principals. Criteria for selecting a principal should include problem analysis, organizational ability, decisiveness, effective communication skills, and stress tolerance, along with personal qualities such as dedication, creativity, and enthusiasm. Innovative steps that…

  13. Learning Resources Centers: Best of ERIC. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Richard L.

    This selected annotated bibliography lists almost two hundred documents, added to the ERIC data base since 1972, which deal with adaptations of the learning resources center concept to specific situations. The bibliography is divided into ten sections: (1) elementary and secondary schools; (2) colleges and universities; (3) personnel and training;…

  14. Guidelines for Computer-Assisted Reading Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Marjorie R.

    Focusing on how teachers can integrate computers into reading/writing instruction, this ERIC digest presents guidelines for helping language arts teachers match their use of computers with what is known about the reading/writing process. The guidelines for computers and reading presented in the digest point out that computer instruction in reading…

  15. The Case Method in Teacher Education: Alaskan Models. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith

    This ERIC digest discusses the theoretical basis of case teaching and examines its strengths and limitations as a tool for teacher education. Case teaching presents authentic, concrete teaching problems for students to analyze. The study of a classroom fight, for example, might draw discussion of racial, ethical, political, and other community…

  16. ERIC Abstractor/Indexer Workbook. Revised Edition. 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Barbara; Meredith, Sydney J.; Rios, Betty Rose

    Eight documents of representative types and three journal articles are included in this self-instructional training workbook for abstractor/indexers. Introductory materials provide an overview of informative and indicative abstracting styles and the principles of indexing utilized by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Detailed…

  17. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs talks about ARRA funding at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Argonne is set to receive over $150 million in stimulus funds. Director Eric Isaacs describes how these funds will be put to good use—hiring employees and contractors, cleaning up the nuclear footprint, and investing in technologies for America's future. More info on Argonne and ARRA here: http://www.anl.gov/recovery/index.html

  18. Internet Resources for K-8 Students: Update 2000. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Blythe

    Although there are many content-rich resource sites for elementary and middle school students on the World Wide Web, finding such sites can often be difficult. This ERIC Digest describes more than 50 K-8 curriculum related Web sites of special interest to students, teachers, parents and librarians. Sites are listed under the following categories:…

  19. Teaching Poetry: Generating Genuine, Meaningful Responses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenbach, Charlie

    Although many teachers force-feed the "meaning" of poetry to puzzled students or teach poetry by way of dissecting poetic techniques, more productive approaches to the study of poetry exist, as reflected in the literature in the ERIC database. Units of study can be organized around particular kinds of inquiry instead of around a literary…

  20. Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyonyong

    This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems…

  1. Consejeria de los directores (Principal Mentoring). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although…

  2. Integrating 21st Century Access to ERIC Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the development of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) dataset and the relationship between that dataset and the disparate services that have emerged as a result of the Internet and the Web. Discusses the technical infrastructure; database content; services and resources; creating a unified knowledge base; and metadata…

  3. Experiential Learning of Mathematics: Using Manipulatives. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartshorn, Robert; Boren, Sue

    This ERIC digest examines recent research about the use of manipulatives to teach mathematics. "Manipulatives" refers to objects that can be touched and moved by students to introduce or reinforce a mathematical concept. The digest also speculates on some of the challenges affecting future use of manipulatives. Since the 19th century,…

  4. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  5. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Eric Chiang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Mark; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present this interview with Eric Chiang, Associate Professor of Economics, Director of Instructional Technology, and Technology Director for the Online MBA Program at Florida Atlantic University. He has authored 26 peer-reviewed research publications and is the author of "CoreEconomics," an economic principles textbook now in…

  6. The Great Depression: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the Great Depression. Includes both background information and teaching materials on such topics as an overview of the New Deal, the arts and the Great Depression, and information on the Civilian Conservation Corps. Offers directions for accessing the materials. (CMK)

  7. The Gilded Age: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Gilded Age and directions for obtaining the full text of these materials; topics include, but are not limited to, immigration, the 1896 presidential election, the Populist movement, the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and the development of…

  8. How To Use ERIC on CD-ROM. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratch, Bonnie

    This guide provides step-by-step instructions for the end user for searching the ERIC database on CD-ROM using the Dialog OnDisc software. Topics include: (1) preparing for the search by analyzing the information need; (2) beginning the search and selecting a search option; (3) modifying the search; (4) displaying the records; (5) printing all…

  9. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  10. Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    The issue of drug testing is the focus of this ERIC Digest. Several aspects of drug testing discussed in question-and-answer format: (1) What is the current status of drug use in the schools? (2) What legal questions arise when schools consider drug testing? (3) How might drug testing be applied in a fair, economical, and legally safe manner? (4)…

  11. The Early Republic: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Early Republic. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of the materials about "The Federalist Papers," the Bill of Rights, the Constitutional Convention, Thomas Jefferson, and other topics. (CMK)

  12. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  13. Infant Day Care: The Critical Issues. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Abbey; Fein, Greta

    Discussed in this ERIC Digest are the quality of infant day care and aspects of the debate on infant attachment. Characteristics of current infant day care provisions are reported. Program quality is discussed in terms of: (1) structural features, such as group size, staff-child ratios, caregiver training, equipment, space; (2) dynamic aspects,…

  14. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs talks about ARRA funding at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Isaacs, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Argonne is set to receive over $150 million in stimulus funds. Director Eric Isaacs describes how these funds will be put to good use—hiring employees and contractors, cleaning up the nuclear footprint, and investing in technologies for America's future. More info on Argonne and ARRA here: http://www.anl.gov/recovery/index.html

  15. Proprietary Schools: Programs, Policies and Prospects. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John B.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    This digest summarizes the ERIC report concerning proprietary school education. Many proprietary schools offer no degrees and many of their courses are less than one year. They are profit oriented and market driven with decision making centralized in the ownership. The curricula are job-skills oriented and comprise programs in office, technology…

  16. Building Academically Strong Gifted Programs in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhman, Anna; Fundis, Ronald

    This ERIC Digest discusses relevant issues and alternatives for rural school districts trying to develop strong programs for their most academically talented students. Although rural schools are more often constrained by high costs and material shortages than are urban schools, there are opportunities inherent in the lower teacher-student ratios…

  17. Peace and Nuclear War. ERIC Digest No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John; Zola, Jaye

    This ERIC Digest examines the nature of peace and nuclear war education, rationales for its inclusion in public school programs, and ways to deal with the controversial nature of the topics. A distinction between peace education and nuclear war education is followed by a description of four basic themes offered as a rationale for peace and nuclear…

  18. Teaching ERIC on CD-ROM: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Danise G.

    1991-01-01

    Describes new methods of bibliographic instruction for the OCLC version of ERIC on CD-ROM at Lehman College of the City University of New York that were precipitated by a revision in the searching software. Librarian training is discussed and small group instruction for students is explained. (LRW)

  19. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 3, Lessons 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    The last half of a course in subject indexing for the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system is presented in this volume. The demonstration of indexing techniques, lesson 3, uses a typical document (given in full in an appendix in volume 1) to show how indexing concepts are chosen in practice and converted into terms contained in…

  20. Teaching about the Constitutional Rights of Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This ERIC digest presents a rationale for teaching students about their rights and responsibilities as citizens under the U.S. Constitution. Social studies teachers have a special role in shaping the lives of young citizens and influencing whether students become politically involved adults. Specific constitutional rights such as the right of a…

  1. Integrating 21st Century Access to ERIC Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the development of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) dataset and the relationship between that dataset and the disparate services that have emerged as a result of the Internet and the Web. Discusses the technical infrastructure; database content; services and resources; creating a unified knowledge base; and metadata…

  2. Heritage Education in the Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Kathleen

    This ERIC Digest discusses heritage education in terms of: (1) what it is; (2) why it belongs in the core curriculum; (3) how it relates to social studies education; and (4) the qualities of exemplary heritage education programs. Heritage education is defined as an approach to teaching and learning about history and culture that uses information…

  3. The Making of a Missionary: Eric Ashby and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Examines the work of Eric Ashby, a missionary of the technology age in Great Britain, an analyst of status quo and change proponents of higher education,; and an implementer of technology curricula. He warned in the 1950s that if Western academies did not adapt to/with technology, they would not survive. (KDR)

  4. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Eric Chiang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Mark; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present this interview with Eric Chiang, Associate Professor of Economics, Director of Instructional Technology, and Technology Director for the Online MBA Program at Florida Atlantic University. He has authored 26 peer-reviewed research publications and is the author of "CoreEconomics," an economic principles textbook now in…

  5. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  6. Teaching Fractions: New Methods, New Resources. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Michael

    This ERIC Digest overviews recent research on teaching and learning fractions and provides suggestions for practice, help in locating resources having direct application in the classroom, and sources for further reading in the literature. Students' conceptions of fractions or rational numbers, common mistakes teachers make, and new teaching…

  7. ERIC Directory of Education-Related Information Centers, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeg, Michael, Ed.; Boston, Carol, Ed.

    The "ERIC Directory of Education-Related Information Centers" is a guide to 450 organizations that provide information relevant to education or that focus on topics and disciplines closely related to education, such as educational administration, parent participation, and nontraditional education. The directory includes both federally…

  8. The Korean War: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background documents about the Korean War from the ERIC database. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of materials about the division of South and North Korea, the geography of Korea, and South Korea's economic development. (CMK)

  9. Computer Applications in Education: The Best of ERIC 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Pamela

    This collection provides an overview of literature entered into the ERIC database in 1990 on computer applications in elementary and secondary education, adult education, and special education. The first of four sections contains a list of overview documents on computer assisted instruction. Focusing on special applications, the second section…

  10. Computer Applications in Education: The Best of ERIC 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Pamela

    This annotated bibliography is the sixth annual compilation of the abstracts of 228 documents added to the ERIC database during the year 1991 in the area of computer applications in elementary and secondary schools. The types of materials included are administrator guides, bibliographies, conference papers, evaluative reports, literature reviews,…

  11. Computer-Based Education. The Best of ERIC, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Pamela

    This annotated bibliography provides an overview of literature entered into the ERIC database in 1988 on computer use in elementary and secondary education, adult education, and special education. The first of four sections provides a list of overview documents on: computer-assisted instruction. Focusing on special applications, the second section…

  12. Rural Philosophy for Education: Wendell Berry's Tradition. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    This ERIC Digest reviews past and present rural educational philosophy, focusing on the views of Wendell Berry, a Kentucky farmer and novelist who in recent years has emerged as a leading American philosopher. The major difference underlying rural and urban living is the relationship of people with nature. Rural living is much more closely related…

  13. Sport in History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a sampling of eight entries from the ERIC database that deal with the history of sport. Includes works discussing baseball as a representation of societal value, lesson plans, and works dealing with race and cultural themes. Provides instructions for obtaining the documents listed. (DK)

  14. Facilitated Molecular Typing of Shigella Isolates Using ERIC-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gilman, Robert H.; Vela, Henry; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Calderon, Maritza; Bao, Juan Perez; Hall, Eric; Maves, Ryan; Burga, Rosa; Sanchez, Graciela Meza

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) typing versus the current standard for the typing of Shigella pulsed gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we typed 116 Shigella isolates from a village in an endemic setting over a 20-month period using both methods. PFGE identified 37 pulse types and had a discrimination index of 0.925 (95% confidence interval = 0.830–1.00), whereas ERIC-PCR identified 42 types and had a discrimination index of 0.961 (95% confidence interval = 0.886–1.00). PFGE and ERIC-PCR showed a 90.4% correlation in the designation of isolates as clonal or non-clonal in pairwise comparisons. Both systems were highly reproducible and provided highly similar and supplementary data compared with serotyping regarding the transmission dynamics of shigellosis in this community. ERIC-PCR is considerably more rapid and inexpensive than PFGE and may have a complementary role to PFGE for initial investigations of hypothesized outbreaks in resource-limited settings. PMID:22665611

  15. Working with Shy or Withdrawn Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere

    This ERIC digest focuses on students who are commonly described as shy (inhibited, lacking in confidence, socially anxious) or withdrawn (unresponsive, uncommunicative, or daydreaming). Symptoms of shyness or withdrawal may appear as part of the student's overall personality or as a situation-specific response to a particular stress factor.…

  16. The Bread & Butter of the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David

    An increasing amount of national attention is focused on connecting K-12 schools to the Internet, while at the same time, there is some debate on the benefits of using it in the classroom. Most teachers know the Internet is a source of information, but may not know how it works or how to use it. This ERIC Digest provides a framework to explain…

  17. Technology and the ERIC System: New Opportunities and New Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    This paper examines the inter-relationship between recent developments in information technology and the planning for the evaluation of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. It argues that in the light of radical changes currently taking place in the networked information environment and user expectations, bold strategic…

  18. The New Philanthropist: Eric Schnell--Ohio State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    As head of information technology at the Prior Health Sciences Library, Eric Schnell likes to improve products that don't fully meet his library's purposes. His first major software product, the award-winning Prospero Electronic Delivery Project, is a web-based document delivery system designed to complement Ariel[R] by converting documents to a…

  19. Marketing Perspectives for "ERIC-Like" Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehl, Philip G.

    1972-01-01

    An understanding of marketing'' can provide valuable insignts into the capability of success or failure of ERIC-Like information systems. Three marketing perspectives are examined that contribute to a better understanding of the role such systems can play in satisfying user needs (Author/KE)

  20. Sedimentological and morphological approach for the study of coastal dynamics: a case study in the south of the Sicily (Punta Granitola, Portopalo of Menfi).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferruzza, G.; Fallo, L.; Giaramita, L.; Vaccaro, F.

    2009-04-01

    A geomorphologic and sedimentologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 19 - km long coast sector in Southern Sicily, Italy, affected by important erosion processes. The methodology that we applied allowed the creation of a database involving a range of coastal characteristics helpful to reconstruct coastal processes and general sediment circulations patterns. The littoral zone studied belongs to the Trapani Province, South East of Sicily, Italy, and is situated between Punta Granitola and Porto Palo of Menfi. Coastal orientation varies from W/SW-E/NE in the western sector, between Punta Granitola and Triscina, to W-E in the central sector between Triscina and Belice River and to W/NW-E/SE between Belice River and Portopalo. In the investigated area houses, roads and other human structures, which have appeared in the last 30 - 40 years, are exceedingly close to shore line. More over at the same time harbours and artificial barrier were constructed. All these human structures have probably halted the littoral transport. The first goal of this work was the general knowledge of morphological characteristics of shore line and of the broad sediment circulation patterns. To this end the landform characteristic were obtained thought several field observations and the analysis of recent aerial photographs and topographic maps of different years. The ESRI® ArcMap 9.2. software was used for geo-referencing and for the elaboration of the topographic maps and of the aerial photographs. The ESRI® ArcMap 9.2. was later used for integration, digitalization and finally for the analysis of data. All data were presented as Universal Transverse Mercatore Coordinates, with the European 1950 datum (zone 33N). Moreover we performed a preliminary sedimentological study of this coast line. On this base we have identified 7 km of unimodal sand beach, situated between Punta Granitola and Triscina, where we have carried out a more detailed morphological

  1. The Tale of Two ERICs: Factors Influencing the Development of the First ERIC and Its Transformation into a National System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Lee G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the original ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) was established as a centralized information center within the Office of Education, and how it was later transformed into a decentralized national system. Discusses the roles of advances in information systems technology, interpersonal relationships, political decisions,…

  2. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  3. ERIC Processing Manual. Rules and Guidelines for the Acquisition, Selection, and Technical Processing of Documents and Journal Articles by the Various Components of the ERIC Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Processing and Reference Facility, Bethesda, MD.

    This loose-leaf manual provides the detailed rules, guidelines, and examples to be used by the components of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) network in acquiring and selecting documents and in processing them (i.e. cataloging, indexing, abstracting) for input to the ERIC computer system and subsequent announcement in…

  4. Simulation of debris flow events in Sicily by cellular automata model SCIDDICA_SS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelliere, A.; Lupiano, V.; Peres, D. J.; Stancanelli, L.; Avolio, M.; Foti, E.; Di Gregorio, S.

    2013-12-01

    Debris flow models are widely used for hazard mapping or for evaluating the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures. Several models analyze the dynamics of debris flow runout solving Partial Differential Equations. In use of such models, difficulties arise in estimating kinematic geotechnical soil parameters for real phenomena. In order to overcome such difficulties, alternative semi-empirical approaches can be employed, such as macroscopic Cellular Automata (CA). In particular, for CA simulation purposes, the runout of debris flows emerges from local interactions in a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves within a spatial and temporal discretum. The attributes of each cell (substates) describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is splitted into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the CA transition function. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. In this study, we present an application of the macroscopic CA semi-empirical model SCIDDICA_SS3 to the Peloritani Mountains area in Sicily island, Italy. The model was applied using detailed data from the 1 October 2009 debris flow event, which was triggered by a rainfall event of about 250 mm falling in 9 hours, that caused the death of 37 persons. This region is characterized by river valleys with large hillslope angles (30°-60°), catchment basins of small extensions (0.5-12 km2) and soil composed by metamorphic material, which is easy to be eroded. CA usage implies a calibration phase, that identifies an optimal set of parameters capable of adequately play back the considered case, and a validation phase, that tests the model on a sufficient (and different) number of cases similar in terms of physical and geomorphological properties. The performance of the model can be measured in terms of a fitness

  5. Contemporary and concurrent extension and compression in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Mariucci, M.; Pierdominici, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the latest updating and the complete collection of data on the contemporary stress orientations in Italy. Data are relative to different stress indicators: borehole breakouts from deep drillings, crustal earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data. With respect to the previous compilation, performed in 2004, 206 new entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in the most part of the territory, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. With an increase of 37% with respect to the previous compilation, now the global Italian dataset consists of 499 records with a reliable quality for stress maps. The total dataset includes the following active stress indicators: 56% borehole breakouts, 39% single earthquake focal mechanisms, and 5% represented by formal inversions of focal mechanisms, faults and overcoring data. A quality ranking between A and E is assigned to each stress data, with A being the highest quality and E the lowest. Only A-, B- and C-quality stress indicators are considered consistent for analyzing stress patterns. Depth interval of the entire dataset is between 0 to 40 km. The results in map are reported in terms of minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) because most of earthquakes present an extensional regime. Concerning breakouts, their orientations correspond to Shmin; since all the considered faults are normal faults, we assume the Shmin direction as perpendicular to the fault strike when no information on slip direction is available. The achieved results can be summarized in 3 main points: i) in some areas of Italy (Sicily, Friuli and Po Plain in the northern Italy), the alignment of horizontal stresses closely matches the ~N-S direction of ongoing crustal motions with respect to stable European plate. This result can be associated to the first-order stress field that drives the plate movement; ii) along the entire Apenninic belt - from north to south- a diffuse

  6. Impact of universal vaccination against varicella in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Castiglia, Paolo; Gallo, Tolinda; Giuffrida, Sandro; Locuratolo, Francesco; Tafuri, Silvio; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco; Bonanni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination (UVV) has been decided but postponed, as a national programme, until 2015, when data from Regions which have already implemented it will be available. Starting from 2003, eight Italian Regions (Basilicata, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Veneto) have progressively introduced UVV, in their immunization programme, with different schedules in children aged 13–15 months and 5–6 years, currently a two-dose schedule is adopted by all Regions. In June 2013, an Interregional Group on Varicella Vaccination (IGVV) has been established in order to assess the effectiveness of varicella vaccination with standardized and shared tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence and hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications in the period 2003–2012 in order to support the Italian decision makers on the future national adoption. Preliminary data showed that a general reduction of incidence and hospitalization rates was observed in the study period, resulting in relevant savings for the National Health Service. Immunization coverage with first dose at 24 months of age was high in all Regions (84%–95%) in 2012. Adverse events due to varicella vaccines were rare and without permanent sequelae. Underreporting of varicella cases and delays in the administration of the first dose of varicella vaccines were the main critical issues. In conclusion, solid evidences in support of universal UVV arise from the experiences available today in Italy. PMID:25483517

  7. A Transitional Model for the Evaluation of West Nile Virus Transmission in Italy.

    PubMed

    Calistri, P; Savini, L; Candeloro, L; Di Sabatino, D; Cito, F; Bruno, R; Danzetta, M L

    2016-10-01

    In August 2008, after 10 years of apparent silence, West Nile virus (WNV) infection re-emerged in northern Italy, spreading through the territories of three regions. In the following years, new cases occurred in the same area and additional foci of infection were observed in central and southern Italy, involving also Sicily and Sardinia islands. The Italian Ministry of Health ordered to test by RT-PCR all blood and organ donors from 15th June to 15th November of each year in the infected areas. The period at risk of WNV transmission was defined on the basis of literature data, but a more scientific estimation of the transmission season, under Italian circumstances, needs to be performed. A transitional model previously developed by other Authors was applied and adapted to Italian circumstances, to describe and quantify the WNV transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes. Culex spp. was considered the main vector, and mosquito parameters were adapted to this genus. Magpies (Pica pica) were considered the main bird host. The model was partially validated through the results of the entomological surveys carried out in central Italy and in Po Valley. The results of the transitional model permitted to calculate the basic reproduction number (R0 ) during 2010 for the whole Italian territory at 1 km of spatial resolution, estimating the risk of WNV transmission during the year and creating detailed risk maps for Italy. The mean values of R0 for the whole Italy varied between 0.4 and 4.8, with values >1 from the end of May to the middle of September. The coastal and flat zones of Italy showed the highest R0 values. Although partially validated, the model showed a substantial acceptable capacity of defining the period at major risk of WNV transmission in Italy, helping Public health authorities in the application of appropriate and timely control and preventive measures.

  8. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis due to serotype 1/2a Listeria monocytogenes, Ancona province, Italy, January 2015 to February 2016.

    PubMed

    Marini, Emanuela; Magi, Gloria; Vincenzi, Chiara; Manso, Esther; Facinelli, Bruna

    2016-04-28

    In the first seven weeks of 2016, five serotype 1/2a Listeria monocytogenes isolates were collected from patients with invasive listeriosis in Ancona province in Italy. These strains and six 1/2a isolates identified in 2015 in the same area were typed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE. A clonal relationship, documented between the two sets of isolates, suggested a listeriosis outbreak in Ancona that started most probably in 2015. Investigation into the source of infection is still ongoing.

  9. Sedimentary structures formed by upper-regime flows on a Pleistocene carbonate ramp (Favignana Calcarenite, Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slootman, Arnoud; Moscariello, Andrea; Cartigny, Matthieu; de Boer, Poppe

    2015-04-01

    Antidune, chute-and-pool and cyclic step deposits are found in the outcrops of the Pleistocene calcarenite wedge of Favignana Island. These deposits were formed on a prograding carbonate ramp. Three zones are identified: inner-mid ramp (shoreface), ramp slope, and outer ramp (offshore). The ramp slope dips 3° to 10° and drops 30-40 m over 400-600 m. The ramp slope and outer ramp show a succession of bioturbated dune cross beds with up to 10 m-thick, intercalated event beds containing supercritical-flow structures. Grain sizes range from coarse sand to granules, with large rhodoliths (algal balls) and shells as gravel-sized clasts. It is our aim to provide insight into the processes that create upper-regime flow structures and the hydraulic parameters of their generating flows. During normal storms, wind-driven currents generated submarine dunes that migrated across the sea floor. During exceptional high-energy events (megastorms, tsunamis), large amounts of skeletal debris from the carbonate factory were transported towards the top of the ramp slope, where under the effect of gravity sustained supercritical sediment gravity flows were generated. In a case study of bedform evolution, we present the formation of a large downstream-asymmetric bedform with two antidunes superimposed on its upstream flank. A stepwise flow reconstruction reveals the progressive steepening of the antidunes until critical steepness is reached, and the first and, shortly after, the second antidune wave breaks. The two hydraulic jumps thus formed, developed a temporary cyclic step morphology (i.e. hydraulic jump, accelerating subcritical flow, supercritical chute, hydraulic jump etc.). The bedform geometries are used to reconstruct the nature of the catastrophic events that were active on the ramp slope. The wave length of the antidunes is measured from outcrop, which, through hydraulic equations, allows for estimation of mean flow velocity as a function of sediment concentration in the flow. Using published experimental Froude numbers for breaking antidune waves, average flow thickness and sediment flux is computed. The ratio of bed volume and sediment flux provides an estimate for the duration of the sediment gravity flows. We show that applying hydraulic equations to upper-regime sedimentary structures in coarse-grained carbonate sandstones reveal that about half of the ramp deposits, that formed over ca. 350 thousand years, were deposited in not more than tens of hours. Our results provide renewed insight into the evolution of the Favignana Calcarenite and other carbonate ramp deposits.

  10. Salinity variations in the water resources fed by the Etnean volcanic aquifers (Sicily, Italy): natural vs. anthropogenic causes.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, in an attempt to reveal possible changes connected to natural or anthropogenic causes, the main results of hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out at Mount Etna are evaluated. We report on the salinity contents of the groundwaters that flow in fractured volcanics, which make up the flanks of the volcano. These waters, analyzed for major ion chemistry, were sampled regularly from 1994 to 2004. Basing on nonparametric Sen's slope estimator, time series of groundwater composition reveal that the salinity of most of the Etnean aquifers increased by 0.5% to 3.5% each year during this period. This change in the water chemistry is clearly referable to the overexploitation of the aquifers. This increasing trend needs to be inverted urgently; otherwise, it will cause a shortage of water in the near future, because the maximum admissible concentration of salinity for drinking water will be exceeded.

  11. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in hair total mercury concentrations between sampling areas (p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  12. Incidence of pleural mesothelioma in a community exposed to fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bruno, Caterina; Tumino, Rosario; Fazzo, Lucia; Cascone, Giuseppe; Cernigliaro, Achille; De Santis, Marco; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Nicita, Carmela; Rollo, Patrizia Concetta; Scondotto, Salvatore; Spata, Eugenia; Zona, Amerigo; Comba, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Amphibolic fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition characterize Biancavilla soil, including the major quarry from which building materials have been extensively extracted. These fibres induce mesothelioma in experimental animals and their in vitro biological action is similar to that of crocidolite. Malignant mesothelioma case series and incidence were examined to evaluate the disease burden on Biancavilla inhabitants. The incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla is steadily higher than in the Sicilian Region, risk estimates are more elevated in women than in men, the most affected age class is constituted by subjects aged less than 50. Environmental exposure to fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition appears to be causally related to the elevated mesothelioma occurrence in Biancavilla. In this frame, environmental clean-up is the main goal to be pursued in public health terms. A contribution of scientific research to public health decision making with respect to priority setting for environmental clean-up can derive from some further selected epidemiological investigations.

  13. Spatial disaggregation of POWER-NASA air temperatures and effects on grass reference evapotranspiration in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The accurate estimation of grass reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important for many fields, including hydrology and irrigation water management. Being direct measure of ET0 difficult, expensive and time consuming, application of simplified approaches and web-based meteorological information are often preferred. The Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource project developed by the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (POWER-NASA) provides meteorological observations and surface energy fluxes on 1° latitude by 1° longitude grid, with a continuous daily coverage and for the entire globe. However, the broad spatial resolution of these data represents a limiting factor, for example when they have to be used for local estimations of reference ET0. In this work, a procedure for the spatial disaggregation of POWER-NASA daily average air temperature was proposed. In particular, a daily scaling factor was initially defined as the ratio between disaggregated average air temperature and the corresponding native value. This ratio was then modeled with a cosine function, characterized by three parameters depending on elevation, so to account for seasonal and regional variability. The proposed model was calibrated with three years of ground measurements (2006-2008) and then validated over six years (2009-2014). The suitability of the procedure was finally assessed by applying two simplified empirical models to estimate ET0 (Turc, 1961; Hargreaves, 1975). When compared to ET0 values obtained with FAO-56 PM equation, both simplified equations associated to downscaled meteorological observations, were characterized by RMSE ranging between 0.44 and 1.08 mm (average of 0.72-0.74 mm), and average MBE of -0.06 (Turc equation) and 0.13 mm (Hargreaves equation). These results indicated the strength of the proposed procedure to estimate ET0, even for regions characterized by the lack of detailed meteorological information.

  14. Modelling of The Deep Gravity-movement of Niscemi (caltanisetta, Sicily, Italy): The Decisive Role of Tectonic Deformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, V.; Toni, G.; Fragale, F.; Rijillo, R.

    The Niscemi slide occurred on 12.10.1997 at the end of a dry season, and two days after very heavy rainfall (218 mm). This movement remobilised an ancient landslide, historically documented on 19.3.1791, with the same kinematic features but with less steps. The mass consists mainly of overconsolidated clays, sometimes overlapped with sands. Seismic reflection, partly carried out by AGIP, has allowed isopach recon- struction of the postorogenic-sedimentary cover (Gela nappe). This deep geological structure seems to control the slide shape with back-thrusts and discontinuities, usu- ally present in a geological medium, that behave as natural barriers against tectonic stresses. In geotechnics, we can say also that from a brittle stress-strain behaviour, it is possible to pass on to a ductile one, following phenomenons of hardening. The subse- quent formation of zones with different shape and thickness of materials in the plastic state is responsible for the upsetting of superficial masses, that does not lead to the usual wedge shaped slide as an accumulation zone. Finally, further superficial move- ments might be stimulated by exceptional rainy events, able to give an high hydrostatic pressure along main trenches and to modify the efficacy of mobilizing friction

  15. Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Andrea; Alparone, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. More than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered 'burst-type', i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group 'v', located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more 'tectonic' behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group 'v' and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the late seismogram windows, highlighted by cross correlation analysis, as well as in delays, increasing proportionally to lapse time, detected by coda wave interferometry. Such variations, mainly evident at the stations located in the north-eastern flank of volcano, were likely due to medium changes taking place in this region. In particular, medium velocity decreases were inferred to occur in 2002-2003, followed by successive increases. The velocity decrease was interpreted as being caused by the opening or enlargement of cracks, produced by intruding magma bodies, ground intense deformation and/or VT earthquake activity, accompanying the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption. On the other hand, the subsequent velocity increases were interpreted as resulting from healing processes.

  16. Trophic transfer of trace elements in an isotopically constructed food chain from a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Costa, Valentina; Tramati, Cecilia; Gianguzza, Paola; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Trace element accumulation is particularly important in coastal and transitional environments, which act as contaminant buffers between the continental and marine systems. We compared trace element transfer to the biota in two locations with different open-sea exposures in a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Italy) using isotopically reconstructed food chains. Samples of sediment, macroalgae, seagrasses, invertebrates, fish, and bird feathers were sampled in July 2006 and analysed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) and trace elements (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], total mercury [THg], and lead [Pb]). Trophic magnification factors were calculated through the relationships between trace elements and δ(15)N in consumers. As and Pb were greater in organic matter sources (sediments and primary producers), whereas Cd and THg were greater in bird feathers. At the food chain level, an insignificant trophic transfer was found for all elements, suggesting biodilution rather than biomagnification. Sediments were more contaminated in the location with lower open-sea exposure. Macroalgae and seagrasses overall mirrored the spatial pattern highlighted in sediments, whereas differences between the two locations became further decreased moving toward higher trophic levels, indicating that trophic transfer of sediment and macrophyte-bound trace elements to the coastal lagoon food chain may be of relatively minor importance.

  17. A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

  18. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi.

  19. A comparison of medicinal plant use in Sardinia and Sicily-De Materia Medica revisited?

    PubMed

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura; Sanna, Francesca; Bonsignore, Leonardo

    2009-01-21

    Written records of oral medical traditions have had significant impact on the development of medicine and the pharmacopoeias. Modern ethnobotanical studies in Europe and the Mediterranean region, however, have so far largely overlooked the richness and accuracy of historic sources and ignored their probable influence on the development of today's local traditional medicines. Here, we explore the common fundament of traditional knowledge for the medicinal plant uses in Sardinia and Sicily by comparing the selection of medicinal species and specific uses with those of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica. We use (i) a quantification of citations for medicinal species mentioned in ethnobotanical studies conducted in Sardinia and Sicily (ii) a comparison of the flora and medicinal flora with a chi(2)-test (iii) a binomial approach recently introduced into ethnobotany (iv) a comparison of the most frequently used species with the indications cited in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (v) and a crosscheck of all mentioned species with their appearance in Berendes' translation of De Materia Medica. We identified a core group of 170 medicinal species used on either islands, which accumulate 74% of all citations and are best represented in De Materia Medica. The 15 most frequently used species of both islands demonstrate intriguing parallels for indications with Dioscorides' work. The ethnopharmacopoeia of Sicily and Sardinia are shallow stereotypes of the different editions of De Materia Medica and talking of oral tradition in this respect is a contradiction. The medicinal species of Sardinia and Sicily are largely widespread and common species, including many weeds, which are not facing threat of extinction. Therefore, using traditional medicinal practices as an argument for conservation biology or vice versa is not scientifically sound.

  20. Evidence of canine leptospirosis in kennels in Sicily, by PCR method.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Domenico; Percipalle, Maurizio; Concetta, Leone Maria; Li Vecchi, Luisa; Curro, Victoria; Vitale, María; Vicenzo, Ferrantelli

    2007-01-01

    Stray dogs in kennels in western Sicily were monitored for zoonotic diseases presence; considering life conditions before their capture they are particularly exposed to the environment and so they can give good epidemiological information on disease prevalence. Leptospira pathogen specific PCR had been used to identify potential reservoirs of pathogenic serovars and provide a preliminary picture of the prevalence of the disease among stray dogs.