Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.
Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.
Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Marcoli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; Zanardelli, Matteo; Maura, Guido; Ghelardini, Carla; Cervetto, Chiara
Anticancer therapy based on the repeated administration of oxaliplatin is limited by the development of a neuropathic syndrome difficult to treat. Oxaliplatin neurotoxicity is based on complex nervous mechanisms, the comprehension of the role of single neurotransmitters and the knowledge of the signal flow among cells is matter of importance to improve therapeutic chances. In a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, we report increased P2X7-evoked glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The release was abolished by the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) antagonists Brilliant-Blue-G (BBG) and A-438079, and significantly reduced by Carbenoxolone and the Pannexin 1 (Panx1) selective inhibitors Erioglaucine and (10)Panx suggesting the recruitment of Panx1. Aimed to evaluate the significance of P2X7R-Panx1 system activation in pain generated by oxaliplatin, pharmacological modulators were spinally infused by intrathecal catheter in oxaliplatin-treated animals. BBG, Erioglaucine and (10)Panx reverted oxaliplatin-dependent pain. Finally, the influence of the P2X7R-Panx1 system blockade on oxaliplatin anticancer activity was evaluated on the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Prevention of HT-29 apoptosis and mortality was dependent by kind and concentration of P2X7R antagonists. On the contrary, the inhibition of Panx1 did not alter oxaliplatin lethality in tumor cells. It is concluded that glutamate release dependent on P2X7R is increased in cerebrocortical nerve terminals from oxaliplatin-treated rats; the increase is mediated by functional recruitment of Panx1; P2X7R antagonists and Panx1 inhibitors revert oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain; Panx1 inhibitors do not alter the oxaliplatin-induced mortality of cancer cells HT-29. The inhibition of Panx1 channel is suggested as a new and safe pharmacological target. PMID:26071109
Prashanth, Kudige N.; Basavaiah, Kanakapura
Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of atenolol (ATN) in bulk drug and tablets. The methods are based on the bromination of ATN by the bromine generated in situ by the action of the acid on the bromate–bromide mixture followed by the determination of unreacted bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either meta-cresol purple (MCP) and measuring the absorbance at 540 nm (method A) and 445 nm (method B) or erioglaucine (EGC) and measuring the absorbance at 630 nm (method C). Beer's law is valid within the concentration ranges of 1.0–20.0, 2.0–40.0 and 1.0–8.0 μg/mL for method A, method B and method C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivities were found to be 1.20×104, 4.51×103 and 3.46 × 104 L/mol · cm for method A, method B and method C, respectively. Sandell's sensitivity values, correlation coefficients, limits of detection and quantification are also reported. Recovery results were statistically compared with those of a reference method by applying Student's t- and F-test. The novelty of the present study is the measurement of two different colors using MCP, that is, red-pink color of MCP in acid medium at 540 nm and yellowish-orange color of brominated MCP at 445 nm. PMID:22567567
Samarov, Daniel V.; Clarke, Matthew; Lee, Ji Yoon; Allen, David; Litorja, Maritoni; Hwang, Jeeseong
As hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sees increased implementation into the biological and medical elds it becomes increasingly important that the algorithms being used to analyze the corresponding output be validated. While certainly important under any circumstance, as this technology begins to see a transition from benchtop to bedside ensuring that the measurements being given to medical professionals are accurate and reproducible is critical. In order to address these issues work has been done in generating a collection of datasets which could act as a test bed for algorithms validation. Using a microarray spot printer a collection of three food color dyes, acid red 1 (AR), brilliant blue R (BBR) and erioglaucine (EG) are mixed together at dierent concentrations in varying proportions at dierent locations on a microarray chip. With the concentration and mixture proportions known at each location, using HSI an algorithm should in principle, based on estimates of abundances, be able to determine the concentrations and proportions of each dye at each location on the chip. These types of data are particularly important in the context of medical measurements as the resulting estimated abundances will be used to make critical decisions which can have a serious impact on an individual's health. In this paper we present a novel algorithm for processing and analyzing HSI data based on the LASSO algorithm (similar to "basis pursuit"). The LASSO is a statistical method for simultaneously performing model estimation and variable selection. In the context of estimating abundances in an HSI scene these so called "sparse" representations provided by the LASSO are appropriate as not every pixel will be expected to contain every endmember. The algorithm we present takes the general framework of the LASSO algorithm a step further and incorporates the rich spatial information which is available in HSI to further improve the estimates of abundance. We show our algorithm's improvement
Ho, Yen Cheng; Lee, Wendy W Y; Bell, Steven E J
Highly swellable polymer films doped with Ag nanoparticle aggregates (poly-SERS films) have been used to record very high signal : noise ratio, reproducible surface-enhanced (resonance) Raman (SER(R)S) spectra of in situ dried ink lines and their constituent dyes using both 633 and 785 nm excitation. These allowed the chemical origins of differences in the SERRS spectra of different inks to be determined. Initial investigation of pure samples of the 10 most common blue dyes showed that the dyes which had very similar chemical structures such as Patent Blue V and Patent Blue VF (which differ only by a single OH group) gave SERRS spectra in which the only indications that the dye structure had been changed were small differences in peak positions or relative intensities of the bands. SERRS studies of 13 gel pen inks were consistent with this observation. In some cases inks from different types of pens could be distinguished even though they were dominated by a single dye such as Victoria Blue B (Zebra Surari) or Victoria Blue BO (Pilot Acroball) because their predominant dye did not appear in other inks. Conversely, identical spectra were also recorded from different types of pens (Pilot G7, Zebra Z-grip) because they all had the same dominant Brilliant Blue G dye. Finally, some of the inks contained mixtures of dyes which could be separated by TLC and removed from the plate before being analysed with the same poly-SERS films. For example, the Pentel EnerGel ink pen was found to give TLC spots corresponding to Erioglaucine and Brilliant Blue G. Overall, this study has shown that the spectral differences between different inks which are based on chemically similar, but nonetheless distinct dyes, are extremely small, so very close matches between SERRS spectra are required for confident identification. Poly-SERS substrates can routinely provide the very stringent reproducibility and sensitivity levels required. This, coupled with the awareness of the reasons