Sample records for erki laiakask mihkel

  1. The Er/Ki-67 Proportion in Breast Tumours - An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, M K


    Introduction Breast tumours are classified as benign, proliferative and invasive tumours. Estrogen hormone influences the proliferative activity and progression of the tumour. Estrogen Receptor (ER) status and proliferative index (Ki 67) are important histopathological factors in the development and prognosis of these tumours. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the variations in ER and Ki-67 expression in three broad categories of breast lesions namely benign breast disease, proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease. Materials and Methods ER% and Ki-67% was evaluated on the histopathological tissues of 15 patients each of benign, proliferative and invasive breast tumours. The ER+/ Ki-67± ratio was calculated and the variation of expression between the three categories was analyzed using student’s t-test. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to correlate ER and Ki-67 positivity within each category. Results The mean ER+/Ki-67+ in benign, proliferative and invasive tumours was 0.81, 0.87 and 1.42 respectively. A statistically significant difference in ER+/Ki-67+ proportions was observed between proliferative breast disease category and malignant breast disease category and also between benign breast disease category and malignant breast disease category (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in benign breast disease category and proliferative breast disease category (p>0.05). A significant correlation was observed in proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease categories. However, no significant correlation was observed in benign breast disease category Conclusion ER+/Ki-67+ ratio is an important determinant of the invasive breast cancer and can be used to differentiate invasive cancers from benign and proliferative breast tumours. PMID:27190810

  2. Essential oil from the heartwood of Taiwan fir ameliorates LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.


    Liu, May-Lan; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Yang, Tzu-Jung; Chiu, Huan-Wen; Ho, Chen-Lung


    The essential oil from the heartwood of Taiwan fir (EOTC) was demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages. EOTC reduced nitrite oxide levels and inducible nitrite oxide synthase expression in, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 secretion by, LPS-activated macrophages without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. EOTC reduced the levels of interleukin-lβ precursor induced by LPS and decreased the NLRP3 inflammasome-derived interleukin-lβ secretion induced by LPS and adenosine triphosphate. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of ERKI/2, JNK1/2, and p38 in LPS-activated macrophages were reduced by EOTC. Furthermore, EOTC was composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (68.4%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (28.9%) and diterpenes (0.9%). The major compounds of the oxygenated sesquiterpenes were τ-cadinol (23.9%), α-cadinol (21.1%) and cedrol (16.9%). These findings suggest that EOTC may be a candidate for the development of anti-inflammatory agents for preventing and ameliorating inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25522551

  3. Precise Head Tracking in Hearing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, A. M.; Pilinski, J.; Luhmann, T.


    The paper gives an overview about two research projects, both dealing with optical head tracking in hearing applications. As part of the project "Development of a real-time low-cost tracking system for medical and audiological problems (ELCoT)" a cost-effective single camera 3D tracking system has been developed which enables the detection of arm and head movements of human patients. Amongst others, the measuring system is designed for a new hearing test (based on the "Mainzer Kindertisch"), which analyzes the directional hearing capabilities of children in cooperation with the research project ERKI (Evaluation of acoustic sound source localization for children). As part of the research project framework "Hearing in everyday life (HALLO)" a stereo tracking system is being used for analyzing the head movement of human patients during complex acoustic events. Together with the consideration of biosignals like skin conductance the speech comprehension and listening effort of persons with reduced hearing ability, especially in situations with background noise, is evaluated. For both projects the system design, accuracy aspects and results of practical tests are discussed.

  4. The preliminary results of larger foraminifera analysis from the Paleocene-Early Eocene of Southern Yemen, based on museums collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrevskaya, E.


    The recent work is based on collections, which were sampled in 1980-th by soviet geologists and preserving now in funds of Vernadsky State Geological Museum. They include litological samples with larger foraminifera (LF) and separated tests of LF from Paleogene of Atag area and Hadramaut plateau (Souternn Yemen). The planctonic foraminifera are very rare in considered samples. According to lithological and foraminiferal composition all samples (about 100 numbers) are divided into three parts. The first one includes the LF tests, washed from sandy marls and shales of wells. The second unit represented by bioclastic limestones, partly silicified and dolomitized and rare marls, collected from the exposed sections. These units belong to Umm er Radhuma formation, which in Yemen dated by Paleocene-Eocene (Pignatti et al., 1998) or only Eocene (Ismail and Boukhary, 2008). The third, Lower Eocene unit in collections (Jeza formation) represented mainly by non carbonatic, gypsiferous argillaceous papery shales and marls. The most lower, marly part of section is opened by wells. The LF assemblages from marls of wells include the next rotaliids in lower part: Lokhartia lobulata Sander, L. haimei spirahordata Sander, L. cf. conditi Smout, Rotalia sp., Diktiokathina sp. The rests of Saudia tests are rare. In upper part Kathina erki (Sirel), Rotalia dukhani Smout and first small nummulites are marked. The lasts belong to Nummulites deserti group, having smaller protoconch and more compressed spire. Due to absence of true Eocene forms we consider these assemblages as paleocenic. The next association, represented by abundant Lockhartia sp., Lockhartia diversa Smout, Sakesaria sp. and rare Daviesina khatyahi Smout, Operculina cf. ornata Hott. and established in hard limestones of Umm er Radhuma formation, identified as transitional from Paleocene to Eocene (Lower Ilerdian). In marls and shales, alternated with limestones in upper part of this formation the middle Ilerdian assemblage