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Sample records for ernesto gutirrez jenny

  1. Ernesto Approaching Belize

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Ernesto from August 5-7, 2012. The animation shows Ernesto's progression through the Caribbean Sea and ends as it near...

  2. Ernesto Moving Through Caribbean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Ernesto from August 4-6, 2012. The animation begins when Ernesto was south of Jamaica and ends when the storm is south...

  3. Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-28

    This infrared image shows Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba, from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder AIRS on NASA Aqua satellite in August, 2006. Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00510

  4. An interview with Jenny Nichols.

    PubMed

    Maartens, Aidan

    2017-08-15

    Jennifer Nichols is a Principal Investigator at the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK. Her lab works on lineage segregation and the establishment of pluripotency in the mammalian embryo. In 2017 she was awarded the British Society for Developmental Biology's Cheryll Tickle Medal, given to mid-career female scientists with outstanding achievements in developmental biology. We met Jenny in her Cambridge office to talk about pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, the importance of collaboration in her career path, and what playing a musical instrument has in common with research. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The Pedagogy of Ernesto Che Guevara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies and describes the major principles and themes that emerge from an analysis of the revolutionary pedagogical practice and ideas of Ernesto Che Guevara. The principles and themes outlined in this article are based on a thematic investigation of the approximately 2000 pages of Guevara's writings, speeches and interviews…

  6. The Pedagogy of Ernesto Che Guevara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies and describes the major principles and themes that emerge from an analysis of the revolutionary pedagogical practice and ideas of Ernesto Che Guevara. The principles and themes outlined in this article are based on a thematic investigation of the approximately 2000 pages of Guevara's writings, speeches and interviews…

  7. Ecofutures in Africa: Jenny Robson's "Savannah 2116 AD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloete, Elsie

    2009-01-01

    Jenny Robson's "Savannah 2216 AD", a dark, futuristic novel for young adults, provides a strong critique on much of the world's predilection for saving Africa's animals at the expense of those human communities who are perceived to be in the way of the preservation of the continent's remaining wild spaces. Using Robson's novel as…

  8. Ecofutures in Africa: Jenny Robson's "Savannah 2116 AD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloete, Elsie

    2009-01-01

    Jenny Robson's "Savannah 2216 AD", a dark, futuristic novel for young adults, provides a strong critique on much of the world's predilection for saving Africa's animals at the expense of those human communities who are perceived to be in the way of the preservation of the continent's remaining wild spaces. Using Robson's novel as…

  9. Short communication: jenny milk production and qualitative characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Calluso, A M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of lactation stage and foaling season on some qualitative aspects of milk in South Italian jenny rearing. Milk samples were collected monthly from 23 jennies, that foaled in 2 different periods: spring and summer. On milk, the following parameters were measured: pH and titratable acidity; protein, fat, lactose, dry matter, and ash contents; and somatic cell count. Analysis of variance showed the effect of foaling season and of lactation stage. Milk production was highest in summer at 30 d and 60 d (1.58 and 1.78 L, respectively), and in spring at 120 d (1.25 L). The total protein content was highest in summer lactation at 30 d and 90 d (14.8 and 13.9 g/L). Lactose, dry matter, and ash contents (g/L) were highest in summer lactation at 30 d (54.0, 78.1, and 5.0 respectively). Jenny milk was shown to be poor in protein and fat and rich in lactose. Producing jenny milk could be an interesting, profitable, and alternative activity for farmers, mainly in southern marginal areas. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. N.; Wilson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression on the sea floor, extending at least 15 km and possibly as much as 30 km from the volcano, into the Grenada Basin to the west. Seismic air-gun profiles of the region show that these are lobate deposits, that range in thickness from tens to hundreds of meters. The debris avalanche deposit is contained within two marginal levees, that extend symmetrically from the volcano to the west. A conservative estimate of the volume of the smaller debris avalanche deposit is about 10 km3. Age dating of the deposits and the flank failure events is in progress, by analysis of gravity cores collected during the 2003 survey. Reconstruction of the pre-collapse volcanic edifice suggests that the ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano might have been at or above sea level. Kick'em Jenny is dominantly supplied by basalt to basaltic andesite magmas, that are extruded now as submarine pillow lavas and domes or ejected as tephra in relatively minor phreatomagmatic explosions. Geochemical evolution of this volcano has not, however, reached the stage of generation of volatile-rich silicic magmas that might form highly explosive eruptions.

  11. Hematological and biochemical findings in pregnant, postfoaling, and lactating jennies.

    PubMed

    Bonelli, F; Rota, A; Corazza, M; Serio, D; Sgorbini, M

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to (1) verify if significant changes occur in hematological and biochemical parameters in jennies during the last 2 months of pregnancy and the first 2 months of lactation, and (2) determine any differences with mares. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in jennies every 15 days during late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, analysis of variance for repeated measurements and Tukey's multiple comparison test as post hoc were applied. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Statistical analysis showed differences related to time for Red Blood Cells (RBC) count and Hematocrit (HCT), White Blood Cells (WBC) count, platelet count (PLT), total proteins, blood urea, triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine-phosphokinase activities, sodium (Na) and potassium (K). RBC and HCT were higher in late pregnancy than at foaling and during lactation. The relative anemia might be due to increased water ingestion because of fluid losses. The WBC count was higher at foaling than during late pregnancy and lactation. This could be related to the release of cortisol and catecholamine during delivery. The PLT trend showed lower values from delivery to the first 2 months of lactation compared to late gestation. Blood urea increased near parturition, and then remained constant during delivery and lactation, which might be due to the high energy demand at the beginning of lactation. Triglycerides and total cholesterol showed a decrease from delivery through the lactation period. Thus, jennies seem to have a similar metabolism of fats to ponies and draft horse mares, characterized by a greater fat content and mobilization than light breed horses. Aspartate aminotransferase activity decreased at parturition and early lactation, probably because of a predominance of anabolic over catabolic processes during pregnancy. Gamma

  12. Updated bathymetric survey of Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlington, R. A.; Wilson, W. D.; Johns, W. E.; Nelson, C.

    High-resolution bathymetric data obtained in July 1996 during a survey of the Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles revealed changes in the structure of the volcanic edifice compared to previously available surveys. The volcano's summit, at 178 m below sea level, was found to be approximately 18 m farther from the surface than was reported by Bouysse et al. (1988) and others. No dome was observed. Instead, an open crater, surrounded by walls that dropped significantly in elevation from one side to the opposite, suggest that eruptions, earthquakes, rockfalls or explosions may have altered the structure since the last detailed survey. The deepest contour of the volcano's crater was found 106 m below the summit.

  13. Jenny Harris: 'we have been guilty of neglecting dental neglect', an interview by Ruth Doherty.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jenny

    2012-08-01

    Whilst at this year's British Dental Conference and Exhibition in Manchester, paediatric dentistry consultant, Jenny Harris spoke to the BDJ about neglecting dental neglect, managing paediatric patients and the GDP's role in child protection.

  14. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of jenny milk addition on the inhibition of late blowing in semihard cheese.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Valentini, V; Musto, M; Ricciardi, A; Adduci, F; D'Adamo, C; Pecora, G; Freschi, P

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese produces negative effects on the quality and commercial value of the product. In this work, we verified whether the addition of raw jenny milk to bulk cow milk reduced the late blowing defects in semihard cheeses. During cheesemaking, different aliquots of jenny milk were poured into 2 groups of 4 vats, each containing a fixed amount of cow milk. A group of cheeses was created by deliberately contaminating the 4 vats with approximately 3 log10 cfu/mL milk of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CLST01. The other 4 vats, which were not contaminated, were used for a second group of cheeses. After 120 d of ripening, some physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters were evaluated on the obtained semihard cheeses. Differences in sensory properties among cheeses belonging to the uncontaminated group were evaluated by 80 regular consumers of cheese. Our results showed that the increasing addition of jenny milk to cow milk led to a reduction of pH and total bacterial count in both cheese groups, as well as C. tyrobutyricum spores that either grew naturally or artificially inoculated. We observed a progressive reduction of the occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese as consequence of the increasing addition of jenny milk during cheese making. Moreover, the addition of jenny milk did not affect the acceptability of the product, as consumers found no difference among cheeses concerning sensorial aspects. In conclusion, the important antimicrobial activity of lysozyme contained in jenny milk has been confirmed in the current research. It is recommend for use as a possible and viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects in cheese.

  16. Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena, MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fo...

  17. Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor System (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fol...

  18. Short communication: jenny milk as an inhibitor of late blowing in cheese: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Calluso, A M

    2013-06-01

    Late blowing on semihard and hard cheese may have an important economic effect on dairy production. Many studies have attempted to prevent this defect by physical treatment, the use of additives, and the use of bacteriocins. In this paper, we look at the effect of jenny milk as an inhibitor of blowing caused by clostridia and coliforms in ewe cheese making. Bulk ewe and jenny milk samples were collected in the morning by mechanical milking and were refrigerated at 4°C. On the collected samples, the count of somatic cells, coliforms, Clostridium butyricum, and Escherichia coli were determined. The bulk raw milk was divided in two 45-L vats: vat 1 was used as a control, whereas 0.5L of jenny milk was added to vat 2. Four semihard cheeses, weighing about 2 kg each, were made from each vat. Cheese making was replicated twice. After a ripening period of 60 d, the count of coliforms and of C. butyricum was determined. In the treated group, a significant inhibition of coliform bacteria was observed. The addition of jenny milk in cheese making may prove to be a useful and innovative approach for the inhibition of spore-forming clostridia strains. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of different heat treatments on lysozyme quantity and antimicrobial activity of jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Labella, C; Elshafie, H S; Camele, I; Musto, M; Paolino, R; D'Adamo, C; Freschi, P

    2016-07-01

    Thermal treatments are used to improve milk microbial safety, shelf life, and biological activity of some of its components. However, thermal treatments can reduce the nutritional quality of milk, affecting the molecular structure of milk proteins, such as lysozyme, which is a very important milk component due to its antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria. Jenny milk is characterized by high lysozyme content. For this reason, in the last few years, it has been used as an antimicrobial additive in dairy products as an alternative to hen egg white lysozyme, which can cause allergic reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pasteurization and condensation on the concentration and antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk. Furthermore, lysozyme quantity and activity were tested in raw and pasteurized milk after condensation at 40 and 20% of the initial volume. Reversed-phase HPLC was performed under fluorescence detection to monitor lysozyme in milk samples. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the tested milk against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis, Clavibacter michiganensis, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Escherichia coli. Condensation and pasteurization did not affect the concentration or antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk, except for B. mojaventis, which showed resistance to lysozyme in milk samples subjected to heat treatments. Moreover, lysozyme in jenny milk showed antimicrobial activity similar to synthetic antibiotics versus some gram-positive strains and also versus the gram-negative strain X. campestris. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena, MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fo...

  1. Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor System (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fol...

  2. Effect of ketoprofen treatment on the uterine inflammatory response after AI of jennies with frozen semen.

    PubMed

    Vilés, K; Rabanal, R; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Miró, J

    2013-04-15

    Artificial insemination (AI) involving the placing of frozen-thawed semen directly into the jenny uterine body is associated with very low pregnancy rates. This might be because of an exacerbation of the acute response of the endometrium to sperm, as seen in mares with persistent induced mating endometritis. Pregnancy rates can be increased in such mares, however, by including anti-inflammatory treatments in the insemination protocol (Bucca S, Carli A, Buckley T, Dolci G, Fogarty U. The use of dexamethasone administered to mares at breeding time in the modulation of persistent mating induced endometritis. Theriogenology 2008;70:1093-100; Rojer H, Aurich C. Treatment of persistent mating-induced endometritis in mares with the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug vedaprofen. Reprod Domest Anim 2010;45:e458-60). To investigate the endometritis caused by the use of frozen-thawed semen in jennies, and to assess the response to ketoprofen treatment, endometrial cytological samples and biopsies from six healthy jennies were examined in a crossover design experiment. Samples were taken from jennies in estrus (E; control) and at 6 hours after AI with or without ketoprofen (+K and -K, respectively). Ketoprofen was administered iv 24 hours before and for 4 days after insemination (total = 2.2 mg/kg/24 hours for 5 days). All animals showed a severe inflammatory response to semen deposition. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil numbers in the cytological smears and biopsies differed significantly between the +K and E animals. No significant differences were recorded, however, between the +K and -K treatments. Eosinophils were observed in all sample types from all groups; these cells appear to be a feature of the normal jenny endometrium. Slight fibrosis was observed in some biopsies, but no significant relationship with inflammation was found. Intense cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) immunohistochemical labeling was detected in the -K biopsies. Less intense labeling was seen in those of the +K

  3. IgG, IgA, and lysozyme in Martina Franca donkey jennies and their foals.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Maria C; Dall'Ara, Paola; Gloria, Alessia; Servida, Francesco; Sala, Elisabetta; Robbe, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Because immune transfer from jenny to donkey foal is mostly unknown, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, from 5 days before to 10 days after foaling, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, and lysozyme peripartal concentrations in serum and mammary secretions of 10 healthy, spontaneously foaling Martina Franca jennies and in serum of their mature, viable, healthy foals, in the first 10 days after birth. The results showed that, in jennies, mammary secretion of IgG levels (ranging between 16 and 75 mg/mL) and IgA (0.9-2 mg/mL), and IgG (6.8-13.5 mg/mL) and IgA (0.5-2.4 mg/mL) serum concentrations were not different along the time of study. Also, IgG concentrations in serum of foals did not show significant differences although a high level was observed at 12 hours after birth (8 mg/mL), and IgA concentrations in serum of foals did not show any significant difference, although a high level was observed at 12 hours after birth (1.2 mg/mL). Lysozyme increased significantly at Day 2 after parturition in mammary secretions of jennies (551.9 μg/mL) and at 12 hours in serum of foals (25.9 μg/mL). The study demonstrated that the pattern of passive immune transfer in donkey foals seems to be similar to that reported for the horse foal, with IgG predominating IgA in serum and mammary secretions of the jenny and also in serum of foals. The most significant early increase in foals' serum concerns lysozyme, which probably plays an important role in the innate immunity of the donkey foal in the first challenging hours after birth.

  4. Shallow-water seismoacoustic noise generated by tropical storms Ernesto and Florence.

    PubMed

    Traer, James; Gerstoft, Peter; Bromirski, Peter D; Hodgkiss, William S; Brooks, Laura A

    2008-09-01

    Land-based seismic observations of double frequency (DF) microseisms generated during tropical storms Ernesto and Florence are dominated by signals in the 0.15-0.5 Hz band. In contrast, data from sea floor hydrophones in shallow water (70 m depth, 130 km off the New Jersey coast) show dominant signals in the ocean gravity-wave frequency band, 0.02-0.18 Hz, and low amplitudes from 0.18 to 0.3 Hz, suggesting significant opposing wave components necessary for DF microseism generation were negligible at the site. Florence produced large waves over deep water while Ernesto only generated waves in coastal regions, yet both storms produced similar spectra. This suggests near-coastal shallow water as the dominant region for observed microseism generation.

  5. Postpartum reproductive activities and gestation length in Martina Franca jennies, an endangered Italian donkey breed.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Umberto; Bernabò, Nicola; Verni, Fabiana; Valbonetti, Luca; Muttini, Aurelio; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2013-07-15

    The donkey reproductive physiology is still partially known despite the increasing risk of extinction involving several breeds. The present study was designed to describe the postpartum (PP) reproductive performance of an Italian endangered breed: the Martina Franca donkey. To this aim, 52 jennies were monitored to define the foal-heat (FH) and the first and second PP estrus episodes (1st PPe and 2nd PPe). The data indicate that jennies spontaneously recovered reproduction in approximately 10 days after delivery. Then heats occur with a regular interval of approximately 23 days. Estrus length was 1 week in FH and the 2nd PPe and significantly shorter in the 1st PPe. Estrus-ovulation, and delivery-ovulation interval and follicle growth were similar in all animals tested. Pregnancy rate (PR) was lower when natural mating occurred during the FH and 2nd PPe (approximately 60%) than during the 1st PPe (approximately 70%; P < 0.01). In addition, the higher PR (>80%; P < 0.01) was recorded in jennies when the FH occurred after the first week PP and it dropped (<50%) in early FH animals. The PR was also affected by the season and by age: it significantly declined during the autumn-winter season and in subjects older than the sixth year of age. For the first time, the reproductive performance of PP donkeys were defined on a large number of Martina Franca jennies thus offering useful information to improve farm management with an immediate benefit to increase livestock production. This aspect of management improvement might be particularly important if applied to an endangered breed such as Martina Franca donkeys.

  6. Sector collapse at Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano (Lesser Antilles): numerical simulation and landslide behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Kelfoun, Karim; Fournier, Nicolas; Randrianasolo, Auran

    2012-03-01

    Kick 'em Jenny volcano is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles. It lies within a horseshoe-shaped structure open to the west northwest, toward the deep Grenada Basin. A detailed bathymetric survey of the basin slope at Kick 'em Jenny and resulting high-resolution digital elevation model allowed the identification of a major submarine landslide deposit. This deposit is thought to result from a single sector collapse event at Kick 'em Jenny and to be linked to the formation of the horseshoe-shaped structure. We estimated the volume and the leading-edge runout of the landslide to be ca. 4.4 km3 and 14 km, respectively. We modelled a sector collapse event of a proto Kick 'em Jenny volcano using VolcFlow, a finite difference code based on depth-integrated mass and momentum equations. Our models show that the landslide can be simulated by either a Coulomb-type rheology with low basal friction angles (5.5°-6.5°) and a significant internal friction angle (above 17.5°) or, with better results, by a Bingham rheology with low Bingham kinematic viscosity (0 < ν B < 30 m2/s) and high shear strength (130 < γ ≤ 180 m2/s2). The models and the short runout distance suggest that the landslide travelled as a stiff cohesive flow affected by minimal granular disaggregation and slumping on a non-lubricated surface. The main submarine landslide deposit can therefore be considered as a submarine mass slide deposit that behaved like a slump.

  7. Factors affecting pregnancy length and phases of parturition in Martina Franca jennies.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Augusto; Gloria, Alessia; Veronesi, Maria Cristina; De Amicis, Ippolito; Noto, Federico; Contri, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The knowledge of normal pregnancy length, duration of parturition stages, and neonatal early adaptation is mandatory for a rationale management of birth, especially in monotocous species with long gestations. This study reports data obtained from a large number of Martina Franca jennies with normal healthy pregnancies and spontaneous eutocic delivery of a mature, healthy, and viable donkey foal. Pregnancy lasts, on average, 371 days, and only the fetal gender significantly determines pregnancy length, with longer gestations observed in jennies bearing male fetuses. Other factors such as the year of foaling, month of ovulation, month of parturition, birth weight of the foal, and age of the jenny did not influence pregnancy length. The first stage of foaling lasted on average 65 minutes, the second stage 19 minutes, and the third stage 58 minutes. The umbilical cord ruptured on average within 16 minutes after birth; the foal stood up in 61 minutes and suckled the colostrum for the first time within 10 minutes after birth and again after 143 minutes of birth; meconium passage occurred, on average, 86 minutes after birth. Although times reported for the process of foaling are similar to data reported for the horse, the times for early neonatal donkey foal adaptation are longer as compared to the horse foal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  9. Lightcurve analysis for asteroids 607 Jenny, 1177 Gonnessia 4440 Tchantches, 4896 Tomoegozen, and (4995) 1984 QR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    Lightcurve measurements and analyses of five asteroids were performed at the Palmer Divide Observatory at various times in 2002. The results, all synodic periods, were: 607 Jenny, 7.344 ± 0.002h and amplitude of 0.22m; 1177 Gonnessia, 6.81 ± 0.01h and amplitude of 0.12m; 4440 Tchantches, 6.83 ± 0.1h and amplitude of 0.32m; 4896 Tomoegozen, 8.869 ± 0.004h and amplitude of 0.65m; and (4995) 1984 QR, 26.37 ± 0.01h and amplitude of 0.82m.

  10. Differences in ability of jennies and mares to conceive with cooled and frozen semen containing glycerol or not.

    PubMed

    Vidament, Marianne; Vincent, Pierrick; Martin, François-Xavier; Magistrini, Michele; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2009-05-01

    A suitable method for the cryopreservation of donkey semen would be very valuable for the ex situ management of genetic diversity in this species. This report uses a variety of observation and trials to evaluate the effect of cryoprotectants in per-cycle pregnancy rates (PC) in equids females (jennies (donkey) and mares (horse)). This was explored by (1) comparing the results of insemination of jennies and mares with cooled or frozen donkey semen, (2) examining the possible toxic effect of the cryoprotectant (CPA) glycerol in these two species and (3) studying alternative solutions. Donkey and horse semen was either used immediately, or cooled according to some steps of the pre-freezing procedure or frozen and thawed. The pre-freezing procedure included semen dilution, centrifugation, resuspension in milk or in INRA82+2% egg yolk+various % CPA (expressed as final concentrations in extended semen (v/v)) and then cooling to 4 degrees C. PC was similar in mares and jennies inseminated with donkey semen cooled to 4 degrees C in milk. However, the PC was significantly higher in mares than in jennies when donkey semen was frozen with 2.2% glycerol (36%, n=50 cycles vs. 11%, n=38 cycles; P<0.01). Increasing the concentrations of glycerol (0, 2.2, 3.5, 4.8%) before cooling stallion semen resulted in a progressive decrease in mare PC (87, 53, 53, 13% (n=15 cycles for each concentration); P<0.0001). The addition of 2.2% glycerol before cooling donkey semen decreased the PC measured in jennies to 0. The replacement of glycerol by 2% dimethylformamide increased the fertility obtained in jennies with cooled donkey semen (PC: 67%, n=12 cycles) but did not increase the fertility obtained with frozen-thawed donkey semen (PC: 11%, n=28 cycles with dimethylformamide vs. 0%, n=16 cycles with glycerol). In conclusion, this study clearly shows that the ability of jennies to conceive after AI with donkey frozen semen is lower than that of mares. Glycerol affects the fertility of donkey

  11. First case of sterility associated with sex chromosomal abnormalities in a jenny.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Molina, A; Mendez-Sanchez, A; Ortiz, I; Moreno-Millán, M; Hidalgo, M; Peral García, P; Demyda-Peyrás, S

    2017-04-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are one of the main causes of genetic infertility in horses. Currently, their detection rate is rising due to the use of new diagnostic tools employing molecular markers linked to the sex chromosome pair. Despite genetic similarities, there are no previous reports of sterility associated with chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic donkey (Equus asinus). Hereby, we determined the presence of a chromosomal mosaicism in a female donkey with reproductive problems using molecular methodologies developed for horses. A two-and-a-half-year-old jenny characterized by morphological abnormalities of the reproductive tract was cytogenetically analysed using conventional and fluorescent techniques and a group of microsatellite markers (short tandem repeat, STR). At the same time, five ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract were taken and compared with eight contemporary jennies of the same breed. After slaughter, morphological examinations showed that the case study had a blind vaginal vestibule defining an empty pouch that covered the entrance of the cervical os. Histopathological studies demonstrated that this abnormal structure was compatible with a remnant hymen. Molecular markers, STR and fluorescent in situ hybridization determinations revealed that the animal was a 62, XX/61,X mosaic and, therefore, the first case of chromosomal abnormalities in the sex pair reported in donkeys. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Possible Origins of the `Free T Phase' Seismic Signals Generated by the Kick `em Jenny Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohais, A.; Mohais, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano located approximately 9km off the North Coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles, was discovered in 1939. Since then, it has had a history of twelve recorded eruptions. Geophysicists have determined over the years that many of these eruptions have been accompanied by T- phases occurring in the absence of P and S-phases. Although these authors have characterized these 'free T- phases' and have analyzed the frequency components of the seismic activity, there has been little attention given to the possible origins of these signals. Based on the analysis of the seismic signals of eruptions of Kick 'em Jenny, an attempt is made to determine a possible source of the free T-phases. Previous studies of sample free T-phases showed a spectral peak of 0.7 Hz, corresponding to a period of 1.43 seconds. Although no definitive statement by previous authors was made on this analysis, one may be led to categorise the event as a long period event. When the power spectral densities of a long period event from a volcanic earthquake was compared to that of a free T phase however, there was a marked difference between the two. Within the bandwidth of 1 to 6 Hz, the power spectrum of the T phase of an earthquake exhibits frequency peaks beyond the 10 Hz value as compared to a value less than 1. Also in the 1990 Kick 'em Jenny eruption, there was a period of harmonic tremor preceding the T phase. Harmonic tremor lends itself to the idea of the signal originating from a resonator. One possibility is the resonance of a fluid filled cavity which accompanies the oscillation of magma within a fissure arising from rapid degassing. This may be applicable in the case of Kick 'em Jenny since it is in fact active. The other possibility is the presence of reverberations in the stratified structure of the volcano. Other evidence suggests that in the time domain there is a significant difference between the free T-phase and the earthquake generated T phase, in that

  13. Reproductive Patterns in the Non-Breeding Season in Asinina de Miranda Jennies.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, M; Silva, S R; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the reproductive patterns in Asinina de Miranda jennies during the non-breeding season. Reproductive activity was surveyed in 12 females, aged between 3 and 18 years old, using ultrasound and teasing with a jack. The animals were monitored from September to April, six in each consecutive year. Of these 12 females, nine showed disruption to the normal pattern of ovarian activity during the non-breeding season. Loss of normal cyclicity included anoestrus (41.7%), silent ovulatory oestrus (25%), and persistence of corpus luteum (8.3%). Only three females maintained a regular cyclic pattern with oestrous behaviour during the non-breeding season. Anoestrus began in early November and lasted for an average of 147 ± 28 days (113-191 days), ending near to the spring equinox. Onset of silent oestrous cycles began more erratically, between October and February. In both groups the first behavioural ovulation of the year occurred around the time of the spring equinox. Disrupted reproductive activity was preceded by a shorter oestrous cycle only in females entering anoestrus. The mean follicle size in the first ovulation of the year was larger than in the reproductive season (44.7 ± 2.45 mm vs 39.2 ± 3.60 mm) in anoestrous jennies with protracted oestrus. Though age and body condition score (BCS) were associated, changes in BCS below a threshold of four points (for anoestrus) and five points (for silent oestrus) contributed greatly to disruption of reproductive cycles. BCS in females with regular oestrous cycles during the winter season remained unchanged or exceeded five points prior to the winter solstice.

  14. Ernesto Vasconcellos' Astronomia Photographica: the earliest popular book on astronomical photography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor; Malaquias, Isabel; Fernandes, João

    2008-07-01

    Portugal, albeit with its own cultural distinctiveness, was not immune to the ideologies permeating nineteenth-century European society, in particular those concerning the social advantages of science and science popularisation. The country's high illiteracy rate hampered but did not prevent several popularisation efforts, which were usually led by professors and armed forces officers. In 1886 Astronomia Photographica (Astronomical Photography), a book popularising astrophotography, was published in Lisbon as part of a collection entitled People and Schools Library. The book seems an odd editorial choice given that, at the time, Portugal's major astronomical institutions pursued astrometric research and there was a virtual absence in the country of amateur astronomers. International astronomical developments, the author's interest in the scientific applications of photography and even the editorial timing are likely explanations for the publication of Astronomia Photographica, but we believe a definitive answer is still not available. The style of Astronomia Photographica is historical and informative, without being technical; clearly it is not a ‘hands-on guide’. The contents of the book show that the author, Ernesto Júlio de Carvalho e Vasconcellos, a naval officer, contacted several experts and was aware of the latest developments in astronomical photography. What makes this a unique book is its content, and its inclusion in a popularisation collection with an exceptionally high circulation at such an early time.

  15. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  16. Numerical tsunami hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Landslide-generated tsunami are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional tsunami. However no clear field evidence of tsunami associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical models, the tsunami source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code

  17. Quantifying elbow extension and elbow hyperextension in cricket bowling: a case study of Jenny Gunn.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2012-05-01

    In this study a method for determining elbow extension and elbow abduction for a cricket bowling delivery was developed and assessed for Jenny Gunn who has hypermobility in both elbows and whose bowling action has been repeatedly queried by umpires. Bowling is a dynamic activity which is assessed visually in real time in a cricket match by an umpire. When the legality of a bowler's action is questioned by an umpire a quantitative analysis is undertaken using a marker based motion analysis system. This method of quantifying elbow extension should agree with a visual assessment of when the arm is "straight" and should minimise the effects of marker movement. A set of six markers on the bowling arm were used to calculate elbow angles. Differences of up to 1° for elbow extension and up to 2° for elbow abduction were found when angles calculated from the marker set for static straight arm trials were compared with measurements taken by a chartered sports physiotherapist. In addition comparison of elbow extension angles at ball release calculated from the markers during bowling trials with those measured from high speed video also showed good agreement with mean differences of 0°±2°.

  18. [In Memory of a Master: Professor Ernesto L. Medina, M.D. (1925-2013)].

    PubMed

    Radrigán K, María Eugenia

    2015-09-01

    Seldom, in the history of Chilean medicine, there has been such a unique parallelism between the professional development of a person and that of a discipline as it has been the case of Professor Ernesto L. Medina and Public Health in Chile. Dr. Medina's undergraduate (University of Chile) and postgraduate (Harvard School of Public Health) studies coincided with the foundation of the University of Chile School of Public Health by an agreement among the University and two governmental health care providers, and also with the foundation of the Chilean National Health Service. His research covered the epidemiology of non- infectious diseases in the adult, such as cancer, their socio economic impact, the importance of early detection, treatment and surveillance, as well as the epidemiology of other chronic diseases, accidents and new epidemics. As Director of the School of Public Health for 25 years, he promoted the development of disciplines and courses addressed to health and other care-providers in order to improve their knowledge and expertise as statisticians, epidemiologists, administrators, budget officers. An example of his innovative look at medical education was the creation of post graduate training in the basic clinical specialties combined with public health, in order to have specialists able to undertake both the clinical and administrative duties at the primary care clinics. These programs ran in parallel with the rural internships financed by the Kellogg Foundation at the School of Medicine. Enumerating the distinctions and prizes awarded to Professor Medina would be too long for the purpose of this tribute, and selecting just a few would run the risk of being unfair. Still, there is one: the "Orden de la Cruz del Sur" that deserves the exception given its long existence and the fact that it was awarded to a physician "for distinguished achievements in Public Health".

  19. Donkey jack (Equus asinus) semen cryopreservation: studies of seminal parameters, post breeding inflammatory response, and fertility in donkey jennies.

    PubMed

    Rota, A; Panzani, D; Sabatini, C; Camillo, F

    2012-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate motility parameters of donkey jack (jack; Equus asinus) semen cryopreserved in INRA-96 (INRA; IMV Technologies, France, 2% egg-yolk enriched) using either glycerol (GLY) or ethylene glycol (EG) as a cryoprotector; (2) to compare in vitro the postthaw re-extension with homologous seminal plasma (SPL) or INRA; (3) to compare fertility in donkey jennies (jennies; Equus asinus) timed artificially inseminated with jack semen cryopreserved using GLY or EG, re-extended with INRA; (4) to compare fertility in jennies timed artificially inseminated with jack semen cryopreserved using GLY re-extended with SPL, INRA, or not re-extended (NN); and (5) to describe some preliminary results of the inflammatory uterine response postbreeding. Semen from two jacks was collected and frozen in an INRA-2% egg yolk extender added of either 2.2% GLY or 1.4% EG. Postthaw motility was evaluated by a computer-assisted motility analyzer. Uterine inflammatory response and fertility were evaluated after artificial insemination (AI) of 13 jennies with frozen-thawed semen, either further extended with INRA (Group GLY-INRA, 13 cycles, and EG-INRA, 8 cycles), or with SPL (Group GLY-SPL, 13 cycles), or not re-extended (GLY-NN, 5 cycles). In each cycle, jennies were bred twice with 500 × 10(6) sperm cells (250 × 10(6) from each jack), at fixed times after induction of ovulation, and uterus was flushed at 6 and 10 h after first and second breeding, respectively. Cells in the recovered fluid were counted and distinguished as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) or other cell types. Total and progressive motility did not differ between cryoprotectants, but were higher when semen samples were re-extended in INRA, compared with SPL (P < 0.05). Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal palpation and ultrasonography examinations at 14 and 16 days postovulation. In 7/13 (53.8%) jennies and 12/39 (30.4%) cycles postbreeding intrauterine fluid accumulation was observed

  20. Deglaciation and postglacial environmental changes in the Teton Mountain Range recorded at Jenny Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ofstun, Adam R.

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contained in lake basins positioned along the eastern front of the Teton Mountain Range preserve a continuous and datable record of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions. Here, we develop a multiproxy glacier and paleoenvironmental record using a combination of seismic reflection data and multiple sediment cores recovered from Jenny Lake and other nearby lakes. Age control of Teton lake sediments is established primarily through radiocarbon dating and supported by the presence of two prominent rhyolitic tephra deposits that are geochemically correlated to the widespread Mazama (∼7.6 ka) and Glacier Peak (∼13.6 ka) tephra layers. Multiple glacier and climate indicators, including sediment accumulation rate, bulk density, clastic sediment concentration and flux, organic matter (concentration, flux, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratios), and biogenic silica, track changes in environmental conditions and landscape development. Sediment accumulation at Jenny Lake began centuries prior to 13.8 ka and cores from three lakes demonstrate that Teton glacier extents were greatly reduced by this time. Persistent ice retreat in Cascade Canyon was slowed by an interval of small glacier activity between ∼13.5 and 11.5 ka, prior to the end of glacial lacustrine sedimentation ∼11.5 ka. The transition to non-glacial sediments marks the onset of Holocene conditions at Jenny Lake and reflects a shift toward warmer summers, increased vegetation cover, and landscape stability in the Tetons. We discuss the Teton lake sediment records within the context of other regional studies in an effort to construct a comprehensive overview of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions at Grand Teton National Park.

  1. Cold seeps associated with a submarine debris avalanche deposit at Kick'em Jenny volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Ballard, Robert; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Bell, Richard J.; Connally, Patrick; Dondin, Frederic; Fuller, Sarah; Gobin, Judith; Miloslavich, Patricia; Phillips, Brennan; Roman, Chris; Seibel, Brad; Siu, Nam; Smart, Clara

    2014-11-01

    Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) exploration at the distal margins of a debris avalanche deposit from Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in Grenada has revealed areas of cold seeps with chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. The seeps occur on steep slopes of deformed, unconsolidated hemipelagic sediments in water depths between 1952 and 2042 m. Two main areas consist of anastomosing systems of fluid flow that have incised local sediments by several tens of centimeters. No temperature anomalies were observed in the vent areas and no active flow was visually observed, suggesting that the venting may be waning. An Eh sensor deployed on a miniature autonomous plume recorder (MAPR) recorded a positive signal and the presence of live organisms indicates at least some venting is still occurring. The chemosynthetic-based ecosystem included giant mussels (Bathymodiolus sp.) with commensal polychaetes (Branchipolynoe sp.) and cocculinid epibionts, other bivalves, Siboglinida (vestimentiferan) tubeworms, other polychaetes, and shrimp, as well as associated heterotrophs, including gastropods, anemones, crabs, fish, octopods, brittle stars, and holothurians. The origin of the seeps may be related to fluid overpressure generated during the collapse of an ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano. We suggest that deformation and burial of hemipelagic sediment at the front and base of the advancing debris avalanche led to fluid venting at the distal margin. Such deformation may be a common feature of marine avalanches in a variety of geological environments especially along continental margins, raising the possibility of creating large numbers of ephemeral seep-based ecosystems.

  2. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs <1 as compared to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume identified on the volcanic edifice using (VolcanoFit 2

  3. Forensic identification of skeletal remains from members of Ernesto Che Guevara's guerrillas in Bolivia based on DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Lleonart, R; Riego, E; Saínz de la Peña, M V; Bacallao, K; Amaro, F; Santiesteban, M; Blanco, M; Currenti, H; Puentes, A; Rolo, F; Herrera, L; de la Fuente, J

    2000-01-01

    We report the positive identification of several members of the guerrillas led by Ernesto "Che" Guevara on the 1960 s in Bolivia by means of DNA fingerprinting. Successful DNA typing of both short tandem repeat loci and the hypervariable region of the human mitochondrial DNA was achieved after extracting total DNA from bones obtained from two burial sites. Given the size of the Cuban database for the STR allele frequencies, a conservative approach was followed to estimate the statistical significance of the genetic evidence. The estimated probabilities of paternity for the two cases in which the paternity logic was applied were higher than 99%. One case was analyzed using mitochondrial DNA and could not be excluded from the identity proposed by the forensic anthropology team. A fourth case was identified by exclusion, on the basis of the positive identification of the other remains, the historical and other anthropological evidence.

  4. Hydrothermal mineralization at Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R.; Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Cornell, W. C.

    2011-12-01

    Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is an active submarine volcano located in the Lesser Antilles island arc, ~7.5 km northwest of Grenada. Of the twelve eruptions detected since 1939, most have been explosive as evidenced by eyewitness accounts in 1939, 1974, and 1988 and the dominance of explosive eruption products recovered by dredging. In 2003, vigorous hydrothermal activity was observed in the crater of KeJ. Video footage taken by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the cruise RB-03-03 of the R/V Ronald Brown documented the venting of a vapor phase in the form of bubbles that ascended through the water column and a clear fluid phase in the form of shimmering water. The shimmering water generally ascended through the water column but can also been seen flowing down gradient from a fissure at the top of a fine-grained sediment mound. These fine-grained sediment mounds are the only structure associated with hydrothermal venting; spire or chimney structures were not observed. Hydrothermal venting was also observed coming from patches of coarse-grained volcaniclastic sediment on the crater floor and from talus slopes around the perimeter of the crater. Samples were collected from these areas and from areas void of hydrothermal activity. XRD and ICPMS analyses of bulk sediment were carried out to investigate the geochemical relationships between sediment types. Sediment samples from the hydrothermal mound structures are comprised of the same components (plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, and scoria) as sediment samples from areas void of hydrothermal activity (primary volcaniclastic sediment) in the 500-63 μm size range. High resolution grain size analyses show that >78% of sediment in the hydrothermal mound samples are between 63-2 μm with 6-20% clay sized (<2 μm) whereas <40% of the primary volcaniclastic sediment is between 63-2 μm with ~2% clay sized. The presence of clay minerals (smectite, illite, talc, and I/S mixed layer) in the hydrothermal mound samples was

  5. Hydrothermal venting and mineralization in the crater of Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Olsen, Rene; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Ballard, Robert; Dondin, Frederic; Roman, Chris; Smart, Clara; Lilley, Marvin; Lupton, John; Seibel, Brad; Cornell, Winton; Moyer, Craig

    2016-03-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently erupting, shallow submarine volcano located 7.5 km off the northern coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (˜70 × 110 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 m. Much of the crater is blanketed with a layer of fine-grained tephra that has undergone hydrothermal alteration. Clear fluids and gas are being discharged near the center of the depression from mound-like vents at a maximum temperature of 180°C. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. Gas flux measurements of individual bubble streams range from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5-35°C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are colonized by reddish-yellow bacteria with the production of Fe-oxyhydroxides as surface coatings, fragile spires up to several meters in height, and elongated mounds up to tens of centimeters thick. A high-resolution photomosaic of the inner crater depression shows fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression toward the crater floor. We suggest that the negatively buoyant fluid flow is the result of phase separation of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature.

  6. Using telepresence enabled remote-operated vehicles to assess hydrothermal outflow along a collapse scar near the Kick'em Jenny Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, S. Z.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    During expedition NA054 of the E/V Nautilus from 18 September to 9 October 2014 and as part of the TREET (Transforming Remotely Conducted Research through Ethnography, Education, and Rapidly Evolving Technologies) project, a series of photographic surveys along the shoulder of the Kick'em Jenny volcano were performed under direction of a remote research team located at the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center. The primary goal of these surveys was to map the distribution and extent of active and extinct hydrothermal activity along a large collapse scar surrounding the current edifice of the Kick'em Jenny volcano. Photomosaic surveys cover a area of 3000 m2 and reveal extensive basalt alteration with areas of active diffuse hydrothermal outflow. The spatial extents of orange-colored alteration and white, bacterial mats, taken to indicate active outflow, are quantified using both manual identification and an automated, supervised classification scheme. Both methods find that alteration covers 7-8% and active outflow 1-3% of the survey region. It is unclear if the observed hydrothermal fluids are part of the fluid circulation network of the nearby Kick'em Jenny volcano or if a separate heat source is driving this flow. To test these two endmember cases, we use a 2D, finite-difference, marker-in-cell code to simulate hydrothermal circulation of a single-phase fluid within the oceanic crust. Parameters varied include the permeability structure (e.g., inclusion of a permeability barrier representing the collapse surface), the depth to the heat source beneath Kick'em Jenny, and the bathymetry. We will discuss results from the photomosaic analysis and our initial models.

  7. Assimilating MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Observations to Assess the Impact of Saharan Mineral Dust on the Genesis and Evolution of Hurricane Ernesto (2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, K. S.; Chen, S. H.; Liu, Z.; Lin, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust can impact the atmosphere in two primary ways: (1) by directly absorbing, scattering, and emitting short and longwave radiation (radiative effects), and (2) by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, indirectly affecting cloud optical and physical properties as well as precipitation processes (microphysical effects). During boreal summer, mineral dust plumes from North Africa are advected well into the tropical North Atlantic and can regularly be found in close proximity to tropical cyclones (TCs) or their seed disturbances, particularly in the Atlantic Main Development Region, potentially affecting their development and evolution. Many studies indicate that dust radiative effects within African dust plumes alter vertical and horizontal temperature gradients in such a way that may increase mid-level wind shear and static stability in the tropical Atlantic, possibly altering TC development and/or track. The effects of dust microphysics on TCs, on the other hand, are less certain but an increasing body of research suggests that they depend on TC strength, environmental conditions, and how close dust aerosols are to the storm center. Hurricane Ernesto (2006), whose precursor African Easterly Wave disturbance traveled across the Atlantic in close association with a large, persistent dust plume, is one such storm whose development may have been greatly influenced by dust physical processes. The storm developed only after the eventual dissipation of the plume in the eastern Caribbean. In this study, we examine the impact of mineral dust on the genesis and evolution of Hurricane Ernesto with a series of numerical experiments using a modified, dust-capable version of the WRF model and analyses created by assimilating meteorological and MODIS AOD observations within the GSI 3DVAR software framework. The impacts of MODIS AOD assimilation on the simulated dust distribution and forecasts of Ernesto's development are highlighted.

  8. Geogenic Enrichment of PTEs and the " Serpentine Syndrome"(H. Jenny, 1980). A proxy for soil remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Serpentine soils have relatively high concentrations of PTEs (e.g., Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni) but generally low amounts of major nutrients. They often bear a distinctive vegetation, and a frequently-used approach to understanding serpentine ecology and environmental hazard has been the chemical analysis of soils and plants. Long-term studies on aspects of serpentine soils and their vegetation provide results on total concentrations, or on plant-available fractions, of soil elements which counteract ecological conditions. For example, there is evidence of Ni toxicity at Ni-concentration >0.3 mg/L in the soil solution (Johnston and Proctor, 1981). The serpentine vegetation differs from the conterminous non-serpentine areas, being often endemic, and showing macroscopic physionomical characters such as dwarfism, prostrate outcome, glaucescence and glabrescence, leaves stenosis, root shortening (what Jenny, 1980, called "the serpentine syndrome"). Similarly, at microscopic level cytomorphological characteristics of the roots and variations in biochemical parameters such as LPO and phenols have been recorded in serpentine native vegetation (Giuliani et al., 2008). Light microscopy observations showed depressed mitotic activity in the meristematic zone, and consequent reduced root growth (Gabbrielli et al., 1990) The metal content of plants growing on serpentine soils at sites with different microclimatic conditions has been examined by several authors (e.g. Bini et al., 1993; Dinelli and Lombini, 1996) . A preferential Ni distribution in epidermis and sclerenchima has been observed in the stem of Alyssum bertoloni, a well known Ni-accumulator plant (Vergnano Gambi, 1975). The different tolerance mechanisms responsible for plant adaption to high concentrations of PTEs in serpentine soils can be related to the capacity of plants either to limit metal uptake and translocation or to accumulate metals in non toxic forms. The majority of serpentine species (e.g. Silene italica) tend

  9. ­­­­High-Resolution Mapping of Kick`em Jenny Submarine Volcano and Associated Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchala, T. L.; Carey, S.; Hart, L.; Chen, M.; Scott, C.; Tominaga, M.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Fujii, M.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physical and geological processes that drive the volcanism and control the morphology of Kick`em Jenny (KEJ) volcano, the only active submarine volcano in the in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, we conducted near-source, high-resolution mapping of KEJ and its subsurface using the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules during cruise NA054 of the E/V Nautilus (Sept.-Oct. 2014). Shipboard bathymetric data (EM302 system) and slope analysis maps were used to decipher the detailed seafloor morphology surrounding KEJ. Multiple generations of submarine landslides and canyons were observed, suggesting the area has been hosting dynamic sediment transport systems at multiple scales over time. Some of them might have been associated by past eruptions. Clear contacts between partially lithified carbonate sediments and volcanic formations were identified from ROV videos at the middle of the landslide slope face. Detailed observations of facies on these exposures provide constraints on the time intervals between landslide events along the western slope of KEJ. ROV video imagery also identified outcrops of columnar basalts located in the middle of the landslide deposits. These are similar in appearance to those observed in the KEJ crater during previous ROV dives, indicating a possible travel distance of volcanic materials from the crater region along landslide path. High-resolution photo mosaics, bathymetry, and magnetic data acquired by ROV Hercules were used to investigate geological processes and the possible volcanic source of landslide material within the KEJ crater. Mapping in the northwestern part of the crater floor revealed distinctive regions, including (i) microbial mats, (ii) active hydrothermal vent sites; (iii) landforms curved by channelized bottom current where seafloor is outcropped; and (iv) coarse scree the distribution of which may correlate with the distance from the crater rim. Near-bottom magnetic profiles show coherent magnetic

  10. Ultra-high Resolution Mapping of the Inner Crater of the Active Kick'em Jenny Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, L.; Scott, C.; Tominaga, M.; Smart, C.; Vaughn, I.; Roman, C.; Carey, S.; German, C. R.; Participants, T.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted high-resolution geological characterization of a 0.015km^2 region of the inner crater of the most active submarine volcano in the Caribbean, Kick'em Jenny, located 8 km off Grenada in the Lesser Antilles Island Arc. We obtained digital still images and microbathymetery at an altitude of 3 m from the seafloor by using stereo cameras and a BlueView system mounted on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules during the NA054 cruise on E/V Nautilus (Sept. - Oct. 2014). The seafloor images were processed to construct 2-D photo mosaics of the survey area using Standard Hercules Imaging Suite. We systematically classified the photographed seafloor geology based on the distribution of seafloor morphology and the observable rock fragment and outcrop sizes. The center of the crater floor shows a smooth, coherent texture with little variation in sea floor morphology. From immediately outside this area toward the crater rim, we observe an extensive area covered with outcrops, small rocks, and sediment: and within this area, (1) the north section is partially covered by uneven outcrops with elongated lineaments and a course, rugged seafloor with individual rock fragments observable; (2) the middle section contains high variability and heterogeneity in seafloor morphology in a non-systematic manner; and (3) overall, the southern most section displays subdued seafloor features both in space and variability compared to the other areas. The distributions of rock fragments were classified into four distinct sizes. We observe: (i) little variation in size distribution near the center of the crater floor; and (ii) rock fragment size increasing toward the rim of the crater. To obtain a better understanding of the link between variation in seafloor morphology, rock size distribution, and other in situ processes, we compare our observations on the digital photo mosaic to bathymetry data and ROV visuals (e.g. vents and bacterial mats).

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 27 (WSTOTH00070027) on Town Highway 7, crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WSTOTH00070027 on Town Highway 7 crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 2.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture downstream of the bridge while upstream of the bridge is forested. In the study area, the Jenny Coolidge Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 122 mm (0.339 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Jenny Coolidge Brook is a 52-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 50-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 7, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 49.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. The legs of the skeleton-type right abutment were exposed approximately 2 feet

  12. Flank instability assessment at Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano (Grenada, Lesser Antilles): a multidisciplinary approach using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J.-Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J.-F. M.; Carey, S.

    2017-01-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ)—located ca. 8 km north of the island of Grenada—is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc. Previous investigations of KeJ revealed that it lies within a collapse scar inherited from a past flank instability episode. To assess the likelihood of future collapse, we employ here a combined laboratory and modeling approach. Lavas collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) provided samples to perform the first rock physical property measurements for the materials comprising the KeJ edifice. Uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments showed that the dominant failure mode within the edifice host rock is brittle. Edifice fractures (such as those at Champagne Vent) will therefore assist the outgassing of the nearby magma-filled conduit, favoring effusive behavior. These laboratory data were then used as input parameters in models of slope stability. First, relative slope stability analysis revealed that the SW to N sector of the volcano displays a deficit of mass/volume with respect to a volcanoid (ideal 3D surface). Slope stability analysis using a limit equilibrium method (LEM) showed that KeJ is currently stable, since all values of stability factor or factor of safety (Fs) are greater than unity. The lowest values of Fs were found for the SW-NW sector of the volcano (the sector displaying a mass/volume deficit). Although currently stable, KeJ may become unstable in the future. Instability (severe reductions in Fs) could result, for example, from overpressurization due to the growth of a cryptodome. Our modeling has shown that instability-induced flank collapse will most likely initiate from the SW-NW sector of KeJ, therefore mobilizing a volume of at least ca. 0.7 km3. The mobilization of ca. 0.7 km3 of material is certainly capable of generating a tsunami that poses a significant hazard to the southern islands of the West Indies.

  13. Flank Collapse Assessment At Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (Lesser Antilles): A Combined Approach Using Modelling and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Carey, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the Lesser Antilles over 52 volcanic landslide episodes have been identified. These episodes serve as a testament to the hazard posed by volcanic landslides to a region composed of many islands that are small independent countries with vulnerable local economies. This study presents a relative slope stability analysis (RIA) to investigate the stability condition of the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc: Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (KeJ). Thus we hope to provide better constraint on the landslide source geometry to help mitigate volcanic landslide hazards at a KeJ. KeJ is located ca. 8 km north of Grenada island. KeJ lies within a collapse scar from a prehistorical flank collapse. This collapse was associated with a voluminous landslide deposit of about 4.4km3 with a 14 km runout. Numerial simulations showed that this event could generate a regional tsunami. We aim to quantify potential initial volumes of collapsed material using a RIA. The RIA evaluates the critical potential failure surface associated with factor of safety (Fs) inferior to unity and compares them to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume obtained from the comparison of an high resolution digital elevation model of the edifice with an ideal 3D surface. We use freeware programs VolcanoFit 2.0 and SSAP 4.7. and produce a 3D representation of the stability map. We report, for the first time, results of a Limit Equilibrium Method performed using geomechanical parameters retrieved from rock mechanics tests performed on two rock basaltic-andesite rock samples collected from within the crater of the volcano during the 1-18 November 2013 NA039 E/V Nautilus cruise. We performed triaxial and uniaxial deformation tests to obtain values of strength at the top and bottom of the edifice. We further characterized the permeability and P-wave velocity of the samples collected. The chosen internal structure for the model is composed of three bodies: (i) a body composed of basaltic

  14. Flank Collapse Assessment At Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (Lesser Antilles): A Combined Approach Using Modelling and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Heap, Michael; Robert, Richard E. A.; Dorville, Jean-Francois M.; Carey, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landslides - the result of volcanic flank failure - are highly hazardous mass movements due to their high mobility, the wide area they can impact, and their potential to generate tsunamis. In the Lesser Antilles at least 53 episodes of flank collapse have been identified, with many of them associated with voluminous (Vdeposit exceeding 1 km3) submarine volcanic landslide deposits. The existence of such voluminous deposits highlights the hazard of potentially devastating tsunami waves to the populated islands of the Lesser Antilles. To help understand and mitigate such hazards, we applied a relative stability assessment method to the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles island arc: Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ). KeJ - located 8 km north of the island of Grenada - is the southernmost edifice in the arc with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide prehistoric episodes, one is associated with a collapse volume of about 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. A volume estimate of the present day edifice is about 1.5 km3. We aim to quantify potential initial volumes of collapsed material using relative instability analysis (RIA). The RIA evaluates the critical potential failure surface associated with factor of safety (Fs) inferior to 1 and compares them to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume obtained from the comparison of an high resolution digital elevation model of the edifice with an ideal 3D surface named Volcanoid. To do so we use freeware programs VolcanoFit 2.0 and SSAP 4.5. We report, for the first time, results of a Limit Equilibrium Method (Janbu's rigorous method) as a slope stability computation analysis performed using geomechanical parameters retrieved from rock mechanics tests performed on two rock basaltic-andesite rock samples collected from within the crater of the volcano during the 1

  15. U-series disequilibrium of basaltic rocks from Kick'em-Jenny submarine volcano, Lesser Antilles island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Lundstrom, C. C.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) submarine volcano located 9 km to the north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc produces lavas ranging in composition from high MgO basalts to moderately evolved andesites. We have determined U-series disequilibria in 12 porphyritic lavas erupted from KEJ volcano by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS methods to constrain the timing and identify the processes creating the magma diversity observed. The SiO2 contents of samples studied here vary from 47 to 55 wt.% SiO2 while REE patterns evolve from slightly LREE enriched, MREE/HREE = 1 patterns to strongly LREE enriched, MREE depleted concave-up patterns. Separate dissolutions of sample KEJ100 indicate an external reproducibility (1s) of 0.7% for (230Th/238U) (n=4), 0.8% for (230Th/232Th) (n=4) and 0.6% for (226Ra/230Th) (n=3), respectively. For all sample, (234U/238U) lies within 0.7% of unity, suggesting that secondary alteration by seawater has not disturbed the U-series data significantly. Sample ages for these submarine erupted samples are unknown, resulting in uncertain values for initial (226Ra/230Th); however, 10 out of 12 of the measured (226Ra/230Th) range between 3.16 and 1.13 and are thus unequivocally young with respect to decay of 230Th and 231Pa since eruption. The U (0.535 - 4.876 ppm) and Th (1.25 - 10.78 ppm) concentrations increase with SiO2 contents. (230Th/232Th) has a restricted range, varying from 0.994 to 1.093 with the exception of one sample. (230Th/238U) ranges from 0.684 to 0.875 while (231Pa/235U) ranges from 1.76 up to 2.84, among the highest 231Pa excess in island arcs yet reported. These data confirm previous observations of the unusual behavior of KEJ lavas relative to global observations in having both large 238U and 231Pa excesses. Combined with (226Ra/230Th), these disequilibria observations require that 238U excesses reflect more than solely fluid addition to the mantle wedge from the subducted oceanic slab.

  16. Establishment of conditions for ovum pick up and IVM of jennies oocytes toward the setting up of efficient IVF and in vitro embryos culture procedures in donkey (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Goudet, Ghylène; Douet, Cécile; Kaabouba-Escurier, Aurore; Couty, Isabelle; Moros-Nicolás, Carla; Barrière, Philippe; Blard, Thierry; Reigner, Fabrice; Deleuze, Stefan; Magistrini, Michèle

    2016-07-15

    Most wild and domestic donkey breeds are currently endangered or threatened. Their preservation includes the creation of a Genome Resource Bank. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from both male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. Because embryo production in vivo is limited in equids, our objective was to establish conditions for in vitro production of embryos in donkey using ovum pick up (OPU), IVM, IVF, and in vitro culture of zygotes. Donkey cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspirations OPU in adult cyclic jennies and in vitro matured in tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with fetal calf serum and epidermal growth factor for 24, 30, 34, or 38 hours. They were preincubated with oviductal fluid for 30 minutes, coincubated with frozen-thawed donkey semen treated with procaine for 18 hours, and cultured for 30 hours in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium-F12 supplemented with NaHCO3, fetal calf serum, and gentamycin. From the five OPU sessions, we collected 92 COCs in 193 follicles (48%) with an average of 4.2 COCs per jenny. All COCs were expanded after more than 24-hour IVM. At collection, jennies oocytes contained a germinal vesicle. Metaphase 1 oocytes were observed after 30-hour IVM and 44% were in metaphase 2 after 34-hour IVM. In our conditions, IVM of donkey oocytes was slower than IVM of equine oocytes and optimal duration for donkey oocytes IVM may be 34 hours. Only 15% of jennies oocytes contained two pronuclei after coincubation with donkey spermatozoa and none of them developed further after 48 hours post-IVF. Moreover, some parthenogenetic activation occurred. Thus, the treatment of donkey sperm with procaine may not be efficient for IVF. In conclusion, we established for the first time conditions for OPU in jennies with high recovery rates. We reported that IVM of jennies oocytes can produce 44% of metaphase 2 oocytes after 34 hours in culture

  17. Characterizing Volcanic Processes using Near-bottom, High Resolution Magnetic Mapping of the Caldera and Inner Crater of the Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchala, T. L.; Chen, M.; Tominaga, M.; Carey, S.

    2016-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) is an active submarine volcano located in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, 7.5 km north of the Caribbean island Grenada. KEJ, known as one of the most explosive volcanoes in Caribbean, erupted 12 times since 1939 with recent eruptions in 2001 and possibly in 2015. Multiple generations of submarine landslides and canyons have been observed in which some of them can be attributed to past eruptions. The structure of KEJ can be characterized as a 1300 m high conical profile with its summit crater located around 180 m in depth. Active hydrothermal venting and dominantly CO2 composition gas seepage take place inside this 250m diameter crater, with the most activity occurring primarily within a small ( 70 x 110 m) depression zone (inner crater). In order to characterize the subsurface structure and decipher the processes of this volcanic system, the Nautilus NA054 expedition in 2014 deployed the underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules to conduct near-bottom geological observations and magnetometry surveys transecting KEJ's caldera. Raw magnetic data was corrected for vehicle induced magnetic noise, then merged with ROV to ship navigation at 1 HZ. To extract crustal magnetic signatures, the reduced magnetic data was further corrected for external variations such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field and diurnal variations using data from the nearby San Juan Observatory. We produced a preliminary magnetic anomaly map of KEJ's caldera for subsequent inversion and forward modeling to delineate in situ magnetic source distribution in understanding volcanic processes. We integrated the magnetic characterization of the KEJ craters with shipboard multibeam, ROV visual descriptions, and photomosaics. Initial observations show the distribution of short wavelength scale highly magnetized source centered at the north western part of the inner crater. Although locations of gas seeps are ubiquitous over the inner crater area along ROV

  18. Insights on volcanic behaviour from the 2015 July 23-24 T-phase signals generated by eruptions at Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Latchman, J. L.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Lynch, L.; Stewart, R.; Smith, P.; Ramsingh, C.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, H.; Ash, C.

    2015-12-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny volcano (KeJ) is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Since 1939, the year it revealed itself, and until the volcano-seismic unrest of 2015 July 11-25 , the volcano has erupted 12 times. Only two eruptions breached the surface: 1939, 1974. The volcano has an average eruption cycle of about 10-11 years. Excluding the Montserrat, Soufrière Hills, KeJ is the most active volcano in the Lesser Antilles arc. The University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) has been monitoring KeJ since 1953. On July 23 and 24 at 1:42 am and 0:02 am local time, respectively, the SRC recorded T-phase signals , considered to have been generated by KeJ. Both signals were recorded at seismic stations in and north of Grenada: SRC seismic stations as well as the French volcano observatories in Guadeloupe and Martinique, Montserrat Volcano Observatory, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. These distant recordings, along with the experience of similar observations in previous eruptions, allowed the SRC to confirm that two explosive eruptions occurred in this episode at KeJ. Up to two days after the second eruption, when aerial surveillance was done, there was no evidence of activity at the surface. During the instrumental era, eruptions of the KeJ have been identified from T-phases recorded at seismic stations from Trinidad, in the south, to Puerto Rico, in the north. In the 2015 July eruption episode, the seismic station in Trinidad did not record T-phases associated with the KeJ eruptions. In this study we compare the T-phase signals of 2015 July with those recorded in KeJ eruptions up to 1974 to explore possible causative features for the T-phase recording pattern in KeJ eruptions. In particular, we investigate the potential role played by the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) layer in influencing the absence of the T-phase on the Trinidad seismic station during this eruption.

  19. Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Microwave Image

    These infrared, microwave, and visible images were created with data retrieved by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite.

    Infrared Image Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red).

    Microwave Image In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is therefore low. Thus the ocean also appears 'low temperature' in the AIRS microwave images and is assigned the color blue. Therefore deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. Land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 02LCA02 in Lakes Ada, Crystal, Jennie, Mary, Rice, and Sylvan, Central Florida, July 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    In July of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) conducted geophysical surveys in Lakes Ada, Crystal, Jennie, Mary, Rice, and Sylvan, central Florida, as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 02LCA02 tells us the data were collected in 2002 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the second field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, which propagates through the water, sediment column, or rock beneath. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor, sediment, or rock layers beneath the

  1. U-series disequilibria in Kick’em Jenny submarine volcano lavas: A new view of time-scales of magmatism in convergent margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Zhang, Zhaofeng

    2011-01-01

    We present data for U and its decay series nuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 231Pa, and 210Po for 14 lavas from Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) submarine volcano to constrain the time-scales and processes of magmatism in the Southern Lesser Antilles, the arc having the globally lowest plate convergence rate. Although these samples are thought to have been erupted in the last century, most have ( 226Ra)/( 210Po) within ±15% of unity. Ten out of 14 samples have significant 226Ra excesses over 230Th, with ( 226Ra)/( 230Th) up to 2.97, while four samples are in 226Ra- 230Th equilibrium within error. All KEJ samples have high ( 231Pa)/( 235U), ranging from 1.56 to 2.64 and high 238U excesses (up to 43%), providing a global end-member of high 238U and high 231Pa excesses. Negative correlations between Sr, sensitive to plagioclase fractionation, and Ho/Sm, sensitive to amphibole fractionation, or K/Rb, sensitive to open system behavior, indicate that differentiation at KEJ lavas was dominated by amphibole fractionation and open-system assimilation. While ( 231Pa)/( 235U) does not correlate with differentiation indices such as Ho/Sm, ( 230Th)/( 238U) shows a slight negative correlation, likely due to assimilation of materials with slightly higher ( 230Th)/( 238U). Samples with 226Ra excess have higher Sr/Th and Ba/Th than those in 226Ra- 230Th equilibrium, forming rough positive correlations of ( 226Ra)/( 230Th) with Sr/Th and Ba/Th similar to those observed in many arc settings. We interpret these correlations to reflect a time-dependent magma differentiation process at shallow crustal levels and not the process of recent fluid addition at the slab-wedge interface. The high 231Pa excesses require an in-growth melting process operating at low melting rates and small residual porosity; such a model will also produce significant 238U- 230Th and 226Ra- 230Th disequilibrium in erupted lavas, meaning that signatures of recent fluid addition from the slab are unlikely to be preserved in KEJ lavas. We

  2. An Interview with Ernesto M. Bernal and Patricia Hays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    This interview, with an administrator and an evaluator of the Summer Career Institute of Gifted Minority Students and Females held at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, addresses the topics of making career choices, prejudice of school personnel toward gifted minority students, identification procedures, cultural influences, and the role of…

  3. NASA JSC EV2 Intern Spring 2016 - Jennie Chung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is a mission to resume the manned exploration of the Solar System. This mission is the first crewed mission of NASA’s Orion on the Space Launch System. The target for EM-2 is to perform a flyby of a captured asteroid in lunar orbit, which NASA plans to launch in 2023. As an intern working with EV-2 – Avionics Systems Division in Johnson Space Center, we are developing flight instrumentation systems for EM-2 (MISL & RFID). The Modular Integrated Stackable Layer (MISL) is a compact space-related computer system that is modular, scalable and reconfigurable. The RFID (radio frequency identification) sensors are used to take lower frequency (TC) type measurements and be able to stream data real-time to an RF (radio frequency) interrogator upon demand. Our job, in EV-2, is to certify, test, manufacture/assemble and deliver flight EM-2 DFI System (MISL & RFID). Our goal is to propose a development effort to design low-mass wire and wireless data acquisition and sensor solutions for EM-2 DFI (Development Flight Instrumentation). The team is tasked to provide the most effective use of 75 pounds to acquire DFI data and to collect sensor data for 100-200 high priority DFI channels (mass driven).

  4. Why Else Does Jenny Run? Young Children's Extended Psychological Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Karen; Campbell, Michelle D.; Troseth, Georgene L.

    2007-01-01

    A method for eliciting extended explanations was used to evaluate predictions from the "theory-theory" account of developing psychological reasoning. Children were repeatedly asked to explain the actions or emotions of story characters with false beliefs. Questioning elicited false belief attributions in half of 3-year-olds (Study 1, N = 16, age M…

  5. Why Else Does Jenny Run? Young Children's Extended Psychological Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Karen; Campbell, Michelle D.; Troseth, Georgene L.

    2007-01-01

    A method for eliciting extended explanations was used to evaluate predictions from the "theory-theory" account of developing psychological reasoning. Children were repeatedly asked to explain the actions or emotions of story characters with false beliefs. Questioning elicited false belief attributions in half of 3-year-olds (Study 1, N = 16, age M…

  6. Jimmy's Baby Doll and Jenny's Truck: Young Children's Reasoning about Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    To assess the flexibility of reasoning about gender, children ages 4, 6, and 8 years (N = 72) were interviewed about gender norms when different domains were highlighted. The majority of participants at all ages judged a reversal of gender norms in a different cultural context to be acceptable. They also judged gender norms as a matter of personal…

  7. Evaluation of E-Safety Materials for Initial Teacher Training: Can "Jenny's Story" Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollard, John; Wickens, Cathy; Powell, Ken; Russell, Terry

    2009-01-01

    E-safety issues have come to the fore of thinking about young people's use of the internet because of their vulnerable position with regard to contact with people who may take advantage of them. The "Byron Review" in the UK makes explicit the steps that need to be taken to protect internet users. Based upon research across four United…

  8. Jimmy's Baby Doll and Jenny's Truck: Young Children's Reasoning about Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    To assess the flexibility of reasoning about gender, children ages 4, 6, and 8 years (N = 72) were interviewed about gender norms when different domains were highlighted. The majority of participants at all ages judged a reversal of gender norms in a different cultural context to be acceptable. They also judged gender norms as a matter of personal…

  9. Evaluation of E-Safety Materials for Initial Teacher Training: Can "Jenny's Story" Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollard, John; Wickens, Cathy; Powell, Ken; Russell, Terry

    2009-01-01

    E-safety issues have come to the fore of thinking about young people's use of the internet because of their vulnerable position with regard to contact with people who may take advantage of them. The "Byron Review" in the UK makes explicit the steps that need to be taken to protect internet users. Based upon research across four United…

  10. The Theme of the Sightless Asexual as Seen in the Novels "Santa" by Federico Gamboa and "El tunel" by Ernesto Sabato

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Robert A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The most cursory examination of literary depictions of the physically blind reveals a myriad of colorful, diverse and often odd characterizations. Portrayals of the sightless typically present them in roles overwhelmingly unflattering and flawed. In Federico Gamboa's "Santa," the blind piano player and coprotagonist, Hipolito, is cast as pathetic…

  11. The Theme of the Sightless Asexual as Seen in the Novels "Santa" by Federico Gamboa and "El tunel" by Ernesto Sabato

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Robert A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The most cursory examination of literary depictions of the physically blind reveals a myriad of colorful, diverse and often odd characterizations. Portrayals of the sightless typically present them in roles overwhelmingly unflattering and flawed. In Federico Gamboa's "Santa," the blind piano player and coprotagonist, Hipolito, is cast as pathetic…

  12. Identifying and Using Picture Books with Quality Mathematical Content: Moving beyond "Counting on Frank" and "The Very Hungry Caterpillar"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    This article by Jennie Marston provides a framework to assist you in selecting appropriate picture books to present mathematical content. Jennie demonstrates the framework by applying three specific examples of picture books to the framework along with examples of activities.

  13. Reproductive characteristics of foal heat in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Gloria, A; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C; De Amicis, I; Cairoli, F; Contri, A

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the first postpartum heat, termed the foal heat, characteristics and performance in female donkey (jenny) of Martina Franca are described. To this end, the follicular development of 42 jennies during foal heat was compared with that of 31 jennies at the third estrus after foaling. Estrus length (7.1±0.9 and 6.8±0.7 days), follicular development and preovulatory follicle size (43.7±3.5 and 45.1±2.5 mm) were similar between jennies during the foal heat and during the third estrus after foaling. The pregnancy rate at day 14 was significantly lower in the foal heat jennies (57.1%) than the third estrus jennies (82.3%). However, the pregnancy rate at day 14 in foal heat jennies increased significantly when the onset of foal heat was ⩾8 days after foaling (93.8%) or when the ovulation happened ⩾12 days after foaling (85.7%). The data provided in the present study suggest that the foal heat in the endangered jennies of Martina Franca could be successfully utilized to reduce the interpartum period if the onset of foal heat occurs >8 days after foaling.

  14. Scaling up... : Professional Development to Serve Young Children in Chinese Welfare Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Cotton, Janice N.; Zhao, Wen; Muntaner-Gelabert, Jeronia

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 a group of American adoptive parents led by Jenny Bowen created Half the Sky Foundation (HTS) to provide nurturing care and education for children living in Chinese orphanages (known as children's welfare institutions). Jenny, a former screenwriter and film director, and her husband Richard wanted to ensure that the children still waiting…

  15. Scaling up... : Professional Development to Serve Young Children in Chinese Welfare Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Cotton, Janice N.; Zhao, Wen; Muntaner-Gelabert, Jeronia

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 a group of American adoptive parents led by Jenny Bowen created Half the Sky Foundation (HTS) to provide nurturing care and education for children living in Chinese orphanages (known as children's welfare institutions). Jenny, a former screenwriter and film director, and her husband Richard wanted to ensure that the children still waiting…

  16. Muted Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    This analysis concentrates on the case of a child, Jenny. The paper suggests that the concept of liminality may hold the key to an understanding of muted subject positions like the one assumed by Jenny in a school class. Liminality is proposed as a way of conceptualizing transitions where the subject in question transgresses established rules and…

  17. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-69696 (27 August 2006) --- This oblique image of Hurricane Ernesto on the horizon was taken by the crew of the International Space Station on Sunday, Aug. 27, 2006, from an altitude of about 215 miles. At that time, Ernesto was approaching Cuba and was expected to eventually make landfall on the coast of southern Florida.

  18. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-69723 (27 August 2006) --- This vertical view of Hurricane Ernesto was taken by the crew of the International Space Station on Sunday, Aug. 27, 2006, from an altitude of about 215 miles. At that time, Ernesto was approaching Cuba and was expected to eventually make landfall on the coast of southern Florida.

  19. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-69720 (27 August 2006) --- This vertical view of Hurricane Ernesto was taken by the crew of the International Space Station on Sunday, Aug. 27, 2006, from an altitude of about 215 miles. At that time, Ernesto was approaching Cuba and was expected to eventually make landfall on the coast of southern Florida.

  20. Hezbollah: A Charitable Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    model, the social service 106 Ernesto Guevara , Brian Loveman, and Thomas M... Guevara , Ernesto , Brian Loveman, and Thomas M. Davies. Guerrilla Warfare. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985. Hamilton, Alexander, James...reflected in modern insurgency theorists like Mao Tse-Tung, Che Guevara and David Galula. They all follow a similar pattern that weighs the support of the

  1. Confidentiality. 13: The notification of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimond, B

    Jenny Rose was a paediatric community nurse who regularly visited a child with a chronic lung condition who was being nursed at home. On one visit she noticed that the child's mother, Jane, appeared to be very pale and thin and was told that the mother had a severe gastric disorder with diarrhoea. From the description of the illness, Jenny thought that Jane might be suffering from typhoid. Jane worked as a cook in a restaurant, was unwilling to seek medical advice and intended going to work that night. Jenny was concerned that Jane could have a serious notifiable infectious disease and therefore be a danger to customers in the restaurant. Jane insisted that Jenny should keep the information confidential. Where does Jenny stand?

  2. 75 FR 65320 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ..., Comment Period Ends: 12/06/2010, Contact: Jennie Fischer 208-983-4048. EIS No. 20100412, Final Supplement...: Michael Jewell 916-557-6605. EIS No. 20100422, Third Final Supplement, FTA, 00, South Corridor...

  3. Immune Deficiency Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 IDF Volunteer Jenny Gardner Featured on Local News for Rare Disease Day Feb 27, 2017 Nebraska Woman Denied Immunoglobulin Treatment by Insurance Company Feb 22, 2017 IDF Blog Mar 31, 2017 ...

  4. Development of community practice teaching in Swindon.

    PubMed

    Jardine, J; Asherson, J

    1992-03-01

    Jenny Jardine and Janet Asherson describe how they introduced group work into their community practice teaching. They found the advantages of this approach, for both students and teachers, far outweighed any disadvantages.

  5. 6. Main cabin, northwest "wing" with plank door and sliding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Main cabin, northwest "wing" with plank door and sliding screen door; view to east. - M.T. & Jennie H. Deaton Property, Big Springs Summer Home Area, Lot 2, Block N, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  6. The ethics of legally detaining a patient who has tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Negus, Jennie; Viney, Kerri; Bothamley, Graham

    Patients with infectious diseases can be detained in hospitals under the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984. Jennie Negus and colleagues reflect on a case that illustrates the ethical problems of implementing the current legislation in a hospital.

  7. Is There Evidence of Poorer Birth Outcomes for Mothers and Babies When the Most Senior Obstetrician Is Not On Site?

    PubMed

    Myers, Jenny E; Johnstone, Edward D

    2016-04-01

    In this Perspective on the study by Hannah Knight and colleagues, Jenny Myers and Edward Johnstone consider the implications of negative findings in a variable setting in which adverse events are rare.

  8. 77 FR 50085 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Permit No. 16160 has been issued to The Whale Museum (Responsible Party: Jenny Atkinson), PO Box 945... species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit has been amended to increase Southern Resident killer...

  9. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreurs, Guido

    2010-05-01

    , models accommodated initial shortening by a forward- and a backward-verging thrust. Further shortening was taken up by in-sequence formation of forward-verging thrusts. In all experiments, boundary stresses created significant drag of structures along the sidewalls. We therefore compared the surface slope and the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in sections through the central part of the model. All models show very similar cross-sectional evolutions demonstrating reproducibility of first-order experimental observations. Nevertheless, there are significant along-strike variations of structures in map view highlighting the limits of interpretations of analogue model results. These variations may be related to the human factor, differences in model width and/or differences in laboratory temperature and especially humidity affecting the mechanical properties of the granular materials. GeoMod2008 Analogue Team: Susanne Buiter, Caroline Burberry, Jean-Paul Callot, Cristian Cavozzi, Mariano Cerca, Ernesto Cristallini, Alexander Cruden, Jian-Hong Chen, Leonardo Cruz, Jean-Marc Daniel, Victor H. Garcia, Caroline Gomes, Céline Grall, Cecilia Guzmán, Triyani Nur Hidayah, George Hilley, Chia-Yu Lu, Matthias Klinkmüller, Hemin Koyi, Jenny Macauley, Bertrand Maillot, Catherine Meriaux, Faramarz Nilfouroushan, Chang-Chih Pan, Daniel Pillot, Rodrigo Portillo, Matthias Rosenau, Wouter P. Schellart, Roy Schlische, Andy Take, Bruno Vendeville, Matteo Vettori, M. Vergnaud, Shih-Hsien Wang, Martha Withjack, Daniel Yagupsky, Yasuhiro Yamada

  10. Revolutionary Leadership and Pedagogical Praxis: Revisiting the Legacy of Che Guevara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes pedagogical foundations of Ernesto "Che" Guevara's revolutionary praxis, situating Guevara within a redemptive educational leadership model. Articulates Guevarian leadership within a historical materialist framework; presents a leadership model that addresses resistance to and transformation of global capitalist social…

  11. Revolutionary Leadership and Pedagogical Praxis: Revisiting the Legacy of Che Guevara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes pedagogical foundations of Ernesto "Che" Guevara's revolutionary praxis, situating Guevara within a redemptive educational leadership model. Articulates Guevarian leadership within a historical materialist framework; presents a leadership model that addresses resistance to and transformation of global capitalist social…

  12. Physiological Response and Habituation of Endangered Species to Military Training Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    black rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) in fragmented forests. Ecology 82:2882-2896. Boersma, P.D. 1987. Penguins oiled in Argentina. Science 236... deforestation and bird extinction in tropical forest fragments. Conservation Biology 13:1140-1150. Brotons, L., and S. Herrando. 2001. Reduced bird...London Series B, Biological Sciences 270:963-969. Thiel, D., S. Jenni-Eiermann, V. Braunisch, R. Palme , and L. Jenni. 2008. Ski tourism affects

  13. Does the Current 20th Century Navy Personnel Management System Meet 21st Century Sailors’ Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    Hansen, Michael L., and Jennie W. Wenger 2002 Center for Naval Analyses, CRM D0005644.A2 Pay elasticity in different models describe the...requirements determination which placed manpower flow modeling in a preeminent position. Under the direction of Admiral James Hogg , head of the Navy’s...Source: Michael L. Hansen and Jennie W. Wenger, Why Do Pay Elasticity Estimates Differ? (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, CRM

  14. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-69718 (27 August 2006) --- This vertical view of Hurricane Ernesto was taken by the crew of the International Space Station on Sunday, Aug. 27, 2006, from an altitude of about 215 miles. At that time, Ernesto was approaching Cuba and was expected to eventually make landfall on the coast of southern Florida. Part of a Russian spacecraft, docked to the orbital outpost, is visible in upper left corner.

  15. Don’t Trust the Big Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-06

    III, Part Two- Kabila and Che This is the history of a failure. Ernesto “Che” Guevara , The African Dream, 1967. That rebellion to the east...Havana: the fabled insurgent Ernesto “Che” Guevara . Che’s idea was to build an insurgency training camp in eastern Congo, and as Osama bin Laden...such as Nelson Mandela, Che Guevara , Fidel Castro, and David Ben-Gurion were insurgents of their day, classified as principled moralists having

  16. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    float the peso because the government had run out of reserves.22 In the aftermath of the 1994 devaluation, Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo took...Treasury. The Zedillo Administration wanted to demonstrate its commitment to fulfill all its financial obligations without a default on its debt by...monetary policy.23 Following the lead of former President Ernesto Zedillo , former President Vicente Fox continued efforts to liberalize trade

  17. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-03

    because the government had run out of reserves.27 In the aftermath of the 1994 devaluation, Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo took several steps to... Zedillo Administration wanted to demonstrate its commitment to fulfill all its financial obligations without a default on its debt by adopting tight...policy.28 Following the lead of former President Ernesto Zedillo , former President Vicente Fox continued efforts to liberalize trade, privatize

  18. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-17

    Opportunities). The program, formerly known as Progresa (Progress), began under President Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000) and has since expanded to benefit 5...changed even more dramatically under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994) and President Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000). Presidents Salinas...opened Mexico’s economy to trade and investment, while President Zedillo adopted electoral reforms that leveled the playing field for opposition

  19. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-25

    the peso because the government had run out of reserves.23 In the aftermath of the 1994 devaluation, Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo took several... Zedillo Administration wanted to demonstrate its commitment to fulfill all its financial obligations without a default on its debt by adopting tight...policy.24 Following the lead of former President Ernesto Zedillo , former President Vicente Fox continued efforts to liberalize trade, privatize

  20. Strategies to improve the fertility of fresh and frozen donkey semen.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Victor; Oliveira, Pedro Victor de Luna Freire; Melo e Oña, Cely Marini; Guasti, Priscilla Nascimento; Monteiro, Gabriel Augusto; Sancler da Silva, Yamê Fabres Robaina; Papa, Patrícia de Mello; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Dell'Aqua Junior, Jose Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam

    2016-04-15

    Fertility rates of donkey semen in jennies are lower compared to mares. The aims of this study were to evaluate different sperm cryopreservation methods and insemination strategies to improve the fertility of donkey semen in jennies. Three experiments were performed: (1) the comparison of two freezing methods of donkey semen (conventional method and automated method); (2) the determination of a suitable insemination dose of fresh donkey semen for jennies and mares; and (3) the influence of the semen deposition site on fertility of jennies inseminated with frozen donkey semen. For experiment 1, no differences were observed in total motility, angular velocity, curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and plasma membrane integrity between samples frozen with the conventional (Styrofoam box) and the automated method (TK 4000C). However, the automated method provided higher values of progressive motility and rapid cells in frozen-thawed samples in comparison with the conventional method (P < 0.05). For experiment 2, mares were bred using 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm (M); and jennies using 1 × 10(9) (J1) or 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm (J5). Pregnancy rates in M, J1, and J5 were 93% (14/15), 73% (11/15), and 40% (6/15), respectively. When using different insemination doses, 500 × 10(6) or 1 × 10(9) sperm, no significant difference was observed in pregnancy rates of mares (M, 14/15) and jennies (J1, 11/15). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the two insemination doses in jennies. However, with an insemination dose of 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm, the pregnancy rates were significantly higher in mares (M, 14/15) than in jennies (J5, 6/15; P < 0.05). For experiment 3, the inseminations were carried out in the uterine body (UB) or in the uterine horn of jennies with frozen-thawed donkey semen. No pregnancies were achieved with inseminations performed in the UB (0/12). The pregnancy rate for uterine horn group was 28.26% (13/46) and thus

  1. Social likeability, conformity, and body talk: Does fat talk have a normative rival in female body image conversations?

    PubMed

    Tompkins, K Brooke; Martz, Denise M; Rocheleau, Courtney A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2009-09-01

    Fat talk, dialogues among women involving negative body-focused discussions, was studied as a function of conformity and social likeability through the use of four vignettes depicting young women in conversation. Using a 2 (body presentation style of the group: negative or positive)x2 (body presentation style of the target, Jenny: negative or positive) factorial design, 215 college women (92.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian) read one of four vignettes in a classroom setting and made ratings on a social likeability scale. Participants' personal ratings of Jenny's likeability were higher when she spoke positively about her body, whereas they expected the other group members in the vignette to like Jenny more when she conformed to the group's body presentation style. This study is the first to support two competing norms for women's body image-the existing norm to fat talk versus a newly documented norm that some women like others who express body acceptance.

  2. The Dokuchaev hypothesis as a basis for predictive digital soil mapping (on the 125th anniversary of its publication)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinsky, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    Predictive digital soil mapping is widely used in soil science. Its objective is the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil taxonomic units and quantitative soil properties via the analysis of spatially distributed quantitative characteristics of soil-forming factors. Western pedometrists stress the scientific priority and principal importance of Hans Jenny's book (1941) for the emergence and development of predictive soil mapping. In this paper, we demonstrate that Vasily Dokuchaev explicitly defined the central idea and statement of the problem of contemporary predictive soil mapping in the year 1886. Then, we reconstruct the history of the soil formation equation from 1899 to 1941. We argue that Jenny adopted the soil formation equation from Sergey Zakharov, who published it in a well-known fundamental textbook in 1927. It is encouraging that this issue was clarified in 2011, the anniversary year for publications of Dokuchaev and Jenny.

  3. Long-term leptin fluctuations in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Čebulj-Kadunc, N; Škibin, A; Kosec, M

    2015-11-01

    The interest in donkeys is growing due to their integration in the systems of ecological farming, among other reasons. Due to limited reports on leptin concentrations in donkeys, the aim of the present study was to examine age-dependent and seasonal changes in the circulating leptin concentration in female donkeys (jennies) and thus contribute to knowledge about the physiological characteristics of this species. Prospective longitudinal study. The study was performed over a year (September 2008 to September 2009) on 20 yearling and young adult (pregnant, lactating or barren) jennies aged 1-5 years at the onset of the study; the animals were kept on pasture from May to September and stabled for the rest of the year. Blood samples were taken monthly and analysed for serum leptin concentrations by a commercial radioimmunoassay kit. Circulating leptin concentrations in studied jennies were lower than those reported for donkeys and horses. Despite the tendency for lower values in yearling vs. young adult jennies, the age range of the examined animals was insufficient to confirm any age-related leptin variations. Significant seasonal leptin fluctuations with peak levels in late spring and the lowest levels in autumn months, correlated with photoperiod, were detected in yearling, barren as well as pregnant jennies. Therefore, it was impossible to identify any effects of gestation or lactation on leptin concentrations of jennies. The results of this study cannot be used as evidence of a causal relationship between the photoperiod and seasonal circulating leptin fluctuations in donkeys, but could reflect changes induced by various external or internal factors enabling adaptations of grazing animals in variable submediterranean environments. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Fundamentals and Methods of High Angle-of-Attack Flying Qualities Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    the a-, versus oxt criterion orginally developed by Jenny of McDonnell Aircraft Company (McAir) (1971) (see Reference (115) and (2)). The more recent...equations of motion. Other forms of this criteron are also found in the literature such as the a-, versus "b der ,rture criterion ( Jenny ). The C, R criterion...Dynamics." Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 11, November 1954, pp. 749-762. 122. Johnston, D.E. and Hogge , J.R., "The Effects of Non

  5. Becoming a Coach in Developmental Adaptive Sailing: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Tiago; Culver, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Life-story methodology and innovative methods were used to explore the process of becoming a developmental adaptive sailing coach. Jarvis's (2009) lifelong learning theory framed the thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the coach, Jenny, was exposed from a young age to collaborative environments. Social interactions with others such as mentors, colleagues, and athletes made major contributions to her coaching knowledge. As Jenny was exposed to a mixture of challenges and learning situations, she advanced from recreational para-swimming instructor to developmental adaptive sailing coach. The conclusions inform future research in disability sport coaching, coach education, and applied sport psychology. PMID:25210408

  6. Becoming a Coach in Developmental Adaptive Sailing: A Lifelong Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tiago; Culver, Diane M

    2014-10-02

    Life-story methodology and innovative methods were used to explore the process of becoming a developmental adaptive sailing coach. Jarvis's (2009) lifelong learning theory framed the thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the coach, Jenny, was exposed from a young age to collaborative environments. Social interactions with others such as mentors, colleagues, and athletes made major contributions to her coaching knowledge. As Jenny was exposed to a mixture of challenges and learning situations, she advanced from recreational para-swimming instructor to developmental adaptive sailing coach. The conclusions inform future research in disability sport coaching, coach education, and applied sport psychology.

  7. Supplement to the Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (42nd) Held in Baltimore, Maryland on 1-3 June 1988. Subject and Author Index for the Proceedings for the 10th to 42nd Symposia on Frequency Control and Symposium Historical Information, 1946-1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Bernstein, I Clarence E. Searles, G.K. Guttwein, F.H. Reder Ruth C. Jenny 1958 Eduard A. Gerber I Jerome M. Havel Arrangements: I Clarence E. Searles, I Ruth...C. Jenny Facilities: I Millard F. Timm 1959 Eduard A. Gerber I Jerome M. Havel Arrangements: I Clarence E. Searles I Facilities: I Millard F. Timm...1960 Eduard A. Gerber I Jerome M. Havel Arrangements: I Clarence E. Searles I Facilities: I Millard F. Timm 1961 Eduard A. Gerber I Jerome M. Havel I

  8. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-71350 (28 August 2006) --- The crewmembers aboard the International Space Station took this oblique picture of Ernesto on Earth's horizon early afternoon on August 28, 2006. The tropical storm's center was located near 20.3 degrees north latitude and 75.7 degrees west longitude when the photo was taken. Movement was toward the northwest at 9 nautical miles per hour. Maximum sustained winds were at 35 nautical miles with gusts to 45 nautical miles. Ernesto had earlier passed between the east side of the Dominican Republic and Grand Turk Island (the light blue area near frame center).

  9. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-71351 (28 August 2006) --- The crewmembers aboard the International Space Station took this oblique picture of Ernesto on Earth's horizon early afternoon on August 28, 2006. The tropical storm's center was located near 20.3 degrees north latitude and 75.7 degrees west longitude when the photo was taken. Movement was toward the northwest at 9 nautical miles per hour. Maximum sustained winds were at 35 nautical miles with gusts to 45 nautical miles. Ernesto had earlier passed between the east side of the Dominican Republic and Grand Turk Island (the light blue area near frame center).

  10. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-71345 (28 August 2006) --- The crewmembers aboard the International Space Station took this oblique picture of Ernesto on Earth's horizon early afternoon on August 28, 2006. The tropical storm's center was located near 20.3 degrees north latitude and 75.7 degrees west longitude when the photo was taken. Movement was toward the northwest at 9 nautical miles per hour. Maximum sustained winds were at 35 nautical miles with gusts to 45 nautical miles. Ernesto had earlier passed between the east side of the Dominican Republic and Grand Turk Island (the light blue area to the right of center frame).

  11. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-71348 (28 August 2006) --- The crewmembers aboard the International Space Station took this picture of Ernesto early afternoon on August 28, 2006. The tropical storm's center was located near 20.3 degrees north latitude and 75.7 degrees west longitude when the photo was taken. Movement was toward the northwest at 9 nautical miles per hour. Maximum sustained winds were at 35 nautical miles with gusts to 45 nautical miles. Ernesto had earlier passed between the east side of the Dominican Republic and Grand Turk Island (the blue area in lower right corner).

  12. KSC-06pd2006

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis is hard down on the launch pad after rolling back to Launch Pad 39B. The Atlantic Ocean and lagoon water in the background reflect the glowing light of a setting sun. The shuttle had been moved off the launch pad due to concerns about the impact of Tropical Storm Ernesto, expected within 24 hours. The forecast of lesser winds expected from Ernesto and its projected direction convinced Launch Integration Manager LeRoy Cain and Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach to return the shuttle to the launch pad. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  13. Addressing the Needs of Students with Color Vision Deficiencies in the Elementary School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Karla Bame

    2013-01-01

    Color vision deficiencies affect approximately eight percent of the male population (Birch & Chisholm, 2008; Cole, 2007; Jenny & Kelso, 2007; Neitz & Neitz, 2000), yet the condition is often overlooked in the educational setting despite the pervasiveness of color in the school (Suero et al., 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

  14. How the Montessori Upper Elementary and Adolescent Environment Naturally Integrates Science, Mathematics, Technology, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John

    2016-01-01

    John McNamara shares his wisdom and humbly credits Camillo Grazzini, Jenny Höglund, and David Kahn for his growth in Montessori. Recognizing more than what he has learned from his mentors, he shares the lessons he has learned from his students themselves. Math, science, history, and language are so integrated in the curriculum that students…

  15. Women, Literacy and Action: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Mary, Ed.

    This handbook, to be used in literacy instruction programs, particularly with women, contains six articles concerning women and literacy written by women in Ontario. The articles are the following: "Feminism and Literacy" (Naomi Garber, Jenny Horsman, and Tracy Westell); "Looking at 'Ism's': Visible Minority Women and Literacy"…

  16. Workplace Education Guide, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    These eight chapters share diverse experiences, lessons, and tips gleaned by the Massachusetts Workplace Literacy Consortium. "Workplace Needs Analysis (WNA)" (Harneen Chernow, Emily Singer, Jenny Lee Utech) focuses on the Worker Education Program's (WEP's) strategy, including tools, access, interviews and focus groups, presenting findings to the…

  17. Oral History Interview Transcripts Tombigbee Historic Townsites Project. Volume 5 (Interview Numbers 123-128).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Of STANDARDS-1963-A AL HISTORY INTERVIEW TRANSCR TOMBIGBEE HISTOMRIC TOWNSITES PROJECT AD ,Id4 3 5 Volume 5 (Interview Numbers 123 -128) Compiled by...HISTORY INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS TOMBIGBEE HISTORIC TOWNSITES PROJECT Volume 5 (Interview Nos. 123 -128) Compiled byJames N. McClurken and Peggy Uland...OH 123 Robert Adair. .. ......... ............. 761 OH 124 Jennie Mae Lenioir. .. ................... 788 OH 125

  18. Forest vegetation monitoring protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Treesearch

    Andrea Woodward; Karen M. Hutten; John R. Boetsch; Steven A. Acker; Regina M. Rochefort; Mignonne M. Bivin; Laurie L. Kurth

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the...

  19. The Double Bind for Women: Exploring the Gendered Nature of Turnaround Leadership in a Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jennie Miles; Burton, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study of nine participants in a turnaround principal preparation program, Jennie Miles Weiner and Laura J. Burton explore how gender role identity shaped participants' views of effective principal leadership and their place within it. The authors find that although female and male participants initially framed effective leadership…

  20. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation uses ultraviolet (UV) light and oxidants to oxidize organic material in a wastestream. It is a process more commonly...2011 Document Version Number: 2 Tom Torres, NAVFAC Engineering Service Center Jenny Lagerquist, Santa Barbara Applied Research, Inc. REPORT...NUMBER Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center 1100 23rd Avenue Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4370 Santa Barbara Applied Research 2151

  1. Unseen Workers in the Academic Factory: Perceptions of Neoracism among International Postdocs in the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan; Lee, Jenny J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Brendan Cantwell and Jenny J. Lee examine the experiences of international postdocs and their varying career paths in the current political economy of academic capitalism through the lens of neoracism. Using in-depth interviews with science and engineering faculty and international postdocs in the United States and the United…

  2. Postcombat Outcomes Among Marines with Preexisting Mental Diagnoses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Naval Health Research Center Postcombat Outcomes Among Marines With Preexisting Mental Diagnoses Jenny A. Crain Gerald E. Larson Robyn M...earlier disorders. Additionally, demotions and separation were significantly associated with having any preexisting mental health diagnoses (yielding odds...disorder category. Associations between cognitive ability, mental disorders, and behavioral outcomes were examined as well. Cognitive ability is one of the

  3. Blog Fingerprinting: Identifying Anonymous Posts Written by an Author of Interest Using Word and Character Frequency Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Hawkins , and Johnnie Caver, thank you for keeping me sane during the many hours of study in a windowless basement. Jenny, you are the hardest worker I...Some Signed r3868272.female.17.Arts.Sagittarius 174 47 3.70 31 Signatures: Desteny, Annie, Rachel , Ian Signatures not in a format that was easy to

  4. Papers on Language and Context. Working Papers of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Gumperz, Jenny; Gumperz, John J.

    This issue includes four papers: (1) "Context in Children's Speech," by Jenny Cook-Gumperz and John J. Gumperz, demonstrates how context is used as a framing device for semantic interpretation of messages. It is suggested that context is not simply background information but part of the total message, entering into the information communicated,…

  5. Best Practices for High School Classrooms: What Award-Winning Secondary Teachers Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Randi

    This book provides guidance on high-impact teaching practices, offering first-hand accounts of award-winning teachers. Nine chapters include: (1) "Award-Winning Words of Wisdom," with topics: "High School Teaching Tips" (Jenny W. Holmstrom); "What Is a Good Teacher?" (Carey Jenkins); "Student Creativity"…

  6. Engaging & Challenging Gifted Students: Tips for Supporting Extraordinary Minds in Your Classroom (ASCD Arias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2016-01-01

    Though nearly 5 million students can be characterized as gifted and talented in the United States, many exceptional learners "fly under the radar." Because they are not appropriately challenged in the general classroom, they never meet their full potential--in school or in life. Author Jenny Grant Rankin equips general classroom teachers…

  7. College Readiness for All: The Challenge for Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Nagaoka, Jenny; Coca, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Melissa Roderick, Jenny Nagaoka, and Vanessa Coca focus on the importance of improving college access and readiness for low-income and minority students in urban high schools. They stress the aspirations-attainment gap: although the college aspirations of all U.S. high school students, regardless of race, ethnicity, and family income, have…

  8. Multiply Math Skills with Literature. Literature Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoodt, Barbara D.

    1995-01-01

    This column discusses five children's books selected to develop math concepts involving problem solving, reasoning, and communication. The books are "Only One" (Marc Harshman); "The Librarian Who Measured the Earth" (Kathryn Lasky); "Counting Jennie" (Helena C. Pittman); "The Search for Delicious" (Natalie Babbitt); and "The Toothpaste…

  9. Women Who Made a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe-Carraco, Carol

    This book, printed for new adult readers, is a series of nine brief biographies of famous Kentucky women. The book is printed in large easy-to-read type at an intermediate reading level. The material focuses on Kentucky women who lived during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The subjects include the following: Jenny Wiley (1760-1831), a pioneer…

  10. Engaging & Challenging Gifted Students: Tips for Supporting Extraordinary Minds in Your Classroom (ASCD Arias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2016-01-01

    Though nearly 5 million students can be characterized as gifted and talented in the United States, many exceptional learners "fly under the radar." Because they are not appropriately challenged in the general classroom, they never meet their full potential--in school or in life. Author Jenny Grant Rankin equips general classroom teachers…

  11. Women, Literacy and Action: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Mary, Ed.

    This handbook, to be used in literacy instruction programs, particularly with women, contains six articles concerning women and literacy written by women in Ontario. The articles are the following: "Feminism and Literacy" (Naomi Garber, Jenny Horsman, and Tracy Westell); "Looking at 'Ism's': Visible Minority Women and Literacy"…

  12. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  13. Youth Studies Bulletin. Vol. 3 No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, D. S., Ed.; Blakers, C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This quarterly publication contains 13 articles covering various aspects of education and youth employment in Australia. "Youth Employment Strategies: Public Service of South Australia" (Jenny Rhodes) describes opportunities for South Australian youth to enter public service. "School Influences on Retention in Victorian Government…

  14. The Idea Generator: Lori Bell--Mid-Illinois Talking Book Center, East Peoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Anyone who hires Loft Bell is getting two librarians: one who enthusiastically does the job, and another who develops new ideas, secures grants to fund them, and swiftly puts the ideas into action. There's nothing that makes a job more attractive to Bell than the freedom to try out new things. Jenny Levine, Internet development specialist at…

  15. Shopping for Mathematics in Consumer Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ann L.; Wimer, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Justin and Jenny, grade 12 math students, walk with their preschool friends Sean and Meg to the local grocery store. There, two classmates are tending the cash registers. The six of them, along with others, are participating in an in-school "field trip" to Consumer Town, located in the South Windsor High School front lobby. The field…

  16. Addressing the Needs of Students with Color Vision Deficiencies in the Elementary School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Karla Bame

    2013-01-01

    Color vision deficiencies affect approximately eight percent of the male population (Birch & Chisholm, 2008; Cole, 2007; Jenny & Kelso, 2007; Neitz & Neitz, 2000), yet the condition is often overlooked in the educational setting despite the pervasiveness of color in the school (Suero et al., 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

  17. Heat Transfer Near the Entrance to a Film Cooling Hole in a Gas Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Fluent; Dr. Simon Hogg for describing the internal workings of CFD codes; Ken Dunford for solving various computer problems; Esther Rose for tracking down...invaluable. I benefitted greatly from technical discussions with Rob Davenport, Chris Graham, Bill Pierce, Dave Bryant, Sarah Ashton, Dave Hicklin, and Jenny

  18. 78 FR 66684 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... are no Academic terms expiring, so no nominations for that sector will be considered at this time... comments and views of the HMS AP when preparing and implementing Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) or FMP...: ``HMS AP Nominations.'' Mail: Jenni Wallace, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, NMFS,...

  19. Ethnography and Language in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Judith L., Ed.; Wallat, Cynthia, Ed.

    This compilation includes the following essays: (1) "Conversational Inference and Classroom Learning" (John J. Gumperz); (2) "Persuasive Talk--The Social Organization of Children's Talk" (Jenny Cook-Gumperz); (3) "Ethnography--The Holistic Approach to Understanding Schooling" (Frank W. Lutz); (4) "Triangulated Inquiry--A Methodology for the…

  20. Multiply Math Skills with Literature. Literature Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoodt, Barbara D.

    1995-01-01

    This column discusses five children's books selected to develop math concepts involving problem solving, reasoning, and communication. The books are "Only One" (Marc Harshman); "The Librarian Who Measured the Earth" (Kathryn Lasky); "Counting Jennie" (Helena C. Pittman); "The Search for Delicious" (Natalie Babbitt); and "The Toothpaste…

  1. Shopping for Mathematics in Consumer Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ann L.; Wimer, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Justin and Jenny, grade 12 math students, walk with their preschool friends Sean and Meg to the local grocery store. There, two classmates are tending the cash registers. The six of them, along with others, are participating in an in-school "field trip" to Consumer Town, located in the South Windsor High School front lobby. The field…

  2. 76 FR 63904 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral..., extension 150, or Jenny.Waddell@noaagov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 (Act) was enacted to provide a framework for conserving coral reefs. The Coral...

  3. Best Practices for High School Classrooms: What Award-Winning Secondary Teachers Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Randi

    This book provides guidance on high-impact teaching practices, offering first-hand accounts of award-winning teachers. Nine chapters include: (1) "Award-Winning Words of Wisdom," with topics: "High School Teaching Tips" (Jenny W. Holmstrom); "What Is a Good Teacher?" (Carey Jenkins); "Student Creativity"…

  4. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  5. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  6. Youth Studies Bulletin. Vol. 3 No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, D. S., Ed.; Blakers, C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This quarterly publication contains 13 articles covering various aspects of education and youth employment in Australia. "Youth Employment Strategies: Public Service of South Australia" (Jenny Rhodes) describes opportunities for South Australian youth to enter public service. "School Influences on Retention in Victorian Government…

  7. Study of Enlistment Test Scores and Other Attrition Factors from the Navy’s Delayed Entry Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Wegner and April K. Hodari, Final Analysis of Evaluation of Homeschool and ChalleNGe Program Recruits (Alexandria, VA: The CNA Corporation, 2004), 48...Sciences, 1981. Wegner, Jennie W. and April K. Hodari. Final Analysis of Evaluation of Homeschool and ChalleNGe Program Recruits. Alexandria, VA

  8. Ethnography and Language in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Judith L., Ed.; Wallat, Cynthia, Ed.

    This compilation includes the following essays: (1) "Conversational Inference and Classroom Learning" (John J. Gumperz); (2) "Persuasive Talk--The Social Organization of Children's Talk" (Jenny Cook-Gumperz); (3) "Ethnography--The Holistic Approach to Understanding Schooling" (Frank W. Lutz); (4) "Triangulated Inquiry--A Methodology for the…

  9. The Idea Generator: Lori Bell--Mid-Illinois Talking Book Center, East Peoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Anyone who hires Loft Bell is getting two librarians: one who enthusiastically does the job, and another who develops new ideas, secures grants to fund them, and swiftly puts the ideas into action. There's nothing that makes a job more attractive to Bell than the freedom to try out new things. Jenny Levine, Internet development specialist at…

  10. A School District Responds to a Book Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urzillo, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article explains the response of a school district to a parental attempt to ban a book or label it as unsuitable for middle school students. Labeling, for the purpose of definition, is giving a book a label similar to one used in the movie industry. The challenged book is entitled "Sex Education;" it is a novel authored by Jenny Davis. From…

  11. Gross anatomy of the female genital organs of the domestic donkey (Equus asinus Linné, 1758).

    PubMed

    Renner-Martin, T F P; Forstenpointner, G; Weissengruber, G E; Eberhardt, L

    2009-04-01

    Although donkeys play an important role as companion or pack and draught animals, theriogenological studies and anatomical data on the genital organs of the jenny are sparse. To provide anatomical descriptions and morphometric data, the organa genitalia feminina, their arteries and the ligamentum latum uteri of 10 adult but maiden jennies were examined by means of gross anatomical and morphometric techniques. In comparison with anatomical data of horses obtained from literature the genital organs of jennies appear to be more voluminous in relation to the body mass and the position of the ovaries is slightly further cranial than in mares. In asses, the ovaries contain large follicles reaching a diameter of up to 40 mm. The mesosalpinx is much wider than in the horse forming a considerably spacious bursa ovarica. The asinine ligamentum teres uteri reveals a very prominent cranial end, the 'appendix'. Tortuous mucosal folds occur in the wall of the jenny's cervical channel. The vascularization of the female genital organs of asses is very similar to that of horses. One of the examined specimens reveals a large mucosal fold dividing the cranial part of the vagina into a left and right compartment.

  12. Wordplay: The Poem's Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figgins, Margo A.; Johnson, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Students' relationships with language are likely to change when they are permitted to play with it, but teachers must construct multiple classroom situations for experimentation, and thus change, to take place. Margo A. Figgins and Jenny Johnson give several ideas for how to foster wordplay among students, describing use of eponyms, word…

  13. Studies in Teaching: 2008 Research Digest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of Annual Research Forum. 34 studies. Cultural Awareness in Secondary Spanish (Amy Allen), Writing in Mathematics (Lindsey L. Bakewell), Homework: Assignment Methods and Student Engagement (Lia Beresford), Current Events and Social Studies (Jennie Marie Biser), Authentic Assessments in Social Studies (Carl Boland), Assessment in High…

  14. Marine Corps Recruits: A Historical Look at Accessions and Bootcamp Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    D0011092.A2/Final) Hattiangadi, Anita. Private-Sector Benefit Offerings in the Competition for High-Skill Recruits, Dec 2001 (CNA Research Memorandum...Jennie, and Apriel Hodari. Final Analysis of Evaluation of Homeschool and ChalleNGe Program Recruits, Jul 2004 (CNA Research Memorandum D0009351.A4/1REV

  15. Untracking Advocates Make Incredible Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    According to Scott, educators have uncritically accepted tracking as harmful, although little empirical proof has been presented. Jennie Oakes retorts that research evidence on untracking abounds. Anne Wheelock insists that students learn more with untracking. Barbara N. Pavan cites research on effective schools and nongraded schools showing that…

  16. The Double Bind for Women: Exploring the Gendered Nature of Turnaround Leadership in a Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jennie Miles; Burton, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study of nine participants in a turnaround principal preparation program, Jennie Miles Weiner and Laura J. Burton explore how gender role identity shaped participants' views of effective principal leadership and their place within it. The authors find that although female and male participants initially framed effective leadership…

  17. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  18. The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 7, Number 1, Summer 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Meghan, Ed.; Price, Jennifer M., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of "The Link" newsletter contains the following articles: (1) Convention on the Rights of the Child and Juvenile Justice (Jenni Gainborough and Elisabeth Lean); and (2) ABA (American Bar Association) Policy and Report on Crossover and Dual Jurisdiction Youth. Director's Message, Policy Update information and News/Resources are…

  19. Transplants. The heart of the matter.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J

    1997-11-20

    Thirty years after the world's first successful heart transplant, UK services are embroiled in a funding row. The country's eight units carried out more than 200 transplants last year, but after-care costs are rising as more people survive longer, and cardiologists fear the switch from central to regional funding will lead to cuts. Jenny Bryan looks at the past, present and future.

  20. Socio-Psycholinguistic Assessment of Early Writing Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traw, Rick

    A one-year qualitative study examined the ways in which two at-risk beginning readers and writers developed in a classroom where teaching strategies most commonly identified with whole language were used. The students, 6-year-old "Josh" and 7-year-old "Jenny," were enrolled in a transitional class composed of students who had…

  1. A School District Responds to a Book Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urzillo, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article explains the response of a school district to a parental attempt to ban a book or label it as unsuitable for middle school students. Labeling, for the purpose of definition, is giving a book a label similar to one used in the movie industry. The challenged book is entitled "Sex Education;" it is a novel authored by Jenny Davis. From…

  2. Wordplay: The Poem's Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figgins, Margo A.; Johnson, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Students' relationships with language are likely to change when they are permitted to play with it, but teachers must construct multiple classroom situations for experimentation, and thus change, to take place. Margo A. Figgins and Jenny Johnson give several ideas for how to foster wordplay among students, describing use of eponyms, word…

  3. Diversity in Nursing Education: Do We Really Want It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Diversity is accepted as desirable in nursing education, ensuring that the system is both stable and responsive to the social environment. A more favorable environment for diversity requires eliminating or modifying policies that damage it. (Includes commentary by Jenny Morris.) (SK)

  4. Sailing for stretched lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Having managed to get themselves and all their instruments on board a ship not too far away from an imminent war zone, Jenny Collier and colleagues enjoyed the serenity of life at sea as they investigated the rifted continental margin of India.

  5. Individual and Organizational Learning: A Developmental Perspective on Gilsdorf, Rymer and ABC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gail Fann

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Jenny Gilsdorf and Jone Rymer offer poignant stories about their personal and professional growth in two articles in this issue. Provides an integrating framework for exploring the linkages between the ideas put forth by Gilsdorf and Rymer. Uses a psychodynamics perspective to examine the connections among individual development, an…

  6. Difference, Power and Women in the Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddon, Arwen

    2003-01-01

    Reviews two books, "Identity and Difference in Higher Education: Outsiders Within" (Pauline Anderson and Jenny Williams, Eds.) and "Gender, Teaching and Research in Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century" (Gillian Howie and Ashley Tauchert, Eds.). Both books explore a range of key issues faced by women in the academy…

  7. N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

  8. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  9. Unseen Workers in the Academic Factory: Perceptions of Neoracism among International Postdocs in the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan; Lee, Jenny J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Brendan Cantwell and Jenny J. Lee examine the experiences of international postdocs and their varying career paths in the current political economy of academic capitalism through the lens of neoracism. Using in-depth interviews with science and engineering faculty and international postdocs in the United States and the United…

  10. Key Elements in Successful Training A Comparative Study of Two Workplaces. Project Report, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium, Alice Springs. Northern Territory Centre.

    This publication presents case studies of two sites--one with and one without a history of involvement in Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL)-funded training programs. Case study 1, "Partnership, Flexibility, and Experience: Key Elements in Successful Training" (Jenny McGuirk), investigates a food processing company in New South Wales…

  11. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnan, Peter, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The first paper in this issue, "Towards a Re-examination of Learning and Teaching at Charles Sturt University" (Perry Share, Mark Farrell, Erica Smith, Jenni Brackenreg, Lesley Ballantyne, Lisa Fawkes, Michelle Dean, Mark McFadden, and Judith Parker) is a major discussion paper by a Working Party of Academic Senate at Charles Sturt…

  12. 77 FR 59029 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ..., Commission, from: Christopher Nagy, President, KOR Trading LLC, dated August 17, 2012; and Jenny Klebes... within 45 days of the publication of notice of the filing of a proposed rule change, or within such longer period up to 90 days as the Commission may designate if it finds such longer period to...

  13. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  14. 77 FR 35657 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16163, 16160, and 15569

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Investigator) , 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, Seattle, WA 98112-2097; The Whale Museum (Jenny Atkinson, Responsible Party) , P.O. Box 945, Friday Harbor, WA 98250; and The Center for Whale Research (CWR; Kenneth C... suction- cup tagged. Ultrasound sampling will be directed at killer whales including the Southern...

  15. Travel as a Ritual toward Transformative Consciousness: Juxtaposing Che Guevara's Biography and Teacher Candidates' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, YiShan

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the development of critical consciousness by examining the biographical-narratives in relationship to the experiential accounts on travel. Biographical narratives are important cultural texts filled with history and cultural nuances. The biography of Ernesto Che Guevara has resonated with readers and viewers from around the…

  16. A Module to Estimate Numerical Values of Hidden Variables for Expert Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    project has been supported by AFOSR Grant 81-0220. The interfa2e between FORTRAN IV and ALISP was written by IDon McKay. Ernesto Morgado has programmed the...manuscript. [1] Findler, N.V. and E. Morgado : Morph-fitting--An 2 ’ effective technique of approximation (To appear in IEE Trans. n Pattrn Analysis and Machine

  17. A Preliminary Report on a Multi-Level Learning Technique Using Production Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Strategy relying on a better and larger knowledge base. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ernesto Morgado has participated in the design of PIC and has carried out its...Pattern Recogniti~n, pp. 140-145, Vol. I, Miami, FL, 1980). [11] Findler, N.V. and E. Morgado : Optimum decision rules for sequential multiple trend

  18. 76 FR 44956 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... States' claims against Gregory D. Bee in United States v. Hertrich, et al., Case No. 1:10-cv-03068-JKB... Frederick W. Hertrich, III, Charles Ernesto, and Gregory D. Bee, pursuant to 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d), to... Consent Decree resolves allegations against Gregory D. Bee by requiring him to pay a civil penalty....

  19. Travel as a Ritual toward Transformative Consciousness: Juxtaposing Che Guevara's Biography and Teacher Candidates' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, YiShan

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the development of critical consciousness by examining the biographical-narratives in relationship to the experiential accounts on travel. Biographical narratives are important cultural texts filled with history and cultural nuances. The biography of Ernesto Che Guevara has resonated with readers and viewers from around the…

  20. New Forms of Stolz-Cesaro Lemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortici, Cristinel

    2011-01-01

    The well-known Stolz-Cesaro lemma is due to the mathematicians Ernesto Cesaro (1859-1906) and Otto Stolz (1842-1905). The aim of this article is to give new forms of Stolz-Cesaro lemma involving the limit [image omitted].

  1. Writing "Che" Writing: Apocryphal Diaries and the Deconstruction of Guevara's Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiser, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Ernesto "Che" Guevara's iconic photograph has taken on mythical proportions since his death. Though his image has ironically been exploited by the apparatus of capitalism against which he fought, his translation into a symbol has assured that his foothold within popular culture remains largely unassailable. While recent films and…

  2. Social Justice and Dispositions for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…

  3. Rejoinder--Postmodernism and the Eclipse of Political Agency: A Response to Spencer Maxcy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Maxcy's failure to understand Ernesto "Che" Guevara's reconstruction as an exemplary postmodern educational leader. The author presented a leadership model providing dialectical critique and an attentiveness to political economy. Postmodernism overlooks the significance of Guevara's efforts to resist global capitalist…

  4. The Untold Story of Mexico’s Rise and Eventual Monopoly of the Methamphetamine Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    ground vis-à-vis the Mexican Cartels. The Cali Cartel was a major contributor to the campaign of PRI presidential candidate Ernesto Zedillo in 1994...the Methamphetamine Problem in the United States. Statement of Rogelio E. Guevara , Chief of Operations, Drug Enforcement Administration, Before the

  5. Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe. Boletin 16 (Main Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin 16).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The three articles in this bulletin address various education problems in Latin America. Ernesto Schiefelbein ("Seven Strategies for Raising the Quality and Efficiency of the Education System") proposes seven educational strategies to confront existing problems, limitations, and the failure to retain students with few socioeconomic…

  6. Empty Signifiers, Education and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The paper assumes that education is part of the process of discursive construction of society. The theoretical framework on which this argument is based includes Ernesto Laclau's theory of the "ontological impossibility and political necessity of society", and the role discourse and empty signifiers play in the establishment of political…

  7. Semiotics of Identity: Politics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    In this text I concentrate on semiotic aspects of the theory of political identity in the work of Ernesto Laclau, and especially on the connection between metaphors, metonymies, catachreses and synecdoches. Those tropes are of ontological status, and therefore they are of key importance in understanding the discursive "production" of…

  8. Training Program in the Molecular Basis of Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    superfamily" Spring Semester: 1999 Hugo J. Bellen "Genetic dissection of neurotransmitter release and endocytosis" Riccardo Dalla-Favera "Molecular...breast. Lee, Wen-Hwa, Ph.D. James Wang Linda deGraffenried Jennifer Gooch David Levin Ernesto Salcedo Jerry Alan Bates Jill Gilroy Jonathan

  9. Formulation of Subgrid Variability and Boundary-Layer Cloud Cover in Large-Scale Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-28

    prescribed as described above. Additional model details are given in the appendix. 3. Advection and Radiation Forcing To make a fair comparison with...BATS land-surface scheme to study land- surface/atmosphere interactions. Dept de Termodinamica Universität de Valencia SPAIN Ernesto LOPEZ-BAEZA

  10. Views on Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAG Communicator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The articles in this issue consider key issues in the selection of populations for gifted education program services. Titles and authors of articles include: "The Identification Blues and How to Cure Them" (Ernesto Bernal); "Recognizing Giftedness in Your Child" (Linda Kreger Silverman); "Instructional Grouping, GATE and Honors Classes" (Bill…

  11. Rejoinder--Postmodernism and the Eclipse of Political Agency: A Response to Spencer Maxcy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Maxcy's failure to understand Ernesto "Che" Guevara's reconstruction as an exemplary postmodern educational leader. The author presented a leadership model providing dialectical critique and an attentiveness to political economy. Postmodernism overlooks the significance of Guevara's efforts to resist global capitalist…

  12. Social Justice and Dispositions for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…

  13. Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-02

    Acts of 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Clinton- Zedillo Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Legal...the administrations of President William Clinton and President Ernesto Zedillo of Mexico, and the enactment of the Legal Immigrant Family Equity...RL30886, Mexico’s Counter-Narcotics Efforts under Zedillo and Fox, December 1994-March 2001, by K. Larry Storrs, especially pp. 8-10. living in the United

  14. Our Own Back Yard: Mexico and U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    assassination cast upon the PRI itself as well as on President Salinas’ brother Raul Salinas15. The party then chose Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon as...its candidate. Distancing himself from the violence resulting from the ongoing leftist Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas and advocating reform, Zedillo

  15. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    poverty is the Oportunidades (Opportunities, formerly known as Progresa). The program began under President Ernest Zedillo (1994-2000) and expanded under...la Madrid (1982- 1988), and continuing more dramatically under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994) and President Ernesto Zedillo (1994

  16. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-13

    known as Progresa). The program began under President Ernest Zedillo (1994-2000) and expanded under President Vicente Fox (2000-2006) to benefit 5...dramatically under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994) and President Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000), Mexico adopted a series of economic

  17. Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe. Boletin 16 (Main Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin 16).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The three articles in this bulletin address various education problems in Latin America. Ernesto Schiefelbein ("Seven Strategies for Raising the Quality and Efficiency of the Education System") proposes seven educational strategies to confront existing problems, limitations, and the failure to retain students with few socioeconomic…

  18. What's Happening in November?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    A resource booklet for teachers contains material for a number of classroom activities that emphasize the month of November. Brief life stories of three notable men (Daniel Boone, Ernesto J. Fonfrias, and Andrew Carnegie) who were born in November are given, as well as lists of five United States presidents with November birthdates and five states…

  19. Views on Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAG Communicator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The articles in this issue consider key issues in the selection of populations for gifted education program services. Titles and authors of articles include: "The Identification Blues and How to Cure Them" (Ernesto Bernal); "Recognizing Giftedness in Your Child" (Linda Kreger Silverman); "Instructional Grouping, GATE and Honors Classes" (Bill…

  20. Semiotics of Identity: Politics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    In this text I concentrate on semiotic aspects of the theory of political identity in the work of Ernesto Laclau, and especially on the connection between metaphors, metonymies, catachreses and synecdoches. Those tropes are of ontological status, and therefore they are of key importance in understanding the discursive "production" of…

  1. Writing "Che" Writing: Apocryphal Diaries and the Deconstruction of Guevara's Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiser, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Ernesto "Che" Guevara's iconic photograph has taken on mythical proportions since his death. Though his image has ironically been exploited by the apparatus of capitalism against which he fought, his translation into a symbol has assured that his foothold within popular culture remains largely unassailable. While recent films and…

  2. A Production Control System Based on Earned Value Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    de la Fuente (V) and Ernesto Manzanares (V), Astilleros Espanoles , S.A., Spain ABSTRACT In the last four years, Astilleros Espanoles S.A (AESA...Astilleros Espanoles S. A BAC Budget at Completion BCWP Budgeted Cost of Work Performed BCWS Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled CCA Cost Control Account

  3. What's Happening in November?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    A resource booklet for teachers contains material for a number of classroom activities that emphasize the month of November. Brief life stories of three notable men (Daniel Boone, Ernesto J. Fonfrias, and Andrew Carnegie) who were born in November are given, as well as lists of five United States presidents with November birthdates and five states…

  4. The Multiculturalism Caveat: A Pedagogy of the Politics of Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chueh, Ho-Chia

    2005-01-01

    Iris M. Young, Chantal Mouffe, and Ernesto Laclau are known for their political perspective on the politics of difference. The politics of difference concerns the fundamental question of political subjectivity. They argue against the essentialist belief that there is a fixed identity, instead promote the celebration of multiple and diverse values…

  5. Presenting the Iterative Curriculum Discourse Analysis (ICDA) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Lars Laird

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a method for analysing recurring curriculum documents using discourse theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The article includes a presentation of the method in seven practical steps, and is illustrated and discussed throughout using the author's recent case study on religion, identity and values in Norwegian…

  6. The Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Bulletin 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This bulletin reports on educational reform efforts in specific Latin American countries and calls for policy makers to utilize research findings on education in their decision. Five articles are included: (1) "Education Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Agenda for Action" (Ernesto Schiefelbein); (2) "Uruguayan High…

  7. Risk Bounds for Regularized Least-Squares Algorithm with Operator-Value Kernels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-16

    for regularized least-squares algorithm with operator-valued kernels Ernesto De Vito a Andrea Caponnetto b aDipartimento di Matematica , Università...0915, National Science Foundation (ITR/SYS) Contract No. IIS - 0112991, National Science Foundation (ITR) Contract No. IIS -0209289, National Science

  8. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-In-Cell Methods on 3-D Staggered Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Pusok, A. E.; Popov, A.

    2015-12-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered to be a flexible and robust method to model advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e. rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems or incompressible Stokes problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an immobile, Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without preserving the zero divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e. non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Jenny et al., 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. Solutions to this problem include: using larger mesh resolutions and/or marker densities, or repeatedly controlling the marker distribution (i.e. inject/delete), but which does not have an established physical background. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (2001) and Meyer and Jenny (2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation (CVI) scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we follow up with these studies and report on the quality of velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We adapt the formulations from both Jenny et al. (2001) and Wang et al. (2015) for use on 3-D staggered grids, where the velocity components have different node locations as compared to finite element, where they share the same node location. We test the different interpolation schemes (CVI and non-CVI) in combination with different advection schemes (Euler, RK2 and RK4) and with/out marker control on Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. We show that a conservative formulation

  9. In Brief: Underwater volcano gets real-time monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    A real-time underwater earthquake monitoring system was installed on the top of Kick'em Jenny, an underwater volcano located off the north coast of Grenada, on 6 May. The Real Time Offshore Seismic Station (RTOSS) consists of an ocean-bottom seismometer connected by a stretchy hose to a buoy on the ocean surface. The buoy is powered by solar panels and transmits seismic data by high-frequency radio to an observatory in Sauteurs, Grenada. The RTOSS research team, led by scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, is coordinating with the Grenadian National Disaster Management Agency and the Seismic Unit of the University of the West Indies to incorporate the RTOSS data into existing regional monitoring. Kick'em Jenny, the only `live' submarine volcano in the West Indies, last erupted in 2001.

  10. KSC-06pd1947

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Pad 39B, a worker monitors data during evaluation of systems at the pad after a lightning strike Aug. 25. Preparations continue on the pad for launch of Atlantis on mission STS-115 as early as Aug. 29. However, preparations are also underway for a rollback of Atlantis to the Vehicle Assembly Building due to Hurricane Ernesto. The rollback will be determined by the mission management team based on information about Hurricane Ernesto and its path through Florida. Atlantis has been poised on Launch Pad 39B for liftoff on mission STS-115 to the International Space Station to deliver the P3/P4 truss segment. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller

  11. KSC-06pd2004

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls up the ramp to Launch Pad 39B atop the crawler-transporter. The crawler has a leveling system designed to keep the top of the space shuttle vertical while negotiating the 5-percent grade leading to the top of the launch pad. Also, a laser docking system provides almost pinpoint accuracy when the crawler and mobile launcher platform are positioned at the launch pad. At right are the open rotating service structure and the fixed service structure topped by the 80-foot lightning mast. The shuttle had been moved off the launch pad due to concerns about the impact of Tropical Storm Ernesto, expected within 24 hours. The forecast of lesser winds expected from Ernesto and its projected direction convinced Launch Integration Manager LeRoy Cain and Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach to return the shuttle to the launch pad. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD.

  13. Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Milella, Paola; Centoducati, Nicola; Papaleo, Alessandro; Tateo, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P < 0.01), higher final live weight (P < 0.001), and carcass weight (P < 0.01), but no effects were observed on carcass dressing percentage (P > 0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals.

  14. Quick, Quick, Slow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Will

    2008-01-01

    As someone more at home in jeans and pumps it was a bit of a shock. The author could not quite get used to the sight of his feet in his father-in-law's black and pointy dancing shoes. Jennie, more often seen in trainers or steel-capped boots, had on a pair of strappy heels she'd borrowed from her mum. They felt like kids dressing up in their…

  15. Development of Novel Decontamination Techniques for Chemical Agents (GB, VX, HD) Contaminated Facilities. Phase 1. Identification and Evaluation of Novel Decontamination Concepts. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    TUNGSTEN) "FRONT HOUSING FRONT ELECTRODE (COPPER) WATER COOLING "--- POWDER INJECTfON PATH GASh PATH-PLASTIC= HAWILE CAPACITAHCE STARNOS~PLASMA GENER...attachment). 111-240 PUMP OUTPUT-Steam Cleaner ......... 72 gph PUMP OUTPUT-Pressure Washer ...... 140 gph WASH PRESSURE ..................... NOpal Jenny...Sulphide (Mustard Gas) and Bleaching Powder ", Analyst 65, 100, 1940. Cowsar, D. R., "Development of Reactive Materials for Decontamination of Personal

  16. The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Promoting Ovarian Cancer Growth and Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    test the in vivo potency of any MSC. 21 PR141364 (Betancourt) 09/01/2015-8/31/ 2017 6.0 calendar DOD W81XWH-14-PRMRP-TTDA Invited Application...in the therapy of a mouse model of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy [14]. This study also demonstrates the stability of these newly defined...Jenny M, Bobby DN, Anna ES, Aline MB (2012) Anti- Inflammatory Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC2) Attenuate Symptoms of Painful Diabetic Peripheral

  17. Archaeological and Historical Resources Investigations for the Red River of the North Ring Levee Project, Pembina and Walsh Counties, North Dakota, (Phase 1),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Violet Warner, Katherine Grube, Jenny Turner, William Sturtaugson, Adolard DeFoe, Richard Oakes, Jim Kotchman, William Altendorf, John Rolczynski...William Sturtaugson, Adolard DeFoe, Richard Oakes, Jim Kotchman, William Altendorf, John Rolczynski, Dominic Duray, Walter Gerszewski, Frank L. Ebertowski...raccoon, 3 mink, and 7 swans . Whether Chaboillez returned to Pembina that fall is uncertain. The buildings of his post are said to have been burned in the

  18. U.S.-UK Relations at the Start of the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    TR) wrote to his closest British friend, Cecil Spring Rice, "I am greatly mistaken if we ever slide back into the old conditions of bickering and...accessed July 17, 2005. 17. Jenny Booth , "Oona King Reveals ’yid’ Taunts During Election," The Times, London, May 11, 2005, available at http...the United States is the world’s sole superpower, the "hyperpuissance" in the description of former French Foreign Minister Hubert Vedrine. The "status

  19. Comparison of the Protective Efficacy of DNA and Baculovirus-Derived Protein Vaccines for EBOLA Virus in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Ebola virus (ZEBOV). Numerous strains of these viruses have been identified. One species of Marburg-like viruses has been officially designated... viruses to guinea pigs challenged with ebola virus . In: Vaccines 97. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp. 87/92. Hevey...Short communication Comparison of the protective efficacy of DNA and baculovirus- derived protein vaccines for EBOLA virus in guinea pigs Jenny L

  20. Improving Shaping Efforts in Africa’s Maghreb and Sahel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    Jenny Booth, "Al-Qaeda kills British hostage Edwin Dyer; kidnapped in Mali after music festival," Times Online , June 3, 2009, http://www. times...34Al-Qaeda kills British hostage Edwin Dyer, kidnapped in Mali after music festivaL" Times Online , June 3, 2009, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol...tomorrow. · DISCLAIMER THE OPINIONS AND CONCLUSIONS EXPRESSED HEREIN ARE THOSE OF THE · INDIVIDUAL STUDENT AUTHOR AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT

  1. Defense Contracting: Complete Historical Data Not Available on Canceled DOD Solicitations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-29

    intent to purchase a certain good or service, the government may decide to cancel a solicitation—thereby stopping the procurement process. The House ...procedures, 1H.R. Rep. No. 114-102 (2015). In addition, the Chairman, House Small Business Subcommittee...Assistant Director; Brandon Booth; Jenny Chanley; Kurt Gurka; Stephanie Gustafson; Matthew Lowney; Beth Reed Fritts; and Roxanna T. Sun. William T

  2. [An advanced nurse practitioner in general medicine in the United Kingdom].

    PubMed

    Aston, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, an advanced nurse practitioner can carry out consultations and write prescriptions in the same way as a general practitioner. Jenny Aston, a nurse for more than 30 years, works in a GP surgery in Cambridge. Here, she explains the role of nurses in the organisation of health care in the UK, and talks about her career and her missions as an advanced nurse practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Systems Integration (HSI) in Acquisition. HSI Domain Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Debbie Burdich, Gloria Calhoun, David Carpenter , Gregg Clark, Barry Craigen, Eric Crawford, Greg Edwards, Jennie Farrell, Curtis Fey, Richard Freeman...Drivers The numbers in the Activities boxes correspond to the numbers In the Inputs and Outputs boxes. Tools: ● HMIRS ● BEE ● HSI Requirements Guide...to the numbers In the Inputs and Outputs boxes. Tools: ● HMIRS ● Cost Avoidance Methodology ● AHAAH ● BEE ● DOEHRS References: ● MIL-STD-882D

  4. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    John Borg, Tim Brabets, Christian Breen, Kenna Butler, Leon Caroll, Mark Carr, Veronica Carrasco, Mark Castor, Ken Coe, Charlie Couvillion, Steve...Mike Parker, John Pearce, Francis Peters, Terry Plowman, Pete Raymond, Mike Reddy, Dennis Rosenkranz, Dave Roth , Andrea Ryan, Tom Sabin, Jenny vii...15565447 9/27/2005 2.2 14 2.5 21 24 25 CHAPTER 4 - Dissolved Major Cations and Trace Elements by Howard E. Taylor, David A. Roth , and Ronald C

  5. Quick, Quick, Slow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Will

    2008-01-01

    As someone more at home in jeans and pumps it was a bit of a shock. The author could not quite get used to the sight of his feet in his father-in-law's black and pointy dancing shoes. Jennie, more often seen in trainers or steel-capped boots, had on a pair of strappy heels she'd borrowed from her mum. They felt like kids dressing up in their…

  6. Studies on fenbendazole for treating lung and intestinal parasites in horses and donkeys.

    PubMed

    Urch, D L; Allen, W R

    1980-04-01

    The efficacy of orally administered fenbendazole on lung and intestinal parasitism in equids was investigated in a mixed herd of pony mares, jenny donkeys and foals. A single dose of 7.5 mg fenbendazole/kg body weight effectively removed intestinal parasites from the ponies, donkeys and foals, but higher doses and repeated treatments failed to eliminate lungworm infections in donkeys. The finding of eosinophilia proved useful in detecting lungworm infections in donkeys.

  7. Cooley’s Anemia Symposium (6th) Held in New York on 13-15 March 1990. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 612

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-28

    BERGERON, RICHARD R. STREIFF, JAN WIEGAND, J. R. TIMOTHY VINSON, GABRIEL LUCHETrA, KIMBERLY M. EVANS, HEINRICH PETER, and H ANS-BEAT JENNY...Transfected Globin Promoters and the Globin Locus Activator in K562 Erythroleukemia Cells" MICHAEL J. ULRICH, ANNE M. MOON, AND TIMOTHY J. LEYb Division of...of Dimes Basil O’Connor/ Colonel Sanders Memorial Fund. bAddress correspondence to Timothy J. Ley, M.D., Division of Hematology/Oncology, Jewish

  8. Schmitz conviction is clear rejection of victim-blaming.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    The verdict in the trial of Jonathan Schmitz, convicted of killing Scott Amedure after appearing together on the Jenny Jones TV talk show, underlined the message of no tolerance for perpetrators of hate crimes. The group Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) reiterated that hate crimes affect the entire community, and appealed to Congress to pass the Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HCPA). The HCPA would expand the coverage of current Federal legislation to include gender, disability, and sexual orientation.

  9. A Stochastic Mixed Finite Element Heterogeneous Multiscale Method for Flow in Porous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    quickly. However, for reservoir simulation the most crucial factor is the transport prop- erties of a velocity field. That is, a large local error in the...streamline methods for reservoir simulation of large geomodels, Advances in Water Resources 28 (2005) 257 – 271. [11] P. Jenny, S. H. Lee, H. A. Tchelepi... Reservoir Simulation , 2003, pp. 23–27. [53] R. Ghanem, P. D. Spanos, Stochastic Finite Elements: A Spectral Approach, Springer - Verlag, New York

  10. Effect of the season on some aspects of the estrous cycle in Martina Franca donkey.

    PubMed

    Contri, A; Robbe, D; Gloria, A; De Amicis, I; Veronesi, M C; Carluccio, A

    2014-03-15

    The Martina Franca (MF) donkey breed, with 48 jackasses and 515 jennies, is considered an endangered breed according to the data from the Monitoring Institute for Rare Breeds and Seeds in Europe. The knowledge of the estrous cycle characteristics has a great impact for assisted reproduction, especially in endangered species. In this study, the estrous cycle characteristics were investigated in 12 MF jennies throughout the year. Estrous cycle, estrous and diestrous lengths, follicular growth and ovulation, and estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) plasma concentrations were monitored in MF jennies and compared in different seasons. In all jennies (100%) estrous cycle was detected during the whole year, with no differences in the estrous cycle length among seasons. However, a significant increase of estrous length in spring and summer compared with autumn and winter was found. Diestrus was shorter in summer than in the other seasons. Estrous behavior was always shown and characterized by rhythmic eversion of the vulvar labia (winking) with exhibition of the clitoris, urination, male receptivity and clapping, with sialorrhoea, neck and head extension, and back ears. Estrus was characterized by the ovulation of a larger follicle in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. The pattern of E2 and P4 plasma concentrations during the estrous cycle were similar to that reported for the mare, but without differences among the four seasons, so that a negligible effect of environmental conditions on ovarian E2 and P4 secretion was hypothesized, despite the larger diameter of the ovulating follicle in spring and summer.

  11. Unseen Universe: Welcome to the dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Jenny

    2007-07-01

    Physicists say that 96% of the Universe is unseen, and appeal to the ideas of 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' to make up the difference. In the first of two articles, Jenny Hogan reports that attempts to identify the mysterious dark matter are on the verge of success. In the second, Geoff Brumfiel asks why dark energy, hailed as a breakthrough when discovered a decade ago, is proving more frustrating than ever to the scientists who study it.

  12. An Amateur Astronomer's Initial Asteriod Lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, C.

    2007-05-01

    At the 2005 Society for Astronomical Sciences Symposium in Big Bear I set a goal to use my equipment and "hobby" time to generate useful asteroid lightcurves. My efforts continue to achieve this goal. Asteroids 916 America, 607 Jenny, 1297 Sonja and 77 Frigga have journeyed by Earth. I will share with you a brief summary of the experience and knowledge I gained from their visit.

  13. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory - June - October 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2008-06-01

    Lightcurves for seventeen asteroids were obtained at the Palmer Divide Observatory from June through September 2007: 176 Iduna, 252 Clementina, 365 Corduba, 589 Croatia, 607 Jenny, 639 Latona, 756 Liliana, 1222 Tina, 1436 Salonta, 3628 Boznemcova, 3873 Roddy, 4483 Petofi, (8348) 1988 BX, (42811) 1999 JN81, (46436) 2002 LH5, (74590) 1999 OG2, and (114728) 2003 HP3. Evidence of 3873 Roddy being a binary asteroid is discussed.

  14. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 536: AREA 3 RELEASE SITE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    CAU 536 consists of CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge, located in Area 3 of the NTS. The site was characterized in 2004 according to the approved CAIP and the site characterization results are reported in the CAU 536 CADD. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in the approved CAU 536 CADD.

  15. A Note on the Functional Estimation of Values of Hidden Variables --- An Extended Module for Expert Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    81-0220. The interface between ALISP and FORTRAN IV was written by Don McKay. Ernesto Morgado programmed the Morph-Fitting Program. John E. Brown and...publication). [5] Findler, N. V. and E. Morgado : Morph-fitting -- An effective technique of approximation (Submitted for publication). 12 APPENDIA The... Morgado programmed the Morph-Fitting Program. John E. Brown and Han Yong You contributed to the implementation of GPRS. Nancy Strohmeier collected the

  16. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    in the writings of Ernesto “Che” Guevara (Guerrilla Warfare, 1961) and Regis Debray (Revolution in the Revolution? 1967). At the very beginning of... Regis Debray (1967) describes: One may well consider it a stroke of good luck that Fidel had not read the military writings of Mao Tse-tung before...of proportion to what it produces” (Guevara, 1961, p. 99). Nevertheless, Regis Debray (1967) admits the value of terror as a supplementary strategy

  17. Latin America Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-17

    Gremetz Meets With Party Leaders (L’HUMANITE, 20 Oct..86).; •• ••• 73 Minister Views Media Treatment of Violence (Fabio Callejas Ramirez ; Bogota...Dispatch of Spanish-Speaking Mercenaries to Rebel Area Cited (NRC HANDELSBLAD, 14 Oct 86).............................. 101 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Tapia ...Petitions for court protection have been filed for all of them, among whom is a 19-year-old high school student. Luis Ernesto Ramirez (Azua) was the first

  18. The Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    popular revolution, the global jihadis turn to communist leaders Mao Tse-Tung and Ernesto “Che” Guevara as sources for guerrilla strategy.56 Though the...third stage of the campaign.46 Al-Suri’s strategy is inspired by guerrilla war theories of Mao Tse-Tung, Fidel Castro, and “Che” Guevara .47 His...in the global jihadis’ strategy. Following the successful Cuban revolution, Guevara made an important modification to communist revolutionary theory

  19. Hezbollah: Social Services as a Source of Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Program, 27, 357. 44 JSOU Report 10-5 102. Jaber, Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance, 47, 240. 103. Ernesto Guevara , Brian Loveman, and Thomas M. Davies...be susceptible to influence 18 JSOU Report 10-5 from any agent of change that addresses those shortcomings. Che Guevara describes the guerrilla as...theorists like Mao Tse-Tung, Che Guevara , and David Galula. They all follow a similar pattern that weighs the support of the populace—the highest

  20. Assessing Freedom of Movement for Counterinsurgency Campaigns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Guevara , Ernesto Che, Guerrilla Warfare, Miami, Fla.: BN Publishing, (1961) 2008. Halmos, Paul R., Measure Theory, New York: Van Nostrand, 1950...guerrilla operations and that they place a high value on restricting the movement of counterinsurgents.5 For example, Guevara states, “The fundamental...96–98, and Marighella, 1972/2008, pp. 62–65. 6 Guevara , 1961/2008, p. 20. 7 For example, a district report from Vietnam described restrictions on Viet

  1. A Square Peg in a Round Hole: A Case Study of Center Gravity Application in Counter Insurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    D.C.: Potomac Books, 2010. Griffith, Samuel B. The Illustrated Art of War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Guevara , Ernesto Che, Brian... Guevara provided another approach to insurgency, encapsulated in the concept of the foco, which he described in his 1960 work Guerrilla Warfare. The... Guevara , Guerrilla Warfare, edited by Brian Loveman and Thomas Davies, (Oxford: SR Books, 1997), 7. 21 Guevara , Guerrilla Warfare, 256. 22 Guevara

  2. Victory Has a Thousand Fathers: Sources of Success in Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Ernesto “Che” Guevara (Guerrilla Warfare), and the Provisional Irish Republican Army’s widely disseminated training manual known as the “Green...and strategic counteroffense.75 This approach was used by insur- gents in both Peru and Nepal. • Military-focused: Popularized by Che Guevara and also...Population Relocation in Counterinsurgency Operations, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, forthcoming. Guevara

  3. America’s Conditional Advantage: Airpower, Counterinsurgency, and the Theory of John Warden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    not require military overthrow.10 Other insurgencies, undertaken on the foco model put forth by Ernesto Guevara , employ violence as a means of...Century (St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2006), 46-51. 10 FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency, 1-8. 11 Che Guevara , Guerrilla Warfare, trans. J.P. Moray, eds. Brian...133 1966: AFGOA Report 67-7. Washington, DC: Headquarters US Air Force Operations Analysis, December 1967. Guevara , Che. Guerrilla Warfare

  4. Insurgent Safe Havens: Can We Win the Fight?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-08

    Policy Toward Afghanistan and Pakistan, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2009 Guevara , Ernesto Che, Guerrilla Warfare, with an...N/A. 14. ABSTRACT Theorists of Guerilla Warfare like Mao Tse-tung, T.E. Lawrence, and Che Guevara suggest some form of sanctuary is necessary for...Tse-tung, T.E. Lawrence, and Che Guevara suggest some form of sanctuary is necessary for any insurgency to be successful; history shows this to be

  5. Method of Analysis for Determining and Correcting Mirror Deformation due to Gravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    obtainable. 1.3 Description of As-Built Beam Compressor Assembly The as-built beam compressor assembly consists of primary and secondary Zerodur ® mirrors held...Method of analysis for determining and correcting mirror deformation due to gravity James H. Clark, III F. Ernesto, Penado Downloaded From: http...00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Method of analysis for determining and correcting mirror deformation due to gravity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  6. Acoustic and Oceanographic Observations and Configuration Information for the WHOI Moorings from the SW06 Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    missing due to fishing activity and a tropical storm which glanced by the SW06 experimental area during that time. This minor loss did not effect the...site, the wave and wind effects from Ernesto started at noon on September I" and subsided at noon on September 3rd. According to the RNV Endeavor, which... WQI -9/15 -OGGO Unload Figure2. I SWO6 Ship schedules. Preliminary Acoustic and Oceanographic Observations and Configuration Information for the WHOI

  7. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  8. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and endocrinological studies on donkey pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Angelica; Rota, Alessandra; Panzani, Duccio; Sgorbini, Micaela; Ousey, Jennifer C; Camillo, Francesco

    2014-01-15

    Although donkey breeding has gained new interest in the past two decades, knowledge about donkey reproduction is still scarce, particularly on jenny pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic and endocrine profiles of the physiological pregnancy in the jenny. The study was performed on 12 pregnancies of 7 Amiata donkeys from Day 10 after ovulation to delivery. Because three pregnancies, respectively at weeks 42, 44, and 45, were considered pathologic and treated pharmacologically, data collected from 2 weeks before diagnosis to the end of pregnancy were removed from the analysis. Average length of the normal pregnancies was 353.4 ± 13.0 days (range, 339-370 days). Timing, dimensions, and development during the first phases of embryonic growth, evaluated using transrectal ultrasound, were similar to that previously described in jennies and mares: first detection of embryonic vesicle was at 11.8 ± 1.3 days of gestation and diameter was 6.5 ± 1.9 mm, loss of spherical shape occurred at 18.5 ± 1.4 days, and embryo and heart beat were first seen at 22.0 ± 1.1 and 25 ± 1.1 days, respectively. The intrauterine growth in the second half of pregnancy, evaluated using the transrectal and transabdominal approach, also showed strong positive correlations, similar to that reported for the mare. The trends of the combined thickness of the utero-placental unit and the echogenicity of the amniotic and allantoic fluids are examples. The diameters (mm) of fetal chest, eye orbit, and aorta increased throughout pregnancy and were 40.6 ± 2.9, 8.7 ± 1.5, and 3.5 ± 0.7, respectively, at week 13, and 190.9 ± 12.0, 21.4 ± 1.5, and 30.6 ± 1.8 at the last evaluation before parturition. In contrast, heart rate decreased as pregnancy progressed. Regression analyses between these parameters and day of gestation were statistically significant (P < 0.001). All fetuses consistently showed some intrauterine activity. Maternal plasma progestagens and estrone

  9. Embryo quality and transcervical technique are not the limiting factors in donkey embryo transfer outcome.

    PubMed

    Panzani, D; Rota, A; Crisci, A; Kindahl, H; Govoni, N; Camillo, F

    2012-02-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in the donkey resulted in a very low recipient pregnancy rates. The aim of these studies was to investigate if nonsurgical transfer techniques or donkey embryo quality affect donkey recipient pregnancy failure. In Study 1, the impact of transfer technique was investigated by evaluating if cervical catheterization is associated with prostaglandin release and suppression of luteal function and if donkey recipients would become pregnant after nonsurgical transfer of horse embryos. Four jennies, from 5 to 8 d after ovulation, were submitted to a sham transcervical ET and to evaluation of PGFM and progesterone plasma concentrations. Five 8 d horse embryos were nonsurgically transferred into synchronized donkey recipients (HD). Cervical stimulation caused a transient PGF(2α) release in two of four jennies in the absence of a significant decrease in progesterone plasma concentration. All transferred horse embryos resulted in pregnancies in the jenny recipients. In Study 2, donkey embryo viability was investigated by 1.2 meters, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of 10 embryos and by the transfer of 6 and 12 donkey embryos in synchronized mare (DH) and donkey (DD) recipients, respectively, of known fertility. The estimated proportion of dead cells in DAPI stained embryos was 0.9% (range 0-3.9%) and below what is considered normal (20%) for horse embryos. Three of six and six of 12 of the DH and DD ETs, respectively resulted in pregnancies at 14 and 25 d (50%), a higher pregnancy rate than previously reported after DD ET. The overall results of this study suggest that the transcervical technique for ET and donkey embryo viability are not the reasons for the low pregnancy rates that have previously been described in donkey recipients, and that nonsurgical ET in donkeys can result in acceptable results.

  10. The mathematical modeling of the lactation curve for dairy traits of the donkey (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Bordonaro, S; Dimauro, C; Criscione, A; Marletta, D; Macciotta, N P P

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, an increase in the number of donkeys farmed in Italy as a consequence of the growing demand for donkey milk for direct consumption has been observed. Some research has been carried out on jenny milk composition and on its nutritional properties, whereas milk production features are scarcely described for this species. In this work, the lactation curve shape of donkeys for milk yield and composition was investigated. A total of 453 test-day records for milk yield, fat and protein percentage, and somatic cell count of 62 lactations measured on 46 multiparous jennies of the Ragusano breed were considered. Effects of herd, age, and foaling season were assessed by using a mixed model analysis. Average and individual lactation curves were fitted using the Wood incomplete gamma function, the Cappio-Borlino modified gamma, and a third-order Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Donkeys foaling between 6- and 10-yr-old had the highest test-day milk yield (about 1.85 kg/d). Donkeys foaling in winter and autumn had a higher daily milk yield compared with those foaling in summer and spring. Less defined results were obtained for composition traits. The general pattern of the donkey lactation curve is similar to the standard shape reported for the main dairy ruminant species, with a peak yield occurring at about 5 wk from parturition. Younger jennies tended to have lower production peaks and higher lactation persistency. Similarly to what is reported for dairy cattle, a large variability in individual patterns has been observed. No differences in goodness of fit have been observed between the models in the case of average lactation curves, whereas orthogonal polynomials were more efficient in fitting individual patterns. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ovarian dynamics and estrous cycle length in the donkey (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Duran, Maricruz; Zarco, Luis; Boeta, Ana Myriam

    2017-11-01

    Nine jennies were monitored daily by ultrasonography during three complete ovarian cycles in order to evaluate if the timing of luteolysis and the growth pattern of the ovulatory follicle (OVF) before, during and after luteolysis are related to the length of the interovulatory interval (IOI). Blood samples for progesterone determination were obtained daily during one of the cycles of each jenny. The cycles were classified according to the length of the IOI into three groups: Short IOI (21.2 ± 0.3 d, n = 10), medium IOI (23.9 ± 0.4 d, n = 7), and long IOI (26.2 ± 0.3 d, n = 10). Neither the time of luteolysis onset nor the time of luteolysis completion were significantly different between groups. The length of the IOI was mainly determined by the duration of the follicular phase, as the intervals from luteolysis onset to ovulation and from luteolysis completion to ovulation were directly correlated with the length of the IOI (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 respectively). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the length of the IOI was negatively correlated with the size of the OVF at day 13 (p < 0.01), with its growth rate from day 13 to day 15 (p < 0.05) and with its growth rate from day 15 to day 18 (p < 0.01), and positively correlated with the final diameter of the OVF (p < 0.01). The correlation between the observed IOIs and those predicted by the multiple regression equation was highly significant (r = 0.91, p < 0.001), but the predictive ability of a simplified equation using only the diameter of the OVF at day 18 was almost as good (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Estrus signs lasted longer and were more intense as the length of the IOI increased, and this was associated with a longer period of low progesterone concentrations during the follicular phase of jennies with longer cycles. It is concluded that the length of the luteal phase in jennies is relatively constant, and that most of the variation in the length of the IOI is

  12. Looking beyond satisfaction: evaluating the value and impact of information skills training.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Michael; Craven, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    In this feature guest writers Michael Raynor and Jenny Craven from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) present an overview of their evaluative research study on the value and impact of the information skills training courses they provide at NICE. In particular, this small study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to look beyond satisfaction and confidence levels and identify whether learning had actually taken place as a result of attending the sessions, and how new skills were used by the attendees in their day-to-day work. H.S.

  13. Time to RE-AIM: Why Community Weight Loss Programs Should Be Included in Academic Obesity Research

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, Allan V.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of efficacy-based research on weight loss interventions, the obesity epidemic in the United States persists, especially in underserved populations. We used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework to describe the limitations of the current paradigm of efficacy-based research for weight loss interventions. We also used RE-AIM to propose that existing weight loss interventions (community-based programs) such as Jenny Craig, Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), and Weight Watchers be studied to supplement the efficacy-based research approaches to achieve population-level impact on obesity. PMID:26986540

  14. Time to RE-AIM: Why Community Weight Loss Programs Should Be Included in Academic Obesity Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nia S; Prochazka, Allan V; Glasgow, Russell E

    2016-03-17

    Despite decades of efficacy-based research on weight loss interventions, the obesity epidemic in the United States persists, especially in underserved populations. We used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework to describe the limitations of the current paradigm of efficacy-based research for weight loss interventions. We also used RE-AIM to propose that existing weight loss interventions (community-based programs) such as Jenny Craig, Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), and Weight Watchers be studied to supplement the efficacy-based research approaches to achieve population-level impact on obesity.

  15. [Democracy and conflict in pluralist contexts: an interview with Chantal Mouffe].

    PubMed

    Mouffe, Chantal; Ramos, Aura Helena; de Oliveira, Anna Luiza A R Martins; de Oliveira, Gustavo Gilson S; de Mesquita, Rui Gomes de Mattos

    2014-01-01

    Chantal Mouffe, along with Argentinian political theorist Ernesto Laclau (1935-2014), laid down the bases of discourse theory in 1985. She later developed her work by exploring in more detail how discourse theory formulations influence the analysis of contemporary democracies. Approaching conflict as a product of the encounter with difference, Mouffe sees it as an indelible part of the constitution of social relationships. In this encounter with the author, we seek to reflect upon certain themes and problematics that are central to her work, and upon the implications of her theory for the field of contemporary education.

  16. El Salvador Psychological Operations Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-04

    Major Henry Black, and Major H. T. Anders. We also interviewed Dr . Guillermo M. Ungo, and former Comandantes Miguel Castellanos and "Ernesto". A C-V...few snickers from Duarte . Then he said, ’That’s not what we’re trying to do. What we are trying to do is to use Miguel Castellanos and use this message...opposing sides is brought under direct attack. Dr . Max Manwaring and Mr. Court Prisk of BDM Management Services Corporation in support of USSOUTHCOM

  17. Mongolia’s Third Neighbor Policy: Impact on the Mongolian Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    node/3851 (accessed November 30, 2011). 20 Article "Команданте Эрнесто Че Гевара" купит у России производство патронов, ("Comandante Ernesto Che... Guevara " to buy from Russia the production of ammunition) http://lenta.ru/news/2011/11/30/bullets/ (accessed November 30, 2011). 21 President of

  18. Analysis of wind-driven ambient noise in a shallow water environment with a sandy seabed.

    PubMed

    Knobles, D P; Joshi, S M; Gaul, R D; Graber, H C; Williams, N J

    2008-09-01

    On the New Jersey continental shelf ambient sound levels were recorded during tropical storm Ernesto that produced wind speeds up to 40 knots in early September 2006. The seabed at the position of the acoustic measurements can be approximately described as coarse sand. Differences between the ambient noise levels for the New Jersey shelf measurements and deep water reference measurements are modeled using both normal mode and ray methods. The analysis is consistent with a nonlinear frequency dependent seabed attenuation for the New Jersey site.

  19. Counterinsurgency Strategies for Effective Conflict Termination: U.S. Strategies in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Jose Napoleon Duarte, prompted a cycle of repression which diminished the legitimacy of the regime and pushed much of the opposition to join Marxist...of San Vicente , was known as ’Operation Well- being,’ followed in Usulutan in fall 1983. The plan failed, largely due to lack of funding, the SAF’s...talks 164Bacevich, et al: 6. ’ 6English, 1988: 254. 173 scheduled for the next day due to the assassination on 26 October of Herbert Ernesto Anaya , head

  20. A preliminary study on the quality and safety of milk in donkeys positive for Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Martini, M; Altomonte, I; Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Mugnaini, L; Salari, F

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the five parasitic diseases considered as a priority for public health action. The consumption of raw milk products represents a possible risk, in particular for certain categories of people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of Toxoplasma gondii on milk yield and quality in sero-positive animals with parasitemia. Eighteen healthy lactating Amiata jennies, between 90 and 180 days were included in the study. Four donkeys scored positive for immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and each IFAT positive donkey presented parasitic DNA both in the blood and milk. No significant differences were found between milk yield in PCR-positive donkeys compared with the negative cases, however the former tended to have a greater production. Milk quality in the positive donkeys showed a significantly lower percentage of casein (0.72% v. 0.81%) and ash (0.32% v. 0.37%). Positive cases had a highly significant larger average diameter of globules (2.35 µm) and fewer globules/ml (2.39 × 10(8)). Somatic cell and bacterial counts were normal and in agreement with the literature. Toxoplasma gondii did not seem to present clinical forms in lactating jennies. Further in vivo studies are needed to further assess the risk of T. gondii transmission through donkey milk, together with the impact of different stages of infection on milk quality.

  1. Transrectal ultrasonographic evaluation of combined utero-placental thickness during the last half of pregnancy in Martina Franca donkeys.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Noto, F; Parrillo, S; Contri, A; De Amicis, I; Gloria, A; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, the donkey population decreased dramatically so that many breeds are presently considered as endangered. In comparison to the horse, the donkey placenta still remains not completely studied. In the horse, one of the diagnostic tools useful to identify pregnant mares at risk of abortion or premature delivery, include the transrectal ultrasound examination of the uterus and its contents; and especially of the combined thickness of the uterus and of the placenta (CUPT). Since the CUPT was never investigated in donkeys, the present study was aimed to define the transrectal CUPT values during the last half of pregnancy in 20 Martina Franca jennies. Foalings times, foals characteristics and placental gross appearance, and measurements were also evaluated and values resulted always within normality. Differently to the mare, a continuous significant CUPT increase between the sixth to the 12 months of pregnancy, and a substantial increase from the ninth to the 12th month of pregnancy, was found. Although statistically not evaluable, the CUPT values recorded from three jennies with pregnancy loss did not show evidence of CUPT increases. In conclusion, normal CUPT values from the sixth to the 12th month of pregnancy in Martina Franca donkeys are provided, but further investigations are needed to define possible breed or body-size CUPT specific differences, as well as the CUPT values during pregnancy disturbances or placental abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary survey report: evaluation of brake drum service controls at Indianapolis Power and Light Company, Indianapolis, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1988-08-01

    An evaluation was made of various control technologies designed to reduce asbestos exposures during brake drum servicing at Indianapolis Power and Light Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. The garage at this facility serviced about 425 vehicles each year with about 200 brake repair jobs being done annually. During servicing, a regular wet and dry vacuum cleaner was used, along with a steam jenny containing liquid soap, and a liquid spray can. Once the wheel was removed, the entire hub area was sprayed with steam foam at 90 pounds per square inch from the steam jenny containing liquid soap. The hub area was vacuumed prior to and following removal. The vacuum cleaner was not equipped with an HEPA filter. A liquid spray can was used to clean the plates. The brake shoe area was vacuumed. Once the brake area was free of all accumulated dust, the brakes were serviced. The author concludes that control measures did not appear to be sufficient to keep asbestos dust from emanating into the atmosphere. The facility was not selected for an in-depth evaluation.

  3. Curtiss JN-4H Towing Model Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    In 1919 the NACA Langley laboratory received its first three research aircraft which were Curtiss JN-4Hs borrowed from the US Army Air Service at Langley Field. One of the first research projects of the laboratory initiated that year was a flight investigation of the lift and drag characteristics of the JN-4H. One of the objectives of the flight tests was to obtain data for correlation with wind-tunnel test results measured at MIT and to aid in the derivation of techniques for extrapolation of model results to full-scale conditions. In a pioneering aeronautical effort in 1920, pressure orifices were installed in the horizontal tail of one of the Jennies and connected to glass manometers for pressure measurements that could be photographed in flight. The NACA also used the aircraft in some of the earliest experiments on maneuverability in 1921. In addition to serving as test subjects, the aircraft were used for measurements of aerodynamic behavior of aircraft components. In this photograph made in 1921, one of the JN- 4Hs is towing a model of an aircraft wing to obtain lift and drag information for comparison to tunnel results. All three Jenny aircraft departed Langley in 1923. Reference: 'Flying the Frontiers: NACA and NASA Experimental Aircraft' by Arthur Pearcy. Naval Institute Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55750-258-7

  4. KSC-06pd2005

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Silhouetted against a setting sun, Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls near to its launch position on Launch Pad 39B. It is being moved by a crawler-transporter. The crawler has a laser docking system that provides almost pinpoint accuracy when the crawler and mobile launcher platform are positioned at the launch pad. At right of the shuttle is the fixed service structure topped by the 80-foot lightning mast. At far right is the 300,000-tallon water tank that releases its contents prior to ignition of the shuttle's engines at liftoff. The process is part of the sound suppression water system. The shuttle had been moved off the launch pad due to concerns about the impact of Tropical Storm Ernesto, expected within 24 hours. The forecast of lesser winds expected from Ernesto and its projected direction convinced Launch Integration Manager LeRoy Cain and Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach to return the shuttle to the launch pad. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  5. KSC-06pd2003

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A late-day sun spotlights Space Shuttle Atlantis as it rolls up the ramp to Launch Pad 39B atop the crawler-transporter. The crawler has a leveling system designed to keep the top of the space shuttle vertical while negotiating the 5-percent grade leading to the top of the launch pad. Also, a laser docking system provides almost pinpoint accuracy when the crawler and mobile launcher platform are positioned at the launch pad. At left are the open rotating service structure and the fixed service structure topped by the 80-foot lightning mast. The shuttle had been moved off the launch pad due to concerns about the impact of Tropical Storm Ernesto, expected within 24 hours. The forecast of lesser winds expected from Ernesto and its projected direction convinced Launch Integration Manager LeRoy Cain and Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach to return the shuttle to the launch pad. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  6. KSC-06pd2002

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A late-day sun spotlights Space Shuttle Atlantis as it rolls up the ramp to Launch Pad 39B atop the crawler-transporter. The crawler has a leveling system designed to keep the top of the space shuttle vertical while negotiating the 5-percent grade leading to the top of the launch pad. Also, a laser docking system provides almost pinpoint accuracy when the crawler and mobile launcher platform are positioned at the launch pad. At left are the open rotating service structure and the fixed service structure topped by the 80-foot lightning mast. The shuttle had been moved off the launch pad due to concerns about the impact of Tropical Storm Ernesto, expected within 24 hours. The forecast of lesser winds expected from Ernesto and its projected direction convinced Launch Integration Manager LeRoy Cain and Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach to return the shuttle to the launch pad. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  7. Factors affecting gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish donkey breeds reared in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, J; Perez-Marin, C C

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigated gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in three different Spanish donkey breeds (Andalusian, Zamorano-Leones, and Catalonian) kept on farm conditions in southern Spain, using data for ten consecutive breeding seasons. Gestation length was measured in 58 pregnancies. Ovarian ultrasonography was used to detect the ovulation, in order to ascertain true gestation length (ovulation-parturition). Pregnancy was diagnosed approximately 14-18 d after ovulation and confirmed on approximately day 60. Average gestation length was 362 +/-15.3 (SD) d, and no significant differences were observed between the three different breeds. Breeding season had a significant effect (P < 0.01), with longer gestation lengths when jennies were covered during the early period. Breed, age of jenny, year of birth, foal gender, month of breeding, and type of gestation had no significant effect on gestation length. After parturition, foal-heat was detected in 53.8% of the postpartum cycles studied (n = 78), and ovulation occurred on day 13.2 +/- 2.7. The duration of foal-heat was 4.7 +/-1.7 d, with a pregnancy rate of 40.5%. When subsequent estrus cycles were analyzed, the interovulatory interval (n = 68) and estrus duration (n = 258) were extended to a mean 23.8 +/- 3.5 and 5.7 +/- 2.2 d, respectively. Both variables were influenced by the year of study (P < 0.03 and P < 0.001), whereas month and season of ovulation (P < 0.005 and P < 0.009, respectively) affected only interovulatory intervals. Estrus duration was significantly longer than that observed at the foal-heat (P < 0.006), and the pregnancy rate was 65.8%. This study provides reference values for true gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish jennies. Breeding season affected gestation length in farm conditions. Also, seasonal influence was observed on the length of the estrus cycle (i.e., interovulatory interval), although foal-heat was not affected by environmental factors.

  8. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood and milk of naturally infected donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Papini, Roberto; Mugnaini, Linda; Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Consumption of raw milk from infected animals is considered a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis in humans. Recently, donkey milk has been indicated for therapeutic and nutritional purposes and T. gondii infection is common in donkeys. The purpose of the present paper was to detect the presence of parasite DNA in milk of T. gondii positive donkeys. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 11 out of 44 healthy lactating donkeys by IFAT. T. gondii DNA was detected by PCR in blood of 6 and milk of 3 seropositive jennies. Results of limited RFLP-PCR genotyping indicated the presence of T. gondii genotype II or III, commonly found in Europe. The occurrence of T. gondii DNA in milk suggests that the consumption of raw milk from seropositive donkeys could be a potential source of human infection.

  9. p53: out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, David

    2016-04-15

    Somatic mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 occur in more than half of all human cancers. Rare germline mutations result in the Li-Fraumeni cancer family syndrome. In this issue ofGenes&Development, Jennis and colleagues (pp. 918-930) use an elegant mouse model to examine the affect of a polymorphism, P47S (rs1800371), in the N terminus of p53 that is found in Africans as well as more than a million African Americans. Remarkably, the single nucleotide change causes the mice to be substantially tumor-prone compared with littermates, suggesting that this allele causes an increased risk of developing cancer. The defect in p53 function is traced to a restriction in downstream gene regulation that reduces cell death in response to stress.

  10. The Long Journey to the Higgs Boson and Beyond at the LHC Part I: Emphasis on CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdee, Tejinder Singh

    Since 2010 there has been a rich harvest of results on standard model physics by the ATLAS and CMS experiments operating on the Large Hadron Collider. In the summer of 2012, a spectacular discovery was made by these experiments of a new, heavy particle. All the subsequently analysed data point strongly to the properties of this particle as those expected for the Higgs boson associated with the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism postulated to explain the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector, thereby explaining how elementary particles acquire mass. This article focuses on the CMS experiment, the technological challenges encountered in its construction, describing some of the physics results obtained so far, including the discovery of the Higgs boson, and searches for the widely anticipated new physics beyond the standard model, and peer into the future involving the high-luminosity phase of the LHC. This article is complementary to the one by Peter Jenni that focuses on the ATLAS experiment.

  11. The long journey to the Higgs boson and beyond at the LHC: Emphasis on CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdee, Tejinder Singh

    2016-11-01

    Since 2010 there has been a rich harvest of results on standard model physics by the ATLAS and CMS experiments operating on the Large Hadron Collider. In the summer of 2012, a spectacular discovery was made by these experiments of a new, heavy particle. All the subsequently analysed data point strongly to the properties of this particle as those expected for the Higgs boson associated with the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism postulated to explain the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector, thereby explaining how elementary particles acquire mass. This article focuses on the CMS experiment, the technological challenges encountered in its construction, describing some of the physics results obtained so far, including the discovery of the Higgs boson, and searches for the widely anticipated new physics beyond the standard model, and peer into the future involving the high-luminosity phase of the LHC. This article is complementary to the one by Peter Jenni4 that focuses on the ATLAS experiment.

  12. [Indices of treatment needs in orthodontics: the applicability of the DAI (Dental Aesthetic Index)].

    PubMed

    Monaco, A; Boccuni, M; Marci, M C

    1997-05-01

    The objective assessment of esthetic impairment and relative psychosocial handicap for unacceptable dental aspect (useful for characterizing the need of treatment), could be satisfied by an index that measures each individual's occlusal trait and the psychological impact of the same. An index with these characteristics was suggested by Cons and Jenny, already since 1985. This is an index (DAI: Dental Aesthetic Index) designed specifically to measure dental esthetics, based on esthetic standards socially defined and focused through an extensive and finalized search. Therefore this index assesses the social acceptability of the dental appearance based on the public perception of dental esthetics. The authors, in this work, indicate as measuring the objective traits of occlusion and arriving to final score trough simple calculation. This score provides severity levels of esthetic, psychologic and functional impairment relative to dental aspect in examination.

  13. Uncertainty Quantification of Tracer Dispersion with the PMVP Model under Realistic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. W.; Duenser, S.

    2015-12-01

    The polar Markovian velocity process (PVMP) model provides a computationally efficient method to propagate input uncertainty stemming from unknown permeability fields to output flow and transport statistics [Meyer and Tchelepi, WRR, 2010; Meyer, Jenny, and Tchelepi, WRR, 2010; Meyer et al., WRR, 2013]. Compared with classical Monte Carlo (MC) sampling, the PMVP model provides predictions of tracer concentration statistics at computing times that are three orders of magnitude smaller. Consequently, the PMVP model is as well significantly faster than accelerated sampling techniques such as multi-level MC or polynomial chaos expansions. In this work, we further evaluate the PMVP model performance by applying the model for tracer dispersion predictions in a setup derived from the well-known MADE field experiment [Boggs et al., WRR, 1992]. We perform detailed model validations against reference MC simulations and conclude that the model provides overall accurate dispersion predictions under realistic conditions.

  14. Modeling degradation of terrace scarps in Grand Teton National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, David B.; Beaujon, James S.

    2006-05-01

    The widely used linear diffusion model for hillslope evolution does not accurately predict the degradation of terrace scarps produced by the Late Pinedale West Spalding Bay Channelway (WSBC) near Jenny Lake in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming USA. These scarps, cut into identical cohesionless quartzite gravel, were formed nearly simultaneously, during the brief period of time the WSBC was active. They are assumed to have had the same initial morphology as scarps currently forming along Snake River that are cut in the same material: a straight midsection sloping at 30° and a horizontal base and crest. The model best able to fit the observed morphology and the change in morphology with scarp height specifies the downslope debris flux is proportional to slope gradient raised to a power of 3.4.

  15. Upon Further Review: VI. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2011-04-01

    Updated results of lightcurve analysis are given for 31 asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were remeasured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking observing runs that ranged from several days to several weeks. Moderately to significantly different results were found for: 301 Bavaria, 436 Patricia, 507 Laodica, 549 Jessonda, 585 Bilkis, 596 Scheila, 607 Jenny, 630 Euphemia, 875 Nymphe, 912 Maritima, 926 Imhilde, 1177 Gonnessia, 1203 Nanna, 1333 Cevenola, 1679 Nevanlinna, 1796 Riga, 2000 Herschel, 2266 Tchaikovsky, 2460 Mitlincoln, 2494 Inge, 3915 Fukushima, 3940 Larion, 4091 Lowe, 4209 Briggs, 4431 Holeungholee, 4690 Strasbourg, 5390 Huichiming, 5940 Feliksobolev, (16558) 1991 VQ2, (18108) 2000 NT5, and (45646) 2000 EE45. This is expected to be the final paper in a current series that has examined results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

  16. KSC-06pd1957

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-28

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Crawler-transporter No. 2 makes its way toward Launch Pad 39B (in the background). The crawler is being moved nearby in the event the mission management team decides to roll back Space Shuttle Atlantis due to Hurricane Ernesto. The hurricane has been forecast on a heading north and east from Cuba, taking it along the eastern coast of Florida. NASA's lighted launch window extends to Sept. 13, but mission managers are hoping to launch on mission STS-115 by Sept. 7 to avoid a conflict with a Russian Soyuz rocket also bound for the International Space Station. The crawler is 131 feet long, 113 feet wide and 20 feet high. It weights 5.5 million pounds unloaded. The combined weight of crawler, mobile launcher platform and a space shuttle is 12 million pounds. Unloaded, the crawler moves at 2 mph. Loaded, the snail's pace slows to 1 mph. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  17. [Maternal malnutrition. The nursing task].

    PubMed

    Grotestán Liverpool, G; Grant, W A; Ibáñez Peña, E

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study of 577 patients from urban and periurban areas of Las Tunas municipality is made. These patients were delivered in "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" Hospital between January and April 1986, both inclusive; their characteristics included being single pregnancies and not having suffered maternal diseases that influenced fetal growth. The following variables were studied: state of maternal nutrition at implantation, initial weight and weight gain, newborn weight, as well as maternal age and place of residence; these variables were interrelated with the view to know their influence or lack of influence on fetal weight. A survey of 89 of these women is made; they had been classified as malnourished and the purpose of the survey is to analyze their knowledge and views on malnutrition, as well as the instructions received during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions are derived and nursing recommendations are made.

  18. De Martino's concept of critical ethnocentrism and its relevance to transcultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ciglia, Raffaella

    2013-02-01

    Ethnography and hermeneutics help us think of the clinical encounter as a meeting of cultures. In this paper, we examine Ernesto De Martino's concept of critical ethnocentrism and its relevance for psychiatry, arguing for the necessity of a cultural self-assessment on the part of the clinician as a means of optimizing analyses of the patient's culture. Conceptualizing the clinician as an "ethnologist," we argue that clinicians should be able to describe and acknowledge patients' cultural backgrounds, while remaining aware of their own culturally rooted prejudices. Focusing on the case of persons affected by schizophrenia, we suggest that De Martino's work invites an openness to hermeneutic dialogue that aims for the coconstruction of shared narratives by clinician and patient.

  19. Nationalism, Carrión's disease and medical geography in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2003-01-01

    During the turn of the 20th century medical geography in Peru concentrated in the study of a native disease (bartonellosis, also known as Carrión's disease and Verruga Peruana) and reinforced the relationship between the country's 'natural' regions (coast, highlands and Amazon) and different patterns of disease. Expert knowledge on these themes was portrayed as important not only for the practice of medicine but also for the development of the country. This knowledge was instrumental for an emergent local medical tradition and for legitimizing the authority, power and prestige of Lima's medical elite. The city was the capital of a country whose population was mainly Indian and rural, and lived in the highlands. This article studies the development of medical geography in Peru emphasizing the role played by Ernesto Odriozola, an influential clinician from Lima trained in Paris.

  20. ARC-1969-AC95-0340

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-09-26

    Hart ROTORCRAFT AND POWERED LIFT BRANCH PERSONNEL (CODE AFR) N-211 WITH HARRIER. VSRA RESEARCH TEAM - Front row, L-R: Dave Walton, Seth Kurasaki, Bill Laurie, Jim Ahlman, Nels Watz, Del mWatson, Terry Stoeffler, Linda Blyskal, Ed Hess, Manuel Irizarry, Mike Stortz, Bruce Gallmeyer. Second row, L-R: Dave Nishikawa, Stan Uyeda, Trudy Schlaich, Tom Kaisersatt, John Foster, Nick Rediess, Kent Shiffer, Paul Borchers, Mike Casey, Sterling Smith, Charlie Hynes, Vern Merrick, Jack Franklin. Back row, L-R: Thad Frazier, Eric Weirshauser, Steve Timmons, Brian Hookland, Joe Paz, Kent Christensen, Jack Trapp, Bill Bjorkman, Ernesto Moralez, Joe Konecni. Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 126

  1. [Pinocchio and the unattained identity: Jervis' contribution to child clinical psychology].

    PubMed

    Meacci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood.

  2. Viva La Ciencia: Cuba’s Creative Scientists Aim to Make Knowledge Their Country’s Sugar Substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Rosalind; Hayes, Brian

    At first, peas served as particles in Ernesto Altshuler's experiment. A mechanical dispenser would drop the chícharos one by one into the space between two glass plates, forming a tidy two-dimensional approximation of a sand pile. Lattice structure appeared, then vanished, as the pile self-organized and went critical—avalanche! But Havana's insects soon found the peas in Altshuler's physics lab. For a physicist working under harsh economic conditions of Cuba in the early 1990s, options were few. Yet Altshuler's solution came as a byproduct of the crisis: Because of fuel shortages, the country had begun importing Chinese bicycles, and ball bearings were available in abundance. Thus the peas have been replaced by steel beads, but Altshuler and his students still call their machine the chícharotron.

  3. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Silva, S R

    2013-08-01

    Several methods have been developed to monitor body fat reserves of farm animals and body condition scoring (BCS) is generally assumed to be the most practical. Objective methods, such as real time ultrasonography (RTU), are accepted methods for measuring fat reserves in several farm species but there is no published information about the use of RTU to monitor body fat reserves in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between RTU measurements and BCS in female donkeys (jennies) (n=16) with a BCS of 3-7 on a 9 point scale. Ultrasound images were captured using an Aloka 500-V scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz probe and subcutaneous fat (SF, range: 1.0-14.0mm) and thoracic wall tissue (TD, range: 5.6-21.4mm) depths measurements were determined. A significant correlation was found between BCS and all RTU measurements (0.65jennies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-in-Cell Method and Staggered Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.

    2017-03-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered a flexible and robust method to model the advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e., rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without considering the divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e., non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and Meyer and Jenny (Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 4:466-467, 2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(6):2015-2023, 2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we adapt this formulation for 3-D staggered grids (correction interpolation) and we report on the quality of various velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We test the interpolation schemes in combination with different advection schemes on incompressible Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. Our results suggest that a conservative formulation reduces the dispersion and clustering of markers, minimizing the need of unphysical marker control in geodynamic models.

  5. Advancing an In situ Laser Spectrometer for Carbon Isotope Analyses in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.; Kapit, J.; Girguis, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    Development of in situ chemical sensors is critical for improving our understanding of deep-ocean biogeochemistry and recent advances in chemical sensors are already expanding the breadth and depth of deep sea/seafloor exploration and research. Although initially developed for high sensitivity measurements of atmospheric gases, laser-based spectroscopic sensors are now being developed for research in the deep sea by incorporating the use of semi-permeable membranes. Here we present on recent deep-sea deployments of an in situ laser-based analyzer of carbon isotopes of methane (δ13CH4), highlighting several advances including a new capability for also measuring δ13C of DIC or CO2 by incorporating a second laser and an in line acidification module. A bubble trapping approach was designed and implemented for the collection and analysis of both CH4 and CO2 from deep-sea bubbles. The newly advanced laser spectrometer was deployed at both Kick `Em Jenny volcano off of the island of Grenada and in a brine pool in the western Gulf of Mexico ("The Jacuzzi of Despair") using the E/V Nautilus and the ROV Hercules. At Kick `Em Jenny, seafloor measurements were made of both emanating fluids and bubbles from within and around the crater - revealing high levels of magmatic CO2 with minor amounts of CH4 and hydrogen sulfide. At the brine pool, spot measurements and depth profile measurements into the brine pool were made for chemical mapping, revealing fluids that were saturated with respect to methane. New technologies such as the laser spectrometer will enable us to obtain high resolution and near real-time, in situ chemical and isotopic data and to make geochemical maps over a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Color Doppler provides a reliable and rapid means of monitoring luteolysis in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Miró, J; Vilés, K; Anglada, O; Marín, H; Jordana, J; Crisci, A

    2015-03-01

    When artificial reproduction technologies designed for use with horses are used with donkeys, success is dependent on awareness of the physiological differences between these species, yet little information is available on many aspects of donkey reproduction. The present work examines the activity of the CL in Catalonian jennies after induced luteolysis. Plasma progesterone concentration, luteal blood flow (determined by color Doppler), and CL cross-sectional area (CL-CSA; determined by B-mode ultrasound examination) were assessed after a single dose (5 mg intramuscular) of dinoprost thromethamine (DT, a PGF2α analog) on Day 10 after ovulation in two experiments. In experiment 1, a preliminary experiment, data were collected daily for 4 days after DT administration. Values for all the measured variables decreased over this period. In experiment 2, data were collected during the first 24 hours after DT administration because in experiment 1, most luteolytic activity occurred during this time. An increase in luteal blood flow was seen between 0 and 3 hours, followed by a progressive reduction, whereas the values for plasma progesterone and CL-CSA gradually decreased from 0 hours onward. In both studies, negative correlations were seen between all variables and the time of sampling. In contrast, positive correlations were seen between plasma progesterone, CL-CSA, uterine tone, and luteal blood flow. Indeed, a strong correlation was recorded between plasma progesterone and luteal blood flow (r = 0.70; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, plasma progesterone and CL-CSA both become reduced after induced luteolysis in Catalonian jennies. Unlike in mares, an increase in luteal blood flow occurs soon after induced luteolysis, rather like that seen in the cow. The luteal blood flow, as evaluated here by color Doppler, was also closely related to the plasma progesterone concentration. Color Doppler would appear therefore to offer a rapid and easy means of examining the state

  7. Underpinning the Polar Markovian Velocity Process (PMVP) Model with an Analytical Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields are a key driver of complex non-Fickian transport in subsurface formations. Over the past years we have developed the PMVP model that provides probabilistic transport predictions at a tiny fraction of the computational costs of other approaches like polynomial chaos or Monte Carlo sampling [1,2,3]. Despite its success in challenging spatially non-stationary settings [2,3], so far the model formulation was based on empirical observations from idealized Monte Carlo simulations [1]. In this work, we analytically derive and verify the characteristics of the random processes that are at the heart of the PMVP model. Our derivation is enabled by classical perturbation theoery [4,5]. Thus, our present work spans an arc from classical macro-dispersion models to general state-of-the-art numerical methods for the prediction of subsurface flow, transport, mixing and chemical reaction in highly heterogeneous subsurface formations [6]. [1] Meyer, D.W. and H.A. Tchelepi, Water Resour. Res., 2010. 46(11): p. W11552.[2] Meyer, D.W., H.A. Tchelepi, and P. Jenny, Water Resources Research, 2013. 49(5): p. 2359-2379.[3] Dünser, S. and D.W. Meyer, Advances in Water Resources, 2016. 92: p. 271-283.[4] Rubin, Y., Water Resources Research, 1990. 26(1): p. 133-141.[5] Dagan, G., Water Resources Research, 1985. 21(1): p. 65-72.[6] Meyer, D.W., P. Jenny, and H.A. Tchelepi, Water Resour. Res., 2010. 46(12): p. W12522.

  8. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-in-Cell Method and Staggered Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.

    2016-11-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered a flexible and robust method to model the advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e., rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without considering the divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e., non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and Meyer and Jenny (Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 4:466-467, 2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(6):2015-2023, 2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we adapt this formulation for 3-D staggered grids (correction interpolation) and we report on the quality of various velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We test the interpolation schemes in combination with different advection schemes on incompressible Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. Our results suggest that a conservative formulation reduces the dispersion and clustering of markers, minimizing the need of unphysical marker control in geodynamic models.

  9. Iodine content of U.S. weight-loss food.

    PubMed

    Kuriti, Manikya; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Leung, Angela M

    2014-03-01

    The recommended iodine intake is 150 μg/day in adults, 220 μg/day during pregnancy, and 290 μg/day during lactation. Individuals exclusively consuming restricted diets as part of a weight-loss program may be at risk for mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the iodine content in meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs, all of which are intended to be the sole source of dietary intake during the desired weight-loss period. The iodine contents in the products representing 1 week of all meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs were measured by spectrophotometry. The measured total iodine content in 1 week's worth of food from each program is reported as an average level per day. A total of 53 total items were analyzed (29 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners, 6 snacks, 2 desserts] from Jenny Craig®, 21 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners] from Nutrisystem®, and 3 different items [1 breakfast, 1 lunch, 1 dinner; each to be intended to be eaten daily for 1 week] from Medifast®). Daily iodine content (mean ± SD) of meals and snacks from the weight-loss programs were 34.2 ± 1.2 (Jenny Craig®), 12.2 ± 0.7 (Nutrisystem®), and 70.1 ± 1.1 (Medifast) μg/day. These results indicate that the dietary content in the foods from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs is far less than the recommendations for iodine intake of 150 μg/day in nonpregnant, nonlactating adults. Individuals following each weight-loss program should be advised to take a multivitamin containing 150 mg of iodine daily.

  10. Effect of donkey seminal plasma on sperm movement and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils attachment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miró, Jordi; Vilés, Karina; García, Wilber; Jordana, Jordi; Yeste, Marc

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of seminal plasma in endometrial inflammation in donkeys, samples from fresh pure, fresh diluted and frozen-thawed semen of three different jackasses were co-incubated in water bath at 37°C with uterine Jennie's secretions collected 6h after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. Individual sperm movement parameters using the computerised sperm analysis system (CASA) and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils (sperm-PMN) attachment observed in Diff-Quick stained smears were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h of co-incubation. Controls consisted of incubating diluted or frozen-thawed sperm in the absence of uterine secretions. For data analyses, a repeated measures ANOVA was performed with incubation time as intra-subject factor and with treatment and donkey as inter-subject factor, followed by a post-hoc Bonferroni's test. Greater values (P<0.05) of sperm-PMN percentages and a loss of progressive motility were observed in frozen-thawed semen compared with pure and diluted fresh semen samples throughout the incubation time. In addition, the presence of seminal plasma in fresh and diluted semen samples reduced the inflammatory response of polymorphonuclear neutrophils produced after insemination by suppressing the sperm-PMN attachment in vitro. Motility sperm parameters analysed by CASA were also less affected than those in frozen-thawed semen samples. In conclusion, seminal plasma in jennies appears to have a modulation on the endometrial response after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. As a result, spermatozoa with the greater motility characteristics are selected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PREFACE: The XXIII Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jenni; Halzen, Francis; Parke, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Conference logo After Jenni Adams and Stephen Parke organized a very successful Weak Interactions and Neutrino (WIN) meeting at the University of Canterbury near Christchurch, New Zealand in 2002, the idea emerged to organize Neutrino 08 in the same location. Christchurch also happens to be the gateway to Antarctica for the IceCube experiment. This idea was immediately supported by the late George Marx, the spiritual father of these conferences, and by Jack Schneps, whose advice made the organization of the meeting an easier task. We wish to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee and the International Neutrino Commission for their guidance and support. Neutrino 08 coincided with the 100th anniversary of Rutherford's Nobel, an occasion revisited in a talk by Cecilia Jarlskog that is reproduced in this volume. We thank the speakers for their long trip South to attend this a valuable meeting. With few exceptions, these proceedings report their contributions. The talks for which no written version has been submitted can be found at the SLAC e-conf website. We gratefully acknowledge the support of IUPAP and the New Zealand Government through the Ministry of Research, Science and Technology's International Conference fund, as well as the University of Canterbury, the University of Wisconsin (lead institution for the IceCube project), and Fermilab. The Los Alamos National Laboratory contributed to these proceedings. Most importantly, we thank Merrin McAuley and Claire McConchie and their team at the University of Canterbury Conference Office, Kim Kreiger from the University of Wisconsin, and Jo Robinson and her staff at the Christchurch Convention Centre for their dedication to making our meeting a success. Jenni Adams, Francis Halzen and Stephen Parke Conference photograph

  12. A high resolution study of a hurricane storm surge and inundation in Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz García, Ovel; Zavala Hidalgo, Jorge; Douillet, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Veracruz is the most populated city along the Mexican shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and also is the country's largest commercial port. In recent years the city has been affected by hurricanes of medium intensity that have provoked human casualties, property damaged and economic loss. Two of the most recent events were hurricane Karl (2010), which caused a storm surge and severe flooding, and hurricane Ernesto (2012). The purpose of this work is to study, based on high-resolution numerical simulations, scenarios of storm surge flooding using state-of-the-art open source numerical models: the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the coupled models ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) and Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) for weather and storm surge hindcast, respectively. We also use topography high resolution data from LIDAR and bathymetry from GEBCO 30", the Mexican Navy and nautical charts from Electrical Federal Commission. We present the validation of the models evaluating several statistical parameters against measurements from Acoustic Data Current Profilers, pressure sensors, tide gauge and meteorological stations for these events. In the case of hurricane Karl, it made landfall 15 km north of Veracruz City, reducing the maximum surge along the city shoreline. The hurricane Ernesto made landfall 200 km southeast of the city, too far to have a significant impact. We did some numerical experiments slightly changing the trajectory, reported by the best track data, for these two hurricanes with the purpose of evaluating storm surge scenarios. The results shows that the worst storm surge cases were when the tracks of this hurricanes made landfall south of the city in the range of 30 to 60 km.

  13. Gamete ripening and hormonal correlates in three strains of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17β (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17∝-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in

  14. [Profiles of estrone, estrone sulfate and progesterone in donkey (Equus asinus) mares during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Bernhardt, A W; Failing, K; Schuler, G

    2014-01-01

    To gain further data on the hormonal control of pregnancy in the donkey and to obtain reference values for hormonal pregnancy testing. Blood samples were collected at monthly intervals from 23 donkey mares with normal singleton pregnancies. Further samples were obtained from six mares displaying pregnancies with clinical disorders. Progesterone (P4), total estrone (TE), free (E) and conjugated estrone (ES) were determined using radioimmunoassay. Mean duration of pregnancy was 372 ± 16 days. It was longer (p < 0.05) in large (375.9 ± 5.7 days) and standard (385.8 ± 20.7 days) donkeys than in miniature donkeys (357.4 ± 5.7 days) and negatively correlated to the age of the mare (p = 0.043). P4-concentrations varied between 12-35 ng/ml during weeks 2-5 of pregnancy and increased thereafter in eight jennies concomitant with the formation of the secondary corpora lutea (sCL), reaching values of 40-110 ng/ml during weeks 12-17. The decrease observed thereafter resulted in concentrations between 5-16 ng/ml until week 46, followed by a slight increase in most of the mares prior to parturition. Concentrations of TE remained < 1 ng/ml until week 6. They increased thereafter to 600-2700 ng/ml during midpregnancy and displayed a decrease to 1-20 ng/ml during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. The course of E and ES was correlated (p < 0.0001) and E concentrations were up to 1000 times lower than those of ES. The course of hormone concentrations did not provide any clear indications in relation to the observed clinical disorders. The course of P4-concentrations resembles largely the situation in the horse. In contrast to the horse, the course of ES does not show an increase concomitant with the formation of the sCL. Breed-specific effects became apparent regarding pregnancy duration. Hormonal pregnancy diagnostic in the jenny could be put on a solid basis with TE values > 5 ng/ml being indicative for pregnancy. At present, monitoring of P4 and estrone during pregnancy does not

  15. The Arctic Circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  16. Historical advances in the study of global terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Feller, C; Bernoux, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes: it provides a summarized scientific history of carbon sequestration in relation to the soil-plant system and gives a commentary on organic wastes and SOC sequestration. The concept of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration has its roots in: (i) the experimental work of Lundegårdh, particularly his in situ measurements of CO2 fluxes at the soil-plant interface (1924, 1927, 1930); (ii) the first estimates of SOC stocks at the global level made by Waksman [Waksman, S.A., 1938. Humus. Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature, second ed. revised. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 526] and Rubey [Rubey, W.W., 1951. Geologic history of sea water. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 62, 1111-1148]; (iii) the need for models dealing with soil organic matter (SOM) or SOC dynamics beginning with a conceptual SOM model by De Saussure (1780-1796) followed by the mathematical models of Jenny [Jenny, H., 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: a System of Quantitative Pedology. Dover Publications, New York, p. 288], Hénin and Dupuis [Hénin, S., Dupuis, M., 1945. Essai de bilan de la matière organique. Annales d'Agronomie 15, 17-29] and more recently the RothC [Jenkinson, D.S., Rayner, J.H., 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science 123 (5), 298-305] and Century [Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in great plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (5), 1173-1179] models. The establishment of a soil C sequestration balance is not straightforward and depends greatly on the origin and the composition of organic matter that is to be returned to the system. Wastes, which are important sources of organic carbon for soils, are taken as an example. For these organic materials the following factors have to be considered: the presence or absence of fossil C, the potential

  17. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene

  18. Is the Y chromosome disappearing?--both sides of the argument.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Darren K

    2012-01-01

    On August 31, 2011 at the 18th International Chromosome Conference in Manchester, Jenny Graves took on Jenn Hughes to debate the demise (or otherwise) of the mammalian Y chromosome. Sex chromosome evolution is an example of convergence; there are numerous examples of XY and ZW systems with varying degrees of differentiation and isolated examples of the Y disappearing in some lineages. It is agreed that the Y was once genetically identical to its partner and that the present-day human sex chromosomes retain only traces of their shared ancestry. The euchromatic portion of the male-specific region of the Y is ~1/6 of the size of the X and has only ~1/12 the number of genes. The big question however is whether this degradation will continue or whether it has reached a point of equilibrium. Jenny Graves argued that the Y chromosome is subject to higher rates of variation and inefficient selection and that Ys (and Ws) degrade inexorably. She argued that there is evidence that the Y in other mammals has undergone lineage-specific degradation and already disappeared in some rodent lineages. She also pointed out that there is practically nothing left of the original human Y and the added part of the human Y is degrading rapidly. Jenn Hughes on the other hand argued that the Y has not disappeared yet and it has been around for hundreds of millions of years. She stated that it has shown that it can outsmart genetic decay in the absence of "normal" recombination and that most of its genes on the human Y exhibit signs of purifying selection. She noted that it has added at least eight different genes, many of which have subsequently expanded in copy number, and that it has not lost any genes since the human and chimpanzee diverged ~6 million years ago. The issue was put to the vote with an exact 50/50 split among the opinion of the audience; an interesting (though perhaps not entirely unexpected) skew however was noted in the sex ratio of those for and against the notion.

  19. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Joseph M.; Pierce, Kenneth L.

    2008-04-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136±13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ∼151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8±0.9 to 16.5±1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6±0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ∼4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6±0.7 and 13.5±1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene.

  20. On Russian concepts of Soil Memory - expansion of Dokuchaev's pedological paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsatskin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Having developed from Dokuchaev's research on chernosem soils on loess, the Russian school of pedology traditionally focused on soils as essential component of landscape. Dokuchaev's soil-landscape paradigm (SLP) was later considerably advanced and expanded to include surface soils on other continents by Hans Jenny. In the 1970s Sokolov and Targulian in Russia introduced the new term of soil memory as an inherent ability of soils to memorize in its morphology and properties the processes of earlier stages of development. This understanding was built upon ideas of soil organizational hierarchy and different rates of specific soil processes as proposed by Yaalon. Soil memory terminology became particularly popular in Russia which is expressed in the 2008 multi-author monograph on soil memory. The Soil Memory book edited by Targulian and Goryachkin and written by 34 authors touches upon the following themes: General approaches (Section 1), Mineral carriers of soil memory (Section 2), Biological carriers of soil memory (section 3) and Anthropogenic soil memory (section 4). The book presents an original account on different new interdisciplinary projects on Russian soils and represents an important contribution into the classical Dokuchaev-Jenny SL paradigm. There is still a controversy as to in what way the Russian term soil memory is related to western terms of soil as a record or archive of earlier events and processes during the time of soil formation. Targulian and Goryachkin agree that all of the terms are close, albeit not entirely interchangeable. They insist that soil memory may have a more comprehensive meaning, e.g. applicable to such complex cases when certain soil properties whose origin is currently ambiguous cannot provide valid environmental reconstructions or dated by available dating techniques. Anyway, not terminology is the main issue. The Russian soil memory concept advances the frontiers of pedology by deepening the time-related soil functions and

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 536 is comprised of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge, and is located in Area 3 of the NTS (Figure 1-2). The CAU was investigated in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) and Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 (NNSA/NV, 2003). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to support the recommended corrective action alternative selected to complete closure of the site. The CAU 536, Area 3 Release Site, includes the Steam Jenny Discharge (CAS 03-44-02) that was historically used for steam cleaning equipment in the Area 3 Camp. Concerns at this CAS include contaminants commonly associated with steam cleaning operations and Area 3 Camp activities that include total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), unspecified solvents, radionuclides, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAIP for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NV, 2003), provides additional information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the CAS within CAU 536. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2003) that was approved prior to the start of the

  2. Atmospheric Sulphur Archives in Tree Rings: a First Comparison With Speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, I. J.; Wynn, P. M.; Baker, A.; Hartland, A.; Loader, N. J.; Lageard, J. A.; Thomas, P.; Frisia, S.; Susini, J.

    2007-12-01

    The high atmospheric loading of sulphur pollutants during the 20th century is recorded in archives such as ice cores, archived soils, and some peats. In karstic settings, both trees and speleothems offer proxy records capable of encoding environmental information and our work demonstrates how sulphur is encoded in these archives. Recent work by others (Kawamura et al., 2005, Environmental Science and Technology) on two Japanese tree species has demonstrated that they preserve S concentration and isotopic archives broadly consistent with 20th century atmospheric variations. Frisia et al. (2005, Earth and Planetary Science Letters) first demonstrated the preservation of secular atmospheric sulphur records as carbonate-associated sulphate (CAS) in speleothem calcite, but at the forested alpine Ernesto site (NE Italy) it was noted that there was a lagged response in the speleothem compared with the atmosphere. Our new study of sulphur and oxygen isotopes in sulphate in atmospheric precipitation and cave dripwaters demonstrates that this lag is associated with the mineralization of sulphate in organic form followed by re-oxidation to sulphate leading to a resetting of the sulphate oxygen signal. The speleothems themselves show pronounced annual cycles in sulphate, despite the constant level of sulphate in dripwater. New experiments on sulphate incorporation in calcite precipitated at rates comparable to those in the cave system demonstrates that the main control is the pH of the system, which is modulated by seasonal variations in the PCO2 of the cave air. A study of S distribution and concentration within two tree species Picea abies and Abies alba from close to the Ernesto site has been made by a combination of synchrotron micro-XRF and NEXAFS and high mass-resolution ICP-MS analysis. Resin was removed from the tree samples before analysis since it is likely to be associated with element mobility. XRF mapping clearly demonstrates enhanced levels of S in the primary

  3. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize: The Long Journey to the Higgs Boson: CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdee, Tejinder

    2017-01-01

    There has been a rich harvest of physics from the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In July 2012, the ground-breaking discovery of the Higgs boson was made by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. This boson is a long-sought particle expected from the mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in the electro-weak sector that provides an explanation of how elementary particles acquire mass. The discovery required experiments of unprecedented capability and complexity. This talk, complementing that of Peter Jenni, will trace the background to the search for the Higgs boson at the LHC, the conception, the construction and the operation of the CMS experiment, and its subsequent discovery of the boson. The SM is considered to be a low energy manifestation of a more complete theory - physics beyond the SM is therefore widely anticipated. Selected CMS results will be presented from the search for physics beyond the SM from the 13 TeV Run-2 at the LHC.

  4. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  5. Scurvy and cloudberries: a chapter in the history of nutritional sciences.

    PubMed

    Luca, Luigi M De; Norum, Kaare R

    2011-12-01

    We translated two Latin texts about scurvy. One is by Ambrosius Rhodius, who in 1635 published his doctoral thesis on scurvy. This contains aspects of 16th- and 17th-century folklore medicine. The other is a 1593 letter by Henrik Høyer (Hoierus), a German physician in Bergen, Norway. The letter states that in Norway grew a plant, Chamaemorus Norvegicus, whose berries had curative abilities against scurvy. Rhodius lists symptoms of scurvy and suggests ingestion of fatty and smoked foods as etiological agents. He thought that a malfunction of the spleen was involved in this disease, so that the undigested parts of the chylus perturbed liver function. Plants with curative abilities were "those that abound in volatile salts." He listed seven facilitating causes of scurvy and its therapies. These included blood-letting after laxatives and root extracts. The star of the show was the cloudberry, which had miraculous effects on scurvy patients. Palliative care included a bath containing decoction of brooklime, water cress, mallow, hogweed, roman chamomile, and similar plants. Before bathing, the person was to drink an extract of wormwood, scurvy grass, or elder. As medication for gums and teeth, Rhodius recommended rosemary, hyssop, bistort, sage, nasturtium, waterweed, creeping Jenny, and scurvy grass. He referred to medications described by Albertus, Sennertus, and in antiquity by Hippocrates and Galenus. We discuss the manuscripts by Høyer and Rhodius in light of earlier treatments and opinions about scurvy.

  6. Talking with members of the globalization of materials R&D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byko, Maureen

    2006-03-01

    The Committee on Globalization of Materials Research and Development was appointed by the U.S. National Research Council in December 2003. Its charge: to assess the status and impacts of the globalization of materials R&D. The 12-member committee, which included representatives from both U.S. and international academia and industry, published its findings in August 2005 in the form of a report Globalization of Materials R&D —Time for a National Strategy. To gain some perspective on the report's findings, JOM spoke with representatives of the committee, retired from Alcoa; Gordon Geiger, director of the engineering management program and professor of industrial engineering at the University of Arizona; Jennie Hwang, president of H-Technologies Group in Cleveland. Ohio: and Michael Jaffe, director, Medical Device Concept Laboratory of New Jersey Institute of Technology and associate research professor at Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey. See the sidebar for a listing of the committee's recommendations. The interviews were conducted by e-mail and telephone; respondents chose which questions to answer.

  7. The history of women in surgery.

    PubMed

    Wirtzfeld, Debrah A

    2009-08-01

    The history of women in surgery in Western civilization dates to 3500 before common era (BCE) and Queen Shubad of Ur. Ancient history reveals an active role of women in surgery in Egypt, Italy and Greece as detailed in surgical texts of the time. During the middle ages, regulations forbade women from practising surgery unless they assumed their husbands' practices upon their deaths or unless they were deemed fit by a "competent" jury. King Henry VIII proclaimed that "No carpenter, smith, weaver or women shall practise surgery." The modern period of surgery opens with women impersonating men to practise medicine and surgery (Dr. Miranda Stewart). The first female physicians (Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and Dr. Emily Jennings Stowe) and surgeons (Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and Dr. Jennie Smillie Robertson) in North America found it difficult to obtain residency education after completing medical school. Dr. Jessie Gray was Canada's "First Lady of Surgery" and the first woman to graduate from the Gallie program at the University of Toronto in the 1940s. Currently, the ratio of women in surgical training is far less than that of women in medical school. The reasons that women choose surgery include appropriate role models and intellectual/technical challenge. Lack of mentorship and lifestyle issues are the strongest deterrents. Consideration of a "controllable lifestyle" by surgical administrators will help with the recruitment of women into surgery.

  8. COMMITTEES: Quark Matter 2008 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Organising Committee Madan M Aggarwal (Chandigarh) Jan-e Alam (Kolkata) Convener Arup Bandyopadhyay (Kolkata) Debades Bandyopadhyay (Kolkata) Rahul Basu (Chennai) Rakesh K Bhandari (Kolkata) Anju Bhasin (Jammu) Subhasis Chattopadhyay (Kolkata) Convener Sukalyan Chattopadhyay (Kolkata) Asis Chaudhuri (Kolkata) Premomoy Ghosh (Kolkata) Sanjay Ghosh (Kolkata) Sourendu Gupta (Mumbai) Muhammad Irfan (Aligarh) Durga P Mahapatra (Bhubaneswar) DAmruta Mishra (New Delhi) Ajit K Mohanty (Mumbai) Bedangadas Mohanty (Kolkata) Vaisali Naik (Kolkata) Tapan K Nayak (Kolkata) Convener Sudhir Raniwala (Jaipur) Sourav Sarkar (Kolkata) Bikash Sinha (Kolkata) Chair Dinesh Srivastava (Kolkata) Raghava Varma (Mumbai) Yogendra P Viyogi (Bhubaneswar)Co-chair International Advisory Committee R Aymar,Switzerland Jean Paul Blaizot, France Peter Braun Münzinger, Germany Igor M Dremin, Russia Kari Eskola, Finland Jens Jorgen Gaardhoje,Denmark Rajiv V Gavai, India Hans-Ake Gustaffson, Sweden Hans Gutbrod, Germany Miklos Gyulassy, USA Timothy Hallman, USA Hideki Hamagaki, Japan Tetsuo Hatsuda, Japan Huan-Zhong Huang, USA Barbara Jacak, USA Peter Jenni, Switzerland Taka Kajino, Japan Takeshi Kodama, Brazil T D Lee, USA Peter Levai, Hungary Luciano Maiani, Italy Larry McLerran, USA Berndt Müller, USA Guy Paic, Mexico Sibaji Raha, India Lodovico Riccati, Italy Hans Georg Ritter, USA Helmut Satz, Germany Jurgen Schukraft, Switzerland Yves Schutz, France Edward V Shuryak, USA Johanna Stachel, Germany Horst Stöcker, Germany Itzhak Tserruya, Israel Xin-Nian Wang, USA Bolek Wyslouch, USA Glenn R Young, USA William A Zajc, USA Wen-Long Zhan, China

  9. Adaptive particle-cell algorithm for Fokker-Planck based rarefied gas flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Gorji, M. H.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the Fokker-Planck (FP) kinetic model has been devised on the basis of the Boltzmann equation (Jenny et al., 2010; Gorji et al., 2011). Particle Monte-Carlo schemes are then introduced for simulations of rarefied gas flows based on the FP kinetics. Here the particles follow independent stochastic paths and thus a spatio-temporal resolution coarser than the collisional scales becomes possible. In contrast to the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC), the computational cost is independent of the Knudsen number resulting in efficient simulations at moderate/low Knudsen flows. In order to further exploit the efficiency of the FP method, the required particle-cell resolutions should be found, and a cell refinement strategy has to be developed accordingly. In this study, an adaptive particle-cell scheme applicable to a general unstructured mesh is derived for the FP model. Virtual sub cells are introduced for the adaptive mesh refinement. Moreover a sub cell-merging algorithm is provided to honor the minimum required number of particles per cell. For assessments, the 70 degree blunted cone reentry flow (Allgre et al., 1997) is studied. Excellent agreement between the introduced adaptive FP method and DSMC is achieved.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  11. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  12. 'And next, just for your enjoyment!': sex, technology and the constitution of desire.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    In the 1976 sci-fi film Logan's Run, actor Michael York, relaxing in a fetching caftan after a day hunting 'Runners', logs-in to the 'Circuit', a de- and re-materialisation technology that allows those seeking sex to select partners. Logan's first candidate, a young man, is passed over with a smile. The second is co-star Jenny Agutter; she is accepted and we join a sexual ride in the future. Online dating sites such as Gaydar® and RSVP® would seem to have a long way to go to achieve that, and Microsoft™ needs some fast apps development to get us there. Against this background, this paper examines some starting points in our fascination with technosex, long before the Internet, in books and magazines, the creative arts and other media and cultural forms. It focuses upon gay men's contribution to this fascination, and looks at the queering of heterosexuality and the part technology has played in that process. Online technologies are examined, particularly in relation to the 'publicisation' of sexual life and to shifts in sexual identity and practice related to changing processes of sexual objectification, self-objectification and subjectification. Finally, the transformation of sex into health and healthy sex is discussed.

  13. The history of women in surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wirtzfeld, Debrah A.

    2009-01-01

    The history of women in surgery in Western civilization dates to 3500 before common era (BCE) and Queen Shubad of Ur. Ancient history reveals an active role of women in surgery in Egypt, Italy and Greece as detailed in surgical texts of the time. During the middle ages, regulations forbade women from practising surgery unless they assumed their husbands’ practices upon their deaths or unless they were deemed fit by a “competent” jury. King Henry VIII proclaimed that “No carpenter, smith, weaver or women shall practise surgery.” The modern period of surgery opens with women impersonating men to practise medicine and surgery (Dr. Miranda Stewart). The first female physicians (Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and Dr. Emily Jennings Stowe) and surgeons (Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and Dr. Jennie Smillie Robertson) in North America found it difficult to obtain residency education after completing medical school. Dr. Jessie Gray was Canada’s “First Lady of Surgery” and the first woman to graduate from the Gallie program at the University of Toronto in the 1940s. Currently, the ratio of women in surgical training is far less than that of women in medical school. The reasons that women choose surgery include appropriate role models and intellectual/technical challenge. Lack of mentorship and lifestyle issues are the strongest deterrents. Consideration of a “controllable lifestyle” by surgical administrators will help with the recruitment of women into surgery. PMID:19680519

  14. An efficient particle Fokker–Planck algorithm for rarefied gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gorji, M. Hossein; Jenny, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the algorithmic improvement and careful analysis of the Fokker–Planck kinetic model derived by Jenny et al. [1] and Gorji et al. [2]. The motivation behind the Fokker–Planck based particle methods is to gain efficiency in low Knudsen rarefied gas flow simulations, where conventional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) becomes expensive. This can be achieved due to the fact that the resulting model equations are continuous stochastic differential equations in velocity space. Accordingly, the computational particles evolve along independent stochastic paths and thus no collision needs to be calculated. Therefore the computational cost of the solution algorithm becomes independent of the Knudsen number. In the present study, different computational improvements were persuaded in order to augment the method, including an accurate time integration scheme, local time stepping and noise reduction. For assessment of the performance, gas flow around a cylinder and lid driven cavity flow were studied. Convergence rates, accuracy and computational costs were compared with respect to DSMC for a range of Knudsen numbers (from hydrodynamic regime up to above one). In all the considered cases, the model together with the proposed scheme give rise to very efficient yet accurate solution algorithms.

  15. Telepresence-enabled research and developing work practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmalek, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, a group of scientists and students conducted two weeks of telepresence-enabled research from the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with the Exploration Vessel Nautilus, which was at sea studying the Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano and Barbados Mud Volcanoes. The way that they conducted their work was not so different from other telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration. As a group, they spanned geographic distance, science expertise, exploration experience, and telepresence-enabled research experience. They were connected through technologies and work culture (e.g., shared habits, values, and practices particular to a community). Uniquely, their project included an NSF-sponsored cultural study on the workgroups' own use of technologies and social processes. The objective of the cultural study was, in part, to identify social and technical features of the work environment that present opportunities to better support science exploration via telepresence. Drawing from this case, and related research, I present some analysis on the developing work culture of telepresence-enabled research and highlight potential adjustments.

  16. Holocene loess accumulation and soil development at the western edge of the Chinese Loess Plateau: implications for magnetic proxies of palaeorainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Barbara A.; MengYu, Hu; Roberts, Helen M.; Wintle, Ann G.

    2003-03-01

    A high-resolution Holocene sequence of loess, palaeosols and incipient soils at the western edge of the Chinese Loess Plateau, dated using optically stimulated luminescence techniques, is used to identify the respective influence of dust accumulation rate, time and climate on soil magnetic properties. Dust deposition and soil formation have both been quasi-continuous through the Holocene at this site; the soils are thus accretionary in nature. The degree of soil development (as indicated both by geochemical and magnetic properties, which correlate strongly) varied through the Holocene. Compared with the less-weathered loess units, each palaeosol is enriched in nitrogen and organic carbon, depleted of carbonate due to leaching, and displays higher values of pedogenic magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent susceptibility (%), remanences and magnetisation. Magnetic grain size indicators show that the pedogenic ferrimagnets are ultrafine, of single domain and superparamagnetic dimensions. Sediment accumulation rates were lowest from ˜12 to 2.5 ka, providing ample time (100 s of years) for weathering and soil formation to proceed, yet pedogenesis through this interval was relatively weak. Conversely, soil development was stronger during later intervals—when loess accumulation rates were higher, and soil-forming intervals were correspondingly shorter. In terms of Jenny's (1941) soil-forming equation, accumulation rate (and thus time), sediment source (parent material) and topography show no systematic variation between the loess and the palaeosols. Therefore, climate seems to be the key soil-forming factor which has controlled the geochemical and magnetic properties of these Holocene palaeosols.

  17. An efficient particle Fokker-Planck algorithm for rarefied gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. Hossein; Jenny, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the algorithmic improvement and careful analysis of the Fokker-Planck kinetic model derived by Jenny et al. [1] and Gorji et al. [2]. The motivation behind the Fokker-Planck based particle methods is to gain efficiency in low Knudsen rarefied gas flow simulations, where conventional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) becomes expensive. This can be achieved due to the fact that the resulting model equations are continuous stochastic differential equations in velocity space. Accordingly, the computational particles evolve along independent stochastic paths and thus no collision needs to be calculated. Therefore the computational cost of the solution algorithm becomes independent of the Knudsen number. In the present study, different computational improvements were persuaded in order to augment the method, including an accurate time integration scheme, local time stepping and noise reduction. For assessment of the performance, gas flow around a cylinder and lid driven cavity flow were studied. Convergence rates, accuracy and computational costs were compared with respect to DSMC for a range of Knudsen numbers (from hydrodynamic regime up to above one). In all the considered cases, the model together with the proposed scheme give rise to very efficient yet accurate solution algorithms.

  18. Evidence of explosive seafloor volcanic activity from the Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxel, J. H.; Dziak, R. P.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrophones moored in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded a sequence of explosive, volcano-acoustic signals originated at the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean. 365 explosive signals were detected from the Walvis Ridge beginning 24 November 2001 continuing through March 2002. The largest swarm began on 19 December at 2329 GMT, and lasted 1.25 hrs producing 32 locatable events. Swarm locations are centered on the northern flank of an unnamed seamount (-32.96°S -5.22°W), northwest of Wüst Seamount. These signals are interpreted as volcanogenic explosions due to similarities with acoustic signals recorded from a confirmed submarine eruption in the Caribbean in 2001 (Kick'em Jenny volcano). The observations presented suggest recent magmatic activity along the Walvis Ridge may be unrelated to the Tristan da Cunha mantle plume. Furthermore, these events lend support for an extensional fracture-zone model resulting in the recurrence of volcanic activity along older segments of large-scale sea floor lineaments.

  19. Are midwater shrimp trapped in the craters of submarine volcanoes by hydrothermal venting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishner, Karen F.; Graff, Jason R.; Martin, Joel W.; Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Seibel, B. A.

    2005-08-01

    The biology of Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) submarine volcano, part of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc and located off the coast of Grenada in the Caribbean Sea, was studied during a cruise in 2003. Hydrothermal venting and an associated biological assemblage were discovered in the volcanic crater (˜250 m depth). Warm water with bubbling gas emanated through rock fissures and sediments. Shrimp (some of them swimming) were clustered at vents, while other individuals lay immobile on sediments. The shrimp fauna consisted of 3 mesopelagic species that had no prior record of benthic or vent association. We suggest that these midwater shrimp, from deeper water populations offshore, were trapped within the crater during their downward diel vertical migration. It is unknown whether they then succumbed to the hostile vent environment (immobile individuals) or whether they are potentially opportunistic vent residents (active individuals). Given the abundance of submarine arc volcanoes worldwide, this phenomenon suggests that volcanic arcs could be important interaction sites between oceanic midwater and vent communities.

  20. Ultrasound of ankles in the diagnosis of complications of chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Roberto; Vaz, João Luiz Pereira; Chagas, Yêdda de Fátima Barcelos; Torezani, Rodrigo Sperling; Vieira, André de Almeida; Koifman, Ana Célia Baptista; Barbosa, Yasmin Baptista; de Abreu, Mirhelen Mendes

    2017-01-01

    To describe the main ultrasound findings of chikungunya fever in the ankle. This was a cross-sectional observational study involving 52 patients referred to the Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto and presenting with clinical and biochemical evidence of chikungunya fever. The examinations were performed by a radiologist with more than 20 years of experience in ultrasound. The predominant gender was female (in 88.5%), and the mean age was 58.4 years. The majority (61.5%) of the patients came from the northern part of the city of Rio de Janeiro, and 46.2% were using corticosteroids to treat inflammatory symptoms. The most common alterations observed by ultrasound were joint effusion (in 69.2%), tenosynovitis (in 59.6%), cellulitis (in 46.2%), Kager's fat pad thickening (in 29.9%), myositis (of the soleus or flexor hallucis longus muscle) (in 17.3%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (in 5.8%), tendon ruptures (in 3.8%), and increased vascular flow on power Doppler (in 3.8%). Signs of synovitis and tenosynovitis were the main ultrasound findings in a predominantly female population with a mean age of 58.4 years. Further studies are needed in order to define the role of ultrasound in the follow-up of such patients.

  1. Inhomogeneous magnetization reversal on vicinal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, R. A.; Stiles, M. D.; Zangwill, A.

    1998-03-01

    We report numerical and analytic results for a model of magnetization reversal in single-crystal vicinal ultrathin films with in-plane magnetization. We model the vicinality by the inclusion of equally spaced infinitely long step edges separating flat terraces. Inhomogeneous magnetization reversal occurs because the intrinsic four-fold anisotropy of the terraces is augmented by uniaxial anisotropy localized at the step edges. The reversal process is a combination of domain nucleation at step edges, depinning due to domain wall interactions, and coherent rotation in the center of flat terraces. Hysteresis curves are calculated as a function of terrace length and exhibit two symmetrically shifted loops in qualitative agreement with experiments(R.K. Kawakami, Ernesto J.Escorcia-Aparicio, and Z.Q. Qui, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2570 (1996), W. Weber, C.H. Back, A. Bischof, Ch. Wursch, R. Allenspach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1940 (1996)). In the limits of small and large miscut angle, simple analytic formula for the hysteretic jump fields are derived that agree well with our numerical work.

  2. Mygalomorph spider community of a natural reserve in a hilly system in central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Nelson; Pompozzi, Gabriel; Copperi, Sofia; Pérez-Miles, Fernando; González, Alda

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, abundance, spatial distribution, and phenology of the mygalomorph spider community in the "Ernesto Tornquist" Strict Nature Reserve were analyzed in this study. Located in southwestern Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Reserve is representative of the Ventania system, which is a sigmoidal mountain belt 180 km in length. This exceptional hilly ecosystem is home for many endemic species and rich native fauna and flora. Spider abundance was sampled monthly from October 2009 to October 2010 by hand capture and pitfall traps on grassland slopes. The species recorded in the study area were: Actinopus sp.1 (Actinopodidae); Grammostola vachoni and Plesiopelma longisternale (Theraphosidae); Acanthogonatus centralis (Nemesiidae); and Mecicobothrium thorelli (Mecicobothriidae). Grammostola vachoni and Acanthogonatus centralis were the dominant species in hand capture and pitfall traps, respectively. The seasonal variation, diversity, and abundance of the mygalomorph community are analyzed and discussed here. The Mygalomorphae of the Ventania system comprises an important group of sedentary and cryptozoic spiders that seem to be highly dependent on habitat type and environmental factors.

  3. KSC-06pd1959

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-28

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Crawler-transporter No. 2 nears Launch Pad 39B (in the background, right). The tip of the orange external tank can be seen above the rotating service structure surrounding the shuttle. The crawler is being moved nearby in the event the mission management team decides to roll back Space Shuttle Atlantis due to Hurricane Ernesto. The hurricane has been forecast on a heading north and east from Cuba, taking it along the eastern coast of Florida. NASA's lighted launch window extends to Sept. 13, but mission managers are hoping to launch on mission STS-115 by Sept. 7 to avoid a conflict with a Russian Soyuz rocket also bound for the International Space Station. The crawler is 131 feet long, 113 feet wide and 20 feet high. It weights 5.5 million pounds unloaded. The combined weight of crawler, mobile launcher platform and a space shuttle is 12 million pounds. Unloaded, the crawler moves at 2 mph. Loaded, the snail's pace slows to 1 mph. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  4. KSC-06pd1958

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-28

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Crawler-transporter No. 2 makes its way toward Launch Pad 39B (in the background). The tip of the orange external tank can be seen above the rotating service structure surrounding the shuttle. The crawler is being moved nearby in the event the mission management team decides to roll back Space Shuttle Atlantis due to Hurricane Ernesto. The hurricane has been forecast on a heading north and east from Cuba, taking it along the eastern coast of Florida. NASA's lighted launch window extends to Sept. 13, but mission managers are hoping to launch on mission STS-115 by Sept. 7 to avoid a conflict with a Russian Soyuz rocket also bound for the International Space Station. The crawler is 131 feet long, 113 feet wide and 20 feet high. It weights 5.5 million pounds unloaded. The combined weight of crawler, mobile launcher platform and a space shuttle is 12 million pounds. Unloaded, the crawler moves at 2 mph. Loaded, the snail's pace slows to 1 mph. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  5. ReLiance: a machine learning and literature-based prioritization of receptor--ligand pairings.

    PubMed

    Iacucci, Ernesto; Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Popovic, Dusan; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; De Moor, Bart; Schneider, Reinhard; Moreau, Yves

    2012-09-15

    The prediction of receptor-ligand pairings is an important area of research as intercellular communications are mediated by the successful interaction of these key proteins. As the exhaustive assaying of receptor-ligand pairs is impractical, a computational approach to predict pairings is necessary. We propose a workflow to carry out this interaction prediction task, using a text mining approach in conjunction with a state of the art prediction method, as well as a widely accessible and comprehensive dataset. Among several modern classifiers, random forests have been found to be the best at this prediction task. The training of this classifier was carried out using an experimentally validated dataset of Database of Ligand-Receptor Partners (DLRP) receptor-ligand pairs. New examples, co-cited with the training receptors and ligands, are then classified using the trained classifier. After applying our method, we find that we are able to successfully predict receptor-ligand pairs within the GPCR family with a balanced accuracy of 0.96. Upon further inspection, we find several supported interactions that were not present in the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIPdatabase). We have measured the balanced accuracy of our method resulting in high quality predictions stored in the available database ReLiance. http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~bioiuser/ReLianceDB/index.php yves.moreau@esat.kuleuven.be; ernesto.iacucci@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  7. Solar driven climate changes recorded in Holocene alpine speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisia, S.; Borsato, A.; Preto, N.; McDermott, F.

    2003-04-01

    Inter-annual variations in the growth rate of three annually laminated speleothems from Grotta di Ernesto, an alpine cave located at 1160 m a.s.l. in northern Italy, reveal significant periodicities at ca. 1/11 and 1/22 cycles/yr, related to changes in solar irradiance. Additional frequency components may be related to the influence of NAO/AO mode changes. In the late Holocene, reduced calcite deposition during historic minima of solar output is indicative of the influence of solar forcing on Alpine climate and environment. Annual growth laminae thickness, controlled by cave drip-water supersaturation with respect to calcite, primarily reflects changes in soil pCO_2 production modulated by incoming solar radiation. The preservation of high-frequency signals, and the rapid response of speleothem climate proxy series to changes in solar radiation, favor atmospheric amplification of solar variability, rather than mechanisms involving changes in oceanic circulation. In the early- to mid-Holocene, only the lower frequency components of solar variability are preserved. Periods of reduced calcite deposition roughly correspond to the ca. 10^3-yrs-scale cycles of North Atlantic drift-ice records. Lowest growth rates are recorded at about 3200 and 6800 years BP. If the lamina thickness-climate relationships assessed for the Recent (through present-day monitoring, and by correlation with 200 years of instrumental records) held also for the mid and early Holocene, these episodes were characterized by very cold winters and relatively dry summers.

  8. Health literacy skills in type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients from an university-affiliated hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Simone H; Brito, Gilberto N O; Gomes, Marilia B

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder and has considerable impact on quality of life. Treatment of DM2 is complex and adherence to treatment requires sophisticated cognition which includes literacy skills. Health literacy skills of a cross-sectional nonrandom sample of 164 DM2 outpatients at the Diabetes Unit of the Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto at the State University of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated by the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA). Procedures available in the SPSS package were used in data analysis. Fourteen out of 164 patients (8.5%) were completely illiterate and therefore were not further assessed. The remaining 150 patients (75 men and 75 women) were the participants of this study. Data showed that 110 (73.3%) participants had adequate health literacy skills, 17 (11.3%) had marginal skills and 23 (15.3%) had inadequate skills. Moreover, older participants performed worse than younger patients. In addition, Caucasian and multiethnic participants performed better than Afro-Brazilians. Furthermore, participants with higher educational and occupational levels outperformed those with lower levels. However, only age and education, but not ethnic group and occupation, contributed significantly and independently to health literacy. This study showed that almost a quarter of the participants are illiterate or have inadequate health literacy skills. Therefore, our results indicate the need for the development of health care instructions properly calibrated to the health literacy skills of DM2 patients.

  9. Particle Image Velocimetry in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzier, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique has been expanded recently to the very low temperature environment to study the unique behavior of superfluid helium. Superfluid helium (He II) is a peculiar fluid with apparent zero viscosity and extraordinary heat transfer capabilities. The model that is traditionally used to explain this behavior considers He II to be made of two interpenetrating fluid components, one being viscous and the other being non-viscous. Recently, the PIV technique has been introduced to He II experimentation in an attempt to visualize the unique transport properties. As part of this effort, appropriate particles and seeding techniques have been developed for this low temperature fluid in order to measure the velocities of these internal flows. Initially, it was expected that the particles would track the viscous fluid component of He II, but several recent experiments have demonstrated their interaction with the non viscous fluid component as well. In order to fully benefit from the PIV technique to increase our knowledge and understanding of this unique fluid, the motion of the particles needs to be understood in terms of the motion of the two fluid components. An experiment combining heat transfer and forced flow allows one to independently vary these two component velocities and correlate them with the velocity of the seeded particles. In collaboration with Ernesto Bosque, Ting Xu, and Steven Van Sciver, NHMFL / Florida State University.

  10. KSC-06pd2026

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-115 Pilot Christopher Ferguson boards the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  11. KSC-06pd2022

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-115 Commander Brent Jett dons his launch suit before flying the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  12. KSC-06pd2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 stop to talk to the media after arriving at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here, left to right, are Mission Specialists Steven MacLean and Joseph Tanner, Commander Brent Jett, Pilot Christopher Ferguson, and Mission Specialists Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper and Daniel Burbank. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  13. KSC-06pd2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 arrives at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here is Pilot Christopher Ferguson (left) shaking hands with Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  14. KSC-06pd2023

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-115 Commander Brent Jett is dressed in his launch suit before flying the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  15. KSC-06pd2027

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-115 Commander Brent Jett settles in the cockpit of the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  16. KSC-06pd2029

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-115 Pilot Christopher Ferguson settles in the cockpit of the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  17. KSC-06pd2036

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-115 Commander Brent Jett leaves the Shuttle Training Aircraft after a practice session of landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  18. KSC-06pd2019

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 stop to talk to the media after arriving at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here, left to right, are Mission Specialist Steven MacLean of the Canadian Space Agency, Commander Brent Jett (at microphone) and Mission Specialist Joseph Tanner. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  19. KSC-06pd2028

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-115 Commander Brent Jett studies the controls in the cockpit of the Shuttle Training Aircraft before a practice session of landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  20. KSC-06pd2018

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 arrives at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here is Pilot Christopher Ferguson, who will be making his first flight on the shuttle. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  1. KSC-06pd2024

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-115 Pilot Christopher Ferguson is dressed in his launch suit before flying the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  2. KSC-06pd2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 arrives at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here is Mission Specialist Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper, who will be making her first flight on the shuttle. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  3. KSC-06pd2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 arrives at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here is Mission Specialist Joe Tanner (left) shaking hands with Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  4. KSC-06pd2013

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 arrives at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here is Mission Specialist Daniel Burbank, who will be making his second flight on the shuttle. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  5. KSC-06pd2035

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-115 Pilot Christopher Ferguson disembarks from the Shuttle Training Aircraft after a practice session of landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  6. KSC-06pd2017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 arrives at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here is Mission Specialist Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (center) shaking hands with Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach as Mission Specialist Joe Tanner looks on. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  7. KSC-06pd2021

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-115 Pilot Christopher Ferguson dons his launch suit before flying the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  8. KSC-06pd2020

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crew of mission STS-115 stop to talk to the media after arriving at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility to prepare for a second launch attempt on Sept. 6 to the International Space Station. Seen here is Mission Specialist Steven MacLean, who will be making his second flight on the shuttle. MacLean is with the Canadian Space Agency. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  9. KSC-06pd2025

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-115 Commander Brent Jett boards the Shuttle Training Aircraft to practice landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  10. Grips and ties: agency, uncertainty, and the problem of suffering in North Karelia.

    PubMed

    Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2009-03-01

    In medical anthropological research, the question of suffering has been a topic of salient interest mostly from two theoretical viewpoints: those of endurance and of agency. The concept "suffering" derives its origins from two etymological roots, those of suffering-souffrance-sofferanza and of misery-misère-miseria. According to the first approach, that of "endurance" and founded largely on Judeo-Christian theology, suffering is regarded as an existential experience at the borders of human meaning making. The question then is: how to endure, how to suffer? The latter view, that of "agency," follows the Enlightenment, and later the Marxist view on mundane suffering, misery, and the modern question of how to avoid or diminish it. This article follows the lines of the second approach, but my aim is also to try to build a theoretical bridge between the two. I ask whether agency would be understood as a culturally shared and interpreted modes of enduring, and if so, which conceptual definition of agency applies in this context? I theorize the relationship between suffering and agency using Ernesto de Martino's notion la crisi della presenza. In line with Pierre Bourdieu, I think that in people's lives, there may be sufferings in a plural form, as a variety of sufferings. The article is based on a one-year long fieldwork in Finnish North Karelia.

  11. Variations in atmospheric sulphate recorded in stalagmites by synchrotron micro-XRF and XANES analyses [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisia, Silvia; Borsato, Andrea; Fairchild, Ian J.; Susini, Jean

    2005-07-01

    We report here the first speleothem time-series of the variability of sulphate, a species whose abundance in catchments is strongly influenced by atmospheric anthropogenic and volcanic sources. Annually-resolved archives of S, Mg, Si and P were generated by applying synchrotron radiation micro X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to two speleothems from different sites in northern Italy. X-ray absorption-edge spectrometry proves that the S is in the form of sulphate and XRF mapping demonstrates that S is within calcite and enriched zones are predominantly as layers. A post-1850 A.D. record from the Ernesto cave shows a substantial rise in sulphate, interpreted as reflecting the largely anthropogenically-forced variation of sulphate of the atmospheric boundary layer, moderated by some ecosystem storage. Analysis of the circa 5.2 to circa 5.0 ka interval of a speleothem from Savi cave, where ecosystem retention of S is likely to have been minimal, shows a spiky sulphate record, resembling that of ice cores. A series of sulphate peaks suggest that multiple volcanic sulphate aerosol emissions at that time. This probably enhanced summer temperature cooling thus favouring the preservation of the human mummy of Neolithic-Copper age, the "Iceman" on the watershed between Italy and Austria. Both examples illustrate the power of speleothems to record atmospheric sulphate variability.

  12. The Influence of Dust-radiation-microphysics Processes on Tropical Cyclone Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Cheng, C.; Chen, J.; Lin, Y.; Lee, H.; Tsai, I.

    2011-12-01

    Saharan dust can modify the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and its environment by changing the energy budget through direct and indirect radiative forcing. Scattering and absorption of radiation by suspended dust directly modifies the energy budget in the atmosphere and at the surface. Smaller dust particles can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods and propagate over the Atlantic Ocean along with SAL. These fine particles can reach an altitude of 8-9 km, where they nucleate ice crystals and transform cloud microphysical properties, indirectly changing the energy budget. Thus, the dust within the air mass is likely to affect the evolution of hurricane properties, life cycles, and the corresponding cloud systems through the dust-cloud-radiation interactions. A tracer model based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model (named WRFT) was developed to study the influence of dust-radiation-microphysics effects on hurricane activities. The dust-radiation effects and a two-moment microphysics scheme with dust particles acting as ice nuclei were implemented into WRFT. In this work, two easterly waves, which were precursors of Tropical Storm Debby and Hurricane Ernesto, during 18-25 August 2006 were studied. Four high-resolution numerical experiments were conducted with the combinations of activating/deactivating dust-radiation and/or dust-microphysics processes. Results from these four experiments are compared to investigate the influence of dust-radiation-microphysics processes on these two storm developments.

  13. Mygalomorph Spider Community of a Natural Reserve in a Hilly System in Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Nelson; Pompozzi, Gabriel; Copperi, Sofia; Pérez-Miles, Fernando; González, Alda

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, abundance, spatial distribution, and phenology of the mygalomorph spider community in the “Ernesto Tornquist” Strict Nature Reserve were analyzed in this study. Located in southwestern Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Reserve is representative of the Ventania system, which is a sigmoidal mountain belt 180 km in length. This exceptional hilly ecosystem is home for many endemic species and rich native fauna and flora. Spider abundance was sampled monthly from October 2009 to October 2010 by hand capture and pitfall traps on grassland slopes. The species recorded in the study area were: Actinopus sp.1 (Actinopodidae); Grammostola vachoni and Plesiopelma longisternale (Theraphosidae); Acanthogonatus centralis (Nemesiidae); and Mecicobothrium thorelli (Mecicobothriidae). Grammostola vachoni and Acanthogonatus centralis were the dominant species in hand capture and pitfall traps, respectively. The seasonal variation, diversity, and abundance of the mygalomorph community are analyzed and discussed here. The Mygalomorphae of the Ventania system comprises an important group of sedentary and cryptozoic spiders that seem to be highly dependent on habitat type and environmental factors. PMID:22947032

  14. Who and What Does Involvement Involve? A Multi-Sited Field Study of Involvement of Relatives in Danish Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Oute, Jeppe; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric system-a family site, a clinical site and a policy site-the first author (J.O.) investigated how, and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis elucidates how a psycho-ideological discourse positions the mentally ill person as weak, incapable, and ineffective. By contrast, the supporting relative is positioned as a strong, capable, and effective co-therapist. Furthermore, the analysis considers how this dominant discourse of involvement is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family.

  15. KSC-2014-3952

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-18

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Members of an ISS Earth Science: Tracking Ocean Winds Panel brief media representatives in Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium in preparation for the launch of the SpaceX CRS-4 mission to resupply the International Space Station. From left are Steve Cole, NASA Public Affairs, Steve Volz, associate director for flight programs, Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Ernesto Rodriquez, ISS RapidScat project scientist, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory or JPL, and Howard Eisen, ISS RapidScat project manager, JPL. The mission is the fourth of 12 SpaceX flights NASA contracted with the company to resupply the space station. It will be the fifth trip by a Dragon spacecraft to the orbiting laboratory. The spacecraft’s 2.5 tons of supplies, science experiments, and technology demonstrations include critical materials to support 255 science and research investigations that will occur during the station's Expeditions 41 and 42. Liftoff is targeted for an instantaneous window at 2:14 a.m. EDT. To learn more about the mission, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/launch/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  16. KSC-2014-3960

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-18

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Media representatives ask questions of the ISS Earth Science: Tracking Ocean Winds Panel in Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium in preparation for the launch of the SpaceX CRS-4 mission to resupply the International Space Station. On the dais from left are Steve Cole, NASA Public Affairs, Steve Volz, associate director for flight programs, Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Ernesto Rodriquez, ISS RapidScat project scientist, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory or JPL, and Howard Eisen, ISS RapidScat project manager, JPL. The mission is the fourth of 12 SpaceX flights NASA contracted with the company to resupply the space station. It will be the fifth trip by a Dragon spacecraft to the orbiting laboratory. The spacecraft’s 2.5 tons of supplies, science experiments, and technology demonstrations include critical materials to support 255 science and research investigations that will occur during the station's Expeditions 41 and 42. Liftoff is targeted for an instantaneous window at 2:14 a.m. EDT. To learn more about the mission, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/launch/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  17. KSC-2014-3959

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-18

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Members of an ISS Earth Science: Tracking Ocean Winds Panel brief media representatives in Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium in preparation for the launch of the SpaceX CRS-4 mission to resupply the International Space Station. From left are Steve Cole, NASA Public Affairs, Steve Volz, associate director for flight programs, Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Ernesto Rodriquez, ISS RapidScat project scientist, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory or JPL, and Howard Eisen, ISS RapidScat project manager, JPL. The mission is the fourth of 12 SpaceX flights NASA contracted with the company to resupply the space station. It will be the fifth trip by a Dragon spacecraft to the orbiting laboratory. The spacecraft’s 2.5 tons of supplies, science experiments, and technology demonstrations include critical materials to support 255 science and research investigations that will occur during the station's Expeditions 41 and 42. Liftoff is targeted for an instantaneous window at 2:14 a.m. EDT. To learn more about the mission, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/launch/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  18. Skull Base Meningiomas and Cranial Nerves Contrast Using Sodium Fluorescein: A New Application of an Old Tool

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva, Vinicius Duval; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective The identification of cranial nerves is one of the most challenging goals in the dissection of skull base meningiomas. The authors present an application of sodium fluorescein (SF) in skull base meningiomas with the purpose of improving the identification of cranial nerves. Design A prospective study within-subjects design. Setting Hospital Ernesto Dornelles, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Participants Patients with skull base meningiomas. Main Outcomes Measures Cranial nerve identification. Results The group of nine meningiomas was composed of one cavernous sinus, three petroclival, one tuberculum sellae, two sphenoid wing, one olfactory groove, and one temporal floor meningioma. The SF enhancement in all tumors was strong, and the contrast with cranial nerves clearly evident. There were one definite olfactory nerve deficit, one transient abducens deficit, and one definite hemiparesis. All lesions were resected (Simpson grades 1 and 2). The analysis of the difference of the delta SF wavelength between the meningiomas and cranial nerve contrast was performed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and showed p = 0.011. Conclusions The contrast between the enhanced meningiomas and cranial nerves was evident and assisted in the visualization and microsurgical dissection of these structures. The anatomical preservation of these structures was improved using the contrast. PMID:27054056

  19. Skull Base Meningiomas and Cranial Nerves Contrast Using Sodium Fluorescein: A New Application of an Old Tool.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva, Vinicius Duval; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2014-08-01

    Objective The identification of cranial nerves is one of the most challenging goals in the dissection of skull base meningiomas. The authors present an application of sodium fluorescein (SF) in skull base meningiomas with the purpose of improving the identification of cranial nerves. Design A prospective study within-subjects design. Setting Hospital Ernesto Dornelles, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Participants Patients with skull base meningiomas. Main Outcomes Measures Cranial nerve identification. Results The group of nine meningiomas was composed of one cavernous sinus, three petroclival, one tuberculum sellae, two sphenoid wing, one olfactory groove, and one temporal floor meningioma. The SF enhancement in all tumors was strong, and the contrast with cranial nerves clearly evident. There were one definite olfactory nerve deficit, one transient abducens deficit, and one definite hemiparesis. All lesions were resected (Simpson grades 1 and 2). The analysis of the difference of the delta SF wavelength between the meningiomas and cranial nerve contrast was performed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and showed p = 0.011. Conclusions The contrast between the enhanced meningiomas and cranial nerves was evident and assisted in the visualization and microsurgical dissection of these structures. The anatomical preservation of these structures was improved using the contrast.

  20. Nonlinearity Analysis for Efficient Modelling of Long-Term CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boxiao; Benson, Sally; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    2014-05-01

    . Our analysis of the numerical flux theoretically describes the cause of the convergence failures for simulating long-term CO2 storage. This understanding provides useful guidance in designing numerical schemes and nonlinear solvers that overcome the convergence bottlenecks. For example, to reduce the nonlinearity introduced by the two kinks in the presence of capillarity, we modify the method of Cances (2009) to discretize the capillary flux. Consequently, only one kink will occur even for coupled viscous, buoyancy, and heterogeneous capillary forces, and the kink depends only on the upstream saturation of the total velocity. An efficient nonlinear solver that is a significant refinement of the works of Jenny et al. (2009) and Wang and Tchelepi (2013) has also been proposed and demonstrated. References [1] C. Cances. Finite volume scheme for two-phase flows in heterogeneous porous media involving capillary pressure discontinuities. ESAIM:M2AN., 43, 973-1001, (2009). [2] P. Jenny, H.A. Tchelepi, and S.H. Lee. Unconditionally convergent nonlinear solver for hyperbolic conservation laws with S-shaped flux functions. J. Comput. Phys., 228, 7497-7512, (2009). [3] X. Wang and H.A. Tchelepi. Trust-region based solver for nonlinear transport in heterogeneous porous media. J. Comput. Phys., 253, 114-137, (2013).

  1. The vesicular layer and carbonate collars of desert soils and pavements: formation, age and relation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Leslie D.; McDonald, Eric V.; Wells, Stephen G.; Anderson, Kirk; Quade, Jay; Forman, Steven L.

    1998-08-01

    , calcite kinetics and thermodynamic considerations, composition and thermal characteristics of pavement clasts and the textural and structural properties of the surface horizon provides the basis for testing a hypothesis of collar formation. Model results, combined with results of δ13C and δ18O analyses of collar carbonate, demonstrate how precipitation of calcite on pavement clasts and within the Av is favored at a depth much shallower than that indicated by the classic carbonate depth-climate relationship of Jenny and Leonard [Jenny, H.J., Leonard, C.D., 1935. Functional relationships between soil properties and rainfall. Soil Science 38, 363-381] and Arkley [Arkley, R.J., 1963. Calculations of carbonate and water movement in soil from climatic data. Soil Science 96, 239-248], or simulated by numerical models of carbonate accumulation. Simultaneous development of thick carbonate collars and the Av horizon requires the sustained pavement clast-Av horizon coupling for at least centuries to possibly millennia. New thermoluminescence ages also indicate that much of the Av horizon formed in the Holocene, and that it is certainly much younger than the older Pleistocene pavements. This supports the previously proposed hypothesis that increased dust flux during the Pleistocene-to-Holocene transition triggered and/or greatly accelerated Av horizon development. An understanding of the genesis of collars provides not just an understanding of how carbonate can accumulate in surface environments, but it also provides important clues into processes of pavement evolution and preservation of Av horizons during long glacial periods. The Av horizon is not merely an insignificant surficial zone of recent dust accretion; instead, its development profoundly influences the genesis of desert soils and pavements.

  2. A 20-ka reconstruction of a Sahelo-Sudanian paleoenvironment using multi-method dating on pedogenic carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; King, Georgina E.; Valla, Pierre G.; Sebag, David; Herman, Frédéric; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-04-01

    Soils can be precious environmental archives as they are open systems resulting from external persistent disturbance, or forcing (Jenny, 1941). Pedogenic carbonate nodules associated with clay-rich soils have been investigated in the Far North region of Cameroon in non-carbonate watersheds (Chad Basin). Nodule bearing soils have mima-like mound morphologies, within stream networks. Such settings raise questions on the processes leading to carbonate precipitation as well as landscape genesis. The mima-like mounds have been identified as degraded Vertisols, resulting from differential erosion induced by a former gilgai micro-relief (Diaz et al., 2016). Non-degraded Vertisols occur in waterlogged areas, located downstream from mima-like mound locations (Braband and Gavaud, 1985). Therefore during a former wetter period Vertisols may have been extended to the mima-like mound areas, followed by a shift toward drier conditions and erosion (Diaz et al., 2016). Consequently, mima-like mounds and associated carbonate nodules are inherited from climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The aim of this study is to validate the scenario above using the carbonate nodules collected in a mima-like mound as time archives. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of K-feldspars trapped within the nodules is used to assess the deposition time of the soil parent material, composing the mima-like mounds. The carbonate and organic nodule parts have been radiocarbon dated with the aim of assessing the carbonate precipitation age and the age range of soil formation, respectively. Results show that the soil parent material was deposited between 18 ka and 12 ka BP and that the nodules precipitated between 7 ka and 5 ka BP. These results suggest that the deposition occurred during the arid climatic period of the Bossoumian (20 ka to 15 ka BP; Hervieu, 1970) and during the first drier part of the African Humid Period (14.8 ka to 11.5 ka BP; deMenocal et al., 2000

  3. Rapid Response Measurements of Hurricane Waves and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravois, U.

    2010-12-01

    Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), and Ike (2008) are recent examples of extensive damage that resulted from direct hurricane landfall. Some of the worst damages from these hurricanes are caused by wind driven waves and storm surge flooding. The potential for more hurricane disasters like these continues to increase as a result of population growth and real estate development in low elevation coastal regions. Observational measurements of hurricane waves and storm surge play an important role in future mitigation efforts, yet permanent wave buoy moorings and tide stations are more sparse than desired. This research has developed a rapid response method using helicopters to install temporary wave and surge gauges ahead of hurricane landfall. These temporary installations, with target depths from 10-15 m and 1-7 km offshore depending on the local shelf slope, increase the density of measurement points where the worst conditions are expected. The method has progressed to an operational state and has successfully responded to storms Ernesto (2006), Noel (2007), Fay (2008), Gustav (2008), Hanna (2008) and Ike (2008). The temporary gauges are pressure data loggers that measure at 1 Hz continuously for 12 days and are post-processed to extract surge and wave information. For the six storms studied, 45 out of 49 sensors were recovered by boat led scuba diver search teams, with 43 providing useful data for an 88 percent success rate. As part of the 20 sensor Hurricane Gustav response, sensors were also deployed in lakes and bays inLouisiana, east of the Mississippi river delta. Gustav was the largest deployment to date. Generally efforts were scaled back for storms that were not anticipated to be highly destructive. For example, the cumulative total of sensors deployed for Ernesto, Noel, Fay and Hanna was only 20. Measurement locations for Gustav spanned over 800 km of exposed coastline from Louisiana to Florida with sensors in close proximity to landfall near Cocodrie

  4. Selected Aspects of Soil Science History in the USA - Prehistory to the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Fenton, Thomas E.; Homburg, Jeffrey A.

    2017-04-01

    Interest in understanding America's soils originated in prehistory with Native Americans. Following European settlement, notable individuals such as Thomas Jefferson and Lewis and Clark made observations of soil resources. Moving into the 1800s, state geological surveys became involved in soil work and E.W. Hilgard started to formulate ideas similar to those that would eventually lead to V.V. Dokuchaev being recognized as the father of modern soil science. However, Hilgard's advanced ideas on soil genesis were not accepted by the wider American soil science community at the time. Moving into the 1900s, the National Cooperative Soil Survey, the first nationally organized detailed soil survey in the world, was founded under the direction of M. Whitney. Initial soil classification ideas were heavily based in geology, but over time Russian ideas of soil genesis and classification moved into the American soil science community, mainly due to the influence of C.F. Marbut. Early American efforts in scientific study of soil erosion and soil fertility were also initiated in the 1910s and university programs to educate soil scientists started. Soil erosion studies took on high priority in the 1930s as the USA was impacted by the Dust Bowl. Soil Taxonomy, one of the most widely utilized soil classification systems in the world, was developed from the 1950s through the 1970s under the guidance of G.D. Smith and with administrative support from C.E. Kellogg. American soil scientists, such as H. Jenny, R.W. Simonson, D.L. Johnson, and D. Watson-Stegner, developed influential models of soil genesis during the 20th Century, and the use of soil information expanded beyond agriculture to include issues such as land-use planning, soil geomorphology, and interactions between soils and human health.

  5. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  6. A comparative stereological study of the term placenta in the donkey, pony and Thoroughbred.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Villani, M; Wilsher, S; Contri, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare horse and donkey placentae using stereological techniques. Term placentae were collected at spontaneous foaling from seven Thoroughbred mares, seven pony mares, and six jenny donkeys. Maternal and foal weights were recorded and the mass, volume, and gross area of each allantochorion was also recorded. Ten random biopsies were recovered and processed for light microscopy from which the surface density of the microcotyledons (S(v)) and the total microscopic area of fetomaternal contact were calculated stereologically. Gestation length was longer in the donkeys than the other two groups (median values: 371 vs. 327 and 341 days, P < 0.05). There were significant correlations between foal birthweight and gross area (rho = 0.89; n = 20; P < 0.05), mass (rho = 0.84; n = 20; P < 0.05) and volume (rho = 0.89; n = 20; P < 0.05) of the allantochorion. S(v) was higher in the donkey placenta than the other groups (median values: 0.05 vs. 0.03 and 0.04 microm(-1), P < 0.05) although placental efficiency was lower in the donkeys (median values: 0.87 vs. 1.33 and 1.32 kg/m2, P < 0.01). The results of the study confirmed that, although strong morphological similarities exist between the allantochorion of the horse and donkey, that of the donkey develops more complex microcotyledons, as judged stereologically, and exhibits a lower placental efficiency. These differences may be related to maternal genotype and/or the longer gestation length shown by the donkey compared to the horse, but a negative correlation (rho = -0.92, P < 0.01) was also found between age and placental efficiency in donkeys.

  7. Growth and survival of stocked lake trout with nuclear cataracts in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Elrod, Joseph H.

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the 1985 and 1986 year-classes at the Allegheny National Fish Hatchery were evaluated for nuclear cataracts prior to stocking in Lake Ontario in June 1986 and 1987. Lake trout recaptured by bottom trawling from April to August 1987 and 1988 were examined for cataracts. Cataract frequencies in three strains of yearling lake trout at stocking in 1986 and after 14 and 26 months in the lake were: Seneca Lake–35, 24, and 29%; Lake Ontario–32,24, and 42%; and Lake Superior–7,4, and 6%. Cataract frequencies for yearlings at stocking in 1987 and after 2 and 14 months were: Seneca Lake–51, 37, and 51 %; Lake Superior–7,12, and 12%; and Jenny Lake–46,13, and 36%. Cataract frequency was lower (P < 0.05) at capture in three of the six groups recaptured in 1987 and in two of the six groups in 1988. Fish with cataracts in the 1987 recovery had survival ratios of 17–186% after 2 months in the lake and 48–67% after 14 months, compared with normal-eyed fish of the same strain. Nuclear cataract frequency was relatively stable after the first year of lake residency, when equilibrium was achieved between the increased mortality of cataract phenotypes and the rate of cataract development in normal-eyed phenotypes. Within groups, weight and length were not different between healthy fish and fish with cataracts. The absence of growth depression in fish with cataracts and the reduced survival rate suggested that faster growing fish were more susceptible to cataract formation.

  8. Assessing climate-change risks to cultural and natural resources in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Waste, Stephen M.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an overview of an interdisciplinary special issue that examines the influence of climate change on people and fish in the Yakima River Basin, USA. Jenni et al. (2013) addresses stakeholder-relevant climate change issues, such as water availability and uncertainty, with decision analysis tools. Montag et al. (2014) explores Yakama Tribal cultural values and well-being and their incorporation into the decision-making process. Graves and Maule (2012) simulates effects of climate change on stream temperatures under baseline conditions (1981–2005) and two future climate scenarios (increased air temperature of 1 °C and 2 °C). Hardiman and Mesa (2013) looks at the effects of increased stream temperatures on juvenile steelhead growth with a bioenergetics model. Finally, Hatten et al. (2013) examines how changes in stream flow will affect salmonids with a rule-based fish habitat model. Our simulations indicate that future summer will be a very challenging season for salmonids when low flows and high water temperatures can restrict movement, inhibit or alter growth, and decrease habitat. While some of our simulations indicate salmonids may benefit from warmer water temperatures and increased winter flows, the majority of simulations produced less habitat. The floodplain and tributary habitats we sampled are representative of the larger landscape, so it is likely that climate change will reduce salmonid habitat potential throughout particular areas of the basin. Management strategies are needed to minimize potential salmonid habitat bottlenecks that may result from climate change, such as keeping streams cool through riparian protection, stream restoration, and the reduction of water diversions. An investment in decision analysis and support technologies can help managers understand tradeoffs under different climate scenarios and possibly improve water and fish conservation over the next century.

  9. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  10. Columnar structure formation of a dilute suspension of settling spherical particles in a quiescent fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander G.; Barois, Thomas; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Chouippe, Agathe; Doychev, Todor; Huck, Peter; Morales, Carla E. Bello; Uhlmann, Markus; Volk, Romain

    2016-11-01

    The settling of heavy spherical particles in a column of quiescent fluid is investigated. The performed experiments cover a range of Galileo numbers (110 ≤Ga≤310 ) for a fixed density ratio of Γ =ρp/ρf=2.5 . In this regime the particles are known to show a variety of motions [Jenny, Dušek, and Bouchet, Instabilities and transition of a sphere falling or ascending freely in a Newtonian fluid, J. Fluid Mech. 508, 201 (2004), 10.1017/S0022112004009164]. It is known that the wake undergoes several transitions for increasing Ga resulting in particle motions that are successively vertical, oblique, oblique oscillating, and finally chaotic. Not only does this change the trajectory of single, isolated, settling particles, but it also changes the dynamics of a swarm of particles as collective effects become important even for dilute suspensions with volume fraction up to ΦV=O (10-3) , which are investigated in this work. Multicamera recordings of settling particles are recorded and tracked over time in three dimensions. A variety of analyses are performed and show a strong clustering behavior. The distribution of the cell areas of the Voronoï tessellation in the horizontal plane is compared to that of a random distribution of particles and shows clear clustering. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the Voronoï area and the particle velocity; clustered particles fall faster. In addition, the angle between adjacent particles and the vertical is calculated and compared to a homogeneous distribution of particles, clear evidence of vertical alignment of particles is found. The experimental findings are compared to simulations.

  11. DTMiner: identification of potential disease targets through biomedical literature mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Meizhuo; Xie, Yanping; Wang, Fan; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Kenny Q.; Wei, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Biomedical researchers often search through massive catalogues of literature to look for potential relationships between genes and diseases. Given the rapid growth of biomedical literature, automatic relation extraction, a crucial technology in biomedical literature mining, has shown great potential to support research of gene-related diseases. Existing work in this field has produced datasets that are limited both in scale and accuracy. Results: In this study, we propose a reliable and efficient framework that takes large biomedical literature repositories as inputs, identifies credible relationships between diseases and genes, and presents possible genes related to a given disease and possible diseases related to a given gene. The framework incorporates name entity recognition (NER), which identifies occurrences of genes and diseases in texts, association detection whereby we extract and evaluate features from gene–disease pairs, and ranking algorithms that estimate how closely the pairs are related. The F1-score of the NER phase is 0.87, which is higher than existing studies. The association detection phase takes drastically less time than previous work while maintaining a comparable F1-score of 0.86. The end-to-end result achieves a 0.259 F1-score for the top 50 genes associated with a disease, which performs better than previous work. In addition, we released a web service for public use of the dataset. Availability and Implementation: The implementation of the proposed algorithms is publicly available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php?page=download.php. The web service is available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php. Contact: jenny.wei@astrazeneca.com or kzhu@cs.sjtu.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27506226

  12. Amiata Donkey Milk Chain: Animal Health Evaluation and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ragona, Giuseppe; Corrias, Franco; Benedetti, Martina; Paladini, Maria; Salari, Federica; Altomonte, lolanda; Martini, Mina

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1). In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis-causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27853717

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  14. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    How big is your project world? Is it big enough to contain other cultures, headquarters, hierarchies, and weird harpoon-like guns? Sure it is. The great American poet Walt Whitman said it best, 'I am large/I contain multitudes.' And so must you, Mr. and Ms. Project Manager. In this issue of ASK, we look outside the project box. See how several talented project managers have expanded their definition of project scope to include managing environments outside the systems and subsystems under their care. Here's a sampling of what we've put together for you this issue: In 'Three Screws Missing,' Mike Skidmore tells about his adventures at the Plesetek Cosmodrome in northern Russia. Ray Morgan in his story, 'Our Man in Kauai,' suggests we take a broader view of what's meant by 'the team.' Jenny Baer-Riedhart, the NASA program manager on the same Pathfinder solar-powered airplane, schools us in how to sell a program to Headquarters in 'Know Thyself--But Don't Forget to Learn About the Customer Too.' Scott Cameron of Proctor and Gamble talks about sharpening your hierarchical IQ in 'The Project Manager and the Hour Glass.' Mike Jansen in 'The Lawn Dart' describes how he and the 'voodoo crew' on the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program borrowed a harpoon-like gun from the Coast Guard to catch particles inside of a plume. These are just some of the stories you'll find in ASK this issue. We hope they cause you to stop and reflect on your own project's relationship to the world outside. We are also launching a new section this issue, 'There are No Mistakes, Only Lessons.' No stranger to ASK readers, Terry Little inaugurates this new section with his article 'The Don Quixote Complex.'

  15. Record of Plio-Pleistocene extreme event in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc basin. Example of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe, French West Indies).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanlèn, L.; Philippon, M. M.; Randrianasolo, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Cornée, J. J.; Münch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Guadeloupe archipelago is part of the Lesser Antilles active volcanic arc and is therefore subjected to both enhanced seismic and volcanic activity related to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, along which the Atlantic plate is subducted westward bellow the Caribbean plate. The volcanic arc is composed of several immerged volcanic islands (St Kitts, Nevis Montserrat, Basse Terre, Dominica, Martinique, St Lucia, Grenada) and submerged volcanoes (Kick em'Jenny). These volcanoes are known to be explosives and when they are entering in an eruptive cycle, debris flow could potentially initiate a tsunami and generate peculiar deposits within the sedimentary record recognized as tsunami deposits (or tsunamite). Subduction- related earthquakes might also initiate slope instabilities and trigger debris flow. Another controlling factor of slope (in-)-stabilities and debris flow is massive rainfalls. During cyclonic season (June to December), massive rainfalls are recorded in the area, which moreover is located on the trajectory of Atlantic Hurricanes that are responsible for numerous landslides. As a consequence, tsunami deposit are described and well studied in the Lesser Antilles arc as the islands shoreline and coastal plain are perpetually re-shaped by hurricanes responsible for tempestite deposits. However, the report of these deposit concern recent to actual events, for example present-day deposits consisting of large (metric) boulders, more or less aligned, located in the supralittoral fringe can be observed along Guadeloupe shore. In this study, we investigate the Plio-pleistocene sedimentary sequence of Grande Terre carbonate platform (Guadeloupe), and track the presence of such extreme-event related deposits and discuss our findings in the frame of the Lesser Antilles geological context.

  16. College readiness for all: the challenge for urban high schools.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Melissa; Nagaoka, Jenny; Coca, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Melissa Roderick, Jenny Nagaoka, and Vanessa Coca focus on the importance of improving college access and readiness for low-income and minority students in urban high schools. They stress the aspirations-attainment gap: although the college aspirations of all U.S. high school students, regardless of race, ethnicity, and family income, have increased dramatically over the past several decades, significant disparities remain in college readiness and enrollment. The authors emphasize the need for researchers and policy makers to be explicit about precisely which sets of knowledge and skills shape college access and performance and about how best to measure those skills. They identify four essential sets of skills: content knowledge and basic skills; core academic skills; non-cognitive, or behavioral, skills; and "college knowledge," the ability to effectively search for and apply to college. High schools, they say, must stress all four. The authors also examine different ways of assessing college readiness. The three most commonly recognized indicators used by colleges, they say, are coursework required for college admission, achievement test scores, and grade point averages. Student performance on all of these indicators of readiness reveals significant racial and ethnic disparities. To turn college aspirations into college attainment, high schools and teachers need clear indicators of college readiness and clear performance standards for those indicators. These standards, say the authors, must be set at the performance level necessary for high school students to have a high probability of gaining access to four-year colleges. The standards must allow schools and districts to assess where their students currently stand and to measure their progress. The standards must also give clear guidance about what students need to do to improve. College readiness indicators can be developed based on existing data and testing systems. But districts and states will require new

  17. Bathythermal distribution, maturity, and growth of lake trout strains stocked in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario, 1978-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1996-01-01

    Bathythermal distributions, sexual maturity, and growth of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) strains stocked in Lake Ontario were determined for fish collected with trawls and gill nets in 1978-93. The purpose was to augment the basis for deciding which strains to continue stocking in an effort to reestablish a self-sustaining population. The Clearwater Lake (CWL) strain was found in shallower, warmer water than all other strains; the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain was usually shallower than the Jenny Lake (JEN) and Lake Superior (SUP) strains at ages 1 and 2 but was usually deeper at age 3 and older. Depth distribution of the 'Ontario strain'--from gametes of several strains that survived to maturity in Lake Ontario-- was similar to that of the SEN and SUP strains. About half the males matured at age 4 and half the females at age 5; males < 500 mm and females < 600 mm long were rarely mature. Least-sqaures mean lengths and weights of the CWL strain were greater than those of all other strains through age 4. At age 7 and older, CWL and JEN fish were generally smaller than all other strains. Means lengths and weights of males and females of the same age and strain frequently differed at age 4 and older. Growth in weight at age 4 and older was not associated with biomass indices of prey fishes. Differences in growth rates among strains were associated with bathythermal distribution which is a heritable trait. Weight-length regressions differed by year, sex, and stage of maturity but were rarely different among strains. Competition for space appeared to affect condition of large lake trout. Growth rates and maturity schedules provide little basis for recommending stocking one strain in preference to another. Depth ranges of strains overlapped widely, but lake trout occupied only about one-fourth of available bottom habitat. Stocking several strains should be continued to maximize use of sustainable habitat.

  18. Mapping of normal fault scarps in airborne laser swath mapping data using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sare, R.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Wavelet analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) successfully identifies degraded fault scarps where earthquakes produce topographic steps and provides an estimate of their morphologic age. However, these methods may fail to detect relatively young, sloping scarps created by more gently-dipping normal faults, misidentifying them as mature, highly-degraded vertical scarps if they are detected at all. We present new wavelet templates incorporating initial scarp slope and above- and below-scarp surface angles to better describe the curvature of observed fault scarps. These templates are based on an analytic solution for scarp curvature, allowing for more accurate estimation of the relative age of the scarp. Synthetic tests show that scarp-like landforms that went largely undetected by a vertical-scarp template are more clearly detected using profile geometries that reflect subtle changes in curvature due to scarp and far-field slope angles. Analysis of DEMs from sites in Surprise Valley in the northwestern Basin and Range and near Jenny Lake on the Teton rangefront illustrates the effects of along-strike variability in scarp morphology on best-fit template parameters. Where normal fault scarps have high slopes, they are identified by filters designed to detect topographic step functions. Scarps with finite initial slopes, as well as those that cut surfaces with different angles above and below the scarp, can be resolved with higher signal-to-noise ratios using more sophisticated template functions. Adaptive use of different wavelet templates could reduce the number of false negatives in wavelet analysis of data from complex faulting regimes, improving the robustness of these methods and enabling automated fault mapping of large areas.

  19. Optimising femoral component rotation using Equiflex instrumentation: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Kuzhupilly, Ranjith R; Seferiadis, Ilias; Lennox, Iain A C

    2008-06-01

    Although there is agreement that flexion and extension spaces should be symmetrical and that rotation of the femoral component impacts outcome in a knee replacement, there is dispute over what is the 'correct' rotation and how best to achieve it (Akagi et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 366:155-163, 1999; Anouchi et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 287:170-177, 1993; Barrack et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 392:46-55, 2001; Berger et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 356:144-153, 1998; Jenny and Boeri, Acta Orthop Scand 75(1):74-77, 2004; Poilvache et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 331:35-46, 1996; Siston et al., J Bone Joint Surg Am 87(10):2276-2280, 2005). Insall and Scuderi recommended placing a tensor in flexion and rotating the femoral cutting block so that its posterior edge is parallel to the cut tibia (Insall, Surgery of the knee, vol 2, 2nd edn., Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1993; Scuderi and Insall, Orthop Clin N Am 20:71-78, 1989). We feel Equiflex instrumentation will reliably achieve Insall and Scuderi's recommendation. To evaluate early results and lateral retinacular release rates using Equiflex instrumentation for TKR, we evaluated 209 consecutive knees (31 valgus, 178 varus) using this technique from 4 April 2005 until 19 September 2006. Pre and postop American Knee Society and Oxford scores, deformity, ROM, lateral retinacular release rates and complications were recorded. We could correct alignment and achieve our technical goals in 99% of cases. A lateral retinacular release was required in only five knees (2.4%). The complications are comparable to published data. The Equiflex instrumentation does help in equalising flexion-extension gaps, improves patellar tracking and reduces the incidence of lateral retinacular release.

  20. Chemical and Isotopic Exploration: A Tale of Two Telepresence-Enabled Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, S. D.; Michel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean exploration has traditionally required a large team of shipboard scientists for quick decision-making as well as for sample handling and processing tasks. However, with the development of new field-going in situ sensors for chemical oceanography, comes the capability of making measurements in the deep ocean without the need for sample collection, processing and laboratory analysis. Through our participation in two cruises aboard the E/V Nautilus, we tested a new model for ocean exploration using Telepresence technology for making chemical analyses in the deep ocean with a laser spectrometer designed for in situ analyses of methane and carbon dioxide. In 2014, we used the E/V Nautilus and ROV Hercules to explore the chemical and isotopic composition of fluids and bubbles in the crater of the Kick `Em Jenny volcano ( 180m depth) just northwest off the island of Grenada. In 2015, we carried out exploration of a mud volcano/brine pool in the western Gulf of Mexico ( 1300m depth). For our focused chemical explorations in 2014, one scientist was shipboard while two were ashore at the Inner Space Center at the University of Rhode Island. Decisions concerning instrument parameters, sampling strategies and data collection and management were all carried out through this two-way remote operation scheme, while the shipboard scientist was responsible for all deployments, maintenance, and troubleshooting technical issues with instrumentation. In comparison, in 2015, two scientists were shipboard. Here we compare the successes and challenges of using Telepresence for chemical exploration. In addition, we detail our interactions with scientists, educators, and interested citizens ashore. The use of Telepresence enhanced both science communication, by enabling direct scientist-to-scientist interactions and decision-making, and science education, through broad participation of a global audience. As in situ chemical sensing advances, telepresence promises to increase

  1. Increasing Shore-based Participation of Scientists & Students in Telepresence-enabled Nautilus Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. L. C.; Raineault, N.; Carey, S.; Eberli, G. P.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; German, C. R.; Mirmalek, Z.; Pallant, A.

    2016-02-01

    As the US oceanographic research fleet shrinks, reducing seagoing opportunities for scientists and students, remote participation in cruises via telepresence will become increasingly vital. The Nautilus Exploration Program is improving the experience of shoreside participants through the development of new tools and methodologies for connecting them to expeditions in real time increasing accessibility to oceanographic cruises. The Scientist Ashore Program is a network of scientists around the world who participate in Exploration Vessel Nautilus expeditions from their own labs or homes. We have developed a suite of collaboration tools to allow scientists to view video and data in real time, as well as to communicate with ship-based and other shore-based participants to enable remote participation in cruises. Post-cruise, scientists and students may access digital data and biological and geological samples from our partner shore-based repositories: the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, and URI Marine Geological Samples Lab. We present examples of successful shore-based participation by scientists and students in Nautilus expeditions. In 2013, Drs. Cheadle and John stood watch 24/7 with ten undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wyoming, recording geologic features and samples, during a cruise to the Cayman Rise. The Straits of Florida & Great Bahama Bank cruise was co-led by Dr. Eberli at the University of Miami in 2014, greatly complementing existing data. That same year, the ISC hosted four early career scientists and their twelve undergraduate students who led dives from shore in collaboration with Dr. Carey, Lead Scientist at sea on the Kick'em Jenny Volcano & the Barbados Mud Volcanoes cruise. In 2015, 12 Scientists Ashore worked in collaboration with the ship-based team on the exploration of Galapagos National Park, and more than 20 are working with OET on post-cruise data & sample analysis.

  2. DTMiner: identification of potential disease targets through biomedical literature mining.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Meizhuo; Xie, Yanping; Wang, Fan; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Kenny Q; Wei, Jia

    2016-12-01

    Biomedical researchers often search through massive catalogues of literature to look for potential relationships between genes and diseases. Given the rapid growth of biomedical literature, automatic relation extraction, a crucial technology in biomedical literature mining, has shown great potential to support research of gene-related diseases. Existing work in this field has produced datasets that are limited both in scale and accuracy. In this study, we propose a reliable and efficient framework that takes large biomedical literature repositories as inputs, identifies credible relationships between diseases and genes, and presents possible genes related to a given disease and possible diseases related to a given gene. The framework incorporates name entity recognition (NER), which identifies occurrences of genes and diseases in texts, association detection whereby we extract and evaluate features from gene-disease pairs, and ranking algorithms that estimate how closely the pairs are related. The F1-score of the NER phase is 0.87, which is higher than existing studies. The association detection phase takes drastically less time than previous work while maintaining a comparable F1-score of 0.86. The end-to-end result achieves a 0.259 F1-score for the top 50 genes associated with a disease, which performs better than previous work. In addition, we released a web service for public use of the dataset. The implementation of the proposed algorithms is publicly available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php?page=download.php The web service is available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php CONTACT: jenny.wei@astrazeneca.com or kzhu@cs.sjtu.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Efficiency of different extenders on cooled semen collected during long and short day length seasons in Martina Franca donkey.

    PubMed

    Contri, Alberto; De Amicis, Ippolito; Veronesi, Maria Cristina; Faustini, Massimo; Robbe, Domenico; Carluccio, Augusto

    2010-07-01

    Artificial insemination with cooled semen is routine in equids because of its good fertility rates and relatively low costs. In several donkey breeds, especially in restricted populations, the use of cooled semen could be seen as the best way of improving reproductive performance and avoiding excessive inbreeding. Furthermore, most jennies have ovulatory estrous throughout the year, and thus, cooled semen could also be used during short day length season. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of different extenders on sperm quality during cooling in the Martina Franca breed, and to verify the preservation of cooled semen collected during long day length (May-June) and short day length (November-December) seasons. Three ejaculates were collected at 10-day intervals from each of six jackasses during both May-June and again in November-December time periods. Each ejaculate was cooled in INRA96 or E-Z Mixin at a low cooling rate and evaluated daily over a 120-h preservation time. The results showed a significant extender influence on preservation time in both periods. Semen diluted with INRA96 maintained a progressive motility of 36% and a straightness of 89% at 120h, whereas semen extended with E-Z Mixin had a mean progressive motility of 32% and a straightness of 81% at 48h during the May-June period. Despite having the same initial characteristics, semen collected during the short day length season had a higher rate of decline in semen quality during storage at 5 degrees C with E-Z Mixin.

  4. Pro-Life nurses uniting for service.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, K

    1994-01-01

    The Missouri Pro-Life Nurses claim that nurses have lost the ethical basis of their profession. Nurses need to reexamine their attitudes at a time when 1 in 5 physician-members of the American Society of Internal Medicine admits to deliberately helping a patient end his or her life, and when many physicians and nurses favor euthanasia and abortion. Former Georgia nurse Joseph Dewey Akin was sentenced in October 1992 to life imprisonment for injecting Robert Price, a quadriplegic, with a lethal dose of lidocaine. Hospice nurse Darlene Leon of California is on trial for injecting 17 of her patients with lethal doses of morphine. A nurse from Georgia was indicted on one count of aggravated assault for attempting to kill her 87-year-old patient with an injection of potassium. Georgia nurse Jenny Serbes was charged with murder in the death of her husband with a lethal injection of insulin. The fierce argument about abortion and euthanasia now raging in America is this century's civil war. 20 years ago, in an effort to combat this tide, the National Association of Pro-Life Nurses (NAPN) was started, and its 1000 members want to demonstrate positive concern for all human life. NAPN attempts to educate nurses and the health care community on the legal and medical aspects of the ethical issues facing the profession. In October 1993 the first meeting of Illinois Pro-Life Nurses was held in suburban Chicago. The nurse-patient relationship can be viewed as a contract. Implicit in this relationship is the understanding that the nurse will do no harm. If the relationship is broken, the foundation on which nursing and medicine rest is shaken. Pro-life nursing organizations are trying to steer the nursing profession back on the right course.

  5. Dietary verbascoside supplementation in donkeys: effects on milk fatty acid profile during lactation, and serum biochemical parameters and oxidative markers.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G

    2017-03-07

    Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (P<0.05) and increased the monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05), and vitamins A and E (P<0.01) values. On the serum parameters, the VB supplementation decreased total cholesterol (P<0.01), tryglicerides, bilirubin, ALT and TBARs, and increased (P<0.01) vitamin E. In conclusion, the VB dietary supplementation affects the nutritional quality of donkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.

  6. Overnight Changes in the Slope of Sleep Slow Waves during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Fattinger, Sara; Jenni, Oskar G.; Schmitt, Bernhard; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) is a well-established marker for sleep pressure in adults. Recent studies have shown that increasing sleep pressure is reflected by an increased synchronized firing pattern of cortical neurons, which can be measured by the slope of sleep slow waves. Thus we aimed at investigating whether the slope of sleep slow waves might provide an alternative marker to study the homeostatic regulation of sleep during early human development. Design: All-night sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded longitudinally at 2, 4, 6, and 9 months after birth. Setting: Home recording. Patients or Participants: 11 healthy full-term infants (5 male, 6 female). Interventions: None Measurements and Results: The slope of sleep slow waves increased with age. At all ages the slope decreased from the first to the last hour of non rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, even when controlling for amplitude differences (P < 0.002). The decrease of the slope was also present in the cycle-by-cycle time course across the night (P < 0.001) at the age of 6 months when the alternating pattern of low-delta activity (0.75-1.75 Hz) is most prominent. Moreover, we found distinct topographical differences exhibiting the steepest slope over the occipital cortex. Conclusions: The results suggest an age-dependent increase in synchronization of cortical activity during infancy, which might be due to increasing synaptogenesis. Previous studies have shown that during early postnatal development synaptogenesis is most pronounced over the occipital cortex, which could explain why the steepest slope was found in the occipital derivation. Our results provide evidence that the homeostatic regulation of sleep develops early in human infants. Citation: Fattinger S; Jenni OG; Schmitt B; Achermann P; Huber R. Overnight changes in the slope of sleep slow waves during infancy. SLEEP 2014;37(2):245-253. PMID:24497653

  7. The Sleep EEG as a Marker of Intellectual Ability in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anja; Huber, Reto; Kurth, Salomé; Ringli, Maya; Jenni, Oskar G.; Achermann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the within-subject stability in the sleep EEG and the association between the sleep EEG and intellectual abilities in 9- to 12-year-old children. Design: Intellectual ability (WISC-IV, full scale, fluid, and verbal IQ, working memory, speed of processing) were examined and all-night polysomnography was performed (2 nights per subject). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy children (mean age 10.5 ± 1.0 years; 6 girls). Measurements and Results: Spectral analysis was performed on artifact-free NREM sleep epochs (C3/A2). To determine intra-individual stability and inter-individual variability of the sleep EEG, power spectra were used as feature vectors for the estimation of Euclidean distances, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for the 2 nights. Sleep spindle peaks were identified for each individual and individual sigma band power was determined. Trait-like aspects of the sleep EEG were observed for sleep stage variables and spectral power. Within-subject distances were smaller than between-subject distances and ICC values ranged from 0.72 to 0.96. Correlations between spectral power in individual frequency bins and intelligence scores revealed clusters of positive associations in the alpha, sigma, and beta range for full scale IQ, fluid IQ, and working memory. Similar to adults, sigma power correlated with full scale (r = 0.67) and fluid IQ (r = 0.65), but not with verbal IQ. Spindle peak frequency was negatively related to full scale IQ (r = −0.56). Conclusions: The sleep EEG during childhood shows high within-subject stability and may be a marker for intellectual ability. Citation: Geiger A; Huber R; Kurth S; Ringli M; Jenni OG; Achermann P. The sleep EEG as a marker of intellectual ability in school age children. SLEEP 2011;34(2):181-189. PMID:21286251

  8. Improving an Inlet for Underwater Volatile Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, E.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.; Kapit, J.

    2014-12-01

    Although the deep ocean remains a challenging place to study, recent progress in technologies such as advanced in situ chemical sensors is beginning to broaden the scope of ocean exploration by enabling more comprehensive measurements at higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Such sensors are designed to be compatible with remotely and human operated vehicles and thus shed light on the geochemical composition of, and processes occurring in, seafloor environments. Among these sensors is a recently-developed in situ laser-based analyzer which utilizes Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS). This instrument is capable of measuring stable carbon isotope ratios of methane (δ13CCH4), making it a powerful tool for assessing biogeochemical activity in the deep sea. With the aim of improving the sensitivity of this membrane inlet-based chemical sensor, a Membrane Inlet Dissolved Gas Extractor (MIDGE) was developed. Recent work on the MIDGE focused on improving design elements with the aim of enhancing gas transport through the membrane and reducing water vapour in the gas stream. This was accomplished by implementing a newly-designed membrane flow-through inlet geometry, testing a variety of membrane materials, and incorporating an acidification module to evolve dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to gaseous CO2. We will report on results from a September 2014 research cruise, in which the MIDGE ICOS is to be deployed as part of an interdisciplinary mission conducting the first-ever in situ chemical and stable isotopic exploration of two seafloor sites in the Caribbean: the Barbados Mud Volcanoes and Kick 'em Jenny (KEJ). The goals of this project are to 1) use in situ measurements of methane and DIC carbon isotopes to enable biogeochemical exploration and mapping of methane seeps, and 2) measure the composition of bubble streams emanating from the crater of KEJ.

  9. The Role of Multiple Shocks in the Production of GeV Gamma-ray Flaring in the Blazar 1156+295

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Margo F.; Hughes, Philip A.; Aller, Hugh D.; Hovatta, Talvikki; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh

    2014-06-01

    As part of work to identify jet conditions during GeV flaring detected by the Fermi-LAT, we have carried out radiative transfer modeling of a pair of centimeter-band, total and polarized flux outbursts in the FSRQ 1156+295 from the UMRAO data archive. The modeling incorporates propagating shocks and uses the observed spectral evolution between 14.5 and 4.8 GHz as constraints. The two outbursts are nearly identical in amplitude, spectrum and duration. However, the centimeter-band outburst peaking in 2010.75 is temporally associated with a series of GeV flares extending over nearly 300 days with peak photon flux exceeding 10^{-6} photons/cm^2/s, while the centimeter-band outburst which commenced in early August 2008 is temporally associated with a well-defined gamma-ray quiescent state. Our analysis reveals that the shocks in the parsec-scale jet during the two events have a similar sense (forward), orientation (transverse) and compression, but in the case of the orphan radio-band flare only 2 shocks were required to reproduce the light curves, while in the event with a paired gamma-ray flare, 4 shocks were required. VLBA imaging of the inner jet at 43 GHz identifies a single jet component during the orphan flare and complex structure in the later event. This suggests that differences in shock structure, and associated shock interactions, play a role in the production of gamma-ray flares. This work was supported in part by Fermi GI grants NNX11AO13G, and NNX13AP18G (U. Michigan) and NNX11AQ03G (Boston U.). T. H. was supported in part by a grant from the Jenny and Antti Wihuri foundation and by the Academy of Finland project number 267324.

  10. Tsunami hazard in the Caribbean: Regional exposure derived from credible worst case scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbitz, C. B.; Glimsdal, S.; Bazin, S.; Zamora, N.; Løvholt, F.; Bungum, H.; Smebye, H.; Gauer, P.; Kjekstad, O.

    2012-04-01

    The present study documents a high tsunami hazard in the Caribbean region, with several thousands of lives lost in tsunamis and associated earthquakes since the XIXth century. Since then, the coastal population of the Caribbean and the Central West Atlantic region has grown significantly and is still growing. Understanding this hazard is therefore essential for the development of efficient mitigation measures. To this end, we report a regional tsunami exposure assessment based on potential and credible seismic and non-seismic tsunamigenic sources. Regional tsunami databases have been compiled and reviewed, and on this basis five main scenarios have been selected to estimate the exposure. The scenarios comprise two Mw8 earthquake tsunamis (north of Hispaniola and east of Lesser Antilles), two subaerial/submarine volcano flank collapse tsunamis (Montserrat and Saint Lucia), and one tsunami resulting from a landslide on the flanks of the Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano (north of Grenada). Offshore tsunami water surface elevations as well as maximum water level distributions along the shore lines are computed and discussed for each of the scenarios. The number of exposed people has been estimated in each case, together with a summary of the tsunami exposure for the earthquake and the landslide tsunami scenarios. For the earthquake scenarios, the highest tsunami exposure relative to the population is found for Guadeloupe (6.5%) and Antigua (7.5%), while Saint Lucia (4.5%) and Antigua (5%) have been found to have the highest tsunami exposure relative to the population for the landslide scenarios. Such high exposure levels clearly warrant more attention on dedicated mitigation measures in the Caribbean region.

  11. Soil heterogeneity of an East and West facing ridge above timberline due to differences in snow and aeolian deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traver, E.

    2015-12-01

    Hans Jenny's soil forming factors—time, parent material, climate, topography, and organisms—represent the major components of his system to describe and quantify soil development. In almost all situations, it is difficult to hold even one of these factors constant while focusing on another factor; however, in our study site—the East and West side of a narrow North-South running ridge, above timberline in SE Wyoming—we can hold three factors nearly constant (time, parent material, and climate) and focus on how topography, in particular, has influenced the soil differences on the two sides. The East side is the leeside of prevailing and strong westerly winds and receives a large snow pack while the West is consistently snow-free during winter creating a very different moisture and soil temperature regime. The East receives aeolian dust deposition while the West loses surface material from wind scour. A standard chemical and physical analysis found that while the two sides are nearly identical textually, with a similar pH and low electrical conductivity, the East side is richer in minerals. During the short growing season, soil moisture results show that the West side is holding more water than the East side; however, the East side has a higher percentage of organic matter and is more shrub and forb rich. An isotope analysis shows that the C:N ratios are very similar on the two sides. Microbial biomass and functional groups will be analyzed in the soil samples as well as a seismic study conducted to quantity depth of soil to bedrock. Using all these results will help quantify the differences on the two sides of this narrow ridge and add to our understanding of fine-scale soil heterogeneity and its relationship to watershed hydrology.

  12. Extracting spectroscopic factors from direct reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kate

    2009-10-01

    Direct reactions have been used to probe the structure of the nucleus for decades. After some decline in the 80's and 90's these methods have more recently had a surge in popularity, and new techniques have been added to the experimentalists toolbox. One goal of direct reaction experiments is to extract spectroscopic factors (SFs), related to the shell occupancy. SFs extracted from neutron knockout reactions show reductions, compared to the theoretical value, that are related to the neutron separation energy [1], whereas SFs from the well-established (e,e'p) reaction on stable nuclei are consistently 50% - 60% lower than those expected from the independent-particle shell model [2] over a wide range of masses. pardAs the extraction of spectroscopic factors from direct reaction measurements requires the comparison of data with calculated differential cross sections, the results are by nature model dependent. The influence of different scattering (commonly optical), and bound state potentials, should not be over-looked. Recent attempts to reanalyze single-neutron transfer data using a consistent approach have shown agreement with large basis shell model calculations [3], clearly conflicting with both the (e,e'p) and the knockout data. It has been suggested that the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient (ANC) is a more valid quantity to extract when the reaction is peripheral [4]. spectroscopic factors are, how they are extracted and what they really mean will be discussed in this talk.[4pt] [1] Alexandra Gade, and Thomas Glasmacher, Prog Part. Nucl. Phys. 60 (2008) 161-224.[0pt] [2] G.J. Kramer, H.P. Blok, and L. Lapik'as, Nucl. Phys. A679 (2001) 267-286.[0pt] [3] Jenny Lee, M.B. Tsang, and W.G. Lynch, Phys. Rev C 75, (2007), 064320.[0pt] [4] D.Y. Pan, F.M. Nunes, and A.M. Mukhamedzhanov, Phys. Rev. C 75, (2007) 024601.

  13. Adaptive fully implicit multi-scale finite-volume method for multi-phase flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenny, P.; Lee, S. H.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2006-09-01

    We describe a sequential fully implicit (SFI) multi-scale finite volume (MSFV) algorithm for nonlinear multi-phase flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media. The method extends the recently developed multiscale approach, which is based on an IMPES (IMplicit Pressure, Explicit Saturation) scheme [P. Jenny, S.H. Lee, H.A. Tchelepi, Adaptive multiscale finite volume method for multi-phase flow and transport, Multiscale, Model. Simul. 3 (2005) 50-64]. That previous method was tested extensively and with a series of difficult test cases, where it was clearly demonstrated that the multiscale results are in excellent agreement with reference fine-scale solutions and that the computational efficiency of the MSFV algorithm is much higher than that of standard reservoir simulators. However, the level of detail and range of property variability included in reservoir characterization models continues to grow. For such models, the explicit treatment of the transport problem (i.e. saturation equations) in the IMPES-based multiscale method imposes severe restrictions on the time step size, and that can become the major computational bottleneck. Here we show how this problem is resolved with our sequential fully implicit (SFI) MSFV algorithm. Simulations of large (million cells) and highly heterogeneous problems show that the results obtained with the implicit multi-scale method are in excellent agreement with reference fine-scale solutions. Moreover, we demonstrate the robustness of the coupling scheme for nonlinear flow and transport, and we show that the MSFV algorithm offers great gains in computational efficiency compared to standard reservoir simulation methods.

  14. U-Th-Ra-Pa Disequilibria in the Kasuga Seamounts: recent "sediment" flux melting in the Mariana rear arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J.; Holden, P.

    2002-12-01

    Mariana volcanic front lavas define a U-Th isotope mixing line with an apparent age of 30 Ka between U-enriched "basalt fluid"-dominated Guguan and "sediment melt"-dominated Uracas in 238U-230Th equilibrium (Elliott et al., 1997). However, new results for basalts collected by dredging and diving on the shoshonitic Kasuga Seamounts, 10-20 km behind the VF, require re-interpretation of both Mariana components. Kasuga basalts are the local "sediment" extreme, reaching La/Sm = 5, Th/Nb=0.75, and eNd=3 in the most K-rich samples. Despite this extremity, their U-Th disequilibria lie along the same mixing line as for the VF, but extend to 20 percent 230Th-enrichment and (230Th)/(232Th) lower than at the intersection with the equiline. This indicates deeper melting than at the VF, and that the source's Th/U ratio was higher than the intersection. (226Ra)/(230Th) ratios extend to 3.5 even though samples have unknown eruption ages and Ba/Th is only 100, much lower than at the VF. (231Pa)/(235U) is mostly 1.7, higher than at the VF. (231Pa)/(230Th) correlates positively with excess U, consistent with recent flux melting. However, the mantle being melted is more fertile than at the VF, and the flux is more "sedimentary" apart from its disequilibria. Disequilibria in the highest-K Kasuga are most like Kick-em-Jenny, the most sediment-rich part of the Antilles.

  15. Sleep Duration and Biomarkers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Zhu, Xiaobei; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Mehra, Reena; Jenny, Nancy S.; Tracy, Russell; Redline, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Extremes of sleep duration have been associated with adverse health outcomes. The mechanism is unclear but may be related to increased inflammation. We sought to assess the association between sleep duration and inflammatory biomarkers. Methods: A total of 614 individuals from the Cleveland Family Study completed questionnaires about sleep habits and underwent polysomnography. A morning fasting blood sample was assayed for 5 inflammatory cytokines. Results: In this cohort, mean (SD) habitual sleep duration based on self-report was 7.6 (1.6) h and mean sleep duration by polysomnography (PSG) on the night prior to blood sampling was 6.2 (1.3) h. After adjusting for obesity and apnea severity, each additional hour of habitual sleep duration was associated with an 8% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.004) and 7% increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (P = 0.0003). These associations were independent of self-reported sleepiness. In contrast, PSG sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels. For each hour reduction in sleep, TNFα levels increased by 8% on average (P = 0.02). Sleep duration was not associated with IL-1 or IL-10. Conclusions: Increases in habitual sleep durations are associated with elevations in CRP and IL-6 while reduced PSG sleep duration is associated with elevated TNFα levels. Activation of pro-inflammatory pathways may represent a mechanism by which extreme sleep habits affect health. Citation: Patel SR; Zhu X; Storfer-Isser A; Mehra R; Jenny NS; Tracy R; Redline S. Sleep duration and biomarkers of inflammation. SLEEP 2009;32(2):200–204. PMID:19238807

  16. 231Pa excesses in arc volcanic rocks: Constraint on melting rates at convergent margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang; Lundstrom, Craig C.

    2007-11-01

    The 231Pa-235U disequilibria provide greater ability to constrain the rate of mantle melting in convergent margin settings than the more often analyzed 238U-230Th-226Ra systems, which are strongly affected by fluid-addition processes from the subducting slab. Here we present new 231Pa-235U data for 12 samples from the Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) submarine volcano in the Southern Lesser Antilles to define the melting rate at a subduction zone with one of the lowest convergence rates. The KEJ samples have the highest average (231Pa)/(235U) yet measured in global arcs, consistent with other studies of the Southern Lesser Antilles lavas. These results reinforce the previously noted negative correlation between average (231Pa)/(235U) and convergence rate in all arc settings globally. We develop a model to explain this negative correlation and to better constrain melting rates at convergent margins. Assuming that the corner flow velocity is coupled to and equal to the subducting slab velocity, the melting rate, directly reflecting the flux of water added, becomes a linear function of subduction rate. This physical model is then coupled to three different melting models previously developed for calculating U-series disequilibria (reactive porous flow, dynamic, and flux melting). All three models reproduce the globally observed negative correlation between subduction rate and 231Pa excess. Although the style of melting cannot be easily discriminated, the good correspondence between models and observation provides an example of how geochemical and geophysical models can be linked to provide a self-consistent model of melt generation in convergent margin settings.

  17. Science Fiction In Naples In The Middle Of The 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioli, Massimo; Cirella, Emilia Olostro; Stendardo, Enrica; Virgilio, Nicla

    Astronomer, intellectual, passionate patriot, and refined humanist, Ernesto Capocci Belmonte (Picinisco, May 31, 1798 - Naples, January 6, 1864) was a prominent figure of the scientific, cultural, and political life in Naples around the middle of the 19th century. He acquired international recognition for his studies on the orbits of comets and, since 1833, he was named director of the newly built Osservatorio Astronomico in Capodimonte: A prestigious position that he lost for political retaliation as a result of his participation in the movement against the Bourbon rulers in 1848, but which he regained in 1860 upon the arrival in Naples of Giuseppe Garibaldi. An intuitive and open-minded scholar, he looked always at the contemporary experiences in Europe and, as a scientist and cultivated human being, he sought to serve the community by enthusiastically devoting himself also to education and public outreach. He developed clear interests in literature and, as a forerunner, he dared to tackle the genre of science fiction. His short novel Relazione del viaggio alla Luna fatto da una donna nell'anno di grazia 2057 (Report of the Trip to the Moon done by a Woman in the Year of our Lord 2057), written in the period of his exile from the Observatory and practically given up as lost until a private copy was found in the library of one of Capocci's descendants, offers an interesting overview of astronomical knowledge and taste for the elegance in writing, and gives an unusual, and often ironic, viewpoint on the situation of sciences in Naples in the middle of the 19th century.

  18. In the Hot Seat: STS-115 Lightning Strike Stand Down Debate - NASA Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummer, Lizette; Stevens, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    There is no way the PIC's could have seen any current' was the gist of Mike Griffin's assessment. Griffin was the NASA Administrator at the time. The buck stopped at his desk. Holding a napkin out to Pat Lampton, Griffin showed Lampton the calculations he'd made over dinner that predicted that the Pyrotechnic Initiator Controllers (PIC's) at the base of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were fine. A lightning strike the day before, the worst ever experienced with a Space Shuttle on the launch pad, caused a halt to the launch count down as technicians, engineers, and managers scrambled identify any damage to the launch system. SRB technicians and engineers assessed the data against their Lightning Strike Re-Test Requirements, determining that all but one of the requirements could be checked if they resumed the countdown. For the one remaining requirement, testing the integrity of the PIC's would require 96 hours to set up, test, and reassemble. The engineers were convinced that there was no way to do calculations to show the PIC's were okay. The only option was to stand down. It was SRB Deputy Project Manager (PM) Pat Lampton's responsibility to decide what the SRB project position needed to be to certify that their hardware was safe to fly. He had to communicate that decision to the Mission Management Team (MMT) as a Go or No Go position to resume the count down. If the answer was Go they could still meet a delayed, but acceptable launch schedule. If the answer was No Go, rescheduling the launch would be a grueling shuffling of hardware, personnel, and mission timelines to accommodate Russian missions to the Space Station, supplies for the launch, and personnel manning launch operations. On top of that, Hurricane Ernesto was spinning off the coast of Florida, threatening the need for the Shuttle to roll back to the hangar if they waited too long.

  19. Satellite Microwave Detected SST Anomalies and Hurricane Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Kafatos, M.; Cervone, G.; Boybeyi, Z.; Yang, R.

    2006-12-01

    The year 2005 is a record-breaking year for Atlantic Hurricanes. There were 28 named storms and 15 hurricanes, including three Category 5 hurricanes, Katrina, Rita, and the strongest hurricane on record, Wilma. Katrina became the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in the US history. Better understanding and prediction of hurricanes will allow societies to be better prepared to minimize life and property damages. SST data from remotely sensed infrared measurements, like GOES, AVHRR, and MODIS, show missing values over the cloudy regions associated with hurricanes. While satellite microwave measurements, like the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) microwave imager (TMI), can provide SST even under cloudy conditions. Both satellite measurements and buoy observations show that SST increases in advance of significant hurricane intensification. This is probably because it may need a period of time for a tropical cyclone to accumulate energy to develop into a hurricane. Moreover, hurricane intensification may also be related to the actual location of high SST. Our results indicate pre-existing high SST anomaly (SSTA) located at the right side of the storm track for Hurricane Katrina. Numerical simulations of three control experiments also confirm the importance of the relative positioning of SSTA with respect to the storm track. Similar situations are also found for Hurricanes Rita and Wilma. On the contrary, if there is no high SSTA at the right location, a hurricane may not be able to undergo further intensification. This may explain why not all tropical cyclones associated with warm waters can attain peak intensity (categories 4 and 5) during their life cycle. Using this finding, during this year, in advance of several days, we successfully predicted tropical storm Ernesto could not have developed into a hurricane again after it entered the ocean since its first landfall in Cuba.

  20. KSC-06pd2034

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) is positioned in the parking area of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. In the specially configured aircraft, STS-115 Commander Brent Jett and Pilot Christopher Ferguson practiced landing the shuttle this morning. The space shuttle's Mate-Demate Device is seen in the background. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  1. KSC-06pd2031

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the early morning hours on NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, the Shuttle Training Aircraft taxis onto the runway. In the specially configured aircraft, STS-115 Commander Brent Jett and Pilot Christopher Ferguson are practicing landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  2. KSC-06pd2033

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) taxis into the parking area of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. In the specially configured aircraft, STS-115 Commander Brent Jett and Pilot Christopher Ferguson practiced landing the shuttle this morning. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  3. KSC-06pd2032

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, the Shuttle Training Aircraft takes to the skies. In the specially configured aircraft, STS-115 Commander Brent Jett and Pilot Christopher Ferguson are practicing landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  4. KSC-06pd2030

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the early morning hours on NASA Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, the Shuttle Training Aircraft taxis onto the runway. In the specially configured aircraft, STS-115 Commander Brent Jett and Pilot Christopher Ferguson are practicing landing the shuttle. STA practice is part of launch preparations. The STA is a Grumman American Aviation-built Gulf Stream II jet that was modified to simulate an orbiter’s cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling qualities. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiter’s atmospheric descent trajectory from approximately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. Because the orbiter is unpowered during re-entry and landing, its high-speed glide must be perfectly executed the first time. Mission STS-115 is scheduled to lift off about 12:29 p.m. Sept. 6. Mission managers cancelled Atlantis' first launch campaign due to a lightning strike at the pad and the passage of Tropical Storm Ernesto along Florida's east coast. The mission will deliver and install the 17-and-a-half-ton P3/P4 truss segment to the port side of the integrated truss system on the orbital outpost. The truss includes a new set of photovoltaic solar arrays. When unfurled to their full length of 240 feet, the arrays will provide additional power for the station in preparation for the delivery of international science modules over the next two years. STS-115 is expected to last 11 days and includes three scheduled spacewalks. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  5. Invasion of Pinus halepensis Mill. following a wildfire in an Argentine grassland nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sergio M; Cuevas, Yannina A; Boó, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The Ernesto Tornquist nature reserve is a relict of native Pampas vegetation in Argentina. Alien trees were introduced to the reserve in the 1950s, mainly to "improve" the natural landscape, resulting in the arrival of a totally new life form. In 1987, a fire affected an area planted with Pinus halepensis resulting in its massive expansion. In 1999, we removed trees from 17 circular plots of 10 m diameter placed systematically within the area that was colonized after the fire. Trunks were cut 20 cm from the ground and growth rings were counted. We studied the age structure of the population in order to reconstruct the colonizing events after the fire. We found that recruitment occurred throughout this period, except in the three years after the disturbance. We suggest that this delay in recruitment might be caused by low seedling survival under water stress conditions due to low rainfall, combined with scarce vegetation cover after fire. This could have been associated with an initial reduction in propagule pressure due to the scarcity of surviving trees in the vicinity and with the fact that fire occurred after the peak of seed release, during an extremely dry summer, probably killing a great number of seeds that were already in the soil. In the following years, recruitment was probably aided by pioneer trees and later by seeds shed from established pines. Alien trees had been allowed to reach maturity due to wildfire prevention and control in the years preceding the fire and the accumulated dry matter resulted in increased fire intensity that reduced the ability of grasses to re-sprout. As a consequence, the invasion window that allowed the expansion of pines remained open for at least 12 years.

  6. PREFACE: Third Congress on Materials Science and Engineering (CNCIM-Mexico 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss, Romeo; Murrieta-Hernández, Gabriel; Aguayo-González, Aarón; Rubio-Rosas, Efraín; Chigo-Anota, Ernesto; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique

    2013-06-01

    ónoma de Puebla Ciudad Universitaria, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Puebla, México efrain.rubio@cuv.buap.mx Ernesto Chigo-Anota Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla Ciudad Universitaria, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Puebla, México ernesto.chigo@correo.buap.mx Enrique Vigueras-Santiago Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México Instituto Literario No. 100, Col. Centro 50000, Toluca, Edo. de México, México vigueras@uaemex.mx Session Chairs Gabriel Canto Santana, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche. Enrique Vigueras Santiago, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. César Cab, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Alejandro ávila Ortega, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Jesús Barrón Zambrano, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Maritza de Coss, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Jorge A. Tapia González, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. David Muñoz Rodríguez, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Mario Pérez Cortes, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Jesús García Serrano, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Rubén Arturo Medina Esquivel, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. César R. Acosta, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Organizing Committee Aarón Aguayo González, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Gabriel Murrieta Hernández, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Alejandro Tapia González, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Cristian Carrera Figueiras, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Heriberto Hernández Cocoletzi, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Ernesto Chigo Anota, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Efraín Rubio Rosas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Enrique Vigueras Santiago, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Romeo de Coss, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav-Mérida). Organizers: Organizers Sponsors: Sponsors

  7. Efficacy of a randomized trial examining commercial weight loss programs and exercise on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Baetge, Claire; Earnest, Conrad P; Lockard, Brittanie; Coletta, Adriana M; Galvan, Elfego; Rasmussen, Christopher; Levers, Kyle; Simbo, Sunday Y; Jung, Y Peter; Koozehchian, Majid; Oliver, Jonathan; Dalton, Ryan; Sanchez, Brittany; Byrd, Michael J; Khanna, Deepesh; Jagim, Andrew; Kresta, Julie; Greenwood, Mike; Kreider, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    While commercial dietary weight-loss programs typically advise exercise, few provide actual programing. The goal of this study was to compare the Curves Complete 90-day Challenge (CC, n = 29), which incorporates exercising and diet, to programs advocating exercise (Weight Watchers Points Plus (WW, n = 29), Jenny Craig At Home (JC, n = 27), and Nutrisystem Advance Select (NS, n = 28)) or control (n = 20) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and weight loss. We randomized 133 sedentary, overweight women (age, 47 ± 11 years; body mass, 86 ± 14 kg; body mass index, 35 ± 6 kg/m(2)) into respective treatment groups for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using chi square and general linear models adjusted for age and respective baseline measures. Data are means ± SD or mean change ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed a significant trend for a reduction in energy intake for all treatment groups and significant weight loss for all groups except control: CC (-4.32 kg; 95% CI, -5.75, -2.88), WW (-4.31 kg; 95% CI, -5.82, -2.96), JC (-5.34 kg; 95% CI, -6.86, -3.90), NS (-5.03 kg; 95% CI, -6.49, -3.56), and control (0.16 kg, 95% CI, -1.56, 1.89). Reduced MetS prevalence was observed at follow-up for CC (35% vs. 14%, adjusted standardized residuals (adjres.) = 3.1), but not WW (31% vs. 28% adjres. = 0.5), JC (37% vs. 42%, adjres. = -0.7), NS (39% vs. 50% adjres. = -1.5), or control (45% vs. 55% adjres. = -1.7). While all groups improved relative fitness (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) because of weight loss, only the CC group improved absolute fitness (L/min). In conclusion, commercial programs offering concurrent diet and exercise programming appear to offer greater improvements in MetS prevalence and cardiovascular function after 12 weeks of intervention.

  8. Weight loss and retention in a commercial weight loss program and the effect of corporate partnership

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Talamini, Lisa; Johnson, Andrea; Hymel, Alicia M.; Khavjou, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Background No studies report if improvements to commercial weight loss programs affect retention and weight loss. Similarly, no studies report if enrolling in a program through work (with a corporate partner) affects retention and weight loss. Objectives To determine if: 1) adding evidenced-based improvements to a commercial weight loss program increased retention and weight loss, 2) enrolling in a program through work increased retention and weight loss, and 3) if increased weight loss was due to longer retention. Design, Setting, and Participants Data were collected on 60,164 adults who enrolled in Jenny Craig’s Platinum Program over one year in 2001–2002. The program was subsequently renamed the Rewards Program and improved by increasing treatment personalization and including motivational interviewing. Data were then collected on 81,505 Rewards participants who enrolled during 2005 (2,418 of these participants enrolled through their employer, but paid out-of-pocket). Measurements Retention (participants were considered active until ≥42 consecutive days were missed) and weight loss (percent of original body weight) from baseline to the last visit (data were evaluated through week 52). Results Alpha was set at .001. Mean (95% CI) retention (weeks), was significantly higher among Rewards [19.5 (19.4–19.6)] compared to Platinum [16.3 (16.2–16.4)] participants, and Rewards Corporate [25.9 (25.0–26.8)] compared to Non-corporate [21.9 (21.7–22.1)] participants. Modified intent-to-treat analyses indicated that mean (95% CI) percent weight loss was significantly larger among Rewards [6.36 (6.32–6.40)] compared to Platinum [5.45 (5.41–5.49)] participants, and Rewards Corporate [7.16 (6.92–7.40)] compared to Non-corporate [6.20 (6.16–6.24)] participants, with and without adjustment for baseline participant characteristics. In all cases, greater weight loss was secondary to longer retention. Limitations The study was not a randomized controlled trial

  9. The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia Website blackholes.stardate.org

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Benningfield, D.; Preston, S.

    2013-01-01

    The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia website was developed over the past seven years to provide an extensive but easy-to-read resource for the public and students. A Spanish-language version, Enciclopedia de agujeros negros, is also available at blackholes.radiouniverso.org. Evaluation shows that the sites are used by the public, students, and astronomy professionals, and the site is among the top references in most web searches for individual black holes. The site comprises seven major subsections: Basics, Directory, Research, History, Pop Culture, News, and Resources. The Basics section introduces black holes, explains how they are discovered and studied, and covers their basis in the theory of gravity. This section also includes a six-minute video introduction, “Black Holes: Stranger than Fiction.” The Directory section contains extensive descriptions of more than 80 well-known stellar, intermediate, and supermassive black holes as well as images and vital statistics of each. The Research section takes a look at three NSF-funded projects, including the work of Andrea Ghez, Karl Gebhardt and Jenny Greene, and the LIGO project. The History section provides a timeline of black holes from Isaac Newton to the present. Some of the best and worst roles played by black holes in films, TV shows, and books are included in the Pop Culture section (and pop culture references and images are sprinkled through the rest of the site). An archive of news reports about black holes is available in the News section, which provides links to the original stories or press releases. And the Resources section offers FAQs, articles from StarDate magazine and radio programs, activities for students that are tied to national standards, a glossary, and a reading list of books and websites. We have conducted both quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the black hole websites. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0935841. Any

  10. Discovering the essence of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of

  11. Abstracts from Dietetic Research Event: June 8 and 9, 2017.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    St John's, Newfoundland was the host city of the 2017 Dietitians of Canada Annual Conference. Through the support of Dietitians of Canada and CFDR, the 2017 event was both an exciting and informative exchange of research and experience-sharing efforts that inspired attendees. The submissions for this year's Canadian Foundation for Dietetic Research (CFDR) event represented the diversity of dietetic research conducted within Canada. The topics highlighted from this year's abstracts included: Clinical Research; Community-based Nutritional Care; Determinants of Food Choice; Dietary Intake; Dietetic Practice and Education; Food Security; Nutrition and Health Education; Nutritional Assessment and Therapy; Nutrition Attitudes; Nutrition Strategy Development Patient Services; Professional Development; Vulnerable Groups and their Nutritional Needs; and, Wellness and Public Health. Each presenter provided an 11-minute oral presentation (8 minutes for presenting and 3 minutes for questions). This allowed for meaningful interaction between the presenters and those attending the sessions. These presentations offered the newest insights into important research findings that apply to dietetic practice. Attendance at the research presentations was approximately 200 and 125 on June 9 and 10, respectively. This research event would not be possible without the commitment and dedication of many people. On behalf of DC and CFDR, we would like to extend a special thank you to members of our abstract review committee: Susan Campisi (University of Toronto); Elaine Cawadias (Dietitian, Retired); Andrea Glenn (St. Francis Xavier University); Mahsa Jessri (University of Ottawa); Jessica Lieffers (University of Alberta); and Janet Madill (Brescia College). We would also like to thank all of our moderators, Jane Bellman (DC), Pierrette Buklis (CFDR Board), Marcia Cooper (Health Canada), Jenny Gusba (CFDR Board), Brenda Hartman (Brescia College), Sarah Hewko (CFDR Board Chair), Lisa Mina (CFDR

  12. Some characteristics of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Seyyid; Surucu, Abdülkadir

    2007-12-15

    Morphological, chemical and some mineralogical characteristics of five soils, were researched to understand the genesis of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain, in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Five soil profiles developed on the man made mounds in the arid region. Time and climate have affected soil formation. Also, parent material has influenced the chemistry of soils. The parent material of man made mounds were carried from around soils in the Harran Plain by men in years ago. The parent materials of around soils are calcareous parent materials and alluvium materials. Pedon 1 was described on the Konuklu man made mounds the northeast of the study area and Pedon 5 was described on the Küplüce man made mounds the southeast of the study area. According to the place of man made mounds were ordered from north to south as following: Pedon 1, Pedon 2, Pedon 3, Pedon 4 and Pedon 5. The old of Konuklu mounds is approximately 5000-6000 years. The old of Sultantepe and Koruklu mounds are approximately 6000 years. Pedon 4 which was described on the old Harran city remnants have the youngest soils of study area. The Harran mounds was made in 1258 A.I. by Mongolians. Mongolians destroyed the Harran City and made the Harran mounds. The most important pedogenic processes is carbonate leaching and accumulation in the pedon 5 on the Küplüce man made mounds. The CaCO3 content of Pedon 5 may be attributed to eolian addition from Syria. Total Al2O3 contents of soils higher than total Fe2O3 content. According to the degree of soil formation the profiles were ordered as following: Pedon 3 > Pedon 5 > Pedon 2 > Pedon 1 > Pedon 4. The results of total elements analysis were used to determine the beta leaching factor according to Jenny. The leaching factor were determined as < 1 in the Pedon 1 (0.99), Pedon 2 (0.97), Pedon 3 (0.74) and Pedon 5 (0.92). The leaching factor were determined as >1 in the Pedon 4(1.13).

  13. Out of the Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary

    2010-12-01

    Foreword Freeman J. Dyson; Introduction Nina Byers; 1. Hertha Aryton 1854-1923 Joan Mason; 2. Margaret Maltby 1860-1944 Peggy Kidwell; 3. Agnes Pockels 1862-1935 Gary A. Williams; 4. Marie Curie 1867-1934 A. Pais; 5. Henrietta Leavitt 1868-1921 Jean L. Turner; 6. Harriet Brooks 1876-1933 C. W. Wong; 7. Lise Meitner 1878-1968 Ruth Lewin Sime; 8. Emmy Noether 1882-1935 Nina Byers; 9. Inge Lehmann 1888-1993 Bruce A. Bolt; 10. Marietta Blau 1894-1970 Leopold Halpern and Maurice M. Shapiro; 11. Hertha Sponer 1895-1968 Helmut Rechenberg; 12. Irene Joliot-Curie 1897-1956 Hélène Langevin-Joliot and Pierre Radvanyi; 13. Katherine Burr Blodgett 1898-1979 Gary A. Williams; 14. Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin 1900-1979 Vera C. Rubin; 15. Mary Cartwright 1900-1998 Freeman J. Dyson; 16. Bertha Jeffreys 1903-1999 Ruth M. Williams; 17. Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale1903-1971 Judith Milledge; 18. Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906-1972 Steven A. Moszkowski; 19. Helen Megaw 1907-2002 A. Michael Glazer and Christine Kelsey; 20. Yvette Cauchois 1908-1999 Christiane Bonnelle; 21. Marguerite Perey 1909-1975 Jean-Pierre Adloff and George B. Kauffman; 22. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin 1910-1994 Jenny P. Glusker; 23. Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber 1911-1998 Alfred Scharff Goldhaber; 24. Chien Shiung Wu 1912-1997 Noemie Bencze-Koller; 25. Margaret E. Burbidge 1919 Virginia Trimble; 26. Phyllis Freier 1921-1992 Cecil J. Waddington; 27. Rosalyn S. Yalow 1921 M. S. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 28. Esther Conwell 1922 Lewis Rothberg; 29. Cecile Dewitt-Morette 1922 Bryce DeWitt; 30. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat 1923 James W. York Jr.; 31. Vera Rubin 1928 Robert J. Rubin; 32. Mildred S. Dresselhaus 1930 G. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 33. Myriam Sarachik 1933 Jonathan R. Friedman; 34. Juliet Lee-Franzini 1933 Paolo Franzini; 35. Helen T. Edwards 1936 John Peoples; 36. Mary K. Gaillard 1939 Andreszej Buras; 37. Renata Kallosh 1943 Andrei Linde and Michael Gutperle; 38. Jocelyn Bell Burnell 1943 Ferdinand V. Coroniti and Gary A

  14. Out of the Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary

    2006-08-01

    Foreword Freeman J. Dyson; Introduction Nina Byers; 1. Hertha Aryton 1854-1923 Joan Mason; 2. Margaret Maltby 1860-1944 Peggy Kidwell; 3. Agnes Pockels 1862-1935 Gary A. Williams; 4. Marie Curie 1867-1934 A. Pais; 5. Henrietta Leavitt 1868-1921 Jean L. Turner; 6. Harriet Brooks 1876-1933 C. W. Wong; 7. Lise Meitner 1878-1968 Ruth Lewin Sime; 8. Emmy Noether 1882-1935 Nina Byers; 9. Inge Lehmann 1888-1993 Bruce A. Bolt; 10. Marietta Blau 1894-1970 Leopold Halpern and Maurice M. Shapiro; 11. Hertha Sponer 1895-1968 Helmut Rechenberg; 12. Irene Joliot-Curie 1897-1956 Hélène Langevin-Joliot and Pierre Radvanyi; 13. Katherine Burr Blodgett 1898-1979 Gary A. Williams; 14. Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin 1900-1979 Vera C. Rubin; 15. Mary Cartwright 1900-1998 Freeman J. Dyson; 16. Bertha Jeffreys 1903-1999 Ruth M. Williams; 17. Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale1903-1971 Judith Milledge; 18. Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906-1972 Steven A. Moszkowski; 19. Helen Megaw 1907-2002 A. Michael Glazer and Christine Kelsey; 20. Yvette Cauchois 1908-1999 Christiane Bonnelle; 21. Marguerite Perey 1909-1975 Jean-Pierre Adloff and George B. Kauffman; 22. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin 1910-1994 Jenny P. Glusker; 23. Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber 1911-1998 Alfred Scharff Goldhaber; 24. Chien Shiung Wu 1912-1997 Noemie Bencze-Koller; 25. Margaret E. Burbidge 1919 Virginia Trimble; 26. Phyllis Freier 1921-1992 Cecil J. Waddington; 27. Rosalyn S. Yalow 1921 M. S. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 28. Esther Conwell 1922 Lewis Rothberg; 29. Cecile Dewitt-Morette 1922 Bryce DeWitt; 30. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat 1923 James W. York Jr.; 31. Vera Rubin 1928 Robert J. Rubin; 32. Mildred S. Dresselhaus 1930 G. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 33. Myriam Sarachik 1933 Jonathan R. Friedman; 34. Juliet Lee-Franzini 1933 Paolo Franzini; 35. Helen T. Edwards 1936 John Peoples; 36. Mary K. Gaillard 1939 Andreszej Buras; 37. Renata Kallosh 1943 Andrei Linde and Michael Gutperle; 38. Jocelyn Bell Burnell 1943 Ferdinand V. Coroniti and Gary A

  15. Influence of season on testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in Martina Franca jackasses.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Panzani, S; Contri, A; Bronzo, V; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C

    2013-02-01

    As other European donkey breeds, Martina Franca could be considered an endangered breed because of the population number (48 jackasses and 515 jennies in 2011). To increase donkey population and breed biodiversity preservation, several research projects on donkey reproduction have been performed; however reproductive seasonality has been only partially investigated in jackasses. For this reason the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of seasons and of long (spring to summer; SS) and short (autumn to winter; AW) day length periods, on reproductive physiology of Martina Franca jackasses, in particular on: (1) testicular morphometric characteristics, (2) behavior, through the evaluation of the reaction time, and finally, (3) semen characteristics. Seven adult and reproductively mature Martina Franca jackasses were enrolled. For each jackass, a morphometric evaluation of both testes was performed once for every season, before the first seasonal collection. Semen was collected, by artificial vagina, weekly for a whole year (52 collections per donkey); at each collection the reaction time was recorded and a complete semen evaluation was performed immediately after collection. No differences in testicular measures were observed neither between left and right testis nor during the four seasons. A lower reaction time was observed in spring and summer compared with autumn and winter and during the period SS compared with AW. Total volume was significantly higher in winter compared with all the other seasons; gel-free volume was higher in winter compared with summer and autumn. Mean sperm concentration was significantly lower in winter compared with spring and summer and in AW compared with SS. Total and progressive motility and membrane integrity did not show any significant difference between season and between SS and AW. A lower average path velocity was observed in autumn compared with spring and summer, and in summer a higher straight line velocity compared

  16. Trust-region based solver for nonlinear transport in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.

    2013-11-01

    We describe a new nonlinear solver for immiscible two-phase transport in porous media, where viscous, buoyancy, and capillary forces are significant. The flux (fractional flow) function, F, is a nonlinear function of saturation and typically has inflection points and can be non-monotonic. The non-convexity and non-monotonicity of F are major sources of difficulty for nonlinear solvers of coupled multiphase flow and transport in natural porous media. We describe a modified Newton algorithm that employs trust regions of the flux function to guide the Newton iterations. The flux function is divided into saturation trust regions delineated by the inflection, unit-flux, and end points. The updates are performed such that two successive iterations cannot cross any trust-region boundary. If a crossing is detected, the saturation value is chopped back to the appropriate trust-region boundary. The proposed trust-region Newton solver, which is demonstrated across the parameter space of viscous, buoyancy and capillary effects, is a significant extension of the inflection-point strategy of Jenny et al. (JCP, 2009) [5] for viscous dominated flows. We analyze the discrete nonlinear transport equation obtained using finite-volume discretization with phase-based upstream weighting. Then, we prove convergence of the trust-region Newton method irrespective of the timestep size for single-cell problems. Numerical results across the full range of the parameter space of viscous, gravity and capillary forces indicate that our trust-region scheme is unconditionally convergent for 1D transport. That is, for a given choice of timestep size, the unique discrete solution is found independently of the initial guess. For problems dominated by buoyancy and capillarity, the trust-region Newton solver overcomes the often severe limits on timestep size associated with existing methods. To validate the effectiveness of the new nonlinear solver for large reservoir models with strong heterogeneity

  17. Nonlinear analysis of multiphase transport in porous media in the presence of viscous, buoyancy, and capillary forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.

    2015-09-01

    weighting scheme, leading to an improved nonlinear convergence performance especially when used together with our NTR solver. Our proposed numerical solution strategy that is based on the numerical flux and handles capillarity extends the previous work by Jenny et al. (2009) [6] and Wang and Tchelepi (2013) [7] significantly.

  18. PREFACE: Sensors & their Applications XV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augousti, A.; McConnell, G.

    2009-07-01

    the Conference Department of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Jon Mackew for his responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, as well as to Claire Garland, Jenny Bremner and Jane Lowe for their planning and management of this combined event. We hope that the conference authors, participants and a wider audience will find these proceedings to be of interest and to serve as a useful reference text. Andy Augousti Conference Chairman Gail McConnell Conference Secretary

  19. Soil Inorganic Carbon Thresholds and Formation: What are the Controls in a Transitional, Semi-Arid Watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, C.; Will, R. M.; Benner, S. G.; Seyfried, M. S.; Lohse, K. A.; Lytle, M. L.; Weppner, K.; Flores, A. N.; Smith, A.; Good, A.; Thornton, C.; Lewis, H.; Bruck, B.; Huq, O.; Wallace, S.; Cook, M.; Black, C.; Pierce, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Inorganic Soil Carbon (SIC) constitutes approximately 40% of terrestrial soil carbon and it is an integral part of the global carbon cycle. The precipitation and storage of inorganic carbon within soils is controlled by the soil forming factors (Jenny, 1941) where the amount of rainfall is the strongest control on SIC presence or absence. However, within areas dry enough to allow inorganic carbon formation, the hierarchy of controls on SIC amount is complex. Measuring and modeling SIC accumulation at the pedon and watershed scale will improve our understanding of SIC storage. The Reynolds Creek watershed in southwestern Idaho is an ideal location for the study as it transitions from SIC dominated in low elevations to organic carbon dominated at high elevations, and includes a range of parent materials and vegetation types. Initial results show that SIC is unlikely to form at sites with >450mm of precipitation, and variability in SIC concentration at the pedon scale is significant. The study locations had vegetation types that included a variety of sagebrush species (Artimesia spp), bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis). Samples were collected from soils formed on granite, basalt, other volcanics, and alluvium. SIC measurements were made using a modified pressure calcimeter, measuring CO2 released from the reaction of acid with the sample. The highest SIC concentrations range from 15 to 27kg/m2 and are found in basaltic and terrace soils with loess accumulation, in elevations ranging from 1148-1943m and rainfall ranging from 250-716mm. Soils examined from a chronosequence of four terraces in the lower watershed (282-296mm of rainfall), and generally increasing amounts of loess accumulation with time, suggest strong accumulation of SIC on older loessal surfaces. Measurements from both fine-grained and gravelly soils suggests that approximately 15% of SIC in gravelly sites may be accumulated as

  20. Distribution and Movement of Bull Trout in the Upper Jarbidge River Watershed, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Charrier, Jodi; Dixon, Chris

    2010-01-01

    . This growth rate is within the range reported in other river systems and is indicative of good habitat conditions. Mark-recapture methods were used to estimate a population of 147 age-1 or older bull trout in the reach of Jack Creek upstream of Jenny Creek.

  1. Polarimetry as a Probe of the Physical Conditions in the Gamma-ray-flaring Blazar PKS 1510-089

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Margo F.; Aller, H. D.; Hughes, P. A.; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Hovatta, T.; Smith, P. S.

    2012-05-01

    As part of work to localize the Fermi-detected gamma-ray emission from blazars, we present UMRAO centimeter-band monitoring of total flux density and linear polarization, and time- coordinated optical polarimetry, of PKS 1510-089 with emphasis on strong, multi-month gamma-ray flaring commencing in July 2011. We relate the source-integrated radio-band variability to structural changes identified from 43 and 15 GHz VLBA imaging. Peak fluxes include the highest-amplitude flares observed in 1510-089 in 4 decades of UMRAO monitoring (6.6 Jy at 14.5 GHz), and daily-binned gamma-ray fluxes exceeding 1x10-5 photons cm-2 s-1 at 0.1-200 GeV. During these gamma-ray flares, centimeter-band monitoring reveals a time-associated monotonic rise in total flux density from July 2011 to January 2012 with an increase in polarized flux and an unusual superposed 1 Jy mini-flare with a timescale of less than 1 month in January; a sharp increase in the 43 GHz flux occurred in October. Prior intense gamma-ray flaring (2009.0-2009.5) was attributed to inverse Compton scattering of infrared seed photons in a slow moving jet sheath and optical synchrotron emission arising in the faster jet spine (ApJL, 710, L126, 2010). We compare the recent events to the 2009 activity to assess whether the same inner jet features are responsible. Despite the current sustained high amplitude of the total flux density, no circularly polarized emission was detected at the 3-sigma level. An intriguing long-term correspondence between optical and radio band EVPAs is discussed. Funding was provided by NSF grant AST-0607523 and NASA/Fermi GI grants NNX09AU16G, NNX10AP16G, & NNX11AO13G (U. Michigan); NSF grant AST-0907893 and NASA/Fermi GI grants NNX08AV65G and NNX11AQ03G (BU); NSF grant AST-0807860, NASA/Fermi grant NNX08AV67G, and an award from the Jenny and Antti Wihuri foundation (T.H); and NASA/Fermi GI awards NNX08AW56G and NNX09AU10G (P.S.S.).

  2. Explaining plant-soil diversity in Alpine ecosystems: more than just time since ecosystem succession started

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Stuart; Baetz, Nico; Borgeaud, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Vittoz, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystem succession in Alpine environments has been a focus of research for many decades. Following from the classic ideas of Jenny (1941, 1961), following perturbation, an ecosystem (flora, fauna and soil) should evolve as a function of time at a rate conditioned by external variables (relief, climate, geology). More recently, biogeomorphologists have focused upon the notion of co-evolution of geomorphic processes with ecosystems over very short through to very long (evolutionary) time-scales. Alpine environments have been a particular focus of models of co-evolution, as a means of understanding the rate of plant colonization of previously glaciated terrain. However, work in this field has tended to adopt an over simplified view of the relationship between perturbation and succession, including: how the landform and ecosystem itself conditions the impact of a perturbation to create a complex spatial impact; and how perturbations are not simply ecosystem destroyers but can be a significant source of ecosystem resources. What this means is that at the within landform scale, there may well be a complex and dynamic topographic and sedimentological template that co-evolves with the development of soil, flora and fauna. In this paper, we present and test conceptual models for such co-evolution for an Alpine alluvial fan and an Alpine piedmont braided river. We combine detailed floristic inventory with soil inventory, survey of edaphic variables above and below ground (e.g. vertical and lateral sedimentological structure, using electrical resistance tomography) and the analysis of historical aerial imagery. The floristic inventory shows the existence of a suite of distinct plant communities within each landform. Time since last perturbation is not a useful explanatory variable of the spatial distribution of these communities because: (1) perturbation impacts are spatially variable, as conditioned by the extent distribution of topographic, edaphic and ecological

  3. Error models for uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, L.; Scheidt, C.; Lunati, I.

    2012-12-01

    spatial uncertainty using distances and kernels", Math Geosci (2009) [2] P. Jenny et al., "Multi-Scale finite-volume method for elliptic problems in subsurface flow simulation", J. Comp. Phys., 187(1) (2003) [3] I. Lunati and S.H. Lee, "An operator formulation of the multiscale finite-volume method with correction function", Multiscale Model. Simul. 8(1) (2009) [4] G. Mariethoz, P. Renard, and J. Straubhaar "The Direct Sampling method to perform multiple-point geostatistical simulations", Water Resour. Res., 46 (2010) [5] P. Bayer et al., "Three-dimensional high resolution fluvio-glacial aquifer analog", J. Hydro 405 (2011) 19

  4. Soil carbon storage and respiration potential across a landscape age and climate gradient in western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Cook, J. I.; Virginia, R. A.; Hammond Wagner, C.; Racine, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    The soil formation state factors proposed by Hans Jenny (climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time) explain many soil characteristics, yet geological controls on biological carbon cycling are not well represented in regional carbon models. Landscape age, for instance, can directly affect the quantity and quality of soil organic carbon, which are key determinants of the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) to decomposition. Temperature control of SOM decomposition is of particular importance in Arctic soils, which contain nearly half of global belowground organic carbon and have a permafrost thermal regime that straddles the freeze-thaw threshold. We investigated soil carbon storage and respiration potential across a west Greenland transect, and related the landscape carbon patterns to regional variation in climate and landscape age. The four study sites capture a range in: landscape age from 180 years on the inland Little Ice Age moraine near Kangerlussuaq to ~10,000 years at the coastal sites near Sisimiut and Nuuk, mean annual air temperatures from -5.7 to -1.4 °C, and mean annual precipitation from 149 to 752 mm. At each site, we collected surface and mineral samples from nine soil pits within similar vegetation cover and relief classes. We measured total organic carbon and nitrogen though elemental analysis, and incubated soils at 4 °C and field capacity moisture for 175 day to measure carbon dioxide production from which we derived soil respiration potential. We hypothesized that soil carbon storage and respiration potential would be greatest at the sites with the oldest landscape age. Soil carbon content was more than four times greater at the 10,000 year sites (Nuuk = 24.03%, Sisimiut = 17.34%) than the inland sites (Ørkendalen = 3.49%, LIA = 0.05%). Carbon quality decreased across the age gradient, as measured by a nearly two-fold increase in C:N ratio from the youngest and driest to the oldest and wettest soils (LIA = 12.2, Nuuk

  5. Extreme weather impacts on European networks of transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviakangas, P.

    2012-04-01

    : Pekka Leviäkangas, Anu Tuominen, Riitta Molarius, Heta Kojo, Jari Schabel, Sirra Toivonen, Jaana Keränen, Johanna Ludvigsen, Andrea Vajda, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Ilkka Juga, Pertti Nurmi, Jenni Rauhala, Frank Rehm, Thomas Gerz, Thorsten Muehlhausen, Juha Schweighofer, Silas Michaelides, Matheos Papadakis, Nikolai Dotzek (†), Pieter Groenemeijer.

  6. Results from the Worldwide Coma Morphology Campaign for Comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2014-11-01

    Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) was predicted to be a bright comet in late 2013 because of its extremely small perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. In anticipation of the likely bonanza of scientific results, we coordinated a worldwide campaign (http://www.psi.edu/ison) to obtain both dust and gas images of the comet. During the campaign, we have received many hundreds of images primarily from amateur astronomers but also from a number of professionals.Comet ISON showed dust structure in its coma at large heliocentric distances before water became the primary sublimating gas. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed a dust feature in the coma at a heliocentric distance of 4.15 AU in April 2013 (Li et al. 2013, ApJL, 779, article id. L3). The enhancement of continuum images taken by team members Nick Howes and Ernesto Guido at the 2-m Liverpool Telescope in May 2013 at different multiple epochs clearly showed the same dust feature (e.g., http://remanzacco.blogspot.com/2013/05/comet-c2012-s1-ison-update-may-20-2013.html). During the northern-hemisphere summer, the solar elongation of ISON became too small for ground-based observations. The comet was again observable starting in August 2013 as the solar elongation started to increase. These observations, at much smaller heliocentric distances than those described earlier, did not show the same dust feature. No unambiguous dust or gas features were seen until about two weeks prior to the perihelion and the comet’s demise (i.e., until mid November 2013). Based on the observations taken more than two weeks prior to the perihelion, we place upper limits on the radial extent of any possible dust feature. This and other results based on the coma morphology campaign will be discussed at the DPS 2014 meeting. The results from the analysis will be published in the future and will include the entire campaign.We thank many amateur and professional observers who contributed to this effort and all observers will be individually

  7. Trace Phosphorus Variation in Cave Drip Water and Its Paleo-environmental Implication: A Case Study in HeShang Cave, qingjiang river, Hubei province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Trace elements demonstrate apparent seasonal variation in the lamina of speleothems in recent years, providing the possibility of studying the changing seasonality of the earth's climate in the past and attracting much extensive attention. As one of the most significant biological elements, the utilization of biology for phosphorus has a direct impact on the growth of animals and plants on the earth surface. The research revolves around standard recovery test of P drip water samples at HS4 drop site in different periods (four periods in total), and the quantitative analysis of phosphates in drip water samples of HS4 drop site within HeShang Cave, qingjiang river, Hubei province was made, recognizing the orthophosphate seasonal changes in karst system and its response to the environment of the earth's surface. The results manifest that the maximum concentration value of phosphorus in drip water samples from 2005 to 2012 is 12.1μg/L(2007-8-14), and the minimum concentration value is 0.1μg/L(2009-3-16), with the average value of 4.55μg/L. The P concentration in HeShang Cave is in accordance with the exclusively reported P data in Ernesto cave in Italy at present. The phosphorus concentration fluctuates seasonally by and large: high in summer and autumn while low in winter and spring, which has common in similar seasonal cycles with synchronous temperatures and drip water rates, also conforming to local temperature and precipitation changes. Plant productivity (determines the organic quality supplied to soil), microbiological effects (relate to temperature and humidity) and underground water permeability (relate to the precipitation and surrounding rock structure) can have an impact on the concentration of phosphorus in drip water. In winter and spring, organic phosphorus decomposition is slow and the phosphorus entering into the karst water is less as low temperature and less rainfall and weak biological process influence, resulting in the phosphorus concentration

  8. Cytokine expression in gingival and intestinal tissues of patients with periodontitis and inflammatory bowel disease: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Menegat, Juliana Santos Bittencourt; Lira-Junior, Ronaldo; Siqueira, Mariana Alves; Brito, Fernanda; Carvalho, Ana Teresa; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the expression of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IL-17A, IL-17F, sCD40L, and TNF-α in gingival tissue and intestinal mucosa of patients having both periodontitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and assess how they cluster in both tissues. This cross-sectional study selected 28 patients with periodontitis (18 with Crohn's disease and 10 with ulcerative colitis) from the IBD gastroenterology outpatient clinic at the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. Patients were assessed using questionnaire, medical chart check and periodontal examination. Gingival and intestinal biopsies were collected and homogenized using a cell disruptor. Cytokines expression was evaluated through multiplex technology. Cluster analysis was performed based on cytokinés correlation strength and presented in dendrograms. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients exhibited no significant difference between them in cytokine levels (p>0.05), so they were analysed together. Significantly higher levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-25, IL-33, IL-10, and INF-γ were found in gingival tissues in comparison with intestinal mucosa (p<0.05). In gingival tissue, cytokines formed the following clusters: IL-25/IL-10/IL-33 (r=0.775), IL-22/IL-23/IL-6 (r=0.681) and IL-6/IL-25/IL-33/IL-10 (r=0.660). In intestinal mucosa, the following clusters were formed: IL-6/IL-21/IL-10 (r=0.880), IL-17A/IL-6/IL-21/IL-10 (r=0.826), IL-I7F/IL-33/IL-25 (r=0.813) and IL-23/IL-2/IL-17A/IL-6/IL-21/IL-10 (r=0.785). Expression of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-25, IL-33, IL-10, and INF-γ was significantly increased in gingival tissue in comparison with intestinal mucosa of patients with periodontitis and IBD. The cytokine clustering pattern was different in gingival and intestinal tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulphate concentration in cave dripwater and speleothems: long-term trends and overview of its significance as proxy for environmental processes and climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Andrea; Frisia, Silvia; Wynn, Peter M.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Miorandi, Renza

    2015-11-01

    Sulphate concentrations in speleothems identify major volcanic eruptions, provide useful information on soil and aquifer dynamics and, in similar fashion to the 14C bomb peak, its Anthropocene peak can be used to date recent cave formations. However, the transmission of S from the atmosphere to cave dripwater and its incorporation in speleothems is subjected to biogeochemical cycling and accurate studies of each cave site are needed in order to assess how the S atmospheric signal is modified and eventually encoded in speleothems. This study investigates the role of biogeochemical cycling and aquifer hydrology by utilising published and new dripwater and speleothem data from Grotta di Ernesto (ER) in northern Italy. Here we provide the first long-term record of sulphate concentration in cave dripwater based on over 20 years of measurements. Fast drip site st-ER1 is characterised by a continuous decrease in SO4 concentration from a high of 7.5 ± 0.8 mg/l in 1993-1994 to a low of 2.2 ± 0.2 mg/l in 2013-2014, and replicates with a delay of ∼15 years the decline in the atmospheric SO2 emissions. The S-series of slow flow ER78 site is further delayed by ∼4.5 years in relation to the S retention in the aquifer matrix. The dripwater data are used to extend the previously published S record (1810-1998 AD) of stalagmite ER78 and reconstruct the anthropogenic S-peak: this displays a delay of ∼20 years with respect to the atmospheric S emission peak due to biogeochemical cycling and aquifer storage. However, sulphur recycling above the cave did not operate with the same degree of efficiency through time, which resulted in a variable time delay between S deposition and incorporation into the stalagmite. In the pre-Anthropocene era, and in particular during the cold Little Ice Age, biogeochemical cycling was far less efficient than today, and the fast transmission of the atmospheric signal allowed capture of S released during major volcanic eruptions by stalagmites.

  10. Nesting Ecology of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Utila, Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Lindsey Renee Eggers

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has a circumtropical distribution and plays an important role in maintaining the health of coral reefs. Unfortunately, hawksbill populations have been decimated, and estimated numbers in the Caribbean are less than 10% of populations a century ago. The hawksbill is considered Critically Endangered, and researchers are coordinating worldwide efforts to protect this species. One country where we lack knowledge regarding hawksbills is Honduras. This study aimed to increase our understanding of hawksbill nesting ecology in Caribbean Honduras. Characteristics of hawksbill nesting activity and a nesting beach on the island of Utila were elucidated using satellite telemetry, beach profiling, vegetation surveys, beach monitoring, and nest temperature profiles. We affixed satellite transmitters to two nesting hawksbills, and found the turtles migrated to different countries. One turtle traveled 403 km to a bay in Mexico, and the other traveled 181 km to a Marine Protected Area off Belize. This study presents the first description of hawksbill migration routes from Honduras, facilitating protection efforts for turtles that traverse international waters. To investigate nesting beach and turtle characteristics, we conducted beach monitoring during the 2012 nesting season. Nesting turtle carapace sizes were similar to worldwide values, but hatchlings were heavier. To measure nest temperatures, we placed thermocouple data loggers in four nests and four pseudo-nests. Data suggested metabolic heating may be maintaining nest temperatures above the pivotal temperature. However, large temperature fluctuations corresponding to rainfall from Hurricane Ernesto (as determined using a time series cross-correlation analysis) make it difficult to predict sex ratios, and underscore the impact stochastic events can have on nest temperatures. We created topographic and substrate profiles of the beach, and found it was 475 m long, yet hawksbills

  11. VII International Congress of Engineering Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and the Physics Engineering career, the Division of Basic Science and Engineering and its Departments organized the "VII International Congress of Physics Engineering". The Congress was held from 24 to 28 November 2014 in Mexico City, Mexico. This congress is the first of its type in Latin America, and because of its international character, it gathers experts on physics engineering from Mexico and all over the globe. Since 1999, this event has shown research, articles, projects, technological developments and vanguard scientists. These activities aim to spread, promote, and share the knowledge of Physics Engineering. The topics of the Congress were: • Renewable energies engineering • Materials technology • Nanotechnology • Medical physics • Educational physics engineering • Nuclear engineering • High precision instrumentation • Atmospheric physics • Optical engineering • Physics history • Acoustics This event integrates lectures on top trending topics with pre-congress workshops, which are given by recognized scientists with an outstanding academic record. The lectures and workshops allow the exchange of experiences, and create and strengthen research networks. The Congress also encourages professional mobility among all universities and research centres from all countries. CIIF2014 Organizing and Editorial Committee Dr. Ernesto Rodrigo Vázquez Cerón Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco ervc@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Luis Enrique Noreña Franco Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco lnf@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Alberto Rubio Ponce Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco arp@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Óscar Olvera Neria Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco oon@correo.azc.uam.mx Professor Jaime Granados Samaniego Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco jgs@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Roberto Tito Hern

  12. Geoethics. The risk and the rite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattilo, Valeria; De Pascale, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The present work combines anthropological-philosophical and geoethical research on man's perception of, and reaction to, natural catastrophes such as earthquakes. The study offers an articulate and cohesive picture of the defense mechanisms man has deployed, since ancient cultures, against this risk, these are identified with mythical-ritualistic repetition. At critical moments, man develops a series of practical strategies resting on ritual action. Since the dawn of civilisation, in every instant of everyday life from birth to death and in all cultures, man is exposed to the risk of not being-there, that is, to the risk of catastrophe hitting him or the world around him. This may occur in connection to economic and social mutations, for example in times of war, or to the unpredictability of natural catastrophes which are out of human control, for example seaquakes. Taking this as our starting point, we will analyse the crucial matter of the crisis or loss of presence, that is, the risk of not being-there in critical moments of historical existence, limiting ourselves to consideration of forms of defense from risk represented by natural catastrophe (for example, seaquakes and volcanic eruptions) amongst so-called primitive people, from an anthropological-physical point of view. We will look at the historical-religious thought of Italian philosopher Ernesto de Martino (1908-1965) and in particular some of his critical lectures published posthumously in La fine del mondo. Contributo alle analisi delle apocalissi culturali (1977). We will treat philosophical concepts like anthropological evidence with the aim of identifying different mechanisms of defense from the risk of not being-there, even in cultures very distant from Western ones. We will specifically consider apocalyptic representations connected with experience of natural catastrophe in traditional cultures. The Italian philosopher identifies in repetition the characteristic behaviour of so-called primitives

  13. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gava, Eveline Coutinho Baldoto; Miguel, José Augusto Mendes; de Araújo, Adriana Monteiro; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa

    2013-10-01

    To assess the construct validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (B-OQLQ). A cross-sectional study was performed, and 101 patients in need of orthodontic-surgical treatment were recruited at a public hospital (Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto) and a public dental school (Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro). The B-OQLQ was self-completed. The mean age of the participants was 26.51 ± 9.25 years, and most were female (58.42%; n = 59). The construct validity was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient between the B-OQLQ and the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) scores and between the B-OQLQ and subjective health indicators' scores. The reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency and stability (test-retest) using Cronbach's alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. Significant correlations were found between the B-OQLQ scores and the following: OHIP-14 total score (rs = 0.70, P < .001), perception of oral health (rs = -0.24, P = .02), single-item evaluation of quality of life (rs = -0.29, P = .03), satisfaction with physical appearance (rs = -0.40, P < .001), and satisfaction with facial appearance (rs = -0.39, P = .0001). Cronbach's alpha and the ICC was 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. The domains of B-OQLQ causing the most effect on the quality of life included "social aspects of deformity" (13.0 ± 10.54) and "facial aesthetics" (11.81 ± 6.23). The Brazilian version of the OQLQ was shown to be valid and reliable with good psychometric properties and might thus be considered an appropriate tool to assess the effect of dentofacial deformities on the quality of life of individuals with this condition. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Mauro, Ernesto

    Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions. Ernesto Di Mauro Dipartimento di Genetica Bi-ologia Molecolare, Universit` "Sapienza" Roma, Italy. a At least four conditions must be satisfied for the spontaneous generation of (pre)-genetic poly-mers: 1) availability of precursors that are activated enough to spontaneously polymerize. Preliminary studies showed that (a) nucleic bases and acyclonucleosides can be synthesized from formamide H2NCOH by simply heating with prebiotically available mineral catalysts [last reviewed in (1)], and that b) nucleic bases can be phosphorylated in every possible posi-tion [2'; 3'; 5'; cyclic 2',3'; cyclic 3',5' (2)]. The higher stability of the cyclic forms allows their accumulation. 2) A polymerization mechanism. A reaction showing the formation of RNA polymers starting from prebiotically plausible precursors (3',5' cyclic GMP and 3', 5'cyclic AMP) was recently reported (3). Polymerization in these conditions is thermodynamically up-hill and an equilibrium is attained that limits the maximum length of the polymer produced to about 40 nucleotides for polyG and 100 nucleotides for polyA. 3) Ligation of the synthesized oligomers. If this type of reaction could occur according to a terminal-joining mechanism and could generate canonical 3',5' phosphodiester bonds, exponential growth would be obtained of the generated oligomers. This type of reaction has been reported (4) , limited to homogeneous polyA sequences and leading to the production of polyA dimers and tetramers. What is still missing are: 4) mechanisms that provide the proof of principle for the generation of sequence complexity. We will show evidence for two mechanisms providing this proof of principle for simple complementary sequences. Namely: abiotic sequence complementary-driven terminal ligation and sequence-complementary terminal growth. In conclusion: all the steps leading to the generation of RNA in abiotic conditions are satisfied. (1) R Saladino, C Crestini, F

  15. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are the two most common endocrine disorders in clinical practice. The unrecognized TD may adversely affect the metabolic control and add more risk to an already predisposing scenario for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of TD in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM). Methods This is an observational cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighty-six (386) patients with T1DM or T2DM that regularly attended the outpatient clinic of the Diabetes unit, Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, participated in the study. All patients underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation. Thyroid dysfunction was classified as clinical hypothyroidism (C-Hypo) if TSH > 4.20 μUI/mL and FT4 < 0.93 ng/dL; Subclinical hypothyroidism (SC-Hypo) if TSH > 4.20 μUI/ml and FT4 ranged from 0.93 to 1.7 ng/dL; Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SC-Hyper) if TSH < 0.27 μUI/ml and FT4 in the normal range (0.93 and 1.7 ng/dL) and Clinical hyperthyroidism (C-Hyper) if TSH < 0.27 μUI/ml and FT4 > 1.7 μUI/mL. Autoimmunity were diagnosed when anti-TPO levels were greater than 34 IU/mL. The positive autoimmunity was not considered as a criterion of thyroid dysfunction. Results The prevalence of TD in all diabetic patients was 14,7%. In patients who had not or denied prior TD the frequency of TD was 13%. The most frequently TD was subclinical hypothyroidism, in 13% of patients with T1DM and in 12% of patients with T2DM. The prevalence of anti-TPO antibodies was 10.8%. Forty-four (11.2%) new cases of TD were diagnosed during the clinical evaluation. The forty-nine patients with prior TD, 50% with T1DM and 76% with T2DM were with normal TSH levels. Conclusions We conclude that screening for thyroid disease among patients with diabetes mellitus should be routinely performed considering the prevalence of new cases diagnosed and the possible

  16. Phosphorus distribution and cycling along a climosequence: insights from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, Federica; von Sperber, Christian; Helfenstein, Julian; Vitousek, Peter; Chadwick, Oliver; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Climate is beside parent material, biota, topography, time, and human impact a state-factor controlling soil and ecosystem development (Amundson and Jenny, 1991). Whereas a lot of research has been carried out on the effect of most of these factors on phosphorus (P) cycling (Turner and Condron, 2013), less has been done on the effect of climate and, more in particular, precipitation. One of the reasons for that is the difficulty of finding suitable soil climosequences, i.e. sites on a given parent material of a given age exposed for the same time to different climates with little impact of human activity (Vitousek, 2004). Soils found on the Kohala Mountain, Hawaii, provide ideal conditions to investigate the effect of increased precipitation on processes affecting the distribution and cycling of P in soils. These soils have developed on the same parent material, the 150 ky old Hawi lava flow, which consists of alkali basalts with high contents of apatite. Along the climosequence, mean annual precipitation ranges from <200 to >3000 mm. The distribution of minerals, macro- and micronutrients, and the abrupt changes in soil chemical properties are strongly influenced by the precipitation gradient. Organic matter and non-crystalline minerals increase along the climosequence, with amorphous minerals dominating at high rainfall. We present here preliminary results from a Swiss National Fund project (CLIMP: Forms and dynamics of soil phosphorus along a climosequence on basalt-derived soils), aiming at a better understanding of the links between pedogenic processes and P dynamics. Three domains are present along the climosequence: a mostly dry domain characterized by wind erosion and nutrient depletion at the top soil; an intermediate domain with dry and wet cycles, characterized by nutrient biological uplift and increasing presence of amorphous minerals; and a mostly wet domain, where amorphous minerals dominate and nutrients are lost from the top soil (Vitousek and

  17. Space Archeology Overview at Gordion: 2010 to 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Slayback, Daniel; Nigro, Joseph D.; Yager, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    In fiscal years 2010, 2011, and 2012, Compton Tucker was the principal investigator of a NASA Space Archaeology project that worked at Gordion, in Central Turkey. Tucker was assisted by an excellent team of co-workers including Joseph Nigro and Daniel Slayback of Science Systems Applications Incorporated, Jenny Strum of the University of New Mexico, and Karina Yager, a post doctoral fellow at NASA/GSFC. This report summaries their research activities at Gordion for the field seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2012. Because of the possible use of our findings at Gordion for tomb robbing there and/or the encouragement of potential tomb robbers using our geophysical survey methods to locate areas to loot, we have not published any of our survey results in the open literature nor placed any of these results on any web sites. These 2010- 2012 survey results remain in the confidential archives of the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the group that leads the Gordion Excavation and Research Project. Excavations are planned for 2013 at Gordion, including several that will be based upon the research results in this report. The site of Gordion in central Turkey, famous as the home of King Midas, whose father's intricately tied knot gave the site its name, also served as the center of the Phrygian kingdom that ruled much of Central Anatolia in Asia Minor during the early first millennium B.C. Gordion has been a University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology excavation project since 1950, yet the site is incompletely published despite six decades of research. The primary obstacles related to the site and its preservation were two problems that NASA technology could address: (1) critical survey errors in the hundreds of maps and plans produced by the earlier excavators, most of which used mutually incompatible geospatial referencing systems, that prevented any systematic understanding of the site; and (2) agricultural

  18. ASK Magazine. Volume 4; [Volume Four; July 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor); Collins, Michelle (Editor); Post, Todd (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Not everyone looks forward to reviews. Dog and pony shows I've heard them called. Exercises in putting together Power Point charts. Other less tasteful descriptions abound, but I won't bother to summarize these. This is a tasteful magazine after all. In this issue, we've assembled a number of articles on the subject of reviews, particularly as they occur in the NASA project world (although we cover the subject from other perspectives too). Veteran NASA Project Manager Marty Davis, in his article Tangled Up in Reviews, writes, "Many people regard reviews as something onerous, but if we can tailor them so that they're not as bad as they have to be, it can be a great benefit to a project manager." Great benefits to the project manager is what you'll find in Marty's story as he describes not only tailoring a single review but the entire lifecycle of reviews in his project. In Jo Gunderson's story, Calling Down the Fire on Yourself, she describes a young NASA Project Manager who does just that because, as he tells her, I needed to know if there was anything that I had overlooked." How he brings fire down on himself at his project review will inspire other young Project Managers, seasoned managers, and anyone else who reads this powerful story. Leave Your Ego at the Door, by Jenny Baer-Reidhart and Ray Morgan, uses reviews to highlight the creative collaboration that existed between NASA and one of its industry partners. The protagonist of this story is a company who took advantage of NASAs expert advice during reviews and accomplished amazing feats as a result. The story also examines how disasters might well have been avoided by two other NASA partners had they been as open-minded as the first company during their reviews. In Roy Malone's story, Standing Offer, a NASA Project Manager describes how he used a crack review team to help him pass a critical certification inspection while he was a Combat Systems Officer in the Navy. Malone invited the reviewers to come back

  19. Possible continuous-type (unconventional) gas accumulation in the Lower Silurian "Clinton" sands, Medina Group and Tuscarora Sandstone in the Appalachian Basin; a progress report of the 1995 project activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Aggen, Kerry L.; Hettinger, Robert D.; Law, Ben E.; Miller, John J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Perry, William J.; Prensky, Stephen E.; Filipo, John J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier and others, 1995), the Appalachian basin was estimated to have, at a mean value, about 61 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of recoverable gas in sandstone and shale reservoirs of Paleozoic age. Approximately one-half of this gas resource is estimated to reside in a regionally extensive, continuous-type gas accumulation whose reservoirs consist of low-permeability sandstone of the Lower Silurian 'Clinton' sands and Medina Group (Gautier and others, 1995; Ryder, 1995). Recognizing the importance of this large regional gas accumulation for future energy considerations, the USGS initiated in January 1995 a multi-year study to evaluate the nature, distribution, and origin of natural gas in the 'Clinton' sands, Medina Group sandstones, and equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone. The project is part of a larger natural gas project, Continuous Gas Accumulations in Sandstones and Carbonates, coordinated in FY1995 by Ben E. Law and Jennie L. Ridgley, USGS, Denver. Approximately 2.6 man years were devoted to the Clinton/Medina project in FY1995. A continuous-type gas accumulation, referred to in the project, is a new term introduced by Schmoker (1995a) to identify those natural gas accumulations whose reservoirs are charged throughout with gas over a large area and whose entrapment does not involve a downdip gas-water contact. Gas in these accumulations is located downdip of the water column and, thus, is the reverse of conventional-type hydrocarbon accumulations. Commonly used industry terms that are more or less synonymous with continuous-type gas accumulations include basin- centered gas accumulation (Rose and others, 1984; Law and Spencer, 1993), tight (low-permeability) gas reservoir (Spencer, 1989; Law and others, 1989; Perry, 1994), and deep basin gas (Masters, 1979, 1984). The realization that undiscovered gas in Lower Silurian sandstone reservoirs of the

  20. Analysis of airborne LiDAR as a basis for digital soil mapping in Alpine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kringer, K.; Tusch, M.; Geitner, C.; Meißl, G.; Rutzinger, M.

    2009-04-01

    Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps the formation of soil is highly influenced by relief characteristics. Among all factors included in Jenny's (1941) model for soil development, relief is the one most commonly used in approaches to create digital soil maps and to derive soil properties from secondary data sources (McBratney et al. 2003). Elevation data, first order (slope, aspect) and second order derivates (plan, profile and cross-sectional curvature) as well as complex morphometric parameters (various landform classifications, e.g., Wood 1996) and compound indices (e.g., topographic wetness indices, vertical distance to drainage network, insolation) can be calculated from digital elevation models (DEM). However, while being an important source of information for digital soil mapping on small map scales, "conventional" DEMs are of limited use for the design of large scale conceptual soil maps for small areas due to rather coarse raster resolutions with cell sizes ranging from 20 to 100 meters. Slight variations in elevation and small landform features might not be discernible even though they might have a significant effect to soil formation, e.g., regarding the influence of groundwater in alluvial soils or the extent of alluvial fans. Nowadays, Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides highly accurate data for the elaboration of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM) even in forested areas. In the project LASBO (Laserscanning in der Bodenkartierung) the applicability of digital terrain models derived from LiDAR for the identification of soil-relevant geomorphometric parameter is investigated. Various algorithms which were initially designed for coarser raster data are applied on high-resolution DTMs. Test areas for LASBO are located in the region of Bruneck (Italy) and near the municipality of Kramsach in the Inn Valley (Austria). The freely available DTM for Bruneck has a raster resolution of 2.5 meters while in Kramsach a DTM with

  1. Dynamics of Populations of Planetary Systems (IAU C197)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    population of asteroids in the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter revised Miroslav Broz, D. Vokrouhlicky, F. Roig, D. Nesvorny, W. F. Bottke and A. Morbidelli; 22. On the reliability of computation of maximum Lyapunov Characteristic Exponents for asteroids Zoran Knezevic and Slobodan Ninkovic; 23. Nekhoroshev stability estimates for different models of the Trojan asteroids Christos Efthymiopoulos; 24. The role of the resonant 'stickiness' in the dynamical evolution of Jupiter family comets A. Alvarez-Canda and F. Roig; 25. Regimes of stability and scaling relations for the removal time in the asteroid belt: a simple kinetic model and numerical tests Mihailo Cubrovic; 26. Virtual asteroids and virtual impactors Andrea Milani; 27. Asteroid population models Alessandro Morbidelli; 28. Linking Very Large Telescope asteroid observations M. Granvik, K. Muinonen, J. Virtanen, M. Delbó, L. Saba, G. De Sanctis, R. Morbidelli, A. Cellino and E. Tedesco; 29. Collision orbits and phase transition for 2004 AS1 at discovery Jenni Virtanen, K. Muinonen, M. Granvik and T. Laakso; 30. The size of collision solutions in orbital elements space G. B. Valsecchi, A. Rossi, A. Milani and S. R. Chesley; 31. Very short arc orbit determination: the case of asteroid 2004 FU162 Steven R. Chesley; 32. Nonlinear impact monitoring: 2-dimensional sampling Giacomo Tommei; 33. Searching for gravity assisted trajectories to accessible near-Earth asteroids Stefan Berinde; 34. KLENOT - Near Earth and other unusual objects observations Michal Kocer, Jana Tichá and M. Tichy; 35. Transport of comets to the Inner Solar System Hans Rickman; 36. Nongravitational Accelerations on Comets Steven R. Chesley and Donald K. Yeomans; 37. Interaction of planetesimals with the giant planets and the shaping of the trans-Neptunian belt Harold F. Levison and Alessandro Morbidelli; 38. Transport of comets to the outer p

  2. In situ interactions between Opalinus Clay and Low Alkali Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, Catherine; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Warmont, Fabienne; Jenni, Andreas; Cloet, Veerle; Mäder, Urs

    2017-06-01

    A five-year-old interface between a Low Alkali Concrete (LAC) formulation (CEM III/B containing 66% slag and 10% nano-silica) and Opalinus Clay (OPA) from a field experiment at Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory in Switzerland (Jenni et al., 2014) has been studied to decipher the textural, mineralogical and chemical changes that occurred between the two reacting materials. Reactivity between LAC concrete and OPA is found to be limited to a ∼1 mm thick highly porous (ca. 75% porosity) white crust developed on the concrete side. Quantitative mineralogical mapping of the white crust using an electron microprobe and infrared spectroscopy on the cement matrix provides evidence of a Mg-rich phase accounting for approximatively 25 wt % of the matrix associated with 11 wt % of calcite, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) and other cement phases. EDX analyses and electron diffraction combined with transmission electron microscopy of the Mg-rich phase provide evidence for a tri-octahedral 2:1 phyllosilicate with mean composition: (Ca0.5±0.2) (Mg2.0±0.4, Fe0.2±0.1, Al0.5±03, □0.3±0.3) (Al0.9±0.2, Si3.1±0.2) O10 (OH)2, where □ represents vacancies in the octahedral site. Apart from this reactive contact, textural, mineralogical and chemical modifications at the contact with the LAC concrete are limited. OPA mineralogy remains largely unmodified. X-ray micro-fluorescence and EPMA mapping of major elements on the OPA side also provides evidence for a Mg-enriched 300-400 μm thick layer. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) values measured in the OPA in contact with the LAC concrete range between 153 and 175 meq kg-1 of dry OPA, close to the reference value of 170 ± 10 meq kg-1 of dry OPA (Pearson et al., 2003). Changing cation occupancies at the interface with LAC concrete are mainly marked by increased Ca, Mg and K, and decreased Na. Leaching tests performed on OPA with deionized water and at different solid to water ratios strongly suggest that Cl and SO4 have

  3. Measuring distance “as the horse runs”: Cross-scale comparison of terrain-based metrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Ghandehari, M; Leyk, S; Stanislawski, Larry V.; Brantley, M E; Qiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Distance metrics play significant roles in spatial modeling tasks, such as flood inundation (Tucker and Hancock 2010), stream extraction (Stanislawski et al. 2015), power line routing (Kiessling et al. 2003) and analysis of surface pollutants such as nitrogen (Harms et al. 2009). Avalanche risk is based on slope, aspect, and curvature, all directly computed from distance metrics (Gutiérrez 2012). Distance metrics anchor variogram analysis, kernel estimation, and spatial interpolation (Cressie 1993). Several approaches are employed to measure distance. Planar metrics measure straight line distance between two points (“as the crow flies”) and are simple and intuitive, but suffer from uncertainties. Planar metrics assume that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) pixels are rigid and flat, as tiny facets of ceramic tile approximating a continuous terrain surface. In truth, terrain can bend, twist and undulate within each pixel.Work with Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data or High Resolution Topography to achieve precise measurements present challenges, as filtering can eliminate or distort significant features (Passalacqua et al. 2015). The current availability of lidar data is far from comprehensive in developed nations, and non-existent in many rural and undeveloped regions. Notwithstanding computational advances, distance estimation on DEMs has never been systematically assessed, due to assumptions that improvements are so small that surface adjustment is unwarranted. For individual pixels inaccuracies may be small, but additive effects can propagate dramatically, especially in regional models (e.g., disaster evacuation) or global models (e.g., sea level rise) where pixels span dozens to hundreds of kilometers (Usery et al 2003). Such models are increasingly common, lending compelling reasons to understand shortcomings in the use of planar distance metrics. Researchers have studied curvature-based terrain modeling. Jenny et al. (2011) use curvature to generate

  4. A Geophysical Study in Grand Teton National Park and Vicinity, Teton County, Wyoming: With Sections on Stratigraphy and Structure and Precambrian Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John Charles; Tibbetts, Benton L.; Bonini, William E.; Lavin, Peter M.; Love, J.D.; Reed, John C.

    1968-01-01

    An integrated geophysical study - comprising gravity, seismic refraction, and aeromagnetic surveys - was made of a 4,600-km2 area in Grand Teton National Park and vicinity, Wyoming, for the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the structural relationships in the region. The Teton range is largely comprised of Precambrian crystalline rocks and layered metasedimentary gneiss, but it also includes granitic gneiss, hornblende-plagioclase gneiss, granodiorite, and pegmatite and diabase dikes. Elsewhere, the sedimentary section is thick. The presence of each system except Silurian provides a chronological history of most structures. Uplift of the Teton-Gros Ventre area began in the Late Cretaceous; most of the uplift occurred after middle Eocene time. Additional uplift of the Teton Range and downfaulting of Jackson Hole began in the late Pliocene and continues to the present. Bouguer anomalies range from -185 mgal over Precambrian rocks of the Teton Range to -240 mgal over low-density Tertiary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Jackson Hole. The Teton fault (at the west edge of Jackson Hole), as shown by steep gravity gradients and seismic-refraction data, trends north-northeast away from the front of the Teton Range in the area of Jackson Lake. The Teton fault either is shallowly inclined in the Jenny Lake area, or it consists of a series of fault steps in the fault zone; it is approximately vertical in the Arizona Creek area. Seismic-refraction data can be fitted well by a three-layer gravity model with velocities of 2.45 km per sec for the Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks above the Cloverly Formation, 3.9 km per sec for the lower Mesozoic rocks, and 6.1 km per sec for the Paleozoic (limestone and dolomite) and Precambrian rocks. Gravity models computed along two seismic profiles are in good agreement (sigma=+- 2 mgal) if density contrasts with the assumed 2.67 g per cm2 Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks are assumed to be -0.35 and -0.10 g per cm2 for the 2

  5. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not

  6. Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    combining the Taylor expansion of velocity increments, du, and the Langevin equation for point particles we obtained the components of velocity fluxes which point to a drift and diffusion behavior in the velocity space. Thus a partial differential equation for the velocity PDF has been formulated that constitutes an advection-diffusion equation in velocity space (a Fokker-Planck equation) in which the drift and diffusion coefficients are obtained using the velocity conditioned statistics of the derivatives of the pore scale velocity field. This has been solved by both a Random Walk (RW) model and a Finite Volume method. We conclude that both, these methods are able to simulate the velocity PDF obtained by DNS. References [1] D. W. Meyer, P. Jenny, H.A.Tschelepi, A joint velocity-concentration PDF method for traqcer flow in heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 46, W12522, (2010). [2] Nowak, W., R. L. Schwede, O. A. Cirpka, and I. Neuweiler, Probability density functions of hydraulic head and velocity in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 44, W08452, (2008) [3] D. W. Meyer, H. A. Tchelepi, Particle-based transport model with Markovian velocity processes for tracer dispersion in highly heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour. Res., 46, W11552, (2010)

  7. Digital soil mapping: A Brief History and Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Digital soil mapping was formalised in a 2003 paper by McBratney et al. Since the term was introduced, there has been a huge increase on the research and papers in this topic. An IUSS working group was formed, and the GlobalSoilMap project was initiated. The research topic has become a successful formal discipline in soil science. Here we will have a brief look at the history of (digital) soil mapping and perhaps draw some lessons. The use of computer or numerical models to automatically map the soil is not new, its origin is difficult to pin-point. In 1925, before the age of digital computer and electronic sensors, Bernard Keen and William Haines conceived and built the first on-the-go soil strength sensor, made the measurements and made the first high-resolution digital soil map, and discovered the reality and importance of soil spatial variation. However this work was too far ahead of its time and was not taken up by contemporaries and is now largely forgotten. Since Jenny's (1941) factorial model was introduced, many have formulated topofunctions or climofunctions etc, however most of these works and empirical functions were not used for mapping, and were mostly exploratory data analysis. The idea of predicting soil across the landscapes with few equations seemed to be too radical. Work in the 1970s started to look at using remote sensing and infrared spectroscopy to map soil properties. The Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing in Purdue, proposed 'Spectral Mapping of Soil Organic Matter' using soil reflectance from the visible and near infrared signal of an airborne scanner. The lab. was very active and has produced lots of innovative research in the field of remote sensing, generating the first soil spectral library, predicting soil carbon from NIR, mapping soil carbon digitally. However maybe they too were ahead of their time, it took another 30 years before the resurgence of the soil spectroscopy work in the 2000s. It is an enormously active area

  8. Early Mesozoic cooling from low temperature thermochronology in N Spain and N Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobe, R.; Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Menéndez-Duarte, R.

    2009-04-01

    , Volume 94, Issue 2, pp.193-203. Ghorbal, B.; Bertotti, G.; Foeken, J.; Andriessen, P. (2008). Unexpected Jurassic to Neogene vertical movements in ‘stable' parts of NW Africa revealed by low temperature geochronology. Terra Nova, Volume 20, Number 5, October 2008 , pp. 355-363(9). Jourdan, F.; Marzoli, A.; Bertrand, H.; Cosca, M.; Fontignie, D. (2003). The Northernmost CAMP: 40Ar/39Ar Age, petrology and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the Kerforne Dike, Brittany, France. In: Hames, W.E., McHone, J.G., Renne, P.R., Ruppel, C. (Eds.), The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Insights From Fragments of Pangea. AGU, Geophys. Mon., vol. 136, pp. 209-226. Juez-Larré, J. (2003). Post Late Paleozoic tectonothermal evolution of the northeastern margin of Iberia, assessed by fission-track and (U-T)/He analysis: a case history from the Catalan Coastal Ranges. Ph.D. thesis, Free University of Amsterdam. 200 pp. Marzoli, A.; Renne, P.R.; Piccirillo, E.M.; Ernesto, M.; Bellieni, G.; De Min, A. (1999). Extensive 200-million-year-old continental food basalts of the Central Atlantic magmatic province. Science 284, 616-618. Pe-Piper, G.; Jansa, L.F.; Lambert, R.St.-J. (1992). Early Mesozoic magmatism of the Eastern Canadian margin. In: Puffer, J.H., Ragland, P.C. (Eds.), Eastern North American Mesozoic magmatism. Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Paper, vol. 268, pp. 13-36. Wilson, M. (1997). Thermal evolution of the Central Atlantic passive margins: continental break-up above a Mesozoic super-plume. J. Geol. Soc. (Lond.) 154, 491-495.

  9. From One Extreme to Another: Tsunami, Hurricane, and El Niño Observations from the NDBC Ocean Observing Systems of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R. H.; Henderson, D.; Locke, L.

    2008-05-01

    NOAA`s National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) operates a system of ocean observing systems (NOOSS) to provide critical information in real-time during extreme events, such as tsunamis, hurricanes, and El Niños. NDBC recently completed the 39-station array of tsunameters that employ the second-generation Deep-ocean and Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART II) technology. The tsunameter array spans the Pacific Ocean and the western Atlantic Ocean providing real-time water-level measurements and tsunami detection times. At depths down to 6000 meters the tsunameters can send information in less than 3 minutes to the Tsunami Warning Centers in Hawaii and Alaska and to the international tsunami community. The tsunameters have provided data for the Kuril tsunamis of November 2006 and January 2007, the Peru tsunamis of August and September 2007, and the southern Sumatra tsunami of September 2007. In 2006, NDBC assumed operations of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Array (TAO), the "crown jewel" of the Global Climate Observation System. TAO provides real-time data for improved detection, understanding, and prediction of El Niño and La Niña. The 55-buoy TAO array spans the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Real-time and post-deployment recovery data support climate analysis and forecasts. For more than 30 years, NDBC has operated a system of buoys and coastal automated stations for meteorological and oceanographic observations that support real-time weather analysis, forecasting, and warnings. These "traditional" NDBC stations measure winds, waves, temperature, and humidity routinely. Some stations are augmented with ocean current and temperature and salinity (conductivity) sensors. In recent years, among the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean hurricanes passing in proximity to NDBC stations include Ivan in 2004, Cindy, Emily, Dennis, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005, Ernesto in 2006, and Dean and Felix in 2007 as well as numerous tropical storms. Not confined to tropical

  10. Thermal history and evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Daniel; Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2013-04-01

    northwestern Namibia, and their relationship to continental breakup, Journal of the Geological Society of London 152: 97-104. Renne, P.R., Ernesto, M., Pacca, I.I., G. Coe, R.S., Glen, J. M., Prévot, M., Perrin, M., 1992. The age of Paraná flood volcanism, rifting of Gondwanaland, and the Jurassic -Cretaceous boundary. Science 258, 975 - 979. Stewart, K. S., Turner, S., Kelly, S., Hawkesworth, C. J., Kirstein, L. and Mantovani, M. S. M., 1996. 3D 40Ar-39Ar geochronology in the Parańa flood basalt province, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 143: 95-110. Turner, S., Hawkesworth, C., Gallagher, K., Stewart, K., Peate, D. and Mantovani, M., 1996. Mantle plumes, flood basalts, and thermal models for melt generation beneath continents: Assessment of a conductive heating model and application to the Parana, Journal of Geophysical Research 101: 11503- 11518.

  11. The14C 'bomb' pulse in selected European stalagmites as a tracer of soil carbon cycling dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzka, D.; McDermott, F.

    2012-04-01

    carbon incorporated into these stalagmites originates predominantly from decomposition of old, recalcitrant organic matter. By contrast, the Grotta di Ernesto (N. Italy) site which is also overlain by a thick soil cover with dense vegetation, but with a low MAAT, does not show a strongly attenuated 14C 'bomb' pulse, possibly reflecting higher inputs of young soil carbon and the preferential decomposition of young, labile carbon at low temperatures. New results from the Monte Carlo inverse modelling indicate young MSCA values (c. 40 years) consistent with a previously published forward model. Overall, these results are important because they suggest that decomposition processes in warmer conditions are dominated by old soil organic matter, implying greater temperature sensitivity of old, recalcitrant carbon. Modelled MSCA values from speleothems that exhibit low soil carbon storage capacity (sparse vegetation, thin soil cover) and high MAAT indicate that decomposition at these sites is dominated by young soil carbon.

  12. Virtual Telescope Observes Record-Breaking Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    to that of our own Moon), a diameter of no less than 1200 km results. Assuming instead an albedo of 2001 KX76 of only 4 percent - a typical value for icy cometary nuclei - leads to the even larger (although less likely) value of 1400 km. A real name for 2001 KX76 Thanks to the work of this group of astronomers, the orbit of 2001 KX76 may now be considered relatively secure and it may therefore soon receive a real name. Following astronomical tradition, the discoverers have the right to make a suggestion. The current custom dictates that a Kuiper Belt Object must be given a mythological name associated with creation. The name must then be confirmed by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) through its Committee on Small Body Nomenclature before becoming official. With a little bit of luck... The observations made with ESO's Wide Field Imager were crucial for this work to succeed in that they allowed the object's path to be tracked back in time. However, luck admittedly also played a key role. "These observations were originally made for a completely different project" , says Gerhard Hahn , team-leader for the project. "And we found the image of 2001 KX76 right at the edge of the WFI frames" . Jenni Virtanen , another member of the team, agrees: "And if we hadn't used our powerful methods to improve the orbit we would still be searching through the archives." Arno Gnaedig , a German amateur astronomer and team member, performed the new and accurate position measurements and also calculated the new orbit on his home computer: "To me this is a wonderful example of the fruitful collaboration that can take place between well-equipped amateur astronomers and professional astronomers ", he says. "The Web and the access to 'virtual observatories' means that amateur astronomers - located far from any 'real' professional telescopes - can also make important contributions" . Following this success, the group is currently working on a study of the long-term orbital evolution

  13. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    scope of solutions to be considered in the spatial planning field. Regional meteorology/climatology has demonstrated over the past decades that changes in land-uses and/or land cover may have substantial impacts on a) mean regional/local climate (Lobell & Bonfils, 2008), b) the magnitude and duration of extreme events (e.g. Marshall et al., 2004, Davin et al., 2014), c) air quality and therefore human's and ecosystems' health (e.g. Corchnoy et al. 1992, Hewitt et al., 2009). Such studies support the hypothesis that a careful regional climate modelling may help to refine the global climate projections and assess the local benefits or drawbacks of various land use/land cover policies. There is however a lack of studies at such spatial scales (from local to regional) to carefully quantify the impacts realistic land scenarios may have on atmospheric conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, air quality, winds, incoming radiation). We have started to think about ways to evaluate those at the French national scale. That implies the choice of ad-hoc models, scenarios, data for evaluation, … that we will discuss. Our proposal is that in fine the regulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (where we live) may be considered as a service that land uses/cover/management may impact and that we need to study as much as other ecosystem services are. ____________ References: Bulkeley, H. (2006) A changing climate for spatial planning? In: Planning Theory and Practice, 7(2): 203-214. Corchnoy, S.B.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R. (1992) Hydrocarbon emission from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, air basin. In: Atmospheric Environment, 26B(3): 339-348. Davoudi, S.; Crawford, Jenny; Mehmood, A. (2009) Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. London: Earthscan, 344 p. Davin, E. L.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T. (2014) Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management, Proceedings of

  14. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    Margarita Sandstone. The Santa Cruz Mudstone is a thin to medium-bedded siliceous mudstone with nonsiliceous mudstone and siltstone and minor amounts of sandstone. The siliceous nature implies organic deposition in a quiescent, deep-water environment. Bedrock is mantled by 1–4 meters of medium to coarse-grained regressive beach sediment and fluvial deposits from the Ben Lomond Mountains. Terrace age increases with elevation above sea level, and weathering of primary minerals increases with age. The suite of soils formed on the terraces is referred to as a soil chronosequence. Soil chronosequences, important tools in characterizing natural weathering rates, are defined as a group of soils that differ in age and therefore in duration of weathering but have similar climatic conditions, vegetation, geomorphic position, and parent material (Jenny, 1941; Birkland, 1999). Soils are frequently useful indicators of geomorphic age (Muhs, 1982; Switzer and others, 1988) and are a function of pedogenic and/or eolian processes. Some aspects of soil development can be episodic but when viewed on large time scales can be perceived as continuous (Switzer and others, 1988). The age of the soil may be constrained by the age of the deposit, since soil formation generally commences when deposition has ceased (Birkland, 1999). Dating of the terraces provides an unprecedented opportunity to study weathering and soil-formation rates (Perg and others, 2001; Hanks and others, 1984; Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Bradley and Addicott, 1968; Bradley, 1956). Ages of the terraces recently dated by cosmogenic radionuclide are, starting with the youngest, 65, 92, 137, 139, and 226 k.y. (Perg and others, 2001). However, these ages are much younger than recent radiometric dates on mollusk shells (Muhs, U.S. Geological Survey, personal communication, 2002; Bradley and Addicott, 1968). For this study, soils were sampled on five terraces. Terrace one in the Lighthouse Field along Westcliff in Santa Cruz was the

  15. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends

  16. Star Cluster Holds Midweight Black Hole, VLA Indicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have greatly strengthened the case that supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies may have formed through mergers of smaller black holes. Their VLA studies showed that a globular star cluster in the galaxy M31 probably has a black hole with 20,000 times the mass of the Sun at its core. RS Very Large Array The Very Large Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "That amount of mass is midway between the black holes left when giant stars explode as supernovae and the supermassive black holes with millions of times the mass of the Sun. It suggests that there is a clear path for forming the supermassive ones through successive mergers of smaller black holes," said James Ulvestad, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Ulvestad, Jenny Greene of Princeton University, and Luis Ho of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii. Black holes appear to be intimately connected with the formation of massive spherical bulges in galaxies. Astronomers have found a direct relationship between the mass of the black hole in such a galaxy and the mass of its central bulge. However, it is unclear whether small galaxies contain smaller black holes, and their discovery may lead to new insights about the impact of black holes on galaxy formation. As Greene stated, "In recent years, we have been detecting black holes with masses between 100,000 and a few million times the mass of the Sun, but less massive objects have been exceptionally difficult to find." Based on observations with optical telescopes, Karl Gebhardt of the University of Texas at Austin, R. Michael Rich of UCLA, and Ho, suggested in 2002 that the globular cluster G1 in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) contains a compact concentration of mass that is intermediate in mass between stellar and supermassive black holes. Other researchers

  17. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on the random search problem: trends and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Luz, Marcos G. E.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Raposo, Ernesto P.; Viswanathan, Gandhi M.

    2008-11-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of the random search problem. The motivation behind this special issue is to summarize in a single comprehensive publication, the main aspects (past and present), latest developments, different viewpoints and the directions being followed in this multidisciplinary field. We hope that such a special issue could become a particularly valuable reference for the broad scientific community working with the general random search problem. The Editorial Board has invited Marcos G E da Luz, Alexander Y Grosberg, Ernesto P Raposo and Gandhi M Viswanathan to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. The general question of how to optimize the search for specific target objects in either continuous or discrete environments when the information available is limited is of significant importance in a broad range of fields. Representative examples include ecology (animal foraging, dispersion of populations), geology (oil recovery from mature reservoirs), information theory (automated researchers of registers in high-capacity database), molecular biology (proteins searching for their sites, e.g., on DNA ), etc. One reason underlying the richness of the random search problem relates to the `ignorance' of the locations of the randomly located `targets'. A statistical approach to the search problem can deal adequately with incomplete information and so stochastic strategies become advantageous. The general problem of how to search efficiently for randomly located target sites can thus be quantitatively described using the concepts and methods of statistical physics and stochastic processes. Scope Thus far, to the best of our knowledge, no recent textbook or review article in a physics journal has appeared on this topic. This makes a special issue with review and research articles attractive to those interested in acquiring a general introduction to the

  18. PREFACE: 4th National Meeting in Chaos, Complex System and Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Hernández Montoya, Alejandro; Hernández Lemus, Enrique; Rubén Luévano Enríquez, José; Rodríguez Achach, Manuel Enrique; Vargas Madrazo, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton--Jacobi equation). The present volume contains a rigorous selection of the lectures presented at the NMCCSTS4. All papers were peer reviewed and we consider the high quality and the wide range of topics covered here displays the high level that the community of complexity sciences is reaching in our country. We would like to thank all of the speakers, participants and the members of the Organizing Committee, also we would like to express our gratitude to all students and support personal involved with the logistic and technical aspects of the organization of our event. This IV edition of the National Meeting on Caos, Complex System and Time Series was sponsored by the following organizations and institutions, we warmly thank all of them: Universidad Veracruzana, IF-BUAP, UAM Azcapotzalco, INMEGEN, Conacyt (155492), all them from México and the Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) from Italy. A R Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz M E Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz E Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine J R Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco C E Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz Organizing Committee José Luis Carrillo Estrada Instituto de Física, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, carrillo@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx José Rubén Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, jrle@correo.azc.uam.mx Enrique Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine, ehernandez@inmegen.gob.mx Alejandro Raúl Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz, alhernandez@uv.mx Norma Bagatella Flores University of Veracruz, nbagatella@uv.mx Adrian Arturo Huerta Hernández University of Veracruz, adhuerta@uv.mx Manuel Enrique Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz, manurodriguez@uv.mx Carlos Ernesto Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz, cavargas@uv.mx Sol Haret Baez Barrios University of Veracruz, arbaez@uv.mx Héctor Francisco Coronel Brizio University

  19. Combined 40Ar/39Ar and Fission-Track study of the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex, Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa: Implications for the Initial Break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and Insight into the Post-rift Evolution of the Sie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Ibrahim; Wijbrans, Jan; Andriessen, Paul; Beunk, Frank; Strasser-King, Victor; Fode, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    good plateaus that range from 196.3 ± 3 Ma to 232.1 ± 9 Ma with the best-fit isochron plots showing a range from 193.3± 10 Ma to 234.1 ± 11 Ma. Because these dates represent cooling ages, we interpret them as representing a minimum intrusion-age of the Complex implying that its true emplacement age might be somewhat older than 230 Ma. Given that most established CAMP ages revolve around 200 Ma or younger, we hypothesise that FLIC represents a hitherto unknown pre-CAMP magmatic event that might have thermally triggered the initial break-up of Pangaea to form the Central Atlantic. This view is consistent with field-observations that the Complex is cross-cut by predominantly coast-parallel mafic dykes attributed to the CAMP dyke-swarm. To ascertain the hypothesis, we are currently carrying out U-Pb zircon dating to establish, precisely, the true emplacement age of the Complex. The Fission-track ages vary from 91.7 ± 7 Ma to 114.6 ± 9 Ma. This age range shows that after emplacement and crystallisation, the FLIC underwent an extremely slow cooling for a long period of time. This in turn implies that after the break-up of Pangea to form, in part, the Sierra Leone margin, a late and slow uplift (Erosion/denudation) that took place during the Cretaceous was a very important geological process that characterised the post-rift evolution of the margin. References: Barrie, I.J., P.A.M. Andriessen, F.F. Beunk, J.R. Wijbrans, V.E.H. Strasser-King, D.V.A.Fode. (2006). Tectonothermal Evolution of the Sierra Leone Passive Continental Margin, West Africa: Constraints from Thermochronology. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 70 (18): A36- A36 Suppl. S Aug-Sep 2006. Marzoli, A., P.R. Renne, E.M. Piccirillo, M. Ernesto, G. Bellieni, A De Min. (1999). Extensive 200-Million-Year-Old Continental Flood Basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science284: 616-618. McHone, J.G. (2000). Non-plume magmatism and rifting during the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Tectonophysics

  20. The 26th International Physics Olympiad: On top down under!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    As they opened the plane door on arrival at Canberra it was like stepping inside a freezer. I had escaped from the heatwave in Britain to experience winter in Australia. I have not found anyone who believes that there was really frost! The Australian welcome did its best to combat the cold, however, and Professor Rod Jury had soon introduced our guides and got us settled in on the campus of Canberra University. The British team of five students, selected through the British Physics Olympiad, were: Alan Bain of Birkenhead School, Chris Blake of King Edward VI School, Southampton, Richard Davies of Dulwich College, Tom Down of Embley Park School, Romsey and Chris Webb of Royal Grammar School, Worcester. The two Leaders of the party were Cyril Isenberg of the University of Kent and Guy Bagnall of Harrow School. Chris Robson of St Bee's School and myself from Stoke on Trent Sixth form College were interested Observers and Guy's wife, Jenny, completed the party. For the old hands there were many friendships stretching back years to renew, and with 51 countries this year many new ones to be made. Â Photo Figure 1. Photograph taken by C Robson of the British Physics Team immediately after the Awards Ceremony in Canberra in July 1995. From left to right: Chris Webb, Richard Davies, Tom Down, Alan Bain and Chris Blake. In addition to the confusion caused by the Sun being in the North and the Moon appearing to lie on its back, we had to get used to the flocks of chattering parrots browsing on the lawns and the kangaroos on campus! Everyone was presented with a boomerang and there were several sessions introducing the art of throwing them, even in the dark! The Opening Ceremony was colourful and a good mix of ceremony and fun with the Aboriginal entertainment and the Flame of Science to be lit. This was followed by my first examiners' meeting. Once the questions have been introduced no one is allowed to leave the group until ten hours later when the students are in bed! The

  1. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    ). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions, relative to a specific use." Increasingly, contemporary discussion of soil quality includes the environmental cost of production and the potential for reclamation of degraded soils (Várallyay, 2005). Reasons for assessing soil quality in an agricultural or managed system may be somewhat different than reasons for assessing soil quality in a natural ecosystem. In an agricultural context, soil quality may be managed, to maximize production without adverse environmental effect, while in a natural ecosystem, soil quality may be observed, as a baseline value or set of values against which future changes in the system may be compared (Várallyay, 1994; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Soil quality has historically been equated with agricultural productivity, and thus is not a new idea. Soil conservation practices to maintain soil productivity are as old as agriculture itself, with documentation dating to the Roman Empire (Jenny, 1961). The Storie Index (Storie, 1932) and USDA Land Capability Classification (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973) were developed to separate soils into different quality classes. Soil quality is implied in many decisions farmers make about land purchases and management, and in the economic value rural assessors place on agricultural land for purposes of taxation. Beginning in the 1930s, soil productivity ratings were developed in the United States and elsewhere to help farmers select crops and management practices that would maximize production and minimize erosion or other adverse environmental effects (Huddleston, 1984). These rating systems are important predecessors of recent attempts to quantitatively assess soil quality. In the 1970s, attempts were made to identify and protect soils of the highest productive capacity by defining "prime agricultural lands" (Miller, 1979

  2. Ep8_Exploring the Cosmos with Styx

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-25

    >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST! WELCOME TO THE OFFICIAL PODCAST OF THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, EPISODE 8, “EXPLORING THE COSMOS.” I’M GARY JORDAN AND I’LL BE YOUR HOST TODAY. SO THIS IS THE PODCAST WHERE WE BRING IN NASA EXPERTS, AND IN THE CASE OF TODAY’S EPISODE, SOME SUPER COOL SPACE FANATICS TO TALK ABOUT EVERYTHING NASA. SO TODAY WE HAD QUITE A FEW SPECIAL GUESTS. WE’RE TALKING ABOUT HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION WITH GLENN LUTZ, JOHN CONNOLLY, AND THE BAND STYX. GLENN IS THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE EXPLORATION INTEGRATION AND SCIENCE DIRECTOR, OR EISD, HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. JOHN IS THE HEAD OF NASA’S MARS STUDY CAPABILITY TEAM UNDER EISD, AND STYX, WELL, STYX IS A ROCK BAND. WE TALKED TO TOMMY SHAW, WHO DOES GUITAR, VOCALS, AND A LOT OF THE WRITING, AND LAWRENCE GOWAN ON VOCALS AND KEYS AND ALSO DOES SOME OF THE WRITING, TOO. WHY IS A ROCK BAND HERE AT THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER? WELL, WE HAVE A LOT OF AMAZING THINGS TO SHOW OFF AND SOMETIMES PEOPLE COME OVER TO CHECK IT OUT. WE HAD A GREAT DISCUSSION ABOUT EXPLORING THE COSMOS, WHAT HUMAN EXPLORATION MISSIONS WILL LOOK LIKE IN THE FUTURE, AND WHY WE SEND HUMANS TO SPACE IN THE FIRST PLACE. SO, WITH NO FURTHER DELAY, LET’S GO LIGHTSPEED TO OUR TALK WITH MR. GLENN LUTZ AND MR. JOHN CONNOLLY, AS WELL AS MR. TOMMY SHAW AND MR. LAWRENCE GOWAN FROM STYX. ENJOY. [ MUSIC ] >> T MINUS FIVE SECONDS AND COUNTING! MARK! [ INDISTINCT RADIO CHATTER ] >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST. [ MUSIC ] >> OKAY, SO HOW ARE YOU GUYS LIKING THE TOUR SO FAR? >> DO WE HAVE TO LEAVE? >> YEAH! >> IT’S A MIND BLOWER, IS WHAT IT IS. >> YEAH. >> IT’S A MIND BLOWER AND GETTING TO MEET PEOPLE THAT DO THIS EVERY DAY IS-- THAT’S AN HONOR AND THAT ALONE, AND THEN SEEING THEM WITH THE MACHINERY IS-- I CAN BARELY FORM WORDS TO DESCRIBE HOW OVERWHELMING IT IS. >> WHAT MAKES IT SO OVERWHELMING, THOUGH? IS IT JUST THE HISTORY OR IS IT JUST THE AMOUNT OF STUFF, MAYBE? >> WELL, IT’S KIND OF EVERYTHING, YOU KNOW? >> OKAY. >> JUST FROM BEING A CHILD AND FROM-- I STILL REMEMBER SPUTNIK, AND SO I FOLLOWED IT-- MY FAMILY WOULD ALWAYS FOLLOW EVERYTHING THAT WENT ON. AND UP UNTIL MODERN TIMES NOW, I MEAN, ALL THROUGH OUR LIVES WE’VE WATCHED IT, AND THEN NOW TO DO-- WE DID A LITTLE STORY OURSELVES. >> YEAH! >> --ABOUT IT AND IT INVOLVES SOME-- TRYING TO GET IT RIGHT SO IT WOULD BE FEASIBLE, AND NOW TO SEE THESE-- THE HARDWARE THAT WE WERE JUST SORT OF IMAGINING. >> RIGHT. >> TO SEE THE ORION, THAT WAS AMAZING, TOO. BUT ALSO TO SEE THE CONTROL ROOM THAT WE’D ALL SEEN AS A CHILD. JUST REALLY, IT’S JUST KIND OF OVERWHELMING. >> YEAH! MISSION CONTROL, RIGHT? A LOT OF HISTORY THERE. LIKE, THIS--WE WERE TALKING ABOUT IT ON THE BUS, RIGHT? JUST YOU-- YOU’RE JUST-- YOU’RE SITTING IN A ROOM AND YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT ALL THE GREAT THINGS THAT HAPPENED HERE. YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT LANDING ON THE MOON, YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT LEARNING HOW TO FLY HUMANS IN SPACE, ALL FROM THIS ROOM. >> YEAH, THE COMMAND CENTER, BASICALLY OF THE GREATEST HUMAN HISTORY THAT’S UNFOLDED IN OUR LIFETIME. >> YEAH. >> SO, TO BE AT THE EPICENTER OF THAT AND DRINK IN, AND AS TOMMY JUST POINTED OUT, IT’S SOMETHING WE’VE HAD SINCE WE WERE CHILDREN. >> RIGHT. >> SO, YOU’RE IN TOUCH WITH YOUR ENTIRE-- THIS MIGHT BE OVERLY PHILOSOPHIZING, BUT IT’S-- I CAN’T EVEN SPEAK. >> OVERLY PHILOSOPHICAL. >> OVERLY PHILOSOPHICAL. THANK YOU SO MUCH, GARY. I NEEDED THAT. >> IT’S THAT-- THAT’S WHAT I MEAN. THIS HAS BEEN A LONG DAY. YEAH! >> IT’S THIS WEIGHTLESSNESS CONDITION HERE. IT’S THE-- NO, YOU’RE IN TOUCH WITH ALL OF THAT AND THE FACT THAT YOU’RE SO CLOSE TO THIS-- WHAT IS THE GREATEST HUMAN ENDEAVOR IN OUR LIFETIME AND ALL OF THAT’S ENSUED BECAUSE OF IT. >> ABSOLUTELY. SO, WHAT WAS SO EXCITING, I THINK, FOR US, FROM OUR END, IS TO SHOW YOU NOT ONLY THE HISTORY OF KIND OF WHAT WE’VE BEEN DOING HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER FOR SO LONG, BUT ALSO KIND OF WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO, RIGHT? LIKE YOU SAID, WE’RE SHOWING YOU ORION, WE’RE SHOWING YOU EXPLORATION. WE’RE ALREADY TALKING ABOUT MARS, THE MOON, GOING BEYOND, GOING BEYOND THE LOW EARTH ORBIT, AND WE’RE KIND OF EXCITED TO SHOW YOU THAT. SO, I MEAN, JUST IN TERMS OF HUMAN EXPLORATION, JUST EXPLORING, GOING OUT, SEEING WHAT IS BEYOND. >> YEAH. >> WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THAT DRIVE? WHY DO WE HAVE THIS DRIVE TO EXPLORE THE-- EXPLORE SPACE AS HUMANS? >> IT’S JUST-- IT’S HUMAN CURIOSITY. >> I THINK SO. >> WHAT ELSE IS THERE? WE’VE DONE THIS, YOU KNOW, WHAT’S OUT THERE? >> YEAH. >> AND WE KEEP FINDING OUT A LITTLE BIT MORE AND I’VE REALIZED HOW SERIOUS THE-- THAT QUEST IS HERE. BUT, FOR ALL THOSE QUESTIONS, THERE’S ALL THIS DETAIL AND ALL THIS RESEARCH AND WANTING TO GET IT RIGHT HERE SO THAT IT’S RIGHT WHEN YOU’RE OUT THERE. >> YEAH. >> JUST SEEING ALL THE MANPOWER AND ALL THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IS KIND OF-- IT’S KIND OF MIND BOGGLING. >> IT’S WHAT-- IT’S THE MOST EXTREME EXAMPLE OF HOW HUMAN BEINGS HAVE THIS BUILT INTO OUR DNA, THIS-- WHAT ELSE, IS THE QUESTION. LIKE WHAT ELSE? >> YEAH. >> AND AS I’M WALKING THROUGH THERE, EVEN LOOKING AT THOSE-- ALL THOSE VARIOUS VEHICLES, IT’S LIKE WHAT ELSE COULD YOU DO WITH A VEHICLE THAT WOULD WORK IN A PLACE THAT WE DON’T KNOW ABOUT YET? SO, JUST-- I GUESS THAT’S REALLY ANOTHER THING THAT SEPARATES US FROM ANY OTHER FORM OF LIFE IS THAT WE’RE DRIVEN IN THAT WAY. NOT TO STAY SAFE, BUT TO DO THINGS THAT ARE RISKY AND HARD. I THINK I’M GOING TO START QUOTING JOHN KENNEDY OR CAPTAIN KIRK IN A MINUTE. ANYWAY, IT’S GREAT TO BE CLOSE TO-- >> YOU’RE ALLOWED TO DO THAT. >> ARE YOU? OKAY! >> BUT, I THINK MAYBE IT’S THAT HUMAN ELEMENT. RIGHT? IT’S THAT PASSION THAT REALLY DRIVES US. AND MAYBE IT’S KIND OF BUILT IN OUR DNA TO WANT TO EXPLORE. MAYBE THAT’S WHY WE SEND HUMANS. HUMANS CAN HAVE A STORY WHEN THEY EXPLORE THAT I DON’T THINK ROBOTS CAN. IT’S JUST-- IT’S THAT PERSONAL-- THE HUMAN ELEMENT THAT WE CONNECT WITH. >> WELL, THAT’S IT. WHAT WAS IT LIKE? >> YEAH. >> YOU CAN’T, NO MATTER HOW GREAT YOU’RE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IS, IT CAN NEVER CONVEY EXACTLY WHAT WAS IT LIKE. >> EXACTLY. >> AND SPEAKING TO DAN, ASTRONAUT DAN BURBANK, HE WAS ABLE TO, IN VERY SHORT ORDER, GIVE YOU A SENSE OF WHAT THAT FELT LIKE. >> YEAH! >> YEAH. >> JUST FROM HIS PERSONAL EXPERIENCE. YOU CAN’T GET THAT FROM DATA, FROM A ROBOT OR SOMETHING. YOU FEEL WHAT HE’S FEELING, SORT OF. YOU’RE THERE. >> YEAH. AND WHEN HE DESCRIBES SOME OF WHAT HE HAD TO GO THROUGH TO DO IT, I’M GLAD I DIDN’T HAVE TO GO THROUGH THAT. SO I VICARIOUSLY ENJOY IT. >> WELL, WHAT I THINK WAS FANTASTIC-- SO TALKING ABOUT HUMAN EXPLORATION, THIS IS NOT SOMETHING THAT IS KIND OF BRAND NEW OR JUST THINKING ABOUT IT. WE’VE BEEN THINKING ABOUT IT FOR A LONG TIME. IN FACT, WE HAVE PEOPLE HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER DEDICATED TO THINKING ABOUT EXPLORATION. SO, I WANT TO FORMALLY INTRODUCE TWO FOLKS THAT WE HAVE WITH US TODAY, GLENN LUTZ AND JOHN CONNOLLY. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING HERE. YOU ARE PART OF OUR EXPLORATION GROUP, IN A SENSE. SO, TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT WHAT YOU GUYS DO. >> ALL RIGHT. WELL, WE ARE PUT IN PLACE TO DO JUST THAT-- TAKE US TO THOSE NEXT STEPS. >> MM-HMM. >> SO, JOHN’S IN CHARGE OF PUTTING OUT THE PLAN AND HE’S GOT A GROUP THAT’S MAKING SURE THAT EVERYTHING THAT WE NEED TO GO TO MARS IS THOUGHT ABOUT. >> MM-HMM. >> THERE’S NOT A CVS OR WALGREENS ON THE WAY TO STOP IN TO PICK UP SOMETHING. SO THESE GUYS ARE IN CHARGE OF PUTTING THAT WHOLE PLAN TOGETHER FROM THE NUMBER OF ROCKETS, HOW WE ARE GOING TO LIVE ON MARS. AND WE’VE GOT GUYS IN OUR GROUP THAT ARE WORKING ON TECHNOLOGY GAPS. WHAT WORKS TODAY AND WHAT’S-- WHAT WE NEED AND THERE’S A GAP, SO WE’RE CLOSING THEM, IN TESTING AND ET CETERA. OUR GROUP ALSO HAS THE SCIENTISTS IN IT. AND SO THEY’RE SAYING, “OKAY, WHY? WHY ARE WE GOING?” >> MM-HMM. >> AND WHERE? WHERE ARE WE GOING TO GO? TO THE MIXTURE THAT WE TAKE THE BEST ADVANTAGE OF WHERE WE’RE GOING. >> YEAH. >> SO, TOMMY MENTIONED THAT, YOU KNOW, AS KIDS WE ALL KIND OF WATCHED THE APOLLO PROGRAM, LOOKED UP IN THE SKY, SAW SPUTNIK, AND I THINK THAT’S WHAT GOT PEOPLE LIKE GLENN AND I HERE IN THE FIRST PLACE. YOU KNOW? WE WERE TURNED ON BY THAT AND KIND OF MADE THAT OUR LIFE’S CALLING. AND WE’VE BEEN LOOKING AT HOW WE GET PEOPLE BEYOND LOW EARTH ORBIT, PERHAPS BACK TO THE MOON, PERHAPS ONTO MARS AS SOON AS WE CAN. AND THAT’S BECAUSE WE ALL THINK THAT HUMAN EXPLORATION IS A FUNDAMENTAL-- A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF BEING HUMAN, YOU KNOW, PUSHING OUTWARDS INTO THE STARS. AND SO, WE DO HAVE PLANS TO DO THAT. SO, THAT MISSION CONTROL THAT YOU SAW, WHERE WE DID ALL THOSE GREAT THINGS BACK YEARS AGO, THE BEST IS YET TO COME. ‘ >> SO, I MEAN, TOMMY AND LAWRENCE, JUST FROM YOUR PERSPECTIVE, JUST SEEING WHAT YOU SAW TODAY AND MAYBE THESE-- SOME OF THE FOLKS THAT HAVE BEEN TALKING TO YOU TODAY KIND OF GOT YOUR MIND JOGGING ABOUT MARS. AND YOU’VE THOUGHT ABOUT MARS IN THE PAST JUST FROM YOUR WRITING AND STUFF LIKE THAT. SO, IN TERMS OF MARS, WHAT DO YOU THINK IT IS THAT’S SO INTRIGUING? WHY WOULD WE WANT TO SEND HUMANS THERE? IN YOUR EYES. >> WELL, IT’S BEEN THE SUBJECT OF ALL DIFFERENT KIND OF CREATIVE WRITING, FROM MARTIAN CHRONICLES WHERE IT WAS LITERALLY LITTLE GREEN MEN TO THAT BOOK THAT BECAME THE MOVIE, “THE MARTIAN.” >> RIGHT. >> SO, IT’S REALLY BEEN-- CARTOONS FROM WHEN YOU’RE GROWING UP. THE LITTLE GREEN MEN AND MARS. AND YOU CAN-- AND IT STANDS OUT. IT’S DISTINCTIVE. AND THE NIGHTTIME SKY, IT IS RED. >> YEAH. >> DID GET TO SEE IT A LOT. AND I GUESS IT’S RELATIVELY CLOSE COMPARED TO WHAT ELSE IS OUT THERE. SO, IT’S ALL OF THOSE THINGS-- FROM FICTION TO FANTASY, AND REAL RESEARCH, AND ALL THOSE THINGS. WE’RE JUST FASCINATED BY IT. AND THE ONE THING THAT STRIKES ME IS JUST THE MORE WE SEE OF THINGS, HOW KIND OF SMALL AND INSIGNIFICANT WE ARE COMPARED TO WHAT WE THOUGHT OF WHEN WE WERE CHILDREN. THE WORLD JUST SEEMED SO MAGNIFICENTLY LARGE. AND I USED TO JUST LOOK UP AT THE CLOUDS AND GO, “HOW FAR UP IS THAT?” AND NOW, TO SEE WHAT YOU’RE PLANNING ON DOING HERE, IT’S AWESOME! >> I KNOW A LOT OF THE ASTRONAUTS. I’M NOT SURE IF DAN BURBANK BROUGHT IT UP, KIND OF IN HIS TALK, BUT THEY HAVE SOMETHING CALLED THE OVERVIEW EFFECT. BEING UP 250 MILES, YOU HAVE THIS VIEW OF THE PLANET. YOU SEE THIS THIN LINE THAT’S AROUND THE PLANET THAT’S JUST PROTECTING US, AND THAT’S IT. AND YOU KIND OF HAVE EXACTLY WHAT YOU’RE SAY, THAT EFFECT OF, “WOW! WE ARE SO SMALL! THIS PLANET IS NOT AS BIG AS I THOUGHT!” >> YEAH. >> WE’RE ALL CONNECTED, BUT, YOU KNOW, THERE’S SO MUCH MORE TO THIS UNIVERSE AND TO THE EARTH, I GUESS. >> YEAH. >> AND SOMEONE SAID SOMETHING ABOUT BEING ON MARS AND LOOKING OUT AND NOT BEING ABLE TO FIND EARTH. >> YEAH. >> WHICH ONE OF THOSE IS EARTH? >> RIGHT. >> YEAH. >> IT’LL BE THE BLUE ONE, ACTUALLY. YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO PICK OUT EARTH, JUST LIKE WE COULD PICK OUT MARS IN THE SKY. EARTH WILL BE A LITTLE BRIGHTER, A LITTLE BLUER THAN ALL THE OTHER THINGS OUT THERE. >> SO, JOHN, THERE HAVE BEEN IMAGES FROM THE SURFACE OF MARS. CAN WE SEE THE EARTH? IS IT BLUE? >> YES, WE CAN. >> ALL RIGHT! >> YOU CAN SEE THE EARTH FROM MARS. WITH NOT MUCH HELP, YOU COULD ACTUALLY PICK OUT THE MOON NEXT TO IT. >> OH, WOW! >> SO-- >> WITH THE NAKED EYE? >> YEAH. SO, WHILE YOU’RE-- WELL, IT DEPENDS ON HOW GOOD YOUR EYES ARE. >> WELL, FROM THE-- YEAH. >> INSIDE A SPACESUIT. >> SO, YEAH, WHEN YOU’RE ON MARS, YOU’LL BE ABLE TO LOOK AT IT ALL. >> AMAZING. >> COMFY AND-- >> YEAH. SO, I MEAN, KIND OF BOUNCING OFF OF TOMMY’S POINT OF IT BEING IN OUR MIND TO EXPLORE MARS, FROM A PRACTICAL SENSE, FROM YOUR GUYS’ PERSPECTIVE IN THE EXPLORATION GROUP HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, WHAT ARE WE THINKING ABOUT? WHY MARS? >> WELL, BECAUSE IT’S NEXT. IT’S THE NEXT LOGICAL PLACE TO SEND HUMANS. IT’S THE MOST EARTH-LIKE OF THE PLANETS. IT’S A PLACE THAT HAS INCREDIBLE SCIENTIFIC VALUE. IT MAY HAVE HARBORED LIFE IN THE PAST. IT MAY HARBOR LIFE STILL. THOSE ARE HUGE, HUGE QUESTIONS. THOSE ANSWERS, SOME OF THOSE BIG FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS THAT WE’VE HAD LIKE, ARE WE ALONE IN THE UNIVERSE? >> YEAH. >> AND IT’S ATTAINABLE, I THINK. MAYBE THAT’S THE BIGGEST REASON TO GO THERE IS BECAUSE WE HAVE THE TECHNOLOGY NOW, OR IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS, THAT WE COULD PUT TOGETHER A MISSION AND GO THERE. >> ACTUALLY, JOHN, I HAVE A QUESTION FOR YOU. >> YEAH. >> FROM WHAT WE HAD-- KNOW ABOUT MARS SO FAR, IS THERE ANY FOSSIL RECORD YET THAT-- WHERE THEY’VE GONE DOWN AND CHECKED? “WELL, HERE’S WHAT HAPPENED DURING THIS TIME,” AND HAVE THEY SEEN ANYTHING? >> SO, WE’VE ACTUALLY NOT REALLY EXPLORED THE Z-DIMENSION ON MARS. >> RIGHT. >> OKAY? WE’VE ROVED ACROSS THE SURFACE, AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT’S ON THE SCIENTIST’S PLANS IS TO GET A DRILL TO START DRILLING CORES. >> OH. >> AND LOOK AT THINGS LIKE THAT. PROBABLY THE ONLY FOSSIL WE MAY HAVE SEEN ARE SOME FOSSIL-- WHAT WE THOUGHT AT THE TIME WERE FOSSILIZED BACTERIA. BACK ABOUT 1997, THERE WERE A FEW FOLKS WHO THOUGHT THEY SAW SOME REMNANTS OF BACTERIA, VERY, VERY SMALL STUFF. >> RIGHT. >> BUT, WE HAVEN’T REALLY DRILLED DOWN TO FIND ANY TRILOBITES YET. >> RIGHT. BOY. >> SO, FROM A PLANNING PERSPECTIVE, IF YOU WERE TO PLAN-- THAT’S WHAT YOU’D DO? YOU THINK ABOUT PLANNING A MISSION TO MARS, RIGHT? WHAT ARE SOME OF THE KEY ELEMENTS THAT ARE VITAL TO MAKE A SUCCESSFUL MISSION TO GO TO MARS? >> SO, IT’S A PRETTY LONG LIST. SO, YOU NEED A PROPULSION SYSTEM THAT WILL ACCELERATE YOU OUT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL PULL OF EARTH. YOU NEED A HABITAT THAT’S RELIABLE ENOUGH TO TAKE YOU ON A SIX-MONTH TO TWELVE-MONTH TRIP TO MARS. YOU NEED A LANDING SYSTEM THAT WILL TAKE YOU THROUGH THE MARS ATMOSPHERE AND DOWN TO THE SURFACE. >> MM-HMM. >> YOU NEED ALL THE SURFACE EQUIPMENT, LIKE THE ROVERS THAT YOU GUYS WERE JUST IN, AND THE SPACESUITS, AND THE HABITATS, AND EQUIPMENT TO USE MARS RESOURCES. AND THEN YOU’D NEED A RIDE HOME. YOU’D NEED AN ASCENT VEHICLE TO GET YOURSELF BACK OFF THE SURFACE TO THE VEHICLE THAT’S GOING TO BRING YOU HOME AGAIN. AND SO, WHEN YOU PUT ALL THOSE TOGETHER, THERE’S A LOT OF PIECE PARTS THAT IT TAKES TO DO THAT MISSION. >> AMAZING. >> IS THAT TRUE FOR ANYWHERE WE WANT TO GO TO, RIGHT? YOU WOULD NEED SORT OF A SIMILAR PROFILE? >> SIMILAR. >> OKAY. >> THE MOON IS ACTUALLY A LITTLE EASIER THAN MARS TO GET TO. >> OH. >> YOU DON’T HAVE TO DEAL WITH AN ATMOSPHERE. >> OKAY. >> AND IT’S A LOT CLOSER, OF COURSE. >> YEAH. >> RIGHT NOW, THE MOON IS 250,000 MILES AWAY FROM US, MARS-- >> A LOT CLOSER. >> IT’S 250 MILLION MILES AWAY. >> OH, WOW! YEAH. >> IT’S AT ITS FURTHEST POINT FROM US RIGHT NOW. IT’S ACTUALLY HIDDEN BEHIND THE SUN. SO, IF YOU WERE ON MARS RIGHT NOW, WE COULDN’T TALK TO YOU. >> OH. COULDN’T AT ALL? BECAUSE IT GETS THE COMMUNICATION? >> YEAH, FOR A WEEK OR TWO, YOU’RE HIDDEN BEHIND THE SUN AND WE LITERALLY CAN’T TALK TO YOU. >> THAT LONG? A WEEK OR TWO? >> YEAH. >> WOW! SO, WHAT’S-- I’M GUESSING YOU’RE PLANNING FOR THAT, RIGHT? >> OF COURSE. >> SO, WHAT WOULD BE-- IN THE SITUATION WHERE THAT WERE THE CASE, RIGHT? YOU HAVE FOLKS ON MARS AND THEY DON’T HAVE COMMUNICATION WITH FOLKS ON EARTH FOR A WEEK. WHAT ARE THEY DOING? >> LISTENING TO STYX. >> THEY COULD BE LISTENING TO MUSIC. >> WELL, WHAT WAS IT-- IN “THE MARTIAN”, WHAT WAS THE THING? IT WAS-- >> IT WAS “HAPPY DAYS” ON THE MOVIE, BUT IT WAS SOMETHING ELSE IN THE BOOK. >> WE’VE GOT SOMETHING WAY BETTER THAN THAT. >> SO, OUR ROBOTIC MISSIONS THAT ARE THERE NOW, WE PUT THEM KIND OF INTO A SAFE MODE FOR A COUPLE OF WEEKS. >> OH, OKAY. >> WE JUST DON’T HAVE THEM DO VERY MUCH. AND IN ABOUT TWO WEEKS, WE HAVE THEM START BROADCASTING UNTIL WE PICK THEM UP AGAIN. SO, THE CREW WOULD PROBABLY HAVE-- PROBABLY HAVE ABOUT TWO WEEKS OFF, I’D SAY, WHERE THEY DON’T-- WHERE THEY PROBABLY WOULDN’T DO VERY MUCH. >> WOW. >> DO YOU THINK THE ACTUAL SHOT TO GO TO MARS WILL LAUNCH FROM THE MOON OR FROM EARTH? >> SO, ULTIMATELY, EVERYTHING STARTS FROM EARTH. THE QUESTION IS, WHAT’S THE MIDPOINT? >> RIGHT. >> SO, WHERE DO YOU ACTUALLY ASSEMBLE VEHICLES AND THINGS LIKE THAT? >> RIGHT. >> ENERGETICALLY, IT ACTUALLY MAKES MORE SENSE TO ASSEMBLE THINGS IN SPACE RATHER THAN ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. SO, YOU COULD DO THAT IN LUNAR ORBIT. >> RIGHT. >> YOU COULD DO THAT IN A VERY HIGH EARTH ORBIT, BUT IN SPACE MAKES THE MOST SENSE. RIGHT AT THE EDGE OF LEAVING THE EARTH’S SPHERE OF INFLUENCE, THE EARTH’S-- THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF THE EARTH, THEN JUST TAKES A LITTLE KICK FROM THERE TO KICK YOU OUT TO MARS. >> HUH. >> BUT YOU DON’T WANT TO-- YOU DON’T WANT TO GO INTO A GRAVITY FIELD LIKE DOWN TO THE LUNAR SURFACE BECAUSE THEN YOU HAVE TO FIGHT YOUR WAY OUT OF THAT AGAIN. >> OH, RIGHT. >> SO, WHAT WOULD YOU BE BUILDING AROUND THE-- >> WELL, WE’RE CURRENTLY WORKING ON SOME PLANS FOR BUILDING, FOR EXAMPLE, THE TRANSPORT THAT TAKES CREWS FROM THE VICINITY OF THE EARTH TO MARS ORBIT. >> HUH. >> AND SO, THOSE ARE THE KIND OF THINGS YOU CAN’T LAUNCH IN ONE LAUNCH BECAUSE THEY’RE TOO BIG. SO, YOU HAVE TO PUT THEM TOGETHER SOMEWHERE. >> RIGHT. >> AND ANYWHERE IN CISLUNAR SPACE KIND OF MAKES SENSE TO DO THAT. >> OKAY. INTERESTING. >> SO IT SEEMS LIKE A COORDINATED MISSION, A VENTURE WITH LOTS OF ADVANCED THINGS. SO, YOU HAVE ALL THE HARDWARE. >> YEAH, IT’S GOING TO TAKE A LOT OF LAUNCHES TO PUT PIECES TOGETHER AND GET THOSE THINGS SEQUENCED OUT TO MARS IN A WAY THAT HAS WHAT YOU NEED ON MARS WHEN YOU NEED IT. >> AND THAT IT’S UP THERE AND OPERATIONAL BEFORE WE SAY, “OKAY, GUYS, IT’S TIME TO COMMIT CREW TO GO MEET THEM.” >> RIGHT. >> SO, DO YOU THINK THERE WOULD EVER BE A TIME WHERE-- WHEN YOU GET ALL THAT WORKED OUT SO YOU-- IT’S JUST SECOND NATURE, THIS IS HOW YOU DO THAT? TO EXTEND THAT TO MARS SO YOU’RE BUILDING THINGS IN MARS TO GO BEYOND THERE? >> I THINK IF WE FIGURE OUT HOW TO DO IT ON MARS, THAT’LL BE THE NEXT GIANT LEAP, IF YOU WILL. AND THAT’LL TEACH US A LOT ABOUT SURVIVING WITHOUT BEING DEPENDENT ON EARTH. AND I THINK THAT’S THE NEXT BIG STEP. >> IT GOES BACK TO YOUR FIRST COMMENT THAT EVEN AS LITTLE KIDS, YOU SEE THE 2-YEAR-OLD, THE NEXT THING THAT’S JUST OUT OF HIS REACH, SO IF WE GET TO MARS, THAT WOULD BE THE NEXT THING JUST OUT OF OUR REACH. >> SO, TOMMY, KIND OF THINKING ABOUT THE NEXT BIG STEP. IF-- THINKING WAY OUT IN THE FUTURE, IN YOUR MIND, WHAT WOULD KIND OF BE SOME OF THE NEXT PLACES THAT WOULD BE REALLY COOL TO SEE? BEYOND MARS. >> WELL, WE HAVE SORT OF A SELFISH-- >> I KNOW WHERE YOU’RE GOING HERE. >> ON THE AGENDA. >> YES. IT WOULD JUST BE STARTED UPON THE BAND’S NAME OF THE FIFTH MOON OF PLUTO. AND WE’VE ACTUALLY SEEN PICTURES OF IT AND IT’S NOT THE GREATEST LOOKING. IF YOU WERE GOING TO VACATION ANYWHERE IN THE AREA, WE’D GO TO PLUTO, JUST MAYBE TAKE SOME SNAPSHOTS. >> YEAH, TO SEE IF FROM THE SURFACE. >> I DON’T KNOW. I THINK WITH A LITTLE WORK WE COULD BUFF IT UP AND MAKE IT A HOLIDAY DESTINATION. IT’S A FIXER-UPPER, THERE’S NO DOUBT ABOUT IT. >> IT’S A HANDYMAN’S DREAM. >> IT’S ABOUT THE SIZE OF DOWNTOWN CHICAGO, BY THE WAY. >> IS IT? >> YEAH. >> IT’S NOT TOO BIG. >> YEAH, IT’S NOT THAT BIG. >> CHICAGO’S NICE. >> YEAH. YEAH. >> A FROZEN CHICAGO. >> IN AN UNBIASED OPINION. >> I DON’T THINK IT HAS THE WATERFRONT. >> [ INDISTINCT ]. >> YEAH. >> IT’S COME A LONG WAY SINCE THE WORLD’S FAIR. >> YEAH. >> THERE YOU GO. >> ANOTHER THING THAT-- BACK TO WHERE WE WERE STARTING-- >> YEAH? >> THAT BLOWS MY MIND, WHEN I KEEP THINKING THAT, YOU KNOW, THAT ONE OF THE AIRPORTS WE GO THROUGH, I THINK IT’S ST. LOUIS, IS THAT THE ONE THAT’S NEAR KITTY HAWK OR WHERE THE WRIGHT BROTHERS? >> SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS. >> YEAH. >> SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS. >> IS THAT IT? >> MM-HMM. >> OKAY. SO, I’M THINKING HUMAN FLIGHT, IT STILL BOGGLES MY MIND. IT’S JUST OVER A HUNDRED YEARS AGO AND NOW WE’RE TALKING ABOUT ASSEMBLING THINGS IN SPACE THAT CAN REACH, YOU KNOW, THE NEXT PLANET. SO, THAT’S BACK TO ME, KIND OF BEING MIND BLOWING. >> YEAH. I THINK THAT’S MORE OF LIKE THE DOING ASPECT, RIGHT? SO, LIKE, YOU KNOW, I FEEL LIKE WE’VE BEEN DREAMERS FOR SO LONG. >> YEAH. >> AND WE’RE DREAMING ABOUT THE COSMOS, AND BASED ON OUR LIMITED KNOWLEDGE, HAVE COME UP WITH THESE FANTASTICAL REALITIES OF WHAT IT COULD BE, BUT THEN ONCE WE REALIZE THAT, YOU KNOW, WE CAN GO INTO SPACE AND WE HAVE THE TECHNOLOGY TO DO IT, AND YOU ACTUALLY BUILD IT AND DO IT, THAT’S A WHOLE NEW-- >> WELL, THAT’S WHY MEETING GUYS LIKE THIS IS SO-- >> YEAH! >> --AMAZING FOR US. YEAH. >> ALL RIGHT. SO, ALL RIGHT, GOING WAY BACK OUT TO PLUTO. YOU HAD THE PRIVILEGE OF ACTUALLY SEEING NEW HORIZONS, RIGHT? WHEN IT ACTUALLY TOOK PHOTOS OF PLUTO. >> WE WERE INVITED-- WE HAPPENED TO BE IN THE D.C. AREA THE DAY THAT THEY DID THEIR FLY-BY AND WE WERE INVITED OUT AND WE GOT TO MEET THE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR, ALAN STERN, AND ALL OF HIS PEOPLE. AND THEY WERE WAITING THERE FOR US. I’LL NEVER FORGET, THEY WERE THERE-- THEY HAD A BANNER AND THEY HAD ALL KIND OF GATHERED IN A ROOM KIND OF LIKE THIS >> YEAH. >> AND THEY WERE WELCOMING US AND WE DIDN’T KNOW WHO THEY ARE. WE’D NEVER MET THEM BEFORE. >> SURE. >> WE KNEW WE WERE AT THEIR MISSION CONTROL, BUT-- SO, LITTLE BY LITTLE, WE STARTED GETTING INTRODUCED. IT’S LIKE GUYS LIKE YOU WITH THESE-- WHO’VE DONE THIS AMAZING THING AND WE REALIZE, THIS IS ALL BACKWARDS. WE NEED TO HAVE A BANNER FOR YOU. >> YEAH, EXACTLY. >> IT WAS LIKE THE WE’RE NOT WORTHY KIND OF THING. >> IT WAS LIKE THERE THEY’D WON THEIR SUPER BOWL AND THE CULMINATION OF A NINE-YEAR MISSION. IT WAS WHEN THEY WERE GET-- AS THESE PICTURES WERE COMING THROUGH, WE WERE AMONG THE FIRST PEOPLE, EARTHLINGS, TO SEE THIS-- TO SEE THIS UNFOLD. ACTUALLY, YOU JUST REMINDED ME OF SOMETHING WEIRD ABOUT THAT DAY THAT I REMEMBERED. I REMEMBER US GETTING LOST ON THE WAY TO GET INTO THE THING. >> WE COULDN’T FIND OUR WAY THERE. >> WE COULDN’T FIND OUR WAY THERE! AND THEY SPENT NINE YEARS GETTING TO PLUTO. >> WE MET THE NAVIGATOR WHO DID THE-- >> WHO ACTUALLY FLEW IT. >> YES. >> YES. >> WOW. SO, HOW DID HE DESCRIBE THAT RIDE? WAS IT LIKE-- I GUESS IT’S A PRETTY INTRICATE RIDE TO GET ALL THE WAY OUT THERE. >> THE ONLY THING I REMEMBER IS THAT HE SAID IT WAS-- THE CRAFT ITSELF WAS ABOUT THE SIZE OF A BABY GRAND PIANO. >> YEAH. >> SO, DIRECTING THAT THROUGH, YOU KNOW, ALL THAT DISTANCE, YOU KNOW? AND IT’S, I GUESS IT’S THE FARTHEST WE’VE GONE, RIGHT? SO, IT WAS THE FARTHEST WE’VE EVER SENT ANYTHING, I SUPPOSE. AM I RIGHT? >> I THINK VOYAGER. >> OH, VOYAGER’S EVEN FURTHER. >> YEAH. >> IT GOT A HEAD START. >> OKAY. >> YEAH. >> BUT IT NEVER TOOK PICTURES OF PLUTO. >> ALL RIGHT! >> YEAH. >> WELL, I DON’T’ WANT TO PUT ANYTHING-- I DON’T WANT TO PUT VOYAGER DOWN IN ANY WAY, BUT TO HAVE ACCOMPLISHED THAT WITH SOMETHING-- OH, I REMEMBER. ONE QUESTION I ASKED THAT DAY WAS, “ISN’T IT LIKELY THAT IT’S GOING TO BE HIT BY SOMETHING OUT THERE?” BECAUSE I’M ALWAYS THINKING ABOUT, YOU KNOW, I WAS ASKING DAN ABOUT THAT, AS WELL. AND ONE OF THE SCIENTISTS THERE EXPLAINED TO ME THAT WE-- IT TAKES A LONG TIME BEFORE THE CONCEPT OF HOW VAST SPACE IS FINALLY SINKS IN, THAT THE LIKELIHOOD OF ACTUALLY COLLIDING WITH SOMETHING IS SO MINISCULE. >> MM-HMM. >> THAT IT’S INCREDIBLY UNLIKELY. AND TO MY MIND, IT SEEMS LIKE, I DON’T KNOW, WOULDN’T THAT BE HAPPENING ALL THE TIME? AND APPARENTLY IT DOESN’T HAPPEN VERY MUCH AT ALL. >> EVEN THE ASTEROID BELT, I THINK, IS A GOOD EXAMPLE, RIGHT? HOW FAR-- HOW CLOSE ARE SOME OF THE CLOSEST THINGS IN THE ASTEROID BELT? >> WELL, NOT AS CLOSE AS THE STAR WARS MOVIES PORTRAY THEM. >> THAT’S WHAT I’M THINKING. I’M THINKING HAN SOLO GOING THROUGH, YEAH. >> SO, PEOPLE THINK OF, YOU KNOW, ASTEROID BELTS AND THE KUIPER BELT AS BEING THIS SORT OF ROCK PILE IN SPACE. >> YES. >> AND IT’S, YOU KNOW, LITERALLY MILLIONS OF MILES BETWEEN LITTLE SPECKS OF THINGS. >> YEAH. SO, IS IT FAIR TO SAY THAT STUFF IN THE KUIPER BELT IS EVEN FARTHER AWAY? LIKE, ARE WE TALKING ABOUT-- >> OH YEAH. SO, THAT’S OUT BEYOND PLUTO. >> YEAH. >> ONE OF THE THINGS I’VE HEARD IS THAT WE COULD LAND ON AN ASTEROID, THOUGH. >> WE WERE WORKING-- WE HAVE THAT TECHNOLOGY TO MAKE THAT HAPPEN. >> IN FACT, THERE’S ONE OF OUR ESA BRETHREN ACROSS THE POND, THEY DID LAND ON A COMET. >> OH, REALLY? >> WHEN WAS THAT? >> JUST RECENTLY. BUT WE’VE-- WE WERE WORKING MISSIONS TO PUT DOWN ON AN ASTEROID AND SEE WHAT’S THERE. WE’VE MADE SOME COURSE DIRECTIONS AND NOW ARE MORE FOCUSED ON MARS. >> ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT A HUMAN MISSION? >> NO, IT WAS A ROBOTIC MISSION TO THE ASTEROID-- >> OKAY. >> --TO BRING BACK THE PIECE SO WE COULD STUDY IT HERE. >> OH, GOT IT. >> AROUND THE MOON. >> OKAY. OKAY. >> YOU COULD LAND ON THE ASTEROID, BUT IT HAS ALMOST NO GRAVITY. >> MORE LIKE RENDEZVOUS. >> YEAH. AND MOST PEOPLE THINK THAT THE MOONS OF MARS ARE CAPTURED ASTEROIDS. SO, PHOBOS AND DEIMOS. YOU COULD GO THERE. VERY LITTLE GRAVITY TO HOLD YOU ON THE SURFACE, THOUGH. >> OH. >> SO, THAT MAKES IT A LITTLE EASIER TO GET TO, SO YOU DON’T HAVE THAT GRAVITY WELD HE WAS TALKING ABOUT TO TRY AND EXTRACT YOURSELF FROM. >> RIGHT. >> OH, OKAY, SO YOU CAN ACTUALLY JUST-- WOULD YOU, IN A SCENARIO IF YOU WERE TO VISIT PHOBOS, RIGHT? IF-- WOULD YOU LAND ON PHOBOS AND THEN LAUNCH OFF AGAIN? OR WOULD YOU DO SORT OF AN ORBITAL THING. >> OR ANCHOR, RIGHT? >> ANCHOR, OKAY. >> YEAH, YOU COULD DO EITHER. YOU WOULD KIND OF DOCK WITH IT. >> YEAH. >> OH! >> YOU KNOW, BECAUSE IT WOULD JUST BE KIND OF ANOTHER THING FLOATING IN SPACE. >> AHH, SO, YOU’D ACTUALLY HAVE TO-- BY LANDING IT’S MORE LIKE GRABBING US. >> MORE LIKE THE BOAT IN THE PIER. >> OH. >> NEXT TO THE TIE-ON. DO WHATEVER EXPLORATION YOU COULD DO, PLANT THE FLAG. >> OKAY. VERY COOL. SO, I KNOW KIND OF GOING BACK, YOU KNOW, THINKING ABOUT JUST EXPLORING JUST DIFFERENT HEAVENLY BODIES, RIGHT? TALK ABOUT PHOBOS OR EVEN IF YOU WERE TO LAND ON STYX, RIGHT? THERE’S SOMETHING THAT WE LIKE TO CALL ISRU. THAT’S ONE OF THE THINGS THAT KIND OF WE’RE LOOKING AT. IN-SITU RESOURCE UTILIZATION, RIGHT? >> THERE YOU GO. >> IT’S USING THE STUFF THAT’S THERE TO CREATE MORE STUFF AND, I GUESS, IS THE VERY LAYMAN WAY OF SAYING THAT. >> RIGHT. >> SO, IF IT WAS RESOURCES. >> LIVING OFF THE LAND. >> LIVING OFF THE LAND! >> THAT’S A GOOD LAYMAN WAY OF PUTTING IT. >> THERE YOU GO. VERY COOL. SO, WHERE ARE SOME OF THE BEST PLACES WHERE YOU CAN LIVE OFF THE LAND THAT WE KNOW OF IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM? >> WELL, MARS IS PROBABLY THE EASIEST. MARS HAS AN ATMOSPHERE. >> AH. >> I MEAN, IT’S CARBON DIOXIDE. YOU COULD EASILY CRAFT CARBON DIOXIDE INTO OXYGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE AND USE THE OXYGEN TO BREATHE, OR TO MAKE MOST OF YOUR ROCKET FUEL. >> HMM. >> AND, IN FACT, WE HAVE AN EXPERIMENT FLYING IN 2020 TO MARS THAT’S GOING TO TEST EXACTLY THAT. SO, THAT-- AND IF THAT WORKS, AND IT SHOULD BECAUSE IT’S VERY SIMPLE CHEMISTRY, THAT MEANS THAT WE-- >> KNOCK ON WOOD. >> YOU DON’T NEED TO TAKE EVERYTHING WITH YOU ANYMORE. WHEN WE WENT TO THE MOON ORIGINALLY, WE TOOK EVERYTHING WE NEEDED. EVERY PIECE OF FOOD, EVERY BREATH OF OXYGEN, EVERY OUNCE OF WATER. IF YOU FIND THAT KIND OF STUFF ON PLANETS, THAT REALLY CHANGES THE EQUATION ENTIRELY BECAUSE NOW YOU’RE LIVING OFF THE LAND, YOU’RE LIVING OFF THE RESOURCES OF THOSE PLANETS. >> AND DO YOU THINK IT’S POSSIBLE TO ADD NUTRIENTS AND NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS OR WHATEVER IT TOOK TO PLANT-- >> POTATOES? >> POTATOES. >> PERHAPS. >> OR BEANS, OR CORN, OR WHATEVER. >> YEAH. >> YOU STILL NEED OXYGEN, THOUGH. >> WELL, YEAH, YOU NEED A LOT OF THINGS. SO, MARS’ SOIL HAS SOME OF THE THINGS YOU NEED FOR GROWING THINGS. YOU’D HAVE TO ADD NUTRIENTS AND YOU’D HAVE TO WASH A FEW OF THE OTHER THINGS OUT OF THE SOIL FIRST. >> RIGHT. >> BUT, YEAH, YOU COULD-- YOU COULD, WITH ENOUGH ADDITIVES, GROW STUFF IN MARS SOIL. >> SO, YOU COULD MAKE FUEL AND FOOD. >> YEP. >> 3D PRINTERS. THESE-- I HAVEN’T READ ENOUGH ABOUT THEM, BUT IS THAT PART OF WHAT IT IS? YOU TAKE THE ELEMENTS THAT ARE THERE AND YOU’RE ABLE TO FABRICATE SOMETHING THAT-- WHATEVER IS NECESSARY NEXT? OR IS THAT-- WHERE IS THAT? >> YEAH, I THINK 3D PRINTERS ARE ON THE STATION TODAY, SO, WE CAN BUILD-- IF SOMETHING BREAKS, WE DON’T HAVE TO WAIT TO FLY UP A PART. WE CAN BUILD IT. >> OKAY. >> THE PART. 3D PRINTERS FOR THE FUEL THAT HE WAS TALKING ABOUT, I THINK FUEL IS MORE OF A CHEMICAL ELEMENT THING. >> YEAH. >> SO, WE WOULDN’T REALLY PRINT ANYTHING, BUT WE WOULD CRAFT IT. >> WE ARE LOOKING, ACTUALLY, AT 3D PRINTERS TO TAKE-- LIKE THE SOIL, YOU COULD FIND ON MARS. >> YEAH. >> AND, YOU KNOW, YOU ADD SOME ADDITIVES TO IT AND YOU USE THE SOIL TO BUILD HABITATS AND THINGS LIKE THAT. IT WOULD BE A BIG-SCALE 3D PRINTER. THERE’S SOME NASA TECHNOLOGY GOING ON AT SOME OF OUR CENTERS TO LOOK AT THAT. SO, I THINK 3D PRINTING IS IN ITS INFANCY. AND WE HAVEN’T REALLY EVEN EXPLORED ALL THE COOL THINGS WE COULD DO WITH IT. >> YEAH. >> SO, YOU COULD MAKE A METAL ALLOY KIND OF A THING. >> SURE. THERE ARE ALREADY METAL 3D PRINTERS. >> OR EVEN AN EARTHEN PLACE TO LIVE IN. >> YEAH. >> YEAH. >> OUT OF THE SOIL YOURSELF. >> THAT’S WHAT I MEAN. >> YEAH. >> THAT YOU-- THE ELEMENTS ARE THERE TO BUILD IT. >> RIGHT. >> SO, YOU COULD ACTUALLY, YOU KNOW, CONSTRUCT SOMETHING BY BASICALLY DOING-- IT’S DOING THE MINING AND THE MANUFACTURING. >> AND IT HELPS IN A LOT OF WAYS IN THAT RADIATION IS A BIG PROBLEM FOR THE HUMAN BEING. >> RIGHT. >> AND THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE PROTECTS US. WE’RE LEAVING THAT BEHIND. >> OH, RIGHT. >> TO GO TO THESE OTHER PLACES. >> YEAH. >> SO, IF WE CAN’T BUILD OUT OF EARTH LIKE THEY USED TO DO IN WYOMING, OKLAHOMA, BUILD THE SOD HOUSES, SO TO SPEAK. THAT HELPS FROM THAT PERSPECTIVE AS WELL. >> HMM. >> TO HAVE ADDED PROTECTION THAN JUST THE SPHERICAL DOME THAT WE WOULD TAKE WITH US. >> I LOVE IT. I LOVE IT. >> AND ALL THE TECHNOLOGY IS ALMOST THERE, OR PRETTY MUCH THERE, ISN’T IT? >> FOR BUILDING HOUSES THROUGH 3D PRINTERS? >> WELL, FOR DOING ALL THOSE THINGS. IF YOU GET YOURSELF ON THE SITE. >> IT’S HIS JOB TO MAKE SURE IT IS. >> BUT IT’S-- >> SO, IT DOESN’T SEEM THAT OUTRAGEOUS >> NO, NO, NOT AT ALL. THAT’S WITHIN THE REALM OF TECHNOLOGIES THAT WE COULD HAVE IN THE TIMEFRAMES WE’RE LOOKING AT TO GO TO MARS. >> IS THERE ANY SORT OF “I WISH I HAD’S,” THAT YOU GUYS ARE THINKING OF? >> I WISH I HAD BETTER PROPULSION. >> AHH. >> BECAUSE RIGHT NOW, AS A SPECIES, WE ARE STUCK IN THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM. >> HMM. >> BECAUSE THE BEST WE HAVE IS CHEMICAL PROPULSION. YOU KNOW, WE’VE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY A LITTLE BIT SINCE APOLLO, BUT-- AND WE HAVE THINGS LIKE ELECTRIC PROPULSION NOW, BUT WE NEED SOME SORT OF DIFFERENT PROPULSION SYSTEMS, SOME SORE OF NEW PHYSICS TO REALLY TRAVEL AMONGST THE STARS OR REALLY TO GET OUT OF THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM. >> YEAH. >> SO, THAT’S MY BIG “I WISH I HAD.” >> SO, WITH CHEMICAL PROPULSION, REALISTICALLY, IF YOU-- IF YOU DESIGNED A MISSION TO GO LIKE WAY OUT IN THE EDGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM, HOW LONG IS THAT MISSION PROFILE? TO GO OUT TO THE EDGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND BACK. >> OH, MAN. >> OUTSIDE. >> YEAH, IT WOULD BE A MULTI-GENERATIONAL MISSION. >> YEAH. WOW. >> AND THAT’S THE PROBLEM WITH CHEMICAL PROPULSION. IT JUST-- IT’S JUST NOT GOING TO PUSH YOU FAST ENOUGH TO GET WHERE YOU WANT TO GO. BY THE TIME YOU GOT THERE, ANOTHER SPACECRAFT WOULD RACE PAST YOU WITH NEW TECHNOLOGY. >> RIGHT. >> WOULDN’T IT BE NICE WHERE YOU COULD JUST FLIP A SWITCH AND JUST, “I’M GOING LIGHT SPEED,” AND THEN, BAM! >> CAN YOU SPECULATE ON WHAT WOULD EXIST OTHER THAN CHEMICAL PROPULSION THEN? >> WELL, SO IF-- SO RIGHT NOW WE USE, YOU KNOW, WE COMBINE CHEMICALS, WE USE-- WE ACCELERATE IONS TO PUSH OURSELVES AROUND. THAT ALL REQUIRES US TO HAVE A FUEL. OKAY? THAT WE SOMEHOW ACCELERATE OFF-- OUT THE BACK-END OF A ROCKET. THE REAL-- THE NEXT BIG STEP IN PHYSICS WOULD COME IF YOU FIND A WAY WHERE YOU DON’T NEED FUEL, THAT YOU COULD SOMEHOW CREATE FORCE WITHOUT FUEL. >> RIGHT. >> AND THERE ARE SOME TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS AT NASA GOING ON RIGHT NOW THAT ARE LOOKING AT THAT. IF YOU’RE A BIG FAN OF “STAR TREK,” THAT’S KIND OF WHAT WARP DRIVE IS ALL ABOUT. >> YEAH. >> CAN YOU EXPLAIN THAT FOR ME? >> THAT WOULD-- I WOULD LOVE TO GET ANOTHER PODCAST. >> I READ SOMETHING ON AN ASTRONOMY SITE THAT I SOMEHOW LINK TO NOW ON FACEBOOK ABOUT SOME EXPERIMENTAL PROPULSION THING WHERE-- BECAUSE YOU’RE GENERALLY-- YOU’RE PUSHING OFF OF SOMETHING TO GO THE OTHER DIRECTION AND THERE WAS SOMETHING NEW THAT THEY WERE-- I DON’T KNOW IF THESE PLATES OR SOMETHING THAT SOMEHOW CREATED PROPULSION. >> YEAH, AND THAT’S THE NEW PHYSICS I’M TALKING ABOUT. WE NEED SOMETHING LIKE THAT TO GET THAT WORKING. AND WE DO HAVE AN ENGINEER HERE IN HOUSTON WHO’S WORKING ON A PROPULSION SYSTEM LIKE THAT. THEY-- SOME PEOPLE CALL IT THE QUANTUM THRUSTING. >> YES. >> IT PUSHES-- AND THEY DON’T REALLY UNDERSTAND WHY IT WORKS, BUT IT’S BEEN TRIED A COUPLE PLACES AROUND THE COUNTRY AND IT’S AT THE POINT WHERE YOU HAVE TO BE VERY SKEPTICAL ABOUT WHAT’S GOING ON. AND-- BUT IF IT WORKS, IT COULD CHANGE THE WHOLE EQUATION BECAUSE IT DOESN’T NEED FUEL. IT’S USING DIFFERENT FORCES THAT SOMEHOW IS PUSHING AGAINST SOMETHING AND MOVING IT. >> WELL THEN-- >> AGAIN, ANOTHER PODCAST. >> WE HEAR ABOUT GRAVITY ASSIST, RIGHT? >> MM-HMM. >> OKAY, SO, I MEAN, IS IT SOMETHING OF THAT NATURE? WHERE THERE’S SOME MAGNETIC EXCHANGE? >> NO, IT’S A LITTLE DIFFERENT. GRAVITY ASSIST IS-- THAT’S BASICALLY CAPTURING THE ENERGY OF A PLANET LIKE EARTH OR VENUS AND TAKING A LITTLE BIT OF THAT PLANET’S ENERGY AND TURNING IT INTO YOUR ENERGY AS YOU FLY BY. >> YEAH. >> AND WHAT’S GOOD ABOUT ROLLER DERBY AROUND THE EDGE, YOU GET A LITTLE ASSIST AROUND THE EDGE. >> YEAH. >> WHAT’S GOOD ABOUT GRAVITY ASSIST, AND CORRECT ME IF I’M WRONG, BUT IT’S A GOOD BANG FOR YOUR BUCK. YOU DON’T PUT A LOT OF ENERGY INTO IT AND WHAT YOU GET OUT OF THAT GRAVITY ASSIST IS A REALLY BIG BOOST. >> RIGHT. IN FACT, MOST OF THE TIMES YOU DON’T PUT ANY ENERGY INTO IT. >> OH, WOW! >> GET CAPTURED. >> BUT WHAT YOU’RE DOING IS YOU’RE BORROWING A LITTLE BIT OF ENERGY FROM THAT PLANET’S ORBIT. >> THAT’S INCREDIBLE. >> YEAH. >> SO, KIND OF THINKING ABOUT, YOU KNOW, GOING BACK TO MARS FOR A SECOND. SO, BACK TO A MARS MISSION. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS THAT WE HAVE TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT TO PUT HUMANS ON THE SURFACE, TO MAKE IT, I GUESS, FRIENDLY? >> FRIENDLY? >> HUMAN FRIENDLY. WHAT ARE THE THINGS WE’D HAVE TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT? >> WELL, GLENN COULD TALK MAYBE A LITTLE BIT ABOUT SPACE SUITES AND EVA. >> YEAH. >> BUT, FROM MY STANDPOINT, GETTING PEOPLE TO THE SURFACE. SO, IT’S ALL A MATTER OF CHANGING VELOCITIES, FIRST OF ALL, RIGHT? YOU HAVE TO LEAVE EARTH. YOU HAVE TO RIDE A BIG ROCKET. YOU THEN HAVE TO CHANGE YOUR VELOCITY ENOUGH TO THROW YOU OUT TOWARDS MARS. THEN YOU HAVE TO SLOW DOWN ONCE YOU GET TO MARS AND MAKE YOUR WAY THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE AND SLOW DOWN ENOUGH SO THAT BY THE TIME YOU GET TO THE SURFACE, YOUR RELATIVE VELOCITY IS ZERO. SO, ALL THAT-- ALL THOSE MIRACLES OF ROCKET PROPULSION AND ENTRY SYSTEMS THAT HAVE TO HAPPEN KEEP ME UP AT NIGHT. OKAY? THEN ONCE YOU GET TO THE SURFACE, YOU NEED SUPER RELIABLE SYSTEMS, BECAUSE AT MARS, LIKE YOU SAID, YOU DON’T HAVE A 7-ELEVEN NEXT DOOR. YOU DON’T HAVE A HANDYMAN YOU COULD CALL. YOU CAN’T SEND A SOYUZ OR A PROGRESS UP IN A COUPLE OF WEEKS WITH SOME NEW PARTS. SO, EVERYTHING HAS TO WORK FOR THE DURATION OF THE TIME YOU’RE THERE OR YOU HAVE TO BE ABLE TO FIX IT. AND SO, IT’S THAT SUPER HIGH RELIABILITY. >> YEAH. I THINK ANY ENDEAVOR ACROSS CIVILIZATION, THE LOGISTICS, LOGISTICS JUST GETS TO ME. IF THEY TAKE ON THE ALPS, THEY HAVE A TRAIN FULL OF DONKEYS BEHIND THEM TO GET THEM THERE. WE DON’T HAVE THAT LUXURY. SO, WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE STUFF THAT DOESN’T BREAK. AND WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE FOLKS THAT INSTEAD OF THE SUPER PILOT, HE’S THE REFRIGERATOR REPAIR GUY. HE CAN TEAR APART AND PUT IT BACK TOGETHER AND TRUST THAT IT WORKS BECAUSE HE’S LIVING OFF OF THAT MACHINE DOING ITS JOB. >> YEAH. >> SO, EVERYTHING THAT YOU HAVE IN THE GROCERY, YOU KNOW, OXYGEN, ET CETERA, YOU HAVE TO TAKE WITH YOU OR BUILD OR SUPPLY WHILE YOU’RE THERE. >> BUT IT TAKES GOOD PEOPLE TO DO THAT, RIGHT? YOU NEED FOLKS THAT HAVE KIND OF A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES THAT CAN ACTUALLY WORK ON THIS. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> SO, TELL ME, LAWRENCE, IN YOUR PERSPECTIVE KIND OF WHAT-- WHAT ARE SOME OF THE KEY FOLKS THAT YOU WOULD NEED TO BRING WITH YOU ON A MISSION OUT TO SPACE? >> WELL, YOU NEED SOMEONE WHO’S-- I WOULD THINK AN ENGINEER TYPE. >> DEFINITELY AN ENGINEER. >> WHO, YOU KNOW, WOULD BE SKEPTICAL AND THEN HAVE SOLUTIONS. AND I THINK YOU NEED SOMEBODY WHO’S GOT A GREAT IMAGINATION, WHO CAN FIGURE OUT HOW TO GET TO THE NEXT-- WHAT THE THING IS THAT YOU’RE TRYING TO GET TO. >> A LEADER. YEAH. IN A WAY, I GUESS. >> AND YOU NEED-- YOU NEED HANDS. YOU NEED HELPERS. AND WHO ARE ALSO-- WHO HAVE SPECIALTIES-- SPECIAL TALENTS OF THEIR OWN BECAUSE OTHERWISE YOU’RE JUST A LONELY, YOU KNOW, YOU’RE DOING IT ALL YOURSELF, YOU KNOW? IT’S KIND OF LIKE-- IT’S A LOT LIKE BEING IN A BAND. WE ALL SUPPORT EACH OTHER, OTHERWISE, OTHERWISE WE WOULD JUST BE ONE PERSON OUT THERE WITH A MICROPHONE. AND NO MATTER HOW GOOD YOU ARE, THERE’S LIMITS TO WHAT YOU CAN DO THERE. >> I THINK STYX WOULD SOUND A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT WITH JUST ONE MEMBER. YEAH. >> YEAH, YEAH. I THINK THE, YOU KNOW, WE TALK ABOUT THE MACHINES THAT ARE NECESSARY TO DO ALL THIS, BUT, AGAIN, TALKING TO ASTRONAUT DAN. >> YEAH. >> I THINK MEDICAL IS A HUGE NECESSITY BECAUSE OUR BODIES MORPH AND HAVE TO ADAPT AND THEY DO ADAPT AND CHANGE IN THEIR-- SO THAT CHANGES THE WHOLE EQUATION OF WHAT MEDICALLY IS REQUIRED, YOU KNOW, AS THE THING CONTINUES ON. SO, I’D SAY-- I’D SAY AN ENGINEER, A REALLY GOOD DOCTOR, AND, YOU KNOW, PROBABLY A GOOD DRUMMER OR BASS PLAYER. >> I WOULD ADD A COMMUNICATOR. >> OH, YEAH. >> SOMEONE WHO COULD TALK BACK TO THE FOLKS ON EARTH AND DESCRIBE, IN TERMS THEY UNDERSTAND, WHAT THEY ARE EXPERIENCING. >> HMM. >> AND THE OTHER THING IS YOU ALMOST HAVE TO HAVE TWO OF EVERYTHING, OR DOUBLE TRAINING. BECAUSE THAT DOCTOR, IF HE’S THE GUY THAT GETS THE PROBLEM-- >> YEAH. >> SOMEBODY ELSE NEEDS TO STEP IN. >> RIGHT. YOU WERE TELLING ME SOMETHING GREAT ABOUT THE-- OR, FRIGHTENING, ACTUALLY, ABOUT THE DUST ON MARS AFFECTING YOUR THYROID. THAT’S PART OF WHY MY BRAIN STARTED MOVING TOWARD THAT. >> YEAH. WE’VE GOT TO MAKE SURE WE SEPARATE THE BAD ACTORS FROM THE HUMAN ASPECT OF THAT. AND SO, ALL THE SYSTEMS WE’RE BUILDING, YOU SAW THE ROVER ITSELF. >> YEAH. >> THE SUIT’S PURPOSELY ON THE BACK SO THE DUST DOESN’T COME IN WITH YOU. IN APOLLO, WE DIDN’T HAVE THAT SEPARATION. >> RIGHT. >> IN THOSE DAYS, THEY USED ZIPPERS TO CLOSE UP THE SUIT AND DUST AND ZIPPERS DON’T LIKE EACH OTHER. >> RIGHT. >> THIS JUST IN. >> MM-HMM. >> AND SO, THE SUIT YOU SAW DIDN’T HAVE ANY ZIPPERS. WE’VE GONE AWAY FROM THAT NOW. >> RIGHT. >> SO, AND EVERYTHING’S ON THE BACK TO SEPARATE. SO, YEAH, THOSE ARE THE LITTLE DETAILS THAT GUYS THAT WORK WITH JOHN’S TEAMS ARE THINKING ABOUT EVERY SYSTEM. >> YEAH. AND IT KIND OF HELPS THAT WE’VE EXPLORED THE MOON, RIGHT? BECAUSE IF WE DIDN’T THINK ABOUT, “YEAH, YOU’RE GOING TO BE WALKING ON THE SURFACE, AND THEN, OH, YEAH, YOU’RE GOING TO TRACK ALL THAT DUST BACK INTO THE COCKPIT,” OR WHEREVER YOU’RE GOING TO BE FLYING FROM. NOW WE’RE DESIGNING, LIKE YOU SAID, YOU MENTIONED, IT’S CALL THE SEV, RIGHT? SPACE EXPLORATION VEHICLE? AND IT’S DESIGNED WHERE THE SUITS GO ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE VEHICLE SO YOU NEVER STEP INSIDE WITH THE SUIT, RIGHT? SO THAT’S THE GENERAL IDEA. AND THERE’S A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT EXAMPLES LIKE THAT, RIGHT? >> YEAH. >> WHERE YOU LEARN SOMETHING AND SOME KIND OF COOL NEW TECHNOLOGY THAT WE NEED TO EXPLORE A DIFFERENT PLANET OR SOMETHING COMES OUT OF IT. IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE THAT COMES-- THAT YOU CAN THINK OF BESIDES THE SUITS MAYBE? >> WELL, WE’LL HAVE ROBOTS TO ASSIST US THERE. ONE OF THE THINGS ABOUT THE HUMAN ASPECT OF THIS FLIGHT IS ROBOTS CAN GO AND DISCOVER THINGS, AND WE’VE GOT ROBOTS ON MARS RIGHT NOW DISCOVERING STUFF. BUT THEY REALLY CAN’T EXPLORE. THEY CAN’T-- THE HUMAN BRAIN TO SEE THINGS AND COMMUNICATE BACK TO EARTH WHAT THEY’RE SEEING OR IF SOMETHING DOESN’T GO EXACTLY THE WAY IT WAS SUPPOSED TO, TO REACT AND DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT. SO, ROBOTS ARE GOING TO BE A BIG PART OF THE MISSION AND HAVE THEM INTERACT WITH THIS. AND YOU GUYS SAW SOME ROBOTS TODAY THAT WILL BE ALONG AS AN ASSIST. >> MM-HMM. >> SO, GOT TO MAKE SURE THEY DO THEIR JOB AS WELL. >> SO, THE ROBOTS WILL BE HELPING LIKE A HUMAN-- SO, FOR A MISSION-- OR, A MISSION TO MARS. RIGHT? HOW MANY CREW MEMBERS WOULD WE PROBABLY-- WOULD PROBABLY BE IDEAL TO TAKE ON A MISSION TO MARS? >> SO, MY NUMBER IS SIX. >> SIX, OKAY. >> OKAY? AND WE’VE DONE WHAT WE CALL CREW SKILL MIX STUDIES OVER THE YEARS. >> OKAY. >> AND IT’S LIKE GLENN SAID, YOU HAVE TO TAKE A DOCTOR BUT YOU ALSO HAVE TO TAKE ANOTHER PERSON WHO’S MEDICALLY TRAINED IN CASE THE DOCTOR GETS SICK. YOU NEED ENGINEERS, YOU NEED GEOLOGISTS, YOU NEED ALL THE TECHNICAL-- IF YOU ADD UP ALL THE TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS, YOU PROBABLY NEED 25 PEOPLE. SO, THEN IT’S A MATTER OF HOW CAN YOU CROSS-TRAIN PEOPLE TO DO-- TO BE A DOCTOR/PILOT/GEOLOGIST. OKAY? >> WOW! >> AND THE BEST I’VE SEEN IS THAT YOU CAN PUT ALL THOSE SPECIALTIES INTO ABOUT SIX PEOPLE. >> WOW! THAT’S AMAZING. I MEAN, SOME OF THE FOLKS FROM THE NEW ASTRONAUT CLASS, RIGHT? I ACTUALLY HAD THE PLEASURE OF TALKING TO SOME OF THEM AND WE WENT THROUGH-- I TALKED WITH ANNE ROEMER ON ONE OF THE EARLIER PODCAST EPISODES AND WE JUST WENT THROUGH ALL OF THE DIFFERENT FOLKS THAT WE BROUGHT ON FOR THE CLASS OF 2017. WE HAVE 12 NEW ASTRONAUTS. EACH OF THEM DOES NOT JUST ONE THING. >> RIGHT. >> THEY DO A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT THINGS. >> YEAH. >> FOR EXAMPLE, WOODY HOBURG IS AN ENGINEER IN FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF-- HE’S LIKE COMPUTER SCIENCE, AND ELECTRICAL, AND AEROSPACE, AND MECHANICAL. LIKE HE’S ALL OF THEM. AND THEN WHEN YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT A DOCTOR PILOT, FRANK RUBIO IS A DOCTOR PILOT. HE FLEW HELICOPTERS, AND THEN HE DID SOME SKYDIVING, BUT THEN ALSO IS A MEDICAL DOCTOR BY TRAINING. IT’S INSANE. SO, THEY’RE FINDING THESE FOLKS THAT HAVE ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT SPECIALITIES, BUT WHEN YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT SCIENTIST/MEDICAL DOCTOR/PILOT AND THEN YOU HAVE ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT FOLKS THAT ARE SLASH, SLASH, SLASH, IT’S AMAZING. I HAVE-- >> AND I WOULD RECOMMEND HAVING-- BEING ABLE TO PLAY AN INSTRUMENT. >> AND MANY ASTRONAUTS KNOW HOW TO. >> RIGHT. >> YEAH. >> WE HAVE GUITARS AND OTHER THINGS UP IN SPACE RIGHT NOW. >> YEAH. >> BECAUSE MUSIC IS REALLY A PART OF LIFE. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> AND IT’S ONE THING TO HAVE PRE-RECORDED MUSIC, BUT TO CREATE MUSIC AND MAKE YOUR OWN MUSIC WOULD BE PART OF IT. BECAUSE YOU NEED JOY. >> YEAH. ABSOLUTELY. >> YOU CAN’T DO-- NOT JUST WORKING ALL THE TIME. YOU NEED TO HAVE THE JOY OF LIFE. >> AND YOU’RE RIGHT, SOME OF THE-- SO, RIGHT, AS WE WERE SAYING, WE HAVE PROGRESSED FROM SHUTTLE FLIGHTS, WHICH WERE A COUPLE OF DAYS, ALL THE WAY UP TO NOW INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FLIGHTS, WHICH ARE SEVERAL MONTHS. >> YEAH. >> SO, THEY’RE UP THERE FOR A LONG TIME AND A LOT OF THEM, LIKE YOU SAY, THEY DO BRING INSTRUMENTS. >> YEAH, CHRIS HADFIELD. >> WE HAVE-- CHRIS HADFIELD HAS HIS GUITAR, RIGHT? >> HE’S GREAT. >> HE’S JAMMIN’. WE’VE HAD FOLKS BRING FLUTES. >> CADY COLEMAN. >> CADY COLEMAN, RIGHT. AND THEN I THINK KJELL LINDGREN BROUGHT BAGPIPES, RIGHT? >> WOW! >> THEY MADE HIM PRACTICE WAY ON THE OTHER SIDE. >> YEAH! >> HE WASN’T INVITED BACK! >> YOU KNOW WHAT, IT’S FUNNY. YEAH, I THINK SIX IS A GOOD NUMBER. THERE’S SIX MEMBERS OF STYX AS WELL, AND WE ARE VERY GOOD AT THE MUSIC PART. >> WE DO HAVE A MECHANICAL ENGINEER. >> WELL, WE DO. WE HAVE ONE. THAT’S RIGHT. J.Y. HAS A DEGREE IN ROCKET SCIENCE. >> REALLY? >> HE DOES, ACTUALLY. >> THERE YOU GO! >> AND, YOU KNOW, JUST LIKE A BAND, A CREW HAS TO BE A VERY COHESIVE GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO GET ALONG AND KNOW HOW TO SOLVE THEIR CONFLICTS WITHOUT LEAVING THE BAND. >> RIGHT. >> BECAUSE THERE’S NO PLACE TO GO UP THERE. >> YEAH. >> BECAUSE THEY ARE CONSTANTLY, THEY ARE ADJUSTING TO THINGS, YOU KNOW? AND YOU’RE-- A LOT OF TIMES YOU’RE WORKING ON NOT ENOUGH SLEEP, THE WEATHER DOESN’T COOPERATE WITH YOU, YOU’RE GOING INTO THESE HABITATS THAT ARE DIFFERENT EVERY DAY, AND DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS OF HOW OUR-- OUR DRESSING ROOM SOMETIMES WE’RE ALL IN ONE ROOM, SOMETIMES WE’RE IN-- WE HAVE INDIVIDUAL ROOMS. SO, YOU HAVE TO BE ADAPTABLE AND FLEXIBLE AND KNOW WHEN YOU ARE FATIGUED AND-- >> MM-HMM. >> YEP. >> AND KNOW YOURSELF. AND BEING IN A BAND IS-- WE’RE VERY FORTUNATE TO HAVE THE GROUP THAT WE HAVE BECAUSE SOMEHOW WE’VE-- WE JUST GET THROUGH IT ALL, DO WHAT WE NEED TO DO, ADAPT, AND THEN AT THE END OF THE NIGHT WE GET TO GO PLAY, AND THAT’S REALLY WHAT IT’S ALL ABOUT. YOU’RE WILLING TO GO THROUGH WHATEVER IT TAKES TO GET THERE AND TO GET THAT 75 OR 90 OR 100 MINUTES. >> YEAH. >> I THINK THAT’S-- THAT IS WHAT BEING A BAND IS SOMEWHAT AKIN TO WHAT YOU’RE SAYING. LIKE, YOU HAVE TO-- YOU HAVE TO KEEP-- THE FOCUS HAS TO REMAIN ON WHAT’S BIGGER THAN ANY ONE INDIVIDUAL. AND TO BE ABLE TO NAVIGATE YOUR WAY THROUGH THE-- HUMAN CONFLICT IS PART OF LIFE, AND IT’S PART OF DISCOVERY, AND IT’S PART OF THE FRICTION THAT BRINGS NEW THINGS ABOUT. BUT, TO DO THAT OVER AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME, AS THESE PEOPLE WOULD BE-- A CREW OF SIX WOULD BE FACED WITH, THEY HAVE TO HAVE THOSE KINDS OF SKILLS IN ADDITION TO ALL THOSE OTHER TALENTS. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> SO, THAT’S HARD. HOW DO YOU? IT’S HARD TO PICK THOSE PEOPLE. >> IT’LL TAKE A WHILE TO GO THROUGH THAT EVALUATION. WE’LL HAVE LOTS OF CANDIDATES TO LINE UP FOR THOSE SIX SPOTS. >> YEAH. >> IT’S GOING TO FUNDAMENTALLY BE A DIFFERENT KIND OF ASTRONAUT THAN WE’VE HAD BEFORE, JUST BECAUSE OF THE LENGTH OF THE MISSION, AND THE SELF-RELIANCE, AND YOU DON’T HAVE-- EVEN COMMUNICATIONS. RIGHT NOW, IF WE WERE TO TALK TO SOMEONE ON MARS, YOU’RE 22 LIGHT MINUTES AWAY, ONE WAY. SO, IF YOU WERE TO ASK THEM, “HEY, CAN YOU GUYS HEAR ME?” YOU ALL CAN’T ANSWER BACK UNTIL 44 MINUTES LATER. AND SO, EVEN THE DYNAMICS OF HOW WE CONTROL A MISSION AND HOW WE CAN HELP THE PEOPLE UP THERE IS GOING TO BE DIFFERENT. SO, IT’S GOING TO BE A MUCH DIFFERENT MISSION THAN ANYTHING WE’VE EVER DONE, EVEN OUT TO THE MOON. >> AND I THINK WHAT’S EVEN-- YOU KNOW, ANOTHER IMPORTANT POINT IS THE FACT THAT THESE GUYS ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE NOT ONLY-- THEY’RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE SO MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXPERTISE, BUT THEY’RE GOING TO BE TOGETHER FOR SUCH A LONG PERIOD OF TIME, SO THEY DEFINITELY HAVE TO GET ALONG PRETTY WELL. AND, YOU KNOW, IN MOMENTS OF CRISIS THEY HAVE TO KIND OF WORK THROUGH DIFFERENT SITUATIONS TOGETHER. AND AT THE DROP OF A HAT, ONE THING YOU’RE PLANNING ONE WAY, AND THEN IT’S GOING TO GO A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT WAY. DO YOU GUYS HAVE ANY EXAMPLES ON STAGE WHERE SOMETHING JUST IS NOT GOING ACCORDING TO PLAN? >> EVERY NIGHT, YEAH. >> EVERY NIGHT! >> ABSOLUTELY. >> BUT I MEAN, YOU JUST HAVE TO PUSH THROUGH, RIGHT? >> YEAH, AS A BAND, YOU JUST-- YOU JUST PAY ATTENTION TO EACH OTHER, AND YOU GET-- IF IT GOES OFF THE RAILS, WHICH IT DOES SOMETIMES, BECAUSE YOU’RE ALL HUMAN-- >> YEAH. >> EVERYBODY JUST FOLLOWS YOU BACK-- OFF THE RAILS AND THEN BACK ON AGAIN. >> YEAH. >> AND YOU DON’T LET ON. >> YEAH, I HEAR YA! >> YEAH. IT’S A TWO-SIDED THING. ONE IS THAT THE MACHINERY HAS TO WORK IN ORDER FOR YOU TO PLAY IT PROPERLY. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, WE’RE ALL FOCUSED ON THE ENTERTAINMENT OF THE AUDIENCE AS TO WHAT WE’RE DOING ON STAGE. SO, THAT’S MORE LIKE THE BIGGER PICTURE IS CONSTANTLY BEING READJUSTED TO. >> YEAH. >> AND THAT HAS TO BE-- SOME OF THAT’S DONE ALMOST-- I MEAN, I WON’T SAY IT’S TELEPATHIC, BUT IT’S JUST A NATURAL REACTION THAT YOU HAVE TO EACH MEMBER OF THE GROUP, BECAUSE YOU REALLY ARE PLAYING TOGETHER. YOU’RE TRYING TO SPEAK AS ONE VOICE. >> YEAH. >> THAT COHESIVENESS IS WHAT WE’VE GOT TO STRIVE FOR IN OUR CREWS. >> YEAH. >> AND WE’LL HAVE INTERNATIONAL CREWS, SO WE’LL BE MIXING CULTURES, AS WELL, BUT THAT COHESIVENESS IS WHAT IS GOING TO MAKE US SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL. >> WELL, THAT WOULD HINDER OUR FLIGHT. >> AND THAT WAS SO EVIDENT TODAY ABOUT HOW THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA HAVE COMBINED, AND WHEN THEY’RE SOMETIMES AT ODDS WITH EACH OTHER IS WHEN FINALLY A BETTER SOLUTION COMES OUT OF A SITUATION. >> AND WE’RE PRACTICING THAT WITH THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION RIGHT NOW. >> YEAH. >> TWELVE, THIRTEEN COUNTRIES ALL PARTICIPATING, MAKING THAT THING A SUCCESS. >> ABSOLUTELY! >> A CANADARM CAME, LIKE-- [ INDISTINCT ] >> SO, YOU KNOW, ONE OF THE THINGS IS WE TRAIN ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ALL THE TIME. AND WE’RE TRAINING FOR MISSIONS BEYOND AND GETTING OURSELVES PREPARED. IF ANYTHING GOES WRONG, WE’LL BE PREPARED FOR IT BECAUSE WE’VE PRACTICED SO MANY TIMES. AND I’M GUESSING IT’S THE SAME FOR YOU GUYS, RIGHT? YOU’VE PRACTICED SO MANY TIMES THAT IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG, AT THE DROP OF A HAT, YOU CAN KIND OF-- YOU KNOW, THAT’S HOW YOU’RE ABLE TO PULL THROUGH ON ALL THESE NIGHTS. >> HOW ABOUT THE NIGHT IN CARMEL EARLIER THIS YEAR WHEN THE POWER COMPLETELY WENT OUT, 100%? YEAH. AND FORTUNATELY, WE WERE IN A THEATER THAT KIND OF HAD A-- IT HAD AN ALMOST STEEPLE-LIKE CHURCH TYPE THING. SO ALTHOUGH THERE WERE A COUPLE OF THOUSAND PEOPLE THERE, YOU COULD ACTUALLY HEAR FROM THE STAGE ACOUSTICALLY. SO, WE BASICALLY-- THIS WAS GREAT. >> WHILE WE WERE PLAYING A SONG! I HAD TO PLAY AN ACOUSTIC. >> OH, RIGHT! MAN IN THE WILDERNESS. >> EVERYTHING STOPPED. >> YEAH. >> BUT THE DRUMS WERE ACOUSTIC AND MY GUITAR WAS ACOUSTIC, SO WE JUST KEPT PLAYING. >> JUST IT TURNED INTO AN ACOUSTICS! OH, WOW! THAT’S AMAZING. >> YEAH. AN UNPLUGGED SET, RIGHT? >> THE WEIRD THING IS THE AUDIENCE, LIKE, THEY GOT TOTALLY INTO IT. AND THEN EVENTUALLY WE FOUND A PIANO ABOUT FOUR FLOORS DOWN, SO PEOPLE ON HAND LOVED THE PIANO. IT WASN’T IN GREAT TUNE OR ANYTHING, BUT WE PLAYED FOR ABOUT ANOTHER HALF HOUR BEFORE THE-- WE WERE OUT OF HYPERGOLIC FUMES. >> THAT’S FLEXIBILITY, ADAPTABILITY. THERE YOU GO! >> NO REFUNDS, WHICH WAS GREAT. >> THOSE ARE THE ONES YOU CAN REMEMBER, TOO, THOUGH. IT’S LIKE WHEN IT RAINS, OR YOU HAVE SOME KIND OF NATURAL THING THAT GETS IN THE WAY OF IT. THOSE ARE THE ONES THAT YOU REMEMBER BECAUSE YOU SEE-- YOU REALLY SEE WHAT THE BAND IS MADE OF, YOU KNOW, AND HOW YOU GET THROUGH THAT. AND YOUR AUDIENCE. THEY’RE WILLING TO-- IF THEY’RE WILLING TO WAIT AND STAY THROUGH THE WEATHER, THEN WE’RE CERTAINLY GOING TO DO IT. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> AND YOU MENTIONED EARLIER KIND OF THE BIG PICTURE OF THE ENTERTAINMENT OF THE AUDIENCE. MARS IS REALLY A DESTINATION, BUT GETTING THERE, WE HAVE TO SOLVE A LOT OF DIFFERENT PROBLEMS THAT WE HOPE TO DRIVE RIGHT BACK INTO LIFE HERE ON EARTH, TO MAKE LIFE ON EARTH EVEN BETTER FOR US AS MANKIND. >> RIGHT. >> BY SOLVING THE PROBLEMS THAT WOULD GO INTO THIS PLACE. SO, MARS IS A GREAT DRAW BECAUSE IT REALLY PUSHES US TO SOLVE SOME PRETTY TOUGH PROBLEMS. WATER RECLAMATION FOR THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES. >> RIGHT. >> WE HAVE TO HAVE PURE WATER FOR THIS TRIP. SO, THOSE KIND OF SPIN-OFFS ARE PART OF WHAT WE DO, AS WELL, IN THE BIG PICTURE. >> YEAH, FOR SURE. >> THOSE ARE KIND OF-- TO YOUR POINT, LAWRENCE, WHERE YOU HAVE ALL THIS TECHNOLOGY AND YOU HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT THAT, BUT THEN ULTIMATELY THE GOAL. THE GOAL FOR US IS MARS. THE GOAL FOR YOU GUYS IS THE ENTERTAINMENT OF THE AUDIENCE. SO, EVERYTHING HAS TO WORK, BUT IF IT DOESN’T, YOU STILL HAVE TO ACHIEVE THAT GOAL. >> YEAH. >> AND THAT’S WHERE YOU-- YOU’RE BRINGING A PIANO FROM FOUR FLOORS UNDER TO STILL ACHIEVE THAT GOAL. AND IT’S WORKING. >> YEAH. >> BUT I GUESS FOR SPACE IT’S JUST A TEENY BIT HARDER. >> I THINK SO. >> YEAH, NO EXTRA PIANO. >> NO, EXACTLY. >> THAT’S ONE OF THE HARDEST PARTS FOR US, IS LIKE WHEN YOU-- TO YOUR POINT, JOHN, WHEN YOU WERE SAYING FOR APOLLO MISSIONS, WE BROUGHT EVERYTHING WITH US, RIGHT? NO SPARE PARTS. I THINK A PERFECT EXAMPLE IS APOLLO 13, WHERE THINGS WERE GOING WRONG. WE DIDN’T HAVE SPARE PARTS TO FIX THINGS, BUT WE STILL FIXED THEM WITH THE STUFF WE HAD ON BOARD, RIGHT? YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT ENGINEERS GETTING TOGETHER IN MISSION CONTROL AND JUST LAYING OUT ALL THE STUFF THAT THEY KNEW WAS IN THE CAPSULE AND SAYING, “ALL RIGHT, HOW CAN WE FIX THIS ISSUE?” WE ACTUALLY HAD SOMETHING VERY RECENTLY, TOO, WHERE WE HAD-- WE WERE DOING A SPACE WALK A COUPLE OF MONTHS AGO, RIGHT, AND WE WERE SUPPOSED TO PUT A SHIELD ON THE OUTSIDE OF ONE OF THE MODULES. WELL, THE SHIELD GOT INADVERTENTLY LOST. SO, THERE WERE FOUR SHIELDS, AND WE WERE SUPPOSED TO PUT UP ONE, TWO, THREE, AND THEN THERE’S THIS EXPOSED PART ON ONE SIDE, AND WE NEEDED TO COVER IT UP. WELL, IT JUST SO HAPPENED THAT DURING THE SAME SPACE WALK WE TOOK ANOTHER COVER OFF OF ANOTHER PART OF THE SPACECRAFT. SO, ENGINEERS TOOK THAT COVER AND SAID, “OKAY, HOW CAN WE FIT THIS COVER ONTO THIS PART?” IT WAS LIKE-- IT WAS KIND OF REMINISCENT OF THAT TIME WHERE YOU HAD TO THROW EVERYTHING-- ALL RIGHT, WHAT DO WE HAVE AND WHAT CAN WE DO? AND THEY FIGURED IT OUT. THEY ACTUALLY FIGURED OUT HOW TO LAY THIS COVER OVER THAT EXPOSED PART. INSANE. THAT’S, I GUESS, OUR GRAND PIANO MOMENT, RIGHT? >> THAT’S GOT TO BE A GREAT DAY FOR THE CREW, THOUGH, TO-- >> OH, IT REALLY WAS. >> FOR EVERYBODY. TO SOLVE THAT PROBLEM. >> I THINK WHAT’S EVEN BETTER IS DURING THAT SPACE WALK, I THINK WE GOT EVERYTHING DONE, RIGHT? >> OH, YEAH. >> I THINK ALL THE MISSIONS WERE-- EVEN WITH THAT SETBACK, WE STILL ACCOMPLISHED THE MISSION AND GOT EVERYTHING DONE WE NEEDED TO. IT’S REALLY CRAZY. AND THAT’S THE STUFF WE’VE GOT TO PREPARE FOR. AND THAT’S THE STUFF YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT, RIGHT? AND WHAT HAPPENS-- HOW MANY SITUATIONS, JOHN, ARE YOU THINKING, “OKAY, IF THIS GOES WRONG, THIS IS WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO”? HOW MANY TIMES DO YOU THINK THAT IN A DAY? >> HOW LONG DO YOU GOT? >> SO, WE WILL TAKE SOME SPARES WITH US, OKAY? >> YEAH! >> WE’RE NOT JUST GOING TO HAVE THE BOX OF STUFF WE HAVE. >> YEAH, YEAH. >> BECAUSE WE KNOW THAT OVER TIME SOME THINGS BREAK. AND SO, WHAT WE’RE LOOKING AT IS WHAT THINGS ARE MOST LIKELY TO BREAK, AND WE’LL TAKE SPARES FOR THOSE AND FIGURE OUT WAYS TO FIX THE STUFF THAT GOES WRONG. SO, YEAH, YOU CAN’T ASSUME EVERYTHING IS GOING TO WORK JUST RIGHT. >> MM-HMM. >> SO, A LOT OF THE PLANNING WE DO IS FIGURING OUT WHAT TOOLS, WHAT SPARES, WHAT MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT TO TAKE WITH US TO FIX STUFF THAT’S GOING TO GO WRONG, BECAUSE THAT’S ALL WE GOT, YOU KNOW? NO PIANO IN THE BASEMENT. >> YEAH, HE HAS A TERM CALLED DISSIMILAR REDUNDANCY. SO, ELECTRIC GUITAR AND AN ACOUSTIC GUITAR. >> YEAH. >> THAT’S ON STAGE WITH YOU. AND SO WE HAVE SOMETHING THAT BUILDS OXYGEN AND SOMETHING ELSE THAT BUILDS OXYGEN OVER HERE, IN CASE THIS ONE FAILS. >> AND, YOU KNOW, AT A CERTAIN YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE A LOT OF HARDWARE ON MARS. SO, IT STANDS TO REASON THAT YOU COULD DO-- YOU COULD SALVAGE PARTS, AND-- >> OH, SURE, YEAH. >> AND THAT’S WHY IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO USE THE SAME SIZE SCREWS FOR EVERYTHING AND THINGS LIKE THAT. >> YEAH. >> WOW, AMAZING. SO, BEFORE WE WRAP UP, LAWRENCE, TOMMY, DO YOU HAVE ANY SORT OF-- JUST TALKING ABOUT EXPLORING THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND ALL THESE DIFFERENT THINGS, DO YOU HAVE ANY SORT OF FLOATING QUESTIONS THAT, YOU KNOW, JUST SORT OF POPPED UP, JUST BASED ON THE TOUR AND THIS KIND OF CONVERSATION? ANYTHING THAT YOU WERE WONDERING? OR MAYBE SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT STUFF THAT YOU WEREN’T WONDERING BUT HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NOW? >> WELL, WHAT ABOUT, YOU KNOW, YOU ALWAYS SEE SUSPENDED ANIMATION, OR LIKE-- IS THERE ANY REALITY TO THAT CONCEPT? >> IT MAKES FOR GOOD ENTERTAINING. >> YEAH, THAT’S-- I’M AN ENGINEER. THAT’S WAY OUT OF MY EXPERTISE. >> YEAH, THAT-- WE’LL HAVE TO BRING A DOCTOR IN FOR THAT. NO, I DON’T THINK WE’RE DOING MUCH IN THOSE FIELDS, THAT I KNOW OF, ANYWAY. >> THAT IS-- IT’S A GOOD TOOL TO GET YOU PLACES WHEN YOU’RE TELLING A STORY. >> YEP. >> ABSOLUTELY. BUT YOU KNOW, FOR THE MISSIONS THAT YOU GUYS ARE PLANNING FOR, YOU’RE TALKING-- YOU KNOW, HOW WILL THEY GET THROUGH THOSE COUPLE OF MONTHS? BECAUSE WHAT YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT, I THINK THE SHORTEST TIME TO GET TO MARS WILL BE SEVEN MONTHS, RIGHT? MAYBE CLOSER TO NINE. WHAT ARE THEY GOING TO BE DOING IN THAT TIME TO SORT OF FILL IT? >> SO, THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION. SO, THEY’RE GOING TO BE EXERCISING LIKE CRAZY, BECAUSE YOU WANT TO ARRIVE AT MARS AS HEALTHY AS YOU COULD POSSIBLY BE. >> YEAH. >> THEY’RE GOING TO BE KEEPING THE SYSTEMS RUNNING. BUT THEY’RE GOING TO BE DOING AS MUCH SCIENCE AS THEY CAN ON THE WAY, TOO. NOW, MOST OF THE SCIENCE WILL PROBABLY BE SCIENCE ON THEMSELVES, SCIENCE ON THE HUMANS. BECAUSE WE’VE NEVER BEEN IN THAT DEEP SPACE CONDITION FOR THAT LONG BEFORE. THERE’S ALSO-- YOU KNOW, WE’VE ACTUALLY BEEN TALKING ABOUT THEM DOING ASTRONOMY ALONG THE WAY. SO, THERE WILL BE REAL SCIENCE THAT THEY ACCOMPLISH, NOT JUST TRYING TO STAY HEALTHY. >> DO WE HAVE A GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF HOW, YOU KNOW, THE SKY, I GUESS, WILL LOOK ON THAT TRANSIT TO MARS? WILL YOU BE ABLE TO SEE A LOT OF DIFFERENT STARS? >> YEAH. IN FACT, THAT’S ALL YOU’LL BE ABLE TO SEE. >> ALL RIGHT, COOL! BECAUSE I GUESS THE VIEWS-- >> BECAUSE THE EARTH IS GOING TO BECOME A LITTLE BLUE DOT VERY QUICKLY. >> YEAH. >> AND MARS WILL STILL BE OUR LITTLE RED DOT OUT THE OTHER WINDOW. >> SUN’S GETTING SMALLER AND SMALLER. >> YEAH, THE SUN IS JUST A KIND OF A BIGGER STAR IN THE SKY, AND EVERYTHING ELSE IS JUST STARS. >> AMAZING. BUT WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT WEIGHT, RIGHT? THAT’S ONE OF THE THINGS WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT. HOW MUCH STUFF CAN WE BRING WITH US ON THAT JOURNEY TO MARS? >> JUST ENOUGH. THAT’S HOW MUCH WE CAN BRING. >> SO NOW I’M GUESSING TELESCOPES IS PART OF THAT JUST ENOUGH. >> RIGHT. >> OH, YEAH. >> YEAH. IN SPACE, IN THE HUMAN SPACE TRAVEL, MASS IS ALMOST EQUAL TO COST, RIGHT? >> YEAH. >> SO, YOU KNOW, FOR EVERY BIT OF MASS YOU ADD, YOU’RE ADDING COST, BECAUSE YOU HAVE TO BOOST IT INTO SPACE AND GET IT TO WHERE YOU NEED TO GET IT. SO, EVERYTHING WE DO IS ALL ABOUT SAVING MASS. IN THE APOLLO MISSIONS, THEY ACTUALLY SAWED THE HANDLE OFF OF TOOTHBRUSHES TO SAVE MASS. >> WOW. >> HUH! >> JUST BECAUSE MASS WAS SO PRECIOUS BACK THEN. >> UNBELIEVABLE. >> THEY FIGURE YOU COULD USE A TOOTHBRUSH THAT HAS A LITTLE ONE INCH HANDLE ON IT AS GOOD AS YOU CAN USE A TOOTHBRUSH THAT HAS A SIX INCH HANDLE ON IT. >> WOW. >> WOW, THAT’S AMAZING. THAT’S CHECK-IN LUGGAGE, RIGHT THERE. >> YEAH. A LITTLE BIT STRICTER RESTRICTIONS THAN THE TSA, I THINK, FOR SPACE FLIGHT. >> YEAH, YEAH. >> ANY MORE DYING QUESTIONS BEFORE WE WRAP UP? >> I DON’T HAVE ANYTHING-- I DON’T KNOW IF I HAVE ANYTHING PERTINENT TO EITHER OF YOU GUYS, BECAUSE I THINK THE THING THAT IMPRESSED ME TODAY, AGAIN, WAS WHEN DAN WAS TALKING ABOUT HOW MUCH EXERCISE. LIKE YOU WERE SAYING, YOU HAVE TO ARRIVE THERE HEALTHY. IT JUST GOT ME THINKING A LOT ABOUT HOW MUCH WE-- OUR BODIES CHANGE WHEN WE’RE AWAY FROM THIS PLANET, AND OVER SUCH A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. AND THAT GETS ME THINKING ABOUT, WELL, WHAT WILL HUMANITY LOOK LIKE? HOW WOULD-- WHAT WILL WE BE LIKE ONCE WE’VE SPENT A FEW YEARS SOMEWHERE ELSE? LIKE, IT COULD ACTUALLY PHYSICALLY CHANGE US INCREDIBLY. ONE OF THE GOOD THINGS I HEARD IS APPARENTLY YOUR WRINKLES GO AWAY. >> THAT’S GOOD. >> BUT I MEAN, AS A SPECIES, IT ACTUALLY WILL CHANGE US. >> YEAH, I THINK IF WE-- IF THERE’S PEOPLE WHO ACTUALLY ARE BORN AND LIVE ON MARS, WITHIN A FEW GENERATIONS, YEAH, YOU WILL BE CHANGED BECAUSE YOU’RE LIVING IN A LOWER GRAVITY ENVIRONMENT YOUR ENTIRE LIFE AND-- SURE. >> MIGHT EVEN DEVELOP IMMUNITIES TO SOME OF THE THINGS THAT YOU WERE TALKING ABOUT EARLIER, GLENN, BUT, YOU KNOW, CERTAIN THINGS-- I DON’T KNOW. I’M JUST SPITBALLING HERE. >> YEAH! >> IF I HAD A CHANCE, I’LL TALK TO MY GREAT-GREAT-GREAT-GRANDSON ONE DAY, AND I’LL ASK HIM THE QUESTION. >> YEAH, GOOD! >> YEAH, AWESOME. WELL, GUYS, IT’S BEEN AN ABSOLUTE PLEASURE TO BOTH TALK TO YOU AS A PART OF THIS PODCAST, BUT ALSO HAVE YOU HERE TODAY AND KIND OF SHOW YOU EVERYTHING THAT WE’RE DOING. AND IT’S JUST SO EXCITING TO SEE HOW ENGAGED YOU WERE AND TO-- YOU KNOW, IT’S BEEN A REAL ABSOLUTE PLEASURE. AND, OF COURSE, JOHN AND GLENN, THANKS FOR TALKING ABOUT THE REAL SCIENCE THAT WE’RE DOING HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. >> THANK YOU FOR HAVING US. >> THANKS FOR ASKING US. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> IT WAS UNFORGETTABLE. [ MUSIC ] [ INDISTINCT RADIO CHATTER ] >> NOT BECAUSE THEY ARE EASY, BUT BECAUSE THEY ARE HARD. >> HOUSTON, WELCOME TO SPACE. >> HEY, THANKS FOR STICKING AROUND. SO TODAY WE TALKED WITH GLENN LUTZ, JOHN CONNOLLY, AND SOME OF THE MEMBERS OF STYX, JUST ABOUT EXPLORING THE COSMOS AND HUMAN EXPLORATION. IT WAS A FANTASTIC CONVERSATION, AS YOU PROBABLY KNOW, BECAUSE YOU’VE LISTENED TO THE WHOLE THING AT THIS POINT. BUT IF YOU GO TO NASA.GOV ON THE FRONT PAGE YOU CAN SEE ALL OF THE THINGS THAT WE’RE EXPLORING, ALL THE PLACES WE ARE IN THE UNIVERSE, BOTH ROBOTIC MISSIONS AND HUMAN MISSIONS. IF YOU WANT TO KNOW JUST ABOUT EXPLORING THE COSMOS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN EXPLORATION, GO TO NASA.GOV/JOHNSON. WE ARE THE CENTER FOR HUMAN EXPLORATION WITHIN NASA. SO YOU CAN FIND ALL OF THE HUMAN MISSIONS THERE. ON SOCIAL MEDIA, WE’RE VERY ACTIVE, SO JUST FOLLOW US ON ANY OF THE ACCOUNTS ON FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, SNAPCHAT-- ANY OF THOSE GUYS. LOOK FOR NASA. AND IF YOU’RE LOOKING FOR THE STORY OF HUMAN EXPLORATION, LOOK FOR NASA JOHNSON. YOU CAN ALSO USE THE HASHTAG #ASKNASA ON ANY ONE OF THE PLATFORMS AND SUBMIT A QUESTION OR IDEA FOR AN EPISODE THAT WE SHOULD DO IN THE FUTURE. YOU CAN ALSO USE THE HASHTAG #HWHAP -- H-W-H-A-P FOR “HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST.” THIS PODCAST WAS RECORDED ON JULY 28th. THANKS TO ALEX PERRYMAN, JOHN STOLL, JENNY KNOTTS, AND JEANIE AQUINO. AND THANKS AGAIN TO MR. GLENN LUTZ AND MR. JOHN CONNOLLY, AS WELL AS MR. TOMMY SHAW AND MR. LAWRENCE GOWEN FROM STYX FOR COMING ON THE SHOW. WE’LL BE BACK NEXT WEEK.