Science.gov

Sample records for erkki-sven tr flux

  1. EK TrA, a close relative of VW HYI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gänsicke, B. T.; Beuermann, K.; Thomas, H.-C.

    1997-08-01

    The southern dwarf nova EK TrA has been suggested to show the spectrum of its white dwarf primary in the single available International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) post-outburst spectrum. We demonstrate that this spectrum is still disc-dominated. However, a careful analysis reveals a white dwarf contribution of ~25 per cent of the SWP flux and a white dwarf temperature of T_wd~18000K. Our optical spectroscopy of the system deep in quiescence confirms the flux level of the white dwarf derived from the IUE data. Additional optical emission arises from a cool (T~6500K) accretion disc, possibly extending over the whole Roche lobe radius of the primary. Both optical and UV data yield a distance of d~180pc.

  2. Integration Window Position Estimation in TR Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2005-03-15

    Transmitted-reference (TR) receivers avoid the stringent synchronization requirements that exist in conventional pulse detection schemes. However, the performance of such receivers is highly sensitive to precise timing acquisition and tracking as well as the length of their integration window. This window in TR receivers defines the limits of the finite integrator prior to the final decision making block. In this paper, we propose a novel technique that allows us to extract the timing information of the integration window very accurately in UWB-TR receivers in the presence of channel noise. The principles of the method are presented and the BER performance of a modified UWB-TR receiver is investigated by computer simulation. Our studies show that the proposed estimation technique adds value to the conventional TR receiver structure with modest increase in complexity.

  3. Theoretical investigation of defect structure in B2 TrSc (Tr =Cd, Ru) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidoussi, Aissam; Belgacem-Bouzida, Aissa; Braga, Maria Helena; Righi, Haroun

    2015-12-01

    Point defect structure of B2 TrSc (Tr =Cd, Ru) alloys was investigated using supercell and special quasi-random structure (SQS) approaches. According to our results, Tr and Sc anti-sites are the constitutional point defects in Tr-rich and Sc-rich B2 TrSc, respectively. To investigate the thermal defect concentrations at finite temperatures, we adopted the Wagner-Schottky model using point defect formation enthalpies obtained from supercell and SQS approaches. The present results suggest that the predominant thermal defects in B2 CdSc are of exchange type, and in B2 RuSc are of interbranch Sc type. The calculated results show an agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data.

  4. The unusual lightcurve of 1990 TR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Wieslaw Z.

    1992-01-01

    Amor asteroid 1990 TR was monitored during three nights shortly after discovery. Obtained lightcurves did not reveal a repeatable curve with two maxima and two minima. However, some features suggest periodicity, and a synodic rotational period P = 6.25 hours was determined. Individual and composite lightcurves are presented. The colors are best represented by the class S.

  5. Minireview: Pathophysiological Roles of the TR4 Nuclear Receptor: Lessons Learned From Mice Lacking TR4

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Zhang, Yanqing; Liu, Ning-Chun; Yang, Dong-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), also known as NR2C2, belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and shares high homology with the testicular nuclear receptor 2. The natural ligands of TR4 remained unclear until the recent discoveries of several energy/lipid sensors including the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and their synthetic ligands, thiazolidinediones, used for treatment of diabetes. TR4 is widely expressed throughout the body and particularly concentrated in the testis, prostate, cerebellum, and hippocampus. It has been shown to play important roles in cerebellar development, forebrain myelination, folliculogenesis, gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, muscle development, bone development, and prostate cancer progression. Here we provide a comprehensive summary of TR4 signaling including its upstream ligands/activators/suppressors, transcriptional coactivators/repressors, downstream targets, and their in vivo functions with potential impacts on TR4-related diseases. Importantly, TR4 shares similar ligands/activators with another key nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, which raised several interesting questions about how these 2 nuclear receptors may collaborate with or counteract each other's function in their related diseases. Clear dissection of such molecular mechanisms and their differential roles in various diseases may help researchers to design new potential drugs with better efficacy and fewer side effects to battle TR4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ involved diseases. PMID:24702179

  6. Investigation of magnetic order in SmTr2Zn20 (Tr=Fe ,Co,Ru) and SmTr2Cd20 (Tr=Ni ,Pd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Ho, P.-C.; Kanchanavatee, N.; Huang, K.; Friedman, A. J.; Wong, A. S.; Burnett, V. W.; Dilley, N. R.; Maple, M. B.

    2014-10-01

    Single crystals of the "cage compounds" SmTr2Zn20 (Tr=Fe, Co, Ru) and SmTr2Cd20 (Tr=Ni, Pd) have been investigated by means of electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific-heat measurements. The compounds SmFe2Zn20,SmRu2Zn20, and SmNi2Cd20 exhibit ferromagnetic order with Curie temperatures of TC=47.4, 7.6, and 7.5 K, respectively, whereas SmPd2Cd20 is an antiferromagnet with a Néel temperature of TN=3.4 K. No evidence for magnetic order is observed in SmCo2Zn20 down to 110 mK. The Sommerfeld coefficients γ are found to be 57 mJ /molK2 for SmFe2Zn20,79.5 mJ /molK2 for SmCo2Zn20,258 mJ /molK2 for SmRu2Zn20,165 mJ /molK2 for SmNi2Cd20, and 208 mJ /molK2 for SmPd2Cd20. Enhanced values of γ and a quadratic temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity at low temperature for SmRu2Zn20 and SmPd2Cd20 suggest an enhancement of the quasiparticle masses due to hybridization between localized 4f and conduction electron states.

  7. Investigation of magnetic order in SmTr2Zn20 (Tr = Fe, Co, Ru) and SmTr2Cd20 (Tr = Ni, Pd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Duygu; White, B. D.; Ho, P.-C.; Kanchanavatee, N.; Huang, K.; Dilley, N. R.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-03-01

    Single crystals of the cage compounds Sm Tr 2Zn20 (Tr = Fe, Co, Ru) and Sm Tr 2Cd20 (Tr = Ni, Pd) have been investigated by means of electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat measurements. The compounds SmFe2Zn20, SmRu2Zn20,andSmNi2Cd20 exhibit ferromagnetic order with Curie temperatures of TC = 47.4 K, 7.6 K, and 7.5 K, respectively, whereas SmPd2Cd20 is an antiferromagnet with a Néel temperature of TN = 3.4 K. No evidence for magnetic order is observed in SmCo2Zn20 down to 110 mK. The Sommerfeld coefficients γ are found to be 57 mJ/mol-K2 for SmFe2Zn20, 79.5 mJ/mol-K2 for SmCo2Zn20, 258 mJ/mol-K2 for SmRu2Zn20, 165 mJ/mol-K2 for SmNi2Cd20, and 208 mJ/mol-K2 for SmPd2Cd20. Enhanced values of Sommerfeld coefficients γ and a quadratic temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity at low temperature for SmRu2Zn20andSmPd2Cd20 suggest an enhancement of the quasiparticle masses due to hybridization between localized 4 f and conduction electron states. Research at UCSD was supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-04-ER46105 and the U.S. NSF under Award Grant No. DMR 1206553. Research at California State University, Fresno was supported by the U.S. NSF under Grant No. DMR 1104544.

  8. Detection of Planetary Emission from the Exoplanet TrES-2 Using Spitzer/IRAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, Francis T.; Charbonneau, David; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127% +/- 0.021%, 0.230% +/- 0.024%, 0.199% +/- 0.054%, and 0.359% +/- 0.060% at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, and 8.0 microns, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a blackbody spectrum with T(sub eff) = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. The observed planet-to-star flux ratios in all four lRAC channels can be explained by models with and without a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2, although with different atmospheric chemistry. Based on the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the chemical composition of the inversion model seems more plausible, making it a more favorable scenario. TrES-2 also falls in the category of highly irradiated planets which have been theoretically predicted to exhibit thermal inversions. However, more observations at infrared and visible wavelengths would be needed to confirm a thermal inversion in this system. Furthermore, we find that the times of the secondary eclipses are consistent with previously published times of transit and the expectation from a circular orbit. This implies that TrES-2 most likely has a circular orbit, and thus does not obtain additional thermal energy from tidal dissipation of a non-zero orbital eccentricity, a proposed explanation for the large radius of this planet. Key words: eclipses - infrared: stars - planetary systems - stars: individual (OSC 03549-02811) - techniques: photometric

  9. DETECTION OF PLANETARY EMISSION FROM THE EXOPLANET TrES-2 USING SPITZER/IRAC

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donovan, Francis T.; Charbonneau, David; Knutson, Heather A.; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake

    2010-02-20

    We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127% +- 0.021%, 0.230% +- 0.024%, 0.199% +- 0.054%, and 0.359% +- 0.060% at 3.6 {mu}m, 4.5 {mu}m, 5.8 {mu}m, and 8.0 {mu}m, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a blackbody spectrum with T{sub eff} = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. The observed planet-to-star flux ratios in all four IRAC channels can be explained by models with and without a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2, although with different atmospheric chemistry. Based on the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the chemical composition of the inversion model seems more plausible, making it a more favorable scenario. TrES-2 also falls in the category of highly irradiated planets which have been theoretically predicted to exhibit thermal inversions. However, more observations at infrared and visible wavelengths would be needed to confirm a thermal inversion in this system. Furthermore, we find that the times of the secondary eclipses are consistent with previously published times of transit and the expectation from a circular orbit. This implies that TrES-2 most likely has a circular orbit, and thus does not obtain additional thermal energy from tidal dissipation of a non-zero orbital eccentricity, a proposed explanation for the large radius of this planet.

  10. ATMOSPHERE AND SPECTRAL MODELS OF THE KEPLER-FIELD PLANETS HAT-P-7b AND TrES-2

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-10-10

    We develop atmosphere models of two of the three Kepler-field planets that were known prior to the start of the Kepler mission (HAT-P-7b and TrES-2). We find that published Kepler and Spitzer data for HAT-P-7b appear to require an extremely hot upper atmosphere on the dayside, with a strong thermal inversion and little day-night redistribution. The Spitzer data for TrES-2 suggest a mild thermal inversion with moderate day-night redistribution. We examine the effect of nonequilibrium chemistry on TrES-2 model atmospheres and find that methane levels must be adjusted by extreme amounts in order to cause even mild changes in atmospheric structure and emergent spectra. Our best-fit models to the Spitzer data for TrES-2 lead us to predict a low secondary eclipse planet-star flux ratio ({approx}<2 x 10{sup -5}) in the Kepler bandpass, which is consistent with what very recent observations have found. Finally, we consider how the Kepler-band optical flux from a hot exoplanet depends on the strength of a possible extra optical absorber in the upper atmosphere. We find that the optical flux is not monotonic in optical opacity, and the non-monotonicity is greater for brighter, hotter stars.

  11. Study of TrES-3 Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodniza, A. Q.; Rojas, M.; Reyes, K.

    2011-10-01

    The first amateur observation of an exoplanet was made from the Nyrola Observatory in September 16, 2000. (Marko Moilanen, Jalo Ojanperä, Jouni Sorvari, Aki Id and Arto Oksanen). The jovian-type planet orbits a star that is 153 light years far away, and was called HD209458b in Pegasus [1]. The equipment used by this Observatory was a 16 inches MEADE LX200, a ST7E CCD SBIG camera with a V photometric filter and an f/6.3 focal distance reducer. At the University of Nariño Observatory we have a similar equipment. The equipment we employed is: 14"LX200 GPS MEADE telescope and STL-1001 SBIG. The camera we used in our search is much more sensible than the one used by the Nyrola Observatory [2]. From the Astronomical Observatory at the University of Nariño-COLOMBIA, we begun a systematic search for exoplanets. We have already confirmed the transit of the exoplanet TrES-3. This exoplanet was discovered by O'Donovan and other investigators, and turns around the GSC 03089- 00929, with an orbital period of 1.30619 days (31.34856 hours) and inclination of 82.15 deg [3]. The TrES-3 is quite interesting because it has one of the smallest periods found on exoplanets. Jessie L. Christiansen, et.al. observed seven transits and they found that the duration of transit is 81.9+/-1.1 minutes and inclination of 81.99+/-0.30 deg [4], [5]. We have captured a lot of data to elaborate the lightcurves so we can estimate the physical parameters of the exoplanet.

  12. NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) monitoring in support of XMM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2017-03-01

    Dr. Fred Walter (Stony Brook University) has requested AAVSO observers' assistance in monitoring NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) in support of upcoming XMM Newton observations. The XMM observations will take place 2017 March 13 06:21 through March 14 10:34 UT. Walter writes: "NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) is a compact eclipsing system with a 5.5 hour period. It was a normal Fe II nova that, upon reaching quiescence, took on the appearance of a super-soft source in the optical high state, which suggests an extremely high mass accretion rate. The optical spectrum is dominated by hot permitted lines of O VI, N V, C IV, and He II. Some nova-like variables have similar spectra, though generally without the hot emission lines. Primary eclipse is broad - nearly 40% of the orbit - and deeper at shorter wavelengths, which suggests the eclipse of a hot accretion disk. Primary eclipse depth is about 1 mag at V. There appears to be a shallow secondary eclipse.The primary aim [of the XMM observations] is to detect and characterize the eclipse at X-ray and UV wavelengths. We will obtain low cadence BVRI/JHK observations with SMARTS/Andicam. We request AAVSO support to obtain continuous photometric time series simultaneous with the XMM observation. Any filters are acceptable, but standard Johnson B, V or Cousins R, I are preferred. Clear filters are acceptable. Time resolution better than 5 minutes and uncertainties (outside of eclipse) <0.02 mag are preferred. The best ephemeris I have is: minimum light at JD 55956.822 + 0.219109E. This is based on data from 2013-2015." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  13. Tr288, a rehydrin with a dehydrin twist.

    PubMed

    Velten, J; Oliver, M J

    2001-04-01

    The rehydrin Tr288, originally isolated from a screen for differentially expressed transcripts during rehydration of desiccated moss (Tortula ruralis), was further characterized. Steady-state mRNA levels for Tr288 increase dramatically during slow drying even though protein synthesis is completely inhibited during this process. Tr288 transcripts do not accumulate during rapid drying of moss gametophytes. Conversely, during rehydration of rapidly dried tissue Tr288 transcript levels increase several-fold, while the relatively high amount of Tr288 mRNA sequestered in slowly dried material declines with time after the addition of water. Steady-state Tr288 mRNA also increases after treatment with salt (NaCl) and elevated temperature (37 degrees C). Genomic Southern analysis and isolation of a genomic clone suggest the presence of a single Tr288 gene containing two introns within the T. ruralis genome. The only sequence homology detected by a BLAST search of GenBank occurred at the 3' end of the Tr288 coding region and indicated a single copy of the K segment common to dehydrins. Computer translation of the Tr288 coding region revealed 15 copies of a protein segment (the GPN segment) that is predicted to form amphipathic alpha-helices.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of Cepheids in Circinus (AV Cir, BP Cir) and Triangulum Australe (R TrA, S TrA, U TrA, LR TrA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Based on high-resolution spectra taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory, we have determined the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition for three small-amplitude (AV Cir, BP Cir, and LR TrA), two classical (R TrA and S TrA), and one double-mode (U TrA) Cepheids. The averaged atmospheric parameters have been estimated for three Cepheids (AV Cir, BP Cir, and U TrA) observed at various pulsation phases. In all Cepheids, except U TrA, the metallicity has turned out to be higher than the solar one by 0.1-0.2 dex. The abundances of the key elements of the evolution of yellow supergiants (C, O, Na, Mg, Al) show that these objects have already passed the first dredge-up, while those of the remaining elements are nearly solar. Comparison of our results on the Cepheids from the list (except U TrA) with those of other authors shows significant differences in C and O abundance estimates for AV Cir, R TrA, S TrA, and LR TrA. For AV Cir and BP Cir, the H α line profiles are symmetric but with a slight asymmetry in the core at approximately the same phase near 0{·/ P } 7: on the "blue" side for AV Cir and on the "red" one for BP Cir. BP Cir exhibits a distinct asymmetry in the absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions at various pulsation phases, which can be explained by nonradial first-overtone pulsations. The constancy of the H α absorption line profiles with pulsation phase for AV Cir and BP Cir may suggest the presence of a hydrogen envelope around them. For the double-mode Cepheid U TrA, an asymmetry is observed in the cores of the H α line and the absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions at various pulsation phases, which can be explained by nonradial pulsations in the Cepheid's atmosphere. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions of metals in LR TrA closely resemble those in the well-known Cepheid BG Cru: secondary "blue" and "red" components whose line depths vary with pulsation phase are noticeable. This Cepheid

  15. ExTrA: Exoplanets in transit and their atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfils, X.; Almenara, J. M.; Jocou, L.; Wunsche, A.; Kern, P.; Delboulbé, A.; Delfosse, X.; Feautrier, P.; Forveille, T.; Gluck, L.; Lafrasse, S.; Magnard, Y.; Maurel, D.; Moulin, T.; Murgas, F.; Rabou, P.; Rochat, S.; Roux, A.; Stadler, E.

    2015-09-01

    The ExTrA facility, located at La Silla observatory, will consist of a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph fed by three 60-cm telescopes. ExTrA will add the spectroscopic resolution to the traditional differential photometry method. This shall enable the fine correction of color-dependent systematics that would otherwise hinder ground-based observations. With both this novel method and an infrared-enabled efficiency, ExTrA aims to find transiting telluric planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright nearby M dwarfs. It shall have the versatility to do so by running its own independent survey and also by concurrently following-up on the space candidates unveiled by K2 and TESS. The exoplanets detected by ExTrA will be amenable to atmospheric characterisation with VLTs, JWST, and ELTs and could give our first peek into an exo-life laboratory.

  16. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  17. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  18. Fast flux locked loop

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  19. Detected Timing for Exoplanet TrES-5b. Possible Existence of Exoplanet TrES-5c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokov, E. N.; Sokova, I. A.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Rastegaev, D. A.; Rusov, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present timing variations detected for the TrES-5b exoplanet. To obtain necessary photometric data for this exoplanet, we have organized an international campaign for exoplanet searching based on the Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method. We managed to collect N light curves for TrEs-5b. On the basis of the obtained data, we detected timing variations with the period P ≍ 100 days. We carried out the N-body modelling by means of the three-body problem. We detected a perturbation of TrES-5b which can be caused by a second exoplanet in the TrES-5 system. We calculated possible masses and resonances of the objects: M ˜ 0.24 Mjup on the 1:2 Resonance and M ˜ 3.15 Mjup on the 1:3 Resonance.

  20. Magnetic-flux pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  1. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  2. High Flux Neutral Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-31

    ol trsine oi n siia img cis Figue 72: EFI agneic ieldcalulatons 7 ......... ... ... ......... ... TR ,P 1V /div iL R2A : 2mV/div * TR3r): 2mV/diN...Load) 800 MAF PCA loovQ :wT41 11 4ŔQ FET 0 S VNISOAD I01"Q Hamanatsu 1722 0A pF Figure 7. Control circuit for the puff valve.

  3. The TR13 control system for automatic isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. J.; Ewert, T.; Harrison, D.; Lam, J.; Keitel, R.

    1994-12-01

    The TR13 is a 13 MeV H cyclotron which produces short-lived isotopes for use in PET scanners. Machines of this type are usually installed in hospitals and call for automatic operation with a minimum of operator intervention and maintenance. The control system implementation follows the approach of the TR30 line of cyclotrons, using commercial software and hardware wherever possible. The two-processor system uses an Allen Bradley PLC for control and an IBM PC as console computer. Aspects of automatic operation are discussed in detail.

  4. 40 CFR 97.512 - TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.512 TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units. (a) For each control period in 2012 and thereafter and for the TR NOX Ozone Season units in...

  5. 40 CFR 97.522 - Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.522 Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. (a) An authorized account representative seeking recordation of a TR NOX Ozone Season...

  6. 40 CFR 97.525 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.525 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions. (a) Availability for deduction. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to be deducted...

  7. 40 CFR 97.525 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.525 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions. (a) Availability for deduction. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to be deducted...

  8. 40 CFR 97.512 - TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.512 TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units. (a) For each control period in 2012 and thereafter and for the TR NOX Ozone Season units in...

  9. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  10. 40 CFR 97.524 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.524 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to...

  11. 40 CFR 97.522 - Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.522 Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. (a) An authorized account representative seeking recordation of a TR NOX Ozone Season...

  12. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  13. 40 CFR 97.524 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.524 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to...

  14. 40 CFR 97.525 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.525 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions. (a) Availability for deduction. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to be deducted...

  15. 40 CFR 97.512 - TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.512 TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units. (a) For each control period in 2012 and thereafter and for the TR NOX Ozone Season units in...

  16. 40 CFR 97.524 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.524 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to...

  17. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.522 - Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.522 Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. (a) An authorized account representative seeking recordation of a TR NOX Ozone Season...

  19. Northrop Grumman TR202 LOX/GH2 Deep Throttling Pintle Injector Fabrication and Demonstration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, V. D.; Chianese, S.G.; Majamaki, A. N.; Litchford, R. J.; Foote, J. P.; Wall, T. R.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project is developing enabling propulsion technologies in support of in support of the Exploration Initiative with a particular focus on the needs of the Altair Lunar Lander. To address Altair's need for deep-throttling cryogenic engines, PCAD has enlisted Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) in a technology development effort associated with a LOX/LH2 expander cycle engine known as the TR202. This engine features independent turbopump assemblies and a variable area pintle injector similar to that used on the TR200 Apollo Lunar Module Descent Engine (LMDE). The TR202 program has completed a Conceptual Design (CoDR) of a possible throttling engine and has designed and built injector test hardware to demonstrate stable high performance over a 10:1 throttling range while providing the heat flux necessary to close the engine cycle. NGAS has partnered with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which supplied the ablative and calorimeter thrust chambers for the injector test program and provided the test facility as well as test and engineering support personnel. An extensive hot-fire test campaign comprising more than 50 tests was initiated and successfully completed during 2009 on MSFC's Test Stand 116 using pressure-fed liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. All planned test objectives were met. The test program was structured in two distinct phases: Phase 1 relied on ablative chambers to demonstrate injector hardware durability and to obtain early deep-throttling results, while Phase 2 used a water-cooled calorimeter chamber to obtain detailed performance and heat flux measurements at various power levels and mixture ratios. This paper focuses on the early part of the test program and describes final hardware build and test integration efforts, injector water flow testing, igniter and engine operational sequence development, and results from the ablative chamber tests. Challenges

  20. 33. View of data converter and power supply for TR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View of data converter and power supply for TR system in transmitter building no. 102, mezzanine level. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. Counsellors Respond to the DSM-IV-TR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Gaete, Joaquin; Sametband, Ines N.; French, Jared; Eeson, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is an administrative fact for many counsellors. This psychiatric approach to formulating client concerns runs counter to those used by counsellors of many approaches (e.g., systemic, feminist). Using an online survey of counsellors (N = 116), invited contributions to a website…

  2. 43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood. Pouring concrete for new dam section; opening at left for flume to remove water from behind coffer dam. Photo c. 1936 - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  3. 104. View of TR antenna, workers on "hanging garden," official ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. View of TR antenna, workers on "hanging garden," official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, 11 February 1981, clear as negative no. A-17701. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. 19. View of satcom communication dome with TR radome in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of satcom communication dome with TR radome in background right. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. 61. View of TR spiral access stair system from transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. View of TR spiral access stair system from transmitter building no. 102 mezzanine level; note elevator door on right. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Northrop Grumman TR202 LOX/LH2 Deep Throttling Engine Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gromski, J.; Majamaki, A. N.; Chianese, S. G.; Weinstock, V. D.; Kim, T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project is currently developing enabling propulsion technologies in support of the Exploration Initiative, with a particular focus on the needs of the Altair Project. To meet Altair requirements, several technical challenges need to be overcome, one of which is the ability for the lunar descent engine(s) to operate over a deep throttle range with cryogenic propellants. To address this need, PCAD has enlisted Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) in a technology development effort associated with the TR202, a LOX/LH2 expander cycle engine driven by independent turbopump assemblies and featuring a variable area pintle injector similar to the injector used on the TR200 Apollo Lunar Module Descent Engine (LMDE). Since the Apollo missions, NGAS has continued to mature deep throttling pintle injector technology. The TR202 program has completed two phases of pintle injector testing. The first phase of testing used ablative thrust chambers and demonstrated igniter operation as well as stable performance at several power levels across the designed 10:1 throttle range. The second phase of testing was performed on a calorimeter chamber and demonstrated injector performance at various power levels (75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, and 7.5%) across the throttle range as well as chamber heat flux to show that the engine can close an expander cycle design across the throttle range. This paper provides an overview of the TR202 program. It describes the different phases of the program with the key milestones of each phase. It then shows when those milestones were met. Next, it describes how the test data was used to update the conceptual design and how the test data has created a database for deep throttling cryogenic pintle technology that is readily scaleable and can be used to again update the design once the Altair program's requirements are firm. The final section of the paper describes the path forward, which includes

  7. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  8. FLUXES FOR MECHANIZED ELECTRIC WELDING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WELDING FLUXES, WELDING ), (* WELDING , WELDING FLUXES), ARC WELDING , WELDS, STABILITY, POROSITY, WELDING RODS, STEEL, CERAMIC MATERIALS, FLUXES(FUSION), TITANIUM ALLOYS, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COPPER ALLOYS, ELECTRODEPOSITION

  9. Salicylates are interference compounds in TR-FRET assays.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Ronan P; Horvath, Shanti; An, Jianghong; Hof, Fraser; Wulff, Jeremy E

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of high-throughput screening in drug discovery, the identification of compounds that interfere with assay readouts is crucial. The pursuit of false positives wastes time and money, while distracting development teams from more promising leads. In the context of TR-FRET assays, most interfering compounds are dyes or aggregators. In the course of our studies on the PD1-PDL2 interaction, we discovered that salicylic acids, an extremely common compound subclass in screening libraries, interfere with TR-FRET assays. While the precise mechanism of interference was not established, our data suggest that interaction of the salicylate with the cryptand-ligated europium FRET donor is responsible for the change in assay signal.

  10. UWB channel estimation using new generating TR transceivers

    DOEpatents

    Nekoogar, Faranak [San Ramon, CA; Dowla, Farid U [Castro Valley, CA; Spiridon, Alex [Palo Alto, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Benzel, Dave M [Livermore, CA

    2011-06-28

    The present invention presents a simple and novel channel estimation scheme for UWB communication systems. As disclosed herein, the present invention maximizes the extraction of information by incorporating a new generation of transmitted-reference (Tr) transceivers that utilize a single reference pulse(s) or a preamble of reference pulses to provide improved channel estimation while offering higher Bit Error Rate (BER) performance and data rates without diluting the transmitter power.

  11. TrSDB: a proteome database of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Hermoso, Antoni; Aguilar, Daniel; Aviles, Francesc X.; Querol, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    TrSDB—TranScout Database—(http://ibb.uab.es/trsdb) is a proteome database of eukaryotic transcription factors based upon predicted motifs by TranScout and data sources such as InterPro and Gene Ontology Annotation. Nine eukaryotic proteomes are included in the current version. Extensive and diverse information for each database entry, different analyses considering TranScout classification and similarity relationships are offered for research on transcription factors or gene expression. PMID:14681387

  12. 16. 'Erection Plan for 1 236' Single Tr. Thro' Draw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'Erection Plan for 1 236' Single Tr. Thro' Draw Span over Sacramento River at Tehama Cal., Southern Pacific Co., The Phoenix Bridge Co., City Order: 952, Drawing No.: 2, Scale: 3/16' to 1', Engineer: F.G. Lippert, Drawn by: F.E. King, Date: May 20 98.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  13. Deconstructing the DSM-IV-TR: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Warelow, Philip; Holmes, Colin A

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines and offers a critique of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), underlying principles and assumptions, and the nature and consequences of its nosological framework. The reason for this critique is to look at the rationale for some of the diagnostic categories and also why some categories are retained, including some of the long-standing diagnostic groups, such as schizophrenia. It is not the intention here to rehearse the problems of biological psychiatric thinking, nor argue the strengths and weaknesses of the DSM-IV-TR in its definitions and descriptions of particular syndromes and illnesses. The ideas presented here derive from a range of previous research that argued that the DSM-IV-TR colludes in a system of psychiatric care in which all people, by virtue of characteristically human foibles and idiosyncrasies, are potentially classifiable into a variety of diagnostic mental health categories. In the present study, it was argued that because of resource constraints, professional dispute, and public concern, the major criterion for attracting a formal diagnosis is not classifiability according to the DSM-IV-TR, but rather, that of 'social risk', defined in terms of risk to oneself and/or others and embodying obvious social control functions. Here, we expand and develop some of these ideas, and relate them more specifically to insights offered by critical or deconstructive psychology and the development of the forthcoming the DSM-V. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  15. APOSTLE: 11 TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF TrES-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Kundurthy, P.; Becker, A. C.; Agol, E.; Barnes, R.; Williams, B.

    2013-02-10

    The Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) observed 11 transits of TrES-3b over two years in order to constrain system parameters and look for transit timing and depth variations. We describe an updated analysis protocol for APOSTLE data, including the reduction pipeline, transit model, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyzer. Our estimates of the system parameters for TrES-3b are consistent with previous estimates to within the 2{sigma} confidence level. We improved the errors (by 10%-30%) on system parameters such as the orbital inclination (i {sub orb}), impact parameter (b), and stellar density ({rho}{sub *}) compared to previous measurements. The near-grazing nature of the system, and incomplete sampling of some transits, limited our ability to place reliable uncertainties on individual transit depths and hence we do not report strong evidence for variability. Our analysis of the transit timing data shows no evidence for transit timing variations and our timing measurements are able to rule out super-Earth and gas giant companions in low-order mean motion resonance with TrES-3b.

  16. DW4TR: A Data Warehouse for Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai; Correll, Mick; Kvecher, Leonid; Osmond, Michelle; Clark, Jim; Bekhash, Anthony; Schwab, Gwendolyn; Gao, De; Gao, Jun; Kubatin, Vladimir; Shriver, Craig D; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Maxwell, Larry G; Kovatich, Albert J; Sheldon, Jonathan G; Liebman, Michael N; Mural, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    The linkage between the clinical and laboratory research domains is a key issue in translational research. Integration of clinicopathologic data alone is a major task given the number of data elements involved. For a translational research environment, it is critical to make these data usable at the point-of-need. Individual systems have been developed to meet the needs of particular projects though the need for a generalizable system has been recognized. Increased use of Electronic Medical Record data in translational research will demand generalizing the system for integrating clinical data to support the study of a broad range of human diseases. To ultimately satisfy these needs, we have developed a system to support multiple translational research projects. This system, the Data Warehouse for Translational Research (DW4TR), is based on a light-weight, patient-centric modularly-structured clinical data model and a specimen-centric molecular data model. The temporal relationships of the data are also part of the model. The data are accessed through an interface composed of an Aggregated Biomedical-Information Browser (ABB) and an Individual Subject Information Viewer (ISIV) which target general users. The system was developed to support a breast cancer translational research program and has been extended to support a gynecological disease program. Further extensions of the DW4TR are underway. We believe that the DW4TR will play an important role in translational research across multiple disease types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  18. The Historical X-ray Transient KY TrA in quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita, C.; Corral-Santana, J. M.; Casares, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present deep optical images of the historical X-ray Transient KY TrA in quiescence from which we confirm the identification of the counterpart reported by Murdin et al. and derive an improved position of α = 15:28:16.97 and δ = -61:52:57.8. In 2007 June we obtained I, R and V images, where the counterpart seems to be double indicating the presence of an interloper at ˜1.4 arcsec NW. After separating the contribution of KY TrA we calculate I = 21.47 ± 0.09, R = 22.3 ± 0.1 and V = 23.6 ± 0.1. Similar brightness in the I-band was measured in 2004 May and 2010 June. Variability was analysed from series of images taken in 2004, spanning 0.6 h, and in two blocks of 6 h during 2007. We find that the target is not variable in any data set above the error levels ˜0.07 mags. The presence of the interloper might explain the non-detection of the classic ellipsoidal modulation; our data indicates that it contributes around half of the total flux, which would make a variation <0.15 mag not detectable. A single spectrum obtained in 2004 May shows the H α emission characteristic of X-ray transients in quiescence with a full width at half-maximum FWHM = 2700 ± 280 km s-1. If the system follows the FWHM-K2 correlation found by Casares, this would correspond to a velocity semi-amplitude of the donor star of K2 = 630 ± 74 km s-1. Based on the outburst amplitude and colours of the optical counterpart in quiescence we derive a crude estimate of the orbital period of 8 h and an upper limit of 15 h which would lead to mass function estimates of ≈9 M⊙ and <16 M⊙, respectively.

  19. TrAnsFuSE refines the search for protein function: oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Harel, Arye; Falkowski, Paul; Bromberg, Yana

    2012-07-01

    Non-equilibrium catalysis of electron transfer reactions (i.e. redox) regulates the flux of key elements found in biological macromolecules. The enzymes responsible, oxidoreductases, contain specific transition metals in poorly sequence-conserved domains. These domains evolved ∼2.4 billion years ago in microbes and spread across the tree of life. We lack understanding of how oxidoreductases evolved; divergence of sequences makes identification difficult. We developed a method to recognise the various versions of these enzyme-domains in unannotated sequence-space. Often, homology is used to transfer function annotations from experimentally resolved domains to unannotated sequences. Unreliability of inferring homology below 30% sequence identity limits single-sequence based searches. Misaligned functional sites may compromise annotation transfer from even very similar sequences. Combining profile-based searches with knowledge of functional sites could improve domain detection accuracy. Here we present an approach that enhances the search for redox domains using catalytic site annotations. From the scientific literature, we validated annotations of 104 InterPro domains indicated as using "transition metals in redox reactions." These domains mediate electron transfer in 20% of oxidoreductases, primarily employing iron, copper and molybdenum. We used the experimentally identified catalytic residues in these domains to validate sequence alignment-based protein function annotations. Our method, TrAnsFuSE, is 11% and 14% more accurate than PSI-BLAST and InterPro, respectively. Moreover, it is robust for use with other functional residues-we attain higher accuracy at comparable coverage using metal binding, in addition to catalytic, sites. TrAnsFuSE can be used to focus the study of the vast amounts of unannotated sequencing data from meta-/genome projects.

  20. A feedback regulatory loop between methyltransferase PRMT1 and orphan receptor TR3

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Na-zi; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Chen, Hang-zi; Wang, Yuan; Zhan, Yan-yan; Zheng, Zhong-hui; Shen, Yue-mao; Wu, Qiao

    2009-01-01

    PRMT1, an arginine methyltransferase, plays an important role in numerous cellular processes. In this study, we demonstrate a feedback regulatory loop between PRMT1 and the orphan receptor TR3. Unlike another orphan receptor HNF4, TR3 is not methylated by PRMT1 although they physically interact with each other. By delaying the TR3 protein degradation, PRMT1 binding leads to the elevation of TR3 cellular protein level, thereby enhances the DNA binding and transactivation activity of TR3 in a non-methyltransferase manner. Another coactivator SRC-2 acts synergistically with PRMT1 to regulate TR3 functions. In turn, TR3 binding to the catalytic domain of PRMT1 causes an inhibition of the PRMT1 methyltransferase activity. This repression results in the functional changes in some of PRMT1 substrates, including STAT3 and Sam68. The negative regulation of PRMT1 by TR3 was further confirmed in both TR3-knockdown cells and TR3-knockout mice with the use of an agonist for TR3. Taken together, our study not only identifies a regulatory role of PRMT1, independent on methyltransferase activity, in TR3 transactivation, but also characterizes a novel function of TR3 in the repression of PRMT1 methyltransferase activity. PMID:19095693

  1. Video Meteor Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.

    2011-01-01

    The flux of meteoroids, or number of meteoroids per unit area per unit time, is critical for calibrating models of meteoroid stream formation and for estimating the hazard to spacecraft from shower and sporadic meteors. Although observations of meteors in the millimetre to centimetre size range are common, flux measurements (particularly for sporadic meteors, which make up the majority of meteoroid flux) are less so. It is necessary to know the collecting area and collection time for a given set of observations, and to correct for observing biases and the sensitivity of the system. Previous measurements of sporadic fluxes are summarized in Figure 1; the values are given as a total number of meteoroids striking the earth in one year to a given limiting mass. The Gr n et al. (1985) flux model is included in the figure for reference. Fluxes for sporadic meteoroids impacting the Earth have been calculated for objects in the centimeter size range using Super-Schmidt observations (Hawkins & Upton, 1958); this study used about 300 meteors, and used only the physical area of overlap of the cameras at 90 km to calculate the flux, corrected for angular speed of meteors, since a large angular speed reduces the maximum brightness of the meteor on the film, and radiant elevation, which takes into account the geometric reduction in flux when the meteors are not perpendicular to the horizontal. They bring up corrections for both partial trails (which tends to increase the collecting area) and incomplete overlap at heights other than 90 km (which tends to decrease it) as effects that will affect the flux, but estimated that the two effects cancelled one another. Halliday et al. (1984) calculated the flux of meteorite-dropping fireballs with fragment masses greater than 50 g, over the physical area of sky accessible to the MORP fireball cameras, counting only observations in clear weather. In the micron size range, LDEF measurements of small craters on spacecraft have been used to

  2. Electron heat flux instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  3. Hints of Period Change for OGLE-TR-113b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between January 2007 and May 2009. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius, where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris over two years, which places an upper limit of 1-2 Earth masses on any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating the period is decreasing by 60±15 milliseconds per year. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than 8 years) timing variation due to an external perturber, or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and must be checked with additional observations. If a period decay is confirmed, OGLE-TR-113b will be the first planet observed to be falling onto its star. This would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets and place observational constraints on the value of stellar tidal energy dissipation factors. This work was supported in part by NASA Origins grant NNX07AN63G and Hubble Fellowship grant HF-01210.01-A/HF-51233.01 awarded by the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc. for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  4. The roles of testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) in male fertility-priapism and sexual behavior defects in TR4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Collins, Loretta L; Lee, Yi-Fen; Ting, Huei-Ju; Lin, Wen-Jye; Liu, Ning-Chun; Meshul, Charles K; Uno, Hideo; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chen, Yen-Ta; Chang, Chawnshang

    2011-10-13

    Successful reproductive efforts require the establishment of a situation favorable for reproduction that requires integration of both behavior and internal physiological events. TR4 nuclear receptor is known to be involved in male fertility via controlling spermatogenesis, yet its roles in regulating other biological events related to reproduction have not been completely revealed. Male TR4 knockout (TR4 -/-) and wild type mice were used for the sexual behavior and penile dysfunction studies. Mice were sacrificed for histological examination and corresponding genes profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Reporter gene assays were performed. We describe an unexpected finding of priapism in TR4 -/- mice. As a transcriptional factor, we demonstrated that TR4 transcriptionally modulates a key enzyme regulating penis erection and neuronal nitric oxide synthese NOS (nNOS). Thereby, elimination of TR4 results in nNOS reduction in both mRNA and protein levels, consequently may lead to erectile dysfunction. In addition, male TR4 -/- mice display defects in sexual and social behavior, with increased fear or anxiety, as well as reduced mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. Reduction of ER alpha, ER beta, and oxytocin in the hypothalamus may contribute to defects in sexual behavior and stress response. Together, these results provide in vivo evidence of important TR4 roles in penile physiology, as well as in male sexual behavior. In conjunction with previous finding, TR4 represents a key factor that controls male fertility via regulating behavior and internal physiological events.

  5. First Detection of TR34 L98H and TR46 Y121F T289A Cyp51 Mutations in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Veronica Garcia; Gutierrez, Felipe; Lindner, Jonathan R.; Albataineh, Mohammad T.; McCarthy, Dora I.; Sanders, Carmita; Fan, Hongxin; Fothergill, Annette W.; Sutton, Deanna A.

    2015-01-01

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasing problem. The TR34 L98H and TR46 Y121F T289A mutations that can occur in patients without previous azole exposure have been reported in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Australia. Here, we report the detection of both the TR34 L98H and TR46 Y121F T289A mutations in confirmed A. fumigatus isolates collected in institutions in the United States. These mutations, other mutations known to cause azole resistance, and azole MICs are reported here. PMID:26491179

  6. Biogeochemical Transport and Reaction Model (BeTR) v1

    SciTech Connect

    TANG, JINYUN

    2016-04-18

    The Biogeochemical Transport and Reaction Model (BeTR) is a F90 code that enables reactive transport modeling in land modules of earth system models (e.g. CESM, ACME). The code adopts the Objective-Oriented-Design, and allows users to plug in their own biogeochemical (BGC) formulations/codes, and compare them to other existing BGC codes in those ESMs. The code takes information of soil physics variables, such as variables, such as temperature, moisture, soil density profile; water flow, etc., from a land model to track the movement of different chemicals in presence of biogeochemical reactions.

  7. Modeling Electromagnetic Effects in MMICs for T/R Modules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Helms, D., "Dual Band Module Program," TR-90-8, Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, NY, March 1990. Green , D. R., Jr., Rosenbaum, F. R...Technology Center For 471-473. 1984. several years he directed the development of second-harmonic- extrac uon B40 1394 EUr. TRANSAClIONS ON WCROWAVE...mcde TEA laser and providing an. alyticaJ support on various projects). His present major area of concentra- tion in optics is the He-Ne laser gyroscope

  8. Pyroelectric Applications of the VDF-TrFE Copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonne, J. J.; Bauer, Ph.; Audaire, L.; Bauer, F.

    1995-01-01

    VDF/TrFe pyroelectric sensors have now definitely reached the level of a product. Based on a bidimensional staring array, it can be considered as a whole system with a monolithic technology processed on a silicon substrate provided with the integrated read out circuit. The paper will describe the main procedure dealing with the elaboration of a 32 x 32 focal plane array developed, in the context of the PROMETHEUS PROCHIP European Program (EUREKA), as a passive infrared obstacle detection applied to automotive. Additional experimental data suggest that this microsystem could operate in space environment.

  9. 40 CFR 97.421 - Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013, the Administrator will record in each TR NOX Annual source's compliance account the TR... the control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR NOX....38(a)(4) or (5) of this chapter, for the control period in 2016 and 2017. (e) By July 1, 2015, the...

  10. 40 CFR 97.421 - Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013, the Administrator will record in each TR NOX Annual source's compliance account the TR... the control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR NOX....38(a)(4) or (5) of this chapter, for the control period in 2016 and 2017. (e) By July 1, 2015, the...

  11. 40 CFR 97.523 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.523 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers... NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that is correctly submitted under § 97.522, the Administrator...

  12. 40 CFR 97.523 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.523 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers... NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that is correctly submitted under § 97.522, the Administrator...

  13. 40 CFR 97.523 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.523 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers... NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that is correctly submitted under § 97.522, the Administrator...

  14. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. 97.711 Section 97.711 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations...

  15. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. 97.711 Section 97.711 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations...

  16. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. 97.711 Section 97.711 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations...

  17. PHOTOMETRICALLY DERIVED MASSES AND RADII OF THE PLANET AND STAR IN THE TrES-2 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Rowe, Jason F.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shaun E.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E.; Barentsen, Geert; Bloemen, Steven; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Ragozzine, Darin

    2012-12-10

    We measure the mass and radius of the star and planet in the TrES-2 system using 2.7 years of observations by the Kepler spacecraft. The light curve shows evidence for ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming on a period consistent with the orbital period of the planet with amplitudes of 2.79{sup +0.44}{sub -0.62} and 3.44{sup +0.32}{sub -0.37} parts per million (ppm), respectively, and a difference between the dayside and the nightside planetary flux of 3.41{sup +0.55}{sub -0.82} ppm. We present an asteroseismic analysis of solar-like oscillations on TrES-2A which we use to calculate the stellar mass of 0.94 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Sun} and radius of 0.95 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }. Using these stellar parameters, a transit model fit and the phase-curve variations, we determine the planetary radius of 1.162{sup +0.020}{sub -0.024} R{sub Jup} and derive a mass for TrES-2b from the photometry of 1.44 {+-} 0.21 M{sub Jup}. The ratio of the ellipsoidal variation to the Doppler beaming amplitudes agrees to better than 2{sigma} with theoretical predications, while our measured planet mass and radius agree within 2{sigma} of previously published values based on spectroscopic radial velocity measurements. We measure a geometric albedo of 0.0136{sup +0.0022}{sub -0.0033} and an occultation (secondary eclipse) depth of 6.5{sup +1.7}{sub -1.8} ppm which we combined with the day/night planetary flux ratio to model the atmosphere of TrES-2b. We find that an atmosphere model that contains a temperature inversion is strongly preferred. We hypothesize that the Kepler bandpass probes a significantly greater atmospheric depth on the night side relative to the day side.

  18. Macrolide resistance gene erm(TR) and erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements in Streptococcus agalactiae: characterization of ICESagTR7, a new composite element containing IMESp2907.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Marini, Emanuela; Brenciani, Andrea; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate macrolide-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates harbouring erm(TR), an erm(A) gene subclass, with emphasis on their erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements. Four erm(TR)-carrying elements have been described to date: three closely related (ICE10750-RD.2, Tn1806 and ICESp1108) in Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes, respectively; and one completely different (IMESp2907, embedded in ICESp2906 to form ICESp2905) in S. pyogenes. Seventeen macrolide-resistant erm(TR)-positive S. agalactiae isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Their erm(TR)-carrying elements were explored by analysing the distinctive recombination genes of known erm(TR)-carrying integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and by PCR mapping. The new genetic context and organization of IMESp2907 in S. agalactiae were explored using several experimental procedures and in silico analyses. Five isolates harboured ICE10750-RD.2/Tn1806, five isolates harboured ICESp1108 and five isolates bore unknown erm(TR)-carrying elements. The remaining two isolates, exhibiting identical serotypes and pulsotypes, harboured IMESp2907 in a new genetic environment, which was further investigated in one of the two isolates, SagTR7. IMESp2907 was circularizable in S. agalactiae, as described in S. pyogenes. The new IMESp2907 junctions were identified based on its site-specific integration; the att sites were almost identical to those in S. pyogenes. In strain SagTR7, erm(TR)-carrying IMESp2907 was embedded in an erm(TR)-less internal element related to ICE10750-RD.2/Tn1806, which, in turn, was embedded in an ICESde3396-like element. The resulting whole ICE, ICESagTR7 (∼129 kb), was integrated into the chromosome downstream of the rplL gene, and was excisable in circular form and transferable by conjugation. This is the first study exploring erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements in S. agalactiae. © The Author 2015. Published by

  19. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  20. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  1. Charged Particle Flux Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. A.; Stocks, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    Improved version of Faraday cup increases accuracy of measurements of flux density of charged particles incident along axis through collection aperture. Geometry of cone-and-sensing cup combination assures most particles are trapped.

  2. GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-20

    ... climate components (atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, biosphere). The GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) project will provide a ... Spatial Coverage: (-20.45, -2.43)(-62.87, -47.90) Full Product Page ...

  3. Cryogenic flux-concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, B. M.; Brechna, H.; Hill, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Flux concentrator has high primary to secondary coupling efficiency enabling it to produce high magnetic fields. The device provides versatility in pulse duration, magnetic field strengths and power sources.

  4. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2009-10-09

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Dynamic frequency/temperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rad/s and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on initial dynamic strain sweep tests. Master curves of G{prime} and G{double_prime} as a function of frequency were generated using time-temperature superposition (horizontal shift with initial vertical correction). The activation energy calculated from an Arrhenius fit to the horizontal shift factors was 178-355 kJ/mol. The calculated percent load retention at {approx}50 years was 61-68%.

  5. The Prograde Orbit of Exoplanet TrES-2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Johnson, John Asher; Narita, Norio; Suto, Yasushi; Turner, Edwin L.; Fischer, Debra A.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; O'Donovan, Francis T.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2008-08-01

    We monitored the Doppler shift of the G0 V star TrES-2 throughout a transit of its giant planet. The anomalous Doppler shift due to stellar rotation (the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect) is discernible in the data, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.9, even though the star is a slow rotator. By modeling this effect we find that the planet's trajectory across the face of the star is tilted by -9° ± 12° relative to the projected stellar equator. With 98% confidence, the orbit is prograde. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. SAMOS Surface Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn; Bourassa, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The development of a new surface flux dataset based on underway meteorological observations from research vessels will be presented. The research vessel data center at the Florida State University routinely acquires, quality controls, and distributes underway surface meteorological and oceanographic observations from over 30 oceanographic vessels. These activities are coordinated by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative in partnership with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project. Recently, the SAMOS data center has used these underway observations to produce bulk flux estimates for each vessel along individual cruise tracks. A description of this new flux product, along with the underlying data quality control procedures applied to SAMOS observations, will be provided. Research vessels provide underway observations at high-temporal frequency (1 min. sampling interval) that include navigational (position, course, heading, and speed), meteorological (air temperature, humidity, wind, surface pressure, radiation, rainfall), and oceanographic (surface sea temperature and salinity) samples. Vessels recruited to the SAMOS initiative collect a high concentration of data within the U.S. continental shelf and also frequently operate well outside routine shipping lanes, capturing observations in extreme ocean environments (Southern, Arctic, South Atlantic, and South Pacific oceans). These observations are atypical for their spatial and temporal sampling, making them very useful for many applications including validation of numerical models and satellite retrievals, as well as local assessments of natural variability. Individual SAMOS observations undergo routine automated quality control and select vessels receive detailed visual data quality inspection. The result is a quality-flagged data set that is ideal for calculating turbulent flux estimates. We will describe the bulk flux algorithms that have been applied to the

  7. Fabrication of PVDF-TrFE based bilayered PbTiO{sub 3}/PVDF-TrFE films capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Nurbaya, Z.; Wahid, M. H.; Rozana, M. D.; Annuar, I.; Alrokayan, S. A. H.; Khan, H. A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-06

    Development of high performance capacitor is reaching towards new generation where the ferroelectric materials take places as the active dielectric layer. The motivation of this study is to produce high capacitance device with long life cycle. This was configured by preparing bilayered films where lead titanate as an active dielectric layer and stacked with the top dielectric layer, poly(vinyledenefluoride-trifluoroethylene). Both of them are being referred that have one in common which is ferroelectric behavior. Therefore the combination of ceramic and polymer ferroelectric material could perform optimum dielectric characteristic for capacitor applications. The fabrication was done by simple sol-gel spin coating method that being varied at spinning speed property for polymer layers, whereas maintaining the ceramic layer. The characterization of PVDF-TrFE/PbTiO3 was performed according to metal-insulator-metal stacked capacitor measurement which includes structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric measurement.

  8. Meromorphic flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, Cesar; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar

    2017-04-01

    We present exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein's equations related to Minkoswki vacuum constructed from Type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. Following [1, 2] we study a non-trivial flux compactification on a fibered product by a four-dimensional torus and a two-dimensional sphere punctured by 5- and 7-branes. By considering only 3-form fluxes and the dilaton, as functions on the internal sphere coordinates, we show that these solutions correspond to a family of supersymmetric solutions constructed by the use of G-theory. Meromorphicity on functions constructed in terms of fluxes and warping factors guarantees that flux and 5-brane contributions to the scalar curvature vanish while fulfilling stringent constraints as tadpole cancelation and Bianchi identities. Different Einstein's solutions are shown to be related by U-dualities. We present three supersymmetric non-trivial Minkowski vacuum solutions and compute the corresponding soft terms. We also construct a non-supersymmetric solution and study its stability.

  9. Inflation from flux cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guido; Gobbetti, Roberto; Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie L.

    2013-10-01

    When electric-type flux threads compact extra dimensions, a quantum nucleation event can break a flux line and initiate a cascade that unwinds many units of flux. Here, we present a novel mechanism for inflation based on this phenomenon. From the 4D point of view, the cascade begins with the formation of a bubble containing an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, but the vacuum energy inside the bubble is initially only slightly reduced, and subsequently decreases gradually throughout the cascade. If the initial flux number Q0 ≳ O (100), during the cascade the universe can undergo N ≳ 60 efolds of inflationary expansion with gradually decreasing Hubble constant, producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations with amplitude and tilt consistent with observation, and a potentially observable level of non-Gaussianity and tensor modes. The power spectrum has a small oscillatory component that does not decay away during inflation, with a period set approximately by the light-crossing time of the compact dimension(s). Since the ingredients are fluxes threading compact dimensions, this mechanism fits naturally into the string landscape, but does not appear to suffer from the eta problem or require fine-tuning (beyond the usual anthropic requirement of small vacuum energy after reheating).

  10. Protected Flux Pairing Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Matthew; Zhang, Wenyuan; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the coherent flux tunneling in a qubit containing two submicron Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor (a dissipationless inductor with an impedance much greater than the resistance quantum). The two low energy quantum states of this device, 0 and 1, are represented by even and odd number of fluxes in the loop, respectively. This device is dual to the charge pairing Josephson rhombi qubit. The spectrum of the device, studied by microwave spectroscopy, reflects the interference between coherent quantum phase slips in the two junctions (the Aharonov-Casher effect). The time domain measurements demonstrate the suppression of the qubit's energy relaxation in the protected regime, which illustrates the potential of this flux pairing device as a protected quantum circuit. Templeton Foundation, NSF, and ARO.

  11. Flux flow microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, J. S.; Hietala, V. M.; Plut, T. A.; Ginley, D. S.; Vawter, G. A.; Tigges, C. P.; Siegal, M. P.; Phillips, J. M.; Hou, S. Y.

    Flux-flow based devices such as the superconducting flux flow transistor and magnetically controlled long junctions have been made from thin films of TlCaBaCuO and YBaCuO. The devices are based on the magnetic control of flux flow in their respective structures: a long junction or an array of weak links. The equivalent circuits of the two devices are similar: a low impedance input control line, an output impedance of 3 - 20 ohm and an active current-controlled element. The long junctions have tended to be slower, have lower gain and be somewhat less noisy than their counterparts. The performance of circuits such as narrowband and distributed amplifiers (50 GHz bandwidths, noise figures less than 3 dB), phase shifters (continuous with less than 2 dB loss 4 - 40 GHz), logic gates (2 - 3 ps gate delays) and memories made using these devices will be compared and analyzed.

  12. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MaCarthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  13. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  14. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  15. Optical heat flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-06-25

    A heat flux gauge is described comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  16. Optical heat flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1989-06-07

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figs.

  17. Optical heat flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MaCarthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-09-03

    A heat flux gauge is described comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  18. Multiple isoforms of β-TrCP display differential activities in the regulation of Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eunjeong; Kim, Hyunjoon; Kim, Rokki; Yun, Sangmoon; Kim, Minseong; Han, Jin-Kwan; Costantini, Frank; Jho, Eek-hoon

    2008-01-01

    The F-box proteins β-TrCP 1 and 2 (β-transducin repeat protein) have 2 and 3 isoforms, respectively, due to alternative splicing of exons encoding the N-terminal region. We identified an extra exon in between the previously known exons 1 and 2 of β-TrCP1 and β-TrCP2. Interestingly, sequence analysis suggested that many more isoforms are produced than previously identified, via the alternative splicing of all possible combination of exons II to V of β-TrCP1 and exons II to IV of β-TrCP2. Different mouse tissues show specific expression patterns of the isoforms, and the level of expression of the isoform that has been used in most published papers was very low. Yeast two-hybrid assays show that β-TrCP1 isoforms containing exon III, which are the most highly expressed isoforms in most tissues, do not interact with Skp1. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of transiently expressed β-TrCP1 isoforms suggests that the presence of exon III causes β-TrCP1 to localize in nuclei. Consistent with the above findings, isoforms including exon III showed a reduced ability to block ectopic embryonic axes induced via injection of Wnt8 or β-catenin in Xenopus embryos. Overall, our data suggest that isoforms of β-TrCPs generated by alternative splicing may have different biological roles. PMID:18929646

  19. An intermediary role for the tremorgenic mycotoxin TR-2 in the biosynthesis of verruculogen.

    PubMed

    Willingale, J; Perera, K P; Mantle, P G

    1983-09-15

    14C-Labelled compound TR-2, a tremorgenic mycotoxin, was administered to Penicillium raistrickii in submerged fermentation. Half of the added radiolabel was taken up by the fungus during the 60 h incubation period and the secondary metabolites subsequently isolated, principally verruculogen but also fumitremorgin B, were found to be radiolabelled. The efficiency of biosynthetic incorporation of TR-2 into verruculogen within the mycelium was at least 35%, demonstrating for the first time an intermediary role for TR-2. Fumitremorgin B was also TR-2-derived but may not be an important intermediate in verruculogen biosynthesis.

  20. An intermediary role for the tremorgenic mycotoxin TR-2 in the biosynthesis of verruculogen.

    PubMed Central

    Willingale, J; Perera, K P; Mantle, P G

    1983-01-01

    14C-Labelled compound TR-2, a tremorgenic mycotoxin, was administered to Penicillium raistrickii in submerged fermentation. Half of the added radiolabel was taken up by the fungus during the 60 h incubation period and the secondary metabolites subsequently isolated, principally verruculogen but also fumitremorgin B, were found to be radiolabelled. The efficiency of biosynthetic incorporation of TR-2 into verruculogen within the mycelium was at least 35%, demonstrating for the first time an intermediary role for TR-2. Fumitremorgin B was also TR-2-derived but may not be an important intermediate in verruculogen biosynthesis. PMID:6626168

  1. Mice lacking TR4 nuclear receptor develop mitochondrial myopathy with deficiency in complex I.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Lee, Yi-Fen; Chou, Samuel; Uno, Hideo; Li, Gonghui; Brookes, Paul; Massett, Michael P; Wu, Qiao; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Chawnshang

    2011-08-01

    The estimated incidence of mitochondrial diseases in humans is approximately 1:5000 to 1:10,000, whereas the molecular mechanisms for more than 50% of human mitochondrial disease cases still remain unclear. Here we report that mice lacking testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4(-/-)) suffered mitochondrial myopathy, and histological examination of TR4(-/-) soleus muscle revealed abnormal mitochondrial accumulation. In addition, increased serum lactate levels, decreased mitochondrial ATP production, and decreased electron transport chain complex I activity were found in TR4(-/-) mice. Restoration of TR4 into TR4(-/-) myoblasts rescued mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Further real-time PCR quantification and promoter studies found TR4 could modulate complex I activity via transcriptionally regulating the complex I assembly factor NDUFAF1, and restoration of NDUFAF1 level in TR4(-/-) myoblasts increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Together, these results suggest that TR4 plays vital roles in mitochondrial function, which may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of mitochondrial myopathy, and targeting TR4 via its ligands/activators may allow us to develop better therapeutic approaches.

  2. TR-EDB: Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stallmann, F.W.; Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (TR-EDB) is a collection of results from irradiation in materials test reactors. It complements the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB), whose data are restricted to the results from the analysis of surveillance capsules in commercial power reactors. The rationale behind their restriction was the assumption that the results of test reactor experiments may not be applicable to power reactors and could, therefore, be challenged if such data were included. For this very reason the embrittlement predictions in the Reg. Guide 1.99, Rev. 2, were based exclusively on power reactor data. However, test reactor experiments are able to cover a much wider range of materials and irradiation conditions that are needed to explore more fully a variety of models for the prediction of irradiation embrittlement. These data are also needed for the study of effects of annealing for life extension of reactor pressure vessels that are difficult to obtain from surveillance capsule results.

  3. Generic flux coupling analysis.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High flux heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Edward M.; Mackowski, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    This interim report documents the results of the first two phases of a four-phase program to develop a high flux heat exchanger for cooling future high performance aircraft electronics. Phase 1 defines future needs for high flux heat removal in advanced military electronics systems. The results are sorted by broad application categories: (1) commercial digital systems, (2) military data processors, (3) power processors, and (4) radar and optical systems. For applications expected to be fielded in five to ten years, the outlook is for steady state flux levels of 30-50 W/sq cm for digital processors and several hundred W/sq cm for power control applications. In Phase 1, a trade study was conducted on emerging cooling technologies which could remove a steady state chip heat flux of 100 W/sq cm while holding chip junction temperature to 90 C. Constraints imposed on heat exchanger design, in order to reflect operation in a fighter aircraft environment, included a practical lower limit on coolant supply temperature, the preference for a nontoxic, nonflammable, and nonfreezing coolant, the need to minimize weight and volume, and operation in an accelerating environment. The trade study recommended the Compact High Intensity Cooler (CHIC) for design, fabrication, and test in the final two phases of this program.

  5. Carbon Flux Explorers

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Jim

    2016-09-09

    Jim Bishop, senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and professor at UC Berkeley, is leading a project to deploy robotic floats that provide data on how microorganisms sequester carbon in the ocean. He recently led a research team on a 10-day voyage, funded by the National Science Foundation, to put the Carbon Flux Explorers to the test.

  6. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  7. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  8. Advanced Surface Flux Parameterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    within PE 0602435N are BE-35-2-18, for the Mesoscale Modeling of the Atmos- phere and Aerosols, BE-35-2-19, and for the Exploratory Data Assimilation ... Methods . Related project at NPS is N0001401WR20242 for Evaluating Surface Flux and Boundary Layer Parameterizations in Mesoscale Models Using

  9. Flux Tube Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, O.

    2011-05-01

    This Fortran code computes magnetohydrostatic flux tubes and sheets according to the method of Steiner, Pneuman, & Stenflo (1986) A&A 170, 126-137. The code has many parameters contained in one input file that are easily modified. Extensive documentation is provided in README files.

  10. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  11. Carbon Flux Explorers

    ScienceCinema

    Bishop, Jim

    2016-10-12

    Jim Bishop, senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and professor at UC Berkeley, is leading a project to deploy robotic floats that provide data on how microorganisms sequester carbon in the ocean. He recently led a research team on a 10-day voyage, funded by the National Science Foundation, to put the Carbon Flux Explorers to the test.

  12. Role of β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase receptor in UVB mediated responses in skin.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neehar; Demmer, Tara A; Sharma, Alok K; Elcheva, Irina; Spiegelman, Vladimir S

    2011-04-15

    Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the United States. Exposure to UVB radiation is a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. SCF(β-TrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase has been found to be involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and transformation. Aberrant up-regulation of beta-transducin repeats-containing proteins (β-TrCP) is often found in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We have previously demonstrated that β-TrCP2 is over-expressed in chemically induced mouse skin tumors. Various cellular stress stimuli, including UVB, induce an increase in β-TrCP1 mRNA and protein levels in human cells. We have previously shown that inhibition of β-TrCP function, by induction of dominant negative β-TrCP2 (β-TrCP2(ΔF)), in vitro in hTERT immortalized normal keratinocytes, results in increase in UVB induced apoptosis. We have generated transgenic mice with inducible, selective expression of dominant negative β-TrCP2 in epidermis with the Keratin 5 promoter (K5-rTA x TRE-HA-β-TrCP(ΔF)). Here we report that inhibition of β-TrCP function in mouse epidermis results in decrease in UVB-induced edema, hyperplasia, and inflammatory response and increment in UVB-induced apoptosis in skin. Our results suggest that β-TrCP may be an essential player in UVB induced responses in skin and can be a potential therapeutic target for skin cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Role of β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase receptor in UVB mediated responses in skin

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Neehar; Demmer, Tara A.; Sharma, Alok K.; Elcheva, Irina; Spiegelman, Vladimir S.

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the United States. Exposure to UVB radiation is a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. SCFβ-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase has been found to be involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and transformation. Aberrant up-regulation of beta-transducin repeats-containing proteins (β-TrCP) is often found in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We have previously demonstrated that β-TrCP2 is over-expressed in chemically induced mouse skin tumors [1]. Various cellular stress stimuli, including UVB, induce an increase in β-TrCP1 mRNA and protein levels in human cells [2]. We have previously shown that inhibition of β-TrCP function, by induction of dominant negative β-TrCP2 (β-TrCP2ΔF), in vitro in hTERT immortalized normal keratinocytes, results in increase in UVB induced apoptosis [3]. We have generated transgenic mice with inducible, selective expression of dominant negative β-TrCP2 in epidermis with the Keratin 5 promoter (K5-rTA × TRE-HA-β-TrCPΔF). Here we report that inhibition of β-TrCP function in mouse epidermis results in decrease in UVB-induced edema, hyperplasia, and inflammatory response and increment in UVB-induced apoptosis in skin. Our results suggest that β-TrCP may be an essential player in UVB induced responses in skin and can be a potential therapeutic target for skin cancer. PMID:21187057

  14. The Significance of the Trömner Sign in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patient.

    PubMed

    Chaiyamongkol, Weera; Laohawiriyakamol, Teeranan; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Tanutit, Pramot; Bintachitt, Piyawat; Siribumrungwong, Koopong

    2016-07-11

    This study is a diagnostic analysis. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Trömner sign in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and how its presence correlates with the severity of myelopathy. A clinical presentation of myelopathy corresponding with image findings is a current standard to diagnose CSM. Trömner sign is an alternative of well-known Hoffmann sign to detect CSM. Little is known about its diagnostic accuracy and how its presence correlates with the severity of CSM. Consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of CSM and other cervical spondylosis-related problems were enrolled in either CSM group, cervical spondylotic radiculopathy group, or axial pain group. Normal volunteers and patients without spine-related issues were used as a control. All participants were examined for the presence of myelopathic signs. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of all participants were reviewed by a radiologist. There were 85 participants included in the study. Diagnostic sensitivity was 76%, 94%, 76%, and 36% for Hoffmann sign, Trömner sign, inverted radial reflex, and Babinski sign, respectively. Trömner sign had relatively high sensitivity (95%) despite of mild degree of myelopathy. Negative predictive value was 60%, 85%, 59%, and 38% for Hoffmann sign, Trömner sign, inverted radial reflex, and Babinski sign, respectively. There were 63%-71% of patients in either axial pain group or cervical spondylotic radiculopathy group had positive Trömner sign. Most of CSM patients with cord signal changed had positive myelopathic sign. Regarding CSM patient without cord signal change, most of tests were negative except Trömner sign. High sensitivity (94%) and relatively high negative predictive value (85%) for Trömner sign indicate the usefulness of Trömner sign in ruling out CSM. High incidence of positive Trömner sign in presymptomatic cervical cord compression patients suggests Trömner sign could have a useful role in early detection of presymptomatic

  15. NIF-scale re-emission sphere measurements of early-time Tr = 100 eV hohlraum symmetry (invited).

    PubMed

    Dewald, E L; Thomas, C; Milovich, J; Edwards, J; Sorce, C; Kirkwood, R; Meeker, D; Jones, O; Izumi, N; Landen, O L

    2008-10-01

    The indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign (NIC) proposes to set the first 2 ns of hohlraum radiation symmetry by observing the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern from a high-Z sphere in place of the ignition capsule. To assess this technique under NIC conditions, we used the Omega Laser Facility to image the re-emission of Bi coated spheres with 200 ps temporal, 50-100 microm spatial, and 30% spectral resolution. The sphere is driven by 70% NIC-scale vacuum Au hohlraums heated to Tr=100 eV using two cones per side laser beam illumination. The experiments have demonstrated the required accuracies of <3%P(2)/P(0) and <3%P(4)/P(0) Legendre mode flux asymmetry at both 900 and 1200 eV re-emission photon energies. The re-emission patterns at 900 and 1200 eV are also consistent with each other and their relative dependence on radiation temperature. We measured the P(2)/P(0) and P(4)/P(0) dependence to laser cone power ratio. View factor calculations are in agreement with the experimentally measured radiation flux and re-emit images when assuming 55% inner beam and 100 % outer beam coupling into x rays at the hohlraum wall.

  16. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  17. 40 CFR 97.421 - Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results. 97.421 Section 97.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... the control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR NOX...

  18. Measurement and Prediction of Water Outgassing from TR55 Silicone by the Isoconversional Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Burnham, A K; Maxwell, R S; Balazs, B

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to measure the H{sub 2}O outgassing kinetics of TR55 silicon after a few hours of vacuum pumping; and to make H{sub 2}O outgassing kinetic predictions for TR55 at low temperatures in a vacuum/dry environment.

  19. [Fatal Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome in a child with pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Rie S; Hedelund, Lene; Poulsen, Lone H; Bach, Arne; Keller, Johnny

    2013-09-16

    Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome is characterized by the venous varicosities, ipsilateral cutaneous capillary malformations, and bony/soft-tissue overgrowth. Potential complications such as hypercoagulability, thrombosis and pulmonary embolism have been casuistically reported. Here, we describe a child with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome complicated by a pulmonary embolism leading to sudden death.

  20. Telomere shortening in mTR-/- embryos is associated with failure to close the neural tube.

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, E; Samper, E; Blasco, M A

    1999-01-01

    Mice genetically deficient for the telomerase RNA (mTR) can be propagated for only a limited number of generations. In particular, mTR-/- mice of a mixed C57BL6/129Sv genetic background are infertile at the sixth generation and show serious hematopoietic defects. Here, we show that a percentage of mTR-/- embryos do not develop normally and fail to close the neural tube, preferentially at the forebrain and midbrain. The penetrance of this defect increases with the generation number, with 30% of the mTR-/- embryos from the fifth generation showing the phenotype. Moreover, mTR-/- kindreds in a pure C57BL6 background are only viable up to the fourth generation and also show defects in the closing of the neural tube. Cells derived from mTR-/- embryos that fail to close the neural tube have significantly shorter telomeres and decreased viability than their mTR-/- littermates with a closed neural tube, suggesting that the neural tube defect is a consequence of the loss of telomere function. The fact that the main defect detected in mTR-/- embryos is in the closing of the neural tube, suggests that this developmental process is among the most sensitive to telomere loss and chromosomal instability. PMID:10064584

  1. EdTrAc Teacher Education Program: First-Year Implementation Evaluation (2005-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Brian; Shelton, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The Educational Training Academy (EdTrAc) is an NSF-funded project of Normandale Community College to increase the number, diversity, and skills of students preparing to be elementary and middle school teachers with a specialty in math and science. Overall, this evaluation indicates that the EdTrAc implementation is on track after its first year…

  2. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  3. Flux compactifications grow lumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlen, Alex; Zukowski, Claire

    2014-12-01

    The simplest flux compactifications are highly symmetric—a q -form flux is wrapped uniformly around an extra-dimensional q -sphere. In this paper, we investigate solutions that break the internal SO (q +1 ) symmetry down to SO (q )×Z2 ; we find a large number of such lumpy solutions, and show that often at least one of them has lower vacuum energy, larger entropy, and is more stable than the symmetric solution. We construct the phase diagram of lumpy solutions, and provide an interpretation in terms of an effective potential. Finally, we provide evidence that the perturbatively stable vacua have a nonperturbative instability to spontaneously sprout lumps. We give an estimate of the decay rate and argue that generically it is exponentially faster than all other known decays.

  4. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  5. Lobotomy of flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibitetto, Giuseppe; Guarino, Adolfo; Roest, Diederik

    2014-05-01

    We provide the dictionary between four-dimensional gauged supergravity and type II compactifications on 6 with metric and gauge fluxes in the absence of supersymmetry breaking sources, such as branes and orientifold planes. Secondly, we prove that there is a unique isotropic compactification allowing for critical points. It corresponds to a type IIA background given by a product of two 3-tori with SO(3) twists and results in a unique theory (gauging) with a non-semisimple gauge algebra. Besides the known four AdS solutions surviving the orientifold projection to = 4 induced by O6-planes, this theory contains a novel AdS solution that requires non-trivial orientifold-odd fluxes, hence being a genuine critical point of the = 8 theory.

  6. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  7. Reconnecting Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; van Compernolle, Bart

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are due to helical currents and form a dense carpet of arches on the surface of the sun. Occasionally one tears loose as a coronal mass ejection and its rope structure is detected by satellites close to the earth. Current sheets can tear into filaments and these are nothing other than flux ropes. Ropes are not static, they exert mutual JxB forces causing them to twist about each other and merge. Kink instabilities cause them to violently smash into each other and reconnect at the point of contact. We report on experiments done in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA (L=17m,dia=60cm,0.3<=B0z<=2.5kG,n˜2x10^12cm-3)on three dimensional flux ropes. Two, three or more magnetic flux ropes are generated from initially adjacent pulsed current channels in a background magnetized plasma. The currents and magnetic fields form exotic shapes with no ignorable direction and no magnetic nulls. Volumetric space-time data show multiple reconnection sites with time-dependent locations. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL), a tool to understand 3D reconnection without null points. In our experiment the QSL is a narrow ribbon-like region(s) that twists between field lines. Within the QSL(s) field lines that start close to one another rapidly diverge as they pass through one or more reconnection regions. When the field lines are tracked they are observed to slip along the QSL when reconnection occurs. The Heating and other co-existing waves will be presented.

  8. Heat Flux Sensor Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. W.

    2002-07-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the following objectives: Developing secondary calibration capabilities for MSFC's (Marshall Space Flight Center) Hot Gas Facility (HGF), a Mach 4 Aerothermal Wind Tunnel; Evaluating ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) slug/ thinskin calorimeters against current HGF heat flux sensors; Providing verification of baselined AEDC (Arnold Engineering Development Center) / Medtherm gage calibrations; Addressing future calibration issues involving NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) certified radiant gages.

  9. Heat Flux Sensor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the following objectives: Developing secondary calibration capabilities for MSFC's (Marshall Space Flight Center) Hot Gas Facility (HGF), a Mach 4 Aerothermal Wind Tunnel; Evaluating ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) slug/ thinskin calorimeters against current HGF heat flux sensors; Providing verification of baselined AEDC (Arnold Engineering Development Center) / Medtherm gage calibrations; Addressing future calibration issues involving NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) certified radiant gages.

  10. [Transducin beta-TrCP expressed in developmental hair follicle of mice].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yong-dai; He, Yong-hong; Yang, Lin; Tang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Tian, Wei-dong

    2008-07-01

    To identify the expression of antagonist beta-TrCP protein in Sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway and Wnt signal transduction pathway in hair follicle tissues. The heads of day 18 embryo, and one day and six-days-old postnatal mice were acquired and treated with 40 g/L paraformaldehyde fixation for 48 h and paraffin embedding. The expression of beta-TrCP proteins was examined using LsAB (labelled streptavidin-biotin) method. beta-TrCP proteins were expressed in the cytoplasm of the hair stems of hair follicle, hair cuticle, cuticle of root sheath, Huxley's layer of internal root sheath cells, external root sheath and mesenchymal tissues, but not in connective tissue sheath and Henle's layer of internal root sheath. TrCP express in the developmental hair follicle tissues, which implicates that beta-TrCP regulate the developmental hair follicle by mediating the signal transduction pathways.

  11. Physics of magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.

  12. Purification of a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TrACP) from bovine cortical bone matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, K.H.W.; Freeman, T.K.; Baylink, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that a partially purified bovine skeletal TrACP showed protein phosphatase (P'ase) activity that was specific for phosphotyrosyl (Ptyr) proteins. They have now purified TrACP activity from bovine cortical bone matrix to apparent homogeneity. The purification procedures included CM-Sepharose ion-exchange, cellulose phosphate affinity, sephacryl S-300 gel filtration and phenyl sepharose affinity chromatographies. Overall yield was > 25% and purification was approximately 2000-fold with a specific activity of 8.15 umol pNPP hydrolyzed/min/mg protein at 37/sup 0/C. The purified enzyme was judged to be homogeneous based on: (i) appearance as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE (silver staining technique) and (ii) distribution analysis of radioiodinated purified TrACP after SDS-PAGE revealing one band of radioactivity at the same positions as the TrACP protein band. M.W. of TrACP was 34,600 as assessed by gel filtration and 32,500 by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that bovine skeletal TrACP exists as active monomer. Analysis of the purified TrACP by isoelectric focusing showed at least 9 bands of enzyme activities with pIs between 4 and 5, indicating micro-heterogenecity. Substrate specificity analyses revealed that the purified TrACP also hydrolyzed nucleotide tri- and di-phosphates, but not monophosphates or other low M.W. phosphoryl esters, and was also capable of hydrolyzing phosphotyrosine (Tyr(P)) and Ptyr proteins with little activity toward other phosphoamino acids or phosphoseryl proteins. Optimal pH was 5.5 for TrACP activity, 6.0 for Tyr(P) P'ase activity and 7.0 for Ptyr protein P'ase activity. Results of these studies represent the first purification of a skeletal TrACP to apparent homogeneity.

  13. Proper orthogonal decomposition-based spatial refinement of TR-PIV realizations using high-resolution non-TR-PIV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuangxin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2017-07-01

    A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based spatial refinement approach is proposed to increase the resolution of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) realizations. POD analysis of the high-resolution non-TR-PIV measurements is used to construct the high-resolution POD modes, and the TR-PIV instantaneous realization with relatively low spatial resolution is cross-projected onto the POD modes to obtain the time-varying mode coefficients. Subsequently, the high-resolution time-resolved flow fields, which inherit the information of the superimposed multi-scale structures from the non-TR-PIV measurements, are reconstructed using the linear combination of the cross-projected mode coefficients and the corresponding high-resolution POD modes. Two main sources of error in the novel strategy are discussed: the cross-projected reconstruction of the instantaneous fields, which are excluded in the determination of the high-resolution POD modes, and the interpolation that maps the high-resolution POD modes onto the coarse grid in the cross-projection process when estimating the mode coefficients. To evaluate the method, the flow fields of a free round jet at Reynolds number Re = 3000 are separately measured in the same field-of-view region using non-TR-PIV and TR-PIV setups with a spatial resolution ratio of 42:1. The high- and low-resolution realizations of the instantaneous flow fields measured by the non-TR-PIV setup are determined by applying fine (32 × 32 pixels) and coarse (128 × 128 pixels) interrogation windows, respectively, to ensure accurate fine-to-coarse mapping of the POD modes and for use as a reference to assess the refinement accuracy. This evaluation shows that the combination of these two error sources can be minimized when the POD-sample size (the number of snapshots employed in the decomposition) and the number of POD modes for refinement are optimized. Finally, application of the present method to TR-PIV data shows that the high

  14. Reconnection Between Twisted Flux Tubes - Implications for Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnik, K. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Wyper, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the heating of the Sun's corona has been a long-standing unanswered problem in solar physics. Beginning with the work of Parker (1972), many authors have argued that the corona is continuously heated through numerous small-scale reconnection events known as nanoflares. In these nanoflare models, stressing of magnetic flux tubes by photospheric motions causes the field to become misaligned, producing current sheets in the corona. These current sheets then reconnect, converting the free energy stored in the magnetic field into heat. In this work, we use the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS) to perform 3D MHD simulations that dynamically resolve regions of strong current to study the reconnection between twisted flux tubes in a plane-parallel Parker configuration. We investigate the energetics of the process, and show that the flux tubes accumulate stress gradually before undergoing impulsive reconnection. We study the motion of the individual field lines during reconnection, and demonstrate that the connectivity of the configuration becomes extremely complex, with multiple current sheets being formed, which could lead to enhanced heating. In addition, we show that there is considerable interaction between the twisted flux tubes and the surrounding untwisted field, which contributes further to the formation of current sheets. The implications for observations will be discussed. This work was funded by a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship, and by the NASA TR&T Program.

  15. TR32DB - Management of Research Data in a Collaborative, Interdisciplinary Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curdt, Constanze; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Waldhoff, Guido; Lang, Ulrich; Bareth, Georg

    2015-04-01

    The management of research data in a well-structured and documented manner is essential in the context of collaborative, interdisciplinary research environments (e.g. across various institutions). Consequently, set-up and use of a research data management (RDM) system like a data repository or project database is necessary. These systems should accompany and support scientists during the entire research life cycle (e.g. data collection, documentation, storage, archiving, sharing, publishing) and operate cross-disciplinary in interdisciplinary research projects. Challenges and problems of RDM are well-know. Consequently, the set-up of a user-friendly, well-documented, sustainable RDM system is essential, as well as user support and further assistance. In the framework of the Transregio Collaborative Research Centre 32 'Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Systems: Monitoring, Modelling, and Data Assimilation' (CRC/TR32), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), a RDM system was self-designed and implemented. The CRC/TR32 project database (TR32DB, www.tr32db.de) is operating online since early 2008. The TR32DB handles all data, which are created by the involved project participants from several institutions (e.g. Universities of Cologne, Bonn, Aachen, and the Research Centre Jülich) and research fields (e.g. soil and plant sciences, hydrology, geography, geophysics, meteorology, remote sensing). Very heterogeneous research data are considered, which are resulting from field measurement campaigns, meteorological monitoring, remote sensing, laboratory studies and modelling approaches. Furthermore, outcomes like publications, conference contributions, PhD reports and corresponding images are regarded. The TR32DB project database is set-up in cooperation with the Regional Computing Centre of the University of Cologne (RRZK) and also located in this hardware environment. The TR32DB system architecture is composed of three main components: (i) a file-based data

  16. miRNA-133a attenuates lipid accumulation via TR4-CD36 pathway in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Lei; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2016-08-01

    lipid metabolism is the major causes of atherosclerosis. There is increasing evidence that miR-133a plays an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-133a in macrophages is still unclear. Several lines of evidence indicate that loss of TR4 leads to reduce lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues, etc, and lesional macrophages-derived TR4 can greatly increase the foam cell formation through increasing the CD36-mediated the uptake of ox-LDL. Interestingly, computational analysis suggests that TR4 may be a target gene of miR-133a. Here, we examined whether miR-133a regulates TR4 expression in ox-LDL-induced mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, thereby affecting lipid accumulation. Using ox-LDL-treatment RAW 264.7 macrophages transfected with miR-133a mimics or inhibitors, we have showed that miR-133a can directly regulate the expression of TR4 in RAW 264.7 cells, thereby attenuates CD36-medide lipid accumulation. Furthermore, our studies suggest an additional explanation for the regulatory mechanism of miR-133a regulation to its functional target, TR4 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-133a may regulate lipid accumulation in ox-LDL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages via TR4-CD36 pathway.

  17. Fate of TR-2, the hepatic metabolite of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen, in sheep.

    PubMed

    Laws, I; Mantle, P G; Rodrigues, L; Penny, R H

    1987-08-01

    1. Verruculogen is eliminated in bile after transformation to TR-2, only a trace of which was excreted as such in faeces of sheep given verruculogen per os. Negligible TR-2 was present free in urine; no glucuronide was found. 2. An isomer of TR-2, a minor component of the bile of sheep given verruculogen, has been defined by 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and the isomerism involves the disposition of the two adjacent hydroxyl groups with a concomitant change in the conformation of the ring adjacent to the indole. 3. 14C-TR-2, added to the perfusate of isolated rat liver, was excreted unchanged in the bile, implying no significant loss of any biliary TR-2 subject to enterohepatic recycling in vivo. 4. 14C-TR-2 incubated anaerobically in sheep ileum contents was 95% transformed into more polar metabolites, the majority of the radiolabelled metabolites isolated being water soluble. 5. The principal fate of biliary TR-2 is as a metabolic substrate for the intestinal microflora.

  18. Thermal flux transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freggens, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermal flux transfer system for use in maintaining the thrust chamber of an operative reaction motor at given temperatures is described. The system is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber surrounding a thrust chamber to be cooled, with a plurality of parallel, longitudinally spaced, disk-shaped wick members formed of a metallic mesh and employed in delivering a working fluid, in its liquid state, radially toward the thrust chamber and delivering the working fluid, in its vapor state, away from the nozzle for effecting a cooling of the nozzle, in accordance with known principles of an operating heat pipe.

  19. High flux reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  20. [The flux of historiography].

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, R G

    2001-01-01

    The author places Grmek's editorial within the flux of the historiographical debate which, since the middle of the 1970s, has concentrated on two major crises due to the end of social science-oriented 'scientific history' and to the 'linguistic turn'. He also argues that Grmek's historiographical work of the 1980s and 1990s was to some extent an alternative to certain observed changes in historical fashion and has achieved greater intelligibility because of its commitment to a rational vision of science and historiography.

  1. Modulation of SCFβ-TrCP-dependent IκBα Ubiquitination by Hydrogen Peroxide*

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sami; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.; Lorne, Emmanuel; Liu, Gang; Sha, Yonggang; Abraham, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are known to participate in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, including activation of NF-κB. Recent studies have indicated that increases in intracellular concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have anti-inflammatory effects in neutrophils, including inhibition of the degradation of IκBα after TLR4 engagement. In the present experiments, we found that culture of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils and HEK 293 cells with H2O2 resulted in diminished ubiquitination of IκBα and decreased SCFβ-TrCP ubiquitin ligase activity. Exposure of neutrophils or HEK 293 cells to H2O2 was associated with reduced binding between phosphorylated IκBα and SCFβ-TrCP but no change in the composition of the SCFβ-TrCP complex. Lipopolysaccharide-induced SCFβ-TrCP ubiquitin ligase activity as well as binding of β-TrCP to phosphorylated IκBα was decreased in the lungs of acatalasemic mice and mice treated with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole, situations in which intracellular concentrations of H2O2 are increased. Exposure to H2O2 resulted in oxidative modification of cysteine residues in β-TrCP. Cysteine 308 in Blade 1 of the β-TrCP β-propeller region was found to be required for maximal binding between β-TrCP and phosphorylated IκBα. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of H2O2 may result from its ability to decrease ubiquitination as well as subsequent degradation of IκBα through inhibiting the association between IκBα and SCFβ-TrCP. PMID:19933270

  2. New Genetic Element Carrying the Erythromycin Resistance Determinant erm(TR) in Streptococcus pneumoniae▿

    PubMed Central

    Camilli, Romina; Del Grosso, Maria; Iannelli, Francesco; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2008-01-01

    erm(A) subclass erm(TR), a common macrolide resistance determinant in Streptococcus pyogenes but quite rare in Streptococcus pneumoniae, was found in a clinical S. pneumoniae isolate (AP200) from Italy. In this isolate, erm(TR) was found included in a genetic element approximately 56 kb in size that did not appear to be conjugative but could be transferred by transformation. An erm(TR)-containing DNA fragment of approximately 10 kb was sequenced and 12 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Upstream of erm(TR), a regulatory protein of the TetR family and the two components of an efflux pump of the ABC type were found. Downstream of erm(TR), there were ORFs homologous to a spectinomycin phosphotransferase, transposases, and a relaxase. Since the genomic sequence of S. pyogenes MGAS10750 carrying erm(TR) became available, comparison between the erm(TR)-containing genetic elements in AP200 and in MGAS10750 was performed. The region flanking erm(TR) in MGAS10750 showed identity with AP200 for 10 ORFs out of 12. PCR mapping using primers designed on the sequence of MGAS10750 confirmed that AP200 carries a genetic element similar to that of MGAS10750. In AP200 the genetic element was inserted inside an ORF homologous to spr0790 of S. pneumoniae R6, coding for a type I restriction modification system. Homologies between the insertion sites in AP200 and MGAS10750 consisted of eight conserved nucleotides, of which three were duplicated, likely representing target site duplication. The structure of the erm(TR)-carrying genetic element shows characteristics of a transposon/prophage remnant chimera. In AP200 this genetic element was designated Tn1806. PMID:18070957

  3. Laboratory combustion tube studies. Part II. Report SUPRI TR-10

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W.E.; Fassihi, M.R.; Satman, A.; Williams, R.L.; Pettit, P.; Grim, J.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    To promote a better understanding of the problems and mechanisms involved in dry in-situ combustion of crude oils in porous media, continuing laboratory studies are carried out at SUPRI. The report about the first two experiments was submitted earlier to the Department of Energy. This report describes the results of the last three tube runs. Three laboratory combustion tube studies were made with unconsolidated core material, and Lombardi Zone crude oil from the San Ardo field, California. After preparation, the material was packed into the combustion tube. Conditions employed during the steady burning phase of each run were about constant. Injection pressure for all of them was 100 Psig (6.8 Atm.). Burning front velocities ranged from 7.22 cm/hr (5.68 ft/day) to 12.96 cm/hr (10.2 ft/day) while the stream front velocities ranged from 10.4 cm/hr to 13.48 cm/hr. The air flux was between 88.33 SCF/hr-ft/sup 2/ and 122.7SCF/hr-ft/sup 2/. Observed fuel ration ranged from 162.54 SCF/lb to 169.33 SCF/lb of fuel burned. The detailed analysis of these experiments accompanied with their field application will be presented later.

  4. Genetic modification of flux for flux prediction of mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quanyu; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    Gene deletion and overexpression are critical technologies for designing or improving the metabolic flux distribution of microbes. Some algorithms including flux balance analysis (FBA) and minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) predict a flux distribution from a stoichiometric matrix in the mutants in which some metabolic genes are deleted or non-functional, but there are few algorithms that predict how a broad range of genetic modifications, such as over- and underexpression of metabolic genes, alters the phenotypes of the mutants at the metabolic flux level. To overcome such existing limitations, we develop a novel algorithm that predicts the flux distribution of the mutants with a broad range of genetic modification, based on elementary mode analysis. It is denoted as genetic modification of flux (GMF), which couples two algorithms that we have developed: modified control effective flux (mCEF) and enzyme control flux (ECF). mCEF is proposed based on CEF to estimate the gene expression patterns in genetically modified mutants in terms of specific biological functions. GMF is demonstrated to predict the flux distribution of not only gene deletion mutants, but also the mutants with underexpressed and overexpressed genes in Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. This achieves breakthrough in the a priori flux prediction of a broad range of genetically modified mutants. Supplementary file and programs are available at Bioinformatics online or http://www.cadlive.jp.

  5. A G-band 160 GHz T/R Module Concept for Planetary Landing Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Pukala, David; Sadowy, Gregory; Pollard, Brian; Hodges, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the concept of a G-band transmit/receive (T/R) module centered at 160 GHz was discussed. The design makes use of state-of-the-art G-band MMIC low noise amplifiers and power amplifiers, and a high speed SPDT InGaAs PIN diode switch. The paper reports on the designs, chip results, and the integration concept for a 160 GHz T/R module. The G-band T/R module has applications toward precision altimetry and velocimetry measurements in landing radar, such as in future planetary landers on the surface of Mars

  6. First Reconnected Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, L.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Markidis, S.; Spanswick, E. L.; Baker, J. B.; Clausen, L. B.; Larson, D. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Frey, H. U.; Singer, H. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Wolfgang, B.

    2011-12-01

    THEMIS observations from the magnetic equator (the equatorial plane) in the near-earth tail reveal a great amount of information regarding the plasma environment in the vicinity of the first reconnected flux tubes (a subgroup of dipolarization fronts). Two sequential observations of dipolarization fronts are analyzed in detail using three of the THEMIS spacecraft. Particle acceleration to high energies (>50 keV) is observed together with a void region interpreted as a region to which the full electron distribution has incomplete access. Whistler waves, which are observed, could be driven by one of the two electron populations located in the wake of the first reconnected flux tubes. The detailed observations are compared with 2D and 3D implicit kinetic simulation of reconnection events. This presentation focuses on the similarity between observation and simulation. One key aspect of this presentation is a demonstration of how different the signature is when observing at vs off the magnetic equator, since most observations in the literature (unlike the observations presented here) are from off the equator. For this event, additional spacecraft and ground observations have been analyzed, which demonstrate that a reconfiguration of the magnetosphere is taking place. However, the focus of this presentation is on the small scale (<~10 di), rather than the large scale (~20 Re).

  7. Computing the Flux Footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    We address the flux footprint for measurement heights in the atmospheric surface layer, comparing eddy diffusion solutions with those furnished by the first-order Lagrangian stochastic (or "generalized Langevin") paradigm. The footprint given by Langevin models differs distinctly from that given by the random displacement model (i.e. zeroth-order Lagrangian stochastic model) corresponding to its "diffusion limit," which implies that a well-founded theory of the flux footprint must incorporate the turbulent velocity autocovariance. But irrespective of the choice of the eddy diffusion or Langevin class of model as basis for the footprint, tuning relative to observations is ultimately necessary. Some earlier treatments assume Monin-Obukhov profiles for the mean wind and eddy diffusivity and that the effective Schmidt number (ratio of eddy viscosity to the tracer eddy diffusivity) in the neutral limit , while others calibrate the model to the Project Prairie Grass dispersion trials. Because there remains uncertainty as to the optimal specification of (or a related parameter in alternative theories, e.g. the Kolmogorov coefficient in Langevin models) it is recommended that footprint models should be explicit in this regard.

  8. Variable-speed Generators with Flux Weakening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fardoun, A. A.; Fuchs, E. F.; Carlin, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    A cost-competitive, permanent-magnet 20 kW generator is designed such that the following criteria are satisfied: an (over) load capability of at least 30 kW over the entire speed range of 60-120 rpm, generator weight of about 550 lbs with a maximum radial stator flux density of 0.82 T at low speed, unity power factor operation, acceptably small synchronous reactances and operation without a gear box. To justify this final design four different generator designs are investigated: the first two designs are studied to obtain a speed range from 20 to 200 rpm employing rotor field weakening, and the latter two are investigated to obtain a maximum speed range of 40 to 160 rpm based on field weakening via the stator excitation. The generator reactances and induced voltages are computed using finite element/difference solutions. Generator losses and efficiencies are presented for all four designs at rated temperature of Tr=120C.

  9. Airflows and turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain: Part 1. Canopy and local effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Anderson, Dean E.; Blanken, Peter D.; Baugh, William M.; Monson, Russell K.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the effects of local topography and canopy structure on turbulent flux measurements at a site located in mountainous terrain within a subalpine, coniferous forest. Our primary aim was to determine whether the complex terrain of the site affects the accuracy of eddy flux measurements from a practical perspective. We observed displacement heights, roughness lengths, spectral peaks, turbulent length scales, and profiles of turbulent intensities that were comparable in magnitude and pattern to those reported for forest canopies in simpler terrain. We conclude that in many of these statistical measures, the local canopy exerts considerably more influence than does topographical complexity. Lack of vertical flux divergence and modeling suggests that the flux footprints for the site are within the standards acceptable for the application of flux statistics. We investigated three different methods of coordinate rotation: double rotation (DR), triple rotation (TR), and planar-fit rotation (PF). Significant variability in rotation angles at low wind speeds was encountered with the commonly used DR and TR methods, as opposed to the PF method, causing some overestimation of the fluxes. However, these differences in fluxes were small when applied to large datasets involving sensible heat and CO2 fluxes. We observed evidence of frequent drainage flows near the ground during stable, stratified conditions at night. Concurrent with the appearance of these flows, we observed a positive bias in the mean vertical wind speed, presumably due to subtle topographic variations inducing a flow convergence below the measurement sensors. In the presence of such drainage flows, advection of scalars and non-zero bias in the mean vertical wind speed can complicate closure of the mass conservation budget at the site.

  10. TR4 orphan nuclear receptor functions as an apoptosis modulator via regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eungseok; Ma, Wen-Lung; Lin, Din-Lii; Inui, Shigeki; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Chang, Chawnshang . E-mail: chang@urmc.rochester.edu

    2007-09-21

    While Bcl-2 plays an important role in cell apoptosis, its relationship to the orphan nuclear receptors remains unclear. Here we report that mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells prepared from TR4-deficient (TR4{sup -} {sup /-}) mice are more susceptible to UV-irradiation mediated apoptosis compared to TR4-Wildtype (TR4 {sup +/+}) littermates. Substantial increasing TR4{sup -} {sup /-} MEF apoptosis to UV-irradiation was correlated to the down-regulation of Bcl-2 RNA and protein expression and collaterally increased caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, this TR4-induced Bcl-2 gene expression can be suppressed by co-transfection with TR4 coregulators, such as androgen receptor (AR) and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our results demonstrate that TR4 might function as an apoptosis modulator through induction of Bcl-2 gene expression.

  11. How Much Flux does a Flux Transfer Event Transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, R. C.; Trenchi, L.; Coxon, J.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Flux transfer events are bursts of reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, which give rise to characteristic signatures that are observed by a range of magnetospheric/ionospheric instrumentation. Spacecraft situated near the magnetopause observe a bipolar variation in the component of the magnetic field normal to the magnetopause (BN); auroral instrumentation (either ground- or space-based) observe poleward moving auroral forms which indicate the convection of newly-opened flux into the polar cap, and ionospheric radars similarly observe pulsed ionospheric flows or poleward moving radar auroral forms. One outstanding problem is the fact that there is a fundamental mismatch between the estimates of the flux that is opened by each flux transfer event - in other words, their overall significance in the Dungey cycle. Spacecraft-based estimates of the flux content of individual FTEs correspond to each event transferring flux equivalent to approximately 1% of the open flux in the magnetosphere, whereas studies based on global-scale radar and auroral observations suggest this figure could be more like 10%. In the former case, flux transfer events would be a minor detail in the Dungey cycle, but in the latter they could be its main driver. We present observations of a conjunction between flux transfer event signatures observed by the Cluster spacecraft, and pulsed ionospheric flows observed by the SuperDARN network on the 8th February 2002. Over the course of an hour, a similar number of FTE signatures were observed by Cluster (at 13 MLT) and the Prince George radar (at 7 MLT). We argue that the reason for the existing mismatch in flux estimates is that implicit assumptions about flux transfer event structure lead to a major underestimate of the flux content based on spacecraft observations. If these assumptions are removed, a much better match is found.

  12. Permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback for adjustably suspending an element on a single axis. The magnetic actuator includes a pair of opposing electromagnets and provides bi-directional forces along the single axis to the suspended element. Permanent magnets in flux feedback loops from the opposing electromagnets establish a reference permanent magnet flux-bias to linearize the force characteristics of the electromagnets to extend the linear range of the actuator without the need for continuous bias currents in the electromagnets.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard W; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, Deanna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; Tencate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De'andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-09

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Fungus Flammulina velutipes TR19

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Atsushi; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Mori, Miho; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Flammulina velutipes TR19, which was newly isolated from commercial strains in Japan. The genes related to fruiting body formation in the basidiomycete were identified by whole-genome analysis. PMID:27284132

  16. California's Future Carbon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K.; Gertz, M.

    2008-12-01

    The diversity of the climate and vegetation systems in the state of California provides a unique opportunity to study carton dioxide exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. In order to accurately calculate the carbon flux, this study couples the sophisticated analytical surface layer model ACASA (Advance Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, developed in the University of California, Davis) with the newest version of mesoscale model WRF (the Weather Research & Forecasting Model, developed by NCAR and several other agencies). As a multilayer, steady state model, ACASA incorporates higher-order representations of vertical temperature variations, CO2 concentration, radiation, wind speed, turbulent statistics, and plant physiology. The WRF-ACASA coupling is designed to identify how multiple environmental factors, in particularly climate variability, population density, and vegetation distribution, impact on future carbon cycle prediction across a wide geographical range such as in California.

  17. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    DOE PAGES

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; ...

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e.,more » P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.« less

  18. 77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy...: Reference: TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy. Background: The following FRA policy applies to... increases in diesel fuel prices. Miscellaneous: A copy of the TR-12 FRA Policy can be accessed via the...

  19. Light curve analysis of beta Lyrae type binary star EM TrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of photometric observations of the eclipsing binary system EM TrA (TYC 9258-211-1=CD-67 1660) is presented in this study. The V light curve of the system from All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) was solved using the Wilson-Devinney code. The final solution describes EM TrA as a detached system. The absolute parameters of the components of the system were estimated.

  20. Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Tr1 Cells Regulates TNF-Mediated Tissue Pathology.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Kumar, Rajiv; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H; Sheel, Meru; Faleiro, Rebecca J; Bunn, Patrick T; Best, Shannon E; Beattie, Lynette; Ng, Susanna S; Edwards, Chelsea L; Muller, Werner; Cretney, Erika; Nutt, Stephen L; Smyth, Mark J; Haque, Ashraful; Hill, Geoffrey R; Sundar, Shyam; Kallies, Axel; Engwerda, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is critical for controlling many intracellular infections, but can also contribute to inflammation. It can promote the destruction of important cell populations and trigger dramatic tissue remodeling following establishment of chronic disease. Therefore, a better understanding of TNF regulation is needed to allow pathogen control without causing or exacerbating disease. IL-10 is an important regulatory cytokine with broad activities, including the suppression of inflammation. IL-10 is produced by different immune cells; however, its regulation and function appears to be cell-specific and context-dependent. Recently, IL-10 produced by Th1 (Tr1) cells was shown to protect host tissues from inflammation induced following infection. Here, we identify a novel pathway of TNF regulation by IL-10 from Tr1 cells during parasitic infection. We report elevated Blimp-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and demonstrate IL-12 was essential for Blimp-1 expression and Tr1 cell development in experimental VL. Critically, we show Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by Tr1 cells prevents tissue damage caused by IFNγ-dependent TNF production. Therefore, we identify Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 produced by Tr1 cells as a key regulator of TNF-mediated pathology and identify Tr1 cells as potential therapeutic tools to control inflammation.

  1. βTrCP regulates BMI1 protein turnover via ubiquitination and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A; Dimri, Manjari; Bommi, Prashant V

    2011-01-01

    The polycomb group protein BMI1 has been linked to proliferation, senescence, cancer progression and stem cell phenotype. At present, very little is known about its regulation. Here, we report that BMI1 contains a functional recognition motif for the F box protein βTrCP, which regulates ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of various proteins. We show that overexpression of wild-type βTrCP but not the ΔF mutant of it promotes BMI1 ubiquitination and degradation, and knockdown of βTrCP results in increased expression of BMI1. Furthermore, a mutant of BMI1 with an altered βTrCP recognition motif is much more stable than wild-type BMI1. We also show that wild-type BMI1 but not the mutant BMI1 interacts with βTrCP. Accordingly, compared to wild-type BMI1, mutant protein exhibited increased pro-oncogenic activity. In summary, our findings suggest that βTrCP regulates turnover of BMI1 and its function relevant to oncogenesis, cellular senescence and aging. PMID:21430439

  2. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2017-04-28

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a timereversal (TR) based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multi-person breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TRBREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 seconds of measurement, a mean accuracy of 99% can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of 98:65% in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight (LOS) scenario and a mean accuracy of 98:07% in breathing rate estimation of 9 people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 seconds of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  3. Ferroelectric switching response of P(VDF-TrFE) nanodots with and without nanomolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yoonho; Shin, Young-Han; Son, Jong Yeog

    2016-10-01

    We investigated ferroelectric switching response of poly(vinylidene fluoride- ran-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) nanodots with and without nanomolds using piezoelectric force microscopy. Nanomolds with diameter of about 20 and 40 nm were formed on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate by nanointaglio process using an atomic force microscopy tip. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanodots were fabricated with and without nanomolds on the surface of the Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate, which was conducted by precisely controllable dip-pen nanolithography. These P(VDF-TrFE) nanodots exhibited good ferroelectric properties with asymmetric behavior in ferroelectric switching response. In particular, the P(VDF-TrFE) nanodots with nanomolds exhibited larger asymmetric switching characteristic compared to the P(VDF-TrFE) nanodots without nanomolds, which came from the difference of contact area between the P(VDF-TrFE) nanodots and Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate (bottom electrode).

  4. Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Tr1 Cells Regulates TNF-Mediated Tissue Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Kumar, Rajiv; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H; Sheel, Meru; Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Bunn, Patrick T.; Best, Shannon E.; Beattie, Lynette; Ng, Susanna S.; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Muller, Werner; Cretney, Erika; Nutt, Stephen L.; Smyth, Mark J.; Haque, Ashraful; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Sundar, Shyam; Kallies, Axel; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is critical for controlling many intracellular infections, but can also contribute to inflammation. It can promote the destruction of important cell populations and trigger dramatic tissue remodeling following establishment of chronic disease. Therefore, a better understanding of TNF regulation is needed to allow pathogen control without causing or exacerbating disease. IL-10 is an important regulatory cytokine with broad activities, including the suppression of inflammation. IL-10 is produced by different immune cells; however, its regulation and function appears to be cell-specific and context-dependent. Recently, IL-10 produced by Th1 (Tr1) cells was shown to protect host tissues from inflammation induced following infection. Here, we identify a novel pathway of TNF regulation by IL-10 from Tr1 cells during parasitic infection. We report elevated Blimp-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and demonstrate IL-12 was essential for Blimp-1 expression and Tr1 cell development in experimental VL. Critically, we show Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by Tr1 cells prevents tissue damage caused by IFNγ-dependent TNF production. Therefore, we identify Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 produced by Tr1 cells as a key regulator of TNF-mediated pathology and identify Tr1 cells as potential therapeutic tools to control inflammation. PMID:26765224

  5. Neutron fluxes in test reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Communicate the fact that high-power water-cooled test reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) cannot provide fast flux levels as high as sodium-cooled fast test reactors. The memo first presents some basics physics considerations about neutron fluxes in test reactors and then uses ATR, HFIR and JHR as an illustration of the performance of modern high-power water-cooled test reactors.

  6. Flux based active filter controller

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, S.; Divan, D.M.; Lorenz, R.D.; Veltman, A. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a synchronous frame flux based control method for a parallel active filer application. The flux based controller directly implements the inverter switchings in the synchronous reference frame by a hysteresis rule based carrierless PWM strategy to achieve high current bandwidth. This paper addresses the issues and impact on parallel active filtering requirements for utility interface of commonly used harmonic front-ends. The synchronous frame flux based controller provides additional insights for harmonic current compensation requirements. Simulation results provide the validation of the flux based active filter controller to meet IEEE 519 recommended harmonic standards for large rated non-linear loads under balanced and unbalanced supply conditions.

  7. Neutron fluxes in radiotherapy rooms.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, S; Foglio Para, A; Maggioni, B

    1993-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the neutron flux, originated in an electron accelerator therapy room when energies above the threshold of (y,n) and (e,e'n) reactions are employed, is physically due to a direct flux, coming from the accelerator head, and to a flux diffused from the walls. In this work, the flux is described to a high degree of approximation by a set of functions whose spatial behavior is univocally determined by the angular distributions of the neutrons emitted from the shield of the accelerator head and diffused from the walls. The analytical results are verified with an extended series of Monte Carlo simulations obtained with the MCNP code.

  8. Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus harboring TR34/L98H, TR46/Y121F/T289A and TR53 mutations related to flower fields in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Lavergne, Rose-Anne; Hagen, Ferry; Morio, Florent; Meis, Jacques F.; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus has been reported in azole-naive patients in Europe, Asia, Australia and North America. This resistance has been linked to fungicide-driven mutations in the cyp51A gene and its promoter region. We investigated the presence of environmental azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains related to the use of azole fungicides in Colombia. Soil samples were collected from flower beds, flower fields and public gardens from the outskirts, suburbs and city centre of Bogotá. Out of the 86 soil samples taken, 17 (19.8%) grew A. fumigatus of whom eight (9.3%) contained 40 strains able to grow on azole-containing itraconazole and/or voriconazole supplemented media. All but one triazole-resistant strains were isolated from soil samples collected from flower fields and flower beds (39/40). Importantly, the majority had the TR46/Y121F/T289A, TR34/L98H, and TR53 molecular resistance mechanisms and one azole resistant strain had a wild-type cyp51A gene. Soil samples from flower fields and beds contained 4 azole fungicides (penconazole, difenoconazole, tetraconazole and tebuconazole) above the limit of detection. Our findings underline the need for extensive investigations to determine azole-resistant A. fumigatus prevalence in both clinical and environmental samples in other regions of Latin America. PMID:28358115

  9. Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus harboring TR34/L98H, TR46/Y121F/T289A and TR53 mutations related to flower fields in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Lavergne, Rose-Anne; Hagen, Ferry; Morio, Florent; Meis, Jacques F.; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    Resistance to triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus has been reported in azole-naive patients in Europe, Asia, Australia and North America. This resistance has been linked to fungicide-driven mutations in the cyp51A gene and its promoter region. We investigated the presence of environmental azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains related to the use of azole fungicides in Colombia. Soil samples were collected from flower beds, flower fields and public gardens from the outskirts, suburbs and city centre of Bogotá. Out of the 86 soil samples taken, 17 (19.8%) grew A. fumigatus of whom eight (9.3%) contained 40 strains able to grow on azole-containing itraconazole and/or voriconazole supplemented media. All but one triazole-resistant strains were isolated from soil samples collected from flower fields and flower beds (39/40). Importantly, the majority had the TR46/Y121F/T289A, TR34/L98H, and TR53 molecular resistance mechanisms and one azole resistant strain had a wild-type cyp51A gene. Soil samples from flower fields and beds contained 4 azole fungicides (penconazole, difenoconazole, tetraconazole and tebuconazole) above the limit of detection. Our findings underline the need for extensive investigations to determine azole-resistant A. fumigatus prevalence in both clinical and environmental samples in other regions of Latin America.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M

    2005-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

  11. South Atlantic meridional fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzoli, Silvia L.; Baringer, Molly O.; Dong, Shenfu; Perez, Renellys C.; Yao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and associated meridional heat transport (MHT) and salt fluxes are analyzed in the South Atlantic. The oceanographic data used for the study consist of Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data collected along 27 sections at nominally 35°S for the period of time 2002-2011, and Argo profile data collected in the region. Previous estimates obtained with a shorter record are improved and extended, using new oceanographic sections and wind fields. Different wind products are analyzed to determine the uncertainty in the Ekman component of the MHT derived from their use. Results of the analysis provide a 9-year time series of MHT, and volume transport in the upper layer of the MOC. Salt fluxes at 35°S are estimated using a parameter introduced by numerical studies, the Mov that represents the salt flux and helps determine the basin scale salt feedback associated with the MOC. Volume and heat transport by the western and eastern boundary currents are estimated, and their covariablity is examined. Analysis of the data shows that the South Atlantic is responsible for a northward MHT with a mean value of 0.54±0.14 PW. The MHT exhibits no significant trend from 2002 to 2011. The MOC varies from 14.4 to 22.7 Sv with a mean value of 18.1±2.3 Sv and the maximum overturning transport is found at a mean depth of 1250 m. Statistical analysis suggests that an increase of 1 Sv in the MOC leads to an increase of the MHT of 0.04±0.02 PW. Estimates of the Mov from data collected from three different kinds of observations, contrary to those obtained from models, feature a positive salt advection feedback (Mov<0) suggesting that freshwater perturbations will be amplified and that the MOC is bistable. In other words, the MOC might collapse with a large enough freshwater perturbation. Observations indicate that the mean value of the Brazil Current is -8.6±4.1 Sv at 24°S and -19.4±4.3 Sv at 35°S, increasing towards the

  12. From elementary flux modes to elementary flux vectors: Metabolic pathway analysis with arbitrary linear flux constraints

    PubMed Central

    Klamt, Steffen; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Müller, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) emerged as a formal concept to describe metabolic pathways and have become an established tool for constraint-based modeling and metabolic network analysis. EFMs are characteristic (support-minimal) vectors of the flux cone that contains all feasible steady-state flux vectors of a given metabolic network. EFMs account for (homogeneous) linear constraints arising from reaction irreversibilities and the assumption of steady state; however, other (inhomogeneous) linear constraints, such as minimal and maximal reaction rates frequently used by other constraint-based techniques (such as flux balance analysis [FBA]), cannot be directly integrated. These additional constraints further restrict the space of feasible flux vectors and turn the flux cone into a general flux polyhedron in which the concept of EFMs is not directly applicable anymore. For this reason, there has been a conceptual gap between EFM-based (pathway) analysis methods and linear optimization (FBA) techniques, as they operate on different geometric objects. One approach to overcome these limitations was proposed ten years ago and is based on the concept of elementary flux vectors (EFVs). Only recently has the community started to recognize the potential of EFVs for metabolic network analysis. In fact, EFVs exactly represent the conceptual development required to generalize the idea of EFMs from flux cones to flux polyhedra. This work aims to present a concise theoretical and practical introduction to EFVs that is accessible to a broad audience. We highlight the close relationship between EFMs and EFVs and demonstrate that almost all applications of EFMs (in flux cones) are possible for EFVs (in flux polyhedra) as well. In fact, certain properties can only be studied with EFVs. Thus, we conclude that EFVs provide a powerful and unifying framework for constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. PMID:28406903

  13. From elementary flux modes to elementary flux vectors: Metabolic pathway analysis with arbitrary linear flux constraints.

    PubMed

    Klamt, Steffen; Regensburger, Georg; Gerstl, Matthias P; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Schuster, Stefan; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Müller, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) emerged as a formal concept to describe metabolic pathways and have become an established tool for constraint-based modeling and metabolic network analysis. EFMs are characteristic (support-minimal) vectors of the flux cone that contains all feasible steady-state flux vectors of a given metabolic network. EFMs account for (homogeneous) linear constraints arising from reaction irreversibilities and the assumption of steady state; however, other (inhomogeneous) linear constraints, such as minimal and maximal reaction rates frequently used by other constraint-based techniques (such as flux balance analysis [FBA]), cannot be directly integrated. These additional constraints further restrict the space of feasible flux vectors and turn the flux cone into a general flux polyhedron in which the concept of EFMs is not directly applicable anymore. For this reason, there has been a conceptual gap between EFM-based (pathway) analysis methods and linear optimization (FBA) techniques, as they operate on different geometric objects. One approach to overcome these limitations was proposed ten years ago and is based on the concept of elementary flux vectors (EFVs). Only recently has the community started to recognize the potential of EFVs for metabolic network analysis. In fact, EFVs exactly represent the conceptual development required to generalize the idea of EFMs from flux cones to flux polyhedra. This work aims to present a concise theoretical and practical introduction to EFVs that is accessible to a broad audience. We highlight the close relationship between EFMs and EFVs and demonstrate that almost all applications of EFMs (in flux cones) are possible for EFVs (in flux polyhedra) as well. In fact, certain properties can only be studied with EFVs. Thus, we conclude that EFVs provide a powerful and unifying framework for constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks.

  14. Flux Compression Magnetic Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In pulsed fusion propulsion schemes in which the fusion energy creates a radially expanding plasma, a magnetic nozzle is required to redirect the radially diverging flow of the expanding fusion plasma into a rearward axial flow, thereby producing a forward axial impulse to the vehicle. In a highly electrically conducting plasma, the presence of a magnetic field B in the plasma creates a pressure B(exp 2)/2(mu) in the plasma, the magnetic pressure. A gradient in the magnetic pressure can be used to decelerate the plasma traveling in the direction of increasing magnetic field, or to accelerate a plasma from rest in the direction of decreasing magnetic pressure. In principle, ignoring dissipative processes, it is possible to design magnetic configurations to produce an 'elastic' deflection of a plasma beam. In particular, it is conceivable that, by an appropriate arrangement of a set of coils, a good approximation to a parabolic 'magnetic mirror' may be formed, such that a beam of charged particles emanating from the focal point of the parabolic mirror would be reflected by the mirror to travel axially away from the mirror. The degree to which this may be accomplished depends on the degree of control one has over the flux surface of the magnetic field, which changes as a result of its interaction with a moving plasma.

  15. High flux reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, J.A.; Heath, R.L.; Liebenthal, J.L.; DeBoisblanc, D.R.; Leyse, C.F.; Parsons, K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Wadkins, R.P.; Harker, Y.D.; Fillmore, G.N.

    1988-08-16

    A high flux nuclear reactor is described comprising: (a) a pressure vessel including reactor coolant inlet means at the first end thereof and reactor coolant outlet means at the second end thereof; (b) a reactor coolant; (c) a first core segment housed within the pressure vessel, the first core segment including a plurality of concentric, circumferential fuel plates, the spacing between the concentric fuel plates forming coolant flow channels, each fuel plate being thin relative to the spacing between the fuel plates; (d) means for stationarily supporting the first core segment from the pressure vessel; (e) a second core segment housed within the pressure vessel and spaced axialy apart from the first core segment such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed therebetween, the second core segment including a plurality of concentric, circumferential fuel plates, the spacing between the concentric fuel plates forming coolant flow channels, each fuel plate being thin relative to the spacing between the fuel plates; (f) means for stationarily supporting the second core segment from the pressure vessel; and (g) first core coolant bypass means for channeling a volume of the coolant between the inlet means and the coolant mixing plenum such that the coolant volume bypasses the first core segment.

  16. A systems-wide screen identifies substrates of the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Low, Teck Yew; Peng, Mao; Magliozzi, Roberto; Mohammed, Shabaz; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-12-16

    Cellular proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in a precise and timely fashion. Such precision is conferred by the high substrate specificity of ubiquitin ligases. Identification of substrates of ubiquitin ligases is crucial not only to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which the UPS controls protein degradation but also for drug discovery purposes because many established UPS substrates are implicated in disease. We developed a combined bioinformatics and affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) workflow for the system-wide identification of substrates of SCF(βTrCP), a member of the SCF family of ubiquitin ligases. These ubiquitin ligases are characterized by a multisubunit architecture typically consisting of the invariable subunits Rbx1, Cul1, and Skp1 and one of 69 F-box proteins. The F-box protein of this member of the family is βTrCP. SCF(βTrCP) binds, through the WD40 repeats of βTrCP, to the DpSGXX(X)pS diphosphorylated motif in its substrates. We recovered 27 previously reported SCF(βTrCP) substrates, of which 22 were verified by two independent statistical protocols, thereby confirming the reliability of this approach. In addition to known substrates, we identified 221 proteins that contained the DpSGXX(X)pS motif and also interacted specifically with the WD40 repeats of βTrCP. Thus, with SCF(βTrCP), as the example, we showed that integration of structural information, AP-MS, and degron motif mining constitutes an effective method to screen for substrates of ubiquitin ligases.

  17. Near-UV and optical observations of the transiting exoplanet TrES-3b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jake D.; Smart, Brianna M.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Carleton, Timothy M.; Walker-LaFollette, Amanda M.; Crawford, Benjamin E.; Smith, Carter-Thaxton W.; McGraw, Allison M.; Small, Lindsay C.; Rocchetto, Marco; Cunningham, Kathryn I.; Towner, Allison P. M.; Zellem, Robert; Robertson, Amy N.; Guvenen, Blythe C.; Schwarz, Kamber R.; Hardegree-Ullman, Emily E.; Collura, Daniel; Henz, Triana N.; Lejoly, Cassandra; Richardson, Logan L.; Weinand, Michael A.; Taylor, Joanna M.; Daugherty, Michael J.; Wilson, Ashley A.; Austin, Carmen L.

    2013-01-01

    We observed nine primary transits of the hot Jpiter TrES-3b in several optical and near-UV photometric bands from 2009 June to 2012 April in an attempt to detect its magnetic field. Vidotto, Jardine and Helling suggest that the magnetic field of TrES-3b can be constrained if its near-UV light curve shows an early ingress compared to its optical light curve, while its egress remains unaffected. Predicted magnetic field strengths of Jpiter-like planets should range between 8 G and 30 G. Using these magnetic field values and an assumed B* of 100 G, the Vidotto et al. method predicts a timing difference of 5-11 min. We did not detect an early ingress in our three nights of near-UV observations, despite an average cadence of 68 s and an average photometric precision of 3.7 mmag. However, we determined an upper limit of TrES-3b's magnetic field strength to range between 0.013 and 1.3 G (for a 1-100 G magnetic field strength range for the host star, TrES-3) using a timing difference of 138 s derived from the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem. To verify our results of an abnormally small magnetic field strength for TrES-3b and to further constrain the techniques of Vidotto et al., we propose future observations of TrES-3b with other platforms capable of achieving a shorter near-UV cadence. We also present a refinement of the physical parameters of TrES-3b, an updated ephemeris and its first published near-UV light curve. We find that the near-UV planetary radius of Rp = 1.386+ 0.248- 0.144 RJup is consistent with the planet's optical radius.

  18. Designing with null flux coils

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.R.

    1997-09-01

    Null flux were suggested by Danby and Powell in the late 1960`s as a useful means for realizing induced lift with little drag. As an array of alternating magnets is translated past a set of null flux coils, the currents induced in these coils act to vertically center the magnets on those coils. At present, one Japanese MAGLEV system company and two American-based companies are employing either null flux or flux eliminating coils in their design for high speed magnetically levitated transportation. The principle question addressed in paper is: what is the proper choice of coil length to magnet length in a null flux system? A generic analysis in the time and frequency domain is laid out with the intent of showing the optimal design specification in terms of coil parameters.

  19. An integrated radon flux monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrazek, M. M.

    1984-07-01

    A radon flux monitor suitable for measuring radon flux emanating from cracks or small surface areas is described. The monitor consists of a charcoal canister, an air pump and a steel container. Radon gas exhaled from a crack or from a surface is collected inside a steel container (10 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm) and is simultaneously circulated through a charcoal canister using an air pump. Radon flux is estimated by measuring the gamma ray activity of the radon gas absorbed by the charcoal. Experimental investigations showed that an air flow of 8 1/min was found adequate for the purpose of the present work. A calibration coefficient representing the ratio of radon flux measured by the monitor to the actual flux was found to be 0.81∓0.03. Experimental results showed that this monitor gives fairly accurate and reliable results.

  20. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growthmore » in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.« less

  1. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2) and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.

  2. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits Tr1 cell differentiation through suppression of c-Maf

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Kirsten Mary; Kong, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major lipid mediator abundant at inflammatory sites, acts as a proinflammatory agent in models of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases by promoting CD4 Th1/Th17 differentiation. Regulatory T cells, including the IL-10 producing Tr1 cells counterbalance the proinflammatory activity of effector Th1/Th17 cells. Tr1 cell differentiation and function are induced by IL-27, and depend primarily on sustained expression of c-Maf in addition to AhR and Blimp-1. In agreement with the in vivo proinflammatory role of PGE2, here we report for the first time that PGE2 inhibits IL-27-induced differentiation and IL-10 production of murine CD4+CD49b+LAG-3+Foxp3- Tr1 cells. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 was mediated through EP4 receptors and induction of cAMP, leading to a significant reduction in c-Maf expression. Although PGE2 reduced IL-21 production in differentiating Tr1 cells, its inhibitory effect on Tr1 differentiation and c-Maf expression also occurred independent of IL-21 signaling. PGE2 did not affect STAT1/3 activation, AhR expression and only marginally reduced Egr-2/Blimp-1 expression. The effect of PGE2 on CD4+CD49b+LAG-3+ Tr1 differentiation was not associated with either induction of Foxp3 or IL-17 production, suggesting a lack of transdifferentiation into Foxp3+ Treg or effector Th17 cells. We recently reported that PGE2 inhibits the expression and production of IL-27 from activated conventional dendritic cells (cDC) in vivo and in vitro. The present study indicates that PGE2 also reduces murine Tr1 differentiation and function directly by acting on IL-27-differentiating Tr1 cells. Together, the ability of PGE2 to inhibit IL-27 production by cDC, and the direct inhibitory effect on Tr1 differentiation mediated through reduction in c-Maf expression, represent a new mechanistic perspective for the proinflammatory activity of PGE2. PMID:28604806

  3. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club Follow-Up Observations of Transiting Extrasolar Planets TrES-3b and TrES-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker-LaFollette, Amanda; Turner, J. D.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Smart, B. M.; Crawford, B. E.; Carleton, T. M.; Guvenen, B. C.; Towner, A. P. M.; Smith, C. W.; Small, L. C.; McGraw, A. M.; Wilson, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested by Vidotto et. al. (2011) that it is possible to detect the magnetic field of a transiting exoplanet by comparing near-UV and optical light curve asymmetries. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has observed the primary transits of extrasolar planets TrES-3b and TrES-4b using near-UV and optical filters in order to detect this phenomenon. One of the goals of this project is to involve undergraduates in observational astronomy research and give them practical experience using IRAF and a research-class telescope. In addition to magnetic field observations, we have refined previously published values for the characteristic parameters of these planets.

  4. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club Observations of Transiting Extrasolar Planets TrES-3b and TrES-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jake; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Smart, B.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Cunningham, K.; Hardegree-Ullman, E. E.; Crawford, B.; Mueting, J.; Carleton, T.; Schwarz, K.; Robertson, A.; Guvenen, B.; Towner, A.; Austin, C.; Henz, T.; Keys, D.; Johnson, K.

    2011-05-01

    Using the Steward Observatory 61" Kuiper Telescope, The University of Arizona Astronomy Club observed extrasolar planets TrES-3b and TrES-4b. We observed the planets with the Harris-B, V, and R filters as they transited their parent stars during the months of May-July 2009. The main goal of this project was to get undergraduates involved with a research astronomy project and allow them to gain experience beyond what they would receive in the classroom. Many of the team members were introduced to astronomical observing techniques and data reduction using IRAF. Part of the project involved determining the optimum number of flat-field and bias frames required for image calibrations. With our results, we have been able to confirm and refine previously published values for the planets' orbital inclination, mass, radius, and density.

  5. Reconstruction of sound source signal by analytical passive TR in the environment with airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Long; Li, Min; Yang, Debin; Niu, Feng; Zeng, Wu

    2017-03-01

    In the acoustic design of air vehicles, the time-domain signals of noise sources on the surface of air vehicles can serve as data support to reveal the noise source generation mechanism, analyze acoustic fatigue, and take measures for noise insulation and reduction. To rapidly reconstruct the time-domain sound source signals in an environment with flow, a method combining the analytical passive time reversal mirror (AP-TR) with a shear flow correction is proposed. In this method, the negative influence of flow on sound wave propagation is suppressed by the shear flow correction, obtaining the corrected acoustic propagation time delay and path. Those corrected time delay and path together with the microphone array signals are then submitted to the AP-TR, reconstructing more accurate sound source signals in the environment with airflow. As an analytical method, AP-TR offers a supplementary way in 3D space to reconstruct the signal of sound source in the environment with airflow instead of the numerical TR. Experiments on the reconstruction of the sound source signals of a pair of loud speakers are conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel with subsonic airflow to validate the effectiveness and priorities of the proposed method. Moreover the comparison by theorem and experiment result between the AP-TR and the time-domain beamforming in reconstructing the sound source signal is also discussed.

  6. hTR RNA component as a marker of cellular proliferation in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Flatharta, Cathal O; Flint, Stephen; Toner, Mary; Mabruk, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that the telomerase RNA component hTR is highly expressed in the epithelium of non-dysplastic Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) lesions (11). We concluded that it is possible that this high expression might be related to the increased cellular proliferation seen in OLP rather than being an indicator of potential malignant transformation. In the present study, and in order to confirm our finding in the previous study that hTR might be a marker for cellular proliferation in OLP, we analysed OLP biopsies known to be positive for RNA component of Telomerase (hTR) for the expression of Ki-67 as a marker for cellular proliferation. Fourteen OLP tissue biopsies known to be positive for telomerase RNA component hTR, were investigated using an immunohistochemical approach to determine the rate of cellular proliferation in OLP, looking at the expression of Ki-67 protein as a marker for cellular proliferation. A statistically significant increase was found between Ki-67 expression in OLP in comparison to normal control buccal mucosa samples. The expression of hTR component in OLP might thus be a marker for cellular proliferation.

  7. Spanish Validation of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR).

    PubMed

    Orgilés, Mireia; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Marzo, Juan Carlos; Medrano, Laura; Espada, José Pedro

    2016-11-04

    This study aimed to examine the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) in a community sample of 315 Spanish children aged 5 to 12 years. Thirty-seven teachers from eleven schools completed the SAS-TR and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for each child. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original two-factor structure, but a better fit model was obtained after removing four items. The scale was found to have high internal consistency (α = 0.91) and satisfactory test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) for the Spanish sample. Convergent validity was supported by positive significant correlations between the SAS-TR and the Emotional Symptoms subscale of the SDQ. Lower correlations between the SAS-TR and the SDQ Conduct Problems subscale supported the divergent validity. Overall, the findings suggest that the Spanish version of the SAS-TR is a reliable and valid instrument for teachers to assess anxiety in Spanish children.

  8. Transactivation of the proximal promoter of human oxytocin gene by TR4 orphan receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-P.; Lee, Y.-F.; Chang, C.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-12-08

    The human testicular receptor 4 (TR4) shares structural homology with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some other members of this superfamily were able to regulate the transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OXT) promoter by binding to the first DR0 regulatory site. However, little investigation was conducted systematically in the study of the second dDR4 site of OXT proximal promoter, and the relationship between the first and the second sites of OXT promoter. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that TR4 could increase the proximal promoter activity of the human OXT gene via DR0, dDR4, and OXT (both DR0 and dDR4) elements, respectively. TR4 might induce OXT gene expression through the OXT element in a dose-dependent manner. However, there is no synergistic effect between DR0 and dDR4 elements during TR4 transactivation. Taken together, these results suggested that TR4 should be one of important regulators of OXT gene expression.

  9. Alterations in CD46-mediated Tr1 regulatory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Astier, Anne L.; Meiffren, Gregory; Freeman, Samuel; Hafler, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Loss of Treg function appears to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases. Attention has focused on defects of CD4+CD25high Tregs, and techniques have been developed to determine their function. In contrast, the role of Tr1 regulatory T cells, which secrete the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, in autoimmune disease has not been well assessed. CD46 is a newly defined costimulatory molecule for T cell activation, and CD46-costimulated human T cells induce a Tr1 Treg phenotype with considerable amounts of IL-10 secretion. Here, we examined the role of Tr1 cells in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by stimulating CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3 and -CD46 mAbs and measuring IL-10 secretion. There were striking defects in the induction of Tr1 cells with CD46 costimulation as measured by IL-10 but not IFN-γ secretion in patients with MS compared with healthy subjects. This loss of Tr1 cell–associated IL-10 secretion was specific to CD46 and not CD28 costimulation and was associated with an altered regulation of the CD46-Cy2 isoform that differentially regulates T cell function in a CD46-transgenic murine model. These data demonstrate a second major Treg defect in human autoimmune disease associated with the CD46 pathway. PMID:17099776

  10. Definition, properties, and Atlantic Ocean distribution of the new tracer TrOCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touratier, Franck; Goyet, Catherine

    2004-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic tracers in the ocean are widely used not only to better understand water masses circulation and mixing but also to understand and quantify the ocean uptake and storage capacity of greenhouse gases. However, since each tracer is different, it is best to use the complementarity of several tracers to unequivocally identify the various water masses. Here we illustrate the conservative properties and the spatial distribution of the new composite tracer TrOCA ( Tracer combining Oxygen, inorganic Carbon, and total Alkalinity) using oxygen (O 2), dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO 2), and total alkalinity (TA), from the Atlantic Ocean. The significant accuracy improvement of TCO 2 and TA measurements since the 1970s, combined to a large effort in measuring these parameters during large scale cruises throughout the Atlantic Ocean, makes this tracer TrOCA an additional tool in analyzing water mass distribution. This tracer is shown to be conservative in intermediate, deep, and bottom waters. For instance, we show that the independence of TrOCA from other tracers provides further information on the origin and mixing of the main Atlantic water masses. Furthermore, TrOCA combined with the composite tracer NO, in particular the ratio TrOCA/NO, can be used to unequivocally identify and separate the Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Antarctic Bottom Water, and the North Atlantic Deep Water.

  11. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  12. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e., P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.

  13. Magnetospheric-ionospheric Poynting flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years of funding SRI, in collaboration with the University of Texas at Dallas, has been involved in determining the total electromagnetic energy flux into the upper atmosphere from DE-B electric and magnetic field measurements and modeling the electromagnetic energy flux at high latitudes, taking into account the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. This effort has been very successful in establishing the DC Poynting flux as a fundamental quantity in describing the coupling of electromagnetic energy between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. The DE-B satellite electric and magnetic field measurements were carefully scrutinized to provide, for the first time, a large data set of DC, field-aligned, Poynting flux measurement. Investigations describing the field-aligned Poynting flux observations from DE-B orbits under specific geomagnetic conditions and from many orbits were conducted to provide a statistical average of the Poynting flux distribution over the polar cap. The theoretical modeling effort has provided insight into the observations by formulating the connection between Poynting's theorem and the electromagnetic energy conversion processes that occur in the ionosphere. Modeling and evaluation of these processes has helped interpret the satellite observations of the DC Poynting flux and improved our understanding of the coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  14. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice; Roming, Peter W. A.; Siegel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions (SED) and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broadband photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by forward modeling the spectrum into the count rates or magnitudes of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or SED which is consistent with the multi-band photometry rather than converting individual photometric measurements to flux densities, linearly interpolating between the points, and integrating. We also highlight some specific areas where the UV flux can be mischaracterized.

  15. Magnetospheric-ionospheric Poynting flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1994-08-01

    Over the past three years of funding SRI, in collaboration with the University of Texas at Dallas, has been involved in determining the total electromagnetic energy flux into the upper atmosphere from DE-B electric and magnetic field measurements and modeling the electromagnetic energy flux at high latitudes, taking into account the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. This effort has been very successful in establishing the DC Poynting flux as a fundamental quantity in describing the coupling of electromagnetic energy between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. The DE-B satellite electric and magnetic field measurements were carefully scrutinized to provide, for the first time, a large data set of DC, field-aligned, Poynting flux measurement. Investigations describing the field-aligned Poynting flux observations from DE-B orbits under specific geomagnetic conditions and from many orbits were conducted to provide a statistical average of the Poynting flux distribution over the polar cap. The theoretical modeling effort has provided insight into the observations by formulating the connection between Poynting's theorem and the electromagnetic energy conversion processes that occur in the ionosphere. Modeling and evaluation of these processes has helped interpret the satellite observations of the DC Poynting flux and improved our understanding of the coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  16. Photometric investigation of hot exoplanets: TrES-3b and Qatar-1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Erdem, A.; Budding, E.

    2017-08-01

    New photometric follow-up observations of transitting 'hot Jupiters' TrES-3b and Qatar-1b are presented. Weighted mean values of the solutions of light curves in R-filter for both planetary systems are reported and compared with the previous results. The transit light curves were analysed using the WINFITTER code. The physical properties of the planets were estimated. The planet radii are found to be Rp = 1.381 ± 0.033RJ for TrES-3b and Rp = 1.142 ± 0.025RJ for Qatar-1b. Transit times and their uncertainties were also determined and a new linear ephemeris was computed for both systems. Analysis of transit times showed that a significant signal could not be determined for TrES-3b, while weak evidence was found for Qatar-1b, which might be tested using more precise future transit times.

  17. Enantiospecific recognition of DNA sequences by a proflavine Tröger base.

    PubMed

    Bailly, C; Laine, W; Demeunynck, M; Lhomme, J

    2000-07-05

    The DNA interaction of a chiral Tröger base derived from proflavine was investigated by DNA melting temperature measurements and complementary biochemical assays. DNase I footprinting experiments demonstrate that the binding of the proflavine-based Tröger base is both enantio- and sequence-specific. The (+)-isomer poorly interacts with DNA in a non-sequence-selective fashion. In sharp contrast, the corresponding (-)-isomer recognizes preferentially certain DNA sequences containing both A. T and G. C base pairs, such as the motifs 5'-GTT. AAC and 5'-ATGA. TCAT. This is the first experimental demonstration that acridine-type Tröger bases can be used for enantiospecific recognition of DNA sequences.

  18. Comparing Diagnostic Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Criteria.

    PubMed

    Harstad, Elizabeth B; Fogler, Jason; Sideridis, Georgios; Weas, Sarah; Mauras, Carrie; Barbaresi, William J

    2015-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. This study tested the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 model and determined how well it performed across different gender, IQ, and DSM-IV-TR sub-type, using clinically collected data on 227 subjects (median age = 3.95 years, majority had IQ > 70). DSM-5 was psychometrically superior to the DSM-IV-TR model (Comparative Fit Index of 0.970 vs 0.879, respectively). Measurement invariance revealed good model fit across gender and IQ. Younger children tended to meet fewer diagnostic criteria. Those with autistic disorder were more likely to meet social communication and repetitive behaviors criteria (p < .001) than those with PDD-NOS. DSM-5 is a robust model but will identify a different, albeit overlapping population of individuals compared to DSM-IV-TR.

  19. Correlation of SiO maser flux with stellar flux

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, J.H.

    1981-12-01

    A survey of available SiO maser observations of the 43.122-GHz, v = 1, J = 1..-->..0 transition has been made in order to further investigate the question of a correlation of maser flux with bolometric flux. This correlation has been shown to exist both for data which have been phase shifted to mean maximum and for those which have not.

  20. On Potential Vorticity Flux Vectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.; Schmidli, Jürg; Schär, Christoph

    2003-12-01

    Dynamical, rather than kinematical, considerations indicate that a generalized potential vorticity in terms of the gradient of an arbitrary scalar function requires that the potential vorticity flux vector contain a contribution due to gravity and the pressure gradient force. It is shown that such a potential vorticity flux vector has a simpler definition in terms of the gradient of the kinetic energy rather than that of a Bernoulli function. This result is valid for multicomponent fluids. Flux vectors for a salty ocean and a moist atmosphere with hydrometeors are presented.

  1. Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, Alessandro; Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Laird, John B.; Latham, David W.; Torres, Guillermo

    2006-04-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution Keck HIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determined abundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting average abundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement with initial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare the elemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars with planets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1 appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. We investigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elements in TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statistically significant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperature Tc. We use published abundances and kinematic information for the sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and several statistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms of their likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk of the Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of the thin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planet hosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find that metal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to be systematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect to comparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, but systematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by different groups cannot be ruled out.

  2. Chemical Composition of the Planet-Harboring Star TrES-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Yong, D.; Carney, B. W.; Laird, J. B.; Latham, D. W.; Torres, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution Keck/HIRES and HET/HRS spectra, we have determined abundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting average abundance of <[X/H]> = -0.02± 0.06 is in good agreement with initial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare the elemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars with planets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1 appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. We investigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elements in TrES-1 and other stars with planets, and find no statistically significant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperature Tc. We use published abundances and kinematic information for the sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and several statistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms of their likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy. TrES-1 is found to be a very likely member of the thin disk population. By comparing α -element abundances of planet hosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find that metal-rich ([Fe/H]> 0.0) stars with planets appear to be systematically underabundant in [α /Fe] by ˜ 0.1 dex with respect to comparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, but systematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by different groups cannot be ruled out.

  3. Application of transit timing variation method (TTV) to exoplanet system TrES-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznyetsova, Yu.; Shliakhetskaya, Y.; Matsiaka, O.; Krushevska, V.; Romanyuk, Ya.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of the original photometric data, the light curves of several transits in the exoplanet system TrES-3 were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Using these curves, the estimates of precise values of mid-transit time were calculated to assess the possibility of finding new planets by timing method in already known exoplanet systems using ground-based observations at small telescopes. More accurate values of the some orbital and physical parameters of TrES-3 system were also obtained including following the planet-star radius ratio (RP/R*), the angle of the planet orbital plane inclination (i).

  4. Optimization Of PVDF-TrFE Processing Conditions For The Fabrication Of Organic MEMS Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pierre-Henri; Dufour, Isabelle; Ayela, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic optimization of processing conditions of PVDF-TrFE piezoelectric thin films, used as integrated transducers in organic MEMS resonators. Indeed, despite data on electromechanical properties of PVDF found in the literature, optimized processing conditions that lead to these properties remain only partially described. In this work, a rigorous optimization of parameters enabling state-of-the-art piezoelectric properties of PVDF-TrFE thin films has been performed via the evaluation of the actuation performance of MEMS resonators. Conditions such as annealing duration, poling field and poling duration have been optimized and repeatability of the process has been demonstrated. PMID:26792224

  5. An introduction to TR-X: a simplified tool for standardized analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Russell C; Waters, Laurie S; Fallgren, Andrew J; Ghoreson, Gregory G

    2010-09-09

    TR-X is a multi-platform program that provides a graphical interface to Monte Carlo N-Particle transport (MCNP) and Monte Carlo N-Particle transport eXtended (MCNPX) codes. Included in this interface are tools to reduce the tedium of input file creation, provide standardization of model creation and analysis, and expedite the execution of the created models. TR-X provides tools to make the rapid testing of multiple permutations of these models easier, while also building in standardization that allows multiple solutions to be compared.

  6. Were the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides multi-staged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allin, Joshua; Mozzato, Alessandro; Tappin, David; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides originating from active and extinct trough mouth fans are some of the largest single mass movements evident on Earth. These landslides are capable of damaging offshore infrastructure and can also trigger far-reaching tsunamis. For these reasons understanding the timing, dynamics, and triggering mechanisms of large submarine landslides is important for regional geohazard assessment. The Trænadjupet Slide occurred 4,000 ca. years ago and originated from the Trænadjupet paleo-ice stream on the Central Norwegian margin. The Trænadjupet Slide partially buried the deposits of a previous slide originating from the same section of the Norwegian margin; the Nyk Slide, which occurred at 16,000 ca years ago. Although the Trænadjupet Slide had an estimated volume of 900 km3 and originated from a shallow water depth, it does not appear to have triggered a tsunami. This is in contrast to the comparably-sized Storegga Slide, which produced a tsunami that devastated coastal areas as far away as Scotland. The apparent absence of a tsunami suggests that the failure dynamics for the Trænadjupet slide were different to that of other large slides along the Norwegian Margin. The deposits of both the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides consist of several blocky lobes extending out into the Lofoten Basin. The lobate morphology of the deposits may imply that both slides occurred in a number of different and possibly temporally-disparate stages. Importantly, multi-staged failures have a much lower tsunamigenic potential due to the lower initial volume displacement. These staggered failures consisting of smaller sediment volumes might explain why no contemporaneous onshore tsunami deposits are found on nearby coastlines, particularly in the case of the post-glacial Trænadjupet Slide. Here we present a new sediment core dataset collected from the previously un-sampled lobes of the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides. These cores will help us better characterise the deposit types

  7. 2 π -flux loop semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linhu; Chesi, Stefano; Yin, Chuanhao; Chen, Shu

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a model of 2 π -flux loop semimetals which holds nodal loops described by a winding number ν =2 . By adding some extra terms, this model can be transformed into a recently discovered Hopf-link semimetal, and the symmetries distinguishing these two types of semimetals are studied. We also propose a simpler physical implementation of 2 π -flux loops and of Hopf-link semimetals which only involves nearest-neighbor hoppings, although in the presence of spin-orbit interactions. Finally, we investigate the Floquet properties of the 2 π -flux loop, and find that such a loop may be driven into two separated π -flux loops or four Weyl points by light with circular polarization in certain directions.

  8. Solar flux and its variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. V. P.; Gottlieb, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the solar irradiance as derived from a number of sources. An attempt was made to bring these data onto a uniform scale. Summation of fluxes at all wavelengths yields a figure of 1357.826 for the solar constant. Estimates are made of the solar flux variations due to flares, active regions (slowly varying component), 27-day period, and the 11-yr cycle. Solar activity does not produce a significant variation in the value of the solar constant. Variations in the X-ray and EUV portions of the solar flux may be several orders of magnitude during solar activity, especially at times of major flares. It is established that these short wavelength flux enhancements cause significant changes in the terrestrial ionosphere.

  9. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  10. Flux networks in metabolic graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. B.; Duarte Queiros, S. M.; Jones, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms.

  11. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  12. UVIS G280 Flux Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Flux calibration, image displacement, and spectral trace of the UVIS G280 grism will be established using observations of the HST flux standard start GD71. Accompanying direct exposures will provide the image displacement measurements and wavelength zeropoints for dispersed exposures. The calibrations will be obtained at the central position of each CCD chip and at the center of the UVIS field. No additional field-dependent variations will be derived.

  13. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  14. Methane flux from Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Crill, P.M.; Bartlett, K.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S. )

    1988-12-01

    Northern (> 40 deg N) wetlands have been suggested as the largest natural source of methane (CH{sub 4}) to the troposphere. To refine the authors estimates of source strengths from this region and to investigate climatic controls on the process, fluxes were measured from a variety of Minnesota peatlands during May, June, and August 1986. Late spring and summer fluxes ranged from 11 to 866 mg CH{sub 4}/sq/m/day, averaging 207 mg CH{sub 4} sq/m/day overall. At Marcell Forest, forested bogs and fen sites had lower fluxes than open bogs. In the Red Lake peatland, circumneutral fens, with standing water above the peat surface, produced more methane than acid bog sites in which the water table was beneath the moss surface. Peat temperature was an important control. Methane flux increased in response to increasing soil temperature. It is estimated that the methane flux from all peatlands north of 40 deg may be on the order of 70 to 90 Tg/yr though estimates of this sort are plagued by uncertainties in the areal extent of peatlands, length of the CH{sub 4} producing season, and the spatial and temporal variability of the flux. 60 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. A Simple Model for Predicting the Flux Distribution through the Focal Plane of a Multifaceted-Concentrator Solar Furnace.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-06

    Concentrators ," Solar Energy Re- search Institute Report SERI/TR-631-336 (April 1980). 4. Jaffe, L.D., "Optimization of Dish Solar Collectors with and Without...NO. 5 A Simple Model for Predicting the Flux Distribution Through the Focal Plane of a Multifaceted- Concentrator Solar Furnace by D.E.E. Carlson, R.B...Diver, and E.A. Fletcher Prepared for Publication In Journal of Solar Energy Engineering University of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Department

  16. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growth in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.

  17. 40 CFR 97.621 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 1 source's compliance account the TR... control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 1... § 52.39(e) or (f) of this chapter, for the control period in 2016 and 2017. (e) By July 1, 2015, the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.721 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 2 source's compliance account the TR... control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 2... § 52.39(h) or (i) of this chapter, for the control period in 2016 and 2017. (e) By July 1, 2015, the...

  19. Rapid blockade of telomerase activity and tumor cell growth by the DPL lipofection of ribbon antisense to hTR.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Arun K; Park, Jeong-Hoh; Moon, Ik-Jae; Kang, Hyungu; Lee, Yun-Han; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Suh, Seong-Il; Chang, Byeong-Churl; Park, Jong-Gu

    2005-09-29

    Ribbon antisense (RiAS) to the hTR RNA, a component of the telomerase complex, was employed to inhibit telomerase activity and cancer cell growth. The antisense molecule, hTR-RiAS, combined with enhanced cellular uptake was shown to effectively inhibit telomerase activity and cause rapid cell death in various cancer cell lines. When cancer cells were treated with hTR-RiAS, the level of hTR RNA was reduced by more than 90% accompanied with reduction in telomerase activity. When checked for cancer cell viability, cancer cell lines treated with hTR-RiAS using DNA+Peptide+Lipid complex showed 70-80% growth inhibition in 3 days. The reduced cell viability was due to apoptosis as the percentage of cells exhibiting the sub-G0 arrest and DNA fragmentation increased after antisense treatment. Further, when subcutaneous tumors of a colon cancer cell line (SW480) were treated intratumorally with hTR-RiAS, tumor growth was markedly suppressed with almost total ablation of hTR RNA in the tumor tissue. Cells in the tumor tissue were also found to undergo apoptosis after hTR-RiAS treatment. These results suggest that hTR-RiAS is an effective anticancer reagent, with a potential for broad efficacy to diverse malignant tumors.

  20. Increased hTR expression during transition from adenoma to carcinoma is not associated with promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Atsuo; Suda, Takeshi; Honma, Terasu; Takahashi, Toru; Igarashi, Masato; Waguri, Nobuo; Kawai, Hirokazu; Mita, Yusaku; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2004-09-01

    Human telomerase RNA component (hTR) expression, which increases in the majority of cancer cells with an acquisition of telomerase activity, was concomitantly evaluated with methylation status and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression in colorectal cancers and precursor lesions. hTR and hTERT expressions were detected by in situ hybridization and reverse transcription following polymerase chain reaction, respectively, in 15 colonic adenomas, 19 sporadic colonic cancers at various histological stages, and 3 normal colonic mucosa samples. The methylationstatus of hTR was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction following restriction endonuclease digestion and direct sequencing. hTERT expression was detected in 16 of 19 cancers. hTR expression was detected in all cancers including two cases of intramucosal carcinoma. No hTR signals were detected in the normal epithelium or in the adenomas with severe atypism. CpG dinucleotides in the 5'-untranslated region of hTR were completely unmethylated from -204 to -3 and mosaically methylated from -290 to -272, irrespective of the atypism. These results suggest that hTR expression is increased at the adenoma-to-carcinoma transition stage but is not always associated with hTERT expression. Hypomethylation of the hTR promoter region is not likely to be the main mechanism regulating hTR expression.

  1. Planetary transit observations at the University Observatory Jena: TrES-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Roell, T.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Hohle, M. M.; Koeltzsch, A.; Vaňko, M.; Ginski, Ch.; Marka, C.; Moualla, M.; Tetzlaff, N.; Seifahrt, A.; Broeg, Ch.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Raetz, M.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on observations of several transit events of the transiting planet TrES-2 obtained with the Cassegrain-Teleskop-Kamera at the University Observatory Jena. Between March 2007 and November 2008 ten different transits and almost a complete orbital period were observed. Overall, in 40 nights of observation 4291 exposures (in total 71.52 h of observation) of the TrES-2 parent star were taken. With the transit timings for TrES-2 from the 34 events published by the TrES-network, the Transit Light Curve project and the Exoplanet Transit Database plus our own ten transits, we find that the orbital period is P=(2.470614± 0.000001) d, a slight change by ˜ 0.6 s compared to the previously published period. We present new ephemeris for this transiting planet. Furthermore, we found a second dip after the transit which could either be due to a blended variable star or occultation of a second star or even an additional object in the system. Our observations will be useful for future investigations of timing variations caused by additional perturbing planets and/or stellar spots and/or moons. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena and the 80cm telescope of the Wendelstein Observatory of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich.

  2. Comparing Diagnostic Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using "DSM-IV-TR" and "DSM-5" Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harstad, Elizabeth B.; Fogler, Jason; Sideridis, Georgios; Weas, Sarah; Mauras, Carrie; Barbaresi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the "DSM-5" criteria for ASD. This study tested the psychometric properties of the "DSM-5" model and determined how well it performed across different gender, IQ, and "DSM-IV-TR" sub-type, using clinically collected data on 227 subjects (median age = 3.95 years, majority had IQ > 70).…

  3. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.

  4. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results. 97.521 Section 97.521 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... under § 52.38(b)(4) or (5) of this chapter, for the control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014...

  5. A flexible, wave-shaped P(VDF-TrFE)/metglas piezoelectric composite for wearable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Sujian; Shi, Huaduo; Wu, Jingen; Shan, Liang; Guo, Shishang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a wave-shaped piezoelectric composite (WSPC) made of fine β-phase vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene copolymer (P(VDF-TrFE)) polymer and high-elastic FeSiB amorphous alloy (metglas) ribbon has been successfully fabricated for wearable device applications. X-ray diffraction and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum studies reveal P(VDF-TrFE) exhibiting the fine β-phase. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that unique wave-shaped structure enhances the electromechanical coupling significantly, because of the combination piezoelectric effects of d33 and d31 modes in P(VDF-TrFE) polymer, as well as the enhanced effective piezoelectric coefficient caused by the pre-stretch in P(VDF-TrFE) film. Two application examples of WSPC, (i) mechanical force sensor or energy harvester, and (ii) the medical blood-pressure pulse sensor, have been investigated, which show that the WSPC is a promising candidate for future wearable device applications.

  6. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-01-01

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures have been widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures. PMID:26040539

  7. Demonstrating the CollaTrEx Framework for Collaborative Context-Aware Mobile Training and Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botev, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The CollaTrEx framework for collaborative context-aware mobile training and exploration is designed for the in-situ collaboration within groups of learners performing together diverse educational activities to explore their environment in a fun and intuitive way. It employs both absolute and relative spatio-temporal context for determining…

  8. Bowl-shaped Tröger's bases and their recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Lorenzo; Čejka, Jan; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Jakubek, Milan; Kaplánek, Robert; Král, Vladimír; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-08-23

    The tris-Tröger's bases (TBs) are electron-rich fluorescent concave receptors due to the incorporation of naphthalene or triphenylene moieties (calix-1 and calix-2). The structures of the TBs were studied using SXRD to reveal the propensity to bind nitroaromatics. Titration with explosive-related nitro-compounds suggests that the TBs may be used for sensing explosives.

  9. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; ...

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use ofmore » the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.« less

  10. Theoretical study of the novel sandwich compound [Au3Cl3Tr 2]2+.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Jesús; Enrique Sansores, Luis; Martínez, Ana; Salcedo, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    A theoretical study of a sandwich compound with a metal monolayer sheet between two aromatic ligands is presented. A full geometry optimization of the [Au(3)Cl(3)Tr(2)](2+) (1) compound, which is a triangular gold(I) monolayer sheet capped by chlorines and bounded to two cycloheptatrienyl (Tr) ligands was carried out using perturbation theory at the MP2 computational level and DFT. Compound (1) is in agreement with the 18-electron rule, the bonding nature in the complex may be interpreted from the donation interaction coming from the Tr rings to the Au array, and from the back-donation from the latter to the former. NICS calculations show a strong aromatic character in the gold monolayer sheet and Tr ligands; calculations done with HOMA, also report the same aromatic behavior on the cycloheptatrienyl fragments giving us an insight on the stability of (1). The Au -Au bond lengths indicate that an intramolecular aurophilic interaction among the Au(I) cations plays an important role in the bonding of the central metal sheet.

  11. Comparing personality disorder models: cross-method assessment of the FFM and DSM-IV-TR.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas W

    2010-12-01

    The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) defines personality disorders as categorical entities that are distinct from each other and from normal personality traits. However, many scientists now believe that personality disorders are best conceptualized using a dimensional model of traits that span normal and abnormal personality, such as the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, if the FFM or any dimensional model is to be considered as a credible alternative to the current model, it must first demonstrate an increment in the validity of the assessment offered within a clinical setting. Thus, the current study extended previous research by comparing the convergent and discriminant validity of the current DSM-IV-TR model to the FFM across four assessment methodologies. Eighty-eight individuals receiving ongoing psychotherapy were assessed for the FFM and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders using self-report, informant report, structured interview, and therapist ratings. The results indicated that the FFM had an appreciable advantage over the DSM-IV-TR in terms of discriminant validity and, at the domain level, convergent validity. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. TR-FRET-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of UBC13 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Madiraju, Charitha; Welsh, Kate; Cuddy, Michael P.; Godoi, Paulo; Pass, Ian; Ngo, Tram; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard A.; Diaz, Paul; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C.

    2014-01-01

    UBC13 is a non-canonical Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme (E2) that has been implicated in a variety of cellular signaling processes due to its ability to catalyze formation of Lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains on various substrates. In particular, UBC13 is required for signaling by a variety of receptors important in immune regulation, making it a candidate target for inflammatory diseases. UBC13 is also critical for double-strand DNA repair, and thus a potential radiosensitizer and chemosensitizer target for oncology. We developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for UBC13 based on the method of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET). The TR-FRET assay combines fluorochrome (Fl)-conjugated ubiquitin (fluorescence acceptor) with terbium (Tb)-conjugated ubiquitin (fluorescence donor), such that the assembly of mixed chains of Fl- and Tb-ubiquitin creates a robust TR-FRET signal. We defined conditions for optimized performance of the TR-FRET assay in both 384 and 1536-well formats. Chemical library screens (total 456,865 compounds) were conducted in high-throughput mode using various compound collections, affording superb Z' scores (typically > 0.7) and thus validating the performance of the assays. Altogether, the HTS assays described here are suitable for large-scale, automated screening of chemical libraries in search of compounds with inhibitory activity against UBC13. PMID:22034497

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yankowitz, J; Slagel, D D; Williamson, R

    1994-08-01

    Ultrasound examination due to an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level showed lower extremity asymmetry. The findings were felt to be consistent with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. The pregnancy was terminated based on these findings. The ultrasound findings, confirming post-mortem examination, and counselling issues are discussed.

  14. Hans Georg Trüper (1936–2016) and His Contributions to Halophile Research

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    Prof. Hans Georg Trüper, one of the most important scientists in the field of halophile research, passed away on 9 March 2016 at the age of 79. I here present a brief obituary with special emphasis on Prof. Trüper’s contributions to our understanding of the halophilic prokaryotes and their adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. He has pioneered the study of the halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria of the Ectothiorhodospira—Halorhodospira group. Some of the species he and his group isolated from hypersaline and haloalkaline environments have become model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of haloadaptation: the functions of three major organic compounds – glycine betaine, ectoine, and trehalose – known to serve as “compatible solutes” in halophilic members of the Bacteria domain, were discovered during studies of these anoxygenic phototrophs. Prof. Trüper’s studies of hypersaline alkaline environments in Egypt also led to the isolation of the first known extremely halophilic archaeon (Natronomonas pharaonis). The guest editors dedicate this special volume of Life to the memory of Prof. Hans Georg Trüper. PMID:27187481

  15. Mol-Gastronomie Von Schäumen und Träumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    Traumhafte Souffles, köstliches Schokoladenmus, süße Meringuen, lockere Biskuits, wem läuft bei diesen Kulinarien nicht das Wasser im Munde zusammen. In Abwandlung des Sprichworts erweisen sich solche Schäume tatsächlich als Träume, jedenfalls zu Tisch.

  16. Deploying the Win TR-20 computational engine as a web service

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite its simplicity and limitations, the runoff curve number method remains a widely-used hydrologic modeling tool, and its use through the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) computer application WinTR-20 is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. To facilitate timely up...

  17. Ultrasonic imaging using air-coupled P(VDF/TrFE) transducers at 2 MHz.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sadayuki; Ohigashi, Hiroji

    2009-05-01

    A reflection non-contact ultrasonic microscope system working both in amplitude and phase difference modes at 2 MHz has been developed using an air-coupled concave transducer made of piezoelectric polymer films of poly(vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF/TrFE)]. The transducer is composed of three 95 microm-thick P(VDF/TrFE) films stacked together, each of which is activated electrically in parallel by a driving source. The transducer has a wide aperture angle of 140 degrees and a focal length of 10mm. The measured two-way transducer insertion loss is 80 dB at 1.83 MHz. Despite 20 dB higher insertion loss than that estimated from Mason's equivalent circuit, we have obtained clear amplitude acoustic images of a coin with transverse resolution of 150 microm, and clear phase difference acoustic images of the rough surface of a paper currency bill with depth resolution of sub-micrometer. Using two planar transducers of P(VDF/TrFE), we have also successfully measured in through-transmission mode the sound velocity and absorption of a 3mm-thick silicone-rubber plate. The present study proves that, owing to its low acoustic impedance and flexibility, P(VDF/TrFE) piezoelectric film is very useful for high frequency acoustic imaging in air in the MHz range.

  18. DNA Damage Regulates UHRF1 Stability via the SCFβ-TrCP E3 Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Ma, Honghui; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Diao, Jianbo; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Wei, Wenyi

    2013-01-01

    UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, with PHD and RING finger domains 1) is a critical epigenetic player involved in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns during DNA replication. Dysregulation of the UHRF1 level is implicated in cancer onset, metastasis, and tumor recurrence. Previous studies demonstrated that UHRF1 can be stabilized through USP7-mediated deubiquitylation, but the mechanism through which UHRF1 is ubiquitylated is still unknown. Here we show that proteasomal degradation of UHRF1 is mediated by the SCFβ-TrCP E3 ligase. Through bioinformatic and mutagenesis studies, we identified a functional DSG degron in the UHRF1 N terminus that is necessary for UHRF1 stability regulation. We further show that UHRF1 physically interacts with β-TrCP1 in a manner dependent on phosphorylation of serine 108 (S108UHRF1) within the DSG degron. Furthermore, we demonstrate that S108UHRF1 phosphorylation is catalyzed by casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) and is important for the recognition of UHRF1 by SCFβ-TrCP. Importantly, we demonstrate that UHRF1 degradation is accelerated in response to DNA damage, coincident with enhanced S108UHRF1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our data identify SCFβ-TrCP as a bona fide UHRF1 E3 ligase important for regulating UHRF1 steady-state levels both under normal conditions and in response to DNA damage. PMID:23297342

  19. Protein disulfide isomerase homolog TrPDI2 contributing to cellobiohydrolase production in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guokun; Lv, Pin; He, Ronglin; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Lixian; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the cysteine residues in the secreted proteins form disulfide bonds via protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-mediated catalysis, stabilizing the enzyme activity. The role of PDI in cellulase production is speculative, as well as the possibility of PDI as a target for improving enzyme production efficiency of Trichoderma reesei, a widely used producer of enzyme for the production of lignocellulose-based biofuels and biochemicals. Here, we report that a PDI homolog, TrPDI2 in T. reesei exhibited a 36.94% and an 11.81% similarity to Aspergillus niger TIGA and T. reesei PDI1, respectively. The capability of TrPDI2 to recover the activity of reduced and denatured RNase by promoting refolding verified its protein disulfide isomerase activity. The overexpression of Trpdi2 increased the secretion and the activity of CBH1 at the early stage of cellulase induction. In addition, both the expression level and redox state of TrPDI2 responded to cellulase induction in T. reesei, providing sustainable oxidative power to ensure cellobiohydrolase maturation and production. The results suggest that TrPDI2 may contribute to cellobiohydrolase secretion by enhancing the capability of disulfide bond formation, which is essential for protein folding and maturation.

  20. Comparing Diagnostic Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using "DSM-IV-TR" and "DSM-5" Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harstad, Elizabeth B.; Fogler, Jason; Sideridis, Georgios; Weas, Sarah; Mauras, Carrie; Barbaresi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the "DSM-5" criteria for ASD. This study tested the psychometric properties of the "DSM-5" model and determined how well it performed across different gender, IQ, and "DSM-IV-TR" sub-type, using clinically collected data on 227 subjects (median age = 3.95 years, majority had IQ > 70).…

  1. DNA bending by the silencer protein NeP1 is modulated by TR and RXR.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, R; Burcin, M; Kaiser, B; Muller, M; Renkawitz, R

    1996-01-01

    NeP1 binds to the F1 silencer element of the chicken lysozyme gene and, in the presence of TR, v-ERBA or RAR, synergistically represses transcriptional activity. This repression involves a silencing mechanism acting independently of the relative promoter position. Here we show that NeP1 alone can induce a significant directed bend on DNA. The chicken homologue of human NeP1, CTCF, shows identical binding and bending properties. In contrast, the isolated DNA binding domain of CTCF efficiently binds DNA, but fails to confer bending. Similarly, the TR-RXR hetero- or homodimer, binding adjacent to NeP1 at the F2 sequence, do not show significant DNA bending. The binding of the T3 ligand to TR changes neither the magnitude nor the direction of the NeP1 induced bend. However, when all factors are bound simultaneously as a quaternary complex, the TR-RXR heterodimer changes the location of the bend center, the flexure angle and the bending direction. PMID:8758989

  2. Increased expression of regulatory Tr1 cells in recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, A; Conti, F; Stenard, F; Aoudjehane, L; Miroux, C; Podevin, P; Morales, O; Chouzenoux, S; Scatton, O; Groux, H; Auriault, C; Calmus, Y; Pancre, V; Delhem, N

    2009-09-01

    Immune response failure during HCV infection has been associated with the activity of regulatory T cells. Hepatitis C-related cirrhosis is the main reason for liver transplantation. However, 80% of transplanted patients present an accelerated recurrence of the disease. This study assessed the involvement of regulatory T-cell subsets (CD4+CD25+ cells: 'Treg' and CD49b+CD18+ cells: 'T regulatory-1' cells), in the recurrence of HCV after liver transplantation, using transcriptomic analysis, ELISA assays on serum samples and immunohistochemistry on liver biopsies from liver recipients 1 and 5 years after transplantation. Three groups of patients were included: stable HCV-negative recipients and those with mild and severe hepatitis C recurrence. At 5 years, Treg markers were overexpressed in all HCV+ recipients. By contrast, Tr1 markers were only overexpressed in patients with severe recurrence. At 1 year, a trend toward the overexpression of Tr1 was noted in patients evolving toward severe recurrence. IL-10 production, a characteristic of the Tr1 subset, was enhanced in severe recurrence at both 1 and 5 years. These results suggest that Tr1 are enhanced during severe HCV recurrence after liver transplantation and could be predictive of HCV recurrence. High levels of IL-10 at 1 year could be predictive of severe recurrence, and high IL-10 producers might warrant more intensive management.

  3. Sirtuin 7-dependent deacetylation of DDB1 regulates the expression of nuclear receptor TR4.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Fazlul; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Sobuz, Shihab U; Sato, Yoshifumi; Yamagata, Kazuya

    2017-08-19

    Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase/deacylase, but only a limited number of SIRT7 substrates have been identified. Recently, we found that Sirt7 knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced fatty liver, and that SIRT7 positively regulates the protein level of TR4, a nuclear receptor involved in lipid metabolism, by inhibiting the CUL4B/DDB1/DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. However, the mechanism by which SIRT7 inhibits the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex was not identified. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT7 binds directly to DDB1 and deacetylates DDB1 at Lys1121. K1121R-DDB1 (a deacetylation-mimicking mutant) displayed reduced binding with DCAF1. The expression of TR4 protein and TR4 target genes, including Cd36, Cidea, Cidec and Pparg1, was increased in K1121R-DDB1-overexpressing Hepa1-6 cells compared to WT-DDB1-overexpressing cells. Our results indicate that the SIRT7-mediated deacetylation of K1121 attenuates the activity of the CUL4B/DDB1/DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex by reducing binding between DDB1 and DCAF1, leading to the increased expression of TR4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. T/R module development for large aperture L-band phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Andricos, Constantine; Kumley, Kendra; Berkun, Andrew; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a transmit / receive (T/R) module for a large L-band space based radar active phased array being developed at JPL. Electrical performance and construction techniques are described, with emphasis on the former. The T/R modules have a bandwidth of more than 80 MHz centered at 1260MHz and support dual, switched polarizations. Phase and amplitude are controlled by a 6-bit phase shifter and a 6-bit attenuator, respectively. The transmitter power amplifier generates 2.4 W into a nominal 50 ohm load with 36% overall efficiency. The receiver noise figure is 4.4 dB including all front-end losses. The module weighs 32 g and has a footprint of 8 cm x 4.5 cm. Fourteen of these T/R modules were fabricated at the JPL Pick-and-Place Facility and were tested using a computer-controlled measurement facility developed at JPL. Calibrated performance of this set of T/R modules is presented and shows good agreement with design predictions.

  5. The effect of PVDF-TrFE scaffolds on stem cell derived cardiovascular cells.

    PubMed

    Hitscherich, Pamela; Wu, Siliang; Gordan, Richard; Xie, Lai-Hua; Arinzeh, Treena; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recently, electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) scaffolds have been developed for tissue engineering applications. These materials have piezoelectric activity, wherein they can generate electric charge with minute mechanical deformations. Since the myocardium is an electroactive tissue, the unique feature of a piezoelectric scaffold is attractive for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. In this study, we examined the cytocompatibility and function of pluripotent stem cell derived cardiovascular cells including mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mES-CM) and endothelial cells (mES-EC) on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds. MES-CM and mES-EC adhered well to PVDF-TrFE and became highly aligned along the fibers. When cultured on scaffolds, mES-CM spontaneously contracted, exhibited well-registered sarcomeres and expressed classic cardiac specific markers such as myosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, and connexin43. Moreover, mES-CM cultured on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds responded to exogenous electrical pacing and exhibited intracellular calcium handling behavior similar to that of mES-CM cultured in 2D. Similar to cardiomyocytes, mES-EC also demonstrated high viability and maintained a mature phenotype through uptake of low-density lipoprotein and expression of classic endothelial cell markers including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and the arterial specific marker, Notch-1. This study demonstrates the feasibility of PVDF-TrFE scaffold as a candidate material for developing engineered cardiovascular tissues utilizing stem cell-derived cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1577-1585. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Northrop Grumman TR202 LOX/LH2 Deep Throttling Engine Technology Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gromski, Jason; Majamaki, Annik; Chianese, Silvio; Weinstock, Vladimir; Kim, Tony S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project is currently developing enabling propulsion technologies in support of future lander missions. To meet lander requirements, several technical challenges need to be overcome, one of which is the ability for the descent engine(s) to operate over a deep throttle range with cryogenic propellants. To address this need, PCAD has enlisted Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) in a technology development effort associated with the TR202 engine. The TR202 is a LOX/LH2 expander cycle engine driven by independent turbopump assemblies and featuring a variable area pintle injector similar to the injector used on the TR200 Apollo Lunar Module Descent Engine (LMDE). Since the Apollo missions, NGAS has continued to mature deep throttling pintle injector technology. The TR202 program has completed two series of pintle injector testing. The first series of testing used ablative thrust chambers and demonstrated igniter operation as well as stable performance at discrete points throughout the designed 10:1 throttle range. The second series was conducted with calorimeter chambers and demonstrated injector performance at discrete points throughout the throttle range as well as chamber heat flow adequate to power an expander cycle design across the throttle range. This paper provides an overview of the TR202 program, describing the different phases and key milestones. It describes how test data was correlated to the engine conceptual design. The test data obtained has created a valuable database for deep throttling cryogenic pintle technology, a technology that is readily scalable in thrust level.

  7. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  8. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination. PMID:27338393

  9. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve Induces IL-10-Producing Tr1 Cells in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Takahashi, Takuya; Asahara, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Ma, Ji Su; Kusu, Takashi; Okumura, Ryu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103+ DCs from Il10−/−, Tlr2−/−, and Myd88−/− mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103+ DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra−/− T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2−/− mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103+ DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10−/− mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells. PMID:22693446

  10. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-06-21

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination.

  11. Flux flow and flux dynamics in high-Tc superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, L. H.; Turchinskaya, M.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Roitburd, A.; Lundy, D.; Ritter, J.; Kaiser, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Because high temperature superconductors, including BYCO and BSSCO, are type 2 superconductors with relatively low H(sub c 1) values and high H(sub c 2) values, they will be in a critical state for many of their applications. In the critical state, with the applied field between H(sub c 1) and H(sub c 2), flux lines have penetrated the material and can form a flux lattice and can be pinned by structural defects, chemical inhomogeneities, and impurities. A detailed knowledge of how flux penetrates the material and its behavior under the influence of applied fields and current flow, and the effect of material processing on these properties, is required in order to apply, and to improve the properties of these superconductors. When the applied field is changed rapidly, the time dependence of flux change can be divided into three regions, an initial region which occurs very rapidly, a second region in which the magnetization has a 1n(t) behavior, and a saturation region at very long times. A critical field is defined for depinning, H(sub c,p) as that field at which the hysteresis loop changes from irreversible to reversible. As a function of temperature, it is found that H(sub c,p) is well described by a power law with an exponent between 1.5 and 2.5. The behavior of H(sub c,p) for various materials and its relationship to flux flow and flux dynamics are discussed.

  12. Two fluxes multistage induction coilgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherman, L.; Pearsica, M.; Circiu, I.; Rotaru, C.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a brand new induction electromagnetic launcher, which uses two magnetic fluxes in order to accelerate a projectile. One magnetic flux induce a current in the armature and the second magnetic flux is creating a radial magnetic field. This aproach offer multiple advantages over single flux designs. First we are able to control the induced current in armature because we use the coil just to induce current inside the ring with a great efficiency. Second advantage is the angle of 900 between magnetic field density B and the ring. We used the induction to avoid contact between armature and accelerator. In order to create the magnetic field radial we used four coils perpendicular on armature. This approach alove us to control the phase difference between induced current in armature and current in magnetic field coils for a maximum force. The phase difference is obtained by changing the frequency of magnetic field coils power source. We used simulation software to analyze, and simulate a multistage induction coilgun design with two fluxes. The simulation results demonstrated the theoretical results.

  13. Reconnecting flux-rope dynamo.

    PubMed

    Baggaley, Andrew W; Barenghi, Carlo F; Shukurov, Anvar; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-11-01

    We develop a model of the fluctuation dynamo in which the magnetic field is confined to thin flux ropes advected by a multiscale model of turbulence. Magnetic dissipation occurs only via reconnection of the flux ropes. This model can be viewed as an implementation of the asymptotic limit R_{m}-->infinity for a continuous magnetic field, where magnetic dissipation is strongly localized to small regions of strong-field gradients. We investigate the kinetic-energy release into heat mediated by the dynamo action, both in our model and by solving the induction equation with the same flow. We find that a flux-rope dynamo is an order of magnitude more efficient at converting mechanical energy into heat. The probability density of the magnetic energy release in reconnections has a power-law form with the slope -3 , consistent with the solar corona heating by nanoflares.

  14. Reconnecting flux-rope dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Shukurov, Anvar; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-11-01

    We develop a model of the fluctuation dynamo in which the magnetic field is confined to thin flux ropes advected by a multiscale model of turbulence. Magnetic dissipation occurs only via reconnection of the flux ropes. This model can be viewed as an implementation of the asymptotic limit Rm→∞ for a continuous magnetic field, where magnetic dissipation is strongly localized to small regions of strong-field gradients. We investigate the kinetic-energy release into heat mediated by the dynamo action, both in our model and by solving the induction equation with the same flow. We find that a flux-rope dynamo is an order of magnitude more efficient at converting mechanical energy into heat. The probability density of the magnetic energy release in reconnections has a power-law form with the slope -3 , consistent with the solar corona heating by nanoflares.

  15. Chesapeake Bay Sediment Flux Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    KL12J [N0 3(2)] = [N0 3 (l) 1 KNo3 .H KL2 (4) The equality s - K LoM, (eq.II-14), is used for the surface mass transfer coefficient where s - SOD/0 2 (O...L 2 = 0.01 (m/d), and KNo3 ., - 0.1 (m/d). Note that the normalized flux data exhibits an increased flux for intermediate s and an upward curvature...to compute the denitrification flux: [N2(g)]i, j= KN03. ,H,[NO3 (1)],.J KNO3 . 2 H 2 [N0 3 (2)],., 2 / (Tl. 1-20) - 0X•NO3𔃻"NO3$,. _ [N03(l)],. ’+VNO3

  16. Where is the Open Flux?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Downs, Cooper; Caplan, Ronald M.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Riley, Pete; Henney, Carl John; Arge, Charles; Owens, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Sun’s magnetic field has been observed in the photosphere from ground- and space-based observatories for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full disk magnetograms (either built up over a solar rotation, or evolved using flux transport models) are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Maps from different observatories typically agree qualitatively but often disagree quantitatively. Estimation of the coronal/solar wind physics can range from potential field source surface (PFSS) models with empirical prescriptions to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models with realistic energy transport and sub-grid scale descriptions of heating and acceleration. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) The open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes observed in emission, and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. We have investigated the July 2010 time period, using PFSS and MHD models computed using several available magnetic maps, coronal hole boundaries detected from STEREO and SDO EUV observations, and estimates of the interplanetary magnetic flux from in situ ACE measurements. We show that for all the model/map combinations, models that agree for (1) underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match (2), the modeled open field regions are larger than observed coronal holes. Alternatively, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining detected coronal hole boundaries with observatory synoptic magnetic maps, and show that this method also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. We discuss possible resolutions.Research supported by NASA, AFOSR, and NSF.

  17. Phase versus flux coupling between resonator and superconducting flux qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birenbaum, J. S.; O'Kelley, S. R.; Anton, S. M.; Nugroho, C. D.; Orlyanchik, V.; Dove, A. H.; Yoscovits, Z. R.; Olson, G. A.; van Harlingen, D. J.; Eckstein, J.; Braje, D. A.; Johnson, R. C.; Oliver, W. D.; Clarke, John

    2013-03-01

    The dispersive coupling of qubits to microwave resonators has become widely used for qubit readout. Recent advances in coupling qubits to 3D resonators have demonstrated the importance of the nature of the qubit-resonator coupling in determining the qubit relaxation and decoherence times, T1 and T2*. We study the effect of phase versus flux coupling on flux qubits coupled to planar resonators. Using an aluminum shadow evaporation technique we fabricate a low-loss planar resonator, consisting of a meandering inductor and interdigitated capacitor, and a flux qubit, all in a single processing step. Whereas the qubit and resonator are always flux coupled via a geometric mutual inductance, a phase coupling can be added by including a shared trace between the qubit and resonator. This technique allows us to control both the magnitude and nature of the qubit-resonator coupling without significantly affecting either the qubit or resonator design. We characterize the dependence of the qubit parameters T1, T2*, and spin echo time Techo on the resonator coupling parameters to gain insight into possible sources of decoherence and loss. This work was supported by ARO, IARPA, and the US Government

  18. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  19. 13C metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, W

    2001-07-01

    Metabolic flux analysis using 13C-labeled substrates has become an important tool in metabolic engineering. It allows the detailed quantification of all intracellular fluxes in the central metabolism of a microorganism. The method has strongly evolved in recent years by the introduction of new experimental procedures, measurement techniques, and mathematical data evaluation methods. Many of these improvements require advanced skills in the application of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques on the one hand and computational and statistical experience on the other hand. This minireview summarizes these recent developments and sketches the major practical problems. An outlook to possible future developments concludes the text.

  20. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  1. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  2. Modeling Coronal Jets with FLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Pariat, E.; Antiochos, S. K.; Deforest, C. E.

    2008-05-01

    We report on a comparative study of coronal jet formation with and without reconnection using two different simulation strategies. Coronal jets are features on the solar surface that appear to have some properties in common with coronal mass ejections, but are less energetic, massive, and broad. Magnetic free energy is built up over time and then suddenly released, which accelerates plasma outward in the form of a coronal jet. We compare results from the ARMS adaptive mesh and FLUX reconnection-less codes to study the role of reconnection in this system. This is the first direct comparison between FLUX and a numerical model with a 3D spatial grid.

  3. Charm production in flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, C. E.; Kodama, T.; Nazareth, R. A. M. S.; Pech, G.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that the nonperturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single nonelementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. In their turn these clusters, or ``fireballs,'' decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange, and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders According to "DSM-IV-TR" and Comparison with "DSM-5" Draft Criteria: An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joseph, Robert M.; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The latest definitions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were specified in "DSM-IV-TR" in 2000. "DSM-5" criteria are planned for 2013. Here, we estimated the prevalence of ASDs and autism according to "DSM-IV-TR," clarified confusion concerning diagnostic criteria, and evaluated "DSM-5" draft…

  5. 40 CFR 52.38 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) under the Transport Rule (TR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) under the Transport Rule (TR) relating to emissions of nitrogen oxides... emissions of nitrogen oxides? (a)(1) The TR NOX Annual Trading Program provisions set forth in subpart AAAAA... annual emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX). (2) The provisions of subpart AAAAA of part 97 of this chapter...

  6. T-R CYCLE CHARACTERIZATION AND IMAGING: ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC METHODOLOGY FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIR AND TRAP DETECTION AND DELINEATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; William C. Parcell; Bruce S. Hart

    2004-03-05

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is T-R cycle characterization and modeling. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on outcrop study, well log analysis, seismic interpretation and data integration and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on T-R cycle model development.

  7. T-R CYCLE CHARACTERIZATION AND IMAGING: ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC METHODOLOGY FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIR AND TRAP DETECTION AND DELINEATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-06-01

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is T-R cycle characterization and modeling. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on outcrop study, well log analysis, seismic interpretation and data integration and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on T-R cycle model development.

  8. 40 CFR 97.721 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results. 97.721 Section 97.721 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 2...

  9. 40 CFR 97.621 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results. 97.621 Section 97.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 1...

  10. Improved fabrication of focused single element P(VDF–TrFE) transducer for high frequency ultrasound applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Seob; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    We present an improved fabrication technique for the focused single element poly (vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene) P(VDF–TrFE) transducer. In this work, a conductive epoxy for a backing layer was directly bonded to the 25 μm thick P(VDF–TrFE) film and thus made it easy to conform the aperture of the P(VDF–TrFE) transducer. Two prototype focused P(VDF–TrFE) transducers with disk- and ring-type aperture were fabricated and their performance was evaluated using the UBM (Ultrasound Biomicroscopy) system with a wire phantom. All transducers had a spherically focused aperture with a low f-number (focal depth/aperture size = 1). The center frequency of the disk-type P(VDF–TrFE) transducer was 23 MHz and −6 dB bandwidth was 102%. The ring-type P(VDF–TrFE) transducer had 20 MHz center frequency and −6 dB bandwidth of 103%. The measured pulse echo signal had reduced reverberation due to no additional adhesive layer between the P(VDF–TrFE) film and the backing layer. Hence, the proposed method is promising to fabricate a single element transducer using P(VDF–TrFE) film for high frequency applications. PMID:23021238

  11. Ectopic expression of TrPI, a Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae) PI ortholog, causes modifications of vegetative architecture in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shanhua; Fan, Yinglun; Liu, Like; Liu, Shujun; Zhang, Wenhui; Meng, Zheng

    2010-12-15

    In eudicotyledonous model plants, the B-function genes encode a pair of partner MADS-domain proteins, APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) in Arabidopsis and DEFICIENS (DEF) and GLOBOSA (GLO) in Antirrhinum. These proteins, which must form heterodimers to function, are required to specify petal and stamen identity during flower development. Here, we report cloning and characterization of TrPI (Taihangia rupestris PISTILLATA), a PI/GLO-like gene from the core eudicot species Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae). DNA gel blot analysis showed that TrPI is a single copy gene in the T. rupestris genome. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that TrPI is transcribed in both the vegetative and reproductive organs at different levels. Ectopic expression of TrPI in Arabidopsis caused severe modifications in vegetative plant architecture, including rosette leaves and cauline leaves arranged in a non-spiral phyllotaxy, and a flattened primary inflorescence stem that produced two or three offshoots at the base, middle or top. Moreover, we show that the TrPI gene is capable of rescuing pi-1 mutant phenotypes. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that TrPI forms homodimers. Taken together, these results show that TrPI might function in regulating plant architecture in addition to its function as a floral organ identity gene in T. rupestris, suggesting that the TrPI protein has biochemical features that distinguish it from the well-studied orthologs, PI and GLO.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders According to "DSM-IV-TR" and Comparison with "DSM-5" Draft Criteria: An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joseph, Robert M.; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The latest definitions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were specified in "DSM-IV-TR" in 2000. "DSM-5" criteria are planned for 2013. Here, we estimated the prevalence of ASDs and autism according to "DSM-IV-TR," clarified confusion concerning diagnostic criteria, and evaluated "DSM-5" draft…

  13. Orienting and Applying Flux to Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Solar cells are oriented and fluxed automatically at first work station along solar-array assembly line. In under 2 seconds rotary drive rotates cell into proper position for applying solder flux to bus pad on collector side. When contact bus pad is in correct position, capstan drive is disengaged, and vacuum holddown beneath cell is turned on. Flux system lowers and applies preset amount of solder flux to bus pad. Two interconnect tabs are soldered to fluxed areas.

  14. Inhibition of telomerase RNA (hTR) in cervical cancer by adenovirus-delivered siRNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Li, H; Yao, G; Li, W; Wang, F; Jiang, Z; Li, M

    2007-08-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become a powerful tool for selectively silencing gene expression in cultured mammalian cells. In this study, a 67-bp oligonucleotide encoding human telomerase RNA (hTR) was introduced into pSIREN, a shuttle vector for construction of recombinant adenovirus. Then the U6-RNA promoter and siRNA-encoding insert were cut out from the pSIREN and subcloned into pAdeno-X to construct the plasmid pAd-hTR. After the pAd-hTR was transfected into a mammalian cell line HEK-293, adenovirus carrying the hTR-targeting siRNA (Ad-hTR-siRNA) was obtained. We performed a series of experiments to demonstrate silencing of the telomerase mediated by Ad-hTR-siRNA in HeLa cells. Compared with control virus (Ad-NT-siRNA), Ad-hTR-siRNA significantly reduced both hTR mRNA level (by 70.21%) and telomerase activity (by 58.87%) in HeLa cells. Moreover, it induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Treatment of subcutaneous tumor xenografted with Ad-hTR-siRNA could slow down tumor growth, at least partially due to the induction of apoptosis (P<0.05) in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated efficient and specific knockdown of telomerase in HeLa cell line by the hTR siRNA, and indicated the prospect of applying this siRNA expressing recombinant adenovirus system in cancer gene therapy.

  15. Black branes in flux compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2013-10-01

    We construct charged black branes in type IIA flux compactifications that are dual to (2 + 1)-dimensional field theories at finite density. The internal space is a general Calabi-Yau manifold with fluxes, with internal dimensions much smaller than the AdS radius. Gauge fields descend from the 3-form RR potential evaluated on harmonic forms of the Calabi-Yau, and Kaluza-Klein modes decouple. Black branes are described by a four-dimensional effective field theory that includes only a few light fields and is valid over a parametrically large range of scales. This effective theory determines the low energy dynamics, stability and thermodynamic properties. Tools from flux compactifications are also used to construct holographic CFTs with no relevant scalar operators, that can lead to symmetric phases of condensed matter systems stable to very low temperatures. The general formalism is illustrated with simple examples such as toroidal compactifications and manifolds with a single size modulus. We initiate the classification of holographic phases of matter described by flux compactifications, which include generalized Reissner-Nordstrom branes, nonsupersymmetric AdS2×R2 and hyperscaling violating solutions.

  16. High flux compact neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.; Lou, T.-P.; Tolmachoff, B.; Leung, K.-N.; Verbeke, J.; Vujic, J.

    2001-06-15

    Compact high flux neutron generators are developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutron production is based on D-D or D-T reaction. The deuterium or tritium ions are produced from plasma using either a 2 MHz or 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) discharge. RF-discharge yields high fraction of atomic species in the beam which enables higher neutron output. In the first tube design, the ion beam is formed using a multiple hole accelerator column. The beam is accelerated to energy of 80 keV by means of a three-electrode extraction system. The ion beam then impinges on a titanium target where either the 2.4 MeV D-D or 14 MeV D-T neutrons are generated. The MCNP computation code has predicted a neutron flux of {approximately}10{sup 11} n/s for the D-D reaction at beam intensity of 1.5 A at 150 kV. The neutron flux measurements of this tube design will be presented. Recently new compact high flux tubes are being developed which can be used for various applications. These tubes also utilize RF-discharge for plasma generation. The design of these tubes and the first measurements will be discussed in this presentation.

  17. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  18. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  19. A Novel Erythromycin Resistance Methylase Gene (ermTR) in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Seppälä, Helena; Skurnik, Mikael; Soini, Hanna; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Huovinen, Pentti

    1998-01-01

    Erythromycin resistance among streptococci is commonly due to target site modification by an rRNA-methylating enzyme, which results in coresistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics (MLSB resistance). Genes belonging to the ermAM (ermB) gene class are the only erythromycin resistance methylase (erm) genes in Streptococcus pyogenes with MLSB resistance that have been sequenced so far. We identified a novel erm gene, designated ermTR, from an erythromycin-resistant clinical strain of S. pyogenes (strain A200) with an inducible type of MLSB resistance. The nucleotide sequence of ermTR is 82.5% identical to ermA, previously found, for example, in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Our finding provides the first sequence of an erm gene other than ermAM that mediates MLSB resistance in S. pyogenes. PMID:9527769

  20. Coal transport on River Labe (Czech Republic) with system pusher tug TR500-barge TC1000

    SciTech Connect

    Danek, A.; Polak, J.

    1995-12-31

    The power plant Chvaletice (800 MW) has been supplied with energetic coal from the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the section Prosmyky-Chvaletice along the Labe River upstream. Sixty new developed pusher tugs TR 500 in connection with pusher barges TC1000 were set into operation in 1980. Each has two 4rive systems with 208kW turbo-blowed diesel engines, mechanical gear boxes and propellers with Kort nozzles. A new maintenance system of individual aggregates or groups based on reliability characteristics and probability of failure from Weibull distribution was developed. Diagnostic methods for monitoring the state of sealing such groups like piston-cylinder, turbo-blower, injection and propulsion systems were built. The real economic effect of implemented maintenance system represents three quarters of the price of a new pusher tug TR500.

  1. P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer thin-film for high performance nonvolatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Liu, Lu; Liu, Shi-Zheng; Cui, Yu-Shuang; Chen, Xiang-Zhong; Ge, Hai-Xiong; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2013-02-01

    Vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene terpolymer, P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), with small amount of CFE is utilized for thin-film nonvolatile memory. Polarization switching voltage for a 50 nm-thick film can be as low as 1 V, and is well suited for integrated driving electronics. The writing-erasing procedure is completely reversible. High signal-to-noise and high capability for data storage are observed in this memory system. Polarization state of the terpolymer is rather stable, making it applicable for memory devices. Polarization switching behavior in the terpolymer can be ascribed to reduced polar domain size with respect to the P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer, and energy cost of domain wall motion during electrically polarization switching decreases.

  2. A TR-induced algorithm for hot spots elimination through CT-scan HIFU simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Nicolas; Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    Although nowadays widely spread for imaging and treatments uses, HIFU techniques are still limited by the distortion of the wavefront due to refraction and reflection on the inhomogeneous media inside the human body. CT-scan Time Reversal (TR) procedure has risen as a promising candidate for focus control. A finite difference time domain parallelized code is used to provide simulations of TR-enhanced propagation through elements of the human body and implement a simple algorithm to address the issue of grating lobes, i.e secondary peaks of pressure due to natural diffraction by phased arrays and enhanced by medium heterogeneity. Using an iterative, progressive process combining secondary sound sources and independent signal summation, the primary peak is strengthened while secondary peaks are increasingly obliterated. This method supports the feasibility of precise modification and enhancement of the pressure profile in the targeted area through Time Reversal based solutions.

  3. Energetic Study of the Flip-flop Motion of P(VDF-TrFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuewen; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Jiandi; Dowben, P. A.

    2006-03-01

    Ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) has attracted significant attention in material science and technology due to its excellent electromechanical properties and easy manipulation of the individual monomer or monomer clusters resulting in the change of the such properties. Theoretical aspect of the switching dynamics of P(VDF-TrFE) has been investigated by using the density function theory and compared with experimental results. Through calculation, we find a simple flipping of the individual monomer with lower energy that involves no change of the bond length and the bond angle of --C--C--, --C--H--, and --C--F--. These consist with the experimental results obtained with STM. We compare the STM image before and after the flipping of the monomers. Except the observation of the lattice shift at the boundary, we find no other structure distortion and no change in the inter- and intra- chain spacing.

  4. Optical and Near-UV Observations of the Transiting Extrasolar Planet TrES-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Carter-Thaxton; Turner, J.; Carleton, T.; Crawford, B.; Guvenen, B.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Small, L.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Henz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Steward Observatory 61” Kuiper Telescope, The University of Arizona Astronomy Club conducted photometric observations of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-4b as part of the Exoplanet Observation Project. Observations were made in the Bessell U, Harris B, and Harris R filters. Initial observations were made in 2009, with follow up observations in 2011. Basic data reduction and photometry was done using IRAF and determination of transit parameters was done using Transit Analysis Package (TAP) and JKTEBOP transit modeling code. We present an updated planetary mass, radius, density, surface gravity, Safronov number, equilibrium temperature, orbital distance, and orbital inclination for TrES-4b. In addition, we also searched for asymmetries between the near-UV and optical light curves. This project, started in spring 2009, has introduced many undergraduate students to research and given them valuable experience with data reduction and observation techniques.

  5. Coexisting ferroelectric and paraelectric phases in electron beam irradiated P(VDF-TrFE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Lee, Tae Kwon; Jung, Jong Hoon; Shin, Sunhyeop; Lee, Byoung Wan; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2016-12-01

    We report on structural, electrical, and Raman investigations of phase changes induced in P(VDF-TrFE) films by electron beam irradiation. With increasing electron beam dose, the ferroelectric β-phase is weakened because of reductions in the coercive field, remnant polarization, and Curie temperature. Finally, highly dosed (9.38 × 1016 cm-2) P(VDF-TrFE) shows a paraelectric α-phase. A Vogel-Folcher type relaxor behavior becomes strong with the decreasing freezing temperature and the increasing activation energy. From the Raman scattering measurement, we observed that both the α- and the β-phases coexist irrespective of the electron beam irradiation and that the temperature dependences of the α- and β-phases are quite different. The ratio of the intensity of the α-phase to that of the β-phase sharply increases at a certain temperature, at which polar nanoregions may disappear.

  6. The DSM-IV-TR 'Glossary of Technical Terms': a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Howsepian, A A

    2008-01-01

    Many of the entries in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) are problematic along multiple axes, including, but not limited to, clarity, logical coherence, factual content, redundancy, and ambiguity. These problems pose multiple barriers to clear, efficient, and accurate communication among those who work in clinical contexts or among those involved in psychological or psychiatric research. These barriers to communication, accurate concept formation, and clinical clarity affect diagnostic validity and reliability in a manner that imperils progress in psychiatry and psychology on a grand scale. This essay focuses on some of the most egregious problematic entries in the DSM-IV-TR's 'Glossary of Technical Terms'. It is meant to be a prolegomenon to a thorough revision of the Glossary in preparation for the projected 5th edition of the DSM. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A comprehensive method for detecting ubiquitinated substrates using TR-TUBE

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukiko; Saeki, Yasushi; Murakami, Arisa; Kawawaki, Junko; Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Shindo, Mayumi; Tanaka, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The identification of substrates for ubiquitin ligases has remained challenging, because most substrates are either immediately degraded by the proteasome or processed by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) to remove polyubiquitin. Although a methodology that enables detection of ubiquitinated proteins using ubiquitin Lys-ε-Gly-Gly (diGly) remnant antibodies and MS has been developed, it is still insufficient for identification and characterization of the ubiquitin-modified proteome in cells overexpressing a particular ubiquitin ligase. Here, we show that exogenously expressed trypsin-resistant tandem ubiquitin-binding entity(ies) (TR-TUBE) protect polyubiquitin chains on substrates from DUBs and circumvent proteasome-mediated degradation in cells. TR-TUBE effectively associated with substrates ubiquitinated by an exogenously overexpressed ubiquitin ligase, allowing detection of the specific activity of the ubiquitin ligase and isolation of its substrates. Although the diGly antibody enabled effective identification of ubiquitinated proteins in cells, overexpression of an ubiquitin ligase and treatment with a proteasome inhibitor did not increase the level of diGly peptides specific for the ligase relative to the background level of diGly peptides, probably due to deubiquitination. By contrast, in TR-TUBE–expressing cells, the level of substrate-derived diGly peptides produced by the overexpressed ubiquitin ligase was significantly elevated. We developed a method for identifying the substrates of specific ubiquitin ligases using two enrichment strategies, TR-TUBE and diGly remnant antibodies, coupled with MS. Using this method, we identified target substrates of FBXO21, an uncharacterized F-box protein. PMID:25827227

  8. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  9. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  10. Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome, pregnancy and the liver: an unusual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Samonakis, Dimitrios N.; Oustamanolakis, Pantelis; Manousou, Penelope; Kouroumalis, Elias A.; Burroughs, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by capillary malformations, soft tissue and bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins. There is a well-established risk for thrombotic complications in these patients. A case of a young patient diagnosed post partum with the very rare liver involvement is presented. The complex clinical course, the multidisciplinary management and the long-term outcome are discussed. PMID:24714267

  11. Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome with Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Mahniya F.; Tiwana, Muhammad H.; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare vascular congenital anomaly affecting less than 200,000 people in the United States. Vascular malformations associated with KTS tend to affect slow flow systems: venous, capillary, and lymphatic systems. The nature of the syndrome leads to a higher risk for the development of arteriovenous malformations. Our case presentation describes a patient with KTS and an associated rare presentation of intraventricular arteriovenous malformation (AVM). PMID:24653849

  12. Diagnostic Distribution of eating disorders: Comparison between DSMIV- TR and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Troncoso, Eduardo; Cañas, Laura; Carbonell, Xavier; Carulla, Marta; Palma, Carolina; Matalí, Josep; Dolz, Montse

    2017-01-01

    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a significant revision of Eating Disorders (ED). The objective of this study is to compare the distribution of diagnosis of ED in adolescents according to DSM-VI-TR and DSM-5 criteria. A second objective is to study the psychopathological differences between patients with ED (based on DSM-IV-TR) and those whose diagnosis changed by applying DSM-5 criteria. One hundred and one adolescents diagnosed with ED (mean: 14.68 years; SD: 1.46) were evaluated with clinical interviews and scales for eating psychopathology, perfectionism, anxiety, and depression. Applying the DSM-5 criteria led to a significant decrease in the diagnosed cases of Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) (from 34.7% to 23.8%; p<0.001) and to a significant increase in those of anorexia nervosa (AN) (from 58.4% to 66.3%; p<0.001) and of bulimia nervosa (BN) (from 6.9% to 8.9%; p<0.001). No significant psychopathological differences were found between patients diagnosed with AN and BN based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and those newly diagnosed with AN and BN based on DSM-5 criteria. Using DSM-5 criteria for adolescents with ED leads to a significant decrease in the frequency of an EDNOS diagnosis. As similar psychopathological characteristics were observed between ED patients diagnosed based on DSM-IV-TR and those who were switched from EDNOS to AN or BN based on DSM-5, we conclude that the new criteria for ED in DSM-5 are valid for an adolescent population.

  13. Tr1-Like T Cells – An Enigmatic Regulatory T Cell Lineage

    PubMed Central

    White, Anna Malgorzata; Wraith, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The immune system evolved to respond to foreign invaders and prevent autoimmunity to self-antigens. Several types of regulatory T cells facilitate the latter process. These include a subset of Foxp3− CD4+ T cells able to secrete IL-10 in an antigen-specific manner, type 1 regulatory (Tr1) T cells. Although their suppressive function has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo, their phenotype remains poorly defined. It has been suggested that the surface markers LAG-3 and CD49b are biomarkers for murine and human Tr1 cells. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of our data regarding the expression pattern of inhibitory receptors (IRs) CD49b, TIM-3, PD-1, TIGIT, LAG-3, and ICOS on Tr1-like human T cells generated in vitro from CD4+ memory T cells stimulated with αCD3 and αCD28 antibodies. We found that there were no differences in IR expression between IL-10+ and IL-10− T cells. However, CD4+IL-10+ T cells isolated ex vivo, following a short stimulation and cytokine secretion assay, contained significantly higher proportions of TIM-3+ and PD-1+ cells. They also expressed significantly higher TIGIT mRNA and showed a trend toward increased TIM-3 mRNA levels. These data led us to conclude that large pools of IRs may be stored intracellularly; hence, they may not represent ideal candidates as cell surface biomarkers for Tr1-like T cells. PMID:27683580

  14. TrExML: a maximum-likelihood approach for extensive tree-space exploration.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Easteal, S; Kahn, M; McKay, B D; Jermiin, L S

    2000-04-01

    Maximum-likelihood analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences is a powerful approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships and for comparing evolutionary hypotheses. Because it is a computationally demanding and time-consuming process, most algorithms explore only a minute portion of tree-space, with the emphasis on finding the most likely tree while ignoring the less likely, but not significantly worse, trees. However, when such trees exist, it is equally important to identify them to give due consideration to the phylogenetic uncertainty. Consequently, it is necessary to change the focus of these algorithms such that near optimal trees are also identified. This paper presents the Advanced Stepwise Addition Algorithm for exploring tree-space and two algorithms for generating all binary trees on a set of sequences. The Advanced Stepwise Addition Algorithm has been implemented in TrExML, a phylogenetic program for maximum-likelihood analysis of nucleotide sequences. TrExML is shown to be more effective at finding near optimal trees than a similar program, fastDNAml, implying that TrExML offers a better approach to account for phylogenetic uncertainty than has previously been possible. A program, TreeGen, is also described; it generates binary trees on a set of sequences allowing for extensive exploration of tree-space using other programs. TreeGen, TrExML, and the sequence data used to test the programs are available from the following two WWW sites: http://whitetail.bemidji.msus. edu/trexml/and http://jcsmr.anu.edu.au/dmm/humgen.+ ++html.

  15. USP7 counteracts SCFbetaTrCP- but not APCCdh1-mediated proteolysis of Claspin.

    PubMed

    Faustrup, Helene; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Bartek, Jiri; Lukas, Jiri; Mailand, Niels

    2009-01-12

    Claspin is an adaptor protein that facilitates the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Chk1, a key effector kinase in the DNA damage response. Efficient termination of Chk1 signaling in mitosis and during checkpoint recovery requires SCF(betaTrCP)-dependent destruction of Claspin. Here, we identify the deubiquitylating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) as a novel regulator of Claspin stability. Claspin and USP7 interact in vivo, and USP7 is required to maintain steady-state levels of Claspin. Furthermore, USP7-mediated deubiquitylation markedly prolongs the half-life of Claspin, which in turn increases the magnitude and duration of Chk1 phosphorylation in response to genotoxic stress. Finally, we find that in addition to the M phase-specific, SCF(betaTrCP)-mediated degradation, Claspin is destabilized by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and thus remains unstable in G1. Importantly, we demonstrate that USP7 specifically opposes the SCF(betaTrCP)- but not APC(Cdh1)-mediated degradation of Claspin. Thus, Claspin turnover is controlled by multiple ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation activities, which together provide a flexible means to regulate the ATR-Chk1 pathway.

  16. T/R switch design for short-range measurements, part 6.1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, B.

    1984-01-01

    The positive intrinsic negative (PIN) diode switch which is designed to protect the receiver from burnout or damage on transmission and channel the echo signal to the receiver on reception is outlined. The receiver must be protected firmly. A schematic diagram of a transformer rectifier (TR-ATR) switch for the Urbana Radar is shown. The T/R switch consists of a half wavelength coaxial cavity with tuning condenser and PIN diodes. Two UM4300 PIN diodes were mounted between the inner and outer conductor. The dc biasing voltage required for the PIN diodes is supplied by a control circuit. On transmission, the PIN diodes are forward biased to about 0.5 amperes. On reception, about 10 volts reverse voltage is applied to the diodes, which produces an initial reverse current to speed the recovery time. The T/R switch characteristics are estimated and the result of testing at different peak transmitter powers from 410 kW to 1500 kW is shown.

  17. Composites PVDF-TrFE/BT used as bioactive membranes for enhancing bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenes, Rossano; Zaghete, Maria A.; Bertolini, Marcio; Varela, Jose A.; Coelho, Luciane O.; Silva, Nelson F., Jr.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a piezoelectric composite membranes were developed for charge generator to promoter bone regeneration on defects sites. Is known that the osteogenesis process is induced by interactions between biological mechanisms and electrical phenomena. The membranes were prepared by mixing Barium Titanate (BT) powders and PVDF-TrFE (PVDF:TrFE = 60:40 mol%) on dimethylformamide medium. This precursor solution was dried and crystallized at 100oC for 12 hours. Composites membranes were obtained by following methods: solvent casting (SC), spincoating (SP), solvent extraction by water addition (WS) and hot pressing (HP). The microstructural analysis performed by SEM showed connectivity type 3-0 and 3-1 with high homogeneity for samples of ceramic volume fraction major than 0.50. Powder agglomerates within the polymer matrix was evidenced were observed for composites with the BT volume fraction major than 40%. The composite of ceramic fraction of 0.55 presented the best values of remanent polarization (~33mC/cm2), but the flexibility of these composites with the larger ceramic fraction was significantly affected. For in vivo evaluation PVDF-TrFE/BT 90/10 membranes with 3cm larger were longitudinally implanted under tibiae of male rabbit. After 21 days the animals were sacrificed. By histological analyses were observed neo formed bone with a high mitotic activity. In the interface bone-membrane was evidenced a pronounced callus formation. These results encourage further applications of these membranes in bone-repair process.

  18. Detection of orbital parameter changes in the TrES-2 exoplanet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mislis, D.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2009-06-01

    We report a possible change in the orbit parameters of the TrES-2 exoplanet. With a period of 2.470621 days, the TrES-2 exoplanet exhibits almost “grazing” transits 110.4 min duration as measured in 2006 by Holman and collaborators. We observed two transits of TrES-2 in 2008 using the 1.2 m Oskar-Lühning telescope (OLT) of Hamburg observatory employing CCD photometry in an i-band and a near to R-band filter. A careful lightcurve analysis including a re-analysis of the 2006 observations shows that the current transit duration has shortened since 2006 by ≈3.16 min. Although the new observations were taken in a different filter we argue that the observed change in transit duration time cannot be attributed to the treatment of limb darkening. If we assume the stellar and planetary radii to be constant, a change in orbit inclination is the most likely cause of this change in transit duration. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/500/L45

  19. Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome: treatment of lower extremity pain with a spinal cord stimulator.

    PubMed

    Franz, Randall W; Prok, Aleksey

    2009-01-01

    A young adult man with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome presented to our pain management service with complaints of severe lower extremity neuropathic pain (pain scale 8 of 10 on the left and 4 of 10 on the right). The pain in his left leg was so severe that he wanted to undergo a left lower extremity amputation. The patient declined chronic use of narcotic medications for pain relief, believing that this would interfere with his educational and lifestyle pursuits. After a complete evaluation for possible sources of pain, we performed a trial placement of a spinal cord stimulator at the T9 level, which relieved his pain. We then placed a stimulator at the T10 level. At 1 year postimplantation, he was pain free (pain scale 1 of 10 bilaterally) and was able to function normally without narcotic support. We believe this to be the first use of a spinal cord stimulator for lower extremity pain resulting from Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome. We also discuss the clinical evaluation and treatment of a Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome patient with chronic pain.

  20. Human telomerase acts as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nilesh K; Reyes, Aurelio; Green, Paula; Caron, Matthieu J; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gordon, Donna M; Holt, Ian J; Santos, Janine Hertzog

    2012-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is localized to mitochondria, as well as the nucleus, but details about its biology and function in the organelle remain largely unknown. Here we show, using multiple approaches, that mammalian TERT is mitochondrial, co-purifying with mitochondrial nucleoids and tRNAs. We demonstrate the canonical nuclear RNA [human telomerase RNA (hTR)] is not present in human mitochondria and not required for the mitochondrial effects of telomerase, which nevertheless rely on reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Using RNA immunoprecipitations from whole cell and in organello, we show that hTERT binds various mitochondrial RNAs, suggesting that RT activity in the organelle is reconstituted with mitochondrial RNAs. In support of this conclusion, TERT drives first strand cDNA synthesis in vitro in the absence of hTR. Finally, we demonstrate that absence of hTERT specifically in mitochondria with maintenance of its nuclear function negatively impacts the organelle. Our data indicate that mitochondrial hTERT works as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase, and highlight that nuclear and mitochondrial telomerases have different cellular functions. The implications of these findings to both the mitochondrial and telomerase fields are discussed.

  1. TR-MUSIC inversion of the density and compressibility contrasts of point scatterers.

    PubMed

    Labyed, Yassin; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-01-01

    Time-reversal imaging with multiple signal classification (TR-MUSIC) is a super-resolution ultrasound imaging method for detecting point scatterers. This algorithm assumes that there is no contrast between the density of the point targets and that of the background medium, and that ultrasound scattering is caused only by the compressibility contrast. We modify the TR-MUSIC algorithm to account for ultrasound scattering from point targets with both density and compressibility contrasts. In addition, we develop an inversion method for estimating the density and compressibility contrasts of point scatterers with known locations. This approach is an extension of the inversion method previously developed by Devaney et al. for estimating the scattering strengths of point targets that have no density contrasts relative to the background medium. We use numerical phantom data to demonstrate that our new TR-MUSIC inversion algorithm can reliably estimate the density and compressibility contrasts of point scatterers. The estimates of these properties could be used for distinguishing breast calcifications from other tissue scatterers.

  2. Human telomerase acts as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nilesh K.; Reyes, Aurelio; Green, Paula; Caron, Matthieu J.; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Gordon, Donna M.; Holt, Ian J.; Santos, Janine Hertzog

    2012-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is localized to mitochondria, as well as the nucleus, but details about its biology and function in the organelle remain largely unknown. Here we show, using multiple approaches, that mammalian TERT is mitochondrial, co-purifying with mitochondrial nucleoids and tRNAs. We demonstrate the canonical nuclear RNA [human telomerase RNA (hTR)] is not present in human mitochondria and not required for the mitochondrial effects of telomerase, which nevertheless rely on reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Using RNA immunoprecipitations from whole cell and in organello, we show that hTERT binds various mitochondrial RNAs, suggesting that RT activity in the organelle is reconstituted with mitochondrial RNAs. In support of this conclusion, TERT drives first strand cDNA synthesis in vitro in the absence of hTR. Finally, we demonstrate that absence of hTERT specifically in mitochondria with maintenance of its nuclear function negatively impacts the organelle. Our data indicate that mitochondrial hTERT works as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase, and highlight that nuclear and mitochondrial telomerases have different cellular functions. The implications of these findings to both the mitochondrial and telomerase fields are discussed. PMID:21937513

  3. Terahertz beats of vibrational modes in methanol and ethanol selectively excited by tr-CARS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Wang, HuiLi; Fan, RongWei; Chen, DeYing; Xia, YuanQin; Yu, Xin; Wang, JiaLing; Jiang, YuGang

    2012-12-01

    A recently developed time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (tr-CARS) technique allows the measurement of vibrational coherences with high frequency differences with the ambient environment. The method is based on the short spatial extension of femtosecond pulses with a broadband tunable nonlinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) and an internal time delay between the probe and pump/Stokes pulse pair in the CARS process. The different beat frequencies between Raman modes can be selectively detected as oscillations in the tr-CARS transient signal with the broadband tunable NOPA. In this work, we aim at the Raman C—H stretching vibrations from 2800 cm-1 to 3000 cm-1, within which the different vibrational modes in both ethanol and methanol are selectively excited and simultaneously detected. The high time resolution of the experimental set-up allows one to monitor the vibrational coherence dynamics and to observe the quantum beat phenomena on a terahertz scale. This investigation indicates that the femtosecond tr-CARS technique is a powerful tool for the real-time monitoring and detection of molecular and biological agents, including airborne contaminants such as bacterial spores, viruses and their toxins.

  4. Fabrication of piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) microcantilevers by wafer-level surface micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sharon Roslyn; Yao, Kui; Eng Hock Tay, Francis

    2013-09-01

    A wafer-level microfabrication process using standard cleanroom facilities was established and implemented to batch produce free-standing poly(vinylidine fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems cantilevers via surface micromachining. Furthermore, the fabrication of a prototype of double-level cantilevers was demonstrated. The fabrication of working piezoelectric polymer cantilever structures required the deposition and patterning of multiple polymer and metal layers including the pattering and removal of the sacrificial layer, which posed many challenging limitations on the chemicals and processing conditions. Dedicatedly selected chemicals and materials were used in our fabrication, including water soluble PVA with an appropriate molecular weight and degree of hydrolysis as the sacrificial layer for releasing the cantilever structure. The temperature in the whole process was kept low with controlled durations, due to the sensitivity of the polymers to thermal impacts. The P(VDF-TrFE) active layers, after going through the fabrication, exhibited ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties comparable to the intact films. Furthermore, the free-standing P(VDF-TrFE) cantilevers exhibited piezoelectric vibrations under electrical excitation. This low temperature fabrication method, which only involves mild chemicals, also has the potential to be integrated with CMOS processes.

  5. Fluxes across a thermohaline interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, M.; Lueck, R. G.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of velocity and temperature microstructure and hydrography were made with a towed vehicle moving in and around a single interface in a double-diffusive staircase. The interface was traversed 222 times in a saw-tooth pattern over a track 35 km long. The salinity and potential temperature and density in the mixed layers adjacent to the interface were spatially uniform except for one 8 km long anomaly. The rate of dissipation of kinetic energy was uniformly low in the interface and in the mixed layers, except for one section 600 m long where a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generated turbulence. For the non-turbulent section of the interface, the mean rate of dissipation was 30.2 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the mixed layers and 9.5 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the interface. The non-dimensional dissipation rate, ɛ/vN 2, was almost always less than 16 in the interface and therfore, there was no turblent buoyancy flux according to ROHRet al. (1988, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 195, 77-111). The average double-diffusive flux of buoyancy by heat was 3.6 × 10 -10 W kg -1. Under certain assumptions the ratio of the flux of buoyancy by heat and salt can be estimated to be 0.53 ± 0.10, in good agreement with laboratory and theoretical estimates for salt fingers. The average Cox number was about 8 in the interface, consistent with the theories of STERN (1975, Ocean circulation physics, Academic Press) and KUNZE (1987, Journal of Marine Research, 45 533-556), but displayed an inverse dependence on the vertical temperature gradient which was not predicted. As a result, the flux of buoyancy, as well as the individual contributions by heat and salt, were independent of the local mean vertical temperature gradient and the buoyancy frequency. The length of the turbulent section of the interface was only 1.7% of the total length observed. However, the turbulence was intense—the mean rate of dissipation was 2.5 × 10 -8 W kg -1—and may have sufficiently enhanced the flux of heat to

  6. Involvement of TR3/Nur77 translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum in ER stress-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Bin; Song Xuhong; Liu Gefei; Li Rui; Xie Jianping; Xiao Lifeng; Du Mudan; Zhang Qiaoxia; Xu Xiaoyuan; Gan Xueqiong; Huang Dongyang . E-mail: huangdy@stu.edu.cn

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear orphan receptor TR3/Nur77/NGFI-B is a novel apoptotic effector protein that initiates apoptosis largely by translocating from the nucleus to the mitochondria, causing the release of cytochrome c. However, it is possible that TR3 translocates to other organelles. The present study was designed to determine the intracellular localization of TR3 following CD437-induced nucleocytoplasmic translocation and the mechanisms involved in TR3-induced apoptosis. In human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 and EC9706 cells, 5 {mu}M CD437 induced translocation of TR3 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This distribution was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis, subcellular fractionation analysis and coimmunoprecipitation analysis. The translocated TR3 interacted with ER-targeting Bcl-2; initiated an early release of Ca{sup 2+} from ER; resulted in ER stress and induced apoptosis through ER-specific caspase-4 activation, together with induction of mitochondrial stress and subsequent activation of caspase-9. Our results identified a novel distribution of TR3 in the ER and defined two parallel mitochondrial- and ER-based pathways that ultimately result in apoptotic cell death.

  7. Modulation of SCF beta-TrCP-dependent I kappaB alpha ubiquitination by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sami; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W; Lorne, Emmanuel; Liu, Gang; Sha, Yonggang; Abraham, Edward

    2010-01-22

    Reactive oxygen species are known to participate in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, including activation of NF-kappaB. Recent studies have indicated that increases in intracellular concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) have anti-inflammatory effects in neutrophils, including inhibition of the degradation of I kappaB alpha after TLR4 engagement. In the present experiments, we found that culture of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils and HEK 293 cells with H(2)O(2) resulted in diminished ubiquitination of I kappaB alpha and decreased SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase activity. Exposure of neutrophils or HEK 293 cells to H(2)O(2) was associated with reduced binding between phosphorylated I kappaB alpha and SCF(beta-TrCP) but no change in the composition of the SCF(beta-TrCP) complex. Lipopolysaccharide-induced SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase activity as well as binding of beta-TrCP to phosphorylated I kappaB alpha was decreased in the lungs of acatalasemic mice and mice treated with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole, situations in which intracellular concentrations of H(2)O(2) are increased. Exposure to H(2)O(2) resulted in oxidative modification of cysteine residues in beta-TrCP. Cysteine 308 in Blade 1 of the beta-TrCP beta-propeller region was found to be required for maximal binding between beta-TrCP and phosphorylated I kappaB alpha. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of H(2)O(2) may result from its ability to decrease ubiquitination as well as subsequent degradation of I kappaB alpha through inhibiting the association between I kappaB alpha and SCF(beta-TrCP).

  8. Flavor mixings in flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero modes in flux compactifications. The flavor structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero modes. We consider a supersymmetric S O (10 )×U (1 ) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16 -plet charged under the U (1 ) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16 - and 10 -plets. The corresponding zero modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavor phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavor mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  9. Realism and quantum flux tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballentine, L. E.

    1987-10-01

    The suggestion of Leggett and Garg (1985) that the phenomenon of quantum flux tunneling oscillations contradicts the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) in the assumptions of both macroscopic realism and noninvasive measurability is reexamined. It is shown that the contradiction of QM is produced solely by the assumption of noninvasive measurability, and that no contradiction between QM and realism can be demonstrated in this case. These findings are illustrated by the calculation of the distribution function for successive flux measurements. It is noted that the previously suggested analogy between the Bell-type inequalities and the inequalities of Leggett and Garg is misleading because the physical principles of the Bell-type inequalities are not applicable to the presently considered SQUID.

  10. Data Model and Relational Database Design for the New Jersey Water-Transfer Data System (NJWaTr)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    between two site objects, and the sites and conveyances form a water network . The core entities in the NJWaTr model are site, conveyance, transfer...for routine or custom data summarization. NJWaTr accommodates single-user and aggregate-user water-use data, can be used for large or small water ... network projects, and is available as a stand-alone Microsoft Access database. Data stored in the NJWaTr structure can be retrieved in user-defined

  11. Improved Flux-Gate Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Simplified circuit drives heading indicator and senses magnetic field of Earth. Simple flux-gate magnetometer supplies digital readout of magnetic heading of vehicle, developed to drive heading indicator, or supply heading information to autopilot or to other navigational instruments. Important feature is core driven into saturation in one direction only by alternating drive voltage, which swings from zero to one polarity and back. Made in part of commercially available integrated circuits.

  12. SQUID With Integral Flux Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    In improved superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), change in size and shape of superconducting ring improves coupling to external signal coil and eases coil-positioning tolerances. More rugged and easier to manufacture than conventional SQUID's with comparable electrical characteristics. Thin-film superconducting flux concentrator utilizes Meissner effect to deflect magnetic field of signal coil into central hole of SQUID. Used in magnetometers, ammeters, analog-to-digital converters, and related electronic applications in which high signal-to-noise ratios required.

  13. Recent Solar-Proton Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    The event-integrated fluences of energetic solar protons up to 2004 at the Earth have been determined and compared to previous data. The current solar cycle has been very active, and very large fluxes of solar protons have been observed that have had serious effects in the solar system and will have produced many radionuclides in the surfaces of meteorites. Such huge events are not expected again until about 2008 or 2009.

  14. SQUID With Integral Flux Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    In improved superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), change in size and shape of superconducting ring improves coupling to external signal coil and eases coil-positioning tolerances. More rugged and easier to manufacture than conventional SQUID's with comparable electrical characteristics. Thin-film superconducting flux concentrator utilizes Meissner effect to deflect magnetic field of signal coil into central hole of SQUID. Used in magnetometers, ammeters, analog-to-digital converters, and related electronic applications in which high signal-to-noise ratios required.

  15. Structural Control of Metabolic Flux

    PubMed Central

    Sajitz-Hermstein, Max; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have to continuously adapt to changing environmental conditions or undergo developmental transitions. To meet the accompanying change in metabolic demands, the molecular mechanisms of adaptation involve concerted interactions which ultimately induce a modification of the metabolic state, which is characterized by reaction fluxes and metabolite concentrations. These state transitions are the effect of simultaneously manipulating fluxes through several reactions. While metabolic control analysis has provided a powerful framework for elucidating the principles governing this orchestrated action to understand metabolic control, its applications are restricted by the limited availability of kinetic information. Here, we introduce structural metabolic control as a framework to examine individual reactions' potential to control metabolic functions, such as biomass production, based on structural modeling. The capability to carry out a metabolic function is determined using flux balance analysis (FBA). We examine structural metabolic control on the example of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli by the recently introduced framework of functional centrality (FC). This framework is based on the Shapley value from cooperative game theory and FBA, and we demonstrate its superior ability to assign “share of control” to individual reactions with respect to metabolic functions and environmental conditions. A comparative analysis of various scenarios illustrates the usefulness of FC and its relations to other structural approaches pertaining to metabolic control. We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate FCs for large networks, based on the enumeration of elementary flux modes. We further give detailed biological interpretation of FCs for production of lactate and ATP under various respiratory conditions. PMID:24367246

  16. Sediment flux and the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Syvitski, James P M; Kettner, Albert

    2011-03-13

    Data and computer simulations are reviewed to help better define the timing and magnitude of human influence on sediment flux--the Anthropocene epoch. Impacts on the Earth surface processes are not spatially or temporally homogeneous. Human influences on this sediment flux have a secondary effect on floodplain and delta-plain functions and sediment dispersal into the coastal ocean. Human impact on sediment production began 3000 years ago but accelerated more widely 1000 years ago. By the sixteenth century, societies were already engineering their environment. Early twentieth century mechanization has led to global signals of increased sediment flux in most large rivers. By the 1950s, this sediment disturbance signal reversed for many rivers owing to the proliferation of dams, and sediment load reduction below pristine conditions is the dominant signal today. A delta subsidence signal began in the 1930s and is now a dominant signal in terms of sea level for many coastal environments, overwhelming even the global warming imprint on sea level. Humans have engineered how most water and sediment are discharged into the coastal ocean. Hyperpycnal flow events have become more common for some rivers, and less common for other rivers. Bottom trawling is now widespread, suggesting that even continental shelves have received a significant but as yet quantified Anthropocene impact. The Anthropocene attains the level of a geological climate event, such as that seen in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene.

  17. Plant Canopy Temperature and Heat Flux Profiles: What Difference Does an Isothermal Skin Make?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, R. D.; Qualls, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature Ts plays a vital role in the determination of sensible (H) and latent heat flux, upwelling long-wave radiation, and ground heat flux. While it is widely recognized that there is a range of skin temperatures represented in even a homogeneous canopy, it is often necessary or convenient to treat the surface as isothermal. This study investigates, at the sub-canopy scale, the implications of assuming that a canopy is isothermal. The focus is on profiles within the canopy of air, foliage, and soil surface temperature, and of sensible and latent heat flux source strength. Data from a dense grassland at the Southern Great Plains experiment in 1997 (SGP97) were used to assess the ability of a multi-layer canopy model to match measured sensible and latent heat fluxes along with radiometric surface temperatures. In its standard mode, the model solves the energy balance for each canopy layer and uses Localized Near Field (LNF) theory to model the turbulent transport. The results suggest the model captures the most important features of canopy flux generation and transport, and support its use to investigate scalar profiles within canopies. For 112 data points at SGP97, the model produced realistic temperature and sensible heat flux source profiles. In addition, it was run in a mode that seeks the isothermal (soil and foliage) skin temperature (Ti) that provides the same Hproduced by the model in its standard mode. This produces profiles of air and foliage temperature and of sensible heat source strength that differ significantly from profiles from the standard mode. Based on these simulations, realistic canopies may have a mixture of positive and negative sensible heat flux sources at various heights, typically with large contributions from the soil surface. There is frequently a discontinuity between foliage temperatures near the soil and the actual soil surface temperature. For isothermal canopies, heat sources at all levels had the same sign and

  18. Energetic particle characteristics of magnetotail flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    During the recent ISEE-3 Geotail Mission three events have been identified from the magnetometer data which are consistent with a spacecraft crossing of a magnetotail flux rope. Energetic electron and proton observations obtained by the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland sensor system during two of the possible flux rope events are presented. During one event remote sensing of the flux rope with energetic protons reveals that the flux rope is crossed by the spacecraft from south to north. This allows determination of the bandedness of the magnetic field twist and of the flux rope velocity relative to the spacecraft. A minimal flux rope radius of 3 earth radii is derived. Energetic proton intensity is highest just inside of the flux rope and decreases towards the core. Energetic electrons are streaming tailward near the outer boundary, indicating openness of the field lines, and are isotropic through the inner part of the flux rope.

  19. Turbulent crossed fluxes in incompressible flows

    PubMed

    Sancho

    2000-02-01

    We show in the framework of the stochastic calculus the existence of turbulent crossed fluxes in incompressible flows. Physically, these fluxes are related to the dependence of the phenomenological coefficients on the temperature and concentration variables.

  20. First Detection of TR46/Y121F/T289A and TR34/L98H Alterations in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Azole-Naive Patients in Denmark despite Negative Findings in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Astvad, K. M. T.; Jensen, R. H.; Hassan, T. M.; Mathiasen, E. G.; Thomsen, G. M.; Pedersen, U. G.; Christensen, M.; Hilberg, O.

    2014-01-01

    Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus harboring the TR34/L98H or TR46/Y121F/T289A alterations is increasingly found in Europe and Asia. Here, we present the first clinical cases of TR46/Y121/T289A and three cases of TR34/L98H outside the cystic fibrosis (CF) population in Denmark and the results of environmental surveys. Four patients (2012 to 2014) with 11 A. fumigatus and 4 Rhizomucor pusillus isolates and 239 soil samples (spring 2010 and autumn 2013, respectively) with a total of 113 A. fumigatus isolates were examined. Aspergillus isolates were screened for azole resistance using azole-containing agar. Confirmatory susceptibility testing was done using the EUCAST microbroth dilution EDEF 9.1 reference method. For relevant A. fumigatus isolates, CYP51A sequencing and microsatellite genotyping were performed. Three patients harbored TR34/L98H isolates. Two were azole naive at the time of acquisition and two were coinfected with wild-type A. fumigatus or R. pusillus isolates, complicating and delaying diagnosis. The TR46/Y121F/T289A strain was isolated in 2014 from a lung transplant patient. Genotyping indicated that susceptible and resistant Aspergillus isolates were unrelated and that no transmission between patients occurred. Azole resistance was not detected in any of the 113 soil isolates. TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alterations appear to be emerging in the clinical setting in Denmark and now involve azole-naive patients. Two recent soil-sampling surveys in Denmark were unable to indicate any increased prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus in the environment. These findings further support the demand for real-time susceptibility testing of all clinically relevant isolates and for studies investigating the seasonal variation and ecological niches for azole-resistant environmental A. fumigatus. PMID:24936595

  1. High-flux solar photon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorents, Donald C.; Narang, Subhash; Huestis, David C.; Mooney, Jack L.; Mill, Theodore; Song, Her-King; Ventura, Susanna

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage.

  2. Force sensor using changes in magnetic flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor); Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A force sensor includes a magnetostrictive material and a magnetic field generator positioned in proximity thereto. A magnetic field is induced in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material such that lines of magnetic flux pass through the magnetostrictive material. A sensor positioned in the vicinity of the magnetostrictive material measures changes in one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux.

  3. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lorents, D.C.; Narang, S.; Huestis, D.C.; Mooney, J.L.; Mill, T.; Song, H.K.; Ventura, S.

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  4. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  5. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lorents, D C; Narang, S; Huestis, D C; Mooney, J L; Mill, T; Song, H K; Ventura, S

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  6. Identification of a new RNA.RNA interaction site for human telomerase RNA (hTR): structural implications for hTR accumulation and a dyskeratosis congenita point mutation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaojun; Gavory, Gérald; Li, Haitao; Ying, Liming; Klenerman, David; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2003-11-15

    The enzyme telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that has a critical role in the maintenance of stable telomeres in organisms that possess linear chromosomes. Using a recently developed single molecule fluorescence coincidence method, we have studied the RNA component of telomerase (hTR) and directly observed multimerisation of hTR in solution. RNA mutagenesis and blocking oligonucleotides were employed to identify the single-stranded internal loop J7b/8a as an important and specific hTR.hTR interaction site. This observation was confirmed by studies on a model RNA fragment (hTR(380-444)), comprising part of the H/ACA domain, the internal loop J7b/8a and the CR7 domain, that was found to dimerise. Substitution mutagenesis within the proposed RNA.RNA interaction site of hTR(380-444) resulted in a loss of dimerisation potential and insertion of the dyskeratosis congenita mutation C408G led to a significant reduction in dimer formation. Together, these results suggest that this RNA.RNA interaction site may be functionally relevant.

  7. Single-Chip T/R Module for 1.2 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Johnson, Travis; Davis, John; Grigorian, Edwin; Hoffman, James; Caro, Edward; Kuhn, William

    2006-01-01

    A single-chip CMOS-based (complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductorbased) transmit/receive (T/R) module is being developed for L-band radar systems. Previous T/R module implementations required multiple chips employing different technologies (GaAs, Si, and others) combined with off-chip transmission lines and discrete components including circulators. The new design eliminates the bulky circulator, significantly reducing the size and mass of the T/R module. Compared to multi-chip designs, the single-chip CMOS can be implemented with lower cost. These innovations enable cost-effective realization of advanced phased array and synthetic aperture radar systems that require integration of thousands of T/R modules. The circulator is a ferromagnetic device that directs the flow of the RF (radio frequency) power during transmission and reception. During transmission, the circulator delivers the transmitted power from the amplifier to the antenna, while preventing it from damaging the sensitive receiver circuitry. During reception, the circulator directs the energy from the antenna to the low-noise amplifier (LNA) while isolating the output of the power amplifier (PA). In principle, a circulator could be replaced by series transistors acting as electronic switches. However, in practice, the integration of conventional series transistors into a T/R chip introduces significant losses and noise. The prototype single-chip T/R module contains integrated transistor switches, but not connected in series; instead, they are connected in a shunt configuration with resonant circuits (see figure). The shunt/resonant circuit topology not only reduces the losses associated with conventional semiconductor switches but also provides beneficial transformation of impedances for the PA and the LNA. It provides full singlepole/ double-throw switching for the antenna, isolating the LNA from the transmitted signal and isolating the PA from the received signal. During reception, the voltage on

  8. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  9. Apparatus for measuring a flux of neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    A flux of neutrons is measured by disposing a detector in the flux and applying electronic correlation techniques to discriminate between the electrical signals generated by the neutron detector and the unwanted interfering electrical signals generated by the incidence of a neutron flux upon the cables connecting the detector to the electronic measuring equipment at a remote location.

  10. What are Up, Down and Net Fluxes?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... is of particular interest. Hence the term "Up" and "Down" for characterizing the direction of flow of radiative fluxes at a ... level. Moreover, by counting in or out these "Up" and "Down" energy fluxes, one can define a "Net" flux that is ultimately ...

  11. A Spitzer five-band analysis of the Jupiter-sized planet TrES-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-12-10

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 μm (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 μm (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 μm (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 μm (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 μm (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1σ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e=0.033{sub −0.031}{sup +0.015}, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ∼10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  12. Preferred deposition of phospholipids onto ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) films via polarization patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, A.; Machado, M.; Bdikin, I. K.; Gracio, J.; Yudin, S.; Fridkin, V. M.; Delgadillo, I.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2010-08-01

    Ferroelectric polarization can be used to assemble various organic and inorganic species and to create nanostructures with controlled properties. In this work, we used poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE), ultrathin films deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique as templates for the assembly of various phospholipids, which are the essential components of cell membranes. It was observed that 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine phospholipids (DHPC) form self-assembled structures (molecular domains) on bare P(VDF-TrFE) surfaces. These were revealed by the formation of homogeneous and stable rounded blobs with diameters in the range 0.5-3 µm. Further, ferroelectric polymer films were polarized by the application of various voltages via a conducting tip using a piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) setup and PFM images were obtained showing controlled polarization distribution. After this, the phospholipid molecules were deposited from the solution. Conventional atomic force microscopy experiments were then performed to assess the selectivity of the deposition process. It was observed that the deposition process is very sensitive to the concentration of the solution. The selective deposition was observed mainly at the polarization boundaries where the selectivity reached a maximum value of about 20-40%. In this way, the controlled assembly of organic molecules on the polymer surfaces could be achieved. In addition, the PFM tips could be functionalized by the phospholipids and switchable lines of the DHPC molecules on the P(VDF-TrFE) surface were then visualized by PFM.

  13. ON THE APPARENT ORBITAL INCLINATION CHANGE OF THE EXTRASOLAR TRANSITING PLANET TrES-2b

    SciTech Connect

    Scuderi, Louis J.; Dittmann, Jason A.; Males, Jared R.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Close, Laird M.

    2010-05-01

    On 2009 June 15 UT the transit of TrES-2b was detected using the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper Telescope with 2.0-2.5 millimag rms accuracy in the I band. We find a central transit time of T{sub c} = 2454997.76286 {+-} 0.00035 HJD, an orbital period of P = 2.4706127 {+-} 0.0000009 days, and an inclination angle of i = 83.{sup 0}92 {+-} 0{sup 0}.05, which is consistent with our re-fit of the original I-band light curve of O'Donovan et al. where we find i = 83.{sup 0}84 {+-} 0{sup 0}.05. We calculate an insignificant inclination change of {Delta}i = -0.{sup 0}08 {+-} 0{sup 0}.07 over the last three years, and as such, our observations rule out, at the {approx}11{sigma} level, the apparent change of orbital inclination to i{sub predicted} = 83.{sup 0}35 {+-} 0{sup 0}.1 as predicted by Mislis and Schmitt and Mislis et al. for our epoch. Moreover, our analysis of a recently published Kepler Space Telescope light curve for TrES-2b finds an inclination of i = 83.{sup 0}91 {+-} 0.{sup 0}03 for a similar epoch. These Kepler results definitively rule out change in i as a function of time. Indeed, we detect no significant changes in any of the orbital parameters of TrES-2b.

  14. El espectro de KX TrA entre 1990 y 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L.; Ferrer, O.; Barbá, R.

    La estrella simbiótica KX TrA = He2-177 fue observada espectroscópicamente con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO entre los años 1990 y 1996, utilizándose resoluciones intermedia y alta. El rango espectral estudiado se extiende desde 4400 Åa 7200 Å. La historia fotométrica de KX TrA presenta explosiones del mismo tipo que las mostradas por la nova lenta RR Tel y su espectro de alta excitación, muy rico en líneas de emisión, es también similar al de RR Tel. Por lo tanto, es importante analizar la evolución espectral de KX TrA en el tiempo, prestando especial atención a los posibles cambios en los niveles de excitación. Las emisiones presentes corresponden a transiciones permitidas y prohibidas con un amplio rango de ionización, incluyéndose las anchas e intensas líneas originadas por scattering Raman de O VI en λλ 6825 y 7082 Å. En el período cubierto por nuestras observaciones se estudia la variación de la intensidad relativa de las emisiones, el comportamiento de las velocidades radiales y los cambios de perfiles de las líneas, especialmente en Hα y Hβ. El contínuo de la región roja observada indica un tipo espectral no más tardío que M3 para la componente gigante fría del sistema.

  15. A Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Clinical severity was determined using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). A statistically significant decrease (19.3 %) was detected in the diagnostic ratio with DSM-5. Age and symptom severity differed significantly between those who were and were not diagnosed with PDD using DSM-5. B4 criteria in DSM-5 was most common criterion. Results indicate that individuals diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR criteria may not be diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria.

  16. Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.

  17. Nonvolatile transtance change random access memory based on magnetoelectric P(VDF-TrFE)/Metglas heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peipei; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Jianxin; Chai, Yisheng; Yang, Chuansen; Zhai, Kun; Cong, Junzhuang; Shen, Shipeng; Sun, Young

    2016-12-01

    Transtance change random access memory (TCRAM) is a type of nonvolatile memory based on the nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling effects of multiferroics. In this work, ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) thin films were prepared on Metglas foil substrates by the sol-gel technique to form multiferroic heterostructures. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of the heterostructure can be switched reproducibly to different levels between positive and negative values by applying selective electric-field pulses. Compared with bulk multiferroic heterostructures, the polarization switching voltage was reduced to 7 V. Our facile technological approach enables this organic magnetoelectric heterostructure as a promising candidate for the applications in multilevel TCRAM devices.

  18. Note: spatial resolution of Fuji BAS-TR and BAS-SR imaging plates.

    PubMed

    Fiksel, G; Marshall, F J; Mileham, C; Stoeckl, C

    2012-08-01

    The spatial resolution of two types of imaging plates, Fuji BAS-TR and Fuji BAS-SR, has been measured using a knife-edge x-ray source of 8-keV Cu K(α) radiation. The values for the spatial resolution, defined as the distance between 10% and 90% levels of the edge spread function, are 94 μm and 109 μm, respectively. The resolution values are important for quantitative analysis of x-ray and particle imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics.

  19. The puzzling properties of the magnetic O star Tr16-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Barbá, Rodolfo; Bagnulo, Stefano; Morrell, Nidia; Gamen, Roberto; Petit, Véronique; Neiner, Coralie

    2016-11-01

    Context. The detection of bright, hard, and variable X-ray emission in Tr16-22 prompted spectropolarimetric observations of this star, which in turn led to the discovery of a surface magnetic field. Aims: We want to further constrain the properties of this star, in particular to verify whether X-ray variations are correlated to changes in optical emission lines and magnetic field strength, as expected from the oblique rotator model that is widely accepted for magnetic O stars. Methods: We have obtained new low-resolution spectropolarimetric and long-term high-resolution spectroscopic monitoring of Tr16-22, and we also analyse new, serendipitous X-ray data. Results: The new X-ray observations are consistent with previous data, but their addition does not help to solve the ambiguity in the variation timescale because of numerous aliases. No obvious periodicity or any large variations are detected in the spectropolarimetric data of Tr16-22 obtained over three months. The derived field values appear to be in line with previous measurements, suggesting constancy of the field (though the possibility of small, short-term field variations cannot be excluded). Variations in the equivalent widths of Hα are very small, and they do not appear to be related to the X-ray timescale; the overall lack of large variations in optical emission lines is consistent with the magnetic field constancy. In addition, variations of the radial velocities indicate that Tr16-22 is probably a SB1 binary with a very long period. Conclusions: Our new measurements of optical emission lines and magnetic field strength do not show an obvious correlation with X-ray variations. Our current data thus cannot be interpreted in terms of the common model, which assumes the electromagnetic emission associated with a wind confined by a dipolar field tilted with respect to the rotation axis. However, the sampling is imperfect and new data are needed to further constrain the actual periodicity of the various

  20. Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.

  1. Ground-based Detection of the Secondary Eclipse of TrES-3b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mooij, E.; Snellen, I.

    2011-12-01

    Secondary eclipse measurements provide information on the thermal properties of exoplanet atmospheres. Here we summarise the results of ground-based K-band observations of the secondary eclipse of the planet TrES-3b (see de Mooij & Snellen 2009). The observations were made using the LIRIS instrument on the William Herschell Telescope. The secondary eclipse was detected at a level of -0.241±0.043% (˜6σ), corresponding to a brightness temperature of 2040±125 K.

  2. Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) evaluated with bone and labeled RBC scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Schächner, Elbio; Glaser, Joseph E; Freeman, Leonard M

    2013-03-01

    This is a case of a 4-year-old female child with gross left lower extremity deformity detected at birth, including a giant cutaneous hemangioma from flank to foot. She was found to have no other associated abnormalities and was diagnosed with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome. This is a rare entity and literature regarding use of radionuclide imaging techniques to evaluate this is scarce. We present here bone and red cell scans performed to evaluate whether there was osseous involvement or only soft tissue disease, which showed classic signs of this condition. Patient photographs also show the syndrome's typical appearance.

  3. Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome: Need for Careful Clinical Classification.

    PubMed

    Volz, Kevin R; Kanner, Christopher D; Evans, Julie; Evans, Kevin D

    2016-09-01

    Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by a triad of clinical presentations: (1) capillary malformations manifesting as a "port wine stain"; (2) limb hypertrophy; and (3) venous varicosities. It is distinguished from Parkes-Weber syndrome by the absence of substantial arteriovenous shunting. Due to the clinical implications of an arteriovenous fistula, differentiation between the two syndromes is important, as the prognosis and treatment greatly differ. We present a series of 5 cases of suspected KTS, while emphasizing the difficulties in distinguishing KTS from Parkes-Weber syndrome without diagnostic imaging and underscoring the importance of accurately classifying patients with the appropriate syndrome.

  4. Note: Spatial resolution of Fuji BAS-TR and BAS-SR imaging plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, G.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2012-08-01

    The spatial resolution of two types of imaging plates, Fuji BAS-TR and Fuji BAS-SR, has been measured using a knife-edge x-ray source of 8-keV Cu Kα radiation. The values for the spatial resolution, defined as the distance between 10% and 90% levels of the edge spread function, are 94 μm and 109 μm, respectively. The resolution values are important for quantitative analysis of x-ray and particle imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics.

  5. Note: Spatial resolution of Fuji BAS-TR and BAS-SR imaging plates

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2012-08-15

    The spatial resolution of two types of imaging plates, Fuji BAS-TR and Fuji BAS-SR, has been measured using a knife-edge x-ray source of 8-keV Cu K{sub {alpha}} radiation. The values for the spatial resolution, defined as the distance between 10% and 90% levels of the edge spread function, are 94 {mu}m and 109 {mu}m, respectively. The resolution values are important for quantitative analysis of x-ray and particle imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics.

  6. Viewpoint on ISA TR84.0.02--simplified methods and fault tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Summers, A E

    2000-01-01

    ANSI/ISA-S84.01-1996 and IEC 61508 require the establishment of a safety integrity level for any safety instrumented system or safety related system used to mitigate risk. Each stage of design, operation, maintenance, and testing is judged against this safety integrity level. Quantitative techniques can be used to verify whether the safety integrity level is met. ISA-dTR84.0.02 is a technical report under development by ISA, which discusses how to apply quantitative analysis techniques to safety instrumented systems. This paper discusses two of those techniques: (1) Simplified equations and (2) Fault tree analysis.

  7. Ensemble Streamflow Predictions in the Três Marias Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Kuwajima, Julio; Assis dos Reis, Alberto; Collischonn, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the main electricity source of Brazil. The related hydropower reservoirs are multi-purpose thus besides efficient and reliable energy production, they are relevant for flood control. In this context, the present study shows results of an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) for supporting the operational decision making implemented at Três Marias hydroelectric power project located in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. It is a large tropical river basin with approximately 55,000km² up to the Três Marias dam. The hydrological model used in the study is the MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias from Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas), a large scale distributed hydrological model. Applied in an operational forecasting mode, it uses an empirical data assimilation method to take into account real time streamflow observations to update its state variables. We present results of a hindcast experiment with observed precipitation and streamflow data from the local energy utility, CEMIG (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais), and from the Brazilian water agency, ANA (Agencia Nacional de Água),. Probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) from CPTEC (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) are used to generate the ESP. The data products and the MGB-IPH model are integrated into an open shell forecasting platform based on the software package Delft-FEWS. Inside the forecasting platform a hindcast mode over a forecast lead time of 10-16 days in recent rainfall periods is applied in. The ESP results are compared to deterministic forecasts of the Três Marias reservoir inflow. The results assessment verifies the added value of the ESP in general in comparison to the use of deterministic forecasts by means of different performance indicators. The ESP derived from the ECMWP ensemble shows the best performance. A future

  8. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  9. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  10. Choline transport via choline transporter-like protein 1 in conditionally immortalized rat syncytiotrophoblast cell lines TR-TBT.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-Y; Choi, H-M; Kang, Y-S

    2009-04-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for phospholipids and acetylcholine biosynthesis in normal development of fetus. In the present study, we investigated the functional characteristics of choline transport system and inhibitory effect of cationic drugs on choline transport in rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT). Choline transport was weakly Na(+) dependent and significantly influenced by extracellular pH and by membrane depolarization. The transport process of choline is saturable with Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of 68microM and 130microM in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2 respectively. Choline uptake in the cells was inhibited by unlabeled choline and hemicholinium-3 as well as various organic cations including guanidine, amiloride and acetylcholine. However, the prototypical organic cation tetraethylammonium and cimetidine showed very little inhibitory effect of choline uptake in TR-TBT cells. RT-PCR revealed that choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) are expressed in TR-TBT cells. The transport properties of choline in TR-TBT cells were similar or identical to that of CTL1 but not OCT2. CTL1 was also detected in human placenta. In addition, several cationic drugs such as diphenhydramine and verapamil competitively inhibited choline uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 with K(i) of 115microM and 55microM, respectively. Our results suggest that choline transport system, which has intermediate affinity and weakly Na(+) dependent, in TR-TBT seems to occur through a CTL1 and this system may have relevance with the uptake of pharmacologically important organic cation drugs.

  11. β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of liver-enriched transcription factor CREB-H

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun; Gao, Wei-Wei; Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Deng, Jian-Jun; Wong, Chi-Ming; Chan, Chi-Ping; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    CREB-H is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident bZIP transcription factor which critically regulates lipid homeostasis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. CREB-H is proteolytically activated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis to generate a C-terminally truncated form known as CREB-H-ΔTC, which translocates to the nucleus to activate target gene expression. CREB-H-ΔTC is a fast turnover protein but the mechanism governing its destruction was not well understood. In this study, we report on β-TrCP-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC. The degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC was mediated by lysine 48-linked polyubiquitination and could be inhibited by proteasome inhibitor. CREB-H-ΔTC physically interacted with β-TrCP, a substrate recognition subunit of the SCFβ-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase. Forced expression of β-TrCP increased the polyubiquitination and decreased the stability of CREB-H-ΔTC, whereas knockdown of β-TrCP had the opposite effect. An evolutionarily conserved sequence, SDSGIS, was identified in CREB-H-ΔTC, which functioned as the β-TrCP-binding motif. CREB-H-ΔTC lacking this motif was stabilized and resistant to β-TrCP-induced polyubiquitination. This motif was a phosphodegron and its phosphorylation was required for β-TrCP recognition. Furthermore, two inhibitory phosphorylation sites close to the phosphodegron were identified. Taken together, our work revealed a new intracellular signaling pathway that controls ubiquitination and degradation of the active form of CREB-H transcription factor. PMID:27029215

  12. Primary Tr1 cells from metastatic melanoma eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages through granzyme B- and perforin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongxia; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Xue; Hou, Xianglian; Zhao, Li; Li, Tianhang; Yuan, Xiaozhou; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    In malignant melanoma, tumor-associated macrophages play multiple roles in promoting tumor growth, such as inducing the transformation of melanocytes under ultraviolet irradiation, increasing angiogenesis in melanomas, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Because granzyme B- and perforin-expressing Tr1 cells could specifically eliminate antigen-presenting cells of myeloid origin, we examined whether Tr1 cells in melanoma could eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages and how the interaction between Tr1 cells and macrophages could affect the growth of melanoma cells. Tr1 cells were characterized by high interleukin 10 secretion and low Foxp3 expression and were enriched in the CD4(+)CD49b(+)LAG-3(+) T-cell fraction. Macrophages derived from peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of modified melanoma-conditioned media demonstrated tumor-promoting capacity, exemplified by improving the proliferation of cocultured A375 malignant melanoma cells. But when primary Tr1 cells were present in the macrophage-A375 coculture, the growth of A375 cells was abrogated. The conventional CD25(+) Treg cells, however, were unable to inhibit macrophage-mediated increase in tumor cell growth. Further analyses showed that Tr1 cells did not directly eliminate A375 cells, but mediated the killing of tumor-promoting macrophages through the secretion of granzyme B and perforin. The tumor-infiltrating interleukin 10(+)Foxp3(-)CD4(+) T cells expressed very low levels of granzyme B and perforin, possibly suggested the downregulation of Tr1 cytotoxic capacity in melanoma tumors. Together, these data demonstrated an antitumor function of Tr1 cells through the elimination of tumor-promoting macrophages, which was not shared by conventional Tregs.

  13. Stellar model chromospheres. XII - High-resolution, absolute flux profiles of the CA II H and K lines in dMe and non-dMe stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, M. S.; Worden, S. P.; Schneeberger, T. J.; Cram, L. E.

    1981-06-01

    We present 142 mÅ resolution spectra of the cores and wings of the Ca II H and K lines in three dMe and four comparison dwarf M stars, obtained with the KPNO 4 m echelle spectrograph and blue image tube. The narrow-band photometry of Willstrop and the Barnes and Evans relations for stellar angular diameters convert the observed relative flux to absolute surface flux units with an estimated uncertainty of ± 15 %. We derive chromospheric radiative loss rates in the H and K lines and discuss trends in these loss rates with effective temperature. Monochromatic surface fluxes are tabulated for different features in the H and K lines, and radiation temperatures are derived from the mean surface fluxes at K1 and H1, respectively. We find TR(H1) > TR(K1), consistent with partial redistribution theory. The TR(K1)/Teff ratio is higher in these M dwarfs than the giants studied in Paper X, and it is anomalously high for the dMe flare star YZ CMi. If TR(K1)/Teff is an empirical age indicator, then the result for YZ CMi implies that flare activity and youth are directly correlated, as has been suggested by other investigators. Moreover, the result implies that a high degree of nonradiative heating is present in the upper photospheres of dMe stars. Measurements of line widths at H1 and K1 are presented together with FWHM data for the H and K lines. We find that the scaling law proposed by Ayres generally agrees with the observed trend exhibited by the K1 widths. We also discuss chromospheric radiative loss rates in the Hɛ line compared with loss rates in the H and K lines, and present corrected FWHM(K) widths and compare them to the widths predicted by the Wilson-Bappu relation as calibrated by Lutz.

  14. Geminivirus-encoded TrAP suppressor inhibits the histone methyltransferase SUVH4/KYP to counter host defense

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-González, Claudia; Liu, Xiuying; Huang, Changjun; Zhao, Changjiang; Ma, Zeyang; Hu, Tao; Sun, Feng; Zhou, Yijun; Zhou, Xueping; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Xiuren

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) can serve as an innate immunity against invading DNA viruses throughout Eukaryotes. Geminivirus code for TrAP protein to suppress the TGS pathway. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis H3K9me2 histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9 homolog 4/Kryptonite (SUVH4/KYP), as a bona fide cellular target of TrAP. TrAP interacts with the catalytic domain of KYP and inhibits its activity in vitro. TrAP elicits developmental anomalies phenocopying several TGS mutants, reduces the repressive H3K9me2 mark and CHH DNA methylation, and reactivates numerous endogenous KYP-repressed loci in vivo. Moreover, KYP binds to the viral chromatin and controls its methylation to combat virus infection. Notably, kyp mutants support systemic infection of TrAP-deficient Geminivirus. We conclude that TrAP attenuates the TGS of the viral chromatin by inhibiting KYP activity to evade host surveillance. These findings provide new insight on the molecular arms race between host antiviral defense and virus counter defense at an epigenetic level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06671.001 PMID:26344546

  15. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase binds to a pre-organized hTR in vivo exposing its template

    PubMed Central

    Zemora, Georgeta; Handl, Stefan; Waldsich, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that is responsible for telomere length maintenance. As in other organisms, the minimal components required for an active human telomerase are the template-providing telomerase RNA (hTR) and the enzymatic entity telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Here, we explored the structure of hTR and the hTERT-induced conformational changes within hTR in living cells. By employing an in vivo DMS chemical probing technique, we showed that the pseudoknot and associated triple helical scaffold form stably in vivo independently of hTERT. In fact, the dimethyl-sulfate (DMS) modification pattern suggests that hTR alone is capable of adopting a conformation that is suited to interact with hTERT. However, in the absence of hTERT the template region of hTR is only weakly accessible to DMS-modifications. The predominant change after binding of hTERT to hTR is the exposure of the template region. PMID:26481359

  16. Simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and trace organic contaminant (TrOC) removal by an anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Phan, Hop V; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Dam, Hoa K; Zhang, Ren; Price, William E; Broeckmann, Andreas; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-08-01

    Simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and trace organic contaminant (TrOC) removal during wastewater treatment by an integrated anoxic-aerobic MBR was examined. A set of 30 compounds was selected to represent TrOCs that occur ubiquitously in domestic wastewater. The system achieved over 95% total organic carbon (TOC) and over 80% total nitrogen (TN) removal. In addition, 21 of the 30 TrOCs investigated here were removed by over 90%. Low oxidation reduction potential (i.e., anoxic/anaerobic) regimes were conducive to moderate to high (50% to 90%) removal of nine TrOCs. These included four pharmaceuticals and personal care products (primidone, metronidazole, triclosan, and amitriptyline), one steroid hormone (17β-estradiol-17-acetate), one industrial chemical (4-tert-octylphenol) and all three selected UV filters (benzophenone, oxybenzone, and octocrylene). Internal recirculation between the anoxic and aerobic bioreactors was essential for anoxic removal of remaining TrOCs. A major role of the aerobic MBR for TOC, TN, and TrOC removal was observed.

  17. ECM components guide IL-10 producing regulatory T-cell (TR1) induction from effector memory T-cell precursors.

    PubMed

    Bollyky, Paul L; Wu, Rebecca P; Falk, Ben A; Lord, James D; Long, S Alice; Preisinger, Anton; Teng, Brandon; Holt, Gregory E; Standifer, Nathan E; Braun, Kathleen R; Xie, Cindy Fang; Samuels, Peter L; Vernon, Robert B; Gebe, John A; Wight, Thomas N; Nepom, Gerald T

    2011-05-10

    We describe a role for ECM as a biosensor for inflammatory microenvironments that plays a critical role in peripheral immune tolerance. We show that hyaluronan (HA) promotes induction of Foxp3- IL-10-producing regulatory T cells (TR1) from conventional T-cell precursors in both murine and human systems. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ECM component inducing regulatory T cells. Intact HA, characteristic of healing tissues, promotes induction of TR1 capable of abrogating disease in an IL-10-dependent mouse colitis model whereas fragmentary HA, typical of inflamed tissues, does not, indicating a decisive role for tissue integrity in this system. The TR1 precursor cells in this system are CD4(+)CD62L(-)FoxP3(-), suggesting that effector memory cells assume a regulatory phenotype when they encounter their cognate antigen in the context of intact HA. Matrix integrity cues might thereby play a central role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. This TR1 induction is mediated by CD44 cross-linking and signaling through p38 and ERK1/2. This induction is suppressed, also in a CD44-dependent manner, by osteopontin, a component of chronically inflamed ECM, indicating that CD44 signaling serves as a nexus for fate decisions regarding TR1 induction. Finally, we demonstrate that TR1 induction signals can be recapitulated using synthetic matrices. These results reveal important roles for the matrix microenvironment in immune regulation and suggest unique strategies for immunomodulation.

  18. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase binds to a pre-organized hTR in vivo exposing its template.

    PubMed

    Zemora, Georgeta; Handl, Stefan; Waldsich, Christina

    2016-01-08

    Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that is responsible for telomere length maintenance. As in other organisms, the minimal components required for an active human telomerase are the template-providing telomerase RNA (hTR) and the enzymatic entity telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Here, we explored the structure of hTR and the hTERT-induced conformational changes within hTR in living cells. By employing an in vivo DMS chemical probing technique, we showed that the pseudoknot and associated triple helical scaffold form stably in vivo independently of hTERT. In fact, the dimethyl-sulfate (DMS) modification pattern suggests that hTR alone is capable of adopting a conformation that is suited to interact with hTERT. However, in the absence of hTERT the template region of hTR is only weakly accessible to DMS-modifications. The predominant change after binding of hTERT to hTR is the exposure of the template region.

  19. Diffuse neutrino flux from failed supernovae.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2009-06-12

    I study the diffuse flux of electron antineutrinos from stellar collapses with direct black hole formation (failed supernovae). This flux is more energetic than that from successful supernovae, and therefore it might contribute substantially to the total diffuse flux above realistic detection thresholds. The total flux might be considerably higher than previously thought, and approach the sensitivity of Super-Kamiokande. For more conservative values of the parameters, the flux from failed supernovae dominates for antineutrino energies above 30-45 MeV, with potential to give an observable spectral distortion at megaton detectors.

  20. MINERvA's Flux Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golan, Tomasz; Aliaga, Leonidas; Kordosky, Mike

    The MINERvA (Main INjector ExpeRiment: νA) experiment is focused on the measurement of neutrino cross sections on various nuclear targets. For this kind of study it is crucial to know precisely neutrino flux. MINERvA uses the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam produced at Fermilab. The recent study on the evaluation of the beam and its uncertainty is presented. The NuMI beam is also used by other neutrino experiment, like MINOS, ArgoNeuT, PEANUT, and NOvA, therefore, the results can be used by other collaborations.

  1. Instrumentation for Surface Flux Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    National Park , she used the sonic and a Li-Cor C02-H20 analyzer at a height of 3 m to measure the vertical turbulent flux of C02 downwind of...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 3. REPORT TYPE...and subgrid-scale array measurements In summer 2000 we lent 7 of the CSAT3 sonics to the National Center for Atmo- spheric Research (NCAR) for use in

  2. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  3. Chromoelectric flux tubes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Cardaci, Mario Salvatore; Cea, Paolo; Cosmai, Leonardo; Falcone, Rossella; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of the chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum and revisit previous results for SU(2). We find that the transverse profile of the flux tube resembles the dual version of the Abrikosov vortex field distribution. We give an estimate of the London penetration length of the chromoelectric field in the confined vacuum. We also speculate on the value of the ratio between the penetration lengths for SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories.

  4. Sources of variability in mercury flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, G. C.; Rasmussen, P. E.; Schroeder, W. H.; Kemp, R. J.; Dias, G. M.; Fitzgerald-Hubble, C. R.; Wong, E. K.; Halfpenny-Mitchell, L.; Gustin, M. S.

    2001-03-01

    Chamber and micrometeorological mercury flux data collected during the Nevada STORMS intercomparison study were used to identify natural and methodological factors controlling data variability. Micrometeorological and chamber measurements revealed that flux variability at a site is closely related to the Hg concentrations in the substrate, which were found to vary with mineral composition, grain size, and sampling depth. Environmental factors also influenced flux variability. Following two rainfall events, fluxes measured by chamber and micrometeorological methods increased substantially. The micrometeorological flux was enhanced five fold following the rain event. Fluxes measured by both methods were also influenced by net radiation and temperature as evidenced by their tendency to follow the diel cycle in these variables. Daytime fluxes were 6 times greater than nighttime fluxes. Data analysis revealed that interactions between environmental and geochemical variables complicate relationships between the flux and these variables. Understanding the variability at a flux monitoring site is important to establish relationships for scaling up and for the development of consistent sampling protocols that allow comparisons from one study to another and adequately quantify mercury fluxes from natural sites to provide representative emission data that can be used for scaling up to regional and global scales.

  5. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  6. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  7. High Resolution Simulations of Tearing and Flux-Rope Formation in Active Region Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyper, P. F.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of coronal jets increasingly suggest that local fragmentation and the generation of small-scale structure plays an important role in the dynamics of these events. In the magnetically closed corona, jets most often occur near active regions and are associated with an embedded-bipole topology consisting of a 3D magnetic null point atop a domed fan separatrix surface at the base of a coronal loop. Impulsive reconnection in the vicinity of the null point between the magnetic fluxes inside and outside the dome launches the jet along the loop. Wyper & Pontin 2014 showed that the 3D current layers that facilitate such reconnection are explosively unstable to tearing, generating complex flux-rope structures. Utilizing the adaptive mesh capabilities of the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver, we investigate the generation of such fine-scale structure in high-resolution simulations of active-region jets. We observe the formation of multiple flux-rope structures forming across the fan separatrix surface and discuss the photospheric signatures of these flux ropes and the associated local topology change. We also introduce a new way of identifying such flux ropes in the magnetic field, based on structures observed in the magnetic squashing factor calculated on the photosphere. By tracking the position and number of new null points produced by the fragmentation, we also show that the formation of flux ropes can occur away from the main null region on the flanks of the separatrix dome and that the jet curtain has a highly complex magnetic structure. This work was funded through an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program and by NASA's Living With a Star TR&T program.

  8. Symmetrically biased T/R switches for NMR and MRI with microsecond dead time.

    PubMed

    Brunner, David O; Furrer, Lukas; Weiger, Markus; Baumberger, Werner; Schmid, Thomas; Reber, Jonas; Dietrich, Benjamin E; Wilm, Bertram J; Froidevaux, Romain; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2016-02-01

    For direct NMR detection and imaging of compounds with very short coherence life times the dead time between radio-frequency (RF) pulse and reception of the free induction decay (FID) is a major limiting factor. It is typically dominated by the transient and recovery times of currently available transmit-receive (T/R) switches and amplification chains. A novel PIN diode-based T/R switch topology is introduced allowing for fast switching by high bias transient currents but nevertheless producing a very low video leakage signal and insertion loss (0.5dB). The low transient spike level in conjunction with the high isolation (75dB) prevent saturation of the preamplifier entirely which consequently does not require time for recovery. Switching between transmission and reception is demonstrated within less than 1μs in bench tests as well as in acquisitions of FIDs and zero echo time (ZTE) images with bandwidths up to 500kHz at 7T. Thereby the 2kW switch exhibited a rise-time of 350ns (10-99%) producing however a total video leakage of below 20mV peak-to-peak and less than -89dBm in-band. The achieved switching time renders the RF pulse itself the dominant contribution to the dead time in which a coherence cannot be observed, thus making pulsed NMR experiments almost time-optimal even for compounds with very short signal life times.

  9. Symmetrically biased T/R switches for NMR and MRI with microsecond dead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, David O.; Furrer, Lukas; Weiger, Markus; Baumberger, Werner; Schmid, Thomas; Reber, Jonas; Dietrich, Benjamin E.; Wilm, Bertram J.; Froidevaux, Romain; Pruessmann, Klaas P.

    2016-02-01

    For direct NMR detection and imaging of compounds with very short coherence life times the dead time between radio-frequency (RF) pulse and reception of the free induction decay (FID) is a major limiting factor. It is typically dominated by the transient and recovery times of currently available transmit-receive (T/R) switches and amplification chains. A novel PIN diode-based T/R switch topology is introduced allowing for fast switching by high bias transient currents but nevertheless producing a very low video leakage signal and insertion loss (0.5 dB). The low transient spike level in conjunction with the high isolation (75 dB) prevent saturation of the preamplifier entirely which consequently does not require time for recovery. Switching between transmission and reception is demonstrated within less than 1 μs in bench tests as well as in acquisitions of FIDs and zero echo time (ZTE) images with bandwidths up to 500 kHz at 7 T. Thereby the 2 kW switch exhibited a rise-time of 350 ns (10-99%) producing however a total video leakage of below 20 mV peak-to-peak and less than -89 dBm in-band. The achieved switching time renders the RF pulse itself the dominant contribution to the dead time in which a coherence cannot be observed, thus making pulsed NMR experiments almost time-optimal even for compounds with very short signal life times.

  10. Thyroid hormone regulates hematopoiesis via the TR-KLF9 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Xue, Yuanyuan; Cao, Chunwei; Huang, Jiaojiao; Hong, Qianlong; Hai, Tang; Jia, Qitao; Wang, Xianlong; Qin, Guosong; Yao, Jing; Wang, Xiao; Zheng, Qiantao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yongshun; Luo, Ailing; Zhang, Nan; Shi, Guizhi; Wang, Yanfang; Ying, Hao; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Hongmei; Meng, Anming; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Hong; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Jianguo

    2017-09-25

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases and is often accompanied by anemia and immunodeficiency in patients, for which the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we created a severe CH model together with anemia and T lymphopenia to mimic the clinical features of hypothyroid patients by ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis in Bama miniature pigs. A novel recessive c.1226A>G transition of the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) gene was identified as the causative mutation. This mutation hindered the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thus contributed to thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis failure. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of the thymuses showed that Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) was predominantly down-regulated in hypothyroid mutants. KLF9 was verified to be directly regulated by TH in a TH receptor (TR)-dependent manner both in vivo and in vitro Furthermore, knockdown of klf9 in zebrafish embryos impaired hematopoietic development including erythroid maturation and T lymphopoiesis. Our findings suggest that the TR-KLF9 axis is responsible for the hematopoietic dysfunction and might be exploited for the development of novel therapeutic interventions for thyroid diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hematology.

  11. Six High-precision Transits of OGLE-TR-113b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. R.; López-Morales, M.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between 2007 January and 2009 May. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius to Rp = 1.084 ± 0.029RJ , where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris of greater than 13 ± 28 s over two years, placing an upper limit of 1-2 M ⊕ on the mass of any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating a decrease of \\dot{P}=-60± 15 ms yr-1. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than eight years) timing variation due to a massive external perturber or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and requires additional observations, but if confirmed it would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  12. SoilTrEC: a global initiative on critical zone research and integration.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj; Rousseva, Svetla; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; van Gaans, Pauline; Panagos, Panos; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Lair, Georg J; Weng, Liping; Bloem, Jaap; Kram, Pavel; Novak, Martin; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Robinson, David A; Reynolds, Brian; White, Tim; Lundin, Lars; Zhang, Bin; Duffy, Christopher; Bernasconi, Stefano M; de Ruiter, Peter; Blum, Winfried E H; Banwart, Steven A

    2014-02-01

    Soil is a complex natural resource that is considered non-renewable in policy frameworks, and it plays a key role in maintaining a variety of ecosystem services (ES) and life-sustaining material cycles within the Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). However, currently, the ability of soil to deliver these services is being drastically reduced in many locations, and global loss of soil ecosystem services is estimated to increase each year as a result of many different threats, such as erosion and soil carbon loss. The European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection alerts policy makers of the need to protect soil and proposes measures to mitigate soil degradation. In this context, the European Commission-funded research project on Soil Transformations in European Catchments (SoilTrEC) aims to quantify the processes that deliver soil ecosystem services in the Earth's Critical Zone and to quantify the impacts of environmental change on key soil functions. This is achieved by integrating the research results into decision-support tools and applying methods of economic valuation to soil ecosystem services. In this paper, we provide an overview of the SoilTrEC project, its organization, partnerships and implementation.

  13. Electromechanical properties of relaxor ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)-P(VDF-CTFE) blends.

    PubMed

    Gorny, Lee J; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Minren

    2013-03-01

    Electromechanical properties of the relaxor ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)] terpolymer blended with a small amount of poly(vinylidene fluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-CTFE)] copolymer, which possesses a much higher elastic modulus than that of the neat terpolymer, were investigated. It was observed that the presence of small amount of P(VDF-CTFE) does not affect the microstructure of the crystalline phase. However, the uniaxially stretched blended films show a slight increase in the crystallinity and increased or similar induced polarization at high electric fields compared with the neat terpolymer, likely caused by the interface effect. Consequently, for blends with P(VDF-CTFE) less than 5 wt%, the transverse strains S1 along the stretching direction for uniaxially stretched blended films are nearly the same as those of neat P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), whereas the elastic modulus along the S1-direction increases with the P(VDF-CTFE) content. As a result, the blended films exhibit a higher elastic energy density and electromechanical coupling factor k31 compared with the neat terpolymer.

  14. Dielectric relaxation of relaxor ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer over broad frequency range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Lanagan, Michael; Zhang, Qiming

    2009-03-01

    Dielectric properties of a relaxor ferroelectric polymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)] terpolymer, were investigated over a broad range of frequency (from 0.1 kHz to 1 GHz) and a broad range of temperature (-20 degrees C to 76 degrees C). Time-temperature superposition was used to extrapolate the dielectric constant to high frequencies (approximately 1 GHz) from low frequency data (1 MHz). The consistency between the directly measured and the extrapolated data indicate that the time-temperature superposition can be applied at temperature ranging from the glass transition to the broad ferroelectric-paraelectric transition peak of relaxor, indicating that the glass transition is still the dominating relaxation process at room temperature for the ferroelectric relaxor. Compared with the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE] copolymer, the terpolymer shows a higher dielectric constant even at 1 GHz, which is considered to originate from the random defects modification converting the long-chain polar-molecular conformation to short-range molecular microstructures and enhancing the molecular motions in both polar and nonpolar nanodomains.

  15. ANALYSIS OF KEPLER'S SHORT-CADENCE PHOTOMETRY FOR TrES-2b

    SciTech Connect

    Kipping, David; Bakos, Gaspar

    2011-05-20

    We present an analysis of 18 short-cadence (SC) transit light curves of TrES-2b using quarter 0 (Q0) and quarter 1 (Q1) from the Kepler Mission. The photometry is of unprecedented precision, 237 ppm minute{sup -1}, allowing for the most accurate determination of the transit parameters yet obtained for this system. Global fits of the transit photometry, radial velocities, and known transit times are used to obtain a self-consistent set of refined parameters for this system, including updated stellar and planetary parameters. Special attention is paid to fitting for limb darkening and eccentricity. We place an upper limit on the occultation depth to be <72.9 ppm to 3{sigma} confidence, indicating TrES-2b has the lowest determined geometric albedo for an exoplanet, of A{sub g} < 0.146. We also produce a transit timing analysis using Kepler's SC data and demonstrate exceptional timing precision at the level of a few seconds for each transit event. With 18 fully sampled transits at such high precision, we are able to produce stringent constraints on the presence of perturbing planets, Trojans, and extrasolar moons. We introduce the novel use of control data to identify phasing effects. We also exclude the previously proposed hypotheses of short-period transit time variation and additional transits but find that the hypothesis of long-term inclination change is neither supported nor refuted by our analysis.

  16. Digital Calibration of TR Modules for Real-time Digital Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Perkovic, Dragana; Shaffer, Scott; Veilleux, Louise; Peral, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Real-time digital beamforming, combined with lightweight, large aperture reflectors, enable SweepSAR architectures such as that of the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI). These new instrument concepts require new methods for calibrating the multiple channels, which must be combined on-board, in real-time. The calibration of current state-of-the-art Electronically Steered Arrays typically involves pre-flight TR (Transmit/Receive) module characterization over temperature, and in-flight correction based on temperature, which ignores the effects of element aging and drifts unrelated to temperature. We are developing new methods for digitally calibrating digital beamforming arrays to reduce development time, risk and cost of precision calibrated TR modules for array architectures by accurately tracking modules' characteristics through closed-loop Digital Calibration, thus tracking systematic changes regardless of temperature. The benefit of this effort is that it would enable a new class of lightweight radar architecture, Digital Beamforming with SweepSAR, providing significantly larger swath coverage than conventional SAR architectures for solid earth and biomass remote sensing, while reducing mission mass and cost. This new instrument concept requires new methods for calibrating the multiple channels, which must be combined on-board, in real-time.

  17. Digital Calibration of TR Modules for Real-Tme Digital Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Perkovic, Dragana; Shaffer, Scott; Veilleux, Louise; Peral, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Real-time digital beamforming, combined with lightweight, large aperture reflectors, enable a new architecture, which is the baseline for the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI). This new instrument concept requires new methods for calibrating multiple simultaneous channels. The calibration of current state-of-the-art Electronically Steered Arrays typically involves pre-flight TR (Transmit/Receive) module characterization over temperature, and in-flight correction based on measured temperatures. This method ignores the effects of element aging and any drifts unrelated to temperature. We are developing new digital calibration of digital beamforming arrays, which helps to reduce development time, risk and cost. Precision calibrated TR modules enable real-time beamforming architectures by accurately tracking modules' characteristics through closed-loop digital calibration, which tracks systematic changes regardless of temperature. The benefit of this effort is that it would enable a new, lightweight radar architecture, with on-board digital beamforming. This provides significantly larger swath coverage than conventional SAR architectures

  18. SIX HIGH-PRECISION TRANSITS OF OGLE-TR-113b

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E. R.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between 2007 January and 2009 May. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius to R{sub p} = 1.084 {+-} 0.029R{sub J} , where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris of greater than 13 {+-} 28 s over two years, placing an upper limit of 1-2 M{sub +} on the mass of any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating a decrease of P-dot =-60{+-}15 ms yr{sup -1}. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than eight years) timing variation due to a massive external perturber or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and requires additional observations, but if confirmed it would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets.

  19. QoS Provisioning for TT-TR Based OBS Ring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Limei; Kim, Young-Chon; Tang, Wan; Youn, Chan-Hyun

    2011-06-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) is one of the most promising switching technologies. This paper studies the efficient OBS ring network using the TT-TR based node architecture. The TT-TR based OBS ring network can use the network resources very efficiently, but the network performance is restricted due to the limited network resources. Moreover, different network demands have different network resource requirements. It is very important to satisfy their different requirements while using the limited network resources efficiently. In this paper, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning mechanisms are studied to solve the above mentioned problems. Two kinds of network services, namely the real-time traffic and the best-effort traffic, are considered in this paper. The real-time service is delay-sensitive that should be transmitted in a real-time manner and cannot tolerate high transmission delay; while the best-effort traffic has no strict limitation in transmission delay or loss, but the best effort are made to improve their transmission reliability. According to their different servicing requirements, different QoS provisioning mechanisms are proposed to serve them in the OBS unidirectional and bidirectional ring networks, respectively. The proposed mechanisms are evaluated and analyzed through simulation. The simulation results show that even though the proposed mechanisms cannot get absolute zero-delay or zero-loss for real-time traffic or best-effort traffic, their different requirements for delay or loss are satisfied to some significant degree.

  20. DNA damage induces the accumulation of Tiam1 by blocking β-TrCP-dependent degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guixin; Fan, Zhongyun; Ding, Miao; Mu, Libing; Liang, Juan; Ding, Yajie; Fu, Yu; Huang, Binlu; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-30

    The Rac1/JNK cascade plays important roles in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. However, how this cascade is activated upon DNA damage remains to be fully understood. We show here that, in untreated cells, Tiam1, a Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 (CK1) at its C terminus, leading to Skp, Cullin, F-box-containing(β-TrCP) recognition, ubiquitination, and proteasome-mediated degradation. Upon DNA-damaging anticancer drug treatment, CK1/β-TrCP-mediated Tiam1 degradation is abolished, and the accumulated Tiam1 contributes to downstream activation of Rac1/JNK. Consistently, tumor cells overexpressing Tiam1 are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging drug treatment. In xenograft mice, Tiam1-high cells are more susceptible to doxorubicin treatment. Thus, our results uncover that inhibition of proteasome-mediated Tiam1 degradation is an upstream event leading to Rac1/JNK activation and cell apoptosis in response to DNA-damaging drug treatment. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. DNA Damage Induces the Accumulation of Tiam1 by Blocking β-TrCP-dependent Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guixin; Fan, Zhongyun; Ding, Miao; Mu, Libing; Liang, Juan; Ding, Yajie; Fu, Yu; Huang, Binlu; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Rac1/JNK cascade plays important roles in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. However, how this cascade is activated upon DNA damage remains to be fully understood. We show here that, in untreated cells, Tiam1, a Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 (CK1) at its C terminus, leading to Skp, Cullin, F-box-containingβ-TrCP recognition, ubiquitination, and proteasome-mediated degradation. Upon DNA-damaging anticancer drug treatment, CK1/β-TrCP-mediated Tiam1 degradation is abolished, and the accumulated Tiam1 contributes to downstream activation of Rac1/JNK. Consistently, tumor cells overexpressing Tiam1 are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging drug treatment. In xenograft mice, Tiam1-high cells are more susceptible to doxorubicin treatment. Thus, our results uncover that inhibition of proteasome-mediated Tiam1 degradation is an upstream event leading to Rac1/JNK activation and cell apoptosis in response to DNA-damaging drug treatment. PMID:24737324

  2. P(VDF-TrFE) nanorod assemblies with anisotropic piezoelectric properties investigated by piezoelectric response microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaosui; Wang, Yunli; Cai, Kai; Bai, Yang; Bo, Shuhui; Guo, Dong

    2014-08-01

    Highly ordered assemblies of the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) nanorods with anisotropic piezoelectric response were fabricated on different substrates by using a template-free self-organization method. The significant difference in vertical and lateral piezoelectric responses of the nanorods in piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) revealed that their molecular dipoles were preferentially oriented parallel to the substrate plane. In addition, dipole orientation distribution map in the nanorods was derived by analyzing the vertical and lateral PFM amplitude and phase images. Infrared reflection spectra further showed that the macromolecular backbones were oriented perpendicularly relative to the substrate. A flat-on lamellar structure and a confined crystallization of dewetted melt phase nanorod formation mechanism were proposed. The highly anisotropic piezoelectric response of the assemblies of nanorods may be promising for nanoscale devices for application in energy harvesting, etc. More importantly, the results demonstrated that self organization could be used for fabricating P(VDF-TrFE) nanostructures by controlling the surface energy of the substrates.

  3. Digital Calibration of TR Modules for Real-time Digital Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Perkovic, Dragana; Shaffer, Scott; Veilleux, Louise; Peral, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Real-time digital beamforming, combined with lightweight, large aperture reflectors, enable SweepSAR architectures such as that of the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI). These new instrument concepts require new methods for calibrating the multiple channels, which must be combined on-board, in real-time. The calibration of current state-of-the-art Electronically Steered Arrays typically involves pre-flight TR (Transmit/Receive) module characterization over temperature, and in-flight correction based on temperature, which ignores the effects of element aging and drifts unrelated to temperature. We are developing new methods for digitally calibrating digital beamforming arrays to reduce development time, risk and cost of precision calibrated TR modules for array architectures by accurately tracking modules' characteristics through closed-loop Digital Calibration, thus tracking systematic changes regardless of temperature. The benefit of this effort is that it would enable a new class of lightweight radar architecture, Digital Beamforming with SweepSAR, providing significantly larger swath coverage than conventional SAR architectures for solid earth and biomass remote sensing, while reducing mission mass and cost. This new instrument concept requires new methods for calibrating the multiple channels, which must be combined on-board, in real-time.

  4. Diagnosis and management of the venous malformations of Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Keisin; Drucker, Natalie A; Gupta, Alok K; Marshalleck, Francis E; Dalsing, Michael C

    2017-07-01

    A dearth of information exists in the literature regarding current practice in the management of Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS), a rare condition. We review and describe the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of KTS. Relevant data were synthesized from a Medline review using a combination of the keyterms "Klippel" and "Trénaunay." The majority of hits described singular case reports and were subsequently excluded. The remaining papers were then reviewed and included on the basis of the quality of evidence and the authors' discretion. KTS is characterized by a clinical triad of extremity varicosities, cutaneous vascular malformations, and hypertrophy of soft tissues and long bones. The diagnosis is clinically supplemented with magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Although this syndrome is associated with significant comorbidities, such as pain, edema, ulcerations, and pruritus, it is rarely the cause of death. The backbone of treatment is nonoperative in nature but should be supplemented with minimally invasive, endovascular, and rarely open surgical procedures for refractory cases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. TrES-5: A MASSIVE JUPITER-SIZED PLANET TRANSITING A COOL G DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Mandushev, Georgi; Dunham, Edward W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Buchhave, Lars A.; Rabus, Markus; Oetiker, Brian; Brown, Timothy M.; Belmonte, Juan A.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery of TrES-5, a massive hot Jupiter that transits the star GSC 03949-00967 every 1.48 days. From spectroscopy of the star we estimate a stellar effective temperature of T{sub eff} = 5171 {+-} 36 K, and from high-precision B, R, and I photometry of the transit we constrain the ratio of the semimajor axis a and the stellar radius R{sub *} to be a/R{sub *} = 6.07 {+-} 0.14. We compare these values to model stellar isochrones to obtain a stellar mass of M{sub *} = 0.893 {+-} 0.024 M{sub Sun }. Based on this estimate and the photometric time series, we constrain the stellar radius to be R{sub *} = 0.866 {+-} 0.013 R{sub Sun} and the planet radius to be R{sub p} = 1.209 {+-} 0.021 R{sub J}. We model our radial-velocity data assuming a circular orbit and find a planetary mass of 1.778 {+-} 0.063 M{sub J}. Our radial-velocity observations rule out line-bisector variations that would indicate a specious detection resulting from a blend of an eclipsing binary system. TrES-5 orbits one of the faintest stars with transiting planets found to date from the ground and demonstrates that precise photometry and followup spectroscopy are possible, albeit challenging, even for such faint stars.

  6. Digital Calibration of TR Modules for Real-Tme Digital Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Perkovic, Dragana; Shaffer, Scott; Veilleux, Louise; Peral, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Real-time digital beamforming, combined with lightweight, large aperture reflectors, enable a new architecture, which is the baseline for the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI). This new instrument concept requires new methods for calibrating multiple simultaneous channels. The calibration of current state-of-the-art Electronically Steered Arrays typically involves pre-flight TR (Transmit/Receive) module characterization over temperature, and in-flight correction based on measured temperatures. This method ignores the effects of element aging and any drifts unrelated to temperature. We are developing new digital calibration of digital beamforming arrays, which helps to reduce development time, risk and cost. Precision calibrated TR modules enable real-time beamforming architectures by accurately tracking modules' characteristics through closed-loop digital calibration, which tracks systematic changes regardless of temperature. The benefit of this effort is that it would enable a new, lightweight radar architecture, with on-board digital beamforming. This provides significantly larger swath coverage than conventional SAR architectures

  7. Amyloid formation and disaggregation of {alpha}-synuclein and its tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Song Yi; Kim, Seulgi; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Yoon, Hyun C.; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, SangYoon; Kim, T. Doohun

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Formation of the {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils by [BIMbF{sub 3}Im]. {yields} Disaggregation of amyloid fibrils by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. {yields} Amyloid formation of {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR). -- Abstract: The aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein is clearly related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, detailed understanding of the mechanism of fibril formation is highly valuable for the development of clinical treatment and also of the diagnostic tools. Here, we have investigated the interaction of {alpha}-synuclein with ionic liquids by using several biochemical techniques including Thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data shows a rapid formation of {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils was stimulated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BIMbF{sub 3}Im], and these fibrils could be disaggregated by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. Furthermore, the effect of [BIMbF{sub 3}Im] on the {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR) in the aggregation process was studied.

  8. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tianmu; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR). Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types. PMID:28486516

  9. High ionic conductivity P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO blended polymer electrolytes for solid electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chien A; Xiong, Shanxin; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong; Lee, Pooi See

    2011-08-07

    Solid polymer electrolytes with excellent ionic conductivity (above 10(-4) S cm(-1)), which result in high optical modulation for solid electrochromic (EC) devices are presented. The combination of a polar host matrix poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) and a solid plasticized of a low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (M(w)≤ 20,000) blended polymer electrolyte serves to enhance both the dissolution of lithium salt and the ionic transport. Calorimetric measurement shows a reduced crystallization due to a better intermixing of the polymers with small molecular weight PEO. Vibrational spectroscopy identifies the presence of free ions and ion pairs in the electrolytes with PEO of M(w)≤ 8000. The ionic dissolution is improved using PEO as a plasticizer when compared to liquid propylene carbonate, evidently shown in the transference number analysis. Ionic transport follows the Arrhenius equation with a low activation energy (0.16-0.2 eV), leading to high ionic conductivities. Solid electrochromic devices fabricated with the blended P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO electrolytes and polyaniline show good spectroelectrochemical performance in the visible (300-800 nm) and near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) regions with a modulation up to 60% and fast switching speed of below 20 seconds. The successful introduction of the solid polymer electrolytes with its best harnessed qualities helps to expedite the application of various electrochemical devices. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  10. Flux of Millimetric Space Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Goldstein, S. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    In 21.4 hr of zenith radar observations on 4 days at 8510 MHz, we found 831 particles with altitudes between 177 and 1662 km. From the duration of the echoes and the angular size (0.030 deg) of the antenna beam 157 particles were identified as passing through the side lobes and not through the main beam. Our analysis is based on the 674 particles that did not broaden the beam. On the assumptions that these particles went through the main beam, their radar cross sections vary between 0.02 and 260 sq mm , and their radial velocities vary between +/- 700 m/s. If they are conducting spheres, their diameters lie between 2 and 18 mm. If not, they must be larger. The flux of these particles, that is the number per sq km day, was determined in 100 km intervals. The maximum flux, 3.3 particles per sq km day, occurs at 950 km altitude. The small and large particles are not well mixed. The largest particles occur beyond 1000 km and middle-sized particles are missing below 300 km. If the earth's atmosphere caused the smallest particles to lose energy from initial orbits identical to those of the large particles, the orbits would have lower eccentricity at low altitudes. We find a larger eccentricity for the inner particles, and conclude that two or more populations are present.

  11. Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Mathes

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

  12. Flux focusing eddy current probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Clendenin, C. Gerald (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. The maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. Hence, by obtaining the position of the maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. The accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output which results in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip which enables the region for searching to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion damage causes an incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. The low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of the thickness of the test sample.

  13. A solar EUV flux model

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiska, W.K.; Barth, C.A. )

    1990-06-01

    A model of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance variability has been developed for aeronomical use and has been named SERF2 by the Solar Electromagnetic Radiation Flux Study. The model is valid between 1981 and 1989 and is based on the Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) satellite EUV data set which is correlated with independent solar emissions measured during and after the AE-E mission. Additionally, spectral modifications are made to the model based on 18 separate rocket flights for all levels of solar activity. Two daily measured solar emissions, the H Lyman {alpha} line at 121.6 nm observed by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite and the Ottawa 10.7-cm radio flux observed at the ground, are used in the model as indices for full-disk solar EUV chromospheric irradiance variations and transition region-coronal irradiance variations, respectively. The model wavelength equation coefficients are presented in tabular form for 39 wavelength groups or discrete lines from 1.9 to 105.0 nm along with spectral weighting function coefficients which modify the irradiance magnitudes based upon model wavelength fits to rocket-observed spectra. The model satisfies the general constraint of duplicating rocket-observed EUV irradiance for a wise variety of solar activity conditions. The model development is discussed, an example calculation is given, and the comparisons with constraining rocket data sets are shown.

  14. Atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Reymers, A.

    2015-07-01

    Fluxes of the electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons observed by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface during thunderstorms originate so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). The relativistic runaway electron avalanches giving rise to TGEs originate in the thundercloud's lower dipole between the main negatively charged region in the middle of the thundercloud and transient lower positively charged region. Acceleration of electrons in the upper dipole between main negative and main positive charge regions leads to initiation of the terrestrial gamma flashes (TGFs) intensive researched during the last two decades by orbiting gamma ray observatories. TGFs are exceptionally intense, submillisecond bursts of electromagnetic radiation directed to the open space from the thunderstorm atmosphere. Unlike visible lightning, TGF beams do not create a hot plasma channel and optical flash; hence, in the literature they got name "dark lightning." We investigate the TGEs development in 1 min and 1 s time series of particle detector count rates. Synchronized time series of the near-surface electric field and lightning occurrences allows interconnecting two atmospheric phenomena. Registration of the Extensive Air Showers allows approaching problems of relation of the lightning occurrences and particle fluxes.

  15. SEP flux mapping with PHOEBUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Bagni, G.; Fabi, M.; Vicerè, A.; Marconi, L.; Stanga, R.; Bosi, L.; Vocca, H.; Araújo, H.; Shaul, D.; Sumner, T.; Wass, P.; Boatella, C.; Lobo, A.; Chmeissani, M.; Martinez, I.

    2006-03-01

    We report about PHOEBUS (PHysics Of Events BUrsted by the Sun): a proposal for solar physics and space weather investigation with LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). Galactic and solar cosmic-ray particles with energies larger than 100 MeV(/n) penetrate and charge the LISA test masses. Spurious forces occur between the test masses and the surrounding electrodes mimicking gravitational wave signals. This process constitutes one of the major sources of acceleration noise for LISA. Silicon particle detectors will be placed on board the LISA-PF and LISA missions to monitor the overall energetic incident cosmic-ray fluxes. These telescopes can be also used to carry out a map of shock accelerated Solar Energetic Particle (SEPs) fluxes associated with evolving Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) at different steps in longitude. We discuss the role of protons, helium nuclei, galactic heavy nuclei and solar ions. We aim to contribute to the COST724 (European CO-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) action inside WG1/WP13000 developing appropriate simulations of the dynamics of CMEs by using space-based data and theoretical models.

  16. The diffuse supernova neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    I review the status and perspectives of the research on the diffuse flux of (core collapse) supernova neutrinos (DSNνF). Several upper bounds exist on this flux in different detection channels. The strongest is the limit from SuperKamiokande (SK) of 1.2 electron antineutrinos cm-2s-1 at 90% confidence level above 19.3 MeV of neutrino energy. The predictions of the DSNνF depend on the supernova rate and on the neutrino emission in a individual supernova. Above the SK threshold, they range between 0.05 electron antineutrinos cm-2s-1 up to touching the SK limit. The SK bound constrains part of the parameter space of the supernova rate - and indirectly of the star formation rate - only in models with relatively hard neutrino spectra. Experimentally, a feasible and very important goal for the future is the improvement of background discrimination and the resulting lowering of the detection threshold. Theory instead will benefit from reducing the uncertainties on the supernova neutrino emission (either with more precise numerical modeling or with data from a galactic supernova) and on the supernova rate. The latter will be provided precisely by next generation supernova surveys up to a normalization factor. Therefore, the detection of the DSNνF is likely to be precious chiefly to constrain such normalization and to study the physics of neutrino emission in supernovae.

  17. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  18. Determination of deposited flux and energy of sputtered tungsten atoms on every stages of transport in HiPIMS discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desecures, M.; de Poucques, L.; Bougdira, J.

    2017-02-01

    A time-resolved tunable diode-laser (DL) induced fluorescence (TR-TDLIF) technique has been used to identify different populations of atoms (on different stages of transport) to determine their corresponding deposited energy and flux. The temporal dimension permits the splitting of the processes of sputtering during the discharge and particles transport in the post-discharge where atoms and flux velocity distribution functions (AVDF, FVDF) of each population were measured varying the discharge parameters (power, voltage, pressure, and distance from target). Tungsten (W) was chosen, being an interesting case in terms of sputtered atom transport, considering its weight which implies weak changes of directivity or energy transfer after collisions with the buffer gas. The high temporal and spectral resolutions of TR-TDLIF are the keys for the distinction of the atoms populations and the stage corresponding to the transition from the ballistic to diffusive regime of transport was observed for the first time and named quasi-diffusive regime. Thus, the ability to dissociate populations of atoms and to determine their deposited flux and energy may be of great interest to adjust film properties as desired for applications.

  19. Regulation of the interplanetary magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Gosling, J.T.; Phillips, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this study we use a recently developed technique for measuring the 2-D magnetic flux in the ecliptic plane to examine (1) the long term variation of the magnetic flux in interplanetary space and (2) the apparent rate at which coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may be opening new flux from the Sun. Since there is a substantial variation ({approximately}50%) of the flux in the ecliptic plane over the solar cycle, we conclude that there must be some means whereby new flux can be opened from the Sun and previously open magnetic flux can be closed off. We briefly describe recently discovered coronal disconnections events which could serve to close off previously open magnetic flux. CMEs appear to retain at least partial magnetic connection to the Sun and hence open new flux, while disconnections appear to be likely signatures of the process that returns closed flux to the Sun; the combination of these processes could regulate the amount of open magnetic flux in interplanetary space. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. The Thermodynamic Meaning of Metabolic Exchange Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Wiechert, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) deals with the experimental determination of steady-state fluxes in metabolic networks. An important feature of the 13C MFA method is its capability to generate information on both directions of bidirectional reaction steps given by exchange fluxes. The biological interpretation of these exchange fluxes and their relation to thermodynamic properties of the respective reaction steps has never been systematically investigated. As a central result, it is shown here that for a general class of enzyme reaction mechanisms the quotients of net and exchange fluxes measured by 13C MFA are coupled to Gibbs energies of the reaction steps. To establish this relation the concept of apparent flux ratios of enzymatic isotope-labeling networks is introduced and some computing rules for these flux ratios are given. Application of these rules reveals a conceptional pitfall of 13C MFA, which is the inherent dependency of measured exchange fluxes on the chosen tracer atom. However, it is shown that this effect can be neglected for typical biochemical reaction steps under physiological conditions. In this situation, the central result can be formulated as a two-sided inequality relating fluxes, pool sizes, and standard Gibbs energies. This relation has far-reaching consequences for metabolic flux analysis, quantitative metabolomics, and network thermodynamics. PMID:17526563

  1. ClassTR: Classifying Within-Host Heterogeneity Based on Tandem Repeats with Application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Colijn, Caroline; Moodley, Prashini; Wilson, Douglas; Cohen, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Genomic tools have revealed genetically diverse pathogens within some hosts. Within-host pathogen diversity, which we refer to as “complex infection”, is increasingly recognized as a determinant of treatment outcome for infections like tuberculosis. Complex infection arises through two mechanisms: within-host mutation (which results in clonal heterogeneity) and reinfection (which results in mixed infections). Estimates of the frequency of within-host mutation and reinfection in populations are critical for understanding the natural history of disease. These estimates influence projections of disease trends and effects of interventions. The genotyping technique MLVA (multiple loci variable-number tandem repeats analysis) can identify complex infections, but the current method to distinguish clonal heterogeneity from mixed infections is based on a rather simple rule. Here we describe ClassTR, a method which leverages MLVA information from isolates collected in a population to distinguish mixed infections from clonal heterogeneity. We formulate the resolution of complex infections into their constituent strains as an optimization problem, and show its NP-completeness. We solve it efficiently by using mixed integer linear programming and graph decomposition. Once the complex infections are resolved into their constituent strains, ClassTR probabilistically classifies isolates as clonally heterogeneous or mixed by using a model of tandem repeat evolution. We first compare ClassTR with the standard rule-based classification on 100 simulated datasets. ClassTR outperforms the standard method, improving classification accuracy from 48% to 80%. We then apply ClassTR to a sample of 436 strains collected from tuberculosis patients in a South African community, of which 92 had complex infections. We find that ClassTR assigns an alternate classification to 18 of the 92 complex infections, suggesting important differences in practice. By explicitly modeling tandem repeat

  2. Two rings but no fellowship: LoTr 1 and its relation to planetary nebulae possessing barium central stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, A. A.; Jones, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Miszalski, B.; Faedi, F.; Lloyd, M.; Boumis, P.; López, J. A.; Martell, S.; Pollacco, D.; Santander-García, M.

    2013-12-01

    LoTr 1 is a planetary nebula thought to contain an intermediate-period binary central star system (that is, a system with an orbital period, P, between 100 and, say, 1500 d). The system shows the signature of a K type, rapidly rotating giant and most likely constitutes an accretion-induced post-mass-transfer system similar to other PNe, such as LoTr 5, WeBo 1 and A70. Such systems represent rare opportunities to further the investigation into the formation of barium stars and intermediate-period post-asymptotic giant branch systems - a formation process still far from being understood. Here, we present the first detailed analyses of both the central star system and the surrounding nebula of LoTr 1 using a combination of spectra obtained with Very Large Telescope-Focal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph, Anglo-Australian Telescope-UCL Coudé Echelle Spectrograph and New Technology Telescope-European Southern Observatory Multi-Mode Instrument, as well as SuperWASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) photometry. We confirm the binary nature of the central star of LoTr 1 that consists of a K1 III giant and a hot white dwarf. The cool giant does not present any sign of s-process enhancement but is shown to have a rotation period of 6.4 d, which is a possible sign of mass accretion. LoTr 1 also presents broad double-peaked Hα emission lines, whose origin is still unclear. The nebula of LoTr 1 consists in two slightly elongated shells, with ages of 17 000 and 35 000 yr, respectively, and with different orientations. As such, LoTr 1 present a very different nebular morphology than A70 and WeBo 1, which may be an indication of difference in the mass-transfer episodes.

  3. How the Saturnian Magnetosphere Conserves Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Wei, H.; Russell, C. T.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn are driven by the centrifugal force of near co-rotating water group ions released at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second by Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plasma is accelerated up to co-rotation speed by the magnetospheric magnetic field coupled to the Saturnian ionosphere. The plasma is lost ultimately through the process of magnetic reconnection in the tail. Conservation of magnetic flux requires that plasma-depleted, "empty" flux tubes return magnetic flux to the inner magnetosphere. After completion of the initial inrush of the reconnected and largely emptied flux tubes inward of the reconnection point, the flux tubes face the outflowing plasma and must move inward against the flow. Observations of such flux tubes have been identified in the eight years of Cassini magnetometer data. The occurrence of these tubes is observed at all local times indicating slow inward transport of the tubes relative to the co-rotation speed. Depleted flux tubes observed in the equatorial region appear as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field, whereas the same flux tubes observed at higher latitudes appear as decreased field strength. The difference in appearance of the low latitude and the high latitude tubes is due to the plasma environment just outside the tube. Warm low-density plasma fills the inside of the flux tube at all latitudes. This flux tube thus will expand in the less dense regions away from the magnetic equator and will be observed as a decrease in the magnitude of the magnetic field from the background. These flux tubes near the equator, where the plasma density outside of the flux tube is much greater, will be observed as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field. Cassini magnetometer and CAPS data are examined to understand the properties of these flux tubes and their radial and latitudinal evolution throughout the Saturnian magnetospheric environment.

  4. Continent - ocean fluxes and isotopic compositions of dissolved silicon contributed by groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, R. B.; Basu, A. R.; West, A. J.; Halliday, A. N.

    2007-12-01

    The global cycle of silicon (Si) is closely linked to that of carbon (C). The breakdown of silicate rocks provides essential nutrients, such as Si, to the marine system and is thought to regulate global climate on geological time scales. It is thought that nearly 85% of the oceanic Si budget is directly maintained via riverine pathways, with the remainder being derived from atmospheric deposition and low-temperature alteration of sea-floor basalt (ELDERFIELD and SCHULTZ, 1996; TRÉGUER et al., 1995). Although groundwater-derived fluxes add to the global Si balance their magnitude and effect on the Si isotopic composition of the oceans have not been elucidated. We have investigated the Si fluxes and associated isotopic compositions of subsurface flow within the Bengal Basin. We find that the groundwater Si fluxes are high and comparable to riverine Si fluxes. For instance, the groundwater derived Si fluxes, directly provided by submarine groundwater discharge into the Bay of Bengal, reach ~70% of the combined Ganges-Brahmaputra Si flux. Moreover the Si isotope composition evolves to lighter and even negative δ30Si values with age and depth. The deep groundwater carries δ30Si as negative as -0.1‰, clearly distinct from the positive δ30Si values typically found for river water. The Si isotope composition of the Brahmaputra appears to be a mixture of isotopically heavier Si from the upper tributaries and lighter Si derived from shallow groundwater. Our data indicate that groundwater derived Si fluxes are significant for the global Si cycle. Silicon isotopes might represent a new tool to trace the relative proportions of groundwater versus riverine Si fluxes. We propose that the continental Si flux into the ocean is enhanced by groundwater, and that the net isotopic composition of continental Si delivered to the oceans will reflect the relative proportion of surface waters versus groundwater. References: Elderfield H. and Schultz A. (1996) An. Rev. Earth Planet

  5. Nanomanufacturing and analysis of novel continuous ferroelectric PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xi

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PVDF copolymers are well known for their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Currently, they are mainly used in applications in the form of films. Thin PVDF films have been shown to possess unique ferroelectric properties in the nanoscale range. However, their two-dimensional nature limits their applicability in active engineering materials and structures. One-dimensional PVDF nanofibers can be expected to combine ferroelectric behavior with enhanced mechanical properties and ultrahigh flexibility providing critical advantages for applications. In this work, novel continuous PVDF nanofibers were nanomanufactured and systematically studied for the first time. Nanofibers from PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer with several molecular weights and co-polymer compositions were manufactured by electrospinning. The method consists of spinning polymer solutions in high electric fields. Effects of process parameters on nanofiber diameters and morphology were studied. Resulting nanofibers were characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, DSC and TGA. Effects of annealing on copolymer nanofibers were analyzed. Nanofiber-reinforced composites were manufactured and their polarization behavior studied using a specially designed experimental device. A number of pioneering observations and discoveries were made as a result of this analysis. For example, analysis of crystalline structure of PVDF nanofibers showed that the initial a phase of the PVDF raw material was converted to beta phase during electrospinning. This result is very encouraging as the beta phase is primarily responsible for the piezo- and ferroelectric behavior of PVDF polymers. It was also shown for the first time that nanofabricated P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers exhibited distinct Curie points and different structures than their raw materials. Annealing was shown to be an effective way to modify properties of P(VDF-TrFE) co-polymer nanofibers. Overall, the results demonstrated for the

  6. Multi-band transit observations of the TrES-2b exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mislis, D.; Schröter, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Cordes, O.; Reif, K.

    2010-02-01

    We present a new data set of transit observations of the TrES-2b exoplanet taken in spring 2009, using the 1.2 m Oskar-Lühning telescope (OLT) of Hamburg Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory using BUSCA (Bonn University Simultaneous CAmera). Both the new OLT data, taken with the same instrumental setup as our data taken in 2008, as well as the simultaneously recorded multicolor BUSCA data confirm the low inclination values reported previously, and in fact suggest that the TrES-2b exoplanet has already passed the first inclination threshold (imin,1 = 83.417°) and is not eclipsing the full stellar surface any longer. Using the multi-band BUSCA data we demonstrate that the multicolor light curves can be consistently fitted with a given set of limb darkening coefficients without the need to adjust these coefficients, and further, we can demonstrate that wavelength dependent stellar radius changes must be small as expected from theory. Our new observations provide further evidence for a change of the orbit inclination of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-2b reported previously. We examine in detail possible causes for this inclination change and argue that the observed change should be interpreted as nodal regression. While the assumption of an oblate host star requires an unreasonably large second harmonic coefficient, the existence of a third body in the form of an additional planet would provide a very natural explanation for the observed secular orbit change. Given the lack of clearly observed short-term variations of transit timing and our observed secular nodal regression rate, we predict a period between approximately 50 and 100 days for a putative perturbing planet of Jovian mass. Such an object should be detectable with present-day radial velocity (RV) techniques, but would escape detection through transit timing variations. Photometric transit data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc

  7. Simulated Hothouse Climate at the P-Tr and implications for the mass extinction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winguth, A. M.; Winguth, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic Boundary (P-Tr, ~251.5 Ma) marks the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic, with a reduction of marine family diversity of 60% and an extinction of marine organisms of 90%, and is characterized by large oscillatory excursions of carbon isotopes, wide-spread anoxia and extreme sea surface temperatures, reaching over 40 C in the equatorial Tethys. Anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel burning over the next centuries will probably lead to a transition into a hothouse world with an ice-free climate analog to that at the P-Tr. The P-Tr global warming has been linked to greenhouse emissions from the Siberian Traps and associated coal-bed intrusions and likely led to severe environmental consequences, such as a decline in the dissolved oxygen concentration and marine productivity. In order to understand these changes, the pole-to-equator heat transport and feedbacks in the climate system have been explored with climate simulations, temperature reconstructions, climate-sensitive sediments, and the distribution of biomes. The response of the ocean circulation to a perturbation of ~4,900 PgC, comparable to the total Earth's fossil fuel inventory, leads to a global temperature increase by 3-4 C and an increase in ocean stratification. The pole-to-equator gradient changes remain small, because an ice-free world already existed during the Late Permian, with an atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~4x the preindustrial value, prior to the carbon pulse. However, the climatic changes might have been amplified by feedback processes. The greenhouse-induced warming could have led to a weakening of the Hadley cell and an associated decrease in the trade winds and equatorial primary productivity. A decline of cloud condensation nuclei due to these changes would lead to reduction of the cloud optical depth, particularly in high latitudes. Results from a climate simulation with reduced optical depth suggest a polar warming of ~5-7 C and a reduction of the pole

  8. Flux quantization on quasicrystalline networks

    SciTech Connect

    Behrooz, A.; Burns, M.J.; Deckman, H.; Levine, D.; Whitehead, B.; Chaikin, P.M.

    1986-07-21

    We have measured the superconducting transition temperature T-italic/sub c-italic/(H) as a function of magnetic field for a network of thin aluminum wires arranged in two quasicrystalline arrays, a Fibonacci sequence and the eightfold-symmetric version of a Penrose tiling. The quasicrystals have two periods whose ratio sigma is irrational and are constructed of two tiles with irrationally related areas. We find a series of dips in deltaT-italic/sub c-italic/(H) corresponding to favorable arrangements of the flux lattice on the quasicrystalline substrate. The largest dips are found at sigma/sup n-italic/ and the dips approach the zero-field transition temperature as n-italic increases.

  9. Triode for Magnetic Flux Quanta

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Benseman, T.; Rosenmann, D.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-11-15

    In an electronic triode, the electron current emanating from the cathode is regulated by the electric potential on a grid between the cathode and the anode. Here we demonstrate a triode for single quantum magnetic field carriers, where the flow of individual magnetic vortices in a superconducting film is regulated by the magnetic potential of striae of soft magnetic strips deposited on the film surface. By rotating an applied in-plane field, the magnetic strip potential can be varied due to changes in the magnetic charges at the strip edges, allowing accelerated or retarded motion of magnetic vortices inside the superconductor. Scaling down our design and reducing the gap width between the magnetic stripes will enable controlled manipulation of individual vortices and creation of single flux quantum circuitry for novel high-speed low-power superconducting electronics.

  10. Triode for Magnetic Flux Quanta

    DOE PAGES

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Benseman, T.; ...

    2016-11-15

    In an electronic triode, the electron current emanating from the cathode is regulated by the electric potential on a grid between the cathode and the anode. Here we demonstrate a triode for single quantum magnetic field carriers, where the flow of individual magnetic vortices in a superconducting film is regulated by the magnetic potential of striae of soft magnetic strips deposited on the film surface. By rotating an applied in-plane field, the magnetic strip potential can be varied due to changes in the magnetic charges at the strip edges, allowing accelerated or retarded motion of magnetic vortices inside the superconductor.more » Scaling down our design and reducing the gap width between the magnetic stripes will enable controlled manipulation of individual vortices and creation of single flux quantum circuitry for novel high-speed low-power superconducting electronics.« less

  11. Triode for Magnetic Flux Quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Benseman, T.; Rosenmann, D.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2016-11-01

    In an electronic triode, the electron current emanating from the cathode is regulated by the electric potential on a grid between the cathode and the anode. Here we demonstrate a triode for single quantum magnetic field carriers, where the flow of individual magnetic vortices in a superconducting film is regulated by the magnetic potential of striae of soft magnetic strips deposited on the film surface. By rotating an applied in-plane field, the magnetic strip potential can be varied due to changes in the magnetic charges at the strip edges, allowing accelerated or retarded motion of magnetic vortices inside the superconductor. Scaling down our design and reducing the gap width between the magnetic stripes will enable controlled manipulation of individual vortices and creation of single flux quantum circuitry for novel high-speed low-power superconducting electronics.

  12. Triode for Magnetic Flux Quanta.

    PubMed

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V K; Colauto, F; Benseman, T; Rosenmann, D; Kwok, W-K

    2016-11-15

    In an electronic triode, the electron current emanating from the cathode is regulated by the electric potential on a grid between the cathode and the anode. Here we demonstrate a triode for single quantum magnetic field carriers, where the flow of individual magnetic vortices in a superconducting film is regulated by the magnetic potential of striae of soft magnetic strips deposited on the film surface. By rotating an applied in-plane field, the magnetic strip potential can be varied due to changes in the magnetic charges at the strip edges, allowing accelerated or retarded motion of magnetic vortices inside the superconductor. Scaling down our design and reducing the gap width between the magnetic stripes will enable controlled manipulation of individual vortices and creation of single flux quantum circuitry for novel high-speed low-power superconducting electronics.

  13. Triode for Magnetic Flux Quanta

    PubMed Central

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Benseman, T.; Rosenmann, D.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2016-01-01

    In an electronic triode, the electron current emanating from the cathode is regulated by the electric potential on a grid between the cathode and the anode. Here we demonstrate a triode for single quantum magnetic field carriers, where the flow of individual magnetic vortices in a superconducting film is regulated by the magnetic potential of striae of soft magnetic strips deposited on the film surface. By rotating an applied in-plane field, the magnetic strip potential can be varied due to changes in the magnetic charges at the strip edges, allowing accelerated or retarded motion of magnetic vortices inside the superconductor. Scaling down our design and reducing the gap width between the magnetic stripes will enable controlled manipulation of individual vortices and creation of single flux quantum circuitry for novel high-speed low-power superconducting electronics. PMID:27845375

  14. A new flux splitting scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A new flux splitting scheme is proposed. The scheme is remarkably simple and yet its accuracy rivals and in some cases surpasses that of Roe's solver in the Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions performed in this study. The scheme is robust and converges as fast as the Roe splitting. An approximately defined cell-face advection Mach number is proposed using values from the two straddling cells via associated characteristic speeds. This interface Mach number is then used to determine the upwind extrapolation for the convective quantities. Accordingly, the name of the scheme is coined as Advection Upstream Splitting Method (AUSM). A new pressure splitting is introduced which is shown to behave successfully, yielding much smoother results than other existing pressure splittings. Of particular interest is the supersonic blunt body problem in which the Roe scheme gives anomalous solutions. The AUSM produces correct solutions without difficulty for a wide range of flow conditions as well as grids.

  15. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  16. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  17. Minkowski vacuum transitions in (nongeometric) flux compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera-Suarez, Wilberth; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar

    2010-02-15

    In this work we study the generalization of twisted homology to geometric and nongeometric backgrounds. In the process, we describe the necessary conditions to wrap a network of D-branes on twisted cycles. If the cycle is localized in time, we show how by an instantonic brane mediation, some D-branes transform into fluxes on different backgrounds, including nongeometric fluxes. As a consequence, we show that in the case of a IIB six-dimensional torus compactification on a simple orientifold, the flux superpotential is not invariant by this brane-flux transition, allowing the connection among different Minkowski vacuum solutions. For the case in which nongeometric fluxes are turned on, we also discuss some topological restrictions for the transition to occur. In this context, we show that there are some vacuum solutions protected to change by a brane-flux transition.

  18. STABILITY AND DYNAMICS OF A FLUX ROPE FORMED VIA FLUX EMERGENCE INTO THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    An, J. M.; Magara, T. E-mail: magara@khu.ac.kr

    2013-08-10

    We study the stability and dynamics of a flux rope formed through the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux tube into the solar atmosphere. A three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation has been performed to investigate several key factors affecting the dynamics of the flux rope. The stability of the flux rope is examined by deriving the decay index of the coronal magnetic field surrounding the flux rope. We investigate a transition between the quasi-static and dynamic states of the flux rope through an analysis of the curvature and scale height of emerging magnetic field. A practical application of this analysis for global eruptions is also considered.

  19. TiTrATE: A Novel Approach to Diagnosing Acute Dizziness and Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Toker, David E.; Edlow, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing dizziness can be challenging, and the consequences of missing dangerous causes such as stroke can be substantial. Most physicians use a diagnostic paradigm developed over 40 years ago that focuses on the type of dizziness (e.g., vertigo vs. non-vertigo), but this approach is flawed. In this article we propose a new paradigm based on symptom timing, triggers, and targeted bedside eye examinations (‘TiTrATE’). Using timing and triggers, patients with recent-onset dizziness will fall into one of four major ‘syndrome’ categories (triggered episodic, spontaneous episodic, post-exposure acute, and spontaneous acute), each with its own differential diagnosis and set of targeted examination techniques that help clinicians make a specific diagnosis. Following an evidence-based approach such as this could help reduce the frequency of misdiagnosis of serious causes of dizziness. PMID:26231273

  20. TR-FRET binding assay targeting unactivated form of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Asami, Tokiko; Kawahata, Wataru; Sawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) is one of the crucial kinases for the B cell maturation and mast cell activation, and specific inhibitors of BTK are considered to be attractive targets in drug discovery research. In this Letter, we have designed and synthesized a new fluorescent probe for TR-FRET-based high-throughput screening, to identify compounds that preferentially bind to an inactive conformation of BTK which has a unique structural feature. A set of kinase-focused compound library was screened using this assay method, and compound 31 was successfully identified as a potent inhibitor which preferentially bind to the inactive conformation of BTK. These results suggest that this screening method has a great potential for the discovery of novel selective BTK inhibitors.

  1. T/R Multi-Chip MMIC Modules for 150 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Pukala, David M.; Soria, Mary M.; Sadowy, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Modules containing multiple monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) chips have been built as prototypes of transmitting/receiving (T/R) modules for millimeter-wavelength radar systems, including phased-array radar systems to be used for diverse purposes that could include guidance and avoidance of hazards for landing spacecraft, imaging systems for detecting hidden weapons, and hazard-avoidance systems for automobiles. Whereas prior landing radar systems have operated at frequencies around 35 GHz, the integrated circuits in this module operate in a frequency band centered at about 150 GHz. The higher frequency (and, hence, shorter wavelength), is expected to make it possible to obtain finer spatial resolution while also using smaller antennas and thereby reducing the sizes and masses of the affected systems.

  2. Possible Transit Timing Variations of the TrES-3 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin; Thakur, Parijat; Wu, Yu-Ting; Chien, Ping; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hong-Yu; Hu, Juei-Hwa; Sun, Zhao; Ji, Jianghui

    2013-03-01

    Five newly observed transit light curves of the TrES-3 planetary system are presented. Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of 911 epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations (TTVs) are investigated. Given that a null TTV produces a fit with reduced χ2 = 1.52, our results agree with previous work, that TTVs might not exist in these data. However, a one-frequency oscillating TTV model, giving a fit with a reduced χ2 = 0.93, does possess a statistically higher probability. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.

  3. POSSIBLE TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE TrES-3 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Wu, Yu-Ting; Chien, Ping; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hong-Yu; Hu, Juei-Hwa; Yeh, Li-Chin; Thakur, Parijat; Sun Zhao; Ji Jianghui

    2013-03-15

    Five newly observed transit light curves of the TrES-3 planetary system are presented. Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of 911 epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations (TTVs) are investigated. Given that a null TTV produces a fit with reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 1.52, our results agree with previous work, that TTVs might not exist in these data. However, a one-frequency oscillating TTV model, giving a fit with a reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 0.93, does possess a statistically higher probability. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.

  4. An evaluation of the "TrEAT Yourself Well" restaurant nutrition campaign.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ram N; Patterson, Paul M; Hill, Esther P; Schmitz, Troy G; Bohm, Erica

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of the "TrEAT Yourself Well" campaign on diners'menu choices using data from four restaurant chains in California. Within each chain, two locations in the greater San Diego area were selected as experimental sites and either one or two locations outside the greater San Diego area were selected as control sites. Various promotional activities, including in-restaurant promotions, community events, and paid media advertising, were conducted in the experimental region to promote healthy menu entrées. The results show that the campaign was successful in reaching diners and had positive effects on their beliefs and attitudes toward healthy dining. The campaign directly increased the probability of a consumer purchasing a healthy menu item by 3.7% (p = .05). By improving consumer attitudes toward healthy menu items, the campaign indirectly increased purchases of these items by 4.4%.

  5. Core-free rolled actuators for Braille displays using P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2012-01-01

    Refreshable Braille displays require many small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required for this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The terpolymer films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%) and blocking forces (1 N) at moderate electric fields (100 MV m-1). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  6. Synthesis and DNA interaction of a mixed proflavine-phenanthroline Tröger base.

    PubMed

    Baldeyrou, Brigitte; Tardy, Christelle; Bailly, Christian; Colson, Pierre; Houssier, Claude; Charmantray, Franck; Demeunynck, Martine

    2002-04-01

    We report the synthesis of an asymmetric Tröger base containing the two well characterised DNA binding chromophores, proflavine and phenanthroline. The mode of interaction of the hybrid molecule was investigated by circular and linear dichroism experiments and a biochemical assay using DNA topoisomerase I. The data are compatible with a model in which the proflavine moiety intercalates between DNA base pairs and the phenanthroline ring occupies the DNA groove. DNase I cleavage experiments were carried out to investigate the sequence preference of the hybrid ligand and a well resolved footprint was detected at a site encompassing two adjacent 5'-GTC.5-GAC triplets. The sequence preference of the asymmetric molecule is compared to that of the symmetric analogues.

  7. Modeling Active Region Evolution - A New LWS TR and T Strategic Capability Model Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 the LWS TR&T Program funded us to develop a strategic capability model of slowly evolving coronal active regions. In this poster we report on the overall design, and status of our new modeling suite. Our design features two coronal field models, a non-linear force free field model and a global 3D MHD code. The suite includes supporting tools and a user friendly GUI which will enable users to query the web for relevant magnetograms, download them, process them to synthesize a sequence of photospheric magnetograms and associated photospheric flow field which can then be applied to drive the coronal model innner boundary, run the coronal models and finally visualize the results.

  8. Hemangiomatosis of the spleen in a patient with Klippel-trénaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dekeyzer, S; Houthoofd, B; De Potter, A; Van Bockstal, M; Smeets, P; Vogelaers, D

    2013-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a triad of port-wine stains, varicose veins, and bony and soft tissue hypertrophy usually involving an extremity. Visceral involvement in Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome is rare, but has been described in the colon, small bowel, bladder, kidney, spleen, liver, mediastinum and brain. In this paper we present the case of a 45-year-old woman with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome in whom routine physical examination unexpectedly revealed the presence of a left upper quadrant mass. Abdominal US, contrast enhanced CT and whole-body PET-CT demonstrated multiple large cystic lesions within a massively enlarged spleen. Based on the clinical history and imaging findings diffuse hemangiomatosis of the spleen was suspected. This diagnosis was confirmed by pathologic examination after splenectomy.

  9. Klippel-trénaunay syndrome - a very rare and interesting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Lamba, Sachin; Pandita, Aakash; Shastri, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS or KT) is an infrequently seen dermatological syndrome, which is often viewed as a triad of vascular malformation (capillary malformations or port-wine brands), venous varicosity, and soft tissue and/or bony hypertrophy. We report a case of a 12-year-old male who presented to us with the symptoms of varicose plaques over both lower limbs and was diagnosed as a case of KTS. Management is normally conservative and includes stockings for compression of the branches to reduce edema because of chronic venous insufficiency; modern devices that cause on and off pneumatic compression; and rarely, surgical correction of varicose veins with lifelong follow-up. The orthopedic abnormalities are treated with epiphysiodesis in order to prevent (stop) overgrowing of limb and correction of bone deformity.

  10. Near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging of Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, John C; Zvavanjanja, Rodrick C; Aldrich, Melissa B; Greives, Matthew R; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between lymphatic and venous malformations in Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome is difficult to assess. Herein the authors describe near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging to assess the lymphatics of a subject with a large port-wine stain and right leg edema. Although lymphatic vessels in the medial, affected knee appeared dilated and perhaps tortuous, no definitive abnormal lymphatic pooling or propulsion was observed. The lymphatics in the affected limb were well defined but less numerous than in the contralateral limb, and active, contractile function was observed in all vessels. As demonstrated, near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging enables the clinical assessment of lymphatics in lymphovenous malformations. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Data Mining Analysis for Eclipsing Binary TrES-Cyg3-04450

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzel, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    A data mining algorithm was utilized to analyze Johnson V-band charge-coupled device (CCD) photometric data of an object that were taken during a wide field survey of a region in the constellation Cygnus. That algorithm was the Date Compensated Discrete Fourier Transform (DC DFT) which is part of the AAVSO VSTAR applications software. This analysis clearly indicated that the object under study is a detached eclipsing binary, specifically an EA β Persei-type (Algol) eclipsing system, with an orbital period of 2.0664 days. Neither the type nor period of this eclipsing binary had been characterized up to this point. This object has been given the AAVSO designation TrES-Cyg3-04450 and the AUID 000-BLL-484.

  12. Research on Fault Rate Prediction Method of T/R Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaodong; Yang, Jiangping; Bi, Zengjun; Zhang, Yu

    2017-07-01

    T/R component is an important part of the large phased array radar antenna array, because of its large numbers, high fault rate, it has important significance for fault prediction. Aiming at the problems of traditional grey model GM(1,1) in practical operation, the discrete grey model is established based on the original model in this paper, and the optimization factor is introduced to optimize the background value, and the linear form of the prediction model is added, the improved discrete grey model of linear regression is proposed, finally, an example is simulated and compared with other models. The results show that the method proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and the solution is simple and the application scope is more extensive.

  13. Discrete wavelet transform coupled with ANN for daily discharge forecasting into Três Marias reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, C. A. G.; Freire, P. K. M. M.; Silva, G. B. L.; Silva, R. M.

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes the use of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to remove the high-frequency components (details) of an original signal, because the noises generally present in time series (e.g. streamflow records) may influence the prediction quality. Cleaner signals could then be used as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) in order to improve the model performance of daily discharge forecasting. Wavelet analysis provides useful decompositions of original time series in high and low frequency components. The present application uses the Coiflet wavelets to decompose hydrological data, as there have been few reports in the literature. Finally, the proposed technique is tested using the inflow records to the Três Marias reservoir in São Francisco River basin, Brazil. This transformed signal is used as input for an ANN model to forecast inflows seven days ahead, and the error RMSE decreased by more than 50% (i.e. from 454.2828 to 200.0483).

  14. Sensitivity of diamond-capped impedance transducer to Tröger's base derivative.

    PubMed

    Stehlik, Stepan; Izak, Tibor; Kromka, Alexander; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2012-08-01

    Sensitivity of an intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer to naphthalene Tröger's base derivative decorated with pyrrole groups (TBPyr) was characterized by impedance spectroscopy. The transducer was made of Au interdigitated electrodes (IDE) with 50 μm spacing on alumina substrate which were capped with the NCD layer. The NCD-capped transducer with H-termination was able to electrically distinguish TBPyr molecules (the change of surface resistance within 30-60 kΩ) adsorbed from methanol in concentrations of 0.04 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. An exponential decay of the surface resistance with time was observed and attributed to the readsorption of air moisture after methanol evaporation. After surface oxidation the NCD cap layer did not show any leakage due to NCD grain boundaries. We analyzed electronic transport in the transducer and propose a model for the sensing mechanism based on surface ion replacement.

  15. Klippel–Trénaunay Syndrome – A Very Rare and Interesting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Lamba, Sachin; Pandita, Aakash; Shastri, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome (KTS or KT) is an infrequently seen dermatological syndrome, which is often viewed as a triad of vascular malformation (capillary malformations or port-wine brands), venous varicosity, and soft tissue and/or bony hypertrophy. We report a case of a 12-year-old male who presented to us with the symptoms of varicose plaques over both lower limbs and was diagnosed as a case of KTS. Management is normally conservative and includes stockings for compression of the branches to reduce edema because of chronic venous insufficiency; modern devices that cause on and off pneumatic compression; and rarely, surgical correction of varicose veins with lifelong follow-up. The orthopedic abnormalities are treated with epiphysiodesis in order to prevent (stop) overgrowing of limb and correction of bone deformity. PMID:25861232

  16. Temperature dependent structural, elastic, and polar properties of ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and trifluoroethylene (TrFE) copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fu-Chang; Dongare, Avinash; Asandei, Alexandru; Alpay, Pamir; Nakhmanson, Serge; University of Connecticut Team

    We use molecular dynamics to calculate the structural, elastic, and polar properties of crystalline ferroelectric β-poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF (-CH2-CF2-)n with randomized trifluoroethylene TrFE (-CHF-CF2-)n as a function of TrFE content (0-50%) in the temperature range of 0-400 K. There is a very good agreement between the experimentally obtained and the computed values of the lattice parameters, thermal expansion coefficients, elastic constants, polarization, and pyroelectric coefficients. A continuous decrease in Young's modulus with increasing TrFE content was observed and attributed to the increased intramolecular and intermolecular repulsive interactions between fluorine atoms. The computed polarization displayed a similar trend, with the room temperature spontaneous polarization decreasing by 44% from 13.8 μC/cm2 (pure PVDF) to 7.7 μC/cm2 [50/50 poly(VDF-co-TrFE)]. Our results show that molecular dynamics can be used as a practical tool to predict the mechanical and polarization-related behavior of ferroelectric poly(VDF-co-TrFE). Such an atomistic model can thus serve as a guide for practical applications of this important multifunctional polymer.

  17. T-R CYCLE CHARACTERIZATION AND IMAGING: ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC METHODOLOGY FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIR AND TRAP DETECTION AND DELINEATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-09-24

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been T-R cycle characterization and modeling. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 was on outcrop study, well log analysis, seismic interpretation and data integration and for the remainder of the year the emphasis has been on T-R cycle model development. Information regarding the characteristics of T-R cycles has been assembled from the study of outcrops, from well log analyses, and from seismic reflection interpretation. From these studies, stratal boundaries separating T-R cycles have been found to be useful for the recognition and delineation of these cycles. The key stratal surfaces include subaerial unconformities, shoreface ravinement surfaces, transgressive surfaces, surfaces of maximum regression, and surfaces of maximum transgression. These surfaces can be identified and mapped in surface exposures and can be recognized in well log signatures and seismic reflection profiles as discontinuities. The findings from the study of outcrop, well log, and seismic reflection data are being integrated into a database for use in constructing a model for T-R cycle development.

  18. Characterization of interactions between PinX1 and human telomerase subunits hTERT and hTR.

    PubMed

    Banik, Soma S R; Counter, Christopher M

    2004-12-10

    The addition of telomeric repeats to chromosome ends by the enzyme telomerase is a highly orchestrated process. Although much is known regarding telomerase catalytic activity in vitro, less is known about how this activity is regulated in vivo to ensure proper telomere elongation. One protein that appears to be involved in negatively regulating telomerase function in vivo is PinX1 because overexpression of PinX1 inhibits telomerase activity and causes telomere shortening. To understand the nature of this repression, we characterized the interactions among PinX1 and the core components of telomerase, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and associated human telomerase RNA (hTR). We now show that in vitro PinX1 binds directly to the hTERT protein subunit, primarily to the hTR-binding domain, as well as to the hTR subunit. However, in a cellular context, the association of PinX1 with hTR is dependent on the presence of hTERT. Taken together, we suggest that PinX1 represses telomerase activity in vivo by binding to the assembled hTERT.hTR complex.

  19. Human Ku70/80 interacts directly with hTR, the RNA component of human telomerase.

    PubMed

    Ting, Nicholas S Y; Yu, Yaping; Pohorelic, Brant; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Beattie, Tara L

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of telomere integrity requires the dynamic interplay between telomerase, telomere-associated proteins and DNA repair proteins. These interactions are vital to suppress DNA damage responses and changes in chromosome dynamics that can result in aneuploidy or other transforming aberrations. The interaction between the DNA repair protein Ku and the RNA component of telomerase (TLC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be important for maintaining telomere length. Here, we sought to determine whether this interaction was conserved in higher eukaryotes. Although there is no sequence similarity between TLC1 and the RNA component (hTR) of human telomerase, we show that human Ku70/80 interacts with hTR both in vitro and in a cellular context. Specifically, Ku70/80 interacts with a 47 nt region of the 3' end of hTR, which resembles the stem-loop region of the yeast Ku70/80 binding domain on TLC1. Furthermore, utilizing immunoprecipitation/RT-PCR experiments, we show that Ku interacts with hTR in cell lines deficient in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (hTERT), suggesting that this interaction does not require hTERT. These data suggest that Ku interacts directly with hTR, independent of hTERT, providing evidence for the conservation of the interaction between Ku and telomerase RNA among various species and provide significant insight into how Ku is involved in telomere maintenance in higher eukaryotes.

  20. Telomerase redefined: integrated regulation of hTR and hTERT for telomere maintenance and telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Cairney, C J; Keith, W N

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase activity is dependent on the expression of 2 main core component genes, hTERT, which encodes the catalytic component and hTR (also called TERC), which encodes the RNA component. The correlation between telomerase activity and carcinogenesis has made this molecule of great interest in cancer research, however in order to fully understand the regulation of telomerase the mechanisms controlling both telomerase genes need to be studied. Some of these mechanisms of regulation have begun to emerge, however many more remain to be deciphered. For many years hTERT has been regarded as the limiting component of telomerase and much of the research in this field has focussed on its regulation, however it was clear from an early stage that hTR expression was also tightly regulated in normal cells and disease. More recently evidence from biochemistry, promoter studies and mouse models has been steadily increasing for a role for hTR as a limiting and essential component for telomerase activity and telomere maintenance. Perhaps the time has come to redefine our view of telomerase regulation. Knowledge of the mechanisms controlling both telomerase genes in normal systems and cancer may aid our understanding of the role of telomerase in carcinogenesis or highlight potential areas for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the essential requirement of hTR for telomere maintenance and telomerase activity in normal tissues and disease and focus on recent advances in our understanding of hTR regulation in relation to hTERT.

  1. Human Ku70/80 interacts directly with hTR, the RNA component of human telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Nicholas S. Y.; Yu, Yaping; Pohorelic, Brant; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Beattie, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of telomere integrity requires the dynamic interplay between telomerase, telomere-associated proteins and DNA repair proteins. These interactions are vital to suppress DNA damage responses and changes in chromosome dynamics that can result in aneuploidy or other transforming aberrations. The interaction between the DNA repair protein Ku and the RNA component of telomerase (TLC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be important for maintaining telomere length. Here, we sought to determine whether this interaction was conserved in higher eukaryotes. Although there is no sequence similarity between TLC1 and the RNA component (hTR) of human telomerase, we show that human Ku70/80 interacts with hTR both in vitro and in a cellular context. Specifically, Ku70/80 interacts with a 47 nt region of the 3′ end of hTR, which resembles the stem–loop region of the yeast Ku70/80 binding domain on TLC1. Furthermore, utilizing immunoprecipitation/RT–PCR experiments, we show that Ku interacts with hTR in cell lines deficient in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (hTERT), suggesting that this interaction does not require hTERT. These data suggest that Ku interacts directly with hTR, independent of hTERT, providing evidence for the conservation of the interaction between Ku and telomerase RNA among various species and provide significant insight into how Ku is involved in telomere maintenance in higher eukaryotes. PMID:15824061

  2. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  3. Extra Mass Flux in Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ván, Peter; Pavelka, Michal; Grmela, Miroslav

    2017-04-01

    The conditions of existence of extra mass flux in single-component dissipative nonrelativistic fluids are clarified. By considering Galilean invariance, we show that if total mass flux is equal to total momentum density, then mass, momentum, angular momentum and booster (center of mass) are conserved. However, these conservation laws may be fulfilled also by other means. We show an example of weakly nonlocal hydrodynamics where the conservation laws are satisfied as well although the total mass flux is different from momentum density.

  4. Novel thin-film heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Hemanshu; Zeller, Mary; Will, Herbert

    1992-01-01

    A new and simpler design for thin-film heat flux sensors for utilization in high heat flux environments is presented. The design of these sensors consists of a planar differential thermopile made up of a number of thermocouple pairs arranged in a circular array, two different thermal resistance layers deposited on the inside and outside junctions of the thermopile and a high emissivity coating. This design has shown good potential for measuring heat fluxes in severe environments of aerospace propulsion systems.

  5. Why live recording sounds better: a case study of Schumann's Träumerei

    PubMed Central

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We explore the concept that artists perform best in front of an audience. The negative effects of performance anxiety are much better known than their related cousin on the other shoulder: the positive effects of “social facilitation.” The present study, however, reveals a listener's preference for performances recorded in front of an audience. In Study 1, we prepared two types of recordings of Träumerei performed by 13 pianists: recordings in front of an audience and those with no audience. According to the evaluation by 153 listeners, the recordings performed in front of an audience sounded better, suggesting that the presence of an audience enhanced or facilitated the performance. In Study 2, we analyzed pianists' durational and dynamic expressions. According to the functional principal components analyses, we found that the expression of “Träumerei” consisted of three components: the overall quantity, the cross-sectional contrast between the final and the remaining sections, and the control of the expressive variability. Pianists' expressions were targeted more to the “average” of the cross-sectional variation in the audience-present than in the audience-absent recordings. In Study 3, we explored a model that explained listeners' responses induced by pianists' acoustical expressions, using path analyses. The final model indicated that the cross-sectional variation of the duration and that of the dynamics determined listeners' evaluations of the quality and the emotionally moving experience, respectively. In line with human's preferences for commonality, the more “average” the durational expressions were in live recording, the better the listeners' evaluations were regardless of their musical experiences. Only the well-experienced listeners (at least 16 years of musical training) were moved more by the “deviated” dynamic expressions in live recording, suggesting a link between the experienced listener's emotional experience and the unique

  6. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.

  7. Improving Stellar and Planetary Parameters of Transiting Planet Systems: The Case of TrES-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, Alessandro; Torres, Guillermo; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Holman, Matthew J.; Winn, Joshua N.; Laird, John B.; O'Donovan, Francis T.

    2007-08-01

    We report on a spectroscopic determination of the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundance of the parent star of the recently discovered transiting planet TrES-2. A detailed LTE analysis of a set of Fe I and Fe II lines from our Keck spectra yields Teff=5850+/-50 K, logg=4.4+/-0.1, and [Fe/H]=-0.15+/-0.10. Several independent checks (e.g., additional spectroscopy, line-depth ratios) confirm the reliability of our spectroscopic Teff estimate. The mass and radius of the star, needed to determine the properties of the planet, are traditionally inferred by comparison with stellar evolution models using Teff and some measure of the stellar luminosity, such as the spectroscopic surface gravity. We apply here a new method in which we use instead of logg the normalized separation a/R* (related to the stellar density), directly measurabele from the light curves of transiting planets with much greater precision. With the a/R* value from the light-curve analysis of Holman and coworkers and our Teff estimate, we obtain M*=0.980+/-0.062 Msolar and R*=1.000+0.036-0.033 Rsolar, and an evolutionary age of 5.1+2.7-2.3 Gyr, in good agreement with other constraints (Ca II H and K line cores, lithium abundance, and rotation). The new stellar parameters yield improved values for the planetary mass and radius of Mp=1.198+/-0.053 MJ and Rp=1.220+0.045-0.042 RJ, confirming that TrES-2 is the most massive among the currently known nearby (d<~300 pc) transiting hot Jupiters. The surface gravity of the planet, loggp=3.299+/-0.016, can be derived independently of the knowledge of the stellar parameters (i.e., directly from observations), and with a very high precision rivaling that of the best known double-lined eclipsing binaries.

  8. Quantifying streambed advection and conduction heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caissie, Daniel; Luce, Charles H.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater and accompanying heat fluxes are particularly relevant for aquatic habitats as they influence living conditions both within the river and streambed. This study focuses on the theory and the development of new equations to estimate conduction and advection heat fluxes into and out of the bed, correcting some earlier misunderstandings and adding parameterizations that extend our understanding of timing of heat fluxes. The new heat flux equations are illustrated using Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada) stream/streambed temperature data. We show important relationships between fluxes when the surface water temperature (1) follows a sinusoidal function superimposed on a steady state condition (constant deep streambed temperature) and (2) when sinusoidal variations in stream temperature at two frequencies (annual and diel) are superimposed. When the stream temperature is used as a prescribed boundary condition, the contribution of bed fluid fluxes to stream temperature occurs through the effects of conductive thermal gradients, not through direct contribution/mixing of cold/warm water. Boundary conditions can be modified, however, to account for direct contribution of cold/warm water (e.g., localized upwelling) and consequences for the conduction heat flux. Equations developed allow for prediction of conductive fluxes to the bed during summer driven by diel and annual temperature fluctuations of the stream water and good agreement was observed between analytic solutions and field data. Results from this study provide a better insight into groundwater and heat fluxes which will ultimately result in better stream temperature models and a better management of fisheries resources.

  9. Organic vapor fluxes through the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Tisdale, A.K.; Cho, H.J.

    1996-10-01

    Volatilization from shallow ground water followed by air-phase transport through the unsaturated zone is a poorly understood process that may be a significant natural remediation mechanism for volatile organic pollutants including chlorinated solvents and gasoline constituents (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.). To improve understanding of this process, the upward flux of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor through the unsaturated zone above a contaminated, water-table aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, has been studied under natural conditions over a 12-mo period. Vertical gas-phase diffusion fluxes were determined indirectly by measuring the TCE vapor concentration gradient in the unsaturated zone and using Fick`s Law to calculate the flux. The total gas-phase flux (e.g., the sum of diffusion and advection fluxes) was measured directly with a vertical flux chamber (VFC). In many cases, the upward TCE vapor flux was several orders of magnitude greater than the upward TCE diffusion flux, suggesting that the vertical transport of TCE vapors by gas advection is significant relative to vertical transport by diffusion. The measured total flux of TCE vapor from the subsurface to the atmosphere is approximately 50 kg/yr and is comparable in magnitude to the removal rate of TCE from the aquifer by an existing pump-and-treat system and by discharge into a nearby stream.

  10. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOEpatents

    Gunkel, Ronald W.; Podey, Larry L.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  11. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  12. Why should autophagic flux be assessed?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-jie; Chen, Sheng; Huang, Kai-xing; Le, Wei-dong

    2013-01-01

    As autophagy is involved in cell growth, survival, development and death, impaired autophagic flux has been linked to a variety of human pathophysiological processes, including neurodegeneration, cancer, myopathy, cardiovascular and immune-mediated disorders. There is a growing need to identify and quantify the status of autophagic flux in different pathological conditions. Given that autophagy is a highly dynamic and complex process that is regulated at multiple steps, it is often assessed accurately. This perspective review article will focus on the autophagic flux defects in different human disorders and update the current methods of monitoring autophagic flux. This knowledge is essential for developing autophagy-related therapeutics for treating the diseases. PMID:23474710

  13. Investigating the Dynamics of Canonical Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Jens; Sears, Jason; Intrator, Thomas; You, Setthivoine

    2016-10-01

    Canonical flux tubes are flux tubes of the circulation of a species' canonical momentum. They provide a convenient generalization of magnetic flux tubes to regimes beyond magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We hypothesize that hierarchies of instabilities which couple disparate scales could transfer magnetic pitch into helical flows and vice versa while conserving the total canonical helicity. This work first explores the possibility of a sausage instability existing on top of a kink as mechanism for coupling scales, then presents the evolution of canonical helicity in a gyrating kinked flux rope. Analytical and numerical stability spaces derived for magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents indicate that, as a flux tube lengthens and collimates, it may become kink unstable with a sausage instability developing on top of the kink. A new analysis of 3D magnetic field and ion flow data on gyrating kinked magnetic flux ropes from the Reconnection Scaling Experiment tracks the evolution of canonical flux tubes and their helicity. These results and methodology are being developed as part of the Mochi experiment specifically designed to observe the dynamics of canonical flux tubes. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0010340 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program and prepared in part by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697161.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism for Rapid Detection of TR34/L98H- and TR46/Y121F/T289A-Positive Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates Obtained from Patients in Iran from 2010 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Faezeh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Zoll, Jan; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Rafati, Haleh; Dehghan, Parvin; Rezaie, Sasan; Tolooe, Ali; Tamadon, Yalda; van der Lee, Henrich A.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    We employed an endpoint genotyping method to update the prevalence rate of positivity for the TR34/L98H mutation (a 34-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with a substitution at codon L98) and the TR46/Y121F/T289A mutation (a 46-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with substitutions at codons Y121 and T289) among clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates obtained from different regions of Iran over a recent 5-year period (2010 to 2014). The antifungal activities of itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole against 172 clinical A. fumigatus isolates were investigated using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution method. For the isolates with an azole resistance phenotype, the cyp51A gene and its promoter were amplified and sequenced. In addition, using a LightCycler 480 real-time PCR system, a novel endpoint genotyping analysis method targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms was evaluated to detect the L98H and Y121F mutations in the cyp51A gene of all isolates. Of the 172 A. fumigatus isolates tested, the MIC values of itraconazole (≥16 mg/liter) and voriconazole (>4 mg/liter) were high for 6 (3.5%). Quantitative analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed the TR34/L98H mutation in the cyp51A genes of six isolates. No isolates harboring the TR46/Y121F/T289A mutation were detected. DNA sequencing of the cyp51A gene confirmed the results of the novel endpoint genotyping method. By microsatellite typing, all of the azole-resistant isolates had genotypes different from those previously recovered from Iran and from the Dutch TR34/L98H controls. In conclusion, there was not a significant increase in the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates harboring the TR34/L98H resistance mechanism among isolates recovered over a recent 5-year period (2010 to 2014) in Iran. A quantitative assay detecting a single

  15. SYSTEM PARAMETERS, TRANSIT TIMES, AND SECONDARY ECLIPSE CONSTRAINTS OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEMS HAT-P-4, TrES-2, TrES-3, and WASP-3 FROM THE NASA EPOXI MISSION OF OPPORTUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2011-01-10

    As part of the NASA EPOXI Mission of Opportunity, we observed seven known transiting extrasolar planet systems in order to construct time series photometry of extremely high phase coverage and precision. Here we present the results for four 'hot-Jupiter systems' with near-solar stars-HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, and WASP-3. We observe 10 transits of HAT-P-4, estimating the planet radius R{sub p} = 1.332 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}, the stellar radius R{sub *} = 1.602 {+-} 0.061 R{sub sun}, the inclination i = 89.67 {+-} 0.30 deg, and the transit duration from first to fourth contact {tau} = 255.6 {+-} 1.9 minutes. For TrES-3, we observe seven transits and find R{sub p} = 1.320 {+-} 0.057 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.817 {+-} 0.022 R{sub sun}, i = 81.99 {+-} 0.30 deg, and {tau} = 81.9 {+-} 1.1 minutes. We also note a long-term variability in the TrES-3 light curve, which may be due to star spots. We observe nine transits of TrES-2 and find R{sub p} = 1.169 {+-} 0.034 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.940 {+-} 0.026 R{sub sun}, i = 84.15 {+-} 0.16 deg, and {tau} = 107.3 {+-} 1.1 minutes. Finally, we observe eight transits of WASP-3, finding R{sub p} = 1.385 {+-} 0.060 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 1.354 {+-} 0.056 R{sub sun}, i = 84.22 {+-} 0.81 deg, and {tau} = 167.3 {+-} 1.3 minutes. We present refined orbital periods and times of transit for each target. We state 95% confidence upper limits on the secondary eclipse depths in our broadband visible bandpass centered on 650 nm. These limits are 0.073% for HAT-P-4, 0.062% for TrES-3, 0.16% for TrES-2, and 0.11% for WASP-3. We combine the TrES-3 secondary eclipse information with the existing published data and confirm that the atmosphere likely does not have a temperature inversion.

  16. β-TrCP1 degradation is a novel action mechanism of PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin; Bae, Edward Jeong; Oh, Seunghoon; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Bae, Insoo

    2015-02-27

    An F-box protein, β-TrCP recognizes substrate proteins and destabilizes them through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. It regulates the stability of diverse proteins and functions as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene. Although the regulation by β-TrCP has been widely studied, the regulation of β-TrCP itself is not well understood yet. In this study, we found that the level of β-TrCP1 is downregulated by various protein kinase inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. A PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 reduced the level of β-TrCP1 in a wide range of TNBC cells in a proteasome-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the levels of c-Myc and cyclin E were also downregulated by PI-103. PI-103 reduced the phosphorylation of β-TrCP1 prior to its degradation. In addition, knockdown of β-TrCP1 inhibited the proliferation of TNBC cells. We further identified that pharmacological inhibition of mTORC2 was sufficient to reduce the β-TrCP1 and c-Myc levels. These results suggest that mTORC2 regulates the stability of β-TrCP1 in TNBC cells and targeting β-TrCP1 is a potential approach to treat human TNBC.

  17. Mesothelin's minimal MUC16 binding moiety converts TR3 into a potent cancer therapeutic via hierarchical binding events at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yang; Tatzel, Katharina; Wang, Xuejun; Belt, Brian; Binder, Pratibha; Kuroki, Lindsay; Powell, Matthew A.; Mutch, David G.; Hawkins, William G.; Spitzer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL has been extensively explored as a cancer drug based on its tumor-selective activity profile but it is incapable per se of discriminating between death receptors expressed by normal host cells and transformed cancer cells. Furthermore, it is well documented that surface tethering substantially increases its biologic activity. We have previously reported on Meso-TR3, a constitutive TRAIL trimer targeted to the biomarker MUC16 (CA125), in which the entire ectodomain of human mesothelin was genetically fused to the TR3 platform, facilitating attachment to the cancer cells via the MUC16 receptor. Here, we designed a truncation variant, in which the minimal 64 amino acid MUC16 binding domain of mesothelin was incorporated into TR3. It turned out that the dual-domain biologic Meso64-TR3 retained its high MUC16 affinity and bound to the cancer cells quickly, independent of the TR3/death receptor interaction. Furthermore, it was substantially more potent than Meso-TR3 and TR3 in vitro and in a preclinical xenograft model of MUC16-dependent ovarian cancer. Phenotypically, Meso64-TR3 is more closely related to non-targeted TR3, evident by indistinguishable activity profiles on MUC16-deficient cancers and similar thermal stability characteristics. Overall, Meso64-TR3 represents a fully human, MUC16-targetd TRAIL-based biologic, ideally suited for exploring preclinical and clinical evaluation studies in MUC16-dependent malignancies. PMID:27120790

  18. Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-06-01

    This cross-disciplinary special issue on 'Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes' follows in the footsteps of another collection of manuscripts dedicated to the subject of magnetic flux ropes, a volume on 'Physics of magnetic flux ropes' published in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Monograph Series in 1990 [1]. Twenty-four years later, this special issue, composed of invited original contributions highlighting ongoing research on the physics of magnetic flux ropes in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas, can be considered an update on our state of understanding of this fundamental constituent of any magnetized plasma. Furthermore, by inviting contributions from research groups focused on the study of the origins and properties of magnetic flux ropes in a variety of different environments, we have attempted to underline both the diversity of and the commonalities among magnetic flux ropes throughout the solar system and, indeed, the universe. So, what is a magnetic flux rope? The answer will undoubtedly depend on whom you ask. A flux rope can be as narrow as a few Larmor radii and as wide as the Sun (see, e.g., the contributions by Heli Hietala et al and by Angelous Vourlidas). As described below by Ward Manchester IV et al , they can stretch from the Sun to the Earth in the form of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Or, as in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment described by David Schaffner et al , they can fit into a meter-long laboratory device tended by college students. They can be helical and line-tied (see, e.g., Walter Gekelman et al or J Sears et al ), or toroidal and periodic (see, e.g., John O'Bryan et al or Philippa Browning et al ). They can form in the low plasma beta environment of the solar corona (Tibor Török et al ), the order unity beta plasmas of the solar wind (Stefan Eriksson et al ) and the plasma pressure dominated stellar convection zones (Nicholas Nelson and Mark Miesch). In this special issue, Setthivoine You

  19. [Forensic assessment of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder: a commentary on the transition from DSM-IV-TR (I)].

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; Fabra, M

    2013-12-01

    In May 2013 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has released the latest and fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Like its predecessor, the DSM-IV-TR, it will have considerable impact on the science of Psychiatry. The DSM-5 describes - actually available in English - the present medical knowledge about mental disorders. In the short run, German medical science and scientific medicolegal expertises will continue to rely on the German version of the DSM-IV-TR, however, they will be difficult to defend without bearing in mind the changes that DSM-5 brings about. This report discusses the transition from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 with regard to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and provides suggestions, how the criteria might be evaluated.

  20. Measurement and Prediction of H2O Outgassing Kinetics from Silica-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane TR55 and S5370

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Burnham, A K; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Maxwell, R S; Balazs, B; McLean II, W

    2006-08-28

    The isoconversional technique was employed for the measurement and prediction of H2O outgassing kinetics from silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane TR55 and S5370 in a vacuum or dry environment. Isoconversional analysis indicates that the energy barrier for H2O release from TR55 and S5370 is an increasing function of the fractional H2O release. This can be interpreted as the release of H2O from physisorbed water and then chemisorbed water with decreasing OH density from the surfaces of the embedded silica particles. Model independent predictions of H2O outgassing based on the measured kinetics follow the trend of actual isothermal outgassing at elevated temperatures, and suggest gradual outgassing in dry storage over many decades at low temperatures for both TR55 and S5370.

  1. Sediment Diagenesis and Benthic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, S.; Hedges, J.

    2003-12-01

    Chemical reactions in marine sediments and the resulting fluxes across the sediment-water interface influence the global carbon cycle and the pH of the sea and affect the abundance of CaCO3 and opal-forming plankton in the ocean. On very long timescales these diagenetic reactions control carbon burial in sedimentary rocks and the oxygen content of the atmosphere. Sedimentary deposits that remain after diagenesis are the geochemical artifacts used for interpreting past changes in ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. This chapter is about the processes of diagenesis and burial of the chemical elements that make up the bulk of the particulate matter that reaches the seafloor (organic matter, CaCO3, SiO2, Fe, Mn, and aluminosilicates).Understanding of sediment diagenesis and benthic fluxes has evolved with advances in both experimental methods and modeling. Measurements of chemical concentrations in sediments, their associated pore waters and fluxes at the sediment-water interface have been used to identify the most important reactions. Because transport in pore waters is usually by molecular diffusion, this medium is conducive to interpretation by models of heterogeneous chemical equilibrium and kinetics. Large chemical changes and manageable transport mechanisms have led to elegant models of sediment diagenesis and great advances in understanding of diagenetic processes.We shall see, though, that the environment does not yield totally to simple models of chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics, and laboratory determined constants often cannot explain the field observations. For example, organic matter degradation rate constants determined from modeling are so variable that there are essentially no constraints on these values from laboratory experiments. In addition, reaction rates of CaCO3 and opal dissolution determined from modeling pore waters usually cannot be reproduced in laboratory experiments of these reactions. The inability to

  2. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  3. Magnetic Flux Compression in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic flux compression (MFC) as a method for producing ultra-high pulsed magnetic fields had been originated in the 1950s by Sakharov et al. at Arzamas in the USSR (now VNIIEF, Russia) and by Fowler et al. at Los Alamos in the US. The highest magnetic field produced by explosively driven MFC generator, 28 MG, was reported by Boyko et al. of VNIIEF. The idea of using MFC to increase the magnetic field in a magnetically confined plasma to 3-10 MG, relaxing the strict requirements on the plasma density and Lawson time, gave rise to the research area known as MTF in the US and MAGO in Russia. To make a difference in ICF, a magnetic field of ˜100 MG should be generated via MFC by a plasma liner as a part of the capsule compression scenario on a laser or pulsed power facility. This approach was first suggested in mid-1980s by Liberman and Velikovich in the USSR and Felber in the US. It has not been obvious from the start that it could work at all, given that so many mechanisms exist for anomalously fast penetration of magnetic field through plasma. And yet, many experiments stimulated by this proposal since 1986, mostly using pulsed-power drivers, demonstrated reasonably good flux compression up to ˜42 MG, although diagnostics of magnetic fields of such magnitude in HED plasmas is still problematic. The new interest of MFC in plasmas emerged with the advancement of new drivers, diagnostic methods and simulation tools. Experiments on MFC in a deuterium plasma filling a cylindrical plastic liner imploded by OMEGA laser beam led by Knauer, Betti et al. at LLE produced peak fields of 36 MG. The novel MagLIF approach to low-cost, high-efficiency ICF pursued by Herrmann, Slutz, Vesey et al. at Sandia involves pulsed-power-driven MFC to a peak field of ˜130 MG in a DT plasma. A review of the progress, current status and future prospects of MFC in plasmas is presented.

  4. Chaos in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W. N.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic Flux Ropes Immersed in a uniform magnetoplasma are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and rotate about a central axis. They are kink unstable and smash into one another as they move. Full three dimensional magnetic field and flows are measured at thousands of time steps. Each collision results in magnetic field line generation and the generation of a quasi-seperatrix layer and induced electric fields. Three dimensional magnetic field lines are computed by conditionally averaging the data using correlation techniques. The permutation entropy1 ,which is related to the Lyapunov exponent, can be calculated from the the time series of the magnetic field data (this is also done with flows) and used to calculate the positions of the data on a Jensen Shannon complexity map2. The location of data on this map indicates if the magnetic fields are stochastic, or fall into regions of minimal or maximal complexity. The complexity is a function of space and time. The complexity map, and analysis will be explained in the course of the talk. Other types of chaotic dynamical models such as the Lorentz, Gissinger and Henon process also fall on the map and can give a clue to the nature of the flux rope turbulence. The ropes fall in the region of the C-H plane where chaotic systems lie. The entropy and complexity change in space and time which reflects the change and possibly type of chaos associated with the ropes. The maps give insight as to the type of chaos (deterministic chaos, fractional diffusion , Levi flights..) and underlying dynamical process. The power spectra of much of the magnetic and flow data is exponential and Lorentzian structures in the time domain are embedded in them. Other quantities such as the Hurst exponent are evaluated for both magnetic fields and plasma flow. Work Supported by a UC-LANL Lab fund and the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by DOE and NSF. 1) C. Bandt, B. Pompe, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88,174102 (2007) 2

  5. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  6. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  7. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  8. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  9. Data model and relational database design for the New Jersey Water-Transfer Data System (NJWaTr)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tessler, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The New Jersey Water-Transfer Data System (NJWaTr) is a database design for the storage and retrieval of water-use data. NJWaTr can manage data encompassing many facets of water use, including (1) the tracking of various types of water-use activities (withdrawals, returns, transfers, distributions, consumptive-use, wastewater collection, and treatment); (2) the storage of descriptions, classifications and locations of places and organizations involved in water-use activities; (3) the storage of details about measured or estimated volumes of water associated with water-use activities; and (4) the storage of information about data sources and water resources associated with water use. In NJWaTr, each water transfer occurs unidirectionally between two site objects, and the sites and conveyances form a water network. The core entities in the NJWaTr model are site, conveyance, transfer/volume, location, and owner. Other important entities include water resource (used for withdrawals and returns), data source, permit, and alias. Multiple water-exchange estimates based on different methods or data sources can be stored for individual transfers. Storage of user-defined details is accommodated for several of the main entities. Many tables contain classification terms to facilitate the detailed description of data items and can be used for routine or custom data summarization. NJWaTr accommodates single-user and aggregate-user water-use data, can be used for large or small water-network projects, and is available as a stand-alone Microsoft? Access database. Data stored in the NJWaTr structure can be retrieved in user-defined combinations to serve visualization and analytical applications. Users can customize and extend the database, link it to other databases, or implement the design in other relational database applications.

  10. ECM components guide IL-10 producing regulatory T-cell (TR1) induction from effector memory T-cell precursors

    PubMed Central

    Bollyky, Paul L.; Wu, Rebecca P.; Falk, Ben A.; Lord, James D.; Long, S. Alice; Preisinger, Anton; Teng, Brandon; Holt, Gregory E.; Standifer, Nathan E.; Braun, Kathleen R.; Xie, Cindy Fang; Samuels, Peter L.; Vernon, Robert B.; Gebe, John A.; Wight, Thomas N.; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a role for ECM as a biosensor for inflammatory microenvironments that plays a critical role in peripheral immune tolerance. We show that hyaluronan (HA) promotes induction of Foxp3- IL-10–producing regulatory T cells (TR1) from conventional T-cell precursors in both murine and human systems. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ECM component inducing regulatory T cells. Intact HA, characteristic of healing tissues, promotes induction of TR1 capable of abrogating disease in an IL-10–dependent mouse colitis model whereas fragmentary HA, typical of inflamed tissues, does not, indicating a decisive role for tissue integrity in this system. The TR1 precursor cells in this system are CD4+CD62L−FoxP3−, suggesting that effector memory cells assume a regulatory phenotype when they encounter their cognate antigen in the context of intact HA. Matrix integrity cues might thereby play a central role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. This TR1 induction is mediated by CD44 cross-linking and signaling through p38 and ERK1/2. This induction is suppressed, also in a CD44-dependent manner, by osteopontin, a component of chronically inflamed ECM, indicating that CD44 signaling serves as a nexus for fate decisions regarding TR1 induction. Finally, we demonstrate that TR1 induction signals can be recapitulated using synthetic matrices. These results reveal important roles for the matrix microenvironment in immune regulation and suggest unique strategies for immunomodulation. PMID:21518860

  11. FiatFlux--a software for metabolic flux analysis from 13C-glucose experiments.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Nicola; Fischer, Eliane; Sauer, Uwe

    2005-08-25

    Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes is important for a comprehensive characterization of metabolic networks and their functional operation. In contrast to direct assessment of metabolite concentrations, in vivo metabolite fluxes must be inferred indirectly from measurable quantities in 13C experiments. The required experience, the complicated network models, large and heterogeneous data sets, and the time-consuming set-up of highly controlled experimental conditions largely restricted metabolic flux analysis to few expert groups. A conceptual simplification of flux analysis is the analytical determination of metabolic flux ratios exclusively from MS data, which can then be used in a second step to estimate absolute in vivo fluxes. Here we describe the user-friendly software package FiatFlux that supports flux analysis for non-expert users. In the first module, ratios of converging fluxes are automatically calculated from GC-MS-detected 13C-pattern in protein-bound amino acids. Predefined fragmentation patterns are automatically identified and appropriate statistical data treatment is based on the comparison of redundant information in the MS spectra. In the second module, absolute intracellular fluxes may be calculated by a 13C-constrained flux balancing procedure that combines experimentally determined fluxes in and out of the cell and the above flux ratios. The software is preconfigured to derive flux ratios and absolute in vivo fluxes from [1-13C] and [U-13C]glucose experiments and GC-MS analysis of amino acids for a variety of microorganisms. FiatFlux is an intuitive tool for quantitative investigations of intracellular metabolism by users that are not familiar with numerical methods or isotopic tracer experiments. The aim of this open source software is to enable non-specialists to adapt the software to their specific scientific interests, including other 13C-substrates, labeling mixtures, and organisms.

  12. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    Characterization of stratigraphic sequences (T-R cycles or sequences) included outcrop studies, well log analysis and seismic reflection interpretation. These studies were performed by researchers at the University of Alabama, Wichita State University and McGill University. The outcrop, well log and seismic characterization studies were used to develop a depositional sequence model, a T-R cycle (sequence) model, and a sequence stratigraphy predictive model. The sequence stratigraphy predictive model developed in this study is based primarily on the modified T-R cycle (sequence) model. The T-R cycle (sequence) model using transgressive and regressive systems tracts and aggrading, backstepping, and infilling intervals or sections was found to be the most appropriate sequence stratigraphy model for the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico to improve petroleum stratigraphic trap and specific reservoir facies imaging, detection and delineation. The known petroleum reservoirs of the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins were classified using T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The transgressive backstepping reservoirs have been the most productive of oil, and the transgressive backstepping and regressive infilling reservoirs have been the most productive of gas. Exploration strategies were formulated using the sequence stratigraphy predictive model and the classification of the known petroleum reservoirs utilizing T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The well log signatures and seismic reflector patterns were determined to be distinctive for the aggrading, backstepping and infilling sections of the T-R cycle (sequence) and as such, well log and seismic data are useful for recognizing and defining potential reservoir facies. The use of the sequence stratigraphy predictive model, in combination with the knowledge of how the distinctive characteristics of the T-R system tracts and their subdivisions are expressed in well log patterns

  13. Pharmacologic vitreodynamics and molecular flux.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, David T; Trese, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    Several enzymatic agents, such as autologous plasmin enzyme and recombinant microplasmin, are able to cause vitreous liquefaction and a complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Advancements in research have helped to explain the complex interactions that occur in the vitreous cavity after a PVD is created. The development of a PVD is a dynamic process that is thought to have a larger impact on the vitreous cavity milieu than just a separation of the posterior cortical vitreous from the retina. Pharmacologic vitreodynamics attempts to explain the mechanical and biochemical changes that occur at the vitreoretinal junction after a PVD is formed. The flow of molecules into and out of the vitreous cavity and across the vitreoretinal junction is thought to be influenced by the presence or absence of a PVD. A microplasmin-induced PVD has been shown to alter the vitreous levels of several molecules, and a PVD may have a protective role in multiple diseases. Significant progress has been made in the field of pharmacologic vitreodynamics. As we improve our understanding of the molecular flux in the vitreous cavity, pharmacologic vitreodynamics will likely become more important as it may allow for improved manipulation of intravitreal molecules.

  14. Pulmonary transvascular flux of transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B. )

    1989-11-01

    We compared the pulmonary transvascular fluxes of transferrin and albumin in the intact sheep lung. Anesthetized sheep were prepared with lung lymph fistulas. The vascular blood pool was marked with {sup 99m}Tc-erythrocytes, autologous transferrin was labeled with {sup 113m}In, and albumin was labeled with {sup 125}I. Samples of blood, plasma, lymph, and lung were obtained up to 180 min after tracer infusion. Lymph tissue radioactivities were corrected for the intravascular component and expressed as extravascular-to-plasma concentration ratios. Clearance of transferrin and albumin from the plasma space followed a two-compartment model. The clearance rate constant was 2.1 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for albumin and 2.4 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for transferrin (P less than 0.05). Lymph-to-plasma ratios for albumin and transferrin were not different. However, the extravascular-to-plasma ratio for albumin was greater than transferrin (P less than 0.05). The lymph and lung data were deconvoluted for the plasma input function and fit to a two-compartment model. The results indicate that albumin and transferrin have similar permeabilities across the vascular barrier but have different pulmonary circulation to lymph kinetics because the extravascular volume of distribution of albumin is greater than transferrin.

  15. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  16. Fast flux module detection using matroid theory.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C; Bruggeman, Frank J; Olivier, Brett G; Stougie, Leen

    2015-05-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most often applied methods on genome-scale metabolic networks. Although FBA uniquely determines the optimal yield, the pathway that achieves this is usually not unique. The analysis of the optimal-yield flux space has been an open challenge. Flux variability analysis is only capturing some properties of the flux space, while elementary mode analysis is intractable due to the enormous number of elementary modes. However, it has been found by Kelk et al. (2012) that the space of optimal-yield fluxes decomposes into flux modules. These decompositions allow a much easier but still comprehensive analysis of the optimal-yield flux space. Using the mathematical definition of module introduced by Müller and Bockmayr (2013b), we discovered useful connections to matroid theory, through which efficient algorithms enable us to compute the decomposition into modules in a few seconds for genome-scale networks. Using that every module can be represented by one reaction that represents its function, in this article, we also present a method that uses this decomposition to visualize the interplay of modules. We expect the new method to replace flux variability analysis in the pipelines for metabolic networks.

  17. The minimum flux corona; theory or concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The reply to the criticisms of the minimum flux theory is discussed. These criticisms are correct in substance, as well as in detail. Counter arguments that the minimum flux corona theory is untenable, because of errors in its formulation, are presented.

  18. AmeriFlux US-Brw Barrow

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University; Zona, Donatella [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Brw Barrow. Site Description - The local landscape surrounding the Barrow site has a history absent of any disturbances. The terrain was not heavily glaciated during the last period of glaciation. The vegetation is mature in an unmanaged and undisturbed Arctic tundra.

  19. AmeriFlux US-Dia Diablo

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dia Diablo. Site Description - The site is on land owned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Site 300) and has no grazing or management history since the 1950's except for summer-time burning of selected acres for fire management (not included in the tower footprint).

  20. AmeriFlux US-Ivo Ivotuk

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oechel, Walter [San Diego State University; Zona, Donatella [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ivo Ivotuk. Site Description - This site is 300 km south of Barrow and is located at the foothill of the Brooks Range and is classified as tussock sedge, dwarf-shrub, moss tundra.

  1. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic c...

  2. Metabolic flux estimation in mammalian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T; Biener, Richard K; Piret, James M; Konstantinov, Konstantin B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis with its ability to quantify cellular metabolism is an attractive tool for accelerating cell line selection, medium optimization, and other bioprocess development activities. In the stoichiometric flux estimation approach, unknown fluxes are determined using intracellular metabolite mass balance expressions and measured extracellular rates. The simplicity of the stoichiometric approach extends its application to most cell culture systems, and the steps involved in metabolic flux estimation by the stoichiometric method are presented in detail in this chapter. Specifically, overdetermined systems are analyzed since the extra measurements can be used to check for gross measurement errors and system consistency. Cell-specific rates comprise the input data for flux estimation, and the logistic modeling approach is described for robust-specific rate estimation in batch and fed-batch systems. A simplified network of mammalian cell metabolism is used to illustrate the flux estimation procedure, and the steps leading up the consistency index determination are presented. If gross measurement errors are detected, a technique for determining the source of gross measurement error is also described. A computer program that performs most of the calculation described in this chapter is presented, and references to flux estimation software are provided. The procedure presented in this chapter should enable rapid metabolic flux estimation in any mammalian cell bioreaction network by the stoichiometric approach.

  3. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  4. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic c...

  5. Flux Noise in a Superconducting Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, F. T.

    2017-08-01

    We study a superconducting transmission line (TL) formed by distributed L C oscillators and excited by external magnetic fluxes which are aroused from random magnetization (A ) placed in substrate or (B ) distributed at interfaces of a two-wire TL. The low-frequency dynamics of a random magnetic field is described based on the diffusion Langevin equation with a short-range source caused by (a ) a random amplitude or (b ) the gradient of magnetization. For a TL modeled as a two-port network with open and shorted ends, the effective magnetic flux at the open end has nonlocal dependency on noise distribution along the TL. The flux-flux correlation function is evaluated and analyzed for the regimes (A a ), (A b ), (B a ), and (B b ). Essential frequency dispersion takes place around the inverse diffusion time of random flux along the TL. Typically, noise effect increases with size faster than the area of the TL. The flux-flux correlator can be verified both via the population relaxation rate of the qubit, which is formed by the Josephson junction shunted by the TL with flux noises, and via random voltage at the open end of the TL.

  6. Investigating the Dynamics of Canonical Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Jens; Carroll, Evan; Kamikawa, Yu; Lavine, Eric; Vereen, Keon; You, Setthivoine

    2013-10-01

    Canonical flux tubes are defined by tracing areas of constant magnetic and fluid vorticity flux. This poster will present the theory for canonical flux tubes and current progress in the construction of an experiment designed to observe their evolution. In the zero flow limit, canonical flux tubes are magnetic flux tubes, but in full form, present the distinct advantage of reconciling two-fluid plasma dynamics with familiar concepts of helicity, twists and linkages. The experiment and the DCON code will be used to investigate a new MHD stability criterion for sausage and kink modes in screw pinches that has been generalized to magnetic flux tubes with skin and core currents. Camera images and a 3D array of ˙ B probes will measure tube aspect-ratio and ratio of current-to-magnetic flux, respectively, to trace these flux tube parameters in a stability space. The experiment's triple electrode planar gun is designed to generate azimuthal and axial flows. These diagnostics together with a 3D vector tomographic reconstruction of ion Doppler spectroscopy will be used to verify the theory of canonical helicity transport. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  7. METHOD AND FLUX COMPOSITION FOR TREATING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.

    1958-08-23

    ABS>A flux composition is described fer use with molten uranium or uranium alloys. The flux consists of about 46 weight per cent calcium fiuoride, 46 weight per cent magnesium fluoride and about 8 weight per cent of uranium tetrafiuoride.

  8. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  9. Methane flux time series for tundra environments

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, S.C.; Reeburgh, W.E. )

    1988-12-01

    Seasonal measurements of net methane flux were made at permanent sites representing important components of arctic tundra. The sites include Eriophorum tussocks, intertussock depressions, moss-covered areas, and Carex stands. Methane fluxes showed high diel, seasonal, intra site, and between site variability. Eriophorum tussocks and Carex dominated methane release to the atmosphere, with mean annual net methane fluxes of 8.05 + or{minus}2.50 g CH{sub 4}/sq m and 4.88 + or{minus}0.73 g CH{sub 4}/sq m, respectively. Methane fluxes form the moss sites and intertussock depressions were much lower. Over 90% of the mean annual methane flux from the Eriophorum, intertussock depressions, and Carex sites occurred between thaw and freeze-up. Some 40% of the mean annual methane flux from the moss sites occurred during winter. Composite methane fluxes for tussock tundra and Carex-dominated wet meadow tundra environments were produced by weighting measured component fluxes according to areal coverage. Tussock and wet meadow tundra account for an estimated global methane emission of 19-33 Tg/yr. 39 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Atq Atqasuk

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University; Zona, Donatella [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Atq Atqasuk. Site Description - This site is 100 km south of Barrow, Alaska, Variety of moist-wet coastal sedge tundra, and moist-tussock tundra surfaces in the more well-drained upland.

  11. Filament Interaction Modeled by Flux Rope Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of "slingshot" reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Démoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  12. Spacecraft-produced neutron fluxes on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quist, T. C.; Furst, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Baum, J. H.; Peacock, C. L., Jr.; Perry, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of neutron fluxes in different energy ranges are reported for the Skylab spacecraft. Detectors composed of uranium, thorium, and bismuth foils with mica as a fission track recorder, as well as boron foils with cellulose acetate as an alpha-particle recorder, were deployed at different positions in the Orbital Workshop. It was found that the Skylab neutron flux was dominated by high energy (greater than 1 MeV) contributions and that there was no significant time variation in the fluxes. Firm upper limits of 7-15 neutrons/sq cm-sec, depending on the detector location in the spacecraft, were established for fluxes above 1 MeV. Below 1 MeV, the neutron fluxes were about an order of magnitude lower. The neutrons are interpreted as originating from the interactions of leakage protons from the radiation belt with the spacecraft.

  13. Digitally Calibrated TR Modules Enabling Real-Time Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James P.; Veilleux, Louse A.; Peral, Eva; Chuang, Chung-Lun; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    SweepSAR, a novel radar architecture that depends on a DBF (digital beamforming) array, requires calibration accuracies that are order(s) of magnitude greater than is possible with traditional techniques, such as a priori characterization of TR (transmit/receive) modules in thermal vacuum chambers, or simple loop-back of the calibration signal. The advantages of a SweepSAR architecture are so great that it is worth applying significant resources to calibration efforts. Due to the nature of the DBF, each channel contains a digitizer and very powerful digital processor. Each channel can independently digitize (with the digitizer) and analyze (with the processor) its channel's unique calibration signal, and extract the relevant calibration parameters, namely channel gain and channel phase delay commonly referred to as the gain (or amplitude) and phase of the channel. Using the processor, each channel's gain and phase can theoretically be estimated with arbitrary precision through averaging a sufficiently large number of samples. Systematic errors and the changing gain and phase of the channels, typically due to temperature drifts, limits how long the averaging can occur, which limits the precision of the calibration estimate. However, results indicate that calibration knowledge of both the transmit and receive chains of each TR module can be improved by one or two orders of magnitude. Due to the digital nature of the receiver data, the channel's gain and phase may be corrected by a similar amount, while the transmit chain can only be corrected in a traditional manner. To implement Sweep SAR, the order of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the channel's gain and phase is needed, and the control of the receiver to a similar level is required. Inherent to the DBF array is the individual digitization of each of the array's receiver channels. Current systems typically combine all of the analog signals in the array into one or two analog channels, which are then

  14. Nitrogen Gas Fluxes in Northeastern Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Venterea, R. T.; Lovett, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Nitrogen gas fluxes are a poorly quantified component of the nitrogen (N) cycle of forest ecosystems and are important to water quality, atmospheric chemistry and forest health. We measured fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and dinitrogen (N2) in oak and maple stands in the Catskill mountains of New York State. Fluxes of NO and N2O were measured using in situ chambers and N2 flux was measured in intact cores incubated in a helium-oxygen atmosphere closed recirculation system in the laboratory. Fluxes of NO and N2O were higher in maple than in oak stands, which is consistent with previous work showing higher rates of N cycling under maple than oak. NO fluxes averaged 1.7 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.2 in oak. N2O fluxes averaged 0.10 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.004 in oak. However, N2 fluxes were higher in oak (2.3 mg N m-2 d-1) than maple (0.15), a surprising result that was supported by independent measurements of denitrification potential. There was marked variability in fluxes between replicate plots that was linked to the presence of understory vegetation and physical characteristics of the forest floor. Results suggest that N gas fluxes in northeastern temperate forests may be more important than previously thought and may be an important regulator of export of N to coastal waters, N-related atmospheric chemistry and forest N saturation.

  15. OpenFLUX: efficient modelling software for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Lake-Ee; Wittmann, Christoph; Nielsen, Lars K; Krömer, Jens O

    2009-01-01

    Background The quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes, i.e., in vivo activities of intracellular enzymes and pathways, provides key information on biological systems in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It is based on a comprehensive approach combining (i) tracer cultivation on 13C substrates, (ii) 13C labelling analysis by mass spectrometry and (iii) mathematical modelling for experimental design, data processing, flux calculation and statistics. Whereas the cultivation and the analytical part is fairly advanced, a lack of appropriate modelling software solutions for all modelling aspects in flux studies is limiting the application of metabolic flux analysis. Results We have developed OpenFLUX as a user friendly, yet flexible software application for small and large scale 13C metabolic flux analysis. The application is based on the new Elementary Metabolite Unit (EMU) framework, significantly enhancing computation speed for flux calculation. From simple notation of metabolic reaction networks defined in a spreadsheet, the OpenFLUX parser automatically generates MATLAB-readable metabolite and isotopomer balances, thus strongly facilitating model creation. The model can be used to perform experimental design, parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis either using the built-in gradient-based search or Monte Carlo algorithms or in user-defined algorithms. Exemplified for a microbial flux study with 71 reactions, 8 free flux parameters and mass isotopomer distribution of 10 metabolites, OpenFLUX allowed to automatically compile the EMU-based model from an Excel file containing metabolic reactions and carbon transfer mechanisms, showing it's user-friendliness. It reliably reproduced the published data and optimum flux distributions for the network under study were found quickly (<20 sec). Conclusion We have developed a fast, accurate application to perform steady-state 13C metabolic flux analysis. OpenFLUX will strongly facilitate and enhance the design

  16. OGLE2-TR-L9b: an exoplanet transiting a rapidly rotating F3 star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snellen, I. A. G.; Koppenhoefer, J.; van der Burg, R. F. J.; Dreizler, S.; Greiner, J.; de Hoon, M. D. J.; Husser, T. O.; Krühler, T.; Saglia, R. P.; Vuijsje, F. N.

    2009-04-01

    Context: The photometric observations of the OGLE-II microlens monitoring campaign have been taken in the period 1997-2000. All light curves of this campaign have recently become public. Our analysis of these data has revealed 13 low-amplitude transiting objects among 15 700 stars in three Carina fields towards the Galactic disk. One of these objects, OGLE2-TR-L9 (P˜2.5 days), turned out to be an excellent transiting-planet candidate. Aims: We report on our investigation of the true nature of OGLE2-TR-L9. By re-observing the photometric transit, we attempt to determine the transit parameters to high precision, and, by spectroscopic observations, to estimate the properties of the host star and determine the mass of the transiting object by means of radial-velocity measurements. Methods: High precision photometric observations were obtained in g', r', i', and z' band simultaneously, using the new GROND detector, mounted on the MPI/ESO 2.2 m telescope at La Silla. Eight epochs of high-dispersion spectroscopic observations were obtained using the fiber-fed FLAMES/UVES Echelle spectrograph, mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal. Results: The photometric transit, now more than 7 years after the last OGLE-II observations, was re-discovered only 8 min from its predicted time. The primary object is a rapidly rotating F3 star with v sin i=39.33±0.38 km s-1, T=6933±58 K, log g = 4.25±0.01, and [Fe/H] = -0.05±0.20. The transiting object is an extrasolar planet with M{p}=4.5±1.5 M{Jup} and R{p}=1.61±0.04 R{Jup}. Since this is the first planet detected orbiting a fast rotating star, the uncertainties in both the radial-velocity measurements and the planetary mass are larger than for most other planets discovered to date. The rejection of possible blend scenarios was based on a quantitative analysis of the multi-color photometric data. A stellar-blend scenario of an early F-star with a faint eclipsing-binary system is excluded, due to 1) the consistency between

  17. Element flux in cleaved limestones

    SciTech Connect

    McNaught, M.A.; Erslev, E.A. . Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1992-01-01

    Spaced cleavage in limestone is commonly assumed to result from dissolution of carbonate minerals and passive concentration of other minerals in cleavage zones. More complicated processes are suggested by new element data acquired with the CSU XRF-macroprobe. Overlapping spot analyses were made along bed parallel traverses across cleavage zones in samples from the Twin Creek Formation (TCF) of southeast Idaho and the Poxono Island Formation (PIF) of eastern Pennsylvania. If calcite is the sole mobile phase, Ca should decrease as the other immobile elements increase proportionately. Though Ca is the only major element which consistently decreases in cleavage zones, changes in the relative proportions of the other elements indicate varying degrees of mobility. Al and Ti both increase in cleavage zones and maintain a constant ratio, suggesting immobile behavior. Because Al is more abundant than Ti, mobilities of other elements are determined relative to Al. Mg/Al and Fe/Al ratios are constant for PIF samples but show no systematic relationships in TCF samples, which have lower phyllosilicate contents. Si/Al ratios are relatively constant for most samples but in some PIF samples Si/Al ratios decrease in cleavage zones. This may be the result of dissolution of quartz or Si loss during phyllosilicate reactions. K/Al ratios are constant for limestones with average K/Al atomic ratios of 1/3 whereas samples lower K/Al ratios show increasing K/Al in cleavage zones. This suggests that the growth of new phyllosilicates in the K-poor cleavage zones causes preferential scavenging of potassium. In rocks with K/Al ratios of illite or muscovite, K appears to accumulate with Al by residual concentration. Thus, Al and Ti may be the only viable major element markers for calculating volume flux.

  18. Comparison of debris flux models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdunnus, H.; Beltrami, P.; Klinkrad, H.; Matney, M.; Nazarenko, A.; Wegener, P.

    The availability of models to estimate the impact risk from the man-made space debris and the natural meteoroid environment is essential for both, manned and unmanned satellite missions. Various independent tools based on different approaches have been developed in the past years. Due to an increased knowledge of the debris environment and its sources e.g. from improved measurement capabilities, these models could be updated regularly, providing more detailed and more reliable simulations. This paper addresses an in-depth, quantitative comparison of widely distributed debris flux models which were recently updated, namely ESA's MASTER 2001 model, NASA's ORDEM 2000 and the Russian SDPA 2000 model. The comparison was performed in the frame of the work of the 20t h Interagency Debris Coordination (IADC) meeting held in Surrey, UK. ORDEM 2000ORDEM 2000 uses careful empirical estimates of the orbit populations based onthree primary data sources - the US Space Command Catalog, the H ystackaRadar, and the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft returned surfaces.Further data (e.g. HAX and Goldstone radars, impacts on Shuttle windows andradiators, and others) were used to adjust these populations for regions in time,size, and space not covered by the primary data sets. Some interpolation andextrapolation to regions with no data (such as projections into the future) wasprovided by the EVOLVE model. MASTER 2001The ESA MASTER model offers a full three dimensional description of theterrestrial debris distribution reaching from LEO up to the GEO region. Fluxresults relative to an orbiting target or to an inertial volume can be resolved intosource terms, impactor characteristics and orbit, as well as impact velocity anddirection. All relevant debris source terms are considered by the MASTERmodel. For each simulated source, a corresponding debris generation model interms of mass/diameter distribution, additional velocities, and directionalspreading has been developed. A

  19. MPID-T2: a database for sequence-structure-function analyses of pMHC and TR/pMHC structures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed Mohammed; Cheruku, Harish Reddy; Tong, Joo Chuan; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2011-04-15

    Sequence-structure-function information is critical in understanding the mechanism of pMHC and TR/pMHC binding and recognition. A database for sequence-structure-function information on pMHC and TR/pMHC interactions, MHC-Peptide Interaction Database-TR version 2 (MPID-T2), is now available augmented with the latest PDB and IMGT/3Dstructure-DB data, advanced features and new parameters for the analysis of pMHC and TR/pMHC structures. http://biolinfo.org/mpid-t2. shoba.ranganathan@mq.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.