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Sample records for ervilhaca comum vicia

  1. Cytoplasmic Sterility Factors in VICIA FABA L

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, J. R.; Bond, D. A.; Christie, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Tissues of cytoplasmic male sterile, maintainer, restorer, and restored lines, and sterile plants which reverted to fertility in Vicia faba were examined in ultrathin sections. Cytoplasmic spherical bodies (CSB), ca. 70 nm in diameter, were observed in tissues of all sterile plants but not in tissues of maintainer, restorer or restored sterile plants. No CSB were observed in a reverted fertile branch of a tiller-sterile plant, nor in 5 of 6 reverted fertile plants. One reverted fertile plant contained CSB in ovules. It is proposed that the CSB are the sites of, or possibly, products of, sterility factors in Vicia faba. PMID:17248701

  2. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    PubMed

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-16

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  3. Cytological and molecular characterization of Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Venora, G; Giorgetti, L; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2012-07-01

    Vicia barbazitae, a taxon belonging to section Vicia of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by cytological, karyological and molecular methods with the aim of both proposing a general characterisation of this species and studying the relationships among the species of section Vicia . Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the section Vicia and those of the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Atossa were also analysed. Automated karyotype analysis has been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by sequence-specific fluorochrome staining. Fluorescent chromosome banding showed CMA(+)/DAPI(-) NOR-associated heterochromatin in the satellite pair. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, the dendrogram of linkage distance constructed on 37 chromosome parameters, as well as the molecular data based on internal transcribed spacer sequences provided information about phylogenetic position of this species inside the section Vicia and among the species belonging to the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia, Atossa and Vicia. From our karyological and molecular results, it emerges that V. barbazitae can be considered a natural member of section Vicia.

  4. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  5. Cytological characterization of Vicia oroboides Wulfen in Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Frediani, M; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Cremonini, R

    2009-07-01

    Vicia oroboides, a rare taxon belonging to section Atossa of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by means of cytological and karyological methods with the aim of both characterising this species and integrating our knowledge on phylogeny of subgenus Vicia. Automated karyotype analysis and nuclear DNA content have been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by fluorochrome staining to evidence heterochromatic blocks along the chromosome complement. The chromosome number is in line with the values of the species of section Atossa; the GC- and AT-rich sites were identified by CMA and DAPI staining. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, provide information about the phylogenetic position of this species inside the subgenus Vicia. DNA content is reported for the first time.

  6. Heritability and Variability in Ribosomal RNA Genes of Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Scott O.; Bendich, Arnold J.

    1987-01-01

    We have compared the restriction patterns and copy numbers of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) between and within individuals of Vicia faba . While the EcoRI blot-hybridization patterns changed only after one to two generations, copy number changes were found among different tissues of the same plant. Copy number differences among individuals in the population were as great as 95-fold, whereas as much as a 12-fold variation was seen among tissues of the same plant. Among individual F1 progeny from genetic crosses, nearly an 8-fold variation was seen, and among individuals of the F2 generation a spread of 22-fold was measured. Among individual siblings of self-pollinated parents, up to 7-fold variation was observed. However, changes in copy number did not necessarily indicate changes in rDNA EcoRI blot-hybridization pattern, and vice versa. Furthermore, nearest neighbor analysis of R-loop experiments showed that the arrangement of members of the "nontranscribed" spacer (NTS) size classes along the chromosome was not random, but some clustering was indicated. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that sister chromatid exchange in somatic cells of V. faba is the primary mechanism for altering the rDNA copy number as well as causing the extreme variation observed in the NTS. Variation among individuals in rDNA blot-hybridization pattern was also observed for Vicia villosa, Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia benghalensis and Vicia pannonica. PMID:17246404

  7. Cytology of Vicia species. X. Karyotype evolution and phylogenetic implication in Vicia species of the sections Atossa, Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Vicia.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2011-10-01

    Automated karyotype analyses and sequence of rDNA spacers have been analysed for the species belonging to sections Atossa, Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Vicia. Karyomorphological parameters, based on Rec, Syi and TF% indices, have been determined and evidenced that, in term of symmetry, the karyotype of Vicia lathyroides was the most asymmetric one. A multivariate analysis using 34 karyological parameters, in addition to the symmetry indices, has been carried out and the corresponding dendrogram of linkage distances showed six different groups. Molecular investigations on the inclusive group in study by employing ITS DNA sequences indicated a different pattern of relationships. The cladistic analysis combining the molecular data set with karyological parameters evidenced that the species of sections Vicia and Atossa join closely to each other in a paraphyletic group, which includes the monophyletic section Wiggersia. Therefore, our karyological and molecular data provide information about the phylogenetic position of the analysed species inside the subgenus Vicia and are discussed in relation to previous results obtained by morphology, isozymes and ribosomal genes analyses.

  8. Oxidative damage induced in Vicia faba by coke plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiang; Lv, Yongkang

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated toxic impacts of coke plant wastewater over a concentration gradient of COD( Cr) 40-640 mg/l on malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in roots and leaves of Vicia faba. MDA levels and SOD activities were significantly increased at all concentrations both in roots and leaves of Vicia faba; CAT and POD activities were significantly enhanced in roots at low concentrations and were significantly decreased at high concentrations (COD(Cr) 320 and 640 mg/l for CAT; COD( Cr) 640 mg/l for POD). In leaves, CAT and POD activities remained enhanced at all concentration and did not show significant difference at COD( Cr) 640 mg/l for CAT and COD(Cr) 40, 640 mg/l for POD. These results suggest that coke plant wastewater can cause oxidative damage in roots and leaves of Vicia faba and root enzymes seemed more sensitive to the wastewater.

  9. [Chemotaxis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae to organic substances].

    PubMed

    Stambul's'ka, U Ia; Lushchak, V I

    2009-01-01

    The chemotaxis of nodule bacteria cultures of pea Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. vicia RRL1, RRL3, RRL6 i RRL7 isolated from the plants of Ivano-Frankivsk district to different organic substances was investigated. Saccharose, pyruvate and tartaric acid were the most active attractants among carbohydrates and organic acids studied for all used nodule bacteria strains. Serine, alanine, glycine, tyrosine and cysteine were the most active attractants of amino acids. Dependence of pea nodule bacteria chemotaxic activity on time of growth and attractant concentrations was revealed. The isolate specificity towards organic substances for different strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. vicia was found.

  10. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields on Roots of ’Vicia faba’.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Roots of Vicia faba were exposed to electric and magnetic fields comparable to but at levels higher than those associated with Project Sanguine...examined to detect any effects of exposure of growing primary roots of Vicia faba (Horse Bean, Mung Bean) to ELF electric and magnetic fields simulating...those near the Sanguine transmitter: growth rate, mitotic index, chromosomal abnormalities in dividing meristematic cells. The choice of Vicia faba

  11. [Chemical composition of seeds and testa of Vicia faba L].

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    1995-03-01

    Different chemical components were analysed in the seeds and in testa of Vicia faba. The seeds contain a relatively high crude protein (27.5%), a low crude fat (3.36%) content; and the lignin concentration is low (2.65%). The testa of the seeds has a very high fibre concentration and is a significant Ca-source (1.86 g/kg). The higher macroelement concentrations in the seeds were measured from K, P and Mg. The main microelements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) have significant higher concentrations in the seed than in the testa. The amino acid composition of seeds is positive (compared to data of white lupine), the rate of essential amino acids is good. The concentrations of the examined antinutritive organic constituents, especially of alkaloids, are low. On the basis of chemical analysis, the production and utilisation of seeds of Vicia faba is recommended.

  12. Vicia faba as a bioindicator of oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Malallah, G; Afzal, M; Gulshan, S; Abraham, D; Kurian, M; Dhami, M S

    1996-01-01

    In 1990, the Gulf War caused an unprecedented environmental catastrophe. More than 700 oil wells were set on fire, emitting thousands of tons of oxides of nitrogen, sulfur, soot and oil mist at high temperatures. The blazing oil wells and lakes were the major cause of environmental pollution, damaging flora and fauna throughout Kuwait and the surrounding region. We set up this study in order to investigate whether Vicia faba could be used as a bioindicator of oil pollution. Growth parameters of Vicia faba, such as levels of photosynthetic pigments, proteins, free amino acids, phenols, sugars, biomass, moisture and fatty acids, were studied. Levels of total reducible sugars, phenols, proteins, free amino acids and proline were found to be higher in plants grown in hydrocarbon-polluted soil, compared to those grown in control soil. However, biomass, moisture, pheophytin, the 435/415 nm ratio for chlorophylls and the chlorophyll a/carotenoid ratio, were higher in the plants grown in control soil than those grown in polluted soil. Our results indicate that Vicia faba can be used as a bioindicator of pollution and a ratio of the fatty acid C(20:1)/C(18:1) is an important index of environmental oil pollution.

  13. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    PubMed

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity.

  14. Legumin Synthesis in Developing Cotyledons of Vicia faba L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Millerd, Adele; Simon, M.; Stern, H.

    1971-01-01

    The synthesis of legumin in developing cotyledons of Vicia faba L. has been examined as a potential system for approaching the problem of differential gene expression. The pattern of legumin synthesis was determined during the growth of the cotyledon by microcomplement fixation which provided a sensitive and specific assay for legumin in the presence of vicilin. Legumin was detected even in young cotyledons. However, when the cotyledons were about 10 millimeters long, and cell division was essentially complete, there was a sharp increase in the rate of legumin accumulation. Images PMID:16657812

  15. Variability among Rhizobium Strains Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, P.; Beyene, D.; Vera, F. T.; Keyser, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    Rhizobium strains from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the strains. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium strains in the different geographical locations from which the strains originated. An investigation of pea strains with antibodies prepared against fava bean strains and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, targeting DNA regions coding for rRNA and nodulation, indicated that Rhizobium strains from V. faba nodules were distinguishable from those from Pisum sativum, V. villosa, and Trifolium spp. PMID:16535075

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae in symbiosis with host plants Pisum sativum and Vicia cracca.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, R; Ramachandran, V K; Seaman, J C; East, A K; Mouhsine, B; Mauchline, T H; Prell, J; Skeffington, A; Poole, P S

    2009-06-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on several legumes, including pea (Pisum sativum) and vetch (Vicia cracca), and has been widely used as a model to study nodule biochemistry. To understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes undergone by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae during bacteroid development, microarray experiments were first performed with cultured bacteria grown on a variety of carbon substrates (glucose, pyruvate, succinate, inositol, acetate, and acetoacetate) and then compared to bacteroids. Bacteroid metabolism is essentially that of dicarboxylate-grown cells (i.e., induction of dicarboxylate transport, gluconeogenesis and alanine synthesis, and repression of sugar utilization). The decarboxylating arm of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is highly induced, as is gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism, particularly in bacteroids from early (7-day) nodules. To investigate bacteroid development, gene expression in bacteroids was analyzed at 7, 15, and 21 days postinoculation of peas. This revealed that bacterial rRNA isolated from pea, but not vetch, is extensively processed in mature bacteroids. In early development (7 days), there were large changes in the expression of regulators, exported and cell surface molecules, multidrug exporters, and heat and cold shock proteins. fix genes were induced early but continued to increase in mature bacteroids, while nif genes were induced strongly in older bacteroids. Mutation of 37 genes that were strongly upregulated in mature bacteroids revealed that none were essential for nitrogen fixation. However, screening of 3,072 mini-Tn5 mutants on peas revealed previously uncharacterized genes essential for nitrogen fixation. These encoded a potential magnesium transporter, an AAA domain protein, and proteins involved in cytochrome synthesis.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae in Symbiosis with Host Plants Pisum sativum and Vicia cracca▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, R.; Ramachandran, V. K.; Seaman, J. C.; East, A. K.; Mouhsine, B.; Mauchline, T. H.; Prell, J.; Skeffington, A.; Poole, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on several legumes, including pea (Pisum sativum) and vetch (Vicia cracca), and has been widely used as a model to study nodule biochemistry. To understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes undergone by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae during bacteroid development, microarray experiments were first performed with cultured bacteria grown on a variety of carbon substrates (glucose, pyruvate, succinate, inositol, acetate, and acetoacetate) and then compared to bacteroids. Bacteroid metabolism is essentially that of dicarboxylate-grown cells (i.e., induction of dicarboxylate transport, gluconeogenesis and alanine synthesis, and repression of sugar utilization). The decarboxylating arm of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is highly induced, as is γ-aminobutyrate metabolism, particularly in bacteroids from early (7-day) nodules. To investigate bacteroid development, gene expression in bacteroids was analyzed at 7, 15, and 21 days postinoculation of peas. This revealed that bacterial rRNA isolated from pea, but not vetch, is extensively processed in mature bacteroids. In early development (7 days), there were large changes in the expression of regulators, exported and cell surface molecules, multidrug exporters, and heat and cold shock proteins. fix genes were induced early but continued to increase in mature bacteroids, while nif genes were induced strongly in older bacteroids. Mutation of 37 genes that were strongly upregulated in mature bacteroids revealed that none were essential for nitrogen fixation. However, screening of 3,072 mini-Tn5 mutants on peas revealed previously uncharacterized genes essential for nitrogen fixation. These encoded a potential magnesium transporter, an AAA domain protein, and proteins involved in cytochrome synthesis. PMID:19376875

  18. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  19. Motor effects of broad beans (Vicia faba) in Parkinson's disease: single dose studies.

    PubMed

    Kempster, P A; Bogetic, Z; Secombei, J W; Martin, H D; Balazs, N D; Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-06-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) are a natural source of L-dopa. To investigate a possible role for this substance in the treatment of Parkinsonian motor oscillations, we carried out single dose studies of Vicia faba pod mixture plus carbidopa in six patients. Motor responses of equivalent magnitude to those of conventional L-dopa medication occurred in five cases with mean onset of 39 min and mean duration of 104 min. Vicia faba meals produced comparable L-dopa blood levels to fasting standard tablet doses and recovery studies yielded 0.25% L-dopa per weight of bean pod mixture. Vicia faba contains sufficient L-dopa to be pharmacologically active in patients with Parkinson's disease and can potentially be incorporated into dietary strategies to manage Parkinsonian motor oscillations.

  20. Joint effects of microwave and chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba *

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiao-Wei; Luo, Wei-Hua; Zheng, Ou-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of microwave and chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip were studied. Micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic index, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by microwave and CrO3. The results showed that the micronucleus frequency decreased, and that the mitotic index and chromosomal aberration frequency showed linear dose responses to CrO3, in treatment of microwave for 5 s. In microwave of 25 s, the mitotic index decreased, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency increased with increase of CrO3 concentration. We concluded that microwave and CrO3 had antagonistic effect on the mitotic index of Vicia faba root tip cells, but had synergetic effect on micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells. PMID:16502510

  1. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  2. Evidence of cyanamide production in hairy vetch Vicia villosa.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Kato, Kenji; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Nakajima, Eri; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hirota, Mitsuru

    2006-05-10

    Cyanamide (NH(2)CN) has recently been isolated as a plant growth inhibitor from Vicia villosa, which is the first discovery of cyanamide from natural sources. To reveal the presence of the biosynthesized cyanamide in plants, 3.4 mM potassium ((15)N)nitrate was administered to 15- to 35-day-old plants of V. villosa, from which the cyanamide was purified and subjected to GC/MS analysis. The isotopic ratio (15)N/((14)N + (15)N) of the cyanamide was calculated to be 0.143, while that of the cyanamide extracted from V. villosa grown in the presence of a natural N source was 0.0065. The (15)N-enrichment proved de novo biosynthesis of cyanamide.

  3. Toxicity of sulcotrione and grape marc on Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-12-10

    The cell toxicity of sulcotrione, a selective triketone herbicide, was evaluated on Vicia faba. Sulcotrione, trademark Mikado, grape marc, and mixtures of sulcotrione or Mikado with grape marc induced cell death. Addition of grape marc to either sulcotrione or Mikado enhanced cell death, especially with Mikado. Addition of grape marc to herbicides, sulcotrione, or Mikado resulted in different expression of genes usually associated with cell stress. Mixtures of grape marc and herbicides enhanced transcript accumulation for ubiquitin, hsp 70, and cytosolic superoxide dismutase, but did not change ascorbate peroxidase transcript accumulation. The results thus provide evidence that sulcotrione, Mikado, and mixtures with grape marc can trigger cell death and specific gene expressions. Cocktails of products with sulcotrione, such as commercial additives and grape marc, can modify biological features of pesticide. Moreover, grape marc differently enhanced cell toxicity of sulcotrione and Mikado, suggesting a synergy between pesticide products and grape marc.

  4. Physiological responses of Vicia faba plants to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, P.K.; Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S.B.; Rao, D.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Exposure of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to 270 +/- 32 and 670 +/- 45 micrograms m 3SO{sub 2} for 1.5 hr daily between 40 and 85 days of their ages resulted in an increase in their transpiration rate, water saturation deficit, phenol content, and peroxidase activity and a decrease in protein content. With the increase in number of exposures of plants to SO{sub 2}, chlorotic and brown, necrotic visible injury signs were also developed in leaves. It was further noted that the magnitude of undesirable biochemical changes, which possibly helped in the formation of new pigment characteristic of necrotic tissue of SO{sub 2}-exposed plants, was not totally dependent on the pollutant concentration.

  5. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  6. Nutritional characteristics of seed proteins in 28 Vicia species (Fabaceae) from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Juan, Rocio; Pastor, Julio E; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2011-10-01

    The study of local plants could provide useful data for the possible development of future crops with good nutritional and functional properties. The nutritional characteristics of the seed proteins of 28 Vicia species (31 taxa) (Fabaceae) from Spain were studied. Protein contents in studied Vicia ranged from 20.1% in V. articulata to 32% in V. pyrenaica. V. altissima, which is only deficient in Trp, showed the most balanced amino acid composition, while the remaining taxa were limiting in Met, Cys, and Trp. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) ranged from 78% in V. incana to 86.3% in V. hirsuta. In addition to the amino acid composition and IVPD, other nutritional parameters, such as amino acid score, biological value, protein efficiency ratio, or protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, were studied. Results confirm the interest of studying wild populations of cultivated and non cultivated Vicia species as potentially interesting sources of seeds with good nutritional characteristics.

  7. Effects of 1.9 MeV monoenergetic neutrons on Vicia faba chromosomes: microdosimetric considerations.

    PubMed

    Geard, C R

    1980-01-01

    Aerated Vicia faba root meristems were irradiated with 1.9 MeV monoenergetic neutrons. This source of neutrons optimally provides one class of particles (recoil protons) with ranges able to traverse cell nuclei at moderate to high-LET. The volumes of the Vicia faba nuclei were log-normally distributed with a mean of 1100 micrometer3. The yield of chromatid-type aberrations was linear against absorbed dose and near-constant over 5 collection periods (2-12 h), after irradiation. Energy deposition events (recoil protons) determined by microdosimetry were related to cytological changes with the finding that 19% of incident recoil protons initiate visible changes in Vicia faba chromosomes. It is probable that a substantial fraction of recoil proton track length and deposited energy is in insensitive (non-DNA containing) portions of the nuclear volume.

  8. Sulfur dioxide induced programmed cell death in Vicia guard cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huilan; Yin, Jingjing; Liu, Xin; Jing, Xiuqing; Fan, Sanhong; Zhang, Hufang

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) induced nuclear condensation and nuclear fragmentation and rapid loss of guard cell viability in detached epidermis of Vicia leaves at concentrations of 1 mM and higher (3 h exposure). Caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH(2)-DCB (0.1 mM) and TLCK (0.1 mM) markedly suppressed SO(2)-induced cell death. The typical nuclear morphological changes and the inhibition effects of caspase inhibitors suggest the activation of a programmed cell death (PCD) pathway. SO(2)-induced cell death can be blocked by either antioxidants (0.1 mM AsA or 200 U/mL CAT) or Ca(2+) antagonists (0.1mM EGTA or LaCl(3)). AsA and CAT also blocked SO(2)-induced ROS production and [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase. However, EGTA and LaCl(3) can inhibit SO(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, but cannot suppress SO(2)-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that high concentrations of SO(2) induce guard cell death via a PCD pathway through ROS mediating [Ca(2+)](cyt) elevation, which causes harmful effects to plants.

  9. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  10. Photosynthesis affects following night leaf conductance in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Richards, James H

    2009-01-01

    Night-time stomatal opening in C(3) plants may result in significant water loss when no carbon gain is possible. The objective of this study was to determine if endogenous patterns of night-time stomatal opening, as reflected in leaf conductance, in Vicia faba are affected by photosynthetic conditions the previous day. Reducing photosynthesis with low light or low CO(2) resulted in reduced night-time stomatal opening the following night, irrespective of the effects on daytime stomatal conductance. Likewise, increasing photosynthesis with enriched CO(2) levels resulted in increased night-time stomatal opening the following night. Reduced night-time stomatal opening was not the result of an inability to regulate stomatal aperture as leaves with reduced night-time stomatal opening were capable of greater night-time opening when exposed to low CO(2). After acclimating plants to long or short days, it was found that night-time leaf conductance was greater in plants acclimated to short days, and associated with greater leaf starch and nitrate accumulation, both of which may affect night-time guard cell osmotic potential. Direct measurement of guard cell contents during endogenous night-time stomatal opening will help identify the mechanism of the effect of daytime photosynthesis on subsequent night-time stomatal regulation.

  11. Allyl isothiocyanate induces stomatal closure in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Sobahan, Muhammad Abdus; Akter, Nasima; Okuma, Eiji; Uraji, Misugi; Ye, Wenxiu; Mori, Izumi C; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are enzymatically produced from glucosinolates in plants, and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated stomatal responses to AITC in Vicia faba. AITC-induced stomatal closure accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO production, cytosolic alkalization and glutathione (GSH) depletion in V. faba. GSH monoethyl ester induced stomatal reopening and suppressed AITC-induced GSH depletion in guard cells. Exogenous catalase and a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, inhibited AITC-induced stomatal closure, unlike an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride. The peroxidase inhibitor also abolished the AITC-induced ROS production, NO production, and cytosolic alkalization. AITC-induced stomatal closure was suppressed by an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and an agent to acidify cytosol, butyrate. These results indicate that AITC-induced stomatal closure in V. faba as well as in A. thaliana and suggest that AITC signaling in guard cells is conserved in both plants.

  12. Antigenic changes in lipopolysaccharide I of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in root nodules of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra occur during release from infection threads.

    PubMed Central

    Goosen-de Roo, L; de Maagd, R A; Lugtenberg, B J

    1991-01-01

    Three different monoclonal antibodies raised against the O antigen-containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS I) of free-living cells were used in an immunocytochemical study to follow the fate of LPS I on the outer membrane of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 248 during the nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra. After immunogold labeling, the LPS I epitopes were detected on the outer membrane of bacteria present in infection threads throughout the nodule. Epitopes were not detectable on bacteria released from the infection thread. The data show that the LPS I epitopes present on rhizobia in infection droplets disappear shortly before or during endocytosis of the bacteria into the host plant cell cytoplasm. The abruptness of the change suggests an active degradation or modification of LPS I epitopes rather than only a repression of their synthesis. Images PMID:1708764

  13. Hypocholesterolemic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Vicia faba Protein Hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Erika B; Sánchez-Chino, Xariss; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Álvarez-González, Rosa I; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the consumption of vegetal-source proteins has been studied to determine their preventing effect on the development of several chronic diseases. The initial purpose of this report was to determine the effect of a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) given to mice, alone or with azoxymethane (AOM), on various obesity biochemical biomarkers, as well as on the induction of colon aberrant crypts (aberrant crypt foci; ACF). At the end of the 5-week assay, animals fed the HCD showed alterations in the level of total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, and in the Atherogenic Index; besides, a significant elevation was observed in the number of ACF. Our second aim was to examine the effect of a Faba Protein Hydrolyzate (FPH) on mice fed the HCD. We first obtained protein hydrolyzates from the seeds of Vicia faba, determined the in vitro antioxidant potential with two tests, and, subsequently, evaluated the effect on obesity biomarkers and on the number of ACF. In the first case, we found that, generally, the best protective effect was obtained with the low dose of FPH (10 mg/kg) administered to animals fed the HCD, and injected AOM. With respect to the number of ACF, we observed that this dose was more effective, inhibiting such lesions to almost the level determined for the normocholesterolemic diet (NCD). Therefore, our results demonstrated the relevance of a HCD to develop anomalies in obesity biomarkers in mouse, as well as to increase the number of precarcinogenic lesions. Our results also showed a protective response with the administration of FPH, particularly with a specific dose, suggesting the need for extending research on the matter by widening the spectra of doses, in order to clearly define its potential to counteract the damage induced by the HCD, as well as to confirm if antioxidation in mice was involved in such an effect.

  14. Characterization of globulins from common vetch (Vicia sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana C; Teixeira, Artur R; Ferreira, Ricardo B

    2004-07-28

    The proteins from Vicia sativa L. (common vetch) seeds were investigated. Protein comprises approximately 11.4% of the seed fresh weight, >50.8% of which is composed by globulins and 43.6% by albumins. The globulins may be fractionated into two main components, which were named alpha-vicinin (comprising 73% of the total globulin fraction, and hence >37% of the total seed protein) and beta-vicinin. Two minor globulin components are also present, gamma-vicinin and delta-vicinin. alpha-Vicinin, the legumin-like globulin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 10.6 S, is a nonglycosylated, disulfide-bond-containing globulin, composed of a group of subunits with molecular masses ranging from 50 to 78 kDa. Upon reduction, each of these subunits releases a heavy polypeptide chain (34-66 kDa) and a light polypeptide chain (21-23 kDa). beta-Vicinin, the vicilin-like globulin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 7.7 S, is a nonglycosylated globulin that contains no disulfide bonds and consists of two major polypeptides with molecular masses of 58 and 66 kDa. gamma-Vicinin is a minor, glycosylated, disulfide-bond-containing globulin. In the reduced form, it comprises six polypeptide chains with molecular masses of 12, 19, 21, 22, 23, and 31 kDa. Finally, delta-vicinin is a minor, highly glycosylated globulin that exhibits hemagglutinating activity. It is composed of a major 47 kDa polypeptide and two minor (33 and 38 kDa) polypeptides. N-terminal sequencing of the delta-vicinin 47 kDa polypeptide revealed no homology to any other known storage protein.

  15. Diverse bacteria isolated from root nodules of wild Vicia species grown in temperate region of China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, a total of 154 bacterial strains isolated from nodules of eighteen Vicia species mainly grown in the temperate Chinese provinces were characterized by ARDRA, ITS PCR-RFLP, BOX-PCR, sequencing of 16S rDNA, nodC, nifH, atpD and glnII, and nodulation tests. The results demonstrated that most of the R. leguminosarum strains were effective microsymbionts of the wild Vicia species, while genomic species related to Rhizobium gallicum, Mesorhizobium huakuii, Ensifer meliloti and Bradyrhizobium spp. were symbiotic bacteria occasionally nodulating with Vicia species. In addition, fourteen strains related to Agrobacterium, Phyllobacterium, Ensifer, Shinella and R. tropici, as well as 22 strains of R. leguminosarum might be nodule endophytes without symbiotic genes. Diverse symbiotic gene lineages were found among the test strains and a strong association was found among the symbiotic gene types and genomic species, indicating the absence of lateral gene transfer. These results greatly enlarged the rhizobial spectrum of Vicia species.

  16. Carbohydrate composition of mature and immature faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds from diverse origins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a valuable pulse crop for human consumption. The low molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC): glucose, fructose, sucrose (GFS), raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose (RFO- raffinose family oligosaccharides) in faba bean seeds are significant components of human nutrition an...

  17. Chloroplast Function in Guard Cells of Vicia faba L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, David A.; Graan, Thomas; Boyer, John S.

    1985-01-01

    Stomatal conductance is coupled to leaf photosynthetic rate over a broad range of environmental conditions. We have investigated the extent to which chloroplasts in guard cells may contribute to this coupling through their photosynthetic activity. Guard cells were isolated by sonication of abaxial epidermal peels of Vicia faba. The electrochromic band shift of isolated guard cells was probed in vivo as a means of studying the electric field that is generated across the thylakoid membranes by photosynthetic electron transport and dissipated by photophosphorylation. Both guard cells and mesophyll cells exhibited fast and slow components in the formation of the flash-induced electrochromic change. The spectrum of electrochromic absorbance changes in guard cells was the same as in the leaf mesophyll and was typical of that observed in isolated chloroplasts. This observation indicates that electron transport and photophosphorylation occur in guard cell chloroplasts. Neither the fast nor the slow component of the absorbance change was observed in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone which confirms that the absorbance change was caused by the electric field across the thylakoid membranes. The magnitude of the fast rise was reduced by half in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Therefore, photosystem II is functional and roughly equal in concentration to photosystem I in guard cell chloroplasts. The slow rise was abolished by 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-1,4-benzoquinone indicating the involvement of the cytochrome b6/f complex in electron transport between the two photosystems. Relaxation of the absorbance change was irreversibly retarded in cells treated with the energy transfer inhibitor, N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The slowing of the rapid decay kinetics by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide confirms that the electrical potential across the thyalkoid membrane is dissipated by photophosphorylation

  18. Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a plant growth promoting biofertilizers for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Nafady, Nivien Allam; Khalaf, David Mamdouh; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2014-01-20

    Egyptian soils are generally characterized by slightly alkaline to alkaline pH values (7.5-8.7) which are mainly due to its dry environment. In arid and semi-arid regions, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. Alkaline soils have fertility problems due to poor physical properties which adversely affect the growth and the yield of crops. Therefore, this study was devoted to investigating the synergistic interaction of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for improving growth of faba bean grown in alkaline soil. A total of 20 rhizobial isolates and 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were isolated. The rhizobial isolates were investigated for their ability to grow under alkaline stress. Out of 20 isolates 3 isolates were selected as tolerant isolates. These 3 rhizobial isolates were identified on the bases of the sequences of the gene encoding 16S rRNA and designated as Rhizobium sp. Egypt 16 (HM622137), Rhizobium sp. Egypt 27 (HM622138) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The best alkaline tolerant was R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The effect of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 and mixture of AMF (Acaulospora laevis, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora armeniaca) both individually and in combination on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of Vicia faba under alkalinity stress were assessed. A significant increase over control in number and mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, leghaemoglobin content of nodule, mycorrhizal colonization, dry mass of root and shoot was recorded in dual inoculated plants than plants with individual inoculation. The enhancement of nitrogen fixation of faba bean could be attributed to AMF facilitating the mobilization of certain elements such as P, Fe, K and other minerals that involve in synthesis of nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin. Thus it is

  19. [Genetic improvement in Vicia faba and favism. I. Distribution and levels of presumably hemolytic metabolites].

    PubMed

    Sisini, A; Spanu, A; Arese, P

    1981-07-30

    Covicine + vicine, L-DOPA-glucoside + L-DOPA and ascorbic acid were determined in different lines of Vicia faba beans throughout the biological cycle of the plant. As the seed matures the levels of convicine + vicine as well as of ascorbic acid decrease with seed maturation in all the lines examined. L-DOPA, which is lacking in cotyledons but present in the tegument, also decrease and is nearly undectable in some lines with white flowers.

  20. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  1. Assessment of the genotoxicity of quinolone and fluoroquinolones contaminated soil with the Vicia faba micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Khadra, A; Pinelli, E; Lacroix, M Z; Bousquet-Melou, A; Hamdi, H; Merlina, G; Guiresse, M; Hafidi, M

    2012-02-01

    The genotoxicity of quinolone and fluroquinolones was assessed using the micronucleus (MN) test on Vicia faba roots by direct contact exposure to a solid matrix. Plants were exposed to quinolones (nalidixic acid) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin) alone or mixed with artificially contaminated soils. Four different concentrations of each of these antibiotics were tested (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/Kg) for nalidixic acid and (0.005, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/Kg) for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. These antibiotics were also used in mixture. Exposure of Vicia faba plants to each antibiotic at the highest two concentrations showed significant MN induction. The lowest two concentrations had no significant genotoxic effect. The mixture of the three compounds induced a significant MN induction whatever the mixture tested, from 0.02 to 20 mg/Kg. The results indicated that a similar genotoxic effect was obtained with the mixture at 0.2 mg/Kg in comparison with each molecule alone at 5-10 mg/Kg. Data revealed a clear synergism of these molecules on Vicia faba genotoxicity.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program. PMID:26540077

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-11-02

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  4. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C.; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H2O2, and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K+ (Kin) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. PMID:22131163

  5. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba.

  6. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of two closely related northeast China Vicia species revealed with RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Wang, Hao-You

    2010-06-01

    RAPD and ISSR analyses revealed genetic diversity and relationships among 11 populations of two closely related northeast China Vicia species, Vicia ramuliflora and V. unijuga. Both methods yielded similar and complementary results, showing high genetic diversity. Vicia ramuliflora had 100% polymorphic loci in both RAPD and ISSR, and V. unijuga had 100% polymorphic loci for RAPD and 98.96% for ISSR. Genetic differentiation was moderate among populations of each species. Genetic variation was distributed mainly within populations for the two species. The high level of gene flow was important for the allocation of genetic variation. The UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis at the level of individuals and populations showed that V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga were more closely related than either of them was to the outgroup species, V. cracca. The small molecular variance of V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga supports the conclusion that these two species had a common ancestor.

  7. Proportionality of ELF electric field-induced growth inhibition to induced membrane potential in Zea mays and Vicia faba roots.

    PubMed

    Brayman, A A; Megumi, T; Miller, M W

    1990-01-01

    The postulate that 60-Hz electric field-induced bioeffect severity is proportional to induced transmembrane potential [Vmi] magnitude was tested and supported using a plant root model cell system. Statistically significant correlations were obtained upon regression of the relative rates of exposed Vicia faba and Zea mays root segment growth on the average Vmi (calculated) arising in those segments under specified 60 Hz field exposure conditions. The Vmi associated with the apparent threshold for growth inhibition was similar in Zea and Vicia roots (2.5 vs 2.4 mV, respectively). At Vmi greater than this threshold, Zea root growth declined by about 9% per mV, and Vicia root growth by about 19% per mV induced potential.

  8. [Studies of cytogenetic toxic effect of As2O3 on Vicia Faba root tip cells in vivo].

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiao-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Zhe-Xiao; Lin, Liu-Qin

    2002-05-01

    The cytogenetic toxic effects of different concentration of As2O3 within different time on the cell of Vicia Faba root tip were studied. The results indicate that the different concentrations of As2O3 can induce high frequency of micronucleus and chromosome aberration. Besides, it can accumulate the metaphases in mitosis efficiently and prevent the cells from continuing their cell cycle. It shows that As2O3 has marked cytogenetic toxic effect on the root tip cells of Vicia Faba, and effect of accumulating the metaphases in mitosis.

  9. Effects of fast clinostat treatment and microgravity on Vicia faba L. mesophyll cell protoplast ubiquitin pools and actin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, H; Hunte, C; Schulz, M; Wolf, D; Ghiena-Rahlenbeck, C; Bramer, M; Graab, M; Janssen, M; Kalweit, H

    1996-01-01

    With parabolic rocket flights and fast clinostat treatments, the effect of microgravity on ubiquitin, ubiquitin-protein conjugates, and actin isoforms of Vicia faba mesophyll protoplasts was studied. Western immunoblotting with ubiquitin antibodies revealed that simulated and particularly, real microgravity influenced the amount of free ubiquitin and of 18, 19, and 40 kD ubiquitin conjugates by inducing strong oscillations in the proteins concentrations over time. Simulated microgravity and microgravity-phase during parabolic rocket flights resulted in a decrease of actin isoforms. Results obtained support the assumption, that microgravity and fast clinostat treatment have a direct effect on Vicia faba mesophyll protoplast metabolic activities.

  10. Development and characterization of 21 EST-derived microsatellite markers in Vicia faba (fava bean).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu; Yang, Tao; Guan, Jianping; Wang, Shumin; Wang, Haifei; Sun, Xuelian; Zong, Xuxiao

    2011-02-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed in Vicia faba L. by screening the NCBI database. Markers were validated and explored for size polymorphism among fava bean accessions. Twenty-one EST-SSR primer pairs were identified, and the loci characterized were size polymorphic among 32 fava bean genotypes from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles (N(a)) per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) ranged from 0.0476 to 0.8304, respectively. These markers will be useful to study genetic diversity, genetic mapping, and molecular breeding in fava bean.

  11. Exposure of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum to copper-induced genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Souguir, D; Ferjani, E; Ledoigt, G; Goupil, P

    2008-11-01

    The potential genotoxicity of Cu(2+) was investigated in Vicia faba and Pisum sativum seedlings in hydroponic culture conditions. Cu(2+) caused a dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequencies in both plant models. Cytological analysis of root tips cells showed clastogenic and aneugenic effects of this heavy metal on V. faba root meristems. Cu(2+) induced chromosomal alterations at the lowest concentration used (2.5 mM) when incubated for 42 h, indicating the potent mutagenic effect of this ion. A spectrum of chromosomal abnormalities was observed in V. faba root meristems, illustrating the genotoxic events leading to micronuclei formation.

  12. First isolation of natural cyanamide as a possible allelochemical from hairy vetch Vicia villosa.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-02-01

    Cyanamide was isolated from the leaves and stems of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), guided by plant growth inhibitory activity against lettuce (Lectuca sativa) seedlings. A large proportion of the inhibitory activity in the crude extract was explained by the presence of cyanamide, suggesting it to be a possible allelochemical in this species. The amount in a 9-day-old seedling, which had been grown without nutrients, reached approx. 40 times that of a nongerminated seed, demonstrating cyanamide biosynthesis in the seedlings. This is the first report on the isolation of a possible allelochemical from hairy vetch and also of the finding of cyanamide as a natural product.

  13. Effect of sulphur dioxide exposure on chlorophyll content and nitrogenase activity of Vicia faba L. plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, S.B.; Agrawal, M. )

    1991-11-01

    The annual average concentrations of SO{sub 2} around Obra thermal power plant and nonpolluted sites in India were reported as 0.06, and 0.007 ppm, respectively. However, daily average concentrations in areas close to the emission source may be as large as 0.34 ppm. Therefore, in the present investigation an attempt has been made to determine the potential effects of such episodic and exceptionally high intermittent concentrations of SO{sub 2} on total chlorophyll content and nitrogenase activity of Vicia faba (broad bean) plants.

  14. The analysis of core and symbiotic genes of rhizobia nodulating Vicia from different continents reveals their common phylogenetic origin and suggests the distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains together with Vicia seeds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Martínez, Estela R; Valverde, Angel; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Tejedor, Carmen; Mateos, Pedro F; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we analysed the core and symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia sativa in three soils from the Northwest of Spain, and compared them with other Vicia endosymbionts isolated in other geographical locations. The analysis of rrs, recA and atpD genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that the Spanish strains nodulating V. sativa are phylogenetically close to those isolated from V. sativa and V. faba in different European, American and Asian countries forming a group related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene of strains nodulating V. sativa and V. faba in different continents showed they belong to a phylogenetically compact group indicating that these legumes are restrictive hosts. The results of the nodC gene analysis allow the delineation of the biovar viciae showing a common phylogenetic origin of V. sativa and V. faba endosymbionts in several continents. Since these two legume species are indigenous from Europe, our results suggest a world distribution of strains from R. leguminosarum together with the V. sativa and V. faba seeds and a close coevolution among chromosome, symbiotic genes and legume host in this Rhizobium-Vicia symbiosis.

  15. Genetic diversity and relationship among faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm entries as revealed by TRAP markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and relationship among 151 world-wide collected faba bean (Vicia faba L.) entries (137 accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA, two commercial varieties and 12 elite cultivars and advanced breedi...

  16. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X X; Kosier, B; Priefer, U B

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv. viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  17. Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae Symbiotic Hydrogenase Activity and Processing Are Limited by the Level of Nickel in Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Ureta, Ana-Claudia; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of levels of hydrogenase processing and activity in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae bacteroids from pea (Pisum sativum) plants showed that the oxidation of nitrogenase-evolved hydrogen is limited by the availability of nickel in agricultural soils. This limitation was overcome by using an inoculant strain engineered for higher hydrogenase expression. PMID:16269813

  18. [Toxicity of surfactant, acid rain and Cd2+ combined pollution to the nucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Liao, Bohan; Lu, Shuangqing

    2004-03-01

    The toxicity of Cd2+ and its combination with surfactant or simulated acid rain to Vicia faba root tip cell was studied by using micro-nucleus technique. The results showed that the formation of micro-nucleus in Vicia faba root tip cell was strongly induced by Cd2+ in its concentration of 0-10.0 mg.L-1. The micro-nucleus rate was 13.85@1000 at 6.0 mg.L-1Cd2+, 4.53@1000 at 0 mg.L-1Cd2+, and the pollution index (PI) was 3.06. The micro-nucleus ratio and PI decreased when the accompanied surfactant LAS was also presented or the pH values decreased to 4.5 or 3.5. In the meantime, many deformed nuclei and grains were observed in the root tip cells. The growth of the Vicia faba roots was restrained, and the root cells were not easy to be scattered. Therefore, the toxicity of Cd2+ was increased by its combination with surfactant or acid rain. The Cd2+ toxicity to Vicia faba cells at pH3.5 was stronger than that at pH4.5. When the mutation effect of contaminant with high concentration or with strong toxicity to plant cell was tested, the contaminant should be diluted for at least three times, and hence, the highest micro-nucleus ratio and pollution index (PI) could be found.

  19. Inhibition of loading of sup 14 C assimilate by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. [Vicia faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Bourquin, S.; Bonnemain, J.L.; Delrot, S. )

    1990-01-01

    The apoplast of mature leaves excised from broadbean (Vicia faba L.) plants was infiltrated with 2 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) via the transpiration stream, and the ability of the tissues to take up sugars was tested. An infiltration time of 75 minutes was sufficient of obtain a maximal (75%) inhibition of exogenous ({sup 14}C)sucrose (1 millimolar) uptake. This infiltration affected neither CO{sub 2} assimilation nor the transmembrane potential difference of leaf cells but strongly inhibited phloem loading of endogenous ({sup 14}C) assimilates. The study of the symplastic relations between the different cell types of the mature leaf showed that the density of the plasmodesmata is generally very low in comparison with other species investigated so far, particularly when considering the mesophyll/bundle sheath and the bundle sheath/phloem cells connections, as well as the connections of the transfer cell-sieve tube complex with the surrounding cells. These three successive barriers therefore strongly limit the possibilities of symplastic transit of the assimilates to the conducting cells. The comparison of the densities of plasmodesmata in an importing and an exporting leaf suggests that the maturation of the leaf is characterized by a marked symplastic isolation of the phloem, and, within the phloem itself, by the isolation of the conducting complex. As a consequence, these physiological and cytological data demonstrate the apoplastic nature of loading in the mature leaf of Vicia faba, this species undoubtedly presenting a typical model for apoplastic loading.

  20. Extrafloral nectary phenotypic plasticity is damage- and resource-dependent in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Mondor, Edward B; Tremblay, Michelle N; Messing, Russell H

    2006-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity enables many damaged plants to increase nectar secretion rates from extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), or in the case of broad bean, Vicia faba L., to produce additional EFNs, to attract natural enemies of herbivores. While plants benefit greatly from these defensive mutualisms, the costs of producing EFNs are largely unknown. We hypothesized that if EFN production is costly, then damaged plants with high resource levels would be able to produce more EFNs than plants that are resource-limited. Here, we show that this indirect inducible defence does follow this general pattern. Vicia faba enriched with 6 or 12 g of 14 : 14 : 14 NPK fertilizer increased EFN numbers after leaf damage by 46 and 60%, respectively, compared with nutrient-poor plants. Thus, EFN production is both damage- and resource-dependent. Analogous to direct defences, production of EFNs may limit the overall loss of leaf tissue when risk of herbivory increases. PMID:17148294

  1. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Vicia pannonica var. purpurascens on trichostrongylosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma; Anul, Serap Arabaci; Tatli, I Irem

    2013-07-01

    Vicia species are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, kidney problems and infertility in Turkish traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Vicia pannonica Crantz. var. purpurascens (DC). Ser. extracts. Larval motility test was used to determine anthelmintic activity of this plant. Motility of the larvae is measured by observation. The methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of the plant including the leaves and flowers were applied to developing trichostrongylus larvae at 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/ml doses. Thiabendazole and distilled water with 5% DMSO was used as positive and negative control. All of the extracts were 100% effective. Two flavone and flavonol glycosides; luteolin-7-β-O-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the acetone extract and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. The solutions prepared from two flavonoid fractions at several doses were performed in vitro to larvae in the same way. Both of them were 100% effective at 1 and 0.8 mg/ml doses. Results of the present study support the utilization of these plant species employed in Turkish folk medicine.

  2. Fresh broad (Vicia faba) tissue homogenate-based biosensor for determination of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Hakki Mevlut; Sagiroglu, Ayten

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a novel fresh broad (Vicia faba) tissue homogenate-based biosensor for determination of phenolic compounds was developed. The biosensor was constructed by immobilizing tissue homogenate of fresh broad (Vicia faba) on to glassy carbon electrode. For the stability of the biosensor, general immobilization techniques were used to secure the fresh broad tissue homogenate in gelatin-glutaraldehyde cross-linking matrix. In the optimization and characterization studies, the amount of fresh broad tissue homogenate and gelatin, glutaraldehyde percentage, optimum pH, optimum temperature and optimum buffer concentration, thermal stability, interference effects, linear range, storage stability, repeatability and sample applications (Wine, beer, fruit juices) were also investigated. Besides, the detection ranges of thirteen phenolic compounds were obtained with the help of the calibration graphs. A typical calibration curve for the sensor revealed a linear range of 5-60 μM catechol. In reproducibility studies, variation coefficient (CV) and standard deviation (SD) were calculated as 1.59%, 0.64×10(-3) μM, respectively.

  3. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of native rhizobia nodulating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youseif, Sameh H; Abd El-Megeed, Fayrouz H; Ageez, Amr; Cocking, Edward C; Saleh, Saleh A

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic diversity of forty-two Rhizobium strains, isolated from nodules of faba bean grown in Egypt, was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing, multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of three chromosomal housekeeping loci and one nodulation gene (nodA). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, most of the strains were related to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium etli, and Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens). A maximum likelihood (ML) tree built from the concatenated sequences of housekeeping proteins encoded by glnA, gyrB and recA, revealed the existence of three distinct genospecies (I, II and III) affiliated to the defined species within the genus Rhizobium/Agrobacterium. Seventeen strains in genospecies I could be classified as R. leguminosarum sv. viciae. Whereas, a single strain of genospecies II was linked to R. etli. Interestingly, twenty-four strains of genospecies III were identified as A. tumefaciens. Strains of R. etli and A. tumefaciens have been shown to harbor the nodA gene and formed effective symbioses with faba bean plants in Leonard jar assemblies. In the nodA tree, strains belonging to the putative genospecies were closely related to each other and were clustered tightly to R. leguminosarum sv. viciae, supporting the hypothesis that symbiotic and core genome of the species have different evolutionary histories and indicative of horizontal gene transfer among these rhizobia.

  4. Effect of polyphenols from Vicia faba L on lipase activity and melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ahmed E; Nafady, Alaa M; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Takemoto, Naomichi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-08-02

    Two new flavonoid glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6) (3''-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside 1 and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-5-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 2, along with six known ones 3-8 were isolated from the flowers of Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae). Methanol extract and the isolated compounds were tested against lipase and melanogenesis inhibition activities and resulted in that compound 2 showed 53 and 77% lipase inhibition activity in concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/mL, respectively. For melanogenesis, compounds 2, 3 and 4 exhibited potent melanogenesis inhibition activity where the melanin content in melanoma cells was decreased to be about 57.5, 56 and 61%, respectively, with no obvious melanocytotoxicity. The rest of compounds showed weak to moderate activity. The results of melanogenesis inhibition activity of this study suggested the potential use of Vicia faba flowers as a skin-whitening agent and reveal the flowers to be a rich source of important phytochemicals with antilipase and melanogenesis inhibitory activity.

  5. The major chemotaxis gene cluster of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae is essential for competitive nodulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance D; Yost, Christopher K; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys

    2007-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae strain 3841 is a motile alpha-proteobacterium that can establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis within the roots of pea plants. In order to determine the contribution of chemotaxis to the lifestyle of R. leguminosarum, we have characterized the function of two chemotaxis gene clusters (che1 and che2) in controlling motility behaviour. We have found that both chemotaxis gene clusters modulate the motility swimming bias of R. leguminosarum cells and that the che1 cluster is the major pathway controlling swimming bias and chemotaxis. The che2 cluster also contributes to swimming bias, but has a minor effect on chemotaxis. Using competitive nodulation assays, we have demonstrated that a functional che1 cluster, but not the che2 cluster, promotes competitive nodulation of the peas. This finding implies that the environmental cue(s) triggering chemotaxis of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae cells towards the roots of pea and facilitating colonization are likely to be processed through the che1 cluster despite the contribution of both che clusters to swimming behaviour. A phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of che1 and che2 orthologues in the alpha-proteobacteria together with our results allow us to propose that che1 homologues are major controllers of chemotaxis and host association in the Rhizobiaceae.

  6. Development and characterization of 20 novel polymorphic STS markers in Vicia faba (fava bean).

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifei; Yang, Tao; Guan, Jianping; Ma, Yu; Sun, Xuelian; Zong, Xuxiao

    2011-07-01

    Sequence tagged site (STS) primers were developed for Vicia faba, based on amplified bands by ISSR primers. The usefulness of these STS markers was validated for size polymorphism among fava bean accessions. Based on the sequences derived from intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification, 66 sequence tagged site (STS) primer pairs were developed and screened, and 20 of them were polymorphic. The polymorphism of these markers was identified in 32 fava bean germplasm from different global geographical locations. Alleles (N(a)) per locus numbered 2 to 4, and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.714. There was significant variation in H(E) among germplasm from different regions for individual primers. These novel polymorphic STS markers may be useful and convenient for further studies of population genetics, cultivar identification, and evolution in fava bean.

  7. Determination of genotoxic effects of fipronil in Vicia faba using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Nalan; Agar, Guleray

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to appreciate genotoxic potential of fipronil herbicides in the roots of Vicia faba seedlings. Fipronil was clearly dose dependent on root growth inhibitors, total soluble protein, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays. Increase in concentration of fipronil resulted in decreased amount of root length and increased level of protein. For the RAPD analyses, 15 RAPD primers were found to produce unique polymorphic band patterns and were subsequently used to produce a total of 110 bands of 45-1250 bp. Each primer generated 4-11 RAPD bands across 15 primers. The changes occurring in RAPD profiles following fipronil treatment included variation becoming evident as disappearance and/or appearance of DNA bands compared with the normal seedlings. These results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected at the above fipronil concentration. This study further confirmed that the RAPD assays are useful in determining potential genotoxicity of fipronil. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  9. [Effects of UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of Vicia angustifolia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xing-An; Wang, Ren-Jun; Qiu, Nian-Wei; Ma, Zong-Qi; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2012-05-01

    A simulation experiment with supplementation and exclusion of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation was conducted to study the effects of enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of alpine annual pasture Vicia angustifolia on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Enhanced UV-B decreased the plant height and biomass, biomass allocation to fruit, flower number, and 100-seed mass significantly, delayed flowering stage, increased the concentration degree of flowering and success rate of reproduction, but had little effect on seed yield. Near ambient UV-B radiation made the plant height increased after an initial decrease, decreased biomass allocation to fruit and 100-seed mass, but little affected flowering duration, flower number, and seed yield. Both enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth and production of V. angustifolia, and the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation was even larger.

  10. OER and RBE of high energy neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, J; Billiet, G; Zoetelief, J; Broerse, J J; Wambersie, A

    1983-01-01

    The radiobiologic characteristics of 15 MeV neutrons produced by the d + T reaction at the TNO of Rijswijk and of neutrons produced by the d(50) + Be and p(75) + Be reactions at the cyclotron Cyclone of Louvain-la- Neuve were compared. Growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots was used as biologic system. An OER value of 1.5 +/- 0.1 ws obtained for the neutron beams compared. The RBE of 15 MeV, d(50) + Be and p(75) + Be neutrons was found equal to 3.4 +/- 0.2, 3.2 +/- 0.2 and 2.9 +/- 0.3, respectively, relative to gamma rays, for a total (n + gamma) absorbed dose of 0.6 Gy.

  11. Increased transcription in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, prevents cells from progressing through S phase by depletion of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. Concurrently, disruption of DNA replication leads to double-strand DNA breaks. In root meristems of Vicia faba, HU triggers cell cycle arrest (preferentially in G1/S phase) and changes an overall metabolism by global activation of transcription both in the nucleoplasmic and nucleolar regions. High level of transcription is accompanied by an increase in the content of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A). Changes in transcription activation and POLR2A content correlate with posttranslational modifications of histones that play a role in opening up chromatin for transcription. Increase in the level of H4 Lys5 acetylation indicates that global activation of transcription following HU treatment depends on histone modifications.

  12. Effect of gamma — radiation on vicine and convicine in broad beans ( Vicia faba L. )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaddou, H.

    Broad bean ( Vicia faba L. ) is considered to be a good source of protein. The presence of vicine and convicine and their role as a causative agents of favism limited their use. The effect of gamma radiation from 60Co source was tested on solutions of a mixture of vicine and convicine. Analysis was carried out using spectrophotometric method. Reduction of 92% in vicine and convicine was observed when a dose of 10.0 kGy was used. The reduction was very much lower when powdered dry beans was irradiated. Research in progress in order to attain a higher destructive effect. Further chemical and biological studies are also required to follow up this effect.

  13. An outbreak of Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) poisoning in grazing Aberdeen Angus bulls in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, E; Paloma, E; Lopez, T; Campero, C

    1991-06-01

    Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) is used as a forage source in some cattle-producing areas in Argentina. The plant had no previous reports of toxicity in this country. A herd of 33 Aberdeen Angus bulls grazed during 20 days in October on a pasture composed mainly of hairy vetch. Eight animals developed conjunctivitis, rinitis, dermatitis, loss of hair and fever. All of them died within 15 d after the development of signs with a marked loss of body condition. No more animals became sick 5 d after the removal of the herd from the pasture. Serum parameters tested (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, GOT, alfa-GT and bilirubin) enlarged liver and spleen, generalized hemorrhage in the abomasum, dilated kidneys and multiple pale areas on the heart. Severe necrotizing granulomatous myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, and necrotizing cholangitis were the most striking microscopic changes. Close observation of animals feeding on pastures in which V villosa is dominant is the only prevention.

  14. Performance of Vicia faba plants in relation to simulated acid rain and/or endosulphan treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. )

    1992-02-01

    The increasing human population in India is necessitating the optimum use of cultivable land for increased food production. Eradication and control of pests and pathogens is an essential component of any strategy for increased agricultural production. In this context, the use of pesticides to control the incidence of disease in crops becomes inevitable. Most of the pesticides used for foliar spraying invariably contain surfactants in their formulation, which not only increase the surface wettability but also enhance permeability of the cuticle for more cation infusion/effusion and hence they may make the leaf more susceptible to direct effects of acid rain. To evaluate the validity of this assumption, an experiment using endosulphan, the most commonly used insecticide in India, and acid rain of different pH was conducted on Vicia faba.

  15. [The role of nitric oxide in ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba L].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qiu, Li-Yan; Zhao, Fang-Gui; Hou, Li-Xia; Liu, Xin

    2007-08-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene on Vicia faba L. stomatal movement were studied. The results showed that NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) 10 micromol/L and ethylene 0.04% could induce stomatal closure distinctly and they could promote stomatal closure when treated together. When treated with AVG (an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis), c-PTIO (a specific scavenger of NO) and NaN(3) (an inhibitor of NR), the effects of NO- and ethylene-induced stomatal closure were inhibited but the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) had little effect. We presumed that there was coordinative effect between NO and ethylene in regulation of stomatal closure; ethylene could induce stomatal closure by regulating the production of nitrate reductase (NR)-dependent NO.

  16. Thiamine is synthesized by a salvage pathway in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 3841.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, R; Ebert, K; Harvey, S; Leonard, M E; Ramachandran, V; Poole, P S

    2006-09-01

    In the absence of added thiamine, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 3841 does not grow in liquid medium and forms only "pin" colonies on agar plates, which contrasts with the good growth of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, Mesorhizobium loti 303099, and Rhizobium etli CFN42. These last three organisms have thiCOGE genes, which are essential for de novo thiamine synthesis. While R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 lacks thiCOGE, it does have thiMED. Mutation of thiM prevented formation of pin colonies on agar plates lacking added thiamine, suggesting thiamine intermediates are normally present. The putative functions of ThiM, ThiE, and ThiD are 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl) thiazole (THZ) kinase, thiamine phosphate pyrophosphorylase, and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl pyrimidine (HMP) kinase, respectively. This suggests that a salvage pathway operates in R. leguminosarum, and addition of HMP and THZ enabled growth at the same rate as that enabled by thiamine in strain 3841 but elicited no growth in the thiM mutant (RU2459). There is a putative thi box sequence immediately upstream of the thiM, and a gfp-mut3.1 fusion to it revealed the presence of a promoter that is strongly repressed by thiamine. Using fluorescent microscopy and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, it was shown that thiM is expressed in the rhizosphere of vetch and pea plants, indicating limitation for thiamine. Pea plants infected by RU2459 were not impaired in nodulation or nitrogen fixation. However, colonization of the pea rhizosphere by the thiM mutant was impaired relative to that of the wild type. Overall, the results show that a thiamine salvage pathway operates to enable growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum in the rhizosphere, allowing its survival when thiamine is limiting.

  17. Calvin-Benson Cycle Enzymes in Guard-Cell Protoplasts from Vicia faba L

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro; Terada, Junko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Kondo, Noriaki

    1989-01-01

    Activities of Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes were found in protoplasts of guard cells from Vicia faba L. The activities of NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP-GAPD) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) were 2670 and 52 micromoles per milligrams chlorophyll per hour, respectively. Activities of NADP-GAPD and RuBPC in guard cells were increased by red light illumination, and the light activations were inhibited completely by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), an inhibitor of photosystem II. Enzymes related to the Calvin-Benson cycle such as 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGAK), triose phosphate (TP) isomerase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) were shown to be present in guard-cell chloroplasts. From these results, we conclude that the photosynthetic carbon reduction pathway is present in guard-cell chloroplasts of Vicia faba. We compared these enzyme activities in guard cells with those in mesophyll cells. The activities of NADP-GAPD and PGAK were more than several-fold higher and that of TP isomerase was much higher in guard-cell chloroplasts than in mesophyll chloroplasts. In contrast, activities of RuBPC and FBPase were estimated to be roughly half of those in mesophyll chloroplasts. High activities of PGAK, NAD-GAPD, and TP isomerase were found in fractions enriched in cytosol of guard cells. Illumination of guard-cell protoplasts with red light increased the cellular ATP/ADP ratio from 5 to 14. These results support the interpretation that guard cells utilize a shuttle system (e.g. phosphoglycerate [PGA]/dihydroxyacetone phosphate [DHAP] shuttle) for an indirect transfer of ATP and reducing equivalents from chloroplasts to the cytosol. PMID:16666851

  18. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  19. Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test on the mutagenicity of water-soluble contents of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ji, Q; Chen, Y

    1996-01-16

    The possible mutagenicity of the water-soluble contents of cigarette smoke (WSCS) was evaluated by using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test. The results showed significant changes in micronucleus frequency which were caused by each different concentration of WSCS. This indicates that the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test might be used as one kind of mutagenic detection method for cigarette smoke. A comparative evaluation on the mutagenicity of 10 brands of cigarettes was carried out. Results confirmed that various degrees of mutagenicity were found for all of the brand cigarettes, among them, Huaihai was the highest, while Camellia was the lowest. The micronucleus frequencies were reduced by adding tea polyphenol, nicotinamide adenine, vitamin C and sodium selenite to the WSCS. The results suggest that these added substances might reduce the genetic injury induced by cigarette smoke.

  20. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes.

  1. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    PubMed

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  2. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri

    PubMed Central

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M.; Keep, Nicholas H.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (−)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket. PMID:27102935

  3. Molecular modifications induced by inorganic arsenic in Vicia faba investigated by FTIR, FTNIR spectroscopy and genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Boccia, P; Meconi, C; Mecozzi, M; Sturchio, E

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water is a major public health concern affecting most countries. Epidemiologic studies showed a significant association between consumption of iAs through drinking water and different types of cancer. However, the exact mechanisms underlying As-induced cancer and other diseases are not yet well understood. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of exposure iAs (20 or 30 mg/L) on Vicia faba seedlings in terms of phytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and spectroscopy by investigation of molecular modifications using infrared (FTIR) and near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy. Further, the mitigation effects of a precursor of glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), were also assessed. Spectroscopic and genotoxicity analysis demonstrated that specific molecular changes were directly correlated with iAs exposure. Comet assay in Vicia faba showed significant effects at concentrations of 20 and 30 mg/L, depending on the structural changes involving nucleic acids as identified by FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy. Results of phytotoxicity and micronuclei tests were significant only at higher iAs concentrations (30 mg/L), where an antioxidant effect of NAC was noted. The two spectroscopic techniques demonstrated molecular modifications predominantly associated with chemical interactions of iAs with biomolecules such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in Vicia faba. Our findings suggest that further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms underlying toxicity produced by different As chemical forms in vegetal and agricultural species.

  4. Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Dhyèvre, Adrien; Foltête, Anne Sophie; Aran, Delphine; Muller, Serge; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of soil pH on the results of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test for the two following reasons: (i) to define the pH range within which the test can be performed without modifying the soil to be tested, within the framework of the ISO standard of the test and (ii) to provides information about the effects of the pH on the genotoxic potential of soils. In this context, we modified the pH of a standard soil with HCl or NaOH and we spiked the matrix with copper (2, 4 and 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) or with maleic hydrazide, an antigerminative chemical (5, 10 and 20 μmol kg(-1) dry soil). We concluded that the pH had no effect on the mitotic index or micronucleus frequency in the root cells of the negative controls: extreme pH values did not induce micronucleus formation in root cells. Moreover, according to our results, the Vicia-micronucleus test can be performed with pH values ranging between 3.2 and 9.0, but in the ISO 29200 "Soil quality--assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants--V. faba micronucleus test" we recommended to use a control soil with a pH value ranging between 5 and 8 for a more accurate assessment of chemical genotoxicity. We also found that acid pH could increase the genotoxic potential of pollutants, especially heavy metals. With hydrazide maleic spiked soil, plants were placed in a situation of double stress, i.e. toxicity caused by extreme pH values and toxicity induced by the pollutant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of genotoxic effects of drinking water disinfection by-products using Vicia faba bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Tan, Li; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Ting; Han, Xue; Liu, Na; Lu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based bioassays have gained wide use among the toxicological and/or ecotoxicological assessment procedures because of their simplicity, sensitivity, low cost, and reliability. The present study describes the use of Vicia faba (V. faba) micronucleus (MN) test and V. faba comet assay in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in chlorine-disinfected drinking water. Five haloacetic acids and three halogenated acetonitriles were chosen as representatives of DBPs in this study because they are of potentially great public health risk. Results of the MN test indicated that monochloroacetic acid (MCA), monobromoacetic acid (MBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) caused a statistically significant increase in MN frequency in V. faba root tip cells. However, no genotoxic response was observed for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN). Results of the comet assay showed that all tested DBPs induced a statistically significant increase in genomic DNA damage to V. faba root tip cells. On considering the capacity to detect genomic damage of a different nature, we suggest that a combination of V. faba MN test and V. faba comet assay is a useful tool for the detection of genotoxic effects of DBPs. It is worthy of assessing the feasibility of using V. faba comet assay combined with V. faba MN test to screen for the genotoxic activity of chlorinated drinking water in future work.

  6. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    PubMed

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional and electrophoretic characteristics of faba bean (Vicia faba) flour proteins as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Rahma, E H

    1988-01-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba) were germinated at room temperature for 3 and 6 days respectively. The effect of germination on the protein fractions, protein solubility index, PAGE pattern and some functional properties i.e. emulsification capacity (EC), foaming capacity (FC), foam stability (FS), water and fat absorption capacities of the flour was studied. Germination decreased albumins, globulins and prolamins at different levels but non protein nitrogen and glutelins were increased. The protein solubility index was high at both extreme pH values with an isoelectric point (IP) at pH of 4.4-4.5. The solubility of the protein slightly increased due to germination at all the pH values. PAGE pattern revealed on obvious dissociation and utilization for both fast and slow moving protein fractions during germination. Emulsification and foaming properties vs pH profile were similar to the pattern of solubility vs pH. Both properties were high at acidic and alkaline pH's and the minimum values were at pH 4 to 5. Germination process improved EC, FC and FS of the flour in comparison with that of dry bean flour. Water absorption of faba bean flours was improved during germination but the fat absorption markedly decreased.

  8. Impact of TiO₂ nanoparticles on Vicia narbonensis L.: potential toxicity effects.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Giorgetti, L; Cremonini, R; Bottega, S; Spanò, C

    2014-11-01

    This work was aimed to provide further information about toxicology of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on Vicia narbonensis L., considering different endpoints. After exposure to TiO2 nanoparticle suspension (mixture of rutile and anatase, size <100 nm) at four different concentrations (0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ‰), the seeds of V. narbonensis were let to germinate in controlled environmental conditions. After 72 h, the extent of the success of the whole process (seed germination plus root elongation) was recorded as the vigour index, an indicator of possible phytotoxicity. After the characterisation of the hydric state of different materials, oxidative stress and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses were considered as indicators of possible cytotoxicity and to assess if damage induced by TiO2 NPs was oxidative stress-dependent. Cytohistochemical detection of in situ DNA fragmentation as genotoxicity endpoint was monitored by TUNEL reaction. The treatments with TiO2 NPs in our system induced phytotoxic effects, ROS production and DNA fragmentation. The nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant responses were gradually and differentially activated and were able to maintain the oxidative damage to levels not significantly different from the control. On the other hand, the results of DNA fragmentation suggested that the mechanisms of DNA repair were not effective enough to eliminate early genotoxicity effects.

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals and antioxidant responses in Vicia faba plants grown on monometallic contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Kafel, Alina; Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Gospodarek, Janina; Zawisza-Raszka, Agnieszka

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of soil contamination by selected metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead or zinc) on the antioxidant response of Vicia faba plants. The levels of the antioxidants: glutathione, proline, non-protein thiols, as well as guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in the upper parts of plants. Additionally, the potential bioavailability of metals in the soil and their concentrations in V. faba plants were compared. Treatment with metal caused the problem of an elevation in its bioavailability in soil and its concentration in leaves and stems. The most serious problems seemed to be metal elevations in soil, especially Zn and Ni as well as in the aerial parts of V. faba plants. The antioxidant responses appeared to be metal specific. The elevation of guaiacol peroxidase activity in leaves and stems as well as the proline in leaves was the only more general reaction to metal exposure. Upon analysis of the effects of soil metal contamination on V. faba plants, we recommend the use of some measurements such as guaiacol peroxidase activity and proline level as useful tools in biological monitoring.

  10. Effect of static electric fields in root cells of Vicia faba (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Demiray, H

    2006-01-01

    Serial electron microscopic sections were prepared from half-ripened meristematic root cells of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) which had been exposed gradually to 700, 1000, 2500, 3500, and 5000 V/m static electric fields during seven days with and without Zn and Cd electrodes. At the end of five weeks, wall loosenings and very small nuclei were observed in those root cells which were exposed to static electric currents from the lower side of the medium without electrodes, while abnormalities in cell formation, e.g., two cells with one nucleus, and GER occurrence were present in an electrolytic (Cd upward and Zn downward) medium. The cells exposed to a static current from the upper side of the medium had small nuclei and abnormal cell divisions in the electrolyte, but in a non-electrolyte very large nuclei and thicker cell walls were observed, the cytoplasm was dense with GER, pinocytosis was seen filled with mitochondria, and protoplast formation with big nuclei was seen in exocytosis.

  11. Effect of soybean, Vicia faba, and vitamin C on the carcinogenicity of DMBA.

    PubMed

    el-Aaser, A A; Zakhary, N I; el-Guindy, S M; Hafiez, A R; Halawa, F; Mokhtar, N

    1994-01-01

    A single dose of 10 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), administered to rats through intragastric intubation, was sufficient to induce many biochemical and histopathological changes in their mammary tissue. Significant increases were observed in the activity levels of the enzymes acid ribonuclease, 5-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphatase, and beta-glucuronidase in mammary tissue homogenates of DMBA-treated rats after an experimental period of five months. Histopathological studies of the mammary tissue also revealed malignant epithelial tumors (cribriform carcinoma) induced among 85% of the treated rats, with an incidence of 4 tumors in 12 mammary glands. Nevertheless, administration of 30% soybean in the diet of rats or 5,000 ppm ascorbic acid in their drinking water in addition to DMBA revealed a significant chemoprotective effect against the carcinogenesis induced by DMBA alone. This chemoprotective effect was demonstrated by the normalization of the activity levels of the enzymes studied in mammary tissue homogenates, because most of the enzymes were maintained at near the levels in the control animals. The incidence and number of tumors were also decreased. Cribriform carcinoma was observed in 50% of the rats, and the incidence of the affected glands was 2 in 12 mammary glands among both groups. On the other hand, a less chemoprotective effect was observed due to Vicia faba administration.

  12. Effects of Cultivar and Maternal Environment on Seed Quality in Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Chen, Lijun; Wu, Yanpei; Zhang, Rui; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Hu, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    Production of high quality seeds is of fundamental importance for successful crop production. However, knowledge of the effects of increased temperature resulting from global warming on seed quality of alpine species is limited. We investigated the effect of maternal environment on seed quality of three cultivars of the leguminous forage species Vicia sativa, giving particular attention to temperature. Plants of each cultivar were grown at 1700 and 3000 m a.s.l., and mass, germination, electrical conductivity (EC) of leakage and longevity were determined for mature seeds. Seeds of all three cultivars produced at the low elevation had a significantly lower mass and longevity but higher EC of leachate than those produced at the high elevation, suggesting that increased temperatures decreased seed quality. However, seed viability did not differ between elevations. The effects of maternal environment on seed germination strongly depended on cultivar and germination temperature. At 10 and 15°C, seeds of "Lanjian 3" produced at high elevation germinated to higher percentages and rates than those produced at low elevation, but the opposite trend was observed at 20°C. However, for seeds of "Lanjian 1" and "Lanjian 2," no significant effect of elevation was observed in germination percentage. Our results indicate that the best environment for the production of high quality seeds (e.g., high seed mass, low EC, high seed longevity) of V. sativa is one in which temperatures are relatively low during seed development.

  13. The effect of diesel fuel on common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2003-03-01

    When petroleum hydrocarbons contaminate soil, the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the soil is altered. The added carbon stimulates microbial numbers but causes an imbalance in the C:N ratio which may result in immobilization of soil nitrogen by the microbial biomass, leaving none available for plant growth. As members of Leguminosae fix atmospheric nitrogen to produce their own nitrogen for growth, they may prove more successful at growing on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. During a wider study on phytoremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil, particular attention was given to the performance of legumes versus other plant species. During harvesting of pot experiments containing leguminous plants, a recurring difference in the number and formation of root nodules present on control and contaminated Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) plants was observed. The total number of nodules per plant was significant reduced in contaminated plants compared to control plants but nodules on contaminated plants were more developed than corresponding nodules on control plants. Plant performance of Common vetch and Westerwold's ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) was compared to illustrate any difference between the ability of legumes and grasses to grow on diesel fuel contaminated soil. Common vetch was less affected by diesel fuel and performed better in low levels of diesel fuel contaminated soil than Westerwold's ryegrass. The total amount of diesel fuel remaining after 4 months in Common vetch planted soil was slightly less than in Westerwold's ryegrass planted soil.

  14. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration.

  15. Phytoremediation of phenol using Vicia sativa L. plants and its antioxidative response.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Sabrina G; Sosa Alderete, Lucas G; Medina, María I; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is a legume species with an extensive agricultural use. However, the phytoremediation potentiality of this species has not been sufficiently explored because little is known about its resistance to inorganic and organic pollutants. In the present work, phenol tolerance of common vetch was assayed at different stages of growth. Germination index and germination rate decreased only at high phenol concentrations (250 and 500 mg L(-1)), whereas 30-day-old plants were able to tolerate this pollutant, with high removal efficiencies. The activities of antioxidative enzymes, such as peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase, increased significantly with the highest phenol concentration, whereas superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde, and H(2)O(2) levels remained unaltered. Besides, an increase in two basic isoforms of POD was observed in plants treated with phenol. The results suggested that common vetch has an efficient protection mechanism against phenol-induced oxidative damage. Moreover, it could tolerate and remove high phenol concentrations, avoiding serious phytotoxic effects. Thus, V. sativa could be considered an interesting tool in the field of phytoremediation.

  16. Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) germplasm: correlations of crude protein and mineral content to seed traits.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Aysen; Gücer, Seref; Acikgoz, Esvet

    2011-09-01

    In order to increase knowledge of seed nutritive value and to demonstrate its relationship in common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) germplasm, 388 common vetch accessions were grown under field conditions in 2008-2009 growing season in Bursa province of Turkey. Seeds were analyzed for seed minerals (Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, P, S, Zn and K) and crude protein (CP) content. The accessions were grouped according to testa and cotyledon color and seed size, and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance to determine relationships between minerals and CP content, testa and cotyledon colors, and seed weight. In general, there was no significant difference between testa colors or cotyledon colors in minerals and CP content. However, seed weight was closely associated with minerals and CP contents in this study. Analysis of variance and correlation analysis showed that seed weight was closely associated with some minerals and CP content. The small seeds had significantly higher Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, S, Zn and CP contents than medium and large seeds.

  17. Systemic granulomatous disease in Brazilian cattle grazing pasture containing vetch (Vicia spp).

    PubMed

    Fighera, Rafael A; Barros, Claudio S L

    2004-04-01

    Vetch associated disease (hairy vetch poisoning) was observed in 8 herds of dairy cows in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. In the pasture where 4 of these 8 herds were, Vicia villosa was the only vetch species represented, while cattle in the remaining 4 herds had access to both V villosa and V sativa but with large predominance of the former. Observed clinical signs included fever, dramatic drop in milk yield, thickening and wrinkling of the skin with multifocal plaques of alopecia, pruritus, conjunctivitis, nasal and ocular serous discharge, loss of weight and diarrhea. The mean morbidity in the 8 affected herds, representing 219 cattle, was 11.1% and the mortality was 100%. The duration of the clinical disease varied from 10 to 30 d. Gross lesions consisted of multifocal to coalescing grey-white soft to moderately firm nodules which infiltrated several organs, but were particularly prominent in lymph nodes, adrenal, renal cortex, spleen, liver, and myocardium. Microscopically the lesions consisted of extensive cellular infiltration composed of variable proportions of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and multinucleated giant cells; variable numbers of eosinophils were present in the inflammatory foci of several organs, but they were more prominent in the myocardium.

  18. Microtubules are essential for guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, William; Ehrhardt, David; Briggs, Winslow

    2012-05-01

    Radially arranged cortical microtubules are a prominent feature of guard cells. Guard cells expressing GFP-tubulin showed consistent changes in the appearance of microtubules when stomata opened or closed. Guard cells showed fewer microtubule structures as stomata closed, whether induced by transfer to darkness, ABA, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium hydrogen carbonate. Guard cells kept in the dark (closed stomata) showed increases in microtubule structures and stomatal aperture on light treatment. GFP-EB1, marking microtubule growing plus ends, showed no change in number of plus ends or velocity of assembly on stomatal closure. Since the number of growing plus ends and the rate of plus-end growth did not change when microtubule structure numbers declined, microtubule instability and/or rearrangement must be responsible for the apparent loss of microtubules. Guard cells with closed stomata showed more cytosolic GFP-fluorescence than those with open stomata as cortical microtubules became disassembled, although with a large net loss in total fluorescence. Microtubule-targeted drugs blocked guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis. Oryzalin disrupted guard-cell microtubules and prevented stomatal opening and taxol stabilized guard-cell microtubules and delayed stomatal closure. Gas exchange measurements indicated that the transgenes for fluorescent-labeled proteins did not disrupt normal stomatal function. These dynamic changes in guard-cell microtubules combined with our inhibitor studies provide evidence for an active role of microtubules in guard-cell function.

  19. Hybrid embryos of Vicia faba develop enhanced sink strength, which is established during early development.

    PubMed

    Meitzel, Tobias; Radchuk, Ruslana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R; Link, Wolfgang; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2011-02-01

    Selfed and crossed seeds of two homozygous Vicia faba lines served as models for the analysis of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying embryo heterosis. Profiles of transcripts, metabolites and seed contents of developing embryos were analysed to compare the means of reciprocally crossed and selfed seeds growing on the same mother plants. The mean weight of mature hybrid seeds was demonstrably higher, revealing mid-parent heterosis. Hybrid embryos exhibited a prolonged early phase of development and delayed onset of storage activity. Accordingly, transcript profiling indicates stimulation of cell proliferation, an effect, which is potentially mediated by activation of auxin functions within a framework of growth-related transcription factors. At the transcript level, activated cell proliferation increased assimilate uptake activity and thereby seed sink strength. This situation might finally lead to the increased size of the hybrid seeds. We conclude that hybrid seeds are characterised by accelerated growth during early development, which increases storage capacity and leads to higher metabolic fluxes. These needs are, at least partially, met by increased assimilate uptake capacity. The stimulated growth of hybrid seeds shifted metabolite profiles and potentially depleted available pools. Such metabolic shifts are most likely secondary effects resulting from the higher storage capacity of hybrid seeds, a heterotic feature, which is itself established very early in seed development.

  20. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    PubMed

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans.

  1. Cellular distribution of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in Vicia faba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, V.; Assmann, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-binding proteins within Vicia faba was investigated. Both CaM and CaM-binding proteins were found to be differentially distributed among organs, tissues, and protoplast types. CaM levels, on a per protein basis, were found to be the highest in leaf epidermis, containing 3-fold higher levels of CaM than in total leaf. Similarly, guard cell and epidermal cell protoplasts were also found to have higher levels of CaM than mesophyll cell protoplasts. 125I-CaM blot overlay assays were performed to qualitatively examine CaM-binding proteins in these protoplast types as well as in whole tissues and organs. CaM-binding proteins with Mr 52,000, 78,000, and 115,000 were common in all metabolically active plant parts. Unique CaM-binding protein bands were detected in guard cell protoplasts (Mr 39,000, 88,000), stems (Mr 45,000, 60,000, 64,000), and roots (Mr 62,000), suggesting the presence of specialized CaM-dependent processes in these cells and organs.

  2. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D.; Huang, Amy S.; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J.; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Bradley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins. PMID:26950937

  3. Radiobiological intercomparison of clinical neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots.

    PubMed

    Beauduin, M; Gueulette, J; Vynckier, S; Wambersie, A

    1989-02-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) values of different neutron beams produced at the variable energy cyclotron "Cyclone" of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) were determined. The neutrons were obtained by bombarding a beryllium target with 34-, 45-, 65-, or 75-MeV protons or with 50-MeV deuterons. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. Taking the p(65) + Be neutron beam as a reference, RBE values were found equal to 1.36 +/- 0.2, 1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.00 (ref), 0.98 +/- 0.1, and 1.18 +/- 0.1, respectively; the doses corresponding to 50% growth inhibition were 0.39, 0.44, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.45 Gy. For the same beams, OER values were found equal to 1.55 +/- 0.1, 1.38 +/- 0.1, 1.29 +/- 0.1, 1.41 +/- 0.1, and 1.60 +/- 0.2, respectively.

  4. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) Markers in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Salem S.; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A.; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; El-Harty, Ehab H.; Ammar, Megahed H.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments), of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding. PMID:23211669

  5. Structure and chromosomal localization of DNA sequences related to ribosomal subrepeats in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Maggini, F; Cremonini, R; Zolfino, C; Tucci, G F; D'Ovidio, R; Delre, V; DePace, C; Scarascia Mugnozza, G T; Cionini, P G

    1991-05-01

    Subrepeating sequences of 325 bp found in the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) of Vicia faba and responsible for variations in the length of the polycistronic units for rRNA were isolated and used as probes for in situ hybridization. Hybridization occurs at many regions of the metaphase chromosomes besides those bearing rRNA genes, namely chromosome ends and all the heterochromatic regions revealed by enhanced fluorescence after quinacrine staining. The DNA homologous to the 325 bp repeats that does not reside in the IGS was isolated, cloned and sequenced. It is composed of tandemly arranged 336 bp elements, each comprising two highly related 168 bp sequences. This structure is very similar to that of the IGS repeats and ca. 75% nucleotide sequence identity can be observed between these and the 168 bp doublets. The most obvious difference lies in the deletion, in the former, of a 14 bp segment from one of the two related sequences. It is hypothesized that the IGS repeats are derived from the 336 bp elements and have been transposed to ribosomal cistrons from other genome fractions. The possible relations between these sequences and others with similar structural features found in other species are discussed.

  6. Photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation in guard cells (GC). [Vicia

    SciTech Connect

    Gotow, K.; Taylor, S.; Zeiger, E.

    1987-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that carbon metabolism in GC is modulated by light quality. The fate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ supplied to highly purified Vicia GC protoplasts irradiated with red light was investigated. The suspension was stirred at 25/sup 0/C and dark-adapted for 5 min. After 5 min. in red light, 4.8 uCi of NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ was added (final concentration: 100 uM). Metabolism was quenched after 30 s with boiling ethanol. Anionic compounds were separated by 2D PC and TLC, and quantified. Rates of CO/sub 2/ fixation were 5- to 8-fold higher in the light. In the dark, malate and aspartate had 90% of the total label; in the light, 3-PGA, sugar monophosphates (SMP) and sugar diophosphates (SDP) had up to 60% of the label. Phosphates treatment and rechromatography of labelled SDP showed the presence of ribulose, a specific PCRP metabolite. In time-course experiments, labelled 3-PGA was detected within 5 s. With time, the percentage of label in 3-PGA decreased and that in SMP increased. The authors conclude that 3-PGA is a primary carboxylation product of the PCRP in GC and that the activity of the PCRP and PEP-carboxylase is metabolically regulated.

  7. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  8. Nutritional and functional properties of Vicia faba protein isolates and related fractions.

    PubMed

    Vioque, Javier; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this research was the characterisation of Vicia faba (broadbean) protein isolates and related fractions in order to determine whether this grain legume could be used for production of high quality protein products and other fractions rich in functional components. Alkaline extraction of the defatted seed flour, followed by precipitation at the isoelectric pH, yielded a 92% protein isolate with a high oil absorption capacity. The contents of the favism-inducing glycosides, vicine and convicine, in the isolate were reduced by more than 99% as compared to the original flour, although the amino acid composition was similar to that of the flour. Some of the by-products of protein isolate production may also be of interest from a nutritional and functional point of view. Thus, the oil resulting from hexane extraction of the flour is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols (resulting from extraction of the defatted flour with acetone) showed a high ABTS radical-scavenging activity. In addition, the solid residue (resulting from protein solubilisation) was high in fibre and showed good water absorption. These results show good nutritional and functional properties in V. faba protein isolates and related fractions, which may favour the revalorisation of this traditional bean crop.

  9. Kinetin induces cell death in root cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kunikowska, Anita; Byczkowska, Anna; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    The double fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) revealed that treatment of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings with kinetin-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in root cortex cells. Kinetin-induced cell death reflected by the morphological changes of nuclei including their invagination, volume increase, chromatin condensation and degradation as well as formation of micronuclei showed by AO/EB and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining was accompanied by changes including increase in conductivity of cell electrolytes secreted to culture media, decrease in the number of the G1- and G2-phase cells and appearance of fraction of hypoploid cells as the effect of DNA degradation without ladder formation. Decrease in the number of mitochondria and in the activity of cellular dehydrogenases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), appearance of small and then large lytic vacuoles and increase in the amount of cytosolic calcium ions were also observed. The PCD was also manifested by increased width and weight of apical fragments of roots as well as decreased length of cortex cells which led to shortening of the whole roots. The kinetin-induced PCD process was almost completely inhibited by adenine, an inhibitor of phosphoribosyl transferase, and mannitol, an inhibitor of ROS production. These cell-death hallmarks and pathway of this process suggested that the induction of kinetin-specific vacuolar type of death, expressed itself with similar intensity on both morphological and metabolic levels, was a transient protecting whole roots and whole seedlings against elimination.

  10. Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Vicia faba: a pilot study on the environmental monitoring of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Anita K; Berry, Ashley; May, LaBethani; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-05-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus induction (MN). For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  11. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  12. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.

  13. Analysis of the accumulation and redistribution patterns of cesium in Vicia faba grown on contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Long; Fu, Qian; Tao, Zong-Ya; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cesium (Cs) contamination and plant growing stages in crops or vegetables grown on Cs-contaminated soils. Vicia faba was grown on Cs-contaminated soils under pot-culture conditions, and Cs uptake and bioaccumulation at various growing stages were then measured. The results showed that Cs uptake by V. faba was significantly greater on soils with a higher Cs content. As shown by the bioaccumulation factor (BCF), the highest transfer coefficient occurred when V. faba reached the maturation stage. Cs was easily transferred to young organs, especially seeds, with an average percentage of 9.60% in seeds during the maturation stage. This implies that Cs can be transferred to the human food chain at all growth stages of the plant, especially the last stages. Uptake rates of Cs remained stable during the generative growth phase of V. faba. This implies that the cultivation of varieties with short generative growth periods can reduce Cs accumulation in the edible parts of plants.

  14. Characterization of the urease gene cluster from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed

    Toffanin, Annita; Cadahia, Esther; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    Moderate levels of urease activity (ca. 300 mU mg(-1)) were detected in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 vegetative cells. This activity did not require urea for induction and was partially repressed by the addition of ammonium into the medium. Lower levels of urease activity (ca. 100 mU mg(-1)) were detected also in pea bacteroids. A DNA region of ca. 9 kb containing the urease structural genes ( ureA, ureB and ureC), accessory genes ( ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG), and five additional ORFs ( orf83, orf135, orf207, orf223, and orf287) encoding proteins of unknown function was sequenced. Three of these ORFs ( orf83, orf135 and orf207) have a homologous counterpart in a gene cluster from Sinorhizobium meliloti, reported to be involved in urease and hydrogenase activities. R. leguminosarum mutant strains carrying Tn 5 insertions within this region exhibited a urease-negative phenotype, but induced wild-type levels of hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities in bacteroids. orf287 encodes a potential transmembrane protein with a C-terminal GGDEF domain. A mutant affected in orf287 exhibited normal levels of urease activity in culture cells. Experiments aimed at cross-complementing Ni-binding proteins required for urease and hydrogenase synthesis (UreE and HypB, respectively) indicated that these two proteins are not functionally interchangeable in R. leguminosarum.

  15. Radiobiological intercomparison of clinical neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Beauduin, M.; Gueulette, J.; Vynckier, S.; Wambersie, A.

    1989-02-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) values of different neutron beams produced at the variable energy cyclotron Cyclone of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) were determined. The neutrons were obtained by bombarding a beryllium target with 34-, 45-, 65-, or 75-MeV protons or with 50-MeV deuterons. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. Taking the p(65) + Be neutron beam as a reference, RBE values were found equal to 1.36 +/- 0.2, 1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.00 (ref), 0.98 +/- 0.1, and 1.18 +/- 0.1, respectively; the doses corresponding to 50% growth inhibition were 0.39, 0.44, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.45 Gy. For the same beams, OER values were found equal to 1.55 +/- 0.1, 1.38 +/- 0.1, 1.29 +/- 0.1, 1.41 +/- 0.1, and 1.60 +/- 0.2, respectively.

  16. Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation in isolated guard cell chloroplasts from Vicia faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, K.; Zeiger, E.

    1985-06-01

    High rates of both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation were measured in chloroplast lamellae isolated from purified guard cell protoplasts from Vicia Faba L. Typical rates of light-dependent incorporation of /sup 32/P into ATP were 100 and 190 micromoles ATP per milligram chlorophyll per hour for noncyclic (water to ferricyanide) and cyclic (phenazine methosulfate) photophosphorylation, respectively. These rates were 50 to 80% of those observed with mesophyll chloroplasts. Noncyclic photophosphorylation in guard cell chloroplasts was completely inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea supporting the notion that photophosphorylation is coupled to linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I. Several lines of evidence indicated that contamination by mesophyll chloroplasts cannot account for the observed photophosphorylation rates. A comparison of the photon fluence dependence of noncyclic photophosphorylation in mesophyll and guard cell chloroplasts showed significant differences between the two preparations, with half saturation at 0.04 and 0.08 millimole per square meter per second, respectively.

  17. Accumulation of nickel ions in seedlings of Vicia sativa L. and manifestations of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ivanishchev, V V; Abramova, E A

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of nickel ions in the roots and shoots of vetch seedlings (Vicia sativa L.) at increasing concentrations of nickel chloride in the medium was studied. It was shown that the accumulation of nickel in the shoots was increased when the concentration of nickel chloride in the medium was more than 50 μM. The bioconcentration factor and sustainability index for vetch seedlings were calculated under the experimental conditions. The obtained results were similar to parameters for other plants, grown on a nutrient medium or soil substrate. First, the obtained results allowed estimate the limits of nickel chloride concentrations for four of five zones, which correspond to the theoretical concept of dose-response curves in the studies on the influence of physiologically essential heavy metals on plants (Prasad 2010). Some parameters of oxidative stress caused by the presence of nickel chloride in the medium were shown. It seems that at low nickel concentrations in the medium in vetch seedlings the increase of several biochemical parameters (catalase activity and proline) caused by the high amylase activity in seeds.

  18. Cellular distribution of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in Vicia faba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, V.; Assmann, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-binding proteins within Vicia faba was investigated. Both CaM and CaM-binding proteins were found to be differentially distributed among organs, tissues, and protoplast types. CaM levels, on a per protein basis, were found to be the highest in leaf epidermis, containing 3-fold higher levels of CaM than in total leaf. Similarly, guard cell and epidermal cell protoplasts were also found to have higher levels of CaM than mesophyll cell protoplasts. 125I-CaM blot overlay assays were performed to qualitatively examine CaM-binding proteins in these protoplast types as well as in whole tissues and organs. CaM-binding proteins with Mr 52,000, 78,000, and 115,000 were common in all metabolically active plant parts. Unique CaM-binding protein bands were detected in guard cell protoplasts (Mr 39,000, 88,000), stems (Mr 45,000, 60,000, 64,000), and roots (Mr 62,000), suggesting the presence of specialized CaM-dependent processes in these cells and organs.

  19. Wall ingrowth architecture in epidermal transfer cells of Vicia faba cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Talbot, M J; Franceschi, V R; McCurdy, D W; Offler, C E

    2001-01-01

    We describe the use of scanning electron microscopy to provide novel views of the three-dimensional morphology of the ingrowth wall in epidermal transfer cells of cotyledons of developing Vicia faba seed. Wall ingrowth deposition in these cells amplifies the surface area of plasma membrane available for transport of solutes during cotyledon development. Despite the physiological importance of such amplification, little is known about wall ingrowth morphology and deposition in transfer cells. A detailed morphological analysis of wall deposition in this study clearly established for the first time that wall ingrowths are deposited at scattered, discrete loci as papillate ingrowth projections. The new views of the ingrowth wall revealed that these projections branch and fuse laterally, and fusion occurs by fine connections to form a fenestrated sheet or layer. This sheet of wall material then provides a base for further deposition of ingrowth projections to progressively build many interconnected, fenestrated layers. Consolidations, or filling-in, of the fenestrae in these layers appears to occur from small fingerlike protrusions of wall material which extend laterally from the most recently deposited surface of the fenestrae. We propose that deposition of fenestrated layers may provide a mechanism for maintaining continuous amplification of plasma membrane surface area in the face of turnover of the plasma membrane and transporter proteins associated with it. The techniques reported in this paper will provide new opportunities to investigate wall ingrowth deposition and its regulation in transfer cells.

  20. Carbon dynamics and aggregation in a Vicia faba crop: influence of management practice and cultivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of a legume crop (Vicia faba) on the soil properties related to the carbon (C) cycle and soil aggregation, taking into account two cultivars (Muchamiel and Palenca) and two different management practices (conventional and organic). The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. We took a soil sampling (0-30 cm) from each plot at the end of the cycle to measure soil organic C, recalcitrant C, labile C fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC), aggregate stability and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, dehydrogenase, cellulose and arylesterase. Results showed that the cultivar and the management practice had no significant effect on any of the analyzed properties. Significant positive correlations were only observed between soil organic C and arylesterase activity, recalcitrant C and labile C fractions, and recalcitrant C with arylesterase and cellulase activities. So, it seems that the selected cultivars and management practices had similar effects on C dynamics and aggregation. Both management practices maintain the same levels of soil organic C, the different organic C pools, and aggregate stability. In addition, soil microorganisms are responding to the recalcitrant fraction of the organic carbon by release of cellulases and arylesterases. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  1. Microsomal membrane proteins and vanadate-sensitive ATPase from Vicia faba root tips after clinostat treatment.

    PubMed

    Bramer, M; Hunte, C; Schulz, M; Schnabl, H

    1996-07-01

    Microsomal and soluble protein fractions from Vicia faba root tips were used for SDS-PAGE and Western-immunoblot analysis with anti-ubiquitin antibodies after 9 h clinostat treatment of the plants. In contrast to soluble proteins omnilateral gravistimulation (9 h) resulted in an enhanced proteolytic capacity for microsomal proteins. The increase of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was 83% after 9 h clinostat treatment, when the enzyme activity was measured directly after membrane preparation. Enhanced ATPase activity was correlated with the appearance of a polypeptide of about 100 kDa and its fragments (93 and 80 kDa). ATPases are not the only membrane bound proteins, which are changed during clinostat treatment, as several ubiquitinated polypeptides were also affected. A 1 h storage of microsomal fractions led to a shift of band intensities on ubiquitin-specific Western-blots. The demonstrated effect could not be observed, when fractions were isolated in the presence of protease inhibitors. In accordance with the polypeptide analysis omnilateral gravistimulation resulted in an enhanced capacity to degrade specific microsomal ubiquitin-conjugates, whereas the soluble ubiquitin-pool was not visibly affected.

  2. Ultrastructural features of egg development in oviparae of the vetch aphid, Megoura viciae buckton.

    PubMed

    Brough, C N; Dixon, A F

    1990-01-01

    In the ovaries of the oviparous morph of the aphid, Megoura viciae, resting oocytes are located in the basal region of each germarium. During previtellogenic egg development, electron-dense spheres appear in the ooplasm. During vitellogenesis a brush border develops at the oolemma, and numerous protein and lipid-like spheres accumulate in the egg cytoplasm. Follicle cells are of two morphologically distinct types, termed 'type 1' and 'type 2' follicle cells. Unlike the more numerous 'type 1' cell, 'type 2' cells do not become patent. The acellular tunica propria exterior to follicle cell apices remains intact throughout egg development. During late vitellogenesis symbiont invasion of eggs takes place via 'receptor' cells encircling the pedicel at the posterior egg pole. These cells shrink and/or degenerate to create intercellular spaces that facilitate symbiont transmission. The end of vitellogenesis is marked by vitelline membrane formation and secretion of the chorionic layers, at which time the next egg in the ovariole undergoes final stages of previtellogenic growth and enters vitellogenesis.

  3. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  4. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-03-15

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021-2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18-26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases.

  5. Characterization of two novel biovar of Agrobacterium tumefaciens isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Bhupendra N; Prasad, Birendra; Ghosh, Anuradha; Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Rakesh K

    2007-10-01

    A total of eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the root nodule of Vicia faba on the selective media of Rhizobium. Two of these strains produced phenotypically distinct mucoid colonies (one slow growing and the other fast growing) and were examined using a polyphasic approach for taxonomic identification. The two strains (MTCC 7405 and MTCC 7406) turned out to be new strains of biovar 1 Agrobacterium rather than Rhizobium, as they showed growth on alkaline medium as well as on 2% NaCl and neither catabolized lactose as the carbon source nor oxidized Tween-80. The distinctness between the two strains was marked with respect to their growth on dextrose and the production of lysine dihydrolase, ornithine decarboxylase and DNA G + C content. 16S rDNA sequencing and their comparison with the 16S rDNA sequences of previously described agrobacteria as well as rhizobia strains confirmed the novelty of the two strains. Both of the strains clustered with strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic tree. The phenotypic and biochemical properties of the two strains differed from those of the recognized biovar of A. tumefaciens. It is proposed that the strains MTCC 7405 and MTCC 7406 be classified as novel biovar of the species A. tumefaciens (Type strains MTCC 7405 = DQ383275 and MTCC 7406 = DQ383276).

  6. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  7. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy.

  8. Compatibility of Rhizobial Genotypes within Natural Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae for Nodulation of Host Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy. PMID:12676710

  9. The use of Tradescantia and Vicia faba bioassays for the in situ detection of mutagens in an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Grant, W F; Lee, H G; Logan, D M; Salamone, M F

    1992-11-01

    Tests have shown plant bioassays to be excellent for mutagenicity studies. Most studies with plant bioassays, however, have been carried out either in the laboratory, or if, in situ, as monitors of atmospheric contaminants. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the utility of in situ plant mutagenicity bioassays in monitoring water contaminants. The assay systems tested were the Tradescantia stamen hair and micronucleus assays for the detection of gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations respectively, and the Vicia faba bioassay system which detects chromosomal aberrations in root tips. The assays were used to test the effluent from a pulp and paper mill located on the north shore of Lake Superior. Assays were performed in a creek containing raw effluent and in the bay of Lake Superior into which the creek emptied. All in situ treatments were carried out for 24 h. The effluent from the creek was heavy with pulp and debris which coated the plant cuttings and the Vicia faba seedlings and may have restricted the uptake from the effluent. In the creek, at test sites 11.5 km from the source, the effluent was toxic to the Vicia faba roots as evidenced by a reduction in the mitotic index. The data for the Tradescantia stamen hair assay in the creek were equivocal. The cuttings from the creek test sites and the air and water control sites appeared to have undergone a physiological delay. Within a day or two after the return to the laboratory, that is 6-8 days after testing, flowering almost ceased and did not fully resume until about day 35. This reduction in flowering was particularly severe with the cuttings from the effluent and air control sites, making it very difficult to interpret the results. In contrast, the Tradescantia micronucleus and Vicia faba chromosomal aberration data were unequivocal; each produced positive responses at both test sites relative to the air and water controls. The results obtained for the bay sites with all 3 assays were in

  10. Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.

    PubMed

    Gustavino, Bianca; Carboni, Giovanni; Petrillo, Roberto; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Rizzoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell. Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m(2)). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg. Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system.

  11. Genetic diversity of Palestine landraces of faba bean (Vicia faba) based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Basheer-Salimia, R; Shtaya, M; Awad, M; Abdallah, J; Hamdan, Y

    2013-09-03

    Until now, neither phenotypic nor molecular approaches have been used to characterize the landraces of Palestine faba beans (Vicia faba). We used PCR-based RAPD markers to determine the genetic diversity and relatedness among 26 Palestinian faba bean landraces (traditional farmers' varieties) from 8 localities in the West Bank, Palestine. In tests with 37 primers, 14 generated no polymorphic bands, 12 exhibited weak and unclear products, and 11 primers produced good amplification products with high intensity and pattern stability. Ninety-four DNA fragments (loci) were detected, with an average of 8.54 loci per primer and size ranging from 160 to 1370 bp. A minimum of 4 and a maximum of 14 DNA fragments were obtained using (OPA-05 and OPA-09) and (BC-261) primers, respectively. The maximum percentage of polymorphic markers was 71.4 (BC-298) and the minimum was 50.0 (OPA-05, -09, -16). The 11 primers exhibited relatively high collective resolving power (Rp) values of 26.316, and varied from 0.154 for the OPA-09 primer to 5.236 for the BC-261, with an overall mean of 2.392. The primers BC-261, -322, and -298 were found to be the most useful RAPD primers to assess the genetic diversity of Palestinian faba beans, as they revealed relatively high Rp rates (5.236, 3.618, and 3.150, respectively). Based on the Jaccard coefficient, the genetic distance ranged from 0.358 to 0.069, with a mean of 0.213. We conclude that the RAPD technique is useful for determining genetic diversity and for developing suitable fingerprints for faba bean landraces grown in Palestine.

  12. Determination of symbiotic nodule occupancy in the model Vicia tetrasperma using a fluorescence scanner.

    PubMed

    Novák, Karel

    2011-04-01

    Fluorescent tagging of nodule bacteria forming symbioses with legume host plants represents a tool for vital tracking of bacteria inside the symbiotic root nodules and monitoring changes in gene activity. The constitutive expression of heterologous fluorescent proteins, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), also allows screening for nodule occupancy by a particular strain. Imaging of the fluorescence signal on a macro-scale is associated with technical problems due to the robustness of nodule tissues and a high level of autofluorescence. These limitations can be reduced by the use of a model species with a fine root system, such as Vicia tetrasperma. Further increases in the sensitivity and specificity of the detection and in image resolution can be attained by the use of a fluorescence scanner. Compared with the standard CCD-type cameras, the availability of a laser source of a specified excitation wavelength decreases non-specific autofluorescence while the photomultiplier tubes in emission detection significantly increase sensitivity. The large scanning area combined with a high resolution allow us to visualize individual nodules during the scan of whole root systems. Using a fluorescence scanner with excitation wavelength of 488 nm, a band-pass specific emission channel of 532 nm and a long-pass background channel of 555 nm, it was possible to distinguish nodules occupied by a rhizobial strain marked with one copy of cycle3 GFP from nodules colonized by the wild-type strain. The main limitation of the current plant model and GFP with the wild-type emission peak at 409 nm is a sharp increase in root autofluorescence below 550 nm. The selectivity of the technique can be enhanced by the use of red-shifted fluorophores and the contrasting labelling of the variants, provided that the excitation (482 nm) and emission (737 nm) maxima corresponding to root chlorophyll are respected.

  13. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: potential involvement of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-12-24

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0-20μM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10μM. In addition, at this concentration, DNA damage time-dependently increased until 12h. Then, a decrease in DNA damages was recorded. The significant induction of micronucleus formation also reinforced the genotoxic character of this metal. Direct interaction of lead with DNA was also evaluated with the a-cellular comet assay. The data showed that DNA breakages were not associated with a direct effect of lead on DNA. In order to investigate the relationship between lead genotoxicity and oxidative stress, V. faba were exposed to lead in the presence or absence of the antioxidant Vitamin E, or the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor dephenylene iodonium (DPI). The total inhibition of the genotoxic effects of lead (DNA breakage and micronucleus formation) by these compounds reveals the major role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the genotoxicity of lead. These results highlight, for the first time in vivo and in whole-plant roots, the relationship between ROS, DNA strand-breaks and chromosome aberrations induced by lead. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S.; McCurdy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth formation. Here, we used RNA-Seq to identify transcription factors putatively involved in regulating epidermal TC development in cotyledons of Vicia faba. Comparing cotyledons cultured for 0, 3, 9, and 24 h to induce trans-differentiation of epidermal TCs identified 43 transcription factors that showed either epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, and 10 that showed epidermal-specific down regulation. Members of the WRKY and ethylene-responsive families were prominent in the cohort of transcription factors showing epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, consistent with the initiation of TC development often representing a response to stress. Members of the MYB family were also prominent in these categories, including orthologs of MYB genes involved in localized secondary wall deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the group of transcription factors showing down regulation were various homeobox genes and members of the MADs-box and zinc-finger families of poorly defined functions. Collectively, this study identified several transcription factors showing expression characteristics and orthologous functions that indicate likely participation in transcriptional regulation of epidermal TC development in V. faba cotyledons. PMID:27252730

  15. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE ANTIMETABOLITE ACTION OF 2,6-DIAMINOPURINE IN VICIA FABA ROOTS

    PubMed Central

    Setterfield, George; Duncan, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    At a concentration of 9.6 x 10–5 M, 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) completely inhibited cell enlargement, cell division, and DNA synthesis (determined by microphotometric measurement of Feulgen dye) in Vicia faba roots. Inhibition of cell enlargement was partially reversed by adenine, guanine, xanthine, adenosine, and desoxyadenosine. Guanine and the nucleosides gave the greatest reversal, suggesting that one point of DAP action upon cell enlargement is a disruption of nucleoside or nucleotide metabolism, possibly during pentosenucleic acid synthesis. DAP inhibited cell division by preventing onset of prophase. At the concentrations used it had no significant effect on the rate or appearance of mitoses in progress. Inhibition of entrance into prophase was not directly due to inhibition of DNA synthesis since approximately half of the inhibited nuclei had the doubled (4C) amount of DNA. Adenine competitively reversed DAP inhibition of cell division, giving an inhibition index of about 0.5. Guanine gave a slight reversal while xanthine, hypoxanthine, adenosine, and desoxyadenosine were inactive. A basic need for free adenine for the onset of mitosis was suggested by this reversal pattern. Meristems treated with DAP contained almost no nuclei with intermediate amounts of DNA, indicating that DAP prevented the onset of DNA synthesis while allowing that underway to reach completion. The inhibition of DNA synthesis was reversed by adenine, adenosine, and desoxyadenosine although synthesis appeared to proceed at a slower rate in reversals than in controls. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by DAP is probably through nucleoside or nucleotide metabolism. A small general depression of DNA content of nuclei in the reversal treatments was observed. This deviation from DNA "constancy" cannot be adequately explained at present although it may be a result of direct incorporation of DAP into DNA. The possible purine precursor, 4-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide gave no reversal of DAP inhibition

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide Is Involved in Abscisic Acid-Induced Stomatal Closure in Vicia faba1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Lin; Dong, Facai; Gao, Junfeng; Galbraith, David W.; Song, Chun-Peng

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important functions of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is to induce stomatal closure by reducing the turgor of guard cells under water deficit. Under environmental stresses, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an active oxygen species, is widely generated in many biological systems. Here, using an epidermal strip bioassay and laser-scanning confocal microscopy, we provide evidence that H2O2 may function as an intermediate in ABA signaling in Vicia faba guard cells. H2O2 inhibited induced closure of stomata, and this effect was reversed by ascorbic acid at concentrations lower than 10−5 m. Further, ABA-induced stomatal closure also was abolished partly by addition of exogenous catalase (CAT) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), which are an H2O2 scavenger and an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, respectively. Time course experiments of single-cell assays based on the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein showed that the generation of H2O2 was dependent on ABA concentration and an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the chloroplast occurred significantly earlier than within the other regions of guard cells. The ABA-induced change in fluorescence intensity in guard cells was abolished by the application of CAT and DPI. In addition, ABA microinjected into guard cells markedly induced H2O2 production, which preceded stomatal closure. These effects were abolished by CAT or DPI micro-injection. Our results suggest that guard cells treated with ABA may close the stomata via a pathway with H2O2 production involved, and H2O2 may be an intermediate in ABA signaling. PMID:11500543

  17. Cultivation practices affect heavy metal migration between soil and Vicia faba (broad bean).

    PubMed

    Li, Feili; Ni, Lijia; Yuan, Jin; Daniel Sheng, G

    2010-09-01

    Pot-test experiments were conducted to study the influences of mulching and fertilizing on the migration of heavy metals from soil to Vicia faba (broad bean). Semi-transparent film was used to mulch soil. Swine manure compost was mixed with soil at a rate of 50 mg kg(-1) to fertilize the soil. Broad bean was grown for several months until fruits were formed. Soils and bean parts were sampled to analyze and fractionate heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Mulching promoted an obvious growth of broad bean. Fertilizing decreased soil pH and increased organic matter content and conductivity. Mulching reduced the exchangeable metal fractions by 5-52%. Fertilizing, in contrast, increased the exchangeable fractions of most of the metals except Fe and Pb by 20-295%. While the two cultivations increased obviously metal concentrations in bean laminas as compared to un-mulched and un-fertilized controls, the levels of most of the metals except Pb decreased in bean fruits. No clear relationships existed in roots and caudices in terms of metal levels. Calculated bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) indicate that the cultivations had little influences on the metal enrichments in roots, but promoted their migration from roots to laminas. In particular, mulching greatly promoted the absorption and translocation of Fe, while fertilizing enhanced the bean fruit uptake of Pb. Further studies on the influence of cultivation practices on heavy metal migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of crop safety. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulation of flyash-induced genotoxicity in Vicia faba by vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kavindra; Singh, Jitendra; Chauhan, L K S; Murthy, R C; Gupta, S K

    2004-09-01

    Cytogenetic effects of pre- and postvermicomposted flyash samples were evaluated on the root meristem cells of Vicia faba. Seedlings of V. faba were directly sown in flyash and cow dung-soil mixtures (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) and the lateral roots grown in these test mixtures were sampled at 5 days. Negative control was run parallel in cow dung-soil (CS) mixture alone. One set of flyash-cow dung-soil (FCS) mixture was subjected to vermicomposting by introducing Eisenia foetida species of earthworms for 30 days and the cytogenetic effects were reinvestigated through V. faba root meristems. Chemical analysis carried out prior to vermicomposting revealed high concentrations of heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in FCS samples. CS samples also showed the presence of these metals. Cytogenetic examinations of root meristems exposed to the FCS mixtures showed significant inhibition of mitotic index (MI), induction of chromosome aberrations (CA), and a significantly increased frequency of mitotic aberrations (MA). The increase of the aberrations was dependent on the flyash concentrations. Roots grown in CS samples also showed chromosomal and MAs; however, the percentage was lower than that observed with FCS and also statistically nonsignificant. Cytogenetic analysis of vermicomposted samples of FCS revealed a 15-45% decline in the aberration frequencies whereas chemical analysis showed a 10-50% decline in the metal concentrations, viz. Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni, which indicates E. foetida a potential accumulator of heavy metals and the decline in metal concentrations may be the cause of the decrease in aberration frequencies. The present study indicates the genotoxicity potential of flyash and also the feasibility of vermicomposting for cleanup of metal-contaminated soil to mitigate the toxicity/genotoxicity.

  19. NUCLEIC ACID AND PROTEIN METABOLISM DURING THE MITOTIC CYCLE IN VICIA FABA

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, John; Rasch, Ellen; Swift, Hewson

    1961-01-01

    In order to investigate some of the cytochemical processes involved in interphase growth and culminating in cell division, a combined autoradiographic and microphotometric study of nucleic acids and proteins was undertaken on statistically seriated cells of Vicia faba root meristems. Adenine-8-C14 and uridine-H3 were used as ribonucleic acid (RNA) precursors, thymidine-H3 as a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) precursor, and phenylalanine-3-C14 as a protein precursor. Stains used in microphotometry were Feulgen (DNA), azure B (RNA), pH 2.0 fast green (total protein), and pH 8.1 fast green (histone). The autoradiographic data (representing rate of incorporation per organelle) and the microphotometric data (representing changes in amounts of the various components) indicate that the mitotic cycle may be divided into several metabolic phases, three predominantly anabolic (net increase), and a fourth phase predominantly catabolic (net decrease). The anabolic periods are: 1. Telophase to post-telophase during which there are high rates of accumulation of cytoplasmic and nucleolar RNA and nucleolar and chromosomal total protein. 2. Post-telophase to preprophase characterized by histone synthesis and a diphasic synthesis of DNA with the peak of synthesis at mid-interphase and a minor peak just preceding prophase. The minor peak is coincident with a relatively localized DNA synthesis in several chromosomal regions. This period is also characterized by minimal accumulations of cytoplasmic RNA and chromosomal and nucleolar total protein and RNA. 3. Preprophase to prophase in which there are again high rates of accumulation of cytoplasmic RNA, and nucleolar and chromosomal total protein and RNA. The catabolic phase is: 4. The mitotic division during which there are marked losses of cytoplasmic RNA and chromosomal and nucleolar total protein and RNA. PMID:13786522

  20. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Hafke, Jens B; Schulz, Alexander; van Bel, Aart J E

    2007-01-01

    According to an established concept, injury of the phloem triggers local sieve plate occlusion including callose-mediated constriction and, possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores. Sieve plate occlusion can also be achieved by distant stimuli, depends on the passage of electropotential waves (EPWs), and is reversible in intact plants. The time-course of the wound response was studied in sieve elements of main veins of intact Vicia faba plants using confocal and multiphoton microscopy. Only 15-45 s after burning a leaf tip, forisomes (giant protein bodies specific for legume sieve tubes) suddenly dispersed, as observed at 3-4 cm from the stimulus site. The dispersion was reversible; the forisomes had fully re-contracted 7-15 min after burning. Meanwhile, callose appeared at the sieve pores in response to the heat shock. Callose production reached a maximum after approximately 20 min and was also reversible; callose degraded over the subsequent 1-2 h. The heat induction of both modes of occlusion coincided with the passage of an EPW visualized by electrophysiology or the potential-sensitive dye RH-414. In contrast to burning, cutting of the leaf tip induced neither an EPW nor callose deposition. The data are consistent with a remote-controlled occlusion of sieve plates depending on the longitudinal propagation of an EPW releasing Ca(2+) into the sieve element lumen. It is hypothesized that forisome plugs and callose constriction are removed once the cytosolic calcium level has returned to the initial level in those sieve tubes.

  1. Fast responses of metabolites in Vicia faba L. to moderate NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Niehaus, Karsten; Gödde, Victoria; Hasler, Mario; Zörb, Christian; Gorzolka, Karin; Jezek, Mareike; Senbayram, Mehmet; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Mühling, Karl H

    2015-07-01

    Salt stress impairs global agricultural crop production by reducing vegetative growth and yield. Despite this importance, a number of gaps exist in our knowledge about very early metabolic responses that ensue minutes after plants experience salt stress. Surprisingly, this early phase remains almost as a black box. Therefore, systematic studies focussing on very early plant physiological responses to salt stress (in this case NaCl) may enhance our understanding on strategies to develop crop plants with a better performance under saline conditions. In the present study, hydroponically grown Vicia faba L. plants were exposed to 90 min of NaCl stress, whereby every 15 min samples were taken for analyzing short-term physiologic responses. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiles were analysed by calculating a principal component analysis followed by multiple contrast tests. Follow-up experiments were run to analyze downstream effects of the metabolic changes on the physiological level. The novelty of this study is the demonstration of complex stress-induced metabolic changes at the very beginning of a moderate salt stress in V. faba, information that are very scant for this early stage. This study reports for the first that the proline analogue trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, known to inhibit cell elongation, was increasingly synthesized after NaCl-stress initiation. Leaf metabolites associated with the generation or scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were affected in leaves that showed a synchronized increase in ROS formation. A reduced glutamine synthetase activity indicated that disturbances in the nitrogen assimilation occur earlier than it was previously thought under salt stress.

  2. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  3. [Oxidative damage of volatile oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides on Vicia faba root tip cells].

    PubMed

    Hu, Wan-Jun; Ma, Dan-Wei; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an invasive species, which has strong allelopathic effect on surrounding plants. In this study, the methods of soil culture and filter paper culture were adopted to simulate the eluviation and volatilization of the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides, respectively, and to investigate the allelopathy of the volatile oil on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Vicia faba root tip cells, with the mechanisms of the induced tip cell apoptosis analyzed. At the early stage (24 h) of soil culture and filter paper culture, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities of the tip cells decreased after an initial increase with the increasing dose of the volatile oil, and the malondialdehyde content of the tip cells increased with the increasing volatile oil dose and treated time. At the midterm (48 h) and later (72 h) stages of soil culture and filter paper culture, a typical DNA ladder strip appeared, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could induce the apoptosis of the tip cells, and the apoptosis was dose- and time dependent. This study showed that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could act on its surrounding plants via eluviation and volatilization, making the lipid peroxidation of acceptor plants aggravated and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the plants inhibited, resulting in the oxidative damage and apoptosis of the plant root tip cells, and accordingly, the inhibition of the plant growth. Under soil culture, the root tip cells of V. faba had higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lesser DNA damage, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides via volatilization had stronger allelopathy on the growth of surrounding plants than via eluviation.

  4. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Sakran, Ahmed M.; Basalah, Mohammed O.; Ali, Hayssam M.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+) and/or potassium (K+) on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd) and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA) under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL) plant−1, shoot length (SL) plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW) plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW) plant−1, root dry weight (RDW) plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW) plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro). The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b, Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants. PMID:22837652

  5. Effect of calcium and potassium on antioxidant system of Vicia faba L. Under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Sakran, Ahmed M; Basalah, Mohammed O; Ali, Hayssam M

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca(2+)) and/or potassium (K(+)) on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd) and nutrients, i.e., Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA) under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL) plant(-1), shoot length (SL) plant(-1), root fresh weight (RFW) plant(-1), shoot fresh weight (SFW) plant(-1), root dry weight (RDW) plant(-1) and shoot dry weight (SDW) plant(-1)] and concentration of Ca(2+), K(+), Chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro). The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca(2+), K(+), Chl a, Chl b, Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca(2+) and/or K(+). The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca(2+) and K(+) together. This study indicates that the application of Ca(2+) and/or K(+) had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca(2+) and/or K(+) was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  6. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant.

  7. Spatial analysis of plant metabolism: sucrose imaging within Vicia faba cotyledons reveals specific developmental patterns.

    PubMed

    Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Walenta, Stefan; Rolletschek, Hardy; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Wobus, Ulrich; Weber, Hans

    2002-02-01

    During legume embryogenesis the differentiation of the cotyledons proceeds gradually in a wave-like manner. The process is metabolically and genetically controlled and regulated by sugars. In order to perform a spatial and temporal analysis of the sugar distribution pattern a new method was developed to specifically measure sucrose directly in tissues via bioluminescence and single photon counting. This enabled a quantitative sucrose imaging with a resolution close to the single cell level. The procedure was applied on sections of Vicia faba cotyledons covering the main stages of histodifferentiation. Young embryos before the storage phase contained moderate levels of sucrose, which were evenly distributed. At the onset of maturation high concentrations were present within a tissue layer covering the outward half of the coytledons. This layer was directly underneath the epidermis expressing a sucrose transporter gene indicating that epidermal transporters caused the high sucrose accumulation in the underlying tissue. At that stage the sucrose gradient was inversely oriented compared with cell size and the starch content. Cells within the interior were larger, contained starch but low sucrose. Thus, the sucrose pattern is controlled by uptake activity and permeability within the parenchyma. However, during the main storage phase actively elongating and starch accumulating cells contain highest sucrose concentrations indicating that differences in growth and starch accumulation also affect intracotyledonary sugar distribution. High sucrose concentrations were correlated with transcript levels of sucrose synthase and ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase indicating a signaling function for sucrose to induce starch biosynthesis on the gene expression level. Carbon flux through the sucrose synthase pathway towards starch increased when hexoses levels decreased.

  8. Changes in the Ascorbate System during Seed Development of Vicia faba L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni, Oreste; De Gara, Laura; Tommasi, Franca; Liso, Rosalia

    1992-01-01

    Large changes occur in the ascorbate system during the development of Vicia faba seed and these appear closely related to what are generally considered to be the three stages of embryogenesis. During the first stage, characterized by embryonic cells with high mitotic activity, the ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid ratio is about 7, whereas in the following stage, characterized by rapid cell elongation (stage 2), it is lower than 1. The different ascorbic/dehydroascorbic ratio may be correlated with the level of ascorbate free radical reductase activity, which is high in stage 1 and lower in stage 2. Ascorbate peroxidase activity is high and remains constant throughout stages 1 and 2, but it decreases when the water content of the seed begins to decline (stage 3). In the dry seed, the enzyme disappears together with ascorbic acid. Ascorbate peroxidase activity is observed to be 10 times higher than that of catalase, suggesting that ascorbate peroxidase, rather than catalase, is utilized in scavenging the H2O2 produced in the cell metabolism. There is no ascorbate oxidase in the seed of V. faba. V. faba seeds acquire the capability to synthesize ascorbic acid only after 30 days from anthesis, i.e. shortly before the onset of seed desiccation. This suggests that (a) the young seed is furnished with ascorbic acid by the parent plant throughout the period of intense growth, and (b) it is necessary for the seed to be endowed with the ascorbic acid biosynthetic system before entering the resting state so that the seed can promptly synthesize the ascorbic acid needed to reestablish metabolic activity when germination starts. PMID:16668855

  9. Isolation of guard cell protoplasts from mechanically prepared epidermis of Vicia faba leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, T.; Tallman, G.; Zeiger, E. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz )

    1989-08-01

    A method for isolating guard cell protoplasts (GCP) from mechanically prepared epidermis of Vicia faba is described. Epidermis was prepared by homogenizing leaves in a Waring blender in a solution of 10% Ficoll, 5 millimolar CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.1% polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 (PVP). Attached mesophyll and epidermal cells were removed by shaking epidermis in a solution of Cellulysin, mannitol, CaCl{sub 2}, PVP, and pepstatin A. Cleaned epidermis was transferred to a solution of mannitol, CaCl{sub 2}, PVP, pepstatin A, cellulase Onozuka RS, and pectolyase Y-23 for the isolation of GCP. Preparations made by this method included both adaxial and abaxial GCP and contained {le}0.017% mesophyll protoplasts, {le}0.6% mesophyll fragments, and no epidermal cell contaminants. Yields averaged 9 {times} 10{sup 4} protoplasts/leaflet and 98 to 100% of the GCP excluded trypan blue, concentrated neutral red, and hydrolyzed fluorescein diacetate. Isolated GCP increased in diameter by 2.2 micrometers after incubation in darkness in 10 micromolar fusicoccin, 0.4 molar mannitol, 5 millimolar KCl, and 1 millimolar CaCl{sub 2}. Illumination of GCP with 800 micromoles per square meter per second of red light resulted in alkalinization of their suspension medium. When 10 micromolar per square meter per second of blue light was superimposed onto the red light background, the medium acidified. Measurements of chlorophyll a fast fluorescence transients from isolated GCP indicated that GCP were capable of electron transport, and slow transients contained the M peak usually associated with a functional photosynthetic carbon reduction pathway.

  10. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021–2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18–26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases. PMID:26989276

  11. Seeding rate and date and timing of termination affect hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) biomass production across the eastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a winter annual legume cover crop that is often grown because it can provide a substantial amount of N to the following cash crop. Nitrogen accumulation is dependent on biomass production, which in turn is affected by climate, seeding rate and date, and timing of ...

  12. A modified mass selection scheme for creating winter-hardy faba bean (Vicia faba L.) lines with a broad genetic base

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter-hardy faba bean (Vicia faba L.) from northern Europe is represented by a rather narrow gene pool. Limited selection gains for overwintering beyond a maximum of -25°C have restricted the adoption of this crop. Therefore, the faba bean collection maintained by the USDA-ARS National Plant Germpl...

  13. Phytostabilization of moderate copper contaminated soils using co-inoculation of Vicia faba with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programs. This article suggest a consortium of bacteria combining Rhizobium sp. CCNWSX0481, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas sp. 2(2010) that was examined for the ability to promote Vicia faba.L. growth when cultivated on the vineyard of soil moderately contaminated with copper. Data showed that inoculation was significant in nodulation; it increases the number and the weight of nodules of 50%. Co-inoculation was also found to positively influence growth and seed yield, through increasing fresh shoot and fresh root weights by 33 and 26%, respectively, and through rising numbers of seed per pod and pods per plant. In contrast, co-inoculation produced a significant reduction of accumulated copper in roots attending 35%, however, the treatment revealed no significant effects on the copper contents in pods and seeds. The tested inoculum could be an option to promote V. faba growth and to enhance soil fertilization in moderate copper contaminated soils. Further studies on the influence of co-inoculation practices on copper migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of this legume safety.

  14. Chlorella triggers stomatal closure mediated by NADPH oxidase and improves instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) has been associated with early defense responses of plants. Chlorella is a unicellular autotrophic microorganism that can synthesize many bioactive substances with positive effects on humans, animals and plants. However, its effects on stomatal movement and instantaneous intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) in plants have been not explored yet. Our present work showed that application of Chlorella to isolated epidermal peels of Vicia faba induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological study revealed that the Chlorella-triggered stomatal closure was mainly mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via NADPH oxidase. Additionally, exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension caused an obvious reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), favoring the improvement of WUEi in Vicia faba. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further indicated that Chlorella had no effects on plant photosynthetic reactions center after short-term foliar application. PMID:24801212

  15. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  16. Population structure of root nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum in Vicia cracca populations at local to regional geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Jannick; Verstraete, Brecht; Lemaire, Benny; Lievens, Bart; Michiels, Jan; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of about 350 Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae isolates from Vicia cracca were analysed. A hierarchical sampling design was used covering three regions, one region in Belgium and two in France, in which multiple local V. cracca populations were sampled. Rhizobium isolates were genotyped using RAPD and by sequencing two chromosomal housekeeping genes (glnII and recA) and one plasmid-borne gene (nodC). Twenty-six nodC types and sixty-seven chromosomal types were identified, many of which appeared to be regional or local endemics. We found strong genetic differentiation both among V. cracca populations that are separated by only a few kilometres, and among regions that are 50 to 350km apart. Despite significant plasmid exchange, chromosomal and nod types were similarly structured among host populations and regions. We found two lineages of which one prevailed in the Belgian region while the other dominated the French regions. Although a significant correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance was found, it is deemed more likely that the observed biogeographic patterns are rather due to coevolutionary interactions and environmental pressures. Furthermore, the impact of recombination on the chromosomal differentiation was found to be considerable.

  17. Manganese induced changes in growth, chlorophyll content and antioxidants activity in seedlings of broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Arya, Shashi K; Roy, B K

    2011-11-01

    The effect of manganese (Mn) on broad bean (Vicia faba L.) was studied with regard to growth, Mn accumulation in root and shoot, chlorophyll, proline content and peroxidase activity. Seeds were treated with Mn (10, 20, 40, 80,120,160 microM) and grown hydroponically up to 15 days. Manganese level in both root and shoot increased progressively in response to increasing concentration and it was high in roots (13 fold) overthe shoots (8 fold). The reductions in root (52%) and shoot (62.92%) development were evident for the maximum Mn concentration (160 microM). The chlorophyll amount gradually declined with increasing Mn concentrations and attained its maximum (42%) at 160 microM. By contrast, the guaiacol peroxidase activity was high (71%) along with the accompanying rise in proline content (75%) in shoots of the highest Mn concentration (160 microM). However, there was about 2 fold increase in total glutathione content at 40 microM than the basal level and further declined to 21.65 microg g(-1) fresh wt. at 160 microM Mn. The alterations in overall reflected Mn concentration-dependent changes in the parameters studied. The results suggest thatthe plant Vicia faba L. copes with Mn exposure through enhanced production of antioxidants.

  18. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  19. [NO may function in the downstream of Ca2+ in ethylene induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba L].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo Hua; Liu, Jing; Hou, Li Xia; Tang, Jing; Liu, Xin

    2009-04-01

    Through pharmacological combined with laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and spectrophotography to study the role of Ca2+ and NO in signaling during Vicia faba L. stomatal movement response to ethylene (Eth). The results showed that treatment with ethephon (0.004%, 0.04%, 0.4%) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent stomatal closure under light. NO scavenger cPTIO, nitrate reductase inhibitor NaN3, or extracellular Ca2+ chelation EGTA reduced ethylene-induced stomatal closure. Moreover, ethylene was shown to enhance nitric oxide levels and, corresponding, nitrate reductase activity. Inhibition of the nitrate reductase diminished ethylene-induced NO production in both stomatal guard cell and leaf. Finally, ethylene-induced NO levels and nitrate reductase activity decreased when Ca2+ was compromised. On the basis of biochemical and pharmacological experimental results, we can conclude that Ca2+ and NO were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ethylene induced stomatal closure. Nitrate reductase-derived NO may represents a novel downstream component of Ca2+ signaling cascade during ethylene-induced stomatal movement in Vicia faba L.

  20. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  1. Inbreeding, outbreeding and RAPD markers studies of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) crop

    PubMed Central

    Obiadalla-Ali, Hazem A.; Mohamed, Naheif E.M.; Khaled, Abdelsabour G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Five faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) were selfed for two cycles to produce S1 and S2 generations. A half-diallel cross was carried out among them in each level of inbreeding (S0, S1 and S2) to obtain 10 F1 hybrids. Parental materials as well as their respective F1s were evaluated during the winter season of 2012. All studied traits except total dry seed yield showed significant inbreeding depression after the first generation of selfing (S1). No further decrease was noticed at the S2 generation. In the S1 generation the degree of inbreeding depression was highest for No. of branches/plant (−14.0%) and the least for weight of 100-seeds (−2.7). Some parents showed inbreeding vigor i.e. positive difference between S2 and S1 for some traits in S2 generation. Most studied traits showed significant positive heterosis values over mid-parent. The highest value of heterosis over the mid-parent was detected for total dry seed yield (128.8) and the lowest value of hybrid vigor was shown by weight of 100-seeds (1.2%). Specific combination among the 5 parental genotypes showed the highest value for heterosis for example cross Misr 2 × Giza 429 was the best cross for total dry seed yield, cross Giza 429 × Misr 1 for No. of branches/plant. Giza 429 is the best general combiner for most traits. Some crosses showed heterosis depression i.e. negative heterosis value in some traits. Hybridization among parental genotypes is recommended to be at the S1 or S2 generation. Twelve arbitrary primers produced different degrees of genetic polymorphism among the parental genotypes. A total of 65 amplification products were scored polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands detected ranged from 33% to 100% with an average of 66.47%. The average of amplified bands was 5.42 polymorphic bands per primer. A positive, but non-significant, correlation (r = 0.085) between Euclidean distance and RAPD distance was observed. PMID:26644923

  2. AFLP diversity in the common vetch ( Vicia sativa L.) on the world scale.

    PubMed

    Potokina, E.; Blattner, R.; Alexandrova, T.; Bachmann, K.

    2002-07-01

    The Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) keeps a living seed collection of about 700 accessions of landraces and local cultivars of common vetch ( Vicia sativa L.) that have been collected over a period of more than 50 years throughout the former USSR. Much of the material is available nowhere else. The collection of this economically important fodder crop is well adapted to the various growing regions of Russia and serves as a basis for the all domestic vetch breeding programs. Using AFLP as a DNA fingerprinting method we investigated 673 accessions from the VIR and compared their genetic variability with that of the worldwide vetch collection of the Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung (IPK), 450 accessions. The analysis is a first assessment of the intra-specific diversity of V. sativa stored ex situ on a scale of more than 1,000 accessions. Six primer combinations, which gave clear polymorphic amplification products with 96 test samples, were chosen from 111 primer combinations tested. The selected AFLP primers used to analyse the V. sativa intra-specific diversity resulted in 70 unequivocally recognizable polymorphic fragments. We found that all of the AFLP fragments generated can be detected with varying frequency throughout the entire distribution area of V. sativa. The difference in frequency of some AFLP fragments between the regions may amount to 90%. The arrangement of most of the accessions in all dendrograms reflects their geographical origin, with a differentiation between Russia, Western Europe, Turkey and Bulgaria, and the Mediterranean. The "Russian" genepool stored at the IPK is a limited and biased sample of the available diversity when compared to the material stored at the VIR. Approximately 10-15% of the accessions in each geographical group showed AFLP patterns that clustered with members of other groups. This appreciable overlap raises several questions: (1) to which degree is an AFLP pattern representative of the

  3. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.).

    PubMed

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M; Sillero, Josefina C

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  4. [Effect of bean (Vicia faba) extrusion on nitrogen and starch intestinal flux in lactating cows].

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Vernay, M; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R

    1992-01-01

    Four mature lactating Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae were used to study the effect of extrusion at 195 degrees C of beans (Vicia faba cv Castel) on organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and starch degradation in the rumen and their flow to and absorption from the small intestine. The test protein sources, raw beans (RB) and extruded beans (EB), provided about 45% of the dietary protein. The diets were composed of 23.1% beans, 56.2% corn silage, 10.1% corn grain and 10.7% Italian rye-grass hay on a DM basis; the diets were isocaloric (4.5 Mcal/kg of DM) and isonitrogenous (14% of DM). Cr-EDTA, YbCl3 and purines were used as liquid, particulate and bacterial markers respectively. Extruding the beans did not influence intraruminal pH (6.6), ammonia-N (99 mg/l) and volatile fatty acids (97 mM/l) concentrations. Apparent digestibility in total tract of energy, OM, N and starch were not affected with inclusion of EB instead of RB, the corresponding mean values were: 66, 68, 64 and 95% of intake. Apparent ruminal digestion of OM, starch and N in the forestomach were 39, 58 and 52% for diets containing RB and 38, 72 and 45% for EB diets; efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis (gN/kg organic matter truly digested in the stomach) was higher for EN diets compared with RN diets (25 vs 22). Eating diets including EB increased non-ammonia-N, bacterial-N and dietary-N flows (g/d) to the duodenum compared with diets containing RB: 409 vs 366, 216 vs 194 and 193 vs 172 respectively; while starch flow was reduced (1.5 vs 2.2 kg/d) and OM flow was unchanged (9.8 kg/d). Apparent digestion from the small intestine (g/d) of nonammonia-N, bacterial-N and dietary-N were higher for EB diets: 268 vs 229, 181 vs 160 and 87 vs 69 respectively; meanwhile, starch digestion decreased (975 vs 1,612). The PDIA, PDIN and PDIE contents (g/kg of DM) of the RB were 33, 175 and 127 respectively; the corresponding values after extrusion were: 58, 147 and 178.

  5. Sugar Concentrations in Guard Cells of Vicia faba Illuminated with Red or Blue Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Poffenroth, Matthew; Green, David B.; Tallman, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of soluble sugars in guard cells in detached, sonicated epidermis from Vicia faba leaves were analyzed quantitatively by high performance liquid chromatography to determine the extent to which sugars could contribute to changes in the osmotic potentials of guard cells during stomatal opening. Stomata were illuminated over a period of 4 hours with saturating levels of red or blue light, or a combination of red and blue light. When stomata were irradiated for 3 hours with red light (50 micromoles per square meter per second) in a solution of 5 millimolar KCl and 0.1 millimolar CaCl2, stomatal apertures increased a net maximum of 6.7 micrometers and the concentration of total soluble sugar was 289 femtomoles per guard cell (70% sucrose, 30% fructose). In an identical solution, 2.5 hours of irradiation with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a maximum net increase of 7.1 micrometers in stomatal aperture and the total soluble sugar concentration was 550 femtomoles per guard cell (91% sucrose, 9% fructose). Illumination with blue light at 25 micromoles per square meter per second in a solution lacking KCl caused a maximum net increase in stomatal aperture of 3.5 micrometers and the sugar concentration was 382 femtomoles per guard cell (82% sucrose, 18% fructose). In dual beam experiments, stomata irradiated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light opened steadily with a concomitant increase in sugar production. Addition of 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a further net gain of 3.7 micrometers in stomatal aperture and, after 2 hours, sugar concentrations had increased by an additional 138 femtomoles per guard cell. Experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were performed with epidermis illuminated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light or with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light in solutions containing or lacking KCl

  6. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  7. Analysis of Quorum-Sensing-Dependent Control of Rhizosphere-Expressed (rhi) Genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    PubMed Central

    Rodelas, Belen; Lithgow, James K.; Wisniewski-Dye, Florence; Hardman, Andrea; Wilkinson, Adam; Economou, Anastassios; Williams, Paul; Downie, J. Allan

    1999-01-01

    The rhi genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae are expressed in the rhizosphere and play a role in the interaction with legumes, such as the pea. Previously (K. M. Gray, J. P. Pearson, J. A. Downie, B. E. A. Boboye, and E. P. Greenberg, J. Bacteriol. 178:372–376, 1996) the rhiABC operon had been shown to be regulated by RhiR and to be induced by added N-(3-hydroxy-7-cis-tetradecenoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OH,C14:1-HSL). Mutagenesis of a cosmid carrying the rhiABC and rhiR gene region identified a gene (rhiI) that affects the level of rhiA expression. Mutation of rhiI slightly increased the number of nodules formed on the pea. The rhiI gene is (like rhiA) regulated by rhiR in a cell density-dependent manner. RhiI is similar to LuxI and other proteins involved in the synthesis of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). Chemical analyses of spent culture supernatants demonstrated that RhiI produces N-(hexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL). Both of these AHLs induced rhiA-lacZ and rhiI-lacZ expression on plasmids introduced into an Agrobacterium strain that produces no AHLs, showing that rhiI is positively regulated by autoinduction. However, in this system no induction of rhiA or rhiI with 3OH,C14:1-HSL was observed. Analysis of the spent culture supernatant of the wild-type R. leguminosarum bv. viciae revealed that at least seven different AHLs are made. Mutation of rhiI decreased the amounts of C6-HSL and C8-HSL but did not block their formation, and in this background the rhiI mutation did not significantly affect the expression levels of the rhiI gene or rhiABC genes or the accumulation of RhiA protein. These observations suggest that there are additional loci involved in AHL production in R. leguminosarum bv. viciae and that they affect rhiI and rhiABC expression. We postulate that the previously observed induction of rhiA by 3OH,C14:1-HSL may be due to an indirect effect caused by induction of other AHL

  8. Liver and muscle proteolytic activity in field bean (Vicia faba L.) fed birds. Effect of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Santidrián, S; Rodríguez, M L; Larralde, J

    1987-09-01

    Liver and muscle proteolytic activities (cathepsin A and D) were measured in growing male chickens fed ad libitum over periods of 30 and 60 days on 20% protein diets containing either heated soybean (HSB, control) or raw field bean (RFB, Vicia faba L.) as the main sources of protein. Vitamin E (250 mg/100 g diet) was added or not to the RFB diet. It has been found that in comparison to control HSB-fed animals, RFB-fed birds showed a significant reduction in the rate of growth, together with a significant increase in the activities of both cathepsins A and D in liver and muscle. The addition of vitamin E to the RFB diet had no significant effect on either weight gain or liver and muscle proteolytic activities. The possible nature of these effects is discussed.

  9. Induction of micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips treated with heavy metals (cadmium and chromium) in the presence of NTA.

    PubMed

    De Marco, A; Paglialunga, S; Rizzoni, M; Testa, A; Trinca, S

    1988-11-01

    Soluble metal compounds (CdCl2, K2Cr2O7) significantly increase the frequency of micronucleated cells in Vicia faba root tips with a clear dose-effect relationship. The addition of NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) does not enhance the induction of micronucleated cells. Conversely, insoluble metal compounds (CdCO3, PbCRO4) significantly enhance the frequency of micronucleated cells only in the presence of NTA. Since some genotoxic metals are diffused in the environment and are often sequestered as insoluble precipitates in water sediments and sludges, the introduction of NTA is likely to increase the risk of environmental pollution because of its ability to solubilize and make those metals reactive.

  10. Effects of soil aeration, legume residue, and soil texture on transformations of macro- and micronutrients in soils. [Vicia villosa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, D.T.; Doran, J.W. ); Aulakh, M.S. )

    1992-02-01

    Soil aeration is an important factor controlling microbial activity, nutrient availability, and plant root growth. The authors investigated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) addition to well aerated (60% water-filled pore space (WFPS)) and poorly aerated (90% WFPS) soils of varying texture on transformations of C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu for a 30-d period. The results of this study imply that incorporation of easily decomposable residue may supply substantial amounts of nutrients to growing plants. Where soils remain wet for > 10 d, residues may create intensive reducing conditions and a several fold increase in available Fe, Mn, Cu, and P. Conversely, DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, and Cu can vary greatly within a few weeks depending on soil aeration status, residue management, time of sampling, and soil texture and may lead to erroneous indices of nutrient availability to plants.

  11. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO2 nanocomposites on Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Bigorgne, Emilie; Nahmani, Johanne; Chaurand, Perrine; Botta, Céline; Labille, Jérôme; Rose, Jérôme; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2011-10-01

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO(2) core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO(2) Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur.

  12. Expression of human cytomegalovirus pp150 gene in transgenic Vicia faba L. and immunogenicity of pp150 protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-03-01

    The pp150 gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was transferred into Vicia faba plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Three of five hygromycin resistant V. faba plants were identified as positive by PCR and dot-blot hybridization. The ELISA results indicated that pp150 protein from three plants of transformed V. faba leaves and seeds made up 0.005-0.015% of the total soluble protein. The results of detection by immunoblot and inhibition of immunofluorescent assay (IFA) showed that pp150 soluble protein had immunity activity. HCMV pp150-specific antibody (IgG, IgA) and IFN-gamma producing T cells were detected in 100% of the mice immunized with pp150 transgenic V. faba seeds by ELISA and intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The transgenic V. faba plants will provide new material for the development of edible vaccination against HCMV infection.

  13. Growth rate and mitotic index analysis of Vicia faba L. roots exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.; Miller, M.W.; Cox, C.; Carstesen, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Growth, mitotic index, and growth rate recovery were determined for Vicia faba L. roots exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of 200, 290, and 360 V/m in an aqueous inorganic nutrient medium (conductivity 0.07-0.09 S/m). Root growth rate decreased in proportion to the increasing strength; the electric field threshold for a growth rate effect was about 230 V/m. The induced transmembrane potential at the threshold exposure was about 4-7 mV. The mitotic index was not affected by an electric field exposure sufficient to reduce root growth rate to about 35% of control. Root growth rate recovery from 31-96% of control occurred in 4 days after cessation of the 360 V/m exposure. The results support the postulate that the site of action of the applied electric fields is the cell membrane. 10 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  15. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Tomás, Diana; Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0-0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction.

  16. CAPs markers to assist selection for low vicine and convicine contents in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N; Avila, C M; Duc, G; Marget, P; Suso, M J; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2006-12-01

    The antinutritional factors (ANFs) present in Vicia spp. seeds are a major constraint to the wider utilization of these crops as grain legumes. In the case of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), a breeding priority is the absence vicine and convicine (v-c); responsible for favism in humans and for the reduced animal performance or low egg production in laying hens. The discovery of a spontaneous mutant allele named vc-, which induces a 10-20 fold reduction of v-c contents, may facilitate the process. However, the high cost and difficulty of the chemical detection of v-c seriously restricts the advances in breeding-selection. To identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to this gene, we have analysed an F(2 )population derived from a cross between a line with high v-c content (Vf6) and the vc- genotype (line 1268). Quantification of v-c was done by spectrophotometry on the parents and the F(2 )population (n = 136). By using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), two RAPD markers linked in coupling and repulsion phase to the allele vc- were identified and further converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). Amplification of SCARS was more consistent, although the initial polymorphism between pools was lost. To recover the polymorphisms several approaches were explored. Restriction digestion with HhaI (for SCAR SCH01(620)) and RsaI (for SCAR SCAB12(850)) revealed clear differences between the parental lines. The simultaneous use of the two cleavage amplified polymorphism (CAP) markers will allow the correct fingerprinting of faba bean plants and can be efficiently used in breeding selection to track the introgression of the vc- allele to develop cultivars with low v-c content and improved nutritional value.

  17. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B.K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  18. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    DOE PAGES

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; ...

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75more » RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  19. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  20. α-TIP aquaporin distribution and size tonoplast variation in storage cells of Vicia faba cotyledons at seed maturation and germination stages.

    PubMed

    Béré, Emile; Lahbib, Karima; Merceron, Bruno; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Boughanmi, Néziha Ghanem

    2017-09-01

    Vacuoles have been shown to undergo deep modifications in relation to plant developmental stages and in the maintaining the cellular homeostasis. In this context, we studied the variations of the vacuolar membrane size and α-TIP aquaporin distribution at early and advanced seed stages of maturation, germination and embryo growth in Vicia faba cotyledon storage cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of cyanamide in young seedlings of Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Takemura, Tomoko; Wasano, Naoya; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hiradate, Syuntaro

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the cyanamide content of young leaves of nine Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia using a modified analytical procedure that made it possible to measure the cyanamide content of a single leaf. Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that cyanamide is present in V. benghalensis, which is placed in a monophyletic group with cyanamide-biosynthesizing plants, V. villosa and V. cracca; this suggestion was verified.

  2. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    PubMed

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  3. Valorization of the Vicia faba mucilage on textile wastewater treatment as a bio-flocculant: process development and optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Bouatay, Feriel; Eljebsi, Nesrine; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Farouk

    2017-02-01

    The Vicia faba membranes are an abundant and a low cost product. In the present research paper, the extracted Vicia faba mucilage was tested as an eco-friendly flocculant for textile wastewater treatment. Its performance as flocculant, in decolorization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the concentration of total suspended solids was checked. The natural extracted product was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The total sugars were determined in the extracted product. The effect study, followed by an optimization and modeling analysis, of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance, using Vicia faba mucilage (as a flocculant), combined with aluminum sulfate (as a coagulant), showed that the best conditions for the flocculation process were pH of the effluent about 7, flocculant dose about 6.75 mg/L, flocculation mixing time about 3 min and flocculation mixing speed about 30 rpm, leading to a decolorization equal to 92.32%, COD removal of about 97.52% and total suspended solids of about 15.3 mg/L. A comparison study between the flocculation performance of commercial reagents and the bio-agent showed that the natural product presented a good flocculation performance.

  4. Influence of dose rate on fast neutron OER and biological effectiveness determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, J; Billiet, G; Bonte, J; Octave-Prignot, M; Wambersie, A

    1983-09-01

    The influence of dose rate on the effectiveness of a neutron irradiation was investigated using growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots as biological system. d(50) + Be neutron beams produced at the cyclotron CYCLONE of the University of Louvain-la-Neuve were used, at high and low dose rate, by modifying the deuteron beam current. When decreasing the dose rate from 0.14 Gy.min-1 to 0.2 Gy.h-1, the effectiveness of the neutrons decreased down to 0.84 +/- 0.05 (dose ratio, at high and low dose rate. Dhigh/Dlow, producing equal biological effect). Control irradiations, with 60Co gamma-rays, indicated a similar reduction in effectiveness (0.84 +/- 0.03) when decreasing dose rate from 0.6 Gy.min-1 to 0.7 Gy.h-1. In previous experiments, on the same Vicia faba system, higher RBE values were observed for 252Cf neutrons, at low dose rate (RBE = 8.3), compared to different neutron beams actually used in external beam therapy (RBE = 3.2 - 3.6 for d(50) + Be, p(75) + Be and 15 MeV (d, T) neutrons). According to present results, this higher RBE has to be related to the lower energy of the 252Cf neutron spectrum (2 MeV), since the influence of dose rate was shown to be small. As far as OER is concerned, for d(50) + Be neutrons, it decreases from 1.65 +/- 0.12 to 1.59 +/- 0.09 when decreasing dose rate from 0.14 Gy.min-1 to 0.2 Gy.h-1. Control irradiations with 60Co gamma-rays have shown an OER decrease from 2.69 +/- 0.08 to 2.55 +/- 0.11 when decreasing dose rate from 0.6 Gy.min-1 to 0.7 Gy.h-1. These rather small OER reductions are within the statistical fluctuations.

  5. Soil organic matter and salinity affect copper bioavailability in root zone and uptake by Vicia faba L. plants.

    PubMed

    Matijevic, Lana; Romic, Davor; Romic, Marija

    2014-10-01

    Processes that control the mobility, transformation and toxicity of metals in soil are of special importance in the root-developing zone. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in understanding trace elements (TEs) behavior in soil, emphasising the processes by which plants take them up. Increased root-zone salinity can affect plant TEs uptake and accumulation in plant tissue. Furthermore, copper (Cu) complexation by soil organic matter (SOM) is an effective mechanism of Cu retention in soils, controlling thus its bioavailability. Therefore, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil Cu contamination in a saline environment on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) element uptake. Treatment with NaCl salinity was applied (control, 50 mM NaCl and 100 mM NaCl) on faba bean plants grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cu (250 and 500 mg kg(-1)). Low and high SOM content trial variants were studied. Cu accumulation occurred in faba bean leaf, pod and seed. Cu contamination affected plant element concentrations in leaves (Na, Ca, Mg, Mn), pod (Zn, Mn) and seed (Mn, Mo, Zn). Root-zone salinity also affected faba bean element concentrations. Furthermore, Cu contamination-salinity and salinity-SOM interactions were significant for pod Cu concentration, suggesting that Cu phytoavailability could be affected by these interactions. Future research will be focused on the mechanisms of Cu translocation in plant and adaptation aspects of abiotic stress.

  6. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg-1, the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity.

  7. Detection of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) using unique chemical fingerprint markers.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Premakumara, G A S; Vandenberg, Albert

    2012-12-15

    Detection of adulteration of split red lentil (Lens culinaris L.) seeds with low level addition of split common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is hampered by a lack of reliable detection methods. An analytical method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) based on two unique chemical markers found in common vetch: ß-cyanoalanine (BCA) and γ-glutamyl-ß-cyanoalanine (GCA). These two markers were present in samples of common vetch seed grown in Canada and Serbia. Authentic lentil samples grown in Canada, Australia, USA, Turkey, Syria, and Morocco had no detectable levels of these chemical markers. Commercial lentil samples for export from lentil processing plants in Saskatchewan, Canada, also had no detectable levels of GCA and BCA. The presence of vetch in intentionally adulterated lentil samples could be determined via chemical markers with a detection limit of 5% (w/w). The proposed method is a simple sample extraction and rapid HPLC analysis that could be widely used to detect intentional adulteration of lentils with common vetch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality.

  9. Relationship between geographical origin, seed size and genetic diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as revealed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Göl, Şurhan; Doğanlar, Sami; Frary, Anne

    2017-05-11

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important legume species because of its high protein and starch content. Broad bean can be grown in different climatic conditions and is an ideal rotation crop because of the nitrogen fixing bacteria in its roots. In this work, 255 faba bean germplasm accessions were characterized using 32 SSR primers which yielded 302 polymorphic fragments. According to the results, faba bean individuals were divided into two main groups based on the neighbor-joining algorithm (r = 0.91) with some clustering based on geographical origin as well as seed size. Population structure was also determined and agreed with the dendrogram analysis in splitting the accessions into two subpopulations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed high levels of within population genetic variation. Genetic similarity and geographical proximity were related with separation of European accessions from African and Asian ones. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between landrace (38%) and cultivar (40%) diversity indicating that genetic variability has not yet been lost due to breeding. A total of 44 genetically well-characterized faba bean individuals were selected for a core collection to be further examined for yield and nutritional traits.

  10. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-09

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation.

  11. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg−1 were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg−1, the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity. PMID:26675424

  12. Exogenously applied ascorbic acid ameliorates detrimental effects of NaCl and mannitol stress in Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mahmoud E; Hasaneen, Mohammed N A; Kazamel, Amany M S

    2010-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on growth, nitrogen content, and antioxidant system in Vicia faba seedlings were investigated. The role of exogenous ascorbic acid in increasing resistance to these stressors was also evaluated. Thus, with an increase in concentration of either NaCl or mannitol in culture media, a progressively greater significant decrease in percentage germination, in growth parameters, and in nitrogen constituents of the germinating beans, was observed. On the other hand, amide-, nitrate-, and total soluble-N contents appeared to show a progressive significant increase. Exogenous addition of ascorbic acid (4 mM) to the stressful media induced a pronounced significantly increased percentage germination and the growth attributes, whereas nitrogen constituents were variably changed in relation to values maintained in beans treated with either NaCl or mannitol. Furthermore, exogenous addition of ascorbic acid to NaCl or mannitol media induced a significant increase in the contents of ascorbate and glutathione and enzymatic antioxidant activities, in particular, in beans treated with the three highest concentrations of NaCl or mannitol, throughout the period of the experiments (12 days). Thus, ascorbic acid ameliorates the adverse effects of the stressful media; the magnitude of amelioration being a function of the type and the concentration of the stressful agent as well as of the duration of treatment. The importance of the above-mentioned changes in growth and metabolism to stress tolerance in broad bean is discussed.

  13. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-12-17

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg(-1), the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity.

  14. A novel chloride channel in Vicia faba guard cell vacuoles activated by the serine/threonine kinase, CDPK.

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Z M; Ward, J M; Harper, J F; Schroeder, J I

    1996-01-01

    Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) in higher plants contain a C-terminal calmodulin-like regulatory domain. Little is known regarding physiological CDPK targets. Both kinase activity and multiple Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways have been implicated in the control of stomatal guard cell movements. To determine whether CDPK or other protein kinases could have a role in guard cell signaling, purified and recombinant kinases were applied to Vicia faba guard cell vacuoles during patch-clamp experiments. CDPK activated novel vacuolar chloride (VCL) and malate conductances in guard cells. Activation was dependent on both Ca2+ and ATP. Furthermore, VCL activation occurred in the absence of Ca2+ using a Ca2+-independent, constitutively active, CDPK* mutant. Protein kinase A showed weaker activation (22% as compared with CDPK). Current reversals in whole vacuole recordings shifted with the Nernst potential for Cl-and vanished in glutamate. Single channel recordings showed a CDPK-activated 34 +/- 5 pS Cl- channel. VCL channels were activated at physiological potentials enabling Cl- uptake into vacuoles. VCL channels may provide a previously unidentified, but necessary, pathway for anion uptake into vacuoles required for stomatal opening. CDPK-activated VCL currents were also observed in red beet vacuoles suggesting that these channels may provide a more general mechanism for kinase-dependent anion uptake. PMID:8978683

  15. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-06-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of /sup 14/C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of /sup 14/C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced (/sup 14/C)sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved.

  16. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent.

  17. Potential impact of CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage systems on field bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Al-Traboulsi, Manal; Sjögersten, Sofie; Colls, Jeremy; Steven, Michael; Black, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Capture and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been suggested to be essential to reduce emissions to the atmosphere and aid mitigation of global climate change. However, leakage from transport pipelines or carbon capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs may pose risks to vegetation and contribute to rising atmospheric concentrations [CO(2)]. This study examined effects on seedling emergence and growth when field bean plants (Vicia faba cv. Wizard) grown under field conditions were subjected to elevated soil [CO(2)] for 39 days after planting. The strong negative correlation between soil [CO(2)] and [O(2)] during the injection period created a hypoxic soil environment under conditions of elevated soil [CO(2)]. The damaging impact of this treatment became apparent early in the experiment as no seeds exposed to soil [CO(2)] >50% emerged, even after injection was discontinued. Some seeds exposed to soil [CO(2)] <50% produced seedlings, but many did not survive. Seedling emergence and survival in the gassed plots was greatest at [CO(2)] of 5-20%, but root and shoot growth was reduced relative to control plants. Seedling emergence and growth were negatively related to soil [CO(2)] and positively related to [O(2)], although it is not known which was more important in inducing the observed effects. These findings suggest that leakage of CO(2) from transport pipelines or CCS sites may greatly reduce seedling emergence and crop establishment in the vicinity of such infrastructures. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  18. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg.

  19. Contaminant bioavailability in soil and phytotoxicity/genotoxicity tests in Vicia faba L.: a case study of boron contamination.

    PubMed

    Barbafieri, Meri; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the model plant for genotoxicity studies Vicia faba L. was used to investigate the relation between Boron (B) content and bioavailability in soil and plant genotoxic/phytotoxic response. A total of nine soil samples were investigated: two soil samples were collected from a B-polluted industrial area in Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), the other samples were obtained by spiking control soil (from a not polluted area of the basin) with seven increased doses of B, from about 20 to 100 mg B kg(-1). As expected, B availability, evaluated by chemical extraction, was higher (twofold) in spiked soils when compared with collected polluted soils with the same B total content. To analyze the phytotoxic effects of B, seed germination, root elongation, biomass production, and B accumulation in plant tissues were considered in V. faba plants grown in the various soils. Moreover, the cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of B were investigated in root meristems by mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei frequency (MCN) analysis. The results highlighted that V. faba was a B-sensitive plant and the appearance of phytotoxic effects, which altered plant growth parameters, were linearly correlated to the bioavailable B concentration in soils. Concerning the occurrence of cytotoxic/genotoxic effects induced by B, no linear correlation was observed even if MCN frequency was logarithmic correlated with the concentration of B bioavailable in soils.

  20. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

    PubMed

    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect.

  1. Isolation, cloning and characterisation of motifs containing (GA/TC)n repeats isolated from vetch, Vicia bithynica.

    PubMed

    Sakowicz, Tomasz; Bowater, Richard; Parniewski, Paweł

    2004-01-01

    Microsatellites are widely distributed in plant genomes and comprise unstable regions that undergo mutational changes at rates much greater than that observed for non-repetitive sequences. They demonstrate intrinsic genetic instability, manifested as frequent length changes due to insertions or deletions of repeat units. Detailed analysis of 1600 clones containing genomic sequences of Vicia bithynica revealed the presence of microsatellite repeats in its genome. Based on the screening of a partial DNA library of plasmids, 13 clones harbouring (GA/TC)n tracts of various lengths of repeated motif were identified for further analysis of their internal sequence organization. Sequence analyses revealed the precise length, number of repeats, interruptions within tracts, as well as sequence composition flanking the repeat motifs. Representative plasmids containing different lengths of (GA/TC)n embedded in their original flanking sequence were used to investigate the genetic stability of the repeats. In the study presented herein, we employed a well characterised and tractable bacterial genetic system. Recultivations of Escherichia coli harbouring plasmids containing (GA/TC)n inserts demonstrated that the genetic instability of (GA/TC)n microsatellites depends highly on their length (number of repeats). These observations are in agreement with similar studies performed on repetitive sequences from humans and other organisms.

  2. Response to copper bromide exposure in Vicia sativa L. seeds: analysis of genotoxicity, nucleolar activity and mineral profile.

    PubMed

    Bellani, Lorenza M; Muccifora, Simonetta; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2014-09-01

    Copper bromide (CuBr2) effects on seed germination and plantlet development of Vicia sativa L. are evaluated through mitotic index, chromosome aberrations, nucleolar activity and mineral profile. CuBr2 induces a significant presence of micronuclei, sticky and c-metaphases, anaphase bridges and chromosome breaks. Increased number of nucleoli and scattering of AgNOR proteins from the nucleolus in the nuclear surface at CuBr2 1mM and in the cytoplasm at CuBr2 5mM, goes along with the decrease of root growth. In V. sativa embryo the content of many macro and micronutrients increases up to copper 1mM in agreement with reserve mobilization while at CuBr2 5mM some elements are present in lower amount. We hypothesize that inhibitory effects observed at 5mM are due either to a nutrient shortage or to a direct influence of copper on root cell division, evidenced by low mitotic index, high occurrence of chromosome aberrations and loss of material from the nucleolus.

  3. Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia narbonensis cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Andriunas, Felicity A; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Weber, Hans; McCurdy, David W; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2011-12-01

    Transfer cells are specialized transport cells containing invaginated wall ingrowths that provide an amplified plasma membrane surface area with high densities of transporter proteins. They trans-differentiate from differentiated cells at sites where enhanced rates of nutrient transport occur across apo/symplasmic boundaries. Despite their physiological importance, the signal(s) and signalling cascades responsible for initiating their trans-differentiation are poorly understood. In culture, adaxial epidermal cells of Vicia narbonensis cotyledons were induced to trans-differentiate to a transfer cell morphology. Manipulating their intracellular glucose concentrations by transgenic knock-down of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase expression and/or culture on a high-glucose medium demonstrated that glucose functioned as a negative regulator of wall ingrowth induction. In contrast, glucose had no detectable effect on wall ingrowth morphology. The effect on wall ingrowth induction of culture on media containing glucose analogues suggested that glucose acts through a hexokinase-dependent signalling pathway. Elevation of an epidermal cell-specific ethylene signal alone, or in combination with glucose analogues, countered the negative effect of glucose on wall ingrowth induction. Glucose modulated the amplitude of ethylene-stimulated wall ingrowth induction by down-regulating the expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes and an ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like gene (EIL) encoding a key transcription factor in the ethylene signalling cascade. A model is presented describing the interaction between glucose and ethylene signalling pathways regulating the induction of wall ingrowth formation in adaxial epidermal cells.

  4. A colorimetric method for determination of γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine in narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vioque, R; Rodríguez-Conde, M F; Vioque, J; Girón-Calle, J; Santana-Méridas, O; De-los-Mozos-Pascual, M; Izquierdo-Melero, M E; Alaiz, M

    2011-11-15

    A new colorimetric method based on the bleaching of the iodoplatinate ion has been developed for fast and easy determination of γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine (GEC) in narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) seeds. The calibration curve showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.9959) between absorbance and GEC amounts from 5.5 to 33 μg (10-59.78 μmol/L). The limits of detection and quantification were 1.16 and 3.55 μmol/L, respectively, and no significant interferences from other sulfur-containing compounds were observed. The method showed excellent repeatability (relative standard deviation [RSD]=0.28%), reproducibility (RSD=4.4%), and accuracy (94%). Determination of GEC in 20 narbon vetch accessions yielded values that were in agreement with those reported previously using capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The method could be especially valuable for determination of GEC during the process of production of new low-GEC narbon vetch varieties.

  5. Characterisation of SalRAB a Salicylic Acid Inducible Positively Regulated Efflux System of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841

    PubMed Central

    Tett, Adrian J.; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants. PMID:25133394

  6. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  7. Reduced clastogenic activity of maleic hydrazide in Vicia faba seedlings grown in a situation of overcrowding stress.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Antonio; Owczarek, Malgorzata; Raglione, Marcello; Lanza, Barbara

    2005-03-07

    A pre-treatment stress situation of overcrowding of Vicia faba seedlings in the phase of germination and growth influenced their subsequent sensibility to treatment with the mutagenic herbicide maleic hydrazide. The seedlings showed a significant reduction in the frequency of micronucleated cells when they grew in a strongly crowded manner compared with scattered and uniformly distributed seedlings (3.83% versus 11.46%). The findings do not provide evidence for the involvement of phytochelatins in response to stress conditions in this process: pre-treatment with buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of phytochelatin synthesis, did not modify the response of the seedlings to maleic hydrazide under conditions of overcrowding or under normal conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the root tip of V. faba grown in conditions of normal growth or overcrowding. SEM micrographs revealed differences between the tips with regards to root hair density and root surface morphology. Finally, we found a positive correlation between the frequency of micronucleated cells and the length of the primary root, for every time of growth considered (1, 3, 4 and 5 days).

  8. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    PubMed

    Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  9. The geometry of the forisome-sieve element-sieve plate complex in the phloem of Vicia faba L. leaflets.

    PubMed

    Peters, Winfried S; van Bel, Aart J E; Knoblauch, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Forisomes are contractile protein bodies that appear to control flux rates in the phloem of faboid legumes by reversibly plugging the sieve tubes. Plugging is triggered by Ca(2+) which induces an anisotropic deformation of forisomes, consisting of a longitudinal contraction and a radial expansion. By conventional light microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, the three-dimensional geometry of the forisome-sieve element-sieve plate complex in intact sieve tubes of leaflets of Vicia faba L. was reconstructed. Forisomes were mostly located close to sieve plates, and occasionally were observed drifting unrestrainedly along the sieve element, suggesting that they might be utilized as internal markers of flow direction. The diameter of forisomes in the resting state correlated with the diameter of their sieve elements, supporting the idea that radial expansion of forisomes is the geometric basis of reversible sieve tube plugging. Comparison of the present results regarding forisome geometry in situ with previously published data on forisome reactivity in vitro makes it questionable, however, whether forisomes are capable of completely sealing sieve tubes in V. faba leaves.

  10. Sieve element Ca2+ channels as relay stations between remote stimuli and sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; van Bel, Aart J E; Fricker, Mark D; Felle, Hubert H; Fuchs, Maike; Hafke, Jens B

    2009-07-01

    Damage induces remote occlusion of sieve tubes in Vicia faba by forisome dispersion, triggered during the passage of an electropotential wave (EPW). This study addresses the role of Ca2+ channels and cytosolic Ca2+ elevation as a link between EPWs and forisome dispersion. Ca2+ channel antagonists affect the initial phase of the EPW as well as the prolonged plateau phase. Resting levels of sieve tube Ca2+ of approximately 50 nM were independently estimated using Ca2+-selective electrodes and a Ca2+-sensitive dye. Transient changes in cytosolic Ca2+ were observed in phloem tissue in response to remote stimuli and showed profiles similar to those of EPWs. The measured elevation of Ca2+ in sieve tubes was below the threshold necessary for forisome dispersion. Therefore, forisomes need to be associated with Ca2+ release sites. We found an association between forisomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at sieve plates and pore-plasmodesma units where high-affinity binding of a fluorescent Ca2+ channel blocker mapped an increased density of Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, propagation of EPWs in response to remote stimuli is linked to forisome dispersion through transiently high levels of parietal Ca2+, release of which depends on both plasma membrane and ER Ca2+ channels.

  11. Cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins affect the growth, nodulation process and nitrogen uptake of faba bean (Vicia faba L., Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; Faghire, Mustapha; Peix, Alvaro; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2012-04-01

    The use of irrigation water containing cyanobacterial toxins may generate a negative impact in both yield and quality of agricultural crops causing significant economic losses. We evaluated the effects of microcystins (MC) on the growth, nodulation process and nitrogen uptake of a Faba bean cultivar (Vicia faba L., Fabaceae), particularly the effect of MC on rhizobia-V. faba symbiosis. Three rhizobial strains (RhOF4, RhOF6 and RhOF21), isolated from nodules of local V. faba were tested. The exposure of rhizobia to MC showed that the toxins had a negative effect on the rhizobial growth especially at the highest concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/l. The germination of faba bean seeds was also affected by cyanotoxins. We registered germination rates of 75 and 68.75% at the toxin levels of 50 and 100 μg/l as compared to the control (100%). The obtained results also showed there was a negative effect of MC on plants shoot, root (dry weight) and total number of nodules per plant. Cyanotoxins exposure induced a significant effect on nitrogen assimilation by faba bean seedlings inoculated with selected rhizobial strains RhOF6 and RhOF21, while the effect was not significant on beans seedling inoculated with RhOF4. This behavior of tolerant rhizobia-legumes symbioses may constitute a very important pathway to increase soil fertility and quality and can represent a friendly biotechnological way to remediate cyanotoxins contamination in agriculture.

  12. Purification and characterization of a new dimeric mannose/glucose-binding isolectin from Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sanjenbam Kunjeshwori; Devi, Langoljam Inaotombi; Singh, Laishram Rupachandra

    2009-01-01

    A new mannose/glucose specific isolectin VTL-II has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the seeds of Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber through successive steps of (i) lectin extraction, (ii) ammonium sulfate fractionation (30-50%), and (iii) affinity chromatography on a column of Sephadex G-50 covalently coupled with D-mannose. The isolectin was found to be a dimeric protein of molecular weight 62 kDa made up of apparently chemically identical subunits unlike the tetrameric isolectins reported earlier from the same plant source. It was found to exhibit (i) 8-16 times higher specificity for rabbit RBC than human RBC, though it showed unspecificity with respect to the different human blood groups, (ii) non-dependence on divalent metal ion for its hemagglutinating activity, (iii) relatively broad pH optimum ranging from pH 7.0 to 8.0, and (iv) thermal inactivation behavior characterized by t(1/2) of 50 degrees C.

  13. The Kok effect in Vicia faba cannot be explained solely by changes in chloroplastic CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Vice, Heather; Adams, Mark A

    2017-08-31

    The Kok effect - an abrupt decline in quantum yield (QY) of net CO2 assimilation at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) - is widely used to estimate respiration in the light (R), which assumes the effect is caused by light suppression of R. A recent report suggested much of the Kok effect can be explained by declining chloroplastic CO2 concentration (cc ) at low PPFD. Several predictions arise from the hypothesis that the Kok effect is caused by declining cc , and we tested these predictions in Vicia faba. We measured CO2 exchange at low PPFD, in 2% and 21% oxygen, in developing and mature leaves, which differed greatly in R in darkness. Our results contradicted each of the predictions based on the cc effect: QY exceeded the theoretical maximum value for photosynthetic CO2 uptake; QY was larger in 21% than 2% oxygen; and the change in QY at the Kok effect breakpoint was unaffected by oxygen. Our results strongly suggest the Kok effect arises largely from a progressive decline in R with PPFD that includes both oxygen-sensitive and -insensitive components. We suggest an improved Kok method that accounts for high cc at low PPFD. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    PubMed

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae-induced stomatal closure mainly mediated by salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive peroxidases in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Nan; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced stomatal closure in a dose-dependent manner on Vicia faba L. (cv. Daqingpi). Using pharmacological inhibitors in this study, we found that stomatal closure was completely inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas slightly inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), suggesting that H2O2 was mostly produced by cell wall peroxidases. The specific NO scavenger (cPTIO), NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and sodium azide (NaN3; inhibitor of nitrate reductase) prevented yeast-induced stomatal closure, suggesting that NO in guard cells of V. faba is derived from both NOS-like enzyme and nitrate reductase. Results of HgCl2 and β-mercaptoethanol (ME) treatment (as a functional inhibitor of water channels and its reversing agent, respectively) suggest that water channels are involved in yeast-induced stomatal movements. CoCl2 (the blocker of calcium channel), LaCl3 (Ca(2+) antagonist) and EGTA (Ca(2+) chelator) also impaired yeast-induced stomatal closure. Thus, it is concluded that H2O2, NO, water channels and Ca(2+) are involved in yeast-induced stomatal closure.

  16. Glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS production, Ca(2+) and water channel in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, ShanShan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, GenXuan

    2016-03-01

    Sugars act as vital signaling molecules that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the effects of sugars on stomatal movement have been unclear. In our study, we explored the effects of monosaccharides such as glucose and mannose on stomatal aperture. Here, we demonstrate that glucose and mannose trigger stomatal closure in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of broad bean (Vicia faba). Pharmacological studies revealed that glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was almost completely inhibited by two reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), was significantly abolished by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), whereas they were hardly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Furthermore, glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was strongly inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, LaCl3 , a Ca(2+) chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and two water channel blockers, HgCl2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); whereas the inhibitory effects of the water channel blockers were essentially abolished by the reversing agent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). These results suggest that ROS production mainly via NADPH oxidases, Ca(2+) and water channels are involved in glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure.

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-10-30

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding.

  18. Characterizations of bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cesium in Brassica juncea, and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Han, Na; Wu, Guo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to investigate the tolerance and enrichment mechanism of cesium (Cs) in hyperaccumulation plants. In this study, Brassica juncea and Vicia faba were subjected to varying doses of Cs for 21 days to investigate the differences in bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cs in two cultivars by differential centrifugation, and extraction of Cs in different chemical forms, respectively. The results showed that 49.87%-61.08% of the Cs were in the leaf of B. juncea, while in V. faba, 1.58%-79.29% of the Cs was in the root. The translocation factor (TF) arrived 2.79 to 3.71 in B. juncea, while it only reached 0.26 to 0.62 in V. faba. Cs subcellular distribution of the two plants was in sequence as follows: soluble fraction > cell wall > organelles. Cs was more easily distributed to metal-sensitive fractions of V. faba. The inorganic Cs (F-ethanol), and water-soluble Cs (F-dH2O) are the main existing types of Cs in the two plants. In B. juncea, the relative content of inorganic Cs, and organic acids/CsH2PO4 (F-dH2O) were higher than that of V. faba in the stem. This suggests that Cs may induce related transporter gene expression (such as phosphate transporter, organic cation, high affinity nitrate transporter, amino acid permease, etc.) to help the transport of Cs between root to shoot.

  19. Genetic diversity in Tunisian populations of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on morphological traits and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Backouchi, I Z; Aouida, M; Khemiri, N; Jebara, M

    2015-07-13

    Genetic diversity within Vicia faba L. is key to the genetic improvement of this important species. In this study, morphological traits and RAPD molecular markers were used to assess the levels of polymorphism across 12 Tunisian populations, three major and nine minor from different locations. Analysis of morphological traits indicated that the three major populations showed significant differences and the nine minor populations exhibited considerable variation for most traits. The grain yield of the Alia population could be increased by inoculation. Of the seven primers tested, it was clear that the Cs12 primer would be recommend for genetic diversity analysis of V. faba.Within population genetic diversity exhibited 94% of total diversity. Intra-population genetic diversity (HS) was 0.16, which was clearly higher than between population genetic diversity (DST = 0.06) UPG-MA showed a high level of genetic variation between major and minor populations of V. faba L. Particularly the minor populations showed a high level of diversity and was divided into two subclusters. Ltaifia was separated from the other populations. In addition to a high grain yield, these populations showed the lowest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.08 and I = 0.13) justifying their homogeneity. For these reasons, these cultivars can be considered a selected population. However, the Takelsa population showed the highest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.13 and I = 0.21), indicating that this population was the most heterogeneous, which is interesting for breeding programs.

  20. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

    2015-03-21

    Although considered as "green" solvents, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) on organisms have been widely investigated in recent years. However, studies on the toxic effects of ILs on plants all focus on toxicity in nutrient solution. In the present paper, the toxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) on Vicia faba seedlings in soil at 0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg kg(-1) on day 10 were studied. The present results showed that the growth of V. faba seedlings may be seriously inhibited when the IL concentrations were higher than 500 mg kg(-1). The EC50 values for shoot length, root length, and dry weight were 3886, 2483, and 3359 mg kg(-1), respectively. In addition, [C4mim]Cl caused lipid peroxidation and DNA damage at 500 mg kg(-1) and oxidative stress at 1500 mg kg(-1), which indicated that [C4mim]Cl may have genotoxicity and cytotoxicity on V. faba seedlings. Moreover, oxidative damage may be the main toxic mechanism of ILs.

  1. SB202190 affects cell response to hydroxyurea-induced genotoxic stress in root meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad; Maszewski, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    Genotoxic stress caused by a variety of chemical and physical agents may lead to DNA breaks and genome instability. Response to DNA damage depends on ATM/ATR sensor kinases and their downstream proteins, which arrange cell cycle checkpoints. Activation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated)/ATR (ATM and Rad 3-related) signaling pathway triggers cell cycle arrest (by keeping cyclin-Cdk complexes inactive), combined with gamma-phosphorylation of histone H2A.X and induction of DNA repair processes. However, genotoxic stress activates also mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) which may control the functions of checkpoint proteins both directly, by post-translational modifications, or indirectly, by regulation of their expression. Our results indicate that in root meristem cells of Vicia faba, MAP kinase signaling pathway takes part in response to hydroxyurea-induced genotoxic stress. It is shown that SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, triggers PCC (premature chromosome condensation) more rapidly, but only if cell cycle checkpoints are alleviated by caffeine. Since SB202190 and, independently, caffeine reduces HU-mediated histone H4 Lys5 acetylation, it may be that there is a cooperation of MAP kinase signaling pathways and ATM/ATR-dependent checkpoints during response to genotoxic stress.

  2. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet impacts and underlying potential mechanism assessment in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K; Sayeed, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-02-15

    This study investigates the impact of different single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter 'graphene oxide', GO; size: 0.5-5 μm) concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1,600 mg L(-1)) and underlying potential mechanisms in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings. The study revealed both positive and negative concentration-dependent GO-effects on V. faba. Significant negative impacts of GO concentrations (ordered by magnitude of effect: 1600>200>100 mg GO L(-1)) were indicated by decreases in growth parameters and the activity of H2O2-decomposing enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, APX; catalase, CAT), and by increases in the levels of electrolyte leakage (EL), H2O2, and lipid and protein oxidation. The positive impacts of 400 and 800 mg GO L(-1) included significant improvements in V. faba health status indicated by decreased levels of EL, H2O2, and lipid and protein oxidation, and by enhanced H2O2-decomposing APX and CAT activity, and increased proline and seed-relative water content. V. faba seedlings-polypeptide patterns strongly substantiated these GO-concentration effects. Overall, the positive effects of these two GO concentrations (800>400 mg L(-1)) on V. faba seedlings indicate their safe nature and allow to suggest further studies.

  3. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality.

  4. Influence of soil characteristics on the clastogenic activity of maleic hydrazide in root tips of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    De Marco, A; De Simone, C; Raglione, M; Lorenzoni, P

    1995-08-01

    The clastogenic activity of the herbicide maleic hydrazide (MH) in Vicia faba seedlings grown in different soils was studied. In the first series of experiments the seedlings were treated with MH in nine soils of different selected properties. The second experimental protocol provided for a growth step in each of the nine soils under study and then for the treatment of the seedlings with MH in a sandy soil. The results obtained show that less clastogenic damage (induction of micronuclei and aberrant anatelophases) was observed in the seedlings treated in the soils with a high content of organic and clay-type colloids. A growth step carried out in the organic soils, before the treatment with MH, was observed to reduce the genotoxic effects of the herbicide when the seedlings were treated in a sandy soil. These findings suggest that some components of soil organic matter, such as fulvic and humic acids, may be absorbed by the plant roots and so carry out an antimutagenic activity against MH within the plant.

  5. ELF magnetic fields increase amino acid uptake into Vicia faba L. roots and alter ion movement across the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Stange, B C; Rowland, R E; Rapley, B I; Podd, J V

    2002-07-01

    Vicia faba seedlings, subjected to a 10 microT 50 Hz square wave magnetic field for 40 min together with a radioactive pulse, showed a marked increase in amino acid uptake into intact roots. A more modest increase was observed with a 100 microT 50 Hz square wave. An increase in media conductivity at low field intensities from 10 microT 50 Hz square wave, 100 microT 50 Hz sine wave, and 100 microT 60 Hz square wave fields, indicated an alteration in the movement of ions across the plasma membrane, most likely due to an increase in net outflow of ions from the root cells. Similarly, marked elevation in media pH, indicating increased alkalinity, was observed at 10 and 100 microT for both square and sine waves at both 50 and 60 Hz. Our data would indicate that low magnetic field intensities of 10 and 100 microT at 50 or 60 Hz can alter membrane transport processes in root tips. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Isolation of a new trypsin inhibitor from the Faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Giza 843) with potential medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-01

    A new 15-kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-G1) was isolated from the seeds of Faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Giza 843) using cation exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q columns, and finally size exclusion chromatography on a Superdex 75 column. VFTI-G1 manifested significant antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (5761 BAEE units/mg, K(i) 20.4 × 10(-9) M), but only a slight chymotrypsin inhibitory activity (< 10 BTEE units/mg). The suitable environment to sustain its trypsin inhibitory activity was at temperatures below 60 °C and at pH 7. Its trypsin inhibitory activity was inhibited by the reducing agent dithiothreitol in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the significance of intact disulfide bonds to the trypsin inhibitory activity. It inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity with an IC(50) of about 0.76 µM. Furthermore, VFTI-G1 showed specific antiproliferative activity toward HepG2 hepatoma cells by inducing chromatin condensation and cell apoptosis. The HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity of VFTI-G1 and its specific antiproliferative activity toward Hep G2 cells may find medical applications.

  7. The Galactolipid, Phospholipid, and Fatty Acid Composition of the Chloroplast Envelope Membranes of Vicia faba. L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Mackender, R. O.; Leech, Rachel M.

    1974-01-01

    The galactolipid, phospholipid, and fatty acid composition of chloroplast envelope membrane fractions isolated from leaves of Vicia faba L. has been determined. The major lipids in this fraction are: monogalactosyldiglyceride, 29%; digalactosyldiglyceride, 32%; phosphatidylcholine, 30%; and phosphatidylglycerol 9%. The lipid composition of the chloroplast envelope membranes is qualitatively similar to that of the lamellar membranes isolated from the same plastids, but the proportion of each lipid present is very different. The total galactolipid to total phospholipid ratio was 1.6: 1 in the envelope and 11.1: 1 in the lamellae. The monogalactosyldiglyceride-digalactosyl-diglyceride ratio was 0.9: 1 in the envelope and 2.4: 1 in the lamellae. Both membranes lack phosphatidylethanolamine. Linolenic acid is the major fatty acid in the envelope lipids representing 63% of the total fatty acid, whereas in the lamellae it represents 83%. The same fatty acids are present in both the envelope and lamellar lipids except the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid, which is confined to the lamellar lipids, particularly the phospholipid fraction. A quantitative comparison of the lipid and fatty acid compositions of the envelope with those of mitochondrial and microsomal fractions indicates that the chloroplast envelope has a composition intermediate between that of the chloroplast lamellae and these extrachloroplastic membranes. Images PMID:16658731

  8. A genomic approach to nutritional, pharmacological and genetic issues of faba bean (Vicia faba): prospects for genetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Ray, Heather; Georges, Fawzy

    2010-01-01

    Cultivated faba bean (Vicia faba) is widely used as human food, especially in Europe, Northern Africa and China.  In view of its superior feeding value over field peas or other legumes, it is also widely used as animal feed for a variety of species.   V. faba also contains medically important components such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levo-DOPA, L-DOPA), the principal treatment used for Parkinson's disease patients.  However, this species also contains several antinutritional components, including the pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine; phytates; and the sucrose galactosides including raffinose, stachyose and verbascose.  We have undertaken a genomic project to provide publicly available expressed sequence tag sequences (EST) prepared from early to mid developing embryo in an attempt to identify genes that are likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of L-DOPA and the vicine group of compounds.  As initial examples of the utility of this approach, we describe the complete sequence of fabatin, new defensins, type 4 metallothioneins and a variety of other key genes which were identified in this EST library. No candidate sequences corresponding to the biosynthesis of L-DOPA or the vicine group could be identified at this early stage of seed development.

  9. Identification of a novel ABC transporter required for desiccation tolerance, and biofilm formation in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841.

    PubMed

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Joe J; Muszyński, Artur; Carlson, Russell W; Turner, Raymond J; Yost, Christopher K

    2010-03-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum is a soil bacterium with the ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Soil-dwelling, free-living R. leguminosarum often encounters desiccation stress, which impacts its survival within the soil. The mechanisms by which soil bacteria resist the effects of desiccation stress have been described. However, the role of the cell envelope in the desiccation tolerance mechanisms of rhizobia is relatively uncharacterized. Using a transposon mutagenesis approach, a mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae was isolated that was highly sensitive to desiccation. The mutation is located in the ATP-binding protein of an uncharacterized ATP-binding cassette transporter operon (RL2975-RL2977). Exopolysaccharide accumulation was significantly lower in the mutant and the decrease in desiccation tolerance was attributed to the decreased accumulation of exopolysaccharide. In addition to desiccation sensitivity, the mutant was severely impaired in biofilm formation, an important adaptation used by soil bacteria for survival. This work has identified a novel transporter required for physiological traits that are important for the survival of R. leguminosarum in the rhizosphere environment.

  10. Botrytone, a new naphthalenone pentaketide produced by Botrytis fabae, the causal agent of chocolate spot disease on Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Villegas-Fernández, Angel M; Andolfi, Anna; Melck, Dominique; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-09-14

    A strain of Botrytis fabae isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants displaying clear chocolate spot disease symptoms produced phytotoxic metabolites in vitro. The phytotoxins isolated from the culture filtrate organic extract were characterized by spectroscopic and optical methods. A new naphthalenone pentaketide, named botrytone, was isolated and characterized as (4R)-3,4-dihydro-4,5,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-naphthalenone together with other well-known closely related naphthalenones such as regiolone and cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. When tested on leaves of the host plant, with the cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones assayed in mixture, regiolone demonstrated the highest level of phytotoxicity together with cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. Botrytone showed moderate phytotoxic activity at 1 mg/mL and was still phytotoxic at 0.5 mg/mL.

  11. Characterization of root-nodule bacteria isolated from Vicia faba and selection of plant growth promoting isolates.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Chebil, Samir; Gtari, Maher; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2013-06-01

    A collection of 104 isolates from root-nodules of Vicia faba was submitted to 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP typing. A representative sample was further submitted to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Isolates were assigned to 12 genera. All the nodulating isolates (45 %) were closely related to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA2370(T) (99.34 %). The remaining isolates, including potential human pathogens, failed to nodulate their original host. They were checked for presence of symbiotic genes, P-solubilization, phytohormone and siderophore production, and then tested for their growth promoting abilities. Results indicated that 9 strains could induce significant increase (41-71 %) in shoot dry yield of faba bean. A Pseudomonas strain was further assessed in on-farm trial in combination with a selected rhizobial strain. This work indicated that nodule-associated bacteria could be a valuable pool for selection of effective plant growth promoting isolates. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of nodules in increasing risks related to pathogenic bacteria should not be neglected and needs to be investigated further.

  12. Ethylene mediates UV-B-induced stomatal closure via peroxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide synthesis in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    He, Junmin; Yue, Xiaozhen; Wang, Ruibin; Zhang, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is an important environmental signal for plant growth and development, but its signal transduction mechanism is unclear. UV-B is known to induce stomatal closure via hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and to affect ethylene biosynthesis. As ethylene is also known to induce stomatal closure via H(2)O(2) generation, the possibility of UV-B-induced stomatal closure via ethylene-mediated H(2)O(2) generation was investigated in Vicia faba by epidermal strip bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and assays of ethylene production. It was found that H(2)O(2) production in guard cells and subsequent stomatal closure induced by UV-B radiation were inhibited by interfering with ethylene biosynthesis as well as ethylene signalling, suggesting that ethylene is epistatic to UV-B radiation in stomatal movement. Ethylene production preceded H(2)O(2) production upon UV-B radiation, while exogenous ethylene induced H(2)O(2) production in guard cells and subsequent stomatal closure, further supporting the conclusion. Inhibitors for peroxidase but not for NADPH oxidase abolished H(2)O(2) production upon UV-B radiation in guard cells, suggesting that peroxidase is the source of UV-B-induced H(2)O(2) production. Taken together, our results strongly support the idea that ethylene mediates UV-B-induced stomatal closure via peroxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) generation.

  13. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of four additional genes of the hydrogenase structural operon from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, E; Palacios, J M; Murillo, J; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 2.5-kbp region following the hydrogenase structural genes (hupSL) in the H2 uptake gene cluster from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 was determined. Four closely linked genes encoding peptides of 27.9 (hupC), 22.1 (hupD), 19.0 (hupE), and 10.4 (hupF) kDa were identified immediately downstream of hupL. Proteins with comparable apparent molecular weights were detected by heterologous expression of these genes in Escherichia coli. The six genes, hupS to hupF, are arranged as an operon, and by mutant complementation analysis, it was shown that genes hupSLCD are cotranscribed. A transcription start site preceded by the -12 to -24 consensus sequence characteristic of NtrA-dependent promoters was identified upstream of hupS. On the basis of the lack of oxygen-dependent H2 uptake activity of a hupC::Tn5 mutant and on structural characteristics of the protein, we postulate that HupC is a b-type cytochrome involved in electron transfer from hydrogenase to oxygen. The product from hupE, which is needed for full hydrogenase activity, exhibited characteristics typical of a membrane protein. The features of HupC and HupE suggest that they form, together with the hydrogenase itself, a membrane-bound protein complex involved in hydrogen oxidation. Images PMID:1597428

  14. Effect of soaking and sprouting on iron and zinc availability in green and white faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua

    2014-12-01

    The changes in phytate, phytase activity and in vitro availability of iron and zinc during soaking and sprouting of green and white faba bean (Vicia faba L.) were investigated. Faba bean were soaked for 24 h and germinated for 72 h after soaking for 24 h to reduce phytate content and increase iron and zinc in vitro availability. The results revealed that iron and zinc content was significantly reduced from 28.2 to 39.8 % and 12.5 to 27.6 % for soaking treatment and 38.2 to 38.9 % and 24.5 to 29.2 % for sprouting treatment, respectively. Phytate content was significantly reduced from 26.9 to 32.5 % for soaking treatment and 28.0 to 34.9 % for sprouting treatment, respectively. The results proved that the main distinct point is the change of phytase activity as well as specific activity during different treatment which showed no significant differences between the green and white faba bean. The in vitro availability of iron and zinc were significantly improved as a result of soaking and sprouting treatments.

  15. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species.

  16. Immunolocalization of dually phosphorylated MAPKs in dividing root meristem cells of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Lupinus luteus and Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad; Żabka, Aneta; Bernasińska, Joanna; Matczak, Karolina; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-06-01

    In plants, phosphorylated MAPKs display constitutive nuclear localization; however, not all studied plant species show co-localization of activated MAPKs to mitotic microtubules. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved not only in the cellular response to biotic and abiotic stress but also in the regulation of cell cycle and plant development. The role of MAPKs in the formation of a mitotic spindle has been widely studied and the MAPK signaling pathway was found to be indispensable for the unperturbed course of cell division. Here we show cellular localization of activated MAPKs (dually phosphorylated at their TXY motifs) in both interphase and mitotic root meristem cells of Lupinus luteus, Pisum sativum, Vicia faba (Fabaceae) and Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae). Nuclear localization of activated MAPKs has been found in all species. Co-localization of these kinases to mitotic microtubules was most evident in L. esculentum, while only about 50% of mitotic cells in the root meristems of P. sativum and V. faba displayed activated MAPKs localized to microtubules during mitosis. Unexpectedly, no evident immunofluorescence signals at spindle microtubules and phragmoplast were noted in L. luteus. Considering immunocytochemical analyses and studies on the impact of FR180204 (an inhibitor of animal ERK1/2) on mitotic cells, we hypothesize that MAPKs may not play prominent role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics in all plant species.

  17. Effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of Vicia faba: a mid-infrared spectroscopic study supported by two-dimensional correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena

    2015-02-25

    In this study we investigated the effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of the Vicia faba roots, a bioindicator plant, in order to obtain information for the potential allelopathic uses of these oils as alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture. We tested two mixtures of essential oils consisting of Tween 20-emulsions of tea tree oil (TTO) and Tween 20-emulsion of Clove and Rosemary (GARROM) essential oils respectively at three different oil concentrations each. The molecular modifications caused in Vicia faba by exposure to oil emulsions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode. We considered the specific Amide I, Amide II and Amide VI bands by ordinary and second derivative spectroscopy and the results showed that both Tween 20-emulsion of GARROM and Tween 20-emulsion of TTO oils cause transitions among the secondary (α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn) structures with in addition the appearance of random coil structures in exposed samples. The Amide VI bands, placed between 500 and 600 cm(-1), confirmed the structural transitions observed for the Amide I bands. In addition we observed the presence of a protein oxidation effect for TTO treated samples, oxidation which resulted negligible instead for the GARROM oil samples. At last, FTIR spectra were also submitted to two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) and double two-dimensional correlation analysis (D2DCORR); the results confirmed the different effects caused by the two typologies of essential oils on the secondary protein structures of Vicia faba roots.

  18. Effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of Vicia faba: A mid-infrared spectroscopic study supported by two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of the Vicia faba roots, a bioindicator plant, in order to obtain information for the potential allelopathic uses of these oils as alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture. We tested two mixtures of essential oils consisting of Tween 20-emulsions of tea tree oil (TTO) and Tween 20-emulsion of Clove and Rosemary (GARROM) essential oils respectively at three different oil concentrations each. The molecular modifications caused in Vicia faba by exposure to oil emulsions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode. We considered the specific Amide I, Amide II and Amide VI bands by ordinary and second derivative spectroscopy and the results showed that both Tween 20-emulsion of GARROM and Tween 20-emulsion of TTO oils cause transitions among the secondary (α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn) structures with in addition the appearance of random coil structures in exposed samples. The Amide VI bands, placed between 500 and 600 cm-1, confirmed the structural transitions observed for the Amide I bands. In addition we observed the presence of a protein oxidation effect for TTO treated samples, oxidation which resulted negligible instead for the GARROM oil samples. At last, FTIR spectra were also submitted to two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) and double two-dimensional correlation analysis (D2DCORR); the results confirmed the different effects caused by the two typologies of essential oils on the secondary protein structures of Vicia faba roots.

  19. [omega]-Hydroxylation of Oleic Acid in Vicia sativa Microsomes (Inhibition by Substrate Analogs and Inactivation by Terminal Acetylenes).

    PubMed Central

    Pinot, F.; Bosch, H.; Alayrac, C.; Mioskowski, C.; Vendais, A.; Durst, F.; Salaun, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Oleic acid (18:1) is hydroxylated exclusively on the terminal methyl by a microsomal cytochrome P-450-dependent system ([omega]-OAH) from clofibrate-induced Vicia sativa L. (var minor) seedlings (F. Pinot, J.-P. Salaun, H. Bosch, A. Lesot, C. Mioskowski, F. Durst [1992] Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184: 183-193). This reaction was inactivated by two terminal acetylenes: (Z)-9-octadecen-17-ynoic acid (17-ODCYA) and the corresponding epoxide, (Z)-9,10-epoxyoctadecan-17-ynoic acid (17-EODCYA). Inactivation was mechanism-based, with an apparent binding constant of 21 and 32 [mu]M and half-lives of 16 and 19 min for 17-ODCYA and 17-EODCYA, respectively. We have investigated the participation of one or more [omega]-hydroxylase isoforms in the oxidation of fatty acids in this plant system. Lauric acid (12:0) is [omega]-hydroxylated by the cytochrome P-450 [omega]-hydroxylase [omega]-LAH (J.-P. Salaun, A. Simon, F. Durst [1986] Lipids 21: 776-779). Half-lives of [omega]-OAH and [omega]-LAH in the presence of 40 [mu]M 17-ODCYA were 23 and 41 min, respectively. Inhibition of oleic acid [omega]-hydroxylation was competitive with linoleic acid (18:2), but noncompetitive with lauric acid (12:0). In contrast, oleic acid did not inhibit [omega]-hydroxylation of lauric acid. Furthermore, 1-pentadecyltriazole inhibited [omega]-hydroxylation of oleic acid but not of lauric acid. These results suggest that distinct monooxygenases catalyze [omega]-hydroxylation of medium- and long-chain fatty acids in V. sativa microsomes. PMID:12231907

  20. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Zahoor A.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed "graphene oxide") are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop—faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L-1) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 μm) and evaluates glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L-1), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L-1) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes.

  1. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of the Zygomorphic Flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhipeng; Ma, Lichao; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Yanrong

    2013-01-01

    Background Vicia sativa (the common vetch) possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. Conclusions/Significance Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae. PMID:23437373

  2. The FIGS (Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy) Approach Identifies Traits Related to Drought Adaptation in Vicia faba Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation. PMID:23667581

  3. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    PubMed

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. A SNP-based consensus genetic map for synteny-based trait targeting in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Webb, Anne; Cottage, Amanda; Wood, Thomas; Khamassi, Khalil; Hobbs, Douglas; Gostkiewicz, Krystyna; White, Mark; Khazaei, Hamid; Ali, Mohamed; Street, Daniel; Duc, Gérard; Stoddard, Fred L; Maalouf, Fouad; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Link, Wolfgang; Thomas, Jane; O'Sullivan, Donal M

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a globally important nitrogen-fixing legume, which is widely grown in a diverse range of environments. In this work, we mine and validate a set of 845 SNPs from the aligned transcriptomes of two contrasting inbred lines. Each V. faba SNP is assigned by BLAST analysis to a single Medicago orthologue. This set of syntenically anchored polymorphisms were then validated as individual KASP assays, classified according to their informativeness and performance on a panel of 37 inbred lines, and the best performing 757 markers used to genotype six mapping populations. The six resulting linkage maps were merged into a single consensus map on which 687 SNPs were placed on six linkage groups, each presumed to correspond to one of the six V. faba chromosomes. This sequence-based consensus map was used to explore synteny with the most closely related crop species, lentil and the most closely related fully sequenced genome, Medicago. Large tracts of uninterrupted colinearity were found between faba bean and Medicago, making it relatively straightforward to predict gene content and order in mapped genetic interval. As a demonstration of this, we mapped a flower colour gene to a 2-cM interval of Vf chromosome 2 which was highly colinear with Mt3. The obvious candidate gene from 78 gene models in the collinear Medicago chromosome segment was the previously characterized MtWD40-1 gene controlling anthocyanin production in Medicago and resequencing of the Vf orthologue showed a putative causative deletion of the entire 5' end of the gene.

  5. Ileal digestibility of amino acids for zero-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba L.) fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) in zero-tannin faba beans (ZFB; Vicia faba L.) fed to broiler chicks. In total, 120 broiler chicks were divided into 24 groups of 5 birds that were balanced for BW and fed 1 of 3 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups/diet) from d 14 to 21 of age. The diets were a soybean meal-cornstarch-based basal diet or the basal diet with soybean meal and cornstarch replaced by 50% of either conventional (tannin-containing) faba beans (CFB) or ZFB. The CFB were fed for comparison with ZFB. All of the 3 diets contained chromic oxide (0.3%) as an indigestible marker, and nutrient digestibilities were determined by the difference method. On d 21, the birds were killed by cervical dislocation and contents of the lower-half of the ileum were obtained for determination of apparent AA digestibility. The CFB and ZFB were similar in CP, AA, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents. The ZFB did not contain tannins, whereas the CFB contained 0.82% tannins. The ZFB had greater (P < 0.05) AID for all AA (except Met) compared with that of the CFB by an average of 12.6 percentage points. The 2 faba-bean types were similar in AID of Met. The results show that the ZFB evaluated in the current study had greater AID of AA than CFB, and hence, it may be a better source of protein for broiler chicks than CFB.

  6. Genotoxicity assessment of soils from wastewater irrigation areas and bioremediation sites using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Song, Y F; Gong, P; Wilke, B M; Zhang, W; Song, X Y; Sun, T H; Ackland, M L

    2007-02-01

    Genotoxicity potential of soils taken from wastewater irrigation areas and bioremediation sites was assessed using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus assay. Twenty five soils were tested, of which 8 were uncontaminated soils and taken as the control to examine the influence of soil properties; 6 soils were obtained from paddy rice fields with a history of long-term wastewater irrigation; 6 soils were obtained from bioremediation sites to examine effects of bioremediation; and 5 PAH-contaminated soils were used to examine methodological effects between direct soil exposure and exposure to aqueous soil extracts on micronuclei (MN) frequency ( per thousand) in the V. faba root tips. Results indicate that soil properties had no significant influences on MN frequencies (p > 0.05) when soil pH varied between 3.4 to 7.6 and organic carbon between 0.4% and 18.6%. The MN frequency measured in these control soils ranged from 1.6 per thousand to 5.8 per thousand. MN frequencies in soils from wastewater irrigation areas showed 2- to 48-fold increase as compared with the control. Soils from bioremediation sites showed a mixed picture: MN frequencies in some soils decreased after bioremediation, possibly due to detoxification; whereas in other cases remediated soils induced higher MN frequencies, suggesting that genotoxic substances might be produced during bioremediation. Exposure to aqueous soil extracts gave a higher MN frequency than direct exposure in 3 soils. However, the opposite was observed in the other two soils, suggesting that both exposure routes should be tested in case of negative results from one route. Data obtained from this study indicate that the MN assay is a sensitive assay suitable for evaluating genotoxicity of soils.

  7. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    PubMed Central

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  8. Factors influencing distribution and local coexistence of diploids and tetraploids of Vicia cracca: inferences from a common garden experiment.

    PubMed

    Eliášová, Anežka; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-07-01

    Vicia cracca diploids and autotetraploids are highly parapatric in Europe; tetraploids reside in western and northern part, whereas diploids occupy much drier south-eastern part. They meet together in a Central European contact zone. This distribution pattern raised questions about a transformative effect of polyploidization on plant performance and environmental tolerances. We investigated plant survival, growth, and seed production in two water regimes in a common garden experiment using seeds collected from five localities in the Central European contact zone where diploids and tetraploids occur in sympatry. Obtained data imply that tetraploids of V. cracca are not generally superior in performance to diploids. Significantly larger seeds from tetraploid mother plants collected in the field were not correlated with greater stature of the seedlings. Nonetheless, tetraploids might have a potential to out-compete diploids in the long run due to the tetraploids' ability of greater growth which manifested in the second year of cultivation. Considering the response of diploids and tetraploids to water supply, drought stressed tetraploids but not diploids produced a higher proportion of aborted seeds than watered ones, which implies that tetraploids are more drought susceptible than diploids. On the other hand, decreased plant height in drought stresses tetraploids, which simultaneously increased total seed production, may suggest that tetraploids have a greater ability to avoid local extinction under unfavourable conditions by enhancing biomass allocation into production of seeds at the cost of lower growth. The significant interaction between ploidy level and locality in several traits suggests possible polyfyletic origin of tetraploids and the necessity to clarify the history of the tetraploids in Europe.

  9. Chemical composition and ultrastructure of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) nodule endodermis in comparison to the root endodermis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Klaus; Peiter, Edgar; Koch, Kerstin; Schubert, Sven; Schreiber, Lukas

    2002-05-01

    Ultrastructure and development of apoplastic barriers within indeterminate root nodules formed by Vicia faba L. were examined by light and electron microscopy. The nodule outer cortex is separated from the inner cortex by a heavily suberized nodule endodermis, which matures in submeristematic regions and possesses suberin lamellae. Unsuberized passage cells are present near vascular strands, which are surrounded by a vascular endodermis attached on the inner side of the nodule endodermal cell walls. The vascular endodermis appears immediately below the meristematic apex in developmental state I (Casparian bands), gradually develops suberin lamellae, and attains developmental state II at the base of the nodule. For chemical analysis apoplastic barrier tissues were dissected after enzymatic digestion of non-impregnated tissues. Root epidermal and endodermal cell walls as well as nodule outer cortex could be isolated as pure fractions; nodule endodermal cell walls could not be separated from vascular endodermal cell walls and enclosed xylem vessels. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were applied for quantitative and qualitative analysis of suberin and lignin in isolated cell walls of these tissues. The suberin content of isolated endodermal cell walls of nodules was approximately twice that of the root endodermal cell walls. The suberin content of the nodule outer cortex and root epidermal cell walls was less than one-tenth of that of the nodule endodermal cell wall. Substantial amounts of lignin could only be found in the nodule endodermal cell wall fraction. Organic solvent extracts of the isolated tissues revealed long-chain aliphatic acids, steroids, and triterpenoid structures of the lupeol type. Surprisingly, extract from the outer cortex consisted of 89% triterpenoids whereas extracts from all other cell wall isolates contained not more than 16% total triterpenoids. The results of ultrastructural and chemical

  10. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhipeng; Ma, Lichao; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Yanrong

    2013-01-01

    Vicia sativa (the common vetch) possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  11. Characterization, distribution, and localization of ISRl2, and insertion sequence element isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurier, S I; Rigottier-Gois, L; Amarger, N

    1996-01-01

    An insertion sequence (IS) element, ISR12, from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain MSDJ4184 was isolated by insertional inactivation of the sacRB gene of pSUP104-sac, which allows positive selection. ISRl2 is 932 bp long, is flanked by 17-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generated a 3-bp target site duplication. ISRl2 was found to be 63 to 77% homologous to insertion elements of the IS5 group of the IS4 superfamily. A probe incorporating a full-length copy of ISRl2 was used to screen genomic DNAs from a collection of strains and from two field populations of R. leguminosarum to detect and estimate the copy numbers of homologous sequences. Among the collection of 63 strains representing the different species and genera of members of the family Rhizobiaceae, homology to ISRl2 was found within strains belonging to Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. fredii; within four of the six recognized Rhizobium species. R. leguminosarum, R. tropici, R. etli, and R. galegae; and within Rhizobium sp. (Phaseolus) genomic species 2. The apparent copy numbers of ISRl2 varied from one to eight. Among 139 isolates of R. leguminosarum from two field populations, homology to ISRl2 was detected in 91% of the isolates from one site and in 17% from the other. Analysis of the 95 isolates that hybridize to ISRl2 revealed a total of 20 distinct hybridization patterns composed of one to three bands. Probing blots of Eckhardt gels showed that sequences with homology to ISRl2 may be found on plasmids or the chromosome. Analysis of their genomic distribution demonstrated relationships and diversity among the R. leguminosarum isolates tested. PMID:8593071

  12. Sugar and organic acid accumulation in guard cells of Vicia faba in response to red and blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. )

    1993-08-01

    Changes in neutral sugar and organic acid content of guard cells were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography during stomatal opening in different light qualities. Sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels were irradiated with 10 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of blue light, a fluence rate insufficient for the activation of guard cell photosynthesis, or 125 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of red light, in the presence of 1mM KCl, 0.1 mM CaCl[sub 2]. The low-fluence-rate blue light stimulated an average net stomatal opening of 4.7 [mu]m in 2 h, whereas the saturating fluence rate of red light stimulated an average net opening of 3.8 [mu]m in 2 h. Under blue light, the malate content of guard cells increased to 173% of the initial level during the first 30 min of opening and declined as opening continued. Sucrose levels continuously rose throughout the blue light-stimulated opening, reaching 215% of the initial level after 2 h. The starch hydrolysis products maltose and maltotriose remained elevated at all times. Under red light, guard cells showed very little increase in organic acid or maltose levels, whereas sucrose levels increased to 208% of the initial level after 2 h. Total measured organic metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in all cases except where substantial malate increases occurred. These results support the hypothesis that light quality modulates alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation guard cells, including potassium uptake, photosynthetic sugar production, and starch breakdown. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  13. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  14. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of 65 novel polymorphic cDNA-SSR markers in common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa) using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jong-Wook; Kim, Tae-Sung; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Sok-Young; Cho, Gyu-Taek

    2013-07-16

    Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is one of the most important annual forage legumes in the World due to its multiple uses (i.e., hay, grain, silage and green manure) and high nutritional value. However, detrimental cyanoalanine toxins in its plant parts including seeds and its vulnerability to hard winter conditions are currently reducing the agronomic values of vetch varieties. Moreover, the existence in the public domain of very few genomic resources, especially molecular markers, has further hampered breeding efforts. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers from transcript sequences (cDNA; simple sequence repeat [SSR]) were developed for Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. We found 3,811 SSR loci from 31,504 individual sequence reads, and 300 primer pairs were designed and synthesized. In total, 65 primer pairs were found to be consistently scorable when 32 accessions were tested. The numbers of alleles ranged from 2 to 19, frequency of major alleles per locus were 0.27-0.87, the genotype number was 2-19, the overall polymorphism information content (PIC) values were 0.20-0.86, and the observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.00-0.41 and 0.264-0.852, respectively. These markers provide a useful tool for assessing genetic diversity, population structure, and positional cloning, facilitating vetch breeding programs.

  16. A hemiterpene glucoside as a probing deterrent of the bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda, from a non-host vetch, Vicia hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Naohiro; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2006-03-01

    The bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda Mordvilko, feeds selectively on plants belonging to the genus Vicia (Fabaceae). However, it never infests the tiny vetch, V. hirsuta (L.) Gray. The aphid appeared to discriminate between host and non-host plants by tasting specific chemicals during penetration of its stylet into the plant tissues. The aphid, after being stimulated by specific probing stimulants, deposited characteristic proteinous stylet sheaths through a parafilm membrane, which has one side in contact with an extract solution of Vicia angustifolia. However, an addition of a V. hirsuta extract to the medium strongly inhibited the salivary sheath formation. A specific probing deterrent was isolated from a V. hirsuta extract by monitoring the inhibitory effect, and identified as (E)-2-methyl-2-butene-1,4-diol 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside. A mixture of the glycoside and the stimulatory V. angustifolia fraction in the same equivalency found in plants significantly decreased the probing activity in M. crassicauda. Since the stylet insertion process is a crucial step for the aphid's settlement on a plant, the glycoside seems to act as an effective chemical barrier for V. hirsuta.

  17. Development and molecular characterization of 55 novel polymorphic cDNA-SSR markers in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sundan; Park, Jong-Hyun; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Baek, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2013-01-31

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a major food source and fodder legume, popularly known for its high content of seed-protein. Its role is critical in crop rotation, and for fixing nitrogen effectively. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers from transcript sequences (cDNA; simple sequence repeat [SSR]) were developed for faba bean (Vicia faba). We found that 1,729 SSR loci from 81,333 individual sequence reads and 240 primer pairs were designed and synthesized. In total, 55 primer pairs were found to be polymorphic and scorable consistently when screened in 32 accessions. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, frequency of major alleles per locus varied from 0.17 to 0.91, the genotypes number ranged from 2 to 17, observed and expected heterozycosity values ranged from 0.00 to 0.44 and 0.17 to 0.89 and overall PIC values ranged from 0.16 to 0.88 respectively. These markers will be a useful tool for assessing the genetic diversity, understanding the population structure, and breeding patterns of faba bean.

  18. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  19. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    PubMed

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study.

  20. A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different

  1. Role of O2 in the Growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 on Glucose and Succinate.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Rachel M; Ramachandran, Vinoy K; Geddes, Barney A; Perry, Benjamin J; Yost, Chris K; Poole, Philip S

    2017-01-01

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv3841) grown on glucose or succinate at both 21% and 1% O2 was used to understand how O2 concentration alters metabolism. Two transcriptional regulators were required for growth on glucose (pRL120207 [eryD] and RL0547 [phoB]), five were required on succinate (pRL100388, RL1641, RL1642, RL3427, and RL4524 [ecfL]), and three were required on 1% O2 (pRL110072, RL0545 [phoU], and RL4042). A novel toxin-antitoxin system was identified that could be important for generation of new plasmidless rhizobial strains. Rlv3841 appears to use the methylglyoxal pathway alongside the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for optimal growth on glucose. Surprisingly, the ED pathway was required for growth on succinate, suggesting that sugars made by gluconeogenesis must undergo recycling. Altered amino acid metabolism was specifically needed for growth on glucose, including RL2082 (gatB) and pRL120419 (opaA, encoding omega-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase). Growth on succinate specifically required enzymes of nucleobase synthesis, including ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase (RL3468 [prs]) and a cytosine deaminase (pRL90208 [codA]). Succinate growth was particularly dependent on cell surface factors, including the PrsD-PrsE type I secretion system and UDP-galactose production. Only RL2393 (glnB, encoding nitrogen regulatory protein PII) was specifically essential for growth on succinate at 1% O2, conditions similar to those experienced by N2-fixing bacteroids. Glutamate synthesis is constitutively activated in glnB mutants, suggesting that consumption of 2-ketoglutarate may increase flux through the TCA cycle, leading to excess reductant that cannot be reoxidized at 1% O2 and cell death. Rhizobium leguminosarum, a soil bacterium that forms N2-fixing symbioses with several agriculturally important leguminous plants (including pea, vetch, and lentil), has been widely utilized

  2. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oil treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Peleggi, Francesco

    2016-12-24

    Essential oils have recognized antimicrobial and antifungal properties which allow their utilization in agriculture like an alternative to pesticides, but their utilization requires the knowledge of all the potential structural changes and damages produced by the interaction with the vegetal organisms. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two essential oils, the tea tree oil (TTO) and the mixture of clove and rosemary oils (C + R), on the molecular structure of Vicia faba roots by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier near infrared transform (FTNIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy showed structural modifications of the absorption bands related to DNA (1100 and 1050 cm(-1), carbohydrate backbones, and nucleotide bands within 900 and 850 cm(-1)), proteins (1700 and 1600 cm(-1) amide I band, 1580 and 1520 cm(-1) amide II band), and lipids (methylene group of aliphatic chains between 2950 and 2800 cm(-1)). The changes in the secondary structures of proteins consisted of a denaturation depending on increased presence of random coil structures. In addition, in the samples treated with TTO oils, we observed the presence of protein oxidation, an effect negligible instead for the C + R-treated samples. The modified shapes of the infrared methyl bands of aliphatic chains suggested an increased lipid disorder which could also determine lipid peroxidation. The changes observed for the DNA structures at the highest concentration of the above essential oils can be related to the genotoxic effect of eugenol, an important constituent of both TTO and C + R mixture oils. FTNIR spectroscopy showed the modified shape of the second overtone bands belonging to methyl and methylene groups, between 8500 and 8000 cm(-1). This confirmed the increased lipid disorders already observed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained on the probe organism V. faba show that FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy can become a useful support to the conventional cytogenetic tests used

  3. Mapping of the spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in root tissues of Vicia faba by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Krajcarová, L; Novotný, K; Kummerová, M; Dubová, J; Gloser, V; Kaiser, J

    2017-10-01

    The manuscript presents a procedure for optimal sample preparation and the mapping of the spatial distribution of metal ions and nanoparticles in plant roots using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a double-pulse configuration (DP LIBS) in orthogonal reheating mode. Two Nd:YAG lasers were used; the first one was an ablation laser (UP-266 MACRO, New Wave, USA) with a wavelength of 266nm, and the second one (Brilliant, Quantel, France), with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, was used to reheat the microplasma. Seedlings of Vicia faba were cultivated for 7 days in CuSO4 or AgNO3 solutions with a concentration of 10µmoll(-1) or in a solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a concentration of 10µmoll(-1) of total Ag, and in distilled water as a control. The total contents of the examined metals in the roots after sample mineralization as well as changes in the concentrations of the metals in the cultivation solutions were monitored by ICP-OES. Root samples embedded in the TissueTek medium and cut into 40µm thick cross sections using the Cryo-Cut Microtome proved to be best suited for an accurate LIBS analysis with a 50µm spatial resolution. 2D raster maps of elemental distribution were created for the emission lines of Cu(I) at 324.754nm and Ag(I) at 328.068nm. The limits of detection of DP LIBS for the root cross sections were estimated to be 4pg for Cu, 18pg for Ag, and 3pg for AgNPs. The results of Ag spatial distribution mapping indicated that unlike Ag(+) ions, AgNPs do not penetrate into the inner tissues of Vicia faba roots but stay in their outermost layers. The content of Ag in roots cultivated in the AgNP solution was one order of magnitude lower compared to roots cultivated in the metal ion solutions. The significantly smaller concentration of Ag in root tissues cultivated in the AgNP solution also supports the conclusion that the absorption and uptake of AgNPs by roots of Vicia faba is very slow. LIBS mapping of root sections

  4. Dendritic arborization patterns of cortical interneurons labeled with the lectin, Vicia villosa, and injected intracellularly with Lucifer yellow in aldehyde-fixed rat slices.

    PubMed

    Ojima, H

    1993-01-01

    Neurons whose cell bodies had been stained by a lectin, Vicia villosa, which recognizes terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue, were intracellularly injected with Lucifer yellow (LY), in aldehyde-fixed slices of the parietal cortex of rats. LY was subsequently visualized immunocytochemically. All injected neurons had smooth or only sparsely spiny dendrites and resembled the various forms of gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurons previously described in rat neocortex. In layers II/III, IV and V, most injected neurons were multipolar. In layer VI, most had vertically elongated dendritic fields. Some injected neurons in layer IV had an oval or vertically elongated soma and a bitufted dendritic arborization pattern. There was a gradual increase in the overall dendritic extent in deeper layers of the cortex.

  5. A method for triple fluorescence labeling with Vicia villosa agglutinin, an anti-parvalbumin antibody and an anti-G-protein-coupled receptor antibody.

    PubMed

    Bausch, S B

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the original study [S.B. Bausch, C. Chavkin, Vicia villosa agglutinin labels a subset of neurons coexpressing both the mu opioid receptor and parvalbumin in the developing rat subiculum, Dev. Brain Res., 97, 1996, 169-177] [3] was to develop a method for identifying a subset of mu opioid receptor-expressing interneurons in the rat subiculum for electrophysiological studies. Previous studies had shown that a subset of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the rat subiculum could be labeled with the lectin, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) [C.T. Drake, K.A. Mulligan, T.L. Wimpey, A. Hendrickson, C. Chavkin, Characterization of Vicia villosa agglutinin-labeled GABAergic neurons in the hippocampal formation and in acutely dissociated hippocampus, Brain Res., 554, 1991, 176-185] [11], and that mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity (-IR) and parvalbumin-IR were colocalized in a subset of neurons in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus [S.B. Bausch, C. Chavkin, Colocalization of mu and delta opioid receptors with GABA, parvalbumin and a G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel in the rodent brain, Analgesia, 1, 1995, 282-285] [2]. We hypothesized that a subset of mu opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum also would express the calcium binding protein, parvalbumin, and could be labeled with VVA. Labeling of live neurons with VVA [11] then could be used to identify these neurons. This protocol was designed to triple-label neurons expressing the mu opioid receptor, parvalbumin and the carbohydrate group, N-acetylgalactosamine (which binds VVA [S.E. Tollefsen, R. Kornfeld, The B4 lectin from Vicia villosa seeds interacts with N-acetylgalactosamine residues alpha-linked to serine or threonine residues in cell surface glycoproteins, J. Biol. Chem., 258, 1983, 5172-5176][M.P. Woodward, W.W. Young, R.A. Bloodgood, Detection of monoclonal antibodies specific for carbohydrate epitopes using periodate oxidation, J. Immunol. Methods, 78, 1985, 143-153] [25

  6. UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabolic profiling of Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) seeds as a key strategy for characterization in foodomics.

    PubMed

    Abu-Reidah, Ibrahim M; del Mar Contreras, María; Arráez-Román, David; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Vicia faba (Fabaceae) is a popular food in many countries and a good source of nutrients. However, little is known about its phytochemical composition, specially referring to phenolic compounds. In the present work, the dietary metabolites from a hydro-methanolic extract of V. faba seeds were thoroughly characterized by a nontargeted analytical approach based on reversed-phase ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to QTOF-MS. A total of 155 primary and secondary metabolites of various structural types were characterized: carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, alkaloids, terpenoids, jasmonates, and, mainly, polyphenols. Among the latter group, 73 compounds were characterized for the first time in this legume. In addition, 24 new structures, belonging to jasmonates and glycosylated N-containing compounds, were also proposed. Thus, this methodology could be implemented in foodomics as a characterization strategy to complement the knowledge of the phytochemical composition of vegetables.

  7. ATM/ATR-dependent Tyr15 phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases in response to hydroxyurea in Vicia faba root meristem cells.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad

    2013-10-01

    DNA damage or stalled replication forks activate cell cycle checkpoints. However, the regulation of metabolic pathways that are responsible for maintenance of genome integrity in plants is still largely unknown. Present research on Vicia faba root meristem cells indicates that inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) at Tyr15 plays a prominent role during blockage of cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylation of P-loop in Cdks takes place in ATM/ATR-dependent manner. Although, Tyr15 phosphorylation upon hydroxyurea (HU) treatment was found in most cells classified to G1 and S phase, interestingly, the number of phoshpo-Tyr15-positive cells decreases in G2 phase. Presented data confirm much similarity in regulation of Cdks functions under genotoxic stress between plants and animals; however, they may also substantiate evolutionarily developed differences especially in regulation of G2/M transition between these two kingdoms.

  8. Red light-dependent CO/sub 2/ uptake and oxygen evolution in guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba L. : evidence for photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, K.I.; Zeiger, E.

    1987-05-01

    Suspensions of dark-adapted guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba L. alkalinized their medium in response to irradiation with red light. The alkalinization peaked within about 50 minutes and reached steady state shortly thereafter. Simultaneous measurements of O/sub 2/ concentrations and medium pH showed that oxygen evolved in parallel with the red light-induced alkalinization. When the protoplasts were returned to darkness, they acidified their medium and consumed oxygen. Both oxygen evolution and medium alkalinization were inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). In photosynthetically competent preparations, light-dependent medium alkalinization is diagnostic for photosynthetic carbon fixation, indicating that guard cell chloroplasts have that capacity. The striking contrast between the responses of guard cell protoplasts to red light, which induces alkalinization, and that to blue light, which activates proton extrusion, suggests that proton pumping and photosynthesis in guard cells are regulated by light quality.

  9. Effects of Substituted Pyridazinones (San 6706, San 9774, San 9785) on Glycerolipids and Their Associated Fatty Acids in the Leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mobashsher-Uddin; Lem, Nora W.; Chandorkar, Kashinath R.; Williams, John P.

    1979-01-01

    The fatty acids of the major glycerolipids from the leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare plants treated with three different concentrations of pyridazinone derivatives were analyzed. These compounds showed multiple effects on the levels of lipids and pigments. At low concentrations, the primary effect of San 9785 was on the level of linolenic acid (18:3) in the galactolipids of V. faba, whereas the effect of San 6706 was primarily on the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid (16:1) content in phosphatidylglycerol. At higher concentrations, the two compounds reduced the content of both fatty acids in the leaves. The results appear to indicate a differential effect of these herbicides on fatty acid accumulation and a difference in susceptibility of two fatty acids in the species examined. Electron microscopic studies revealed that two herbicides caused different abnormalities in V. faba chloroplast ultrastructure. Images PMID:16660953

  10. Elevated levels of both sucrose-phosphate synthase and sucrose synthase in vicia guard cells indicate cell-specific carbohydrate interconversions

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, D.R.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Tarczynski, M.C. )

    1993-04-01

    A long series of reports correlate larger stomatal aperture size with elevated concentration of sucrose (Suc) in guard cells. To assess the role and autonomy of guard cells with respect to these changes, the authors have determined quantitatively the cellular distribution of the synthetic enzyme, Suc-phosphate synthase (SPS) and the degradative enzyme Suc synthase (SS) in Vicia leaflet. As expected for Suc-exporting cells, the photosynthetic parenchyma had a high SPS:SS ratio of approximately 45. Also as expected, in epdermal cells, which had only few and rudimentary plastids, the SPS:SS ratio was low (0.4). Of all cells and tissues measured, those that had the highest specific activity of SPS (about 4.8 [mu]mol mg[sup [minus]1] of protein h[sup [minus]1]) were guard cells. Guard cells also had a very high relative specific activity of SS. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  12. Reactive oxygen species form part of a regulatory pathway initiating trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia faba cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Andriunas, Felicity A.; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Xia, Xue; Offler, Christina E.; McCurdy, David W.; Patrick, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Various cell types can trans-differentiate to a transfer cell (TC) morphology characterized by deposition of polarized ingrowth walls comprised of a uniform layer on which wall ingrowths (WIs) develop. WIs form scaffolds supporting amplified plasma membrane areas enriched in transporters conferring a cellular capacity for high rates of nutrient exchange across apo- and symplasmic interfaces. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a component of the regulatory pathway inducing ingrowth wall formation was tested using Vicia faba cotyledons. Vicia faba cotyledons offer a robust experimental model to examine TC induction as, on being placed into culture, their adaxial epidermal cells rapidly (hours) form ingrowth walls on their outer periclinal walls. These are readily visualized by electron microscopy, and epidermal peels of their trans-differentiating cells allow measures of cell-specific gene expression. Ingrowth wall formation responded inversely to pharmacological manipulation of ROS levels, indicating that a flavin-containing enzyme (NADPH oxidase) and superoxide dismutase cooperatively generate a regulatory H2O2 signature. Extracellular H2O2 fluxes peaked prior to the appearance of WIs and were followed by a slower rise in H2O2 flux that occurred concomitantly, and co-localized, with ingrowth wall formation. De-localizing the H2O2 signature caused a corresponding de-localization of cell wall deposition. Temporal and epidermal cell-specific expression profiles of VfrbohA and VfrbohC coincided with those of extracellular H2O2 production and were regulated by cross-talk with ethylene. It is concluded that H2O2 functions, downstream of ethylene, to activate cell wall biosynthesis and direct polarized deposition of a uniform wall on which WIs form. PMID:22442421

  13. Molecular characterization and regulation of the rhizosphere-expressed genes rhiABCR that can influence nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, M T; Economou, A; Murphy, G; Johnston, A W; Downie, J A

    1992-01-01

    A group of four rhi (rhizosphere-expressed) genes from the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae has been characterized. Although mutation of the rhi genes does not normally affect nodulation, in the absence of the closely linked nodulation genes nodFEL, mutations in the rhi genes can influence the nodulation of the vetch Vicia hirsuta. The DNA sequence of the rhi gene region reveals four large open reading frames, three of them constituting an operon (rhiABC) transcribed convergently toward the fourth gene, rhiR. rhiABC are under the positive control of RhiR, the expression of which is repressed by flavonoids that normally induce nod gene expression. This repression, which requires the nodD gene product (the transcriptional activator of nod gene expression), may be due to a cis effect caused by a high level of NodD-dependent expression from the adjacent nodO promoter, which is transcribed divergently from rhiR. RhiR shows significant similarities to a subfamily of transcriptional regulators that includes the LuxR and UvrC-28K proteins. RhiA shows limited homology to a short domain of the lactose permease, LacY, close to a region thought to be involved in substrate binding. No strong homologies were found for the other rhi gene products. It appears that RhiA and RhiB are cytoplasmic, whereas RhiC is a periplasmic protein, since it has a typical N-terminal transit sequence and a rhiC-phoA protein fusion expresses alkaline phosphatase activity. The biochemical role of the rhi genes has not been established, but it appears that they may play a role in the plant-microbe interaction, possibly by allowing the bacteria to metabolize a plant-made metabolite. Images PMID:1597418

  14. Reactive oxygen species form part of a regulatory pathway initiating trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia faba cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Andriunas, Felicity A; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Xia, Xue; Offler, Christina E; McCurdy, David W; Patrick, John W

    2012-06-01

    Various cell types can trans-differentiate to a transfer cell (TC) morphology characterized by deposition of polarized ingrowth walls comprised of a uniform layer on which wall ingrowths (WIs) develop. WIs form scaffolds supporting amplified plasma membrane areas enriched in transporters conferring a cellular capacity for high rates of nutrient exchange across apo- and symplasmic interfaces. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a component of the regulatory pathway inducing ingrowth wall formation was tested using Vicia faba cotyledons. Vicia faba cotyledons offer a robust experimental model to examine TC induction as, on being placed into culture, their adaxial epidermal cells rapidly (hours) form ingrowth walls on their outer periclinal walls. These are readily visualized by electron microscopy, and epidermal peels of their trans-differentiating cells allow measures of cell-specific gene expression. Ingrowth wall formation responded inversely to pharmacological manipulation of ROS levels, indicating that a flavin-containing enzyme (NADPH oxidase) and superoxide dismutase cooperatively generate a regulatory H(2)O(2) signature. Extracellular H(2)O(2) fluxes peaked prior to the appearance of WIs and were followed by a slower rise in H(2)O(2) flux that occurred concomitantly, and co-localized, with ingrowth wall formation. De-localizing the H(2)O(2) signature caused a corresponding de-localization of cell wall deposition. Temporal and epidermal cell-specific expression profiles of VfrbohA and VfrbohC coincided with those of extracellular H(2)O(2) production and were regulated by cross-talk with ethylene. It is concluded that H(2)O(2) functions, downstream of ethylene, to activate cell wall biosynthesis and direct polarized deposition of a uniform wall on which WIs form.

  15. Genotoxic effects of the carbamate insecticide Pirimor-50® in Vicia faba root tip meristems and human lymphocyte culture after direct application and treatment with its metabolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Milić, Mirta; Olivares, José Luis Gómez; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate genotoxic effects of Pirimor-50®, a pirimicarb-based formulation (50 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures and Vicia faba root meristems. Furthermore, the objective was to examine a combined influence of insecticide treatment with mammalian microsomal S9 and vegetal S10 metabolic fractions or S10 mix metabolic transformation extracts (after Vicia faba primary roots treatment with Pirimor-50®). We used sister chromatid exchange assay-SCE and measured cell cycle progression and proliferation (proportion of M1-M3 metaphases and replication index ratio-RI). Two processes were used for plant promutagen activation: in vivo activation-Pirimor-50® was applied for 4 h to the plant and then S10 mix was added to lymphocytes; and, in vitro activation-lymphocytes were treated with Pirimor-50® and S10 or S9 for 2 h. Direct treatment induced significantly higher SCE frequencies in meristems at 0.01 mg mL-1. In lymphocytes, significantly higher SCE was at 1 mg mL-1 with decrease in RI and M1-M3 metaphase proportions at 0.5 mg mL-1 and cell division stop at 2.5 mg mL1. S10 mix lymphocyte treatment showed significantly elevated SCE values at 2-2.5 mg mL-1, with cell death at 3 mg mL-1. Lymphocyte treatment with Pirimor-50® together with S9 or S10 showed slightly elevated SCE frequency but had a significant influence on RI decrease, with lowest values in S9 treatment. Since no data are available on the genotoxicity of Pirimor-50®, this study is one of the first to evaluate and compare its direct effect in two bioassays, animal and vegetal, and also the effect of plant and animal metabolism on its genotoxic potential.

  16. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes

    PubMed Central

    van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes—fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  17. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  18. Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Dániel; Tándor, Ildikó; Kónya, Zoltán; Bátori, Róbert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, György; Erdődi, Ferenc; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jambrovics, Károly; Máthé, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Methods Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and β-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Key Results Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL−1 MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL−1 MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. Conclusions MCY-LR delayed metaphase–anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization

  19. Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Dániel; Tándor, Ildikó; Kónya, Zoltán; Bátori, Róbert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, György; Erdodi, Ferenc; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jambrovics, Károly; Máthé, Csaba

    2012-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and β-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL(-1) MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL(-1) MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. MCY-LR delayed metaphase-anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization. However, these two phenomena seemed to be independent

  20. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  1. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens.

  2. Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841, deficient in 27-hydroxyoctacosanoate-modified lipopolysaccharide, is impaired in desiccation tolerance, biofilm formation and motility.

    PubMed

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Muszynski, Artur; Harrison, Joe J; Koval, Susan F; Foreman, Dallas L; Ceri, Howard; Kannenberg, Elmar L; Carlson, Russell W; Yost, Christopher K

    2009-09-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the Gram-negative legume symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3,841 contains several unique modifications, including the addition of a 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid (27OHC28 : 0), also termed the very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA), attached at the 2' position of lipid A. A transposon mutant that lacks expression of two putative 3-oxo-acyl [acyl-carrier protein] synthase II genes, fabF1 and fabF2, from the VLCFA biosynthetic cluster, was isolated and characterized. MS indicated that the lipid A of the mutant lacked the VLCFA modification, and sodium deoxycholate (DOC)-PAGE of the LPS indicated further structural alterations. The mutant was characteristically sensitive to several stresses that would be experienced in the soil environment, such as desiccation and osmotic stresses. An increase in the excretion of neutral surface polysaccharides was observed in the mutant. This mutant was also altered in its attachment to solid surfaces, and was non-motile, with most of the mutant cells lacking flagella. Despite the pleiotropic effects of the mutation, these mutants were still able to nodulate legumes and fix atmospheric nitrogen. This report emphasizes that a structurally intact VLCFA-containing lipid A is critical to cellular traits that are important for survival in the rhizosphere.

  3. Phytotoxicity of imidazolium-based ILs with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings and the influence of anions on toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Tan, Meiying

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) in soil on plants at the molecular and cellular levels and to assess the influence of anions on IL toxicity, the toxic effects of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Demim]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Demim]Br) and 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Demim]NO3) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings were studied for the first time. Our results show that these ILs had little impact on the growth of V. faba seedlings at 1, 5 and 25 mg kg(-1); however, the shoot length, root length, dry weight and pigment contents of the seedlings were significantly affected at 50 mg kg(-1). Furthermore, the EC50 values for effects of [Demim]Cl, [Demim]Br and [Demim]NO3 on the shoot length, root length and dry weight induced were consistent, indicating that the anion may have little influence on IL toxicity. ROS levels were also significantly enhanced at 50 mg kg(-1), resulting in cellular lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage.

  4. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Musiałek, Marcelina Weronika; Balcerczyk, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) was a secondary result of caffeine (CF) induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) [double-stranded breaks (DSBs) mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs) mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant–DSBs versus alkaline–DSBs or SSBs). The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i) extensive vacuolization; (ii) abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii) formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv) protoplast shrinkage (v) fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi) extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD. PMID:26545248

  5. The effects of nano-TiO2 on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara; Cremonini, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO2 on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0‰ in the plants Zea mays L . and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO2 particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO2 concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO2-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  6. A New Mechanism for the Regulation of Stomatal Aperture Size in Intact Leaves (Accumulation of Mesophyll-Derived Sucrose in the Guard-Cell Wall of Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Lu, P.; Outlaw Jr, W. H.; Smith, B. G.; Freed, G. A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Sucspecific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 [mu]m. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  7. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol{sup -1}) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO, incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol{sup -1}) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma{sup -1} min{sup -1}). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, M a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 pm. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and N high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism. 50 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Electrophoretic assay for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in guard cells and other leaf cells of Vicia faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Tarczynski, M.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Arold, N.; Neuhoff, V.; Hampp, R. Max-Planck-Institute fuer Experimentelle Medizin, Goettingen Universitaet Tuebingen )

    1989-04-01

    The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) contents of guard cells and other cells of Vicia faba L. leaflet were determined. To prevent proteolysis, proteins of frozen protoplast preparations or of cells excised from freeze-dried leaf were extracted directly in a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-containing solution which was heated immediately after sample addition. Protein profiles of the different cell types were obtained by electrophoresis of the extracts and subsequent densitometry of the stained protein bands. About one-third of the protein of palisade parenchyma and of spongy parenchyma was Rubisco large subunit. Using chlorophyll (Chl):protein ratios previously obtained, we calculate mesophyll contained ca. 22 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. In contrast, guard-cell protoplast preparations were calculated to contain from 0.7 to 2.2 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. The upper end of this range is an overestimate resulting from contamination by mesophyll and to the method of peak integration. Extracts of excised guard cells were calculated to contain 0.05 to 0.17 millimole Rubisco per mole Chl. We conclude that Rubisco is absent, or virtually so, in guard cells of V. faba.

  9. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world.

  11. Exploiting Illumina sequencing for the development of 95 novel polymorphic EST-SSR markers in common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Luo, Dong; Liu, Wenxian; Wang, Yanrong

    2014-05-05

    The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa), a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  12. Optimizing Sample Size to Assess the Genetic Diversity in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) Populations Using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Markers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xutian; Dong, Rui; Liu, Wenxian; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-03-31

    Common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa L.) is a self-pollinating annual forage legume with worldwide importance. Here, we investigate the optimal number of individuals that may represent the genetic diversity of a single population, using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. Two cultivated varieties and two wild accessions were evaluated using five SCoT primers, also testing different sampling sizes: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 individuals. The results showed that the number of alleles and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) were different among the four accessions. Cluster analysis by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) and STRUCTURE placed the 240 individuals into four distinct clusters. The Expected Heterozygosity (HE) and PIC increased along with an increase in sampling size from 1 to 10 plants but did not change significantly when the sample sizes exceeded 10 individuals. At least 90% of the genetic variation in the four germplasms was represented when the sample size was 10. Finally, we concluded that 10 individuals could effectively represent the genetic diversity of one vetch population based on the SCoT markers. This study provides theoretical support for genetic diversity, cultivar identification, evolution, and marker-assisted selection breeding in common vetch.

  13. Local genetic structure and worldwide phylogenetic position of symbiotic Rhizobium leguminosarum strains associated with a traditional cultivated crop, Vicia ervilia, from Northern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sbabou, Laila; Regragui, Assmaa; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Ater, Mohammed; Béna, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    A total of 212 symbiotic bacteria were isolated from nodules of Vicia ervilia, a traditional crop cultivated in Northern Morocco. The isolates were recovered from 10 different sites, trapped each time with the local cultivar grown in the same field. Four loci were sequenced in order to characterize the isolates, including two housekeeping genes (recA and glnII), one plasmidic symbiotic gene (nodC) and one locus from another plasmid (prL11). In several isolates, two different copies of glnII were detected and sequenced, suggesting a unique duplication event, which has never been reported previously. There was no correlation between the genetic differentiation among cultivars and among bacteria, showing that the evolution of the bacterial population was independent, at least partially, from the host plant. By placing the haplotypes in a wide-ranging phylogenetic reconstruction, it was shown that the diversity detected in Morocco was spread throughout the different clades detected worldwide. The differentiation between areas relied on frequency variations of haplotypes rather than a presence/absence pattern. This finding raises new questions concerning bacterial genetic resource preservation, and confirms the old tenet "everything is everywhere but the environment selects".

  14. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK.

  15. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengrun; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun; Tian, Yuan; Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping

    2014-06-15

    Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb+Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb+Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb+Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb+Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.

  16. Enhancement and reduction by methylated oxypurines of the frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by camptothecin in root-tip cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Kihlman, B A; Andersson, H C

    1992-10-01

    In root-tip cells of Vicia faba the frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by 3-h treatments with 0.05 microM camptothecin were strongly modified when the treatments were carried out in the presence of caffeine at concentrations above 1 mM. Depending on the concentration of caffeine, the clastogenic effect of camptothecin was either enhanced or reduced. At concentrations between 1 and 6 mM, caffeine increased the camptothecin-induced chromosome damage, the strongest enhancement being obtained at 5 mM. A reduction of the chromosome damage was apparent at caffeine concentrations above 10 mM, and in the presence of 20 mM caffeine the clastogenic effect of camptothecin was almost completely suppressed. When present during the camptothecin treatment, theophylline, 8-chlorocaffeine and 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid influenced the induced chromosome damage in a similar way as caffeine, although with varying efficiency. If the concentrations required to produce the two types of modifying effect are used as a criterion, 8-chlorocaffeine was the most effective and 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid the least, whereas caffeine and theophylline were about equally effective.

  17. Polyphenol Oxidation by Vicia faba Chloroplast Membranes: STUDIES ON THE LATENT MEMBRANE-BOUND POLYPHENOL OXIDASE AND ON THE MECHANISM OF PHOTOCHEMICAL POLYPHENOL OXIDATION.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, S W; Buchanan, B B

    1980-12-01

    The mechanism whereby light effects polyphenol oxidation was examined with Vicia faba chloroplast membranes known to contain a bound latent polyphenol oxidase. Results obtained with the inhibitors 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-idopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB) indicated an involvement of the non-cyclic electron transport pathway in the light-dependent oxidation of polyphenols, such as dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Further evidence was provided by experiments in which (a) DOPA replaced H(2)O as electron donor for the photoreduction of NADP, (b) NADP replaced O(2) as electron acceptor in the photochemical oxidation of DOPA, and (c) the variable fluorescence associated with photosystem II was increased by DOPA. The photochemical oxidation of DOPA by V. faba chloroplast membranes was insensitive to KCN and to antibodies against purified latent polyphenol oxidase. The results are consistent with the conclusion that the light-dependent oxidation of polyphenols by V. faba chloroplast membranes is achieved independently of the latent membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase. Electrons derived from polyphenols seem to enter the noncyclic electron transport chain on the oxidizing side of photosystem II and to react with O(2) at an unidentified site on the photosystem I side of the DCMU/DBMIB blocks.The physiological mechanism for the activation of latent polyphenol oxidase remains an unanswered question. Present results suggest that activation could occur through either acidification or the release of free fatty acids.

  18. Vicia villosa agglutinin labels a subset of neurons coexpressing both the mu opioid receptor and parvalbumin in the developing rat subiculum.

    PubMed

    Bausch, S B; Chavkin, C

    1996-12-23

    Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), anti-parvalbumin antiserum and an affinity-purified anti-mu opioid receptor antibody were used to triple-label neurons in the postnatal rat subiculum. VVA labeled a subset of mu opioid receptor-positive neurons that were also immunoreactive for parvalbumin. The morphology of the triple-labeled neurons was heterogeneous, and included multipolar, ovoid and pyramidal-shaped neurons. Neurons single-labeled for the mu opioid receptor, VVA or parvalbumin were also morphologically heterogeneous. The postnatal development of mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity (IR), parvalbumin-IR and VVA binding was investigated using triple-labeling immunocytochemistry. Mu opioid receptor-IR appeared first and was present at postnatal day 1 (P1). Parvalbumin-IR was first observed in somata at P10, followed by proximal and distal dendrites at P15 and P20 respectively. Faint VVA labeling was seen first at P10 and surrounded a limited number of neurons. The intensity of labeling and the number of neurons labeled with VVA increased between P10 and P20; however, both measures remained below adult levels at P20. This study further illustrates the neurochemical heterogeneity of interneurons in the hippocampal formation and shows the developmentally early appearance of mu opioid receptor-IR compared to the late appearance of VVA binding and parvalbumin-IR.

  19. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with “Auxin-Like” Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Supriya V.; Booth, Sean C.; McGrath, Seamus G. K.; Dahms, Tanya E. S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv) as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria. PMID:25919284

  20. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  1. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  2. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity.

  3. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    PubMed

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of proanthocyanidin-rich hulls and proanthocyanidin extracts from bean (Vicia faba L.) hulls on nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Yuste, P; Longstaff, M; McCorquodale, C

    1992-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins were prepared from three bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties by extracting hulls in aqueous acetone. The amounts of freeze-dried extracts recovered were 74, 89 and 97 g/kg hull for the varieties Brunette, Statissa and Minica respectively. Chicks (3 weeks old) were fed on a maize-soya-bean control diet or the same control diet substituted with either 30 g proanthocyanidin extracts/kg or 300 g proanthocyanidin-rich hulls/kg. Chicks were tube-fed diets twice daily for 4 d. Nutrient digestibilities were calculated from amounts present in diets and freeze-dried excreta with the aid of titanium dioxide as a marker. Enzyme activities were measured in digesta removed from the jejunum. Extracts of proanthocyanidins depressed the digestibility of protein by 34%, starch by 3% and had no effect on the digestibility of lipid. Proanthocyanidin-rich hulls depressed the digestibility of protein by 62%, starch by 6% and lipid by 4%. Digestive enzyme activities were depressed to the same extent by extracts and hulls, trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) by 55 and 62%, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) by 75 and 78% and lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) by 31 and 32% for proanthocyanidin-extract and proanthocyanidin-rich-hull diets respectively. The susceptibility of substrates as well as enzymes to the effects of proanthocyanidins is discussed.

  5. Hyperpolization-activated Ca(2+) channels in guard cell plasma membrane are involved in extracellular ATP-promoted stomatal opening in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Jia, Juanjuan; Wang, Yufang; Wang, Weixia; Chen, Yuling; Liu, Ting; Shang, Zhonglin

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) plays essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Extracellular ATP-regulated stomatal movement of Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported. Here, ATP was found to promote stomatal opening of Vicia faba in a dose-dependent manner. Three weakly hydrolysable ATP analogs (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio) triphosphate (ATPγS), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl) benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz-ATP) and 2-methylthio-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (2meATP)) showed similar effects, indicating that ATP acts as a signal molecule rather than an energy charger. ADP promoted stomatal opening, while AMP and adenosine did not affect stomatal movement. An ATP-promoted stomatal opening was blocked by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT) or the Ca(2+) channel blockers GdCl3 and LaCl3. A hyperpolarization-activated Ca(2+) channel was detected in plasma membrane of guard cell protoplast. Extracellular ATP and weakly hydrolyzable ATP analogs activated this Ca(2+) channel significantly. Extracellular ATP-promoted Ca(2+) channel activation was markedly inhibited by DPI or DTT. These results indicated that eATP may promote stomatal opening via reactive oxygen species that regulate guard cell plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels.

  6. Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.

    PubMed

    Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez

    2005-03-01

    The aim of our study was the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular death. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.

  7. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with "Auxin-Like" Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Supriya V; Booth, Sean C; McGrath, Seamus G K; Dahms, Tanya E S

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv) as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria.

  8. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Laîné, Philippe; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Diquélou, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L.) to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using the split-root (15)N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low (15)N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant (15)N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and (15)N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant(-1), respectively), which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  9. nodO, a new nod gene of the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae sym plasmid pRL1JI, encodes a secreted protein.

    PubMed

    de Maagd, R A; Wijfjes, A H; Spaink, H P; Ruiz-Sainz, J E; Wijffelman, C A; Okker, R J; Lugtenberg, B J

    1989-12-01

    The region of the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae Sym plasmid pRL1JI, responsible for the production and secretion of a previously described 50-kilodalton protein (R. A. de Maagd, C. A. Wijffelman, E. Pees, and B. J. J. Lugtenberg, J. Bacteriol. 170:4424-4427, 1988), was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. A new nod gene, nodO, preceded by a poorly conserved nod box, was identified and its transcriptional start site was determined. Comparison of its predicted protein product with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the isolated secreted protein showed that nodO is the structural gene of this protein, although the nucleotide sequence predicted a protein only 30,002 daltons in size. This comparison also showed that the secreted protein is not the product of N-terminal processing of a larger precursor. A conventional N-terminal signal sequence was not detected in the NodO protein. The NodO protein has significant homology with a part (residues 720 to 920) of the hemolysin protein (HlyA) of Escherichia coli. Analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the nodO gene revealed that, in contrast with other nod promoters in this species, activity of the nodO promoter is greatly enhanced in the presence of multiple copies of the nodD gene.

  10. Specific accumulation of CYP94A1 transcripts after exposure to gaseous benzaldehyde: induction of lauric acid ω-hydroxylase activity in Vicia sativa exposed to atmospheric pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kastner, P E; Le Calvé, S; Diss, L; Sauveplane, V; Franke, R; Schreiber, L; Pinot, F

    2011-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants such as aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and benzene on fatty acid ω-hydroxylase activity in Vicia sativa microsomes have been investigated. Four days old etiolated V. sativa seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of selected pollutants for varying exposure times. Growing etiolated V. sativa seedlings in air containing the gaseous benzaldehyde (150 nM) led to an 8-fold enhancement of lauric acid ω-hydroxylase activity in microsomes of treated plants compared to controls grown in pure air (96 ± 10 versus 12 ± 2 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively). The induction increased with increasing gas phase concentrations (10-1300 nM) and the maximum of activity was measured after 48 h of exposure. Northern blot analysis revealed that this induction occurred via transcriptional activation of the gene coding for CYP94A1. The absence of CYP94A2 and CYP94A3 transcription activation together with the missing effect on epoxide hydrolases activities indicate the specificity of CYP94A1 induction by benzaldehyde. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide, ozone and formaldehyde also stimulated lauric acid ω-hydroxylases activity while exposure to benzene did not show any effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source.

  12. Mutual antagonism of sulfur dioxide and abscisic acid in their effect on stomatal aperture in broad bean (Vicia faba L. ) epidermal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Reid, D.M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) was found to counteract the stomatal opening in Vicia faba L. caused by SO/sub 2/. The antagonism between SO/sub 2/ and ABA was mutual, and their combined effect depended upon which compound was in the greatest concentration. Stomatal apertures were monitored in detached epidermal strips floated in the light on aqueous solutions of SO/sub 2/ (sulfurous acid) and/or ABA in 0.01 molar sodium citrate buffer (pH 5.8). Low concentrations of sulfurous acid (10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -7/ molar) increased stomatal aperture, but concentrations greater than 10/sup -5/ molar decreased it. A progressive decrease in aperture size occurred as ABA was increased from 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -5/ molar. No evidence was found for a direct chemical reaction between the buffered sulfurous acid and ABA (exogenous or endogenous). Extractable, endogenous ABA in the strips remained relatively constant after exposure to several different concentrations of sulfurous acid. A technique for quantitating ABA from methanolic extracts of small samples of epidermis (20 milligrams dry weight) using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography is described.

  13. Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841, deficient in 27-hydroxyoctacosanoate-modified lipopolysaccharide, is impaired in desiccation tolerance, biofilm formation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M.; Muszyński, Artur; Harrison, Joe J.; Koval, Susan F.; Foreman, Dallas L.; Ceri, Howard; Kannenberg, Elmar L.; Carlson, Russell W.; Yost, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the Gram-negative legume symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841 contains several unique modifications, including the addition of a 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid (27OHC28 : 0), also termed the very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA), attached at the 2′ position of lipid A. A transposon mutant that lacks expression of two putative 3-oxo-acyl [acyl-carrier protein] synthase II genes, fabF1 and fabF2, from the VLCFA biosynthetic cluster, was isolated and characterized. MS indicated that the lipid A of the mutant lacked the VLCFA modification, and sodium deoxycholate (DOC)-PAGE of the LPS indicated further structural alterations. The mutant was characteristically sensitive to several stresses that would be experienced in the soil environment, such as desiccation and osmotic stresses. An increase in the excretion of neutral surface polysaccharides was observed in the mutant. This mutant was also altered in its attachment to solid surfaces, and was non-motile, with most of the mutant cells lacking flagella. Despite the pleiotropic effects of the mutation, these mutants were still able to nodulate legumes and fix atmospheric nitrogen. This report emphasizes that a structurally intact VLCFA-containing lipid A is critical to cellular traits that are important for survival in the rhizosphere. PMID:19460825

  14. Purification of the glycoprotein lectin from the broad bean (Vicia faba) and a comparison of its properties with lectins of similar specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, A K; Desai, N N; Neuberger, A

    1976-01-01

    1. The lectin from the broad bean (Vicia faba) was purified by affinity chromatography by using 3-O-methylglucosamine covalently attached through the amino group to CH-Sepharose (an omega-hexanoic acid derivative of agarose). Its composition and the nature of its subunits were compared with concanavalin A and the lectins from pea and lentil. 2. Unlike the other three lectins, broad-bean lectin is a glycoprotein; a glycopeptide containing glucosamine and mannose was isolated from a proteolytic digest. 3. The mol.wt. is about 47500; the glycoprotein consists of two apprently identical subunits, held together by non-covalent forces. Fragments of the subunits, similar to those found in concanavalin A and soya-bean agglutinin, were found in active preparations. 4. Broad-bean lectin was compared with concanavalin A and the lectins from pea and lentil in an investigation of the inhibition of their action by a number of monosaccharides, methyl ethers of monosaccharides, disaccharides and glycopeptides. The most striking differences concern 3-O-substituted monosaccharides, which are strong inhibitors of the action of broad-bean, pea and lentil lectins but not of the action of concanavalin A. There is, however, no strong inhibition of the action of these lectins by 3-Olinked disaccharides. PMID:938471

  15. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Akutse, Komivi S; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd) and 3(rd) instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  16. Effects of Endophyte Colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) Plants on the Life–History of Leafminer Parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akutse, Komivi S.; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2nd and 3rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  17. Hydroxyurea-induced replication stress causes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 accumulation and changes its intranuclear location in root meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Replication stress induced by 24 and 48h exposure to 2.5mM hydroxyurea (HU) increased the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2; EC 2.4.2.30) in root meristem cells of Vicia faba. An increase in the number of PARP-2 foci was accompanied by their delocalization from peripheral areas to the interior of the nucleus. Our results indicate that the increase in PARP-2 was connected with an increase in S139-phosphorylated H2AX histones. The findings suggest the possible role of PARP-2 in replication stress. We also confirm that the intranuclear location of PARP-2 depends on the duration of HU-induced replication stress, confirming the role of PARP-2 as an indicator of stress intensity. Finally, we conclude that the more intense the HU-mediated replication stress, the greater the probability of PARP-2 activation or H2AXS139 phosphorylation, but also the greater the chance of increasing the efficiency of repair processes and a return to normal cell cycle progression.

  18. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  19. Nitric oxide blocks blue light-induced K+ influx by elevating the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in Vicia faba L. guard cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Hui-Li; Xu, Chang-Shui; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-06-01

    Ca(2+) plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide (NO)-promoted stomatal closure. However, the function of Ca(2+) in NO inhibition of blue light (BL)-induced stomatal opening remains largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the role of Ca(2+) in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in Vicia faba L. guard cells. Extracellular Ca(2+) modulated the BL-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner, and an application of 5 μM Ca(2+) in the pipette solution significantly inhibited BL-activated K(+) influx. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, showed little effect on BL-induced K(+) influx and stomatal opening response in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), but K(+) influx and stomatal opening were inhibited by SNP when Ca(2+) was added to the bath solution. Interestingly, although both SNP and BL could activate the plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels and induce the rise of cytosolic Ca(2+), the change in levels of Ca(2+) channel activity and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration were different between SNP and BL treatments. SNP at 100 μM obviously activated the plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels and induced cytosolic Ca(2+) rise by 102.4%. In contrast, a BL pulse (100 μmol/m(2) per s for 30 s) slightly activated the Ca(2+) channels and resulted in a Ca(2+) rise of only 20.8%. Consistently, cytosolic Ca(2+) promoted K(+) influx at 0.5 μM or below, and significantly inhibited K(+) influx at 5 μM or above. Taken together, our findings indicate that Ca(2+) plays dual and distinctive roles in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in guard cells, mediating both the BL-induced K(+) influx as an activator at a lower concentration and the NO-blocked K(+) influx as an inhibitor at a higher concentration.

  20. Sucrose synthase activity and carbohydrates content in relation to phosphorylation status of Vicia faba root meristems during reactivation from sugar depletion.

    PubMed

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Ciereszko, Iwona

    2012-11-01

    Carbohydrate starvation of Vicia faba root meristems leads to readjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and blocks the cell cycle in two principal control points (PCP1/2). The cell cycle reactivation is possible after sucrose provision, although with a delay of about 12h. During this period, the cells are sensitive to 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) and okadaic acid (OA), inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether those inhibitors are involved in inhibition of cell cycle revival through interference with the activities of two sucrose-cleaving enzymes: sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and invertase (INV; EC 3.2.1.26). In sugar-starved cells, the in situ activity of both enzymes decreased significantly. Following supplementation of root meristems with sugar, INV remained inactive, but SuSy activity increased. Despite the lack of INV activity, glucose was present in meristem cells, but its content was low in cells treated with OA. In the latter case, the size of plastids was reduced, they had less starch, and Golgi structures were affected. In sugar-starved cells, SuSy activity was induced more by exogenous sucrose than by glucose. The sucrose-induced activity was strongly inhibited by OA (less by 6-DMAP) at early stages of regeneration, but not at the stages preceding DNA replication or mitotic activities. The results indicate that prolongation of regeneration and a marked decrease in the number of cells resuming proliferation (observed in previous studies) and resulting from the action of inhibitors, are correlated with the process of SuSy activation at the beginning of regeneration from sugar starvation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction of premature mitosis in root meristem cells of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum by various agents is correlated with an increased level of protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Polit, Justyna; Luchniak, Piotr; Maszewski, Janusz

    2002-01-01

    The intra-S-phase checkpoint response to hydroxyurea (HU)-mediated arrest of DNA replication was analysed in root meristems of two legumes, Pisum sativum and Vicia faba. The obtained results suggest that a molecular signal which invokes mechanisms allowing the cells to override the S-M dependency control system may be generated by caffeine (CF) and a number of alternative, yet related chemical agents, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP), 2-aminopurine (2-AP), and 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP). A variety of aberrant mitotic divisions included chromosomal breaks and gaps, lost and lagging chromatids and chromosomes, acentric fragments, chromosome bridges and micronuclei. Furthermore, similar effects induced by sodium vanadate, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, extend the number of inhibitors capable of inducing premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in root meristem cells, as well as the range of possible regulatory pathways leading to the transition from S-phase arrest towards abnormal mitosis. Until preprophase, FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (alpha-Y(a)b-FITC) that specifically recognize phosphorylated form of threonine indicate no evident cell cycle-dependent changes in an overall phosphorylation status of root meristem cells in the control plants. Irrespective of the stage of interphase, alpha-Y(p)ab-FITC was localized basically in the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear staining was considerably weaker, with a significant fluorescence confined merely to nucleolar regions. The intensity of alpha-Y(p)ab-FITC staining in HU/CF-treated seedlings was found higher than that in the control plants (with the exception of G2 cells), suggesting a general increase in the level of protein phosphorylation, a physiological response mediated probably by an enhanced activity of the cdc-like protein kinase(s).

  2. Nickel availability to pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants limits hydrogenase activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae bacteroids by affecting the processing of the hydrogenase structural subunits.

    PubMed

    Brito, B; Palacios, J M; Hidalgo, E; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1994-09-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 induces the synthesis of an [NiFe] hydrogenase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) bacteroids which oxidizes the H2 generated by the nitrogenase complex inside the root nodules. The synthesis of this hydrogenase requires the genes for the small and large hydrogenase subunits (hupS and hupL, respectively) and 15 accessory genes clustered in a complex locus in the symbiotic plasmid. We show here that the bacteroid hydrogenase activity is limited by the availability of nickel to pea plants. Addition of Ni2+ to plant nutrient solutions (up to 10 mg/liter) resulted in sharp increases (up to 15-fold) in hydrogenase activity. This effect was not detected when other divalent cations (Zn2+, Co2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+) were added at the same concentrations. Determinations of the steady-state levels of hupSL-specific mRNA indicated that this increase in hydrogenase activity was not due to stimulation of transcription of structural genes. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised against the large and small subunits of the hydrogenase enzyme demonstrated that in the low-nickel situation, both subunits are mainly present in slow-migrating, unprocessed forms. Supplementation of the plant nutrient solution with increasing nickel concentrations caused the conversion of the slow-migrating forms of both subunits into fast-moving, mature forms. This nickel-dependent maturation process of the hydrogenase subunits is mediated by accessory gene products, since bacteroids from H2 uptake-deficient mutants carrying Tn5 insertions in hupG and hupK and in hypB and hypE accumulated the immature forms of both hydrogenase subunits even in the presence of high nickel levels.

  3. Is there a relationship between early genotoxicity and life-history traits in Vicia faba exposed to cadmium-spiked soils?

    PubMed

    Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2012-09-18

    The Vicia faba-micronucleus test is usually performed to assess the genotoxic potential of pure substances, effluents or water extracts from soil. It is also a relevant, early biological tool to detect mutagenic substances in crude soils. Nevertheless, the physiological meaning of such DNA damage for the plant in the long term remains to be elucidated. To know more about this, two experiments were carried out with the plant model V. faba. In a preliminary short-term experiment, seeds were exposed for five days to a soil spiked with different concentrations of CdCl(2) in order to identify the concentration inducing the highest number of micronuclei without affecting plant growth. Thereafter, a long-term experiment was performed in the soil spiked with such a concentration (i.e. 510μmol CdCl(2) per kg dry soil), in which V. faba seeds were directly sowed and allowed to grow during 151 days. As a result, Cd-spiked soil did not affect seed-emergence time nor the growth-rate of the plants for the first two months. The first signs of toxicity appeared after the 70th day of exposure. Interestingly, exposed plants produced their first flower earlier and had a longer flowering period than did control ones. Nevertheless, total flower production was less abundant in exposed plants than in control plants. Moreover, fruits appeared in control plants whereas no fruit was formed in exposed plants. At last, exposed plants showed a reduced life time. Our results suggest that the micronucleus assay can provide a predictive biomarker of long-term deleterious effects in plants.

  4. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T; Majstrenko, T; Geras'kin, S; Brown, J E; Belykh, E

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and (226)Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles=5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  5. Response of purely symbiotic and NO3-fed nodulated plants of Lupinus luteus and Vicia atropurpurea to ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Chimphango, Samson B M; Musil, Charles F; Dakora, Felix D

    2003-07-01

    The effects of elevated UV-B radiation on growth, symbiotic function and concentration of metabolites were assessed in purely symbiotic and NO3-fed nodulated plants of Lupinus luteus and Vicia atropurpurea grown outdoors either on tables under supplemental UV-B radiation or in chambers covered with different types of plexi-glass to attenuate solar ultraviolet radiation. Moderately and highly elevated UV-B exposures simulating 15% and 25% ozone depletion as well as sub- ambient UV-B did not alter organ growth, plant total dry matter and N content per plant in both L. luteus and V. atropurpurea. In contrast, elevated UV-B increased (P <0.05) flavonoid and anthocyanin concentrations in roots and leaves of L. luteus, but not of V. atropurpurea. Feeding nodulated plants of L. luteus under elevated UV-B radiation with 2 mM NO3 increased (P <0.05) nodule, leaf and total dry matter, and whole plant N content. With V. atropurpurea, NO3 reduced (P <0.05) nodule activity, root %N and concentrations of flavonoids, anthocyanins in roots and leaves and soluble sugars in roots, in contrast to an observed increase (P <0.05) in nodule dry matter per plant. Similarly, supplying 2 mM NO3 to L. luteus plants exposed to sub-ambient UV-B radiation significantly reduced individual organ growth, plant total biomass, nodule dry matter, nodule %N, and whole plant N content, as well as root concentrations of flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars, and starch of L. luteus, but not V. atropurpurea plants. These results show no adverse effect of elevated UV-B radiation on growth and symbiotic function of L. luteus and V. atropurpurea plants. However, NO3 supply promoted growth in L. luteus plants exposed to the highly elevated UV-B radiation.

  6. Autotetraploids of Vicia cracca show a higher allelic richness in natural populations and a higher seed set after artificial selfing than diploids

    PubMed Central

    Eliášová, Anežka; Trávníček, Pavel; Mandák, Bohumil; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the great importance of autopolyploidy in the evolution of angiosperms, relatively little attention has been devoted to autopolyploids in natural polyploid systems. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why autopolyploids are so common and successful, for example increased genetic diversity and heterozygosity and the transition towards selfing. However, case studies on patterns of genetic diversity and on mating systems in autopolyploids are scarce. In this study allozymes were employed to investigate the origin, population genetic diversity and mating system in the contact zone between diploid and assumed autotetraploid cytotypes of Vicia cracca in Central Europe. Methods Four enzyme systems resolved in six putative loci were investigated in ten diploid, ten tetraploid and five mixed-ploidy populations. Genetic diversity and heterozygosity, partitioning of genetic diversity among populations and cytotypes, spatial genetic structure and fixed heterozygosity were analysed. These studies were supplemented by a pollination experiment and meiotic chromosome observation. Key Results and Conclusions Weak evidence of fixed heterozygosity, a low proportion of unique alleles and genetic variation between cytotypes similar to the variation among populations within cytotypes supported the autopolyploid origin of tetraploids, although no multivalent formation was observed. Tetraploids possessed more alleles than diploids and showed higher observed zygotic heterozygosity than diploids, but the observed gametic heterozygosity was similar to the value observed in diploids and smaller than expected under panmixis. Values of the inbreeding coefficient and differentiation among populations (ρST) suggested that the breeding system in both cytotypes of V. cracca is mixed mating with prevailing outcrossing. The reduction in seed production of tetraploids after selfing was less than that in diploids. An absence of correlation between genetic and

  7. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H2O2. However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H2O2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H2O2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  9. The acquisition of desiccation tolerance in developing Vicia hirsuta seeds coincides with an increase in galactinol synthase expression and soluble α-D-galactosides accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gojło, Ewa; Pupel, Piotr; Lahuta, Lesław B; Podliński, Paweł; Kucewicz, Magdalena; Górecki, Ryszard J

    2015-07-20

    Galactinol is the galactosyl donor for the biosynthesis of both the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C). Its synthesis by galactinol synthase (GolS, EC 2.4.1.123) is the first committed step of the soluble α-D-galactosides biosynthetic pathway in orthodox seeds. The deposition of galactosides in seeds is suggested to be associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). In this work, for the first time, we cloned and characterized two Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray galactinol synthase genes (VhGolS1, VhGolS2), analyzed galactinol synthase activity and measured the accumulation of galactosides of both sucrose and D-pinitol in relation to the acquisition of DT in developing seeds of this wild species. A developmentally induced increase of VhGolS1 expression preceded the rise of GolS activity in crude protein extract from maturing seeds, while the expression of the VhGolS2 gene remained low. GolS activity peaked just after the beginning of the maturation drying phase. The increase of GolS activity was not followed by galactinol accumulation, instead the high enzyme activity was related to high levels of galactose bound in soluble galactosides of the RFO and galactosyl pinitol series. Acquisition of DT coincided with an increase of VhGolS1 expression, high galactinol synthase activity and the accumulation of oligogalactosides in seeds. DT was positively correlated with the high content of soluble α-D-galactosides of both the RFO and galactosyl pinitol series as well as with the amount of galactose bound in these galactosides.

  10. Toxicological effects, mechanisms, and implied toxicity thresholds in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings grown in copper-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Zhicheng; Wang, Chengrun; Zhong, Li; Tian, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Gaojian; Shi, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination has become a global concern because of industrial, agricultural, and other anthropogenic activities. In the present experiments, the toxicological effects, mechanisms, and potential toxicity thresholds were investigated in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings that were cultivated in Cu-amended soils (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 20 days, based on an analysis of the soil physicochemical properties, native Cu, available Cu, and root-enriched Cu contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) isozymes and activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), changed like biphasic dose-response curves, cooperating to control the redox homeostasis. The APX and POD enzymes exhibited enhanced activities and became H2O2 scavengers primarily when the catalase (CAT) activities tended to decrease. Endoprotease (EP) isozymes and activities might be enhanced to degrade carbonylated proteins and alleviate metabolic disturbance in the roots. Additionally, HSP70 may not be suitable as a biomarker for relatively higher soil Cu concentrations and relatively longer exposure times for the roots. As a result, the isozymes and activities of SOD, CAT, and EP, as well as GSH, can be adopted as the most sensitive biomarkers. The toxicity threshold is estimated as 0.76-1.21 mg kg(-1) of available Cu in the soils or 25.04-36.65 μg Cu g(-1) dry weights (DW) in the roots.

  11. Osmo-sensitive and stretch-activated calcium-permeable channels in Vicia faba guard cells are regulated by actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liu-Min; Wu, Wei-Hua

    2007-03-01

    In responses to a number of environmental stimuli, changes of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)](cyt) in stomatal guard cells play important roles in regulation of stomatal movements. In this study, the osmo-sensitive and stretch-activated (SA) Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane of Vicia faba guard cells are identified, and their regulation by osmotic changes and actin dynamics are characterized. The identified Ca(2+) channels were activated under hypotonic conditions at both whole-cell and single-channel levels. The channels were also activated by a stretch force directly applied to the membrane patches. The channel-mediated inward currents observed under hypotonic conditions or in the presence of a stretch force were blocked by the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor Gd(3+). Disruption of actin filaments activated SA Ca(2+) channels, whereas stabilization of actin filaments blocked the channel activation induced by stretch or hypotonic treatment, indicating that actin dynamics may mediate the stretch activation of these channels. In addition, [Ca(2+)](cyt) imaging demonstrated that both the hypotonic treatment and disruption of actin filaments induced significant Ca(2+) elevation in guard cell protoplasts, which is consistent with our electrophysiological results. It is concluded that stomatal guard cells may utilize SA Ca(2+) channels as osmo sensors, by which swelling of guard cells causes elevation of [Ca(2+)](cyt) and consequently inhibits overswelling of guard cells. This SA Ca(2+) channel-mediated negative feedback mechanism may coordinate with previously hypothesized positive feedback mechanisms and regulate stomatal movement in response to environmental changes.

  12. Osmo-Sensitive and Stretch-Activated Calcium-Permeable Channels in Vicia faba Guard Cells Are Regulated by Actin Dynamics1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liu-Min; Wu, Wei-Hua

    2007-01-01

    In responses to a number of environmental stimuli, changes of cytoplasmic [Ca2+]cyt in stomatal guard cells play important roles in regulation of stomatal movements. In this study, the osmo-sensitive and stretch-activated (SA) Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane of Vicia faba guard cells are identified, and their regulation by osmotic changes and actin dynamics are characterized. The identified Ca2+ channels were activated under hypotonic conditions at both whole-cell and single-channel levels. The channels were also activated by a stretch force directly applied to the membrane patches. The channel-mediated inward currents observed under hypotonic conditions or in the presence of a stretch force were blocked by the Ca2+ channel inhibitor Gd3+. Disruption of actin filaments activated SA Ca2+ channels, whereas stabilization of actin filaments blocked the channel activation induced by stretch or hypotonic treatment, indicating that actin dynamics may mediate the stretch activation of these channels. In addition, [Ca2+]cyt imaging demonstrated that both the hypotonic treatment and disruption of actin filaments induced significant Ca2+ elevation in guard cell protoplasts, which is consistent with our electrophysiological results. It is concluded that stomatal guard cells may utilize SA Ca2+ channels as osmo sensors, by which swelling of guard cells causes elevation of [Ca2+]cyt and consequently inhibits overswelling of guard cells. This SA Ca2+ channel-mediated negative feedback mechanism may coordinate with previously hypothesized positive feedback mechanisms and regulate stomatal movement in response to environmental changes. PMID:17259289

  13. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  14. SNP discovery and high-density genetic mapping in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) permits identification of QTLs for ascochyta blight resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhjiwan; Kimber, Rohan B E; Cogan, Noel O I; Materne, Michael; Forster, John W; Paull, Jeffrey G

    2014-03-01

    Ascochyta blight, caused by the fungus Ascochyta fabae Speg., is a common and destructive disease of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) on a global basis. Yield losses vary from typical values of 35-40% to 90% under specific environmental conditions. Several sources of resistance have been identified and used in breeding programs. However, introgression of the resistance gene determinants into commercial cultivars as a gene pyramiding approach is reliant on selection of closely linked genetic markers. A total of 14,552 base variants were identified from a faba bean expressed sequence tag (EST) database, and were further quality assessed to obtain a set of 822 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sub-sets of 336 EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 768 SNPs were further used for high-density genetic mapping of a biparental faba bean mapping population (Icarus×Ascot) that segregates for resistance to ascochyta blight. The linkage map spanned a total length of 1216.8 cM with 12 linkage groups (LGs) and an average marker interval distance of 2.3 cM. Comparison of map structure to the genomes of closely related legume species revealed a high degree of conserved macrosynteny, as well as some rearrangements. Based on glasshouse evaluation of ascochyta blight resistance performed over two years, four genomic regions controlling resistance were identified on Chr-II, Chr-VI and two regions on Chr-I.A. Of these, one (QTL-3) may be identical with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified in prior studies, while the others (QTL-1, QTL-2 and QTL-4) may be novel. Markers in close linkage to ascochyta blight resistance genes identified in this study can be further validated and effectively implemented in faba bean breeding programs.

  15. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  16. Proteinase A, a storage-globulin-degrading endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds, is not involved in early steps of storage-protein mobilization.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Senyuk, V I; Shutov, A D; Nong, V H; Fischer, J; Horstmann, C; Müntz, K

    1997-09-01

    Proteinase A is a papain-like cysteine endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) which was assumed to initiate storage-globulin breakdown just after the onset of seed germination. This enzyme was purified from cotyledons of vetch seedlings. On gelatin-containg SDS gels, active proteinase A migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 21 kDa, whereas after heat denaturation its molecular size on SDS/PAGE was 29 kDa. Although proteinase A is capable of hydrolyzing storage globulins in vitro it could not be localized in the protein-body fraction of cotyledons from germinating seeds. cDNA clones encoding proteinase A precursor have been obtained by PCR. The precursor is composed of an N-terminal signal sequence followed by a propeptide, the region encoding mature proteinase A, and a C-terminal KDEL sequence. Mature proteinase A with a derived molecular mass of 25,244 Da does not have the KDEL sequence. The derived amino acid sequence of the proteinase A precursor is 78.2% identical to sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (SH-EP), a cysteine endopeptidase from germinating Vigna mungo seedlings. Northern blot analysis indicated that proteinase A mRNA appears de novo in cotyledons of 1-day-germinated vetch seeds, where its amount increases up to day 6. No proteinase A mRNA was detected in other vetch organs, not even in the embryo axis, which contains stored globulins. By means of antibodies raised against the purified and against recombinantly produced proteinase A, the 29-kDa bands of mature proteinase A were detected in cotyledon extracts of 6-day-germinated seeds when globulin degradation has already far proceeded. The reported data do not agree with the proposed triggering role of proteinase A in storage-globulin breakdown during germination.

  17. Uptake and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Vicia narbonensis plants with increased seed sink strength achieved by seed-specific expression of an amino acid permease.

    PubMed

    Götz, Klaus-Peter; Staroske, Nicole; Radchuk, Ruslana; Emery, R J Neil; Wutzke, Klaus-Dieter; Herzog, Helmut; Weber, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Over-expressing an amino acid permease in Vicia narbonensis seeds increases sink strength for N that is evident from the higher seed protein content and seed weight. Here, the effect of increased seed sink strength of line AAP-12 on growth, development, and on whole plant carbon and nitrogen uptake and partitioning is analysed. AAP-12 plants have a prolonged growth period. Accumulation and partitioning of dry matter and N in leaves, stems, and pods are higher whereas remobilization to the seeds is delayed, indicating that the switch from growth to reserve allocation and remobilization is delayed. Measuring uptake and allocation of (15)N-ammonia applied via the roots revealed a higher and longer label uptake period during maturation. Measuring whole plant carbon fixation and allocation after (13)C labelling shows higher levels at maturation, particularly in seeds, indicating higher seed sink strength for C and increased allocation into maturing seeds. Levels of cytokinins were dramatically increased in AAP-12 seeds indicating its role in nitrogen-mediated growth stimulation. AAP-12 seeds have higher natural abundances for (13)C indicating increased C fixation via PEP carboxylase in order to meet the higher demand of carbon acceptors for amino acid synthesis. In summary, increased seed sink strength for N in AAP-12 stimulates seed growth, but also that of vegetative organs, which finally leads to a higher ratio of vegetative to seed biomass at maturity and thus a lower harvest index. Therefore, the increased N uptake due to higher seed demand of AAP-12 is partly compensated by growth stimulation of vegetative organs.

  18. Nickel availability to pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants limits hydrogenase activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae bacteroids by affecting the processing of the hydrogenase structural subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Brito, B; Palacios, J M; Hidalgo, E; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1994-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 induces the synthesis of an [NiFe] hydrogenase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) bacteroids which oxidizes the H2 generated by the nitrogenase complex inside the root nodules. The synthesis of this hydrogenase requires the genes for the small and large hydrogenase subunits (hupS and hupL, respectively) and 15 accessory genes clustered in a complex locus in the symbiotic plasmid. We show here that the bacteroid hydrogenase activity is limited by the availability of nickel to pea plants. Addition of Ni2+ to plant nutrient solutions (up to 10 mg/liter) resulted in sharp increases (up to 15-fold) in hydrogenase activity. This effect was not detected when other divalent cations (Zn2+, Co2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+) were added at the same concentrations. Determinations of the steady-state levels of hupSL-specific mRNA indicated that this increase in hydrogenase activity was not due to stimulation of transcription of structural genes. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised against the large and small subunits of the hydrogenase enzyme demonstrated that in the low-nickel situation, both subunits are mainly present in slow-migrating, unprocessed forms. Supplementation of the plant nutrient solution with increasing nickel concentrations caused the conversion of the slow-migrating forms of both subunits into fast-moving, mature forms. This nickel-dependent maturation process of the hydrogenase subunits is mediated by accessory gene products, since bacteroids from H2 uptake-deficient mutants carrying Tn5 insertions in hupG and hupK and in hypB and hypE accumulated the immature forms of both hydrogenase subunits even in the presence of high nickel levels. Images PMID:8071205

  19. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  20. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host–plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H2O2. However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H2O2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H2O2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired. PMID:28642773

  1. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Pod Shattering-Associated Genes Involved in the Pod Ventral Sutures of Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Rui; Dong, Deke; Luo, Dong; Zhou, Qiang; Chai, Xutian; Zhang, Jiyu; Xie, Wengang; Liu, Wenxian; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    The seed dispersion caused by pod shattering is a form of propagation used by many wild species. Loss of seeds from pod shattering is frequent in the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), an important self-pollinating annual forage legume. However, pod shattering is one of the most important defects that limits the reproduction of the vetch in the field and the usage as a leguminous forage crop. To better understand the vetch pod shattering mechanism, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to assess the global changes in the transcriptomes of the pod ventral sutures of shattering-susceptible and shattering-resistant vetch accessions screened from 541 vetch germplasms. A total of 1,285 significantly differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were detected, including 575 up-regulated unigenes and 710 down-regulated unigenes. Analyses of Gene Ontology and KEGG metabolic enrichment pathways of 1,285 DEGs indicated that 22 DEGs encoding cell wall modifications and hydrolases associated with pod shattering were highly expressed in shattering-susceptible accessions. These genes were mainly enriched in “hydrolase activity,” “cytoplasm,” and “carbohydrate metabolic process” systems. These cell wall modifications and hydrolases genes included β-glucosidase and endo-polygalacturonase, which work together to break down the glycosidic bonds of pectin and cellulose, and to promote the dissolution and disappearance of the cell wall in the ventral suture of the pod and make the pod more susceptible to shattering. We demonstrated the differences in gene transcription levels between the shattering-susceptible and shattering-resistant vetch accessions for the first time and our results provided valuable information for the identifying and characterizing of pod shattering regulation networks in vetch. This information may facilitate the future identification of pod shattering-related genes and their underlying molecular mechanisms in the common vetch. PMID:28496452

  2. Antisense inhibition of the plastidial glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator in Vicia seeds shifts cellular differentiation and promotes protein storage.

    PubMed

    Rolletschek, Hardy; Nguyen, Thuy H; Häusler, Rainer E; Rutten, Twan; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Radchuk, Ruslana; Tewes, Annegret; Claus, Bernhard; Klukas, Christian; Linemann, Ute; Weber, Hans; Wobus, Ulrich; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2007-08-01

    The glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator (GPT) acts as an importer of carbon into the plastid. Despite the potential importance of GPT for storage in crop seeds, its regulatory role in biosynthetic pathways that are active during seed development is poorly understood. We have isolated GPT1 from Vicia narbonensis and studied its role in seed development using a transgenic approach based on the seed-specific legumin promoter LeB4. GPT1 is highly expressed in vegetative sink tissues, flowers and young seeds. In the embryo, localized upregulation of GPT1 at the onset of storage coincides with the onset of starch accumulation. Embryos of transgenic plants expressing antisense GPT1 showed a significant reduction (up to 55%) in the specific transport rate of glucose-6-phosphate as determined using proteoliposomes prepared from embryos. Furthermore, amyloplasts developed later and were smaller in size, while the expression of genes encoding plastid-specific translocators and proteins involved in starch biosynthesis was decreased. Metabolite analysis and stable isotope labelling demonstrated that starch biosynthesis was also reduced, although storage protein biosynthesis increased. This metabolic shift was characterized by upregulation of genes related to nitrogen uptake and protein storage, morphological variation of the protein-storing vacuoles, and a crude protein content of mature seeds of transgenics that was up to 30% higher than in wild-type. These findings provide evidence that (1) the prevailing level of GPT1 abundance/activity is rate-limiting for the synthesis of starch in developing seeds, (2) GPT1 exerts a controlling function on assimilate partitioning into storage protein, and (3) GPT1 is essential for the differentiation of embryonic plastids and seed maturation.

  3. Bacterially produced Pt-GFP as ratiometric dual-excitation sensor for in planta mapping of leaf apoplastic pH in intact Avena sativa and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mühling, Karl H; Kaiser, Hartmut; Plieth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric analysis with H(+)-sensitive fluorescent sensors is a suitable approach for monitoring apoplastic pH dynamics. For the acidic range, the acidotropic dual-excitation dye Oregon Green 488 is an excellent pH sensor. Long lasting (hours) recordings of apoplastic pH in the near neutral range, however, are more problematic because suitable pH indicators that combine a good pH responsiveness at a near neutral pH with a high photostability are lacking. The fluorescent pH reporter protein from Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Pt-GFP) comprises both properties. But, as a genetically encoded indicator and expressed by the plant itself, it can be used almost exclusively in readily transformed plants. In this study we present a novel approach and use purified recombinant indicators for measuring ion concentrations in the apoplast of crop plants such as Vicia faba L. and Avena sativa L. Pt-GFP was purified using a bacterial expression system and subsequently loaded through stomata into the leaf apoplast of intact plants. Imaging verified the apoplastic localization of Pt-GFP and excluded its presence in the symplast. The pH-dependent emission signal stood out clearly from the background. PtGFP is highly photostable, allowing ratiometric measurements over hours. By using this approach, a chloride-induced alkalinizations of the apoplast was demonstrated for the first in oat. Pt-GFP appears to be an excellent sensor for the quantification of leaf apoplastic pH in the neutral range. The presented approach encourages to also use other genetically encoded biosensors for spatiotemporal mapping of apoplastic ion dynamics.

  4. Physiological and biochemical defense reactions of Vicia faba L.-Rhizobium symbiosis face to chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing microcystins.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Baz, Mohamed; Lafuente, Alejandro; Dary, Mohammed; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Oudra, Brahim

    2013-08-01

    The presence of cyanotoxins, mainly microcystins (MCs), in surface freshwater represents a serious health risk to aquatic organisms living in the water body, as well as terrestrial animals and plants that are in contact with contaminated water. Consequently, the use of MCs contaminated water for irrigation represents a hazard for cultivated plants and could induce severe economical losses due to crops' yield reduction. The experimental approach undertaken in this work was exposing Vicia faba seedlings (inoculated with a Rhizobium strain resistant to MCs), to water supplemented with cyanobacterial crude extract containing total microcystins at a concentration of 50 and 100 μg/L (environmental relevant concentrations of MCs dissolved in the raw irrigation water from Lalla Takerkoust Lake-Marrakesh region). After chronic MCs exposure (2 months), biological and physiological parameters (plant growth, nitrogen uptake, mineral assimilation, and oxidative defense mechanisms) were evaluated. The results obtained showed evidence that chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing MCs strongly affected the physiological and biological plants activities; reduction of dry matter, photosynthetic activity, nodule number, and nitrogen assimilation. At the same time, an increase of oxidative stress was observed, as deduced from a significant increase of the activities of peroxidase, catalase, polyphenoloxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in leaves, roots, and nodules of faba bean plants exposed to cyanotoxins, especially at 100 μg/L of MCs. This experimentation constitutes a simulation of the situation related to cyanotoxins chronic exposure of seedlings-plants via the contaminated irrigation water. For this reason, once should take into consideration the possibility of contamination of agricultural crops and the quality of irrigation water should be by the way monitored for cyanotoxins biohazard.

  5. Phylogenetic diversity based on rrs, atpD, recA genes and 16S-23S intergenic sequence analyses of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in Peru.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Nery; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris

    2008-03-01

    In this study 17 isolates from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum var. macrocarpum growing in different soils from Peru were isolated and characterized. The isolates, presenting 11 different RAPD profiles, were distributed in three groups on the basis of their 16S-RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S-RFLP groups I, II and III were closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii DSM 30141 (=ATCC 14480), R. leguminosarum bv. viciae DSM 30132(T) and Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) (=USDA 9032(T)), respectively. The analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) and two housekeeping genes, atpD and recA, confirmed the identification of strains from group I, however those from groups II and III were phylogenetically divergent to strains DSM 30132(T) and CFN42(T). These results support the fact that the 16S rRNA gene is not adequate for identification at species level within genus Rhizobium and suggest the existence of putative new species within the phylogenetic group of R. leguminosarum. They also confirm the need of a taxonomic revision of R. leguminosarum since the reference strains of the three biovars included in this study are phylogenetically divergent according to their ITS, atpD and recA gene sequences.

  6. Enzymatic adaptations to arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Zea mays and genotoxic effect of arsenic in root tips of Vicia faba and Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Isabelle; Champeau, Gabrielle Marie; Evray, Germaine; Ledoigt, Gérard; Piquet-Pissaloux, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Agronomic plant species may display physiological and biochemical responses to oxidative stress caused by heavy metals and metalloids. Zea mays plants were grown hydroponically for eight days at different concentrations of As (0, 134 and 668 μM) and at different pH (4, 7 and 9). Metabolic variations in response to As toxicity were measured using physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymatic activities. A significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in the leaves and roots of Z. mays with the majority of As treatments. As decreased G-POX activity less in leaves than in roots. An increase in the concentration of As increased APX activity in leaves and roots, except As(V) at pH 4 and pH 9 in the leaves and As(III) at pH 9 in the roots, when there was a significant decrease in APX activity at low As concentrations. After exposure to As(V), CAT activity was the same as in the control. As(III) led to an increase in CAT activity in leaves and to a decrease in roots. With increasing concentrations of As(III), CAT activity increased in both leaves and roots whatever the pH. To obtain more detailed knowledge on the effects of arsenate and arsenite exposure on Vicia faba and Z. mays, root meristems were also examined. Roots were fed hydroponically with 134, 334, 534 and 668 μM arsenate or arsenite and 4 × 10(-3)M of maleic hydrazide as positive control, at three different pH. Physiological parameters, the mitotic index and micronuclei frequencies were evaluated in root meristems. At all three pH, the highest As(V) and As(III) concentrations induced a substantial modification in root colour, increased root thickness with stiffening, and reduced root length. High concentrations also caused a significant decrease in the mitotic index, and micronucleus chromosomic aberrations were observed in the root meristems of both species.

  7. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (−130 mV to −110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. −100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to −55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie–Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis–Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2–1.8 mM, Km2 6.6–9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (−0.1 to −0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of Km values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved

  8. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H(+)-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: K m1 1.2-1.8 mM, K m2 6.6-9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, K m values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher K m values (EH: K m1 10 mM, K m2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) K m values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of K m values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose

  9. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition.

  10. Structure and Biosynthesis of Cuticular Lipids: Hydroxylation of Palmitic Acid and Decarboxylation of C(28), C(30), and C(32) Acids in Vicia faba Flowers.

    PubMed

    Kolattukudy, P E; Croteau, R; Brown, L

    1974-11-01

    The structure and composition of the cutin monomers from the flower petals of Vicia faba were determined by hydrogenolysis (LiAlH(4)) or deuterolysis (LiAlD(4)) followed by thin layer chromatography and combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major components were 10, 16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (79.8%), 9, 16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (4.2%), 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (4.2%), 18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (1.6%), and hexadecanoic acid (2.4%). These results show that flower petal cutin is very similar to leaf cutin of V. faba. Developing petals readily incorporated exogenous [1-(14)C]palmitic acid into cutin. Direct conversion of the exogeneous acid into 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 10, 16-dihydroxy-, and 9, 16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid was demonstrated by radio gas-liquid chromatography of their chemical degradation products. About 1% of the exogenous [1-(14)C]palmitic acid was incorporated into C(27), C(29), and C(31)n-alkanes, which were identified by combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry as the major components of the hydrocarbons of V. faba flowers. The radioactivity distribution among these three alkanes (C(27), 15%; C(29), 48%; C(31), 38%) was similar to the per cent composition of the alkanes (C(27), 12%; C(29), 43%; C(31), 44%). [1-(14)C]Stearic acid was also incorporated into C(27), C(29), and C(31)n-alkanes in good yield (3%). Trichloroacetate, which has been postulated to be an inhibitor of fatty acid elongation, inhibited the conversion of [1-(14)C]stearic acid to alkanes, and the inhibition was greatest for the longer alkanes. Developing flower petals also incorporated exogenous C(28), C(30), and C(32) acids into alkanes in 0.5% to 5% yields. [G-(3)H]n-octacosanoic acid (C(28)) was incorporated into C(27), C(29), and C(31)n-alkanes. [G-(3)H]n-triacontanoic acid (C(30)) was incorporated mainly into C(29) and C(31) alkanes, whereas [9, 10, 11-(3)H]n-dotriacontanoic acid (C(32)) was converted mainly to C(31

  11. The utilization of raw and autoclaved faba beans (Vicia faba L., var. minor) and faba bean fractions in diets for growing boiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Brenes, A; Castaño, M

    1990-05-01

    The effects of the inclusion of raw and autoclaved whole faba beans (Vicia faba; RFB and AFB respectively) or faba bean fractions (cotyledons and hulls) in diets for growing broiler chickens (0-4 weeks of age) on performance, intestinal physiology and jejunal histological structure have been studied in three experiments. Significant decreases in body-weight as well as lower food consumption and higher food intake:weight gain ratio were observed in those animals fed on diets containing 250, 350 and 500 RFB/kg in the diet. Birds fed on AFB diets (500 g/kg) had significantly greater body-weights than chicks fed on RFB or raw faba bean cotyledons (RC). Significant increases in the relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca, pancreas relative weight, and intestinal transit time of birds fed on diets containing 250, 350 and 500 g RFB/kg compared with control birds were observed. Including AFB (500 g/kg) in the diet significantly increased body-weight and significantly decreased pancreas weight compared with RFB (500 g/kg)-fed birds. The inclusion of RFB hulls had no effect on these variables. Dehulling or autoclaving of faba beans, or both, proved to have no significant effect on relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca, nor on caecal volatile fatty acid concentration in birds fed on 500 g faba beans/kg diet. Electron microscopy of the jejunal mucosa revealed discrete hyperplasia of polysomes and mitochondrial swelling in those animals fed on AFB (500 g/kg) or AC (426.4 g/kg). Pronounced strangulations were also observed along the microvilli, whose length was similar to that of control birds. The inclusion of RFB hulls, either autoclaved or raw, led to no ultrastructural changes in the enterocytes, as detected by electron microscopy. Birds fed on diets containing the cotyledons of RFB (RC, 426.4 g/kg) rather than whole RFB showed the same ultrastructural disorders as RFB (500 g/kg)-fed birds. The present study shows that factors other than those

  12. Determination of L-canavanine and other free amino acids in Vicia disperma (Fabaceae) seeds by precolumn derivatization using diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Alaiz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of the non-protein amino acid l-α-amino-γ-(guanidinooxy)-n-butyric acid (L-canavanine) and other free amino acids in Vicia disperma is presented. Seed extracts were derivatized by reaction with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate and analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Calibration curves showed very good linearity of the response. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.15 and 0.50 μM, respectively. The method has a high intra- (RSD=0.35%) and inter-repeatability (RSD=2.86%), and a remarkable accuracy with a 99% recovery in spiked samples. The method is very easy to carry out and allows for ready analysis of large number of samples using very basic HPLC equipment because the derivatized samples are very stable and have very good chromatographic properties.

  13. HPLC analysis of Vicia guard cells indicates that products from photosynthetic carbon fixation and starch hydrolysis have an osmotic role during stomatal opening under blue (BL) and red (RL) light

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. )

    1991-05-01

    HPLC was used to quantify neutral sugars and organic acids in guard cells of sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels irradiated with BL or RL in the presence of 1 mM KCl. Under photosynthetically inactive, low fluence-rates of BL, guard cells initially accumulate malate and citrate. At later times, sucrose and starch breakdown products such as maltose predominate. Guard cells opening under saturating fluence rates of RL show very little organic acid or maltose accumulation, and accumulate mainly sucrose. Changes in metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in both light treatments. These results support previous observations that light quality modulated alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation in guard cells, including K{sup +} uptake, photosynthesis and starch hydrolysis. At 5 mM, KCl suppresses RL but not BL-induced opening. These contrasting KCl treatments can be used to investigate osmoregulatory features in guard cells.

  14. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    PubMed

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  15. Quantification of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide in Aphis craccivora and its host plants, Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia angustifolia: effects of these compounds on larval survivorship of Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Tokuoka, Yoshinori; Miyazaki, Masahisa

    2012-12-01

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora that infests the black locust Robinia pseudoacacia shows toxicity to its predator, the multicolored Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis. In contrast, the same aphid species that infests the common vetch, Vicia angustifolia, is suitable prey for H. axyridis larvae. Previously, it was reported that the toxicity of A. craccivora infesting R. pseudoacacia was due to canavanine and 2-aminoethanol, but there was some doubt about the toxicity of these compounds and their concentrations in the aphids. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of cyanamide, canavanine, and 2-aminoethanol in A. craccivora infesting the two host plants. In the extracts of A. craccivora that infested either of the host plants, canavanine was undetectable, and 2-aminoethanol was detected at the concentration of 3.0-4.0 μg/g fresh weight. Cyanamide was detected in the extract of A. craccivora that infested R. pseudoacacia (7.7 μg/g fresh weight) but not in that infesting V. angustifolia. The toxicity of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide was evaluated against H. axyridis larvae in a bioassay by using an artificial diet containing these compounds at various concentrations. Cyanamide exhibited 10-100 times stronger toxicity than canavanine and 2-aminoethanol. These results indicate that the toxicity is at least partly due to cyanamide, which is present in the toxic A. craccivora that infests R. pseudoacacia but absent from the non-toxic A. craccivora that infests V. angustifolia.

  16. Anabolic action of dianabol (17 alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1, 4-dien-3-one) on the nitrogen balance and skeletal muscle composition of rats fed on field bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Santidrián, S

    1981-07-01

    The addition of Dianabol (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) (1 mg/100 g of diet) to a diet containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.) as the sole source of protein has been studied in young male rats, fed for two weeks on the legume diet, as compared to casein-fed animals. A significant improvement (p less than 0.02) in the biological value and net protein utilization was found in the rats fed the legume diet with Dianabol added. Furthermore, a significant reduction (p less than 0.02) in the non-protein nitrogenous fraction of the skeletal musculature, together with a significant rise (p less than 0.02) in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar nitrogenous fractions of this musculature, was found in the rats fed the raw legume diet with Dianabol added. Serum insulin levels, significantly reduced (p less than 0.02) in the legume-fed rats, reached the values of the control group by the addition of Dianabol to the legume diet. The possible nature of these effects is discussed.

  17. Determination of β-Cyano-L-alanine, γ-Glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine, and Common Free Amino Acids in Vicia sativa (Fabaceae) Seeds by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Alaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    A method for determination of β-cyano-L-alanine, γ-glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine and other free amino acids in Vicia sativa is presented. Seed extracts were derivatized by reaction with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate and analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Calibration curves showed very good linearity of the response. The limit of detection and quantification was 0.15 and 0.50 μM, respectively. The method has high intra- (RSD = 0.28–0.31%) and interrepeatability (RSD = 2.76–3.08%) and remarkable accuracy with a 99% recovery in spiked samples. The method is very easy to carry out and allows for ready analysis of large number of samples using very basic HPLC equipment because the derivatized samples are very stable and have very good chromatographic properties. The method has been applied to the determination of γ-glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine, β-cyano-L-alanine, and common free amino acids in eight wild populations of V. sativa from southwestern Spain. PMID:25587488

  18. 4-Chloro-6-methoxyindole is the precursor of a potent mutagen (4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-hydroxy-1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime) that forms during nitrosation of the fava bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Tannenbaum, S R; Büchi, G; Lee, G C

    1984-10-01

    Fava beans (Vicia faba) upon treatment with nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, form a direct-acting bacterial mutagen, comparable in specific activity to the most potent known mutagens for several strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The precursor of the mutagen was isolated and identified as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole by u.v., i.r., m.s. and n.m.r. The precursor was dechlorinated with NaBH4 and PdCl2 as the catalyst and the product obtained from this reaction was identified as 6-methoxyindole. Since synthetic 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole was not available, structure activity studies were conducted on substituted indoles. Nitrosation of 4-chloroindole closely follows the results for nitrosation of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole. The major product of nitrosation of 4-chloroindole is 4-chloro-2-hydroxy-N1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime. Thus, it appears that the major nitrosation product of 4-chloroindole and of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole is a stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound. This is the first reported case of stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compounds. In the presence of N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDD), the alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound rearranges to an aromatic diazonium ion which couples with the diamine to form an azo dye. Studies on nitrosation kinetics indicate that the nitrosation of indoles are relatively fast reactions. Both the structural and rate studies give strong support to the hypothesis that intragastric nitrosation of fava beans yield the putative gastric carcinogen in the high-risk area in Colombia.

  19. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) mediates darkness-induced stomatal closure through raising cytosol pH and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) levels in guard cells in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinli; She, Xiaoping; Yang, Shushen

    2012-11-01

    The role and signaling of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) during darkness-induced stomatal closure were examined in Vicia faba. Darkness substantially raised S1P and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels and closed stomata. These darkness effects were significantly suppressed by DL-threo-dihydrosphingosine (DL-threo-DHS) and N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), two inhibitors of long-chain base kinases. Exogenous S1P led to stomatal closure and H(2)O(2) production, and the effects of S1P were largely prevented by the H(2)O(2) modulators ascorbic acid, catalase, and diphenyleneiodonium. These results indicated that S1P mediated darkness-induced stomatal closure by triggering H(2)O(2) production. In addition, DL-threo-DHS and DMS significantly suppressed both darkness-induced cytosolic alkalization in guard cells and stomatal closure. Exogenous S1P caused cytosolic alkalization and stomatal closure, which could be largely abolished by butyric acid. These results demonstrated that S1P synthesis was necessary for cytosolic alkalization during stomatal closure caused by darkness. Furthermore, together with the data described above, inhibition of darkness-induced H(2)O(2) production by butyric acid revealed that S1P synthesis-induced cytosolic alkalization was a prerequisite for H(2)O(2) production during stomatal closure caused by darkness, a conclusion supported by the facts that the pH increase caused by exogenous S1P had a shorter lag and peaked faster than H(2)O(2) levels and that butyric acid prevented exogenous S1P-induced H(2)O(2) production. Altogether, our data suggested that darkness induced S1P synthesis, causing cytosolic alkalization and subsequent H(2)O(2) production, finally leading to stomatal closure.

  20. Gene Products of the hupGHIJ Operon Are Involved in Maturation of the Iron-Sulfur Subunit of the [NiFe] Hydrogenase from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    PubMed Central

    Manyani, Hamid; Rey, Luis; Palacios, José M.; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the functions of the hupGHIJ operon in the synthesis of an active [NiFe] hydrogenase in the legume endosymbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. These genes are clustered with 14 other genes including the hydrogenase structural genes hupSL. A set of isogenic mutants with in-frame deletions (ΔhupG, ΔhupH, ΔhupI, and ΔhupJ) was generated and tested for hydrogenase activity in cultures grown at different oxygen concentrations (0.2 to 2.0%) and in symbiosis with peas. In free-living cultures, deletions in these genes severely reduced hydrogenase activity. The ΔhupH mutant was totally devoid of hydrogenase activity at any of the O2 concentration tested, whereas the requirement of hupGIJ for hydrogenase activity varied with the O2 concentration, being more crucial at higher pO2. Pea bacteroids from the mutant strains affected in hupH, hupI, and hupJ exhibited reduced (20 to 50%) rates of hydrogenase activity compared to the wild type, whereas rates were not affected in the ΔhupG mutant. Immunoblot experiments with HupL- and HupS-specific antisera showed that free-living cultures from ΔhupH, ΔhupI, and ΔhupJ mutants synthesized a fully processed mature HupL protein and accumulated an unprocessed form of HupS (pre-HupS). Both the mature HupL and the pre-HupS forms were located in the cytoplasmic fraction of cultures from the ΔhupH mutant. Affinity chromatography experiments revealed that cytoplasmic pre-HupS binds to the HupH protein before the pre-HupS-HupL complex is formed. From these results we propose that hupGHIJ gene products are involved in the maturation of the HupS hydrogenase subunit. PMID:16199572

  1. The inhibitory effects of hull polysaccharides and tannins of field beans (Vicia faba L.) on the digestion of amino acids, starch and lipid and on digestive enzyme activities in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, M; McNab, J M

    1991-03-01

    The effects of polysaccharides and tannins present in the hulls of field beans (Vicia faba L.) on the digestion of amino acids, starch and lipid were studied in poultry. A control diet without hulls and the same diet substituted with 400 g hulls/kg diet from three different varieties of beans were fed to 3-week-old chicks for 4 d. Digestibility coefficients for amino acids, starch and lipid were calculated from measurements made of these nutrients in the diets and the freeze-dried excreta with the aid of titanium dioxide as a marker. Activities of trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4), alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), and lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) in digesta removed from the upper jejunum, sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48) in the gut mucosa from the upper jejunum, and alpha-amylase and lipase in the pancreas were measured. The hulls were analysed for their polysaccharide and tannin contents. Results showed that the hulls were mostly carbohydrate in composition, with cellulose the predominant polysaccharide. Tannins present in the hulls of two coloured-flowering varieties (Brunette and Minica) were of the condensed type. The diet with tannin-free hulls (white-flowering variety Medes) lowered slightly the digestion of amino acids, starch and lipid compared with the control diet. This effect was believed to be due to inhibition of digestive enzymes, possibly through their adsorption onto the hulls. Diets with tannin-rich hulls (varieties Brunette and Minica) caused a large reduction in the digestion of amino acids, starch and lipid compared with the control diet mainly due to inactivation of digestive enzymes by the formation of tannin-enzyme complexes in the digestive tract. Enzyme activities could be partially restored by the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone to the digesta. Tannins inactivated trypsin the most, alpha-amylase to a lesser extent and lipase the least and as a consequence lowered the digestion of amino acids the most, starch to a lesser extent and lipid the least. Tannins did not induce an

  2. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  3. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50–5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. PMID:28419381

  4. Micromechanical measurements on P-protein aggregates (forisomes) from Vicia faba plants.

    PubMed

    Schwan, S; Menzel, M; Fritzsche, M; Heilmann, A; Spohn, U

    2009-02-01

    Forisomes are chemomechanically active P-protein aggregates found in the phloem of legumes. They can convert chemical energy into mechanical work when induced by divalent metal ions or changes in pH, which control the folding state of individual forisome proteins. We investigated the changing geometric parameters of individual forisomes and the strength and dynamics of the forces generated during this process. Three different divalent ions were tested (Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+) and were shown to induce similar changes to the normalized length and diameter. In the concentration range from 0.1 to 4 M, K+ and Cl(-) ions had no influence on the contraction behaviour of the forisomes induced by 10 mM Ca2+. In the absence of dissolved oxygen, these changes were independent of the radius of the metal ion, water uptake and the strength of binding between the selected metal ions and those protein molecules responsible for forisome conformational transformation. In the absence of any load, bound Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions showed apparent and averaged dissociation constants of 14, 62 and 1070 microM, respectively. Various forisomes generated bending on a quartz glass fibre with a diameter of 9 microm. The fibre bending was measured microscopically also by correlation between the digital patterns of a predefined window of observation before and after bending. Similar bending forces of approximately 90 nN were measured for a single forisome sequentially exposed to 10 mM Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+. In the absence of dissolved oxygen, the same conditions resulted in averaged bending forces of (93+/-40) nN, (58+/-20) nN, and (91+/-20) nN after contacting different forisomes with 10 mM Ca2+, 10 mM Sr2+, and 10 mM Ba2+ respectively, demonstrating that the force generated was independent on ion concentrations above a certain threshold value.

  5. Effectiveness of herbicides for control of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) in winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a field experiment in 2009-10 at Pennsylvania and Maryland locations, and repeated it in 2010-11, to test the effectiveness of post-emergent herbicides applied at fall and spring timings on seeded hairy vetch in winter wheat. We tested 16 herbicide treatment combinations that included ...

  6. Purification of diamine oxidase and its properties in germinated fava bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2012-06-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid with bioactive functions for human health. Diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) is one of the key enzymes for GABA formation. In the present study, this enzyme was purified from 5 day germinated fava bean and its properties were investigated in vitro. The molecular mass of the enzyme estimated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was 121 kDa. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) displayed a single band at a molecular mass of 52 kDa. The enzyme had optimal activity at 40 °C and retained its activity after being incubated at 30 °C for 30 min. It showed higher activity at pH 6.5 than at other pH values. The enzyme was significantly inhibited by Mg(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), aminoguanidine, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na(2)), L-cysteine and β-mercaptoethanol. The K(m) value of DAO was 0.23 mmol L(-1) for putrescine and 0.96 mmol L(-1) for spermidine. However, the enzyme did not degrade spermine. DAO from germinated fava bean was purified. The optimal reaction temperature and pH of the enzyme were mild. The enzyme had higher affinity to putrescine than to spermidine and spermine. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A hemolysis trigger in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. Vicia sativa (Vetch).

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2009-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme, playing an important role in the redox metabolism of all aerobic cells. It was reported that certain medications, fava beans, and infections can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency. An 8-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with blood in the urine, headache, dizziness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice in the eyes, 24 hours after eating large amounts of fresh, vetch grains. Laboratory investigation revealed hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and G6PD deficiency. Approximately 0.5% of fava bean seeds have 2 pyrimidine beta-glycosides called, vicine and convicine. Vetch has 0.731% vicine, 0.081% convicine, and 0.530% beta cyanoalanine glycosides. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the importance of vetch seeds as a cause for hemolytic crisis in our country, where approximately one million tons of vetch is produced per year, especially in the agricultural regions.

  8. Nutritional and antinutritional attributes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms growing in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amresh; Nidhi; Prasad, N; Sinha, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Eleven germplasms of faba bean seeds from four agroclimatic regions of Bihar, India, have been investigated to estimate their nutritional (soluble protein, free amino acids, starch, reducing and non reducing sugar, total soluble sugar) and antinutritional (total extractable phenol and condensed tannin/proanthocyanidin) parameters. These parameters were found in varying concentration in all genotypes studied. The highest concentration of total extractable phenol and proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin) (2.56 and 1.59 % leucocyanidin equivalents respectively on dry matter basis) were found in Samastipur while the lowest from Patna (0.95 and 0.426 % leucocyanidin equivalent on dry matter basis). The different nutritional parameters were also found to be in variable concentration among different germplasms viz. total soluble protein ≈ 20-32 %, free amino acids ≈ 188-348 mg/100 g, starch ≈ 27-33 %, reducing sugars ≈ 85-188 mg/100 g, non reducing sugars ≈ 0.7-1.7 % and total soluble sugars ≈ 0.8-1.9 %.

  9. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M.; Torres, Ana M.; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  10. EPOXIDE HYDROLASE ACTIVITIES IN THE MICROSOMES AND THE SOLUBLE FRACTION FROM VICIA SATIVA SEEDLINGS. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and harvest of clean roots for evaluation of their growth. PMID:28194315

  12. Structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujiao; Wu, Xuexia; Hou, Wanwei; Li, Ping; Sha, Weichao; Tian, Yingying

    2017-05-01

    The protein subunit is the most important basic unit of protein, and its study can unravel the structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean. In this study, we identified six specific protein subunits in Faba bean (cv. Qinghai 13) combining liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-electronic spray ionization mass (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and bio-information technology. The results suggested a diversity of seed storage proteins in faba bean, and a total of 16 proteins (four GroEL molecular chaperones and 12 plant-specific proteins) were identified from 97-, 96-, 64-, 47-, 42-, and 38-kD-specific protein subunits in faba bean based on the peptide sequence. We also analyzed the composition and abundance of the amino acids, the physicochemical characteristics, secondary structure, three-dimensional structure, transmembrane domain, and possible subcellular localization of these identified proteins in faba bean seed, and finally predicted function and structure. The three-dimensional structures were generated based on homologous modeling, and the protein function was analyzed based on the annotation from the non-redundant protein database (NR database, NCBI) and function analysis of optimal modeling. The objective of this study was to identify the seed storage proteins in faba bean and confirm the structure and function of these proteins. Our results can be useful for the study of protein nutrition and achieve breeding goals for optimal protein quality in faba bean.

  13. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be more effectively controlled than large-seeded species. The stu...

  14. Potential value of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) as an animal feedstuff: a review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y F; Gao, X L; Nan, Z B; Zhang, Z X

    2017-01-08

    The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate common vetch seeds as a potential feedstuff for animals, by summarizing and discussing the available published literature covering their nutritional composition as well as their content of antinutritional factors and potential techniques for their reduction. In addition, animal feeding studies that have investigated the effect of inclusion of common vetch seeds on animal growth and performance were identified and evaluated to stimulate interest in their use as a good source of nutrients for inclusion in animal diets. The collective literature shows that common vetch seeds are a less costly (in comparison with alternatives) and rich source of protein and minerals for farmed animals, are of high digestibility and have a high energy content, and can be used to partially or totally replace soya bean meal and/or to replace a large proportion of cereals in the diet. Furthermore, the literature shows that common vetch seeds contain a range of antinutritional factors which, if they are to be utilized in non-ruminant diets and to increase their utilizing efficiency, need to be removed or inactivated. This can be achieved via certain pre-processing methods, the combination of which may deliver better results.

  15. [Genetic singularity coefficients of common vetch Vicia sativa L. accessions determined with molecular markers].

    PubMed

    Potokina, E K; Aleksandrova, T G

    2008-11-01

    Organization and practical application of ex situ collections require estimation of genetic differences between numerous accessions of local cultivars and field weed forms collected from the same ecological and geographical region and similar in their morphophysiological characteristics. A mathematical algorithm for estimating the degree of genetic singularity of a specimen in the system of local gene pool determined with the help of molecular markers is described. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated by the example of classification of 677 common vetch accessions from the collection of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry from 11 ecological-geographic regions of Russia analyzed using AFLP. The proposed classification of accessions is the result of processing the AFLP data by weighting the marker traits based on their frequency in particular regions. This allowed each accession to be characterized according to the ratio of rare and frequent alleles as a genetic singularity coefficient. The proposed method is appropriate for any types of molecular markers. A practical result of its application is the classification of accessions using a five-point score scale, which can be added to descriptors of certificate databases and used for optimization of the work with collections.

  16. The activity and location of cathepsin D inhibitor in seeds of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Roszkowska-Jakimiec, W; Leśniewska, J

    2004-01-01

    The activity of cathepsin D inhibitor is markedly higher in common vetch seed coat than in embryo cotyledons. The occurrence of considerable amounts of the inhibitor in the seed coat of vetch was confirmed by the fluorescent microscopic technique, with the use of fluorescein-marked cathepsin D.

  17. Three faba bean (Vicia faba L.) breeding lines appear naturally resistant to Pythium damping-off

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pythium is a genus of common parasitic oomycetes. Several Pythium species are important soilborne pathogens that cause seed rot and pre-emergence damping-off of chickpea in the Pacific Northwest and other regions. A very reliable and effective management of Pythium damping-off of large seeded chi...

  18. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M; Torres, Ana M; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  19. Genetic variability on seed yield and related traits of elite faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Fikreselassie, Million; Seboka, Habtamu

    2012-04-15

    Faba bean is one of the most important cool season crops in the highlands of Ethiopia and the country is considered as the secondary center of diversity. This study was conducted at Haramaya, Boreda and Hirna districts of Eastern Hararghe from 2006 to 2008 cropping season using twenty five elite genotypes of faba bean to determine the extent and pattern of genetic diversity for seed yield and related traits. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The data were subjected to the analyses of variance using the SAS program. The mean squares due to genotypes were highly significant for seed yield (p < 0.01) indicating the existence of sufficient genetic variability for seed yield. Mean squares due to the interaction between year and location were highly significant for all the traits studied (p < 0.01). High genotypic coefficient of variation (10093.53%) was observed for seed yield followed by number of seeds per plant (325.45%). The estimated values of phenotypic variances were in the range of 0.60 for number of seeds per pods to 196564.64 for seed yield. Genetic gains that expected from selecting the top 5% of the genotypes, as a percent of the mean, varied from 12.32% for number of seeds per plant to 35.46% for seed yield. The average linkage technique of clustering produced a more understandable portrayal of the 25 faba bean genotypes by grouping them into five clusters. The maximum distance was found between cluster three and five (D2 = 691.47). Thus, the materials tested in the entire experiment will be maintained for further breeding program.

  20. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m(-2) , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m(-2) ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m(-2) , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m(-2) ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m(-2) ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m(-2) ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Mucilage production during the incompatible interaction between Orobanche crenata and Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, M Dolores; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, M Carmen; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasites lacking in chlorophyll and totally dependent on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to legumes cultivation and breeding for resistance remains as one of the best available methods of control. However, little is known about the basis of host resistance to broomrapes. It is a multicomponent event, and resistance based on hampering development and necrosis of broomrape tubercles has been reported. In the present work, the formation of mucilage and occlusion of host xylem vessels associated with the death of O. crenata tubercles were studied histologically. Samples of necrotic O. crenata tubercles established on resistant and susceptible vetch genotypes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. The sections were observed at the light microscopy level, either under bright field, epi-fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. A higher proportion of necrotic tubercles was found on the resistant genotype and this was associated with a higher percentage of occluded vessels. Mucilage is composed mainly by carbohydrates (non-esterified pectins) and the presence of polyphenols was also detected. The mucilage and other substances composed by parasite secretions and host-degraded products was found to block host vessels and obstruct the parasite supply channel, being a quantitative defensive response against O. crenata in vetch, and probably also in other legumes and plants. The presence of foreign substances (i.e. parasite secretions) and host-degraded products (i.e. carbohydrates from cell walls) inside host vessels seems to activate this response and leads to xylem occlusion and further death of established Orobanche tubercles.

  2. Improvement of Vicia-micronucleus test for assessment of soil quality: a proposal for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    The Viciafaba root tip micronucleus test is one of the most employed plant genotoxicity assays, and has been used on various types of contaminated materials. This test has been standardized by AFNOR, the French member organization of ISO. However, this test is usually performed with a water extraction step but soil genotoxicity assessment would be more relevant when performed directly in the soil itself. In order to harmonize these protocols, an ISO standard for the V.faba micronucleus test in both liquid phase (exposure of plants to different liquid matrix, including soil water extracts) and solid phase (direct exposure of plants to the soil) would be very useful. In this context, we compared two exposure durations in the solid phase (48 h and 5 d) for the V.faba micronucleus test with two different well-known genotoxicants, maleic hydrazide and copper sulfate. We concluded that these two durations induced equivalent sensitivity: the micronucleus frequency was significantly increased with 5 μmol maleic hydrazide per kg dry soil and with 2 mmol copper sulfate per kg dry soil with both exposure durations. However, exposing roots to soil during 48 h is more practical. Moreover, organically and conventionally cultured seeds were employed to determine whether the seed provenance influenced the test sensitivity. Organic seeds were less sensitive to copper, possibly because copper-based treatments are permitted, and often applied, in organic farms. Therefore, in the absence of completely non-treated seeds, organically-cultured seeds did not appear to offer any advantages over conventional seeds.

  3. Hormesis effects and implicative application in assessment of lead-contaminated soils in roots of Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Run; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yu, Hong-Xia; Lu, Xian-Wen; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hao

    2010-08-01

    Chemical analyses and biological methods were combined to investigate oxidative stress, hormesis effect and concerned mechanism in roots of Viciafaba seedlings grown in 0-2000 mg kg(-1) of Pb-treated soils after germination of 20d. The results showed that U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in superoxide radical (O2-) radicals, guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl groups as well as activities of endoproteinase (EP) isoenzymes in the roots at low doses of extraneous Pb, indicating reduced oxidative stress and toxic effect. The inverted U-shaped curves were also exhibited in growth height, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and EP activities as well as inducible heat shock protein70 (HSP70) with the increasing extraneous Pb, indicative of enhanced oxidative stress. The enhancement in HSP70, carbonyl groups and EP activities confirmed intracellular proteotoxicity and proteolytic activity in the roots at higher doses of soil Pb. More interestingly, levels of inducible HSP70 were well correlated with those of growth heights (r=0.809, p<0.05), implying that HSP70 induction may be one of the mechanisms underlying the U-shaped growth curve of V. faba seedlings in the experiment. The results suggest that traditional threshold models ought to be combined with hormesis effect in assessment of Pb-polluted soils and the threshold dose range of Pb-treated soils is proposed rudimentally as 25-125 mg kg(-1). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery.

  5. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  6. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  7. Development of EST-SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in faba bean (Vicia faba)

    PubMed Central

    El-Rodeny, Walid; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sabah, Attia; Shirasawa, Kenta; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Kato, Midori; Wada, Tsuyuko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Nanri, Keiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Manabu; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES (Faba bean expressed sequence tag [EST]-derived simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ F2 mapping population were used for map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F2 plants were divided into three subpopulations according to the original F1 plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopulation were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ map consisted of six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7 cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group revealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties, 78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean. PMID:25320560

  8. Effects of cultivar and culture conditions on gamma-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinated fava beans (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Bai, Qingyun; Jin, Xinjiang; Wen, Huanbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2010-01-15

    High levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulate in plant tissues under various stresses. GABA accumulation is also influenced by cultivar. This aim of this study was to select the most promising cultivar of fava bean for GABA accumulation and to optimise the culture conditions for GABA production in germinated fava beans by response surface methodology based on central composite design (CCD). GABA content and glutamate decarboxylase activity in germinated seeds of cultivar S2 were significantly higher than those in other cultivars (P < 0.05). A significant negative correlation (r = -0.765, P < 0.05) between germination percentage and 1000-kernel weight was observed. There was a linear relationship between GABA content and sprout length (R(2) = 0.816). The regression model fitted to the experimental data of CCD was valid in predicting GABA production in germinated fava beans. Temperature and pH value of the culture solution had significant effects on GABA content in germinated fava beans. Under optimal culture conditions (33.6 degrees C, pH 3.19 and an air flow rate of 1.19 L min(-1)), GABA content reached up to 2.41 g kg(-1) dry weight, about 48 times that in raw seeds. Germinated fava bean is a good resource of GABA-rich food. Both cultivar and culture conditions have significant effects on GABA production. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Phenolics, phytic acid, and phytase in Canadian-grown low-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Luc, Geneviéve; Leprelle, Claire; Drover, John C G; Harrison, Judith E; Olson, Mark

    2011-04-27

    Thirteen low-tannin faba bean genotypes grown at two locations in north central Alberta in 2009 were evaluated to investigate the variation in seed characteristics, phenolic and phytate contents, and phytase and antioxidant activities and to elucidate the relationship of these components as a breeding strategy. Seed characteristics including color were predominantly genotype dependent. The faba bean genotypes with total phenolic content ranging from 5.5 to 41.8 mg of catechin equiv/g of sample was linearly related to tannin content and the best predictor of antioxidant activity. Phytic acid content and phytase activity varied significantly among genotypes and between locations, ranging from 5.9 to 15.1 g/kg and from 1606 to 2154 FTU/kg sample, respectively. Multivariate data analysis performed on 19 components analyzed in this study using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis demonstrate that differences in seed characteristics, phenolic components, phytic acid, and phytase are major factors in segregating faba bean genotypes. The relatively low phytic acid content and high phytase activity of these low-tannin faba bean genotypes are beneficial/essential traits for their use in human and animal nutrition.

  10. Microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects plants and improves nitrogen assimilation in Vicia faba irrigated with microcystin-containing waters.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Benidire, Loubna; Albert, Susann; Göttfert, Michael; Caviedes, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Oudra, Brahim; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation of crops with microcystins (MCs)-containing waters-due to cyanobacterial blooms-affects plant productivity and could be a way for these potent toxins entering the food chain. This study was performed to establish whether MC-tolerant rhizobia could benefit growth, nodulation, and nitrogen metabolism of faba bean plants irrigated with MC-containing waters. For that, three different rhizobial strains-with different sensitivity toward MCs-were used: RhOF96 (most MC-sensitive strain), RhOF125 (most MC-tolerant strain), or Vicz1.1 (reference strain). As a control, plants grown without rhizobia and fertilized by NH4NO3 were included in the study. MC exposure decreased roots (30-37 %) and shoots (up to 15 %) dry weights in un-inoculated plants, whereas inoculation with rhizobia protects plants toward the toxic effects of MCs. Nodulation and nitrogen content were significantly impaired by MCs, with the exception of plants inoculated with the most tolerant strain RhOF125. In order to deep into the effect of inoculation on nitrogen metabolism, the nitrogen assimilatory enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT)) were investigated: Fertilized plants showed decreased levels (15-30 %) of these enzymes, both in shoots and roots. By contrast, inoculated plants retained the levels of these enzymes in shoots and roots, as well as the levels of NADH-GOGAT activity in nodules. We conclude that the microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects faba bean plants and improves nitrogen assimilation when grown in the presence of MCs.

  11. Properties of a new protein film from bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and effect of CaCl₂ on its hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Arabestani, Akram; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohmmad; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Porta, Raffaele

    2013-06-01

    This work was aimed to investigate the potential preparation of an edible film from bitter vetch seed proteins. The film was cast from bitter vetch protein concentrate (BPC) and glycerol. CaCl₂ at the ratio of 0.1-1% (w/w) of the BPC was tested to improve film properties, specially its hydrophobicity. Some physicochemical properties of the films obtained in the absence and presence of CaCl₂ were evaluated. The results indicated that moisture content, total soluble matter, water vapour permeability and contact angle of the films prepared in the presence of CaCl₂ were significantly modified in comparison with the control values, while their mechanical properties did not significantly change. The surface morphology of the films was also considerably affected by the presence of CaCl₂. Therefore, CaCl₂ could improve BPC-films barrier properties especially their hydrophobicity, even though calcium concentration seems to be a crucial factor.

  12. Common vetch (Vicia sativa) for improving the nutrition of working equids in Campesino systems on hill slopes in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Beltrán, L G; Felipe-Pérez, Y E; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2002-03-01

    Campesino systems on hill slopes in Central Mexico rely on equids for multiple activities and have a problem in adequately feeding them. A participatory trial was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of common vetch in the traditional forage oat crop to improve its feeding value. An agronomic evaluation was undertaken by intersowing common vetch at 40 kg seed/ha with oats at 80-100 kg/ha in small plots, recording the yield and the chemical composition of the fresh forage in ten plots at harvest. The data were analysed as a completely random design, taking each farmer/plot as a treatment. A feeding trial compared the live weight of 7 donkeys fed oats and vetch against 17 donkeys fed traditional forage. There were differences between farmers in forage yields (p < 0.01) that could not be explained as due to soil types or management. The mean yield of 31.0 t/ha of fresh forage of oats-vetch was 20.5% higher than that from monoculture, and had a higher crude protein content. Donkeys fed the oats-vetch were heavier (p < 0.001). The farmers evaluated the oats-vetch association positively, appreciating the higher yields and good condition of their equids. The combination is an appropriate technology for these campesino farming systems.

  13. Vicine and convicine in common vetch (Vicia sativa) seeds enhance beta-cyanoalanine toxicity in male broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Darwish, A H; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2002-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding raw and water-soaked vetch seeds to male broiler chicks on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters. Intact and ground vetch seeds were soaked in water (1:5) at room temperature for 24 hours (study 1), and (1:10) at 40 degrees C for 24, 48, and 72 hours, with water change every 12 hours (study 2). In study 1, untreated vetch contained, on dry matter basis, 0.530%, 0.731%, and 0.081% total beta-cyanoalanine (BCA), vicine, and convicine, respectively. Toxins were not appreciably reduced in soaked intact and ground vetch. Diets containing untreated, soaked intact, and soaked ground vetch, each at 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%, were fed to 7-day-old male broilers until onset of neurotoxicity symptoms. Survival time was not only decreased by BCA level but also by those of vicine and convicine (p <.05). In study 2, 60% of untreated or treated vetch seeds were incorporated in chick diets. Although untreated vetch used in this study contained 32% less BCA but 8% and 81% more vicine and convicine, respectively, yet, the chicks on 60% untreated vetch showed toxicity symptoms earlier than those of study 1. Soaking ground vetch for 48 hours or more reduced BCA and totally removed vicine and convicine. Consequently, birds on 60% ground vetch soaked for 48 and 72 hours survived through the starter period and had mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and organ weights comparable to those of control at 4 days post trial. The results indicated that "high levels" of vicine or convicine or both might have shortened the birds' survival time by enhancing the neurotoxicity induced by "lower levels" of BCA.

  14. Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J

    2007-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  15. Multiplicity of Sulfate and Molybdate Transporters and Their Role in Nitrogen Fixation in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Rlv3841.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guojun; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; East, Alison K; Poole, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum Rlv3841 contains at least three sulfate transporters, i.e., SulABCD, SulP1 and SulP2, and a single molybdate transporter, ModABC. SulABCD is a high-affinity transporter whose mutation prevented growth on a limiting sulfate concentration, while SulP1 and SulP2 appear to be low-affinity sulfate transporters. ModABC is the sole high-affinity molybdate transport system and is essential for growth with NO3(-) as a nitrogen source on limiting levels of molybdate (<0.25 μM). However, at 2.5 μM molybdate, a quadruple mutant with all four transporters inactivated, had the longest lag phase on NO3(-), suggesting these systems all make some contribution to molybdate transport. Growth of Rlv3841 on limiting levels of sulfate increased sulB, sulP1, modB, and sulP2 expression 313.3-, 114.7-, 6.2-, and 4.0-fold, respectively, while molybdate starvation increased only modB expression (three- to 7.5-fold). When grown in high-sulfate but not low-sulfate medium, pea plants inoculated with LMB695 (modB) reduced acetylene at only 14% of the wild-type rate, and this was not further reduced in the quadruple mutant. Overall, while modB is crucial to nitrogen fixation at limiting molybdate levels in the presence of sulfate, there is an unidentified molybdate transporter also capable of sulfate transport.

  16. Interactions and compatibility of 11 S globulin from Vicia faba seeds and sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Yu A; Dmitrochenko, A P; Leontiev, A L

    2006-02-28

    This work studies specific interactions and compatibility between a legumin and a linear carboxylated polysaccharide using gel permeation chromatography, sedimentation analysis, SDS gel electrophoresis, viscometry and phase analysis measurements. It uses the system water/11 S globulin/CMC as a model. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) molecules are able to cause a partial dissociation of the protein, subsequent formation of soluble interbiopolymeric complexes and partial aggregation of the free non combined protein at room temperature and pH 6.0-6.5. The maximal binding of biopolymers is observed at their equimolar ratio. The decrease in temperature of the mixture from 293 to 277 K leads to formation of the complex coacervate. The increase in pH from 6.0 to 7.6 results in suppression of complex formation and manifestation of the phenomenon of thermodynamic incompatibility if the total concentration of biopolymers in the system exceeds the critical concentration of segregative phase separation.

  17. Measuring and modeling three-dimensional water uptake of a growing faba bean (Vicia faba) within a soil column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Katrin; Koebernick, Nicolai; Kerkhofs, Elien; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Vetterlein, Doris; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    A faba bean was grown in a column filled with a sandy soil, which was initially close to saturation and then subjected to a single drying cycle of 30 days. The column was divided in four hydraulically separated compartments using horizontal paraffin layers. Paraffin is impermeable to water but penetrable by roots. Thus by growing deeper, the roots can reach compartments that still contain water. The root architecture was measured every second day by X-ray CT. Transpiration rate, soil matric potential in four different depths, and leaf area were measured continously during the experiment. To investigate the influence of the partitioning of available soil water in the soil column on water uptake, we used R-SWMS, a fully coupled root and soil water model [1]. We compared a scenario with and without the split layers and investigated the influence on root xylem pressure. The detailed three-dimensional root architecture was obtained by reconstructing binarized root images manually with a virtual reality system, located at the Juelich Supercomputing Centre [2]. To verify the properties of the root system, we compared total root lengths, root length density distributions and root surface with estimations derived from Minkowski functionals [3]. In a next step, knowing the change of root architecture in time, we could allocate an age to each root segment and use this information to define age dependent root hydraulic properties that are required to simulate water uptake for the growing root system. The scenario with the split layers showed locally much lower pressures than the scenario without splits. Redistribution of water within the unrestricted soil column led to a more uniform distribution of water uptake and lowers the water stress in the plant. However, comparison of simulated and measured pressure heads with tensiometers suggested that the paraffin layers were not perfectly hydraulically isolating the different soil layers. We could show compensation efficiency of water uptake by the roots in the lower and wetter compartments. By comparing transpiration rates of experiments with and without additional paraffin layers, we were able to quantify restrictions of plant growth to available soil water. [1] Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken (2008), Use of a Three-Dimensional Detailed Modeling Approach for Predicting Root Water Uptake, Vadose Zone Journal, 7(3), 1079-1079. [2] Stingaciu, L., H. Schulz, A. Pohlmeier, S. Behnke, H. Zilken, M. Javaux, H. Vereecken (2013), In Situ Root System Architecture Extraction from Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Water Uptake Modeling, Vadose Zone Journal, 12(1). [3] Koebernick, N., U. Weller, K. Huber, S. Schlüter, H.-J. Vogel, R. Jahn; H. Vereecken, D. Vetterlein, In situ visualisation and quantification of root-system architecture and growth with X-ray CT, Manuscript submitted for publication.

  18. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes.

  19. Purification, properties and cDNA cloning of glutamate decarboxylase in germinated faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Yin, Yongqi; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid with bioactive functions in humans. In this work, glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15, GAD) which is key in the GABA bioformation was purified from 5-day germinated faba beans and characterized. A single band was observed at 58 kDa using sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis. GAD optimal activity was at pH 6.0 at 40°C with a K(m) value for glutamic acid (Glu) of 2.63 mM. The enzyme was inhibited significantly by Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), aminoxyacetate, EGTA, Na(2)EDTA, l-cysteine and beta-mercaptoethanol; and activated at low Ca(2+) 0.2mM. Using RT-PCR, the GAD cDNA was sequenced which indicated 1787 bp long, containing a 1527 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded 509 amino-acid peptides with a calculated molecular weight of 57.74 kDa and a pI of 5.41 (GenBank accession number: JX444699).

  20. Genetic linkage map of Chinese native variety faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on simple sequence repeat markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker is a powerful tool for construction of genetic linkage map which can be applied for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, a genetic map of faba bean was constructed with SSR markers using a population of 129 F2 ...

  1. Effect of microwave field on trypsin inhibitors activity and protein quality of broad bean seeds (Vicia faba var. major).

    PubMed

    Pysz, Mirosław; Polaszczyk, Szymon; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Piątkowska, Ewa

    2012-04-02

    In human nutrition legume seeds are usually subjected to soaking and thermal processes, mainly by using traditional cooking method. This method which has been used for decades, does not allow to control and adjust the parameters of this process. Therefore it does not seem to be the optimal method. Undoubtedly, microwave field is an alternative thermal process to conventional technique. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of microwave field on the activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein quality of three varieties of broad bean seeds. The study was performed on dry seeds of broad bean varieties Windsor White, Bachus and Basta. The seeds were soaked and heated in a microwave. The seeds absorbed different energy doses from 500 J/g, through 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, 1750 to 2000 J/g. The study material prepared in this way was tested for trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility and in vitro protein digestibility. The results were analysed by the one-way analysis of variance. Microwave heating resulted in decreased activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein solubility and increased digestibility of protein in all tested varieties of broad bean seeds. With increasing doses of the microwave field energy a decrease in protein solubility was observed. Satisfactory reduction in trypsin inhibitors at the level of 70-75% and highest protein digestibility were obtained by using a microwave field with energy dose of 1000 J/g of seeds. It can be concluded that the optimal dose of microwave energy field which will produce a relatively low activity of trypsin inhibitors and the highest protein digestibility together with maintaining solubility of broad been seeds was 1000 J/g seed.

  2. Functional and Expression Analysis of the Metal-Inducible dmeRF System from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Sanz, L.; Prieto, R. I.; Imperial, J.; Brito, B.

    2013-01-01

    A gene encoding a homolog to the cation diffusion facilitator protein DmeF from Cupriavidus metallidurans has been identified in the genome of Rhizobium leguminosarum UPM791. The R. leguminosarum dmeF gene is located downstream of an open reading frame (designated dmeR) encoding a protein homologous to the nickel- and cobalt-responsive transcriptional regulator RcnR from Escherichia coli. Analysis of gene expression showed that the R. leguminosarum dmeRF genes are organized as a transcriptional unit whose expression is strongly induced by nickel and cobalt ions, likely by alleviating the repressor activity of DmeR on dmeRF transcription. An R. leguminosarum dmeRF mutant strain displayed increased sensitivity to Co(II) and Ni(II), whereas no alterations of its resistance to Cd(II), Cu(II), or Zn(II) were observed. A decrease of symbiotic performance was observed when pea plants inoculated with an R. leguminosarum dmeRF deletion mutant strain were grown in the presence of high concentrations of nickel and cobalt. The same mutant induced significantly lower activity levels of NiFe hydrogenase in microaerobic cultures. These results indicate that the R. leguminosarum DmeRF system is a metal-responsive efflux mechanism acting as a key element for metal homeostasis in R. leguminosarum under free-living and symbiotic conditions. The presence of similar dmeRF gene clusters in other Rhizobiaceae suggests that the dmeRF system is a conserved mechanism for metal tolerance in legume endosymbiotic bacteria. PMID:23934501

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds.

    PubMed

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B; Osman, Gammaa A M; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A H; Diab, Eiman E; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2014-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in antinutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.

  4. Genetic variability in Tunisian populations of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major) assessed by morphological and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rebaa, Feten; Abid, Ghassen; Aouida, Marwa; Abdelkarim, Souhir; Aroua, Ibtissem; Muhovski, Yordan; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; M'hamdi, Mahmoud; Sassi, Khaled; Jebara, Moez

    2017-04-01

    The genetic diversity of 21 faba bean populations was examined using morphological and molecular markers. DNA was extracted from 189 individuals and 8 microsatellite markers were genotyped individually in these 21 populations. A total of 53 alleles were obtained in all populations, with an average of 6.62 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosity was 0.38 and 0.62 respectively. The average polymorphism index content of SSR markers was 0.61, ranging from 0.31 to 0.81. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram clustered all the populations into two groups, each for them subdivided into 3 sub-groups according to geographical origin. Morphological variation showed that the populations were not grouped according to their geographical origin. Therefore, patterns of differentiation of morphological traits did not coincide with molecular differentiation, indicating that morphological variation does not reflect genetic subdivision in studied faba bean populations. Analysis of molecular variance revealed high levels of genetic variation (83%) within population and provides a good base for designing genetic improvement programs. The result of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that three dimensional principal components (PC1, PC2 and PC3) contributed 40.56% of the total variability and accounted with values of 20.64, 11.22 and 8.70%, respectively. Cluster analysis based on PCA indicated three separate groups of populations. The genetic relationships found between the 21 populations samples were the same in both the PCA and STRUCTURE analysis which support the results observed. These data may serve as a foundation for the development of faba bean breeding programs.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides from broad bean ( Vicia Faba L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaddou, H.; Mhaisen, M. T.; Al-Adamy, L. Z.; Naji, E. Z.

    Effect of gamma - irradiation ( 2.5-10 KGy ) on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides of broad bean were investigated. The method used for the cooked flavour analysis involved low temperature distillation. Gaschromatography was used to separate the flavour extracts into their various constituents. The major volatile free fatty acids isolated are C16, C18, C18:1, and C20. Identification of the major peaks from the non-acid fraction were carried out. Identified peaks were hydrocarbones, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and phenoles. Most of the compounds found to increase with increase in radiation dose. On the other hand, sensory evaluation tests indicated no changes in broad bean flavour quality after irradiation. Sugars were also analysed by gas chromatographic method after TMS-ether derivation. Fructose, ∞ and β -glucose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose were the major sugars present. The gas - forming oligosaccharides were found to decrease with increase in dose applied. On the other hand, other sugars found to increase with increase in radiation dose.

  6. Linking a Germplasm Collection of the Cover Crop Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) to Traits Related to Improved Nitrogen Fixation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hairy vetch is used as a leguminous cover crop throughout the United States providing important ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems (Abdul-Baki et al., 2002; Mohler and Teasdale, 1993; Puget and Drinkwater, 2001; Seo et al., 2006; Stute and Posner, 1995). Many traits found in hairy vetch have pro...

  7. Effects of soaking, boiling and autoclaving on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) differing in seed coat colours.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Konczak, Izabela; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The Australian grown faba beans of different seed coat colours were either soaked, boiled or autoclaved, and analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity using an array of reagent-based assays. Soaking, boiling and autoclaving were shown to lower the level of active compounds in faba beans. A significant amount of active compounds was leached to the soaking and cooking medium. Boiling was a better method in retaining active compounds in beans than autoclaving. The boiled beans had more active compounds than those of resulting cooking broths, which was the opposite observation when autoclaving. The buff-genotypes had a similar level of active compounds to red- and green-genotypes. The high performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation (HPLC-PCD) system detected a dense collection of high antioxidant HPLC peaks ('humps') in extracts of raw, soaked and boiled beans. The present findings encouraged consumption of faba beans together with cooking broth for the maximum potential health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Response of Bean (Vicia faba L.) Plants to Low Sink Demand by Measuring the Gas Exchange Rates and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII) function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. Methodology/Principal Finding Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand). On the 1st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca). From the 3rd to 9th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5th day. From the 11th to 21st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21st day. Conclusions Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non-stomatal limitation was associated with the inhibition of PSII electron transport chain. Our data suggests that the donor side of PSII was the most sensitive to low sink demand followed by the reaction center of PSII. The acceptor side of PSII may be the least sensitive. PMID:24324626

  10. [The feed value in growing pigs of a new cultivar of field beans (Vicia faba L.) supplemented with DL-methionine or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalog].

    PubMed

    Abel, H j; Burghard, G

    2002-02-01

    A basal control mixture of barley, soy bean meal and soy bean oil was replaced by 25% of the new field bean-cultivar 'Divine' and the resulting two mixtures were supplemented with minerals, trace elements, vitamins and amino acids according to the ideal protein concept. The control diet was adjusted with DL-methionine (DL-Met), the field bean mixture either with DL-Met or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalogue (DL-MHA) assuming biological equivalence on a molar basis for both supplements. The three experimental diets were fed to growing pigs (35-40 kg bwt.). Spontaneous urine samples were analysed separately for determining parameters that characterize the acid-base status of the pigs. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in nutrient digestibilities. The level of bacterially fermentable substances was increased in the diets containing field beans. The field beans contained 14 mg ME/kg DM. There were no significant (p < 0,05) differences in N- and mineral-retentions (Ca, P, Na, K) between the treatments. The stronger alkalinity found in urine after feeding the field bean mixtures resulted from a higher electrolyte balance of the diet.

  11. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J; Samei, A; Rahmani, H

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine chemical composition of raw and treated bitter vetch seed for use in poultry diets. Processing methods were: soaked in water for 12 h, then autoclaved and dried (SA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange of water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSC); coarsely ground, soaked in solution of 1% acetic acid for 24 h at 60 degrees C and dried (GAA). Raw bitter vetch seed was contained 94.52, 26.56, 0.4, 58.86, 3.38, 5.32, 12.28 and 14.20 percent DM, CP, EE, NFE, Ash, CF, ADF and NDF, respectively. Its GE, AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn values were 18.10, 13.15, 14.38, 14.10 and 14.69 MJ/kg, respectively. Results indicated that bitter vetch is a good source of Fe (340 ppm) and Cu (46.7 ppm). It s amino acid profile was suitable and methionine was the first limiting amino acid when compared with broiler and layer chicks requirements. Its canavanine and tannin content were 0.78 and 6.7 mg/kgDM, respectively. Processing methods improved CP and in some cases AMEn. All processing methods especially GSC resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in canavanine and tannin.

  13. Using different ratios of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for moult induction and post-moult performance in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, L; Sadeghi, Gh

    2009-03-01

    1. The applicability of different ratios of bitter vetch seed as a new method for moult induction in laying hens was studied. The effectiveness of bitter vetch seed on post-moult production and post-moult egg quality was also investigated. 2. A total of 120 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 78 weeks of age, were used in this study. The hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 24 birds each. The treatments were 30% bitter vetch seed (BV30) diet, 60% bitter vetch seed (BV60) diet, 90% bitter vetch seed (90BV) diet, feed withdrawal method (FW) and full-fed non-moulted control (CON). 3. Egg production ceased first in FW and BV90 treated hens and last in BV30 treated hens. As the percentage of bitter vetch seed increased in the moulting ration, feed intake decreased and body weight loss increased during the 10-d moult induction period. Time to first egg production was significantly greater in hens exposed to the FW and BV90 diets. 4. FW and BV90 treatment hens had significantly higher hen-d egg production than non-moulted control hens. Egg weight was significantly higher in BV30 and BV90 treatments. There were no differences in egg mass, feed intake and mortality among experimental treatments during the post-moult period. 5. No significant improvements were observed in exterior or interior egg quality in moulted hens, except for Haugh units, which were significantly higher in moulted hens when compared to the non-moulted control hens. 6. In conclusion, the present study showed ad libitum feeding of a layer ration with 90% of bitter vetch seed for 10 d proved to be effective for inducing moult, increasing post-moult egg production and improving some internal egg quality parameters.

  14. Effect of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds as a replacement protein source of soybean meal on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Abdullah Y; Muwalla, Marwan M; Qudsieh, Rasha I; Titi, Hosam H

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing the protein source of soybean meal (SBM) with different levels of bitter vetch seeds (BVS) in the diets of finishing Awassi ram lambs on performance, and carcass characteristics. Diets were designed based on replacing SBM with BVS as a percentage of the diet. Diets were: control (0% BVS), substituting 5% of SBM (5% BVS), 10% of SBM (10% BVS) and the entire SBM in the ration with BVS (15% BVS). Forty eight lambs (18.74 +/- 3.95 kg initial body weight and 70 days of age) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment diets (12 lambs/treatment). Lambs were given an adaptation period of 10 days and the experiment lasted for 84 days. At the end of the trial, a digestibility experiment was performed and 6 lambs from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics. Average daily gain tended (P = 0.07) to be higher for lambs fed 10% BVS when compared to the other diets. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher (P < 0.01) in control diet compared to the other diets. Fat depth (C) and leg fat depth (L3) tended (0.05 < P < 0.1) to be affected by BVS levels in the diet. Leg total lean % was the highest (P < 0.05) in 5% BVS and 10% BVS diets. These results suggest that substituting SBM with BVS in the diets did not influence performance or carcass characteristics of lambs. However, the cost of ration formulation decreases since SBM is a very expensive component of the ration.

  15. Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-06-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land.

  16. Stability of Lead Immobilized by Apatite in Lead-Containing Rhizosphere Soil of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa).

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted plant growth experiments using a rhizobox system to understand the growth of buckwheat and hairy vetch as well as the stability of lead immobilized by hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the lead-containing rhizosphere soil. The shoot dry weight of buckwheat did not significantly differ between the lead-containing rhizosphere soil with and without HAP, whereas that of hairy vetch with rhizosphere soil without HAP was reduced. Lead was not accumulated from the rhizosphere soil to the shoots of either plant when HAP was added. The percentage of each lead fraction in sequential extraction was approximately the same through the 3 mm of rhizosphere soils from the root surface and non-planted soil, with and without the addition of HAP. For hairy vetch, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil within 3 mm thickness from the root surface did not increase. However, for buckwheat, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil 1 mm from the root surface increased to the same level as that in the non-planted soil without HAP. Our results suggest that when applying phytostabilization combined with apatite to lead-contaminated soil, the plant that cannot re-mobilize lead should be selected.

  17. Effects of phytases and dehulling treatments on in vitro iron and zinc bioavailability in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour and legume fractions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Cui, Qunxiang

    2010-03-01

    In vitro digestions were performed on faba bean flours with decreased phytate contents and on 2 dephytinized or nondephytinized faba bean fractions, a dehulled faba bean fraction, and a hull fraction with low and high fiber and tannin contents, respectively. In vitro bioavailability iron and zinc was defined as the relative amount of iron and zinc that became soluble after enzymatic treatment. Faba bean samples were sequentially digested with enzymes, including amylase, pepsin, pancreatin, and bile, under certain conditions following the enzymatic degradation procedure. Iron and zinc in vitro bioavailability of whole faba bean flours were significantly improved by phytate degradation, even if the phytate were not all degraded. Total dephytinization of dehulled faba bean led to an obvious increase in iron and zinc in vitro bioavailability, but that of hulls had no effect on either iron or zinc in vitro bioavailability. Fibers and tannins other than phytate are more important in chelating a high proportion of iron and zinc in faba bean hulls.

  18. Feeding value of field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities for broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2017-04-01

    Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets. The Control diet contained as major ingredients wheat (400 g/kg) and soybean meal (SBM) (127 g/kg and 221 g crude protein/kg and 12.83 MJ AMEn/kg. To reduce nutrient density, the Control diet also contained washed sand at 119 g/kg. Another three diets containing 300 g/kg of each of three experimental field bean cultivar samples in replacement for SBM and sand were also mixed. Each diet was fed to nine pens with two male Ross 308 broilers. Diets high in tannin had low AMEn, ECR, DMR and NR (p < 0.001). Feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the pancreas and the proventriculus and gizzard (PG) of the birds. Supplementing diets with the enzyme mixture improved (p < 0.001) feed conversion efficiency, AMEn and all nutrient utilisation coefficients despite the tannins in diets. The enzyme mixture reduced ileal digesta viscosity (p < 0.001) and the weight of pancreas, total GIT and PG (p < 0.05) of the birds. It can be concluded that the feeding value of field beans with different tannin contents may vary when fed to broilers. The supplementation of the enzyme mixture improved the feeding value of diets for broilers. The beneficial effect of the addition of the enzyme mixture seems to be mediated through reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved nutrient availability.

  19. Oxidative damage and mutagenic potency of fast neutron and UV-B radiation in pollen mother cells and seed yield of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Abdel Haliem, Ekram; Abdullah, Hanan; Al-Huqail, Asma A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN) and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs), pollen grains (PGs) and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 10(6) n/cm(2)) and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles).

  20. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p < 0.001), and a lower determined apparent ME (p < 0.05), and DMD (p < 0.001) but a higher tannin degradability (p < 0.001). Compared to the Control diet, feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the proventriculus and gizzard of the birds, and also increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). Supplementing diets with the tannase-containing enzyme preparation improved dietary ME (p < 0.001), DMD (p < 0.001), NR (p < 0.001) and DEE (p < 0.05), but did not change tannin degradability. Heat treatment of the beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). The differences in the feeding value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry diet formulations by dose response trials with purified tannase preparations.

  1. Comparative genomics to bridge Vicia faba with model and closely-related legume species: stability of QTLs for flowering and yield-related traits.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Izquierdo, S; Avila, C M; Satovic, Z; Palomino, C; Gutierrez, N; Ellwood, S R; Phan, H T T; Cubero, J I; Torres, A M

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the development of an enhanced map in faba bean. The map contains 258 loci, mostly gene-based markers, organized in 16 linkage groups that expand 1,875 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 7.26 cM. The combination of EST-derived markers with a number of markers physically located or previously ascribed to chromosomes by trisomic segregation, allowed the allocation of eight linkage groups (229 markers), to specific chromosomes. Moreover, this approach provided anchor points to establish a global homology among the faba bean chromosomes and those of closely-related legumes species. The map was used to identify and validate, for the first time, QTLs controlling five flowering and reproductive traits: days to flowering, flowering length, pod length, number of seeds per pod and number of ovules per pod. Twelve QTLs stable in the 2 years of evaluation were identified in chromosomes II, V and VI. Comparative mapping suggested the conservation of one of the faba bean genomic regions controlling the character days to flowering in other five legume species (Medicago, Lotus, pea, lupine, chickpea). Additional syntenic co-localizations of QTLs controlling pod length and number of seeds per pod between faba bean and Lotus japonicus are likely. The new genetic map opens the way for further translational studies between faba bean and related legume species, and provides an efficient tool for breeding applications such as QTL analysis and marker-assisted selection.

  2. First-year results of evaluating winter-hardiness of 55 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions from the NPGS collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A two-location, replicated field trial was conducted to study the winterhardiness of 55 faba bean accessions maintained by the USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station in Pullman, WA. Thirty seeds from each entry were planted in single row plot (3.05 m long with 1.52 m between rows) in ...

  3. Performance of broilers and production and egg quality parameters of laying hens fed 60% raw or treated common vetch (Vicia sativa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Dakessian, P B; Darwish, A H; Uwayjan, M G; Dbouk, H K; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2001-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of feeding 60% untreated (U) or coarsely ground treated vetch (V) seeds on performance of broilers and laying hens. In Experiment 1, the V seeds were soaked in 1% NaHCO3 (1:10) or in 1% acetic acid (1:5) at room temperature for 24 h (RTAA). Birds on the NaHCO3-treated V diet had 100% mortality rate but had significantly longer survival time than those on UV (14.9 vs 5.1 d). Birds on RTAA-V survived and had similar BW and feed conversion but greater kidney size than those of the controls at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, control, UV, V soaked in water at 40 C (40WV), RTAA-V, and V soaked in acetic acid at 40 C (40AAV) diets were fed to laying hens for 84 d. The ground seeds in RTAA-V and 40AAV were soaked in acetic acid (1:10) at room temperature or at 40 C, respectively, for 24 h. For 40WV, the seeds were soaked in water (1:10) at 40 C for 72 h with a water change every 12 h. The UV-fed hens ceased egg production within 14 d and had the highest BW loss and the lowest feed intake among all treatments (P < 0.05). The 40WV and 40AAV significantly improved these criteria. Moreover, the RTAA-V resulted in performance comparable to that of the controls. Eggs produced by hens on treated V diets had similar weight but higher Haugh unit score (11 points), thinner shell, and lower yolk color score than those of the controls (P < 0.05). Results indicated that RTAA-V at 60% dietary level was not detrimental to broilers and laying hens.

  4. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae

    PubMed Central

    El-Komy, Mahmoud H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant) and Giza 40 (susceptible). Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) encoded by the genes PR-1 and β-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels. PMID:25506300

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CONTROL OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN SOIL UNDER BROAD BEAN VICIA FABA L. CULTIVATED IN CROP ROTATION AND LONG-TERM MONOCULTURE.

    PubMed

    Skwiercz, A T; Damszel, M; Stefanovska, T; Rychcik, B

    2015-01-01

    Observations on population density of plant parasitic nematodes occurring in rhizosphere of broad bean cultivated in the crop rotation and long-term monoculture were performed during 2013-2014. 13 species were observed: Trichodorus primitivus, T. viruliferus, Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Criconema annuliferum, Paratylenchus projectus, Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus fallax, P. flakkensis, P. neglectus, Heterodera triffolii, H. goettingiana, and Ditylenchus dipsaci. In monoculture plots 70-80% of eggs inside Heterodera cysts were colonized by pathogenic fungi (v.s. 50-62% of cysts from crop rotation). 12-18% of specimens of Pratylenchus species were colonized by the nematode-pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus penetrans.

  7. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  8. [Evaluation of the partial contribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and nonradioactive chemically toxic elements in formation of biological effects within the Vicia cracca population inhabiting the area contaminated with uranium-radium production wastes in the Komi Republic].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2014-01-01

    The site contaminated with uranium-radium production wastes in the Komi Republic was studied. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 228Th, 238U, 230Th, 232Th, 210Po, and 210Pb), as well as concentrations of nonradioactive chemically toxic elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, As, V, Mo, Sr, Y, and Ba) in the soil samples from the experimental site is 10-183 times higher than reference levels. A chronic exposure to alpha-emitters and nonradioactive chemically toxic elements causes adverse effects in tufted vetch (Vacia cracca L.) both at the cellular (aberration of chromosomes) and population (decrease in the reproductive ability) levels. Radionuclides are the main contributors to the decrease in the reproductive capacity and an increase in the level of the cytogenetic damage in root tip cells of tufted vetch seedlings. As and Pb significantly influence the reproductive capacity of plants. Sr, Zn, Y and P modify the biological effects caused by exposure to radionuclides. Moreover, P and Zn reduce the adverse effects of radionuclides; however, Sr and Y enhance these effects.

  9. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  10. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits.

  11. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  12. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells of Vicia faba L. is enhanced by fusicoccin and suppressed by abscisic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.; Aghoram, K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Plants regulate water loss and CO{sub 2} gain by modulating the aperture sizes of stomata that penetrate the epidermis. Aperture size itself is increased by osmolyte accumulation and consequent turgor increase in the pair of guard cells that flank each stoma. Guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the regulated step leading to malate synthesis, is crucial for charge and pH maintenance during osmolyte accumulation. Regulation of this cytosolic enzyme by effectors is well documented, but additional regulation by posttranslational modification is predicted by the alteration of PEPC kinetics during stomatal opening. In this study, the authors have investigated whether this alteration is associated with the phosphorylation status of this enzyme. Using sonicated epidermal peels (isolated guard cells) pre-loaded with {sub 32}PO{sub 4}, the authors induced stomatal opening and guard-cell malate accumulation by incubation with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with the FC antagonist, 10 {micro}M abscisic acid (ABA). The phosphorylation status of PEPC was assessed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and autoradiography. PEPC was phosphorylated when stomata were stimulated to open, and phosphorylation was lessened by incubation with ABA.

  13. Genetic diversity of resident soil rhizobia isolated from nodules of distinct hairy vetch genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is widely grown as a legume cover crop throughout the U.S.A., with biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through symbiosis with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae (Rlv) being one of the most sought after benefits of its cultivation. This study determined if HV culti...

  14. Phylogeny, phylogeography and genetic diversity of Pisum genus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tribe Fabeae (formerly Vicieae) contains some of humanity's most important grain legume crops, namely Lathyrus; Lens; Pisum; Vicia and the monotypic genus Vavilovia. Our study based on molecular data, have positioned Pisum between Vicia and Lathyrus and being closely allied to Vavilovia. Study of p...

  15. Favism: Current Problems and Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bottini, E.

    1973-01-01

    Haemolytic favism is a severe, acute anaemia which occurs in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals, usually following the ingestion of Vicia faba seeds. Current interest is focused on the nature of the active substances of Vicia faba and on the causes of the varying susceptibility among G6PD-deficient individuals to episodes of severe haemolysis. The results of experiments in vitro favour the hypothesis that Vicia faba contains several active substances which may act in a synergistic way. Red cell acid phosphatase and thalassaemia genes appear to play a remarkable role in conditioning the susceptibility to severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient subjects. In addition to erythrocyte enzymes and to enzymes which intervene in the absorption and metabolism of the active substances of Vicia faba, another field for future investigations may be that of plasma factors which influence the stability of reduced glutathione in the red cells. PMID:4714581

  16. Evaluating a core germplasm collection of the cover crop hairy vetch for use in sustainable farming systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding linkage between genotype and agronomically important phenotypes (early flowering, hard seed and winter hardiness) will facilitate cultivar selection and inform breeding programs concerned with the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). . We used molecular and biochemical techniques to...

  17. Diseases and Their Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Important diseases and their management practices of lentil were reviewed. The diseases reveiwed include Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta lentis), Anthracnose (Colletotrichum truncatum), White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), Botrytis gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and B. faba...

  18. The superoxide dismutase SodA is targeted to the periplasm in a SecA-dependent manner by a novel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Edwards, Anne; Downie, J Allan

    2011-10-01

    The manganese/iron-type superoxide dismutase (SodA) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 is exported to the periplasm of R. l. bv. viciae and Escherichia coli. However, it does not possess a hydrophobic cleaved N-terminal signal peptide typically present in soluble proteins exported by the Sec-dependent (Sec) pathway or the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway. A tatC mutant of R. l. bv. viciae exported SodA to the periplasm, ruling out export of SodA as a complex with a TAT substrate as a chaperone. The export of SodA was unaffected in a secB mutant of E. coli, but its export from R. l. bv. viciae was inhibited by azide, an inhibitor of SecA ATPase activity. A temperature-sensitive secA mutant of E. coli was strongly reduced for SodA export. The 10 N-terminal amino acid residues of SodA were sufficient to target the reporter protein alkaline phosphatase to the periplasm. Our results demonstrate the export of a protein lacking a classical signal peptide to the periplasm by a SecA-dependent, but SecB-independent targeting mechanism. Export of the R. l. bv. viciae SodA to the periplasm was not limited to the genus Rhizobium, but was also observed in other proteobacteria.

  19. Protein and amino acid composition of select wild legume species of tribe Fabeae.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Juan, Rocío; Pastor, Julio E; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2014-11-15

    The nutritional characteristics of seed proteins of 50 Spanish wild taxa of Lathyrus, Lens, Pisum and Vicia have been compared. The highest average protein richness and the in vitro protein digestibility have been observed in the genus Vicia and Lens, respectively, whereas the genus Pisum showed the lowest protein-digestibility corrected amino acid score. Using the K-means algorithm three clearly distinguished groups of taxa have been established in relation to their essential amino acid contents, protein richness, digestibility and nutritional parameters. The most adequate protein profile was observed in the taxa of group 1. This group includes four taxa of genus Lathyrus and nine taxa of genus Vicia. It should be noted that seven of the thirteen taxa included in this group have never been used as crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of high molecular weight plant nuclear DNA suitable for use in recombinant DNA technology.

    PubMed

    Kiss, T; Solymosy, F

    1987-01-01

    Nuclei isolated from leaf cells of broad bean (Vicia faba L) by a newly developed method based on the use of citric acid in the isolation medium and flotation on a Percoll cushion yielded high molecular weight plant nuclear DNA which was suitable for (i) analysis by restriction endonucleases, (ii) molecular cloning and (iii) genomic blot hybridization. Starting from nuclear preparations obtained by this method, U2 small nuclear RNA-specific DNA sequences were detected in Vicia faba L. This is the first report on the demonstration of small nuclear RNA-specific DNA sequences in plant material.

  1. Biologically Inspired Polymer Micro-Patterned Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    SEM image showing smooth adhesion pad at end of tibia in aphid Megoura viciae 12 2. Droplets left on glass slide from tarsal footprint of beetle...or they can be just a smooth pad as in cockroaches, aphids , and ants (see Figure 1b).3 •*,««, -«" Figure 1a. Scanning electron microscope (SEM...image showing smooth adhesion pad (p) at end of tibia in aphid Megoura viciae. [ta = tarsus, ti = tibia. Scale bar = 20 microns (adapted from Lees

  2. Hairy vetch seedbank persistence and implications for cover crop management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a fast growing, winter hardy annual legume that can produce shoot biomass levels upwards of 6500 kg ha-1. This cover crop is well suited for summer annual grain rotations, as it fixes considerable amounts of nitrogen, reduces erosion through rapid ground cover, an...

  3. Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

  4. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  5. Malonate Catabolism Does Not Drive N2 Fixation in Legume Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; East, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, malonyl-CoA synthetase, and malonate transporter mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and trifolii fixed N2 at wild-type rates on pea and clover, respectively. Thus, malonate does not drive N2 fixation in legume nodules. PMID:23666330

  6. Legume proportions, poultry litter, and tillage effects on cover crop decomposition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.)–cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop mixtures can provide N scavenging and N provisioning benefits in grain cropping systems. The objectives of this research were to determine, under field conditions, the effects of species proportions, tillage, and pelletized...

  7. [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].

    PubMed

    Agabeĭli, R A

    2012-01-01

    The antimutagenic and geroprotective activities of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have been demonstrated both on plant test systems--Allium fistulosum L., Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L. and on animals--Vistar rats. The possibilities of the mobilization of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts as antimutagenic agents are discussed.

  8. Legumes increase growth and alter foliar nutrient levels of black walnut saplings

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Felix Jr. Ponder; W.J. Rietveld

    1986-01-01

    Differences in herbaceous competition, growth, soil, and foliar nutrient levels were compared for black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) saplings growing on an upland and a bottomland site in southern Illinois, with covers of five different herbaceous legumes or naturally occurring forbs. Hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa Roth. ) increased...

  9. Cover crops for enriching soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) can be enriched with cover crops under agronomic crops, but little is known about their enrichment under bioenergy crops. Legume (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth]), nonlegume (rye [Secaele cereale L.]), a mixture of legume and nonlegume (hairy vetch and rye) and a co...

  10. Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species

    Treesearch

    W.J. Rietveld

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arboreseens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonieera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus...

  11. Effects of nano-ZnO on the agronomically relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of nano-ZnO (nZnO) on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied with garden pea and its compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure of peas to nZnO had no impact on germination, but significantly affected root length. Chronic exposure of plant to nZnO impac...

  12. Registration of four winter-hardy faba bean germplasm lines for use in winter pulse and cover crop development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a versatile crop grown for food, feed, vegetable, or cover crop purposes in many countries. In response to the growing demand for winter annual legumes for cover crop development in the United States, we developed four winter-hardy faba bean germplasm lines, WH-1 (Reg. N...

  13. Progress report on enhancing faba bean germplasm for improved winter-hardiness at Pullman, Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been cultivated from early Neolithic times. Numerous varieties have been selected for adaptation to a wide range of environments worldwide and for different end-uses such as dry grain, vegetable, feed, forage and green manure. The USDA faba bean germplasm collection con...

  14. Can leguminous cover crops partially replace nitrogen fertilization in Mississippi delta cotton production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Petroleum prices impacts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) N fertilization cost. A 3-year field study was conducted on a Dundee silt loam to assess the interactions of leguminous cover crops [none, Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum L.) or hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth] and N fertilization rate...

  15. Biomass and nitrogen accumulation of hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures as influenced by species proportions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The performance and suitability of a legume-grass cover crop mixture for specific functions may be influenced by the proportions of each species in the mixture. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate aboveground biomass and species biomass proportions at different hairy vetch (Vicia villo...

  16. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  17. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  18. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  19. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  20. Natural outcrossing rate of faba bean under Pullman field conditions and its implication to germplasm management and enhancement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm collection is managed by the cool season food legume curator of the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) in Pullman, Washington, USA. Knowledge of the natural outcrossing rate of this crop under Pullman field conditions will enable us to refi...

  1. Malonate catabolism does not drive N2 fixation in legume nodules.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; East, Alison K; Poole, Philip S

    2013-07-01

    Malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, malonyl-CoA synthetase, and malonate transporter mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and trifolii fixed N2 at wild-type rates on pea and clover, respectively. Thus, malonate does not drive N2 fixation in legume nodules.

  2. Agronomic performance of spring-sown Faba bean in Southeastern Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is the world’s third most important cool-season pulse crop. Currently, no commercial faba bean cultivars are available in the United States specifically selected for grain production. Therefore, a spring planted variety trial with eleven entries was conducted at two contras...

  3. Detection of genetic hazards from environmental chemicals with plant test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, B.S.; Sandhu, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    This book chapter reviews the methodology and utility of five plant bioassays for detecting the mutagenicity of environmental chemicals. The bioassays described in this chapter are Vicia faba root tip, Tradescantia micronucleus for chromosome aberrations, tradescantia stamen hair, Arabidopsis embryo for gene mutation, and wheat seedling assay for aneuploidy.

  4. N2 fixation of common and hairy vetches when intercropped into switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in alternatives to synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) forage and bioenergy production continues to increase, and interseeding legumes into swards may be one such prospect. Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) occurs naturally throughout the U.S. and has fewer ...

  5. Adaptation of autumn-sown faba bean germplasm to southeastern Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information regarding the suitability of autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in southeastern Washington is lacking. Therefore, a variety trial testing the effects of two sowing dates was conducted for two seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) at three locations, Central Ferry Research Farm (CF), Pomeroy, ...

  6. The Effect of Designated Pollutants on Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    aberration and mitotic inhibition induced by sodium fluoride and diethyl amine in root-tip cells of Allium cepa, A. sativum and Vicia faba, Egypt J...induced by sodium fluoride in Allium cepa root tip chromosomes, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 8:241-244. Mohamed, A. H., J. D. Smith, and H. G. Applegate

  7. Cropping history affects nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of distinct hairy vetch genotypes with resident soil rhizobia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Presence of compatible rhizobia strains is essential for nodulation and BNF of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, HV). We evaluated how past HV cultivation affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation across host genotypes. Five groups of HV genotypes were inoculated with soil dilutions from six paired fields,...

  8. Diospyros lotus L. fruit extract protects G6PD-deficient erythrocytes from hemolytic injury in vitro and in vivo: prevention of favism disorder.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, M; Hosseinimehr, S J; Shokrzadeh, M; Habibi, E; Ahmadi, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Diospyros lotus L. fruit extract against the hemolytic damage induced by Vicia faba beans extract in both G6PD enzyme-deficient human and rat erythrocyte in vitro and in vivo. In the former model, venous blood samples were obtained from five subjects with known G6PD deficiency and erythrocyte hemolysis induced by Vicia faba L. bean extract was asessed spectrophotometrically in the presence and absence of Diospyros lotus L. fruits extract. In the in vivo model, G6PD-deficient rats (induced by intraperitoneal injection of dehydroepiandrosterone for 35 days) pre-treated with different doses of Diospyros lotus L. (500, 750, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg, p.o for 7 days) were challenged with Vicia faba beans extract and the protective effect of the fruit extract against hemolysis was evaluated as above. The results have shown that Diospyros lotus L. fruits extract has antioxidant activity that may protect against hemolytic damage induced by Vicia faba bean extract in both G6PD-deficient human and rat erythrocytes. The study gives a scientific basis for the efficacy of the fruit extract as used in Iran. The fact that this was shown in human erythrocytes in vitro is significant and provides a rationale for further testing in vivo in G6PD-deficient human populations.

  9. Cover crops effectiveness for soil erosion control in Sicilian vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, L.; Novara, A.; Saladino, S.; Santoro, A.

    2009-04-01

    In vineyards, which are very common in Mediterranean area, cover crops are becoming increasingly used to reduce soil erosion. Cover crops reduce runoff by increasing infiltration and increasing roughness and then reducing the ovelandflow velocity. The aim of the present study was to quantify soil and water losses under different soil managements systems on vineyards. The study site was a Sauvignon blanc winegrape vineyard located in Southwestern Sicily. Vineyards were managed both traditionally (conventional tillage) and alternative management using cover crops: 1) Vicia faba ; 2) Vicia faba and Vicia sativa; 3) Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra; 4)Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina, 5) Triticum durum, 6) Triticum durum and Vicia sativa. To monitor water and sediment yield, a Gerlach trough was installed at each treatment on the vineyard inter-row, with the row vineyard used as a border (topographical border). Runoff was measured after each rainfall event (raingauge 0.2 mm accuracy) from November 2005 to April 2007. And sediments were measured after desiccation. The results show that runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under the treatments with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina (treatments 3 and 4). The soil losses were reduced by 73% under treatment 4 compared to the tillage plot. Conventional tillage and alternative management using Vicia faba cover crop (treatment 1) result the most ineffective treatment to soil erosion. These results show that the use of a cover crop can be a simple soil and water conservation practice in Sicilian vineyards. Key words: soil erosion, cover crops, vineyard, Mediterranean area.

  10. [Examination and composition of some legume seeds (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nierle, W; el Wahab el Bayâ, A

    1977-05-26

    The chemical composition of some legume seeds is reviewed. It was found that soy (Glycine soja), field beans (Vicia faba), Vicia sativa and Lens culingris (red seeds) have the highest protein content. There were only minor differences in amino acid composition except for glutamic acid. The lysine content of legume seeds was high. Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereal proteins, therefore cereal products can be improved nutritionally by addition of legume seed flour. Examination of polar lipids by thin layer chromatography revealed that lecithin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl inositol were the major components. However, Lupinus angustifolius contained two unknown polar lipid classes.--In contrary to previous literature the ripe legume seeds contained only a very small amount of galactosyl diglycerides; however legume seeds contain higher amounts of the compounds. The conection between biosynthesis of linolenic acid and the presence of galactosyl diglycerides in higher plants is discussed.

  11. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones.

  12. Comparative Studies on Plastoquinones. III. Distribution of Plastoquinones in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rita; Crane, F. L.

    1967-01-01

    The distribution of plastoquinones A 45, B and C was studied in representatives from 34 different plant families beginning with liverworts and mosses to higher plants. All of these species, including many monocots and dicots, contained significant amounts of the 3 quinones. Two species of Aesculus contained plastoquinone A 20 in addition to plastoquinone A 45, B, and C. Many dicots, such as Aesculus, watermelon, tobacco and tomato accumulated increasing quantities of plastoquinones A and C1-C4 during the growing season. The concentrations of plastoquinones B and C5-C6 tended to remain at a constant low level during the season (<0.01 μmole per mg chlorophyll). Preliminary studies with bean plants (Vicia faba and Phaseolus sp.) indicate that the levels of quinones varied little under different growth conditions (day length and temp.) although Vicia faba tended to have higher PQ A values with increased temperature. PMID:16656647

  13. Occurrence of lipid A variants with 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in lipopolysaccharides from members of the family Rhizobiaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, U.R.; Carlson, R.W. ); Mayer, H. ); Yokota, A. ); Hollingsworth, R.I. )

    1991-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) isolated from several strains of Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium, and Azorhizobium were screened for the presence of 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid. The LPSs from all strains, with the exception of Azorhizobium caulinodans, contained various amounts of this long-chain hydroxy fatty acid in the lipid A fractions. Analysis of the lipid A sugars revealed three types of backbones: those containing glucosamine (as found in Rhizobium meliloti and Thizobium fredii), those containing glucosamine and galacturonic acid (as found in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, trifolii, and viciae), and those containing clucosamine and galacturonic acid (as found in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, trifolii, and viciae), and those containing 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxyglucose either alone or in combination with glucosamine (as found in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strain DSM 30140). The distribution of 27-hydroxyoctacosamoic acid as well as analysis of lipid A backbone sugars revealed the taxonomic relatedness of various strains of the Rhizobiaceae.

  14. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis. PMID:26458981

  15. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  16. Characterization of Rhizobial Isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris by Staircase Electrophoresis of Low-Molecular-Weight RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Encarna; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Trujillo, Martha E.; Daza, Antonio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; van Berkum, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA molecules were analyzed to characterize rhizobial isolates that nodulate the common bean growing in Spain. Since LMW RNA profiles, determined by staircase electrophoresis, varied across the rhizobial species nodulating beans, we demonstrated that bean isolates recovered from Spanish soils presumptively could be characterized as Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and bv. trifolii, and Sinorhizobium fredii. PMID:11157280

  17. Rapid adjustment of guard-cell abscisic acid levels to current leaf-water status

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.J.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Detached broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets were water stressed; within 15 minutes, guard-cell abscisic acid (ABA) concentration increased ninefold. This result eliminates the apparent discrepancy raised by reports of no correlation between initial water-stress effects on stomata and leaf ABA concentration. Six hours after stress relief, guard-cell ABA concentration was near the prestress value, which would seem to implicate other factors in stress after-effects on stomata.

  18. [Bioindication of environmental quality based on plant mutational and modification variability].

    PubMed

    Mamedova, A O

    2009-01-01

    The level of mutations (aberrations of chromosomes, gene mutations) and modifications (bilateral asymmetry of the leaves) induced with NG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-zoguanidine) and granozane, as well as with environmental pollutants have been studied on Vicia faba, Triticum aestivum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Ligustrum japonicum, Olea europea. The tested xenobiotic increased the level of mutations and modifications. The bilateral asymmetry is suggested as a test for environmental quality assessment.

  19. [Light-dependent reactions of Mn2+ and P700+ in chloroplasts during flash illumination].

    PubMed

    Khangulov, S V; Gol'dfel'd, M G

    1978-01-01

    The changes of the light-induced ESR signal I and exogeneous Mn2+ ions in chloroplasts of Vicia faba plants have been studied under short flash excitation and weak background far red illumination. It is shown that Mn2+ ions reactivate the noncyclic electron transport in chloroplast previously inactivated with high tris concentrations under pulse illumination. Simultaneously with P700+ reduction the ESR signal of free Mn2+ ions decays stoichometrically to P700+ reduction.

  20. [Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts from Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica and Zea mays and peroxidase in eukaryotic cells].

    PubMed

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E; Alekperov, U K

    2004-01-01

    Antimutagene activity and high efficiency of antimutagene action of plant extracts from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), fig brunches (Ficus carica) and mays seedlings (Zea mays) and their ability to decrease the frequency of spontaneous and induced by gamma-rays chromosome aberrations in meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice have been shown. Comparative assessment of genoprotective properties of peroxidase and the studied extracts has revealed higher efficiency of antimutagene action of peroxidase.

  1. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  2. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  3. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipooligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, M; Quiclet-Sire, B; Kondorosi, E; Virelizer, H; Glushka, J N; Endre, G; Géro, S D; Kondorosi, A

    1992-01-01

    We have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain overexpressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C(16:2) or a C(16:3) acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. One of the tetrasaccharides is identical to the previously described NodRm-1 factor. The two pentasaccharides as well as NodRm-1 were purified and tested for biological activity. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 microM, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and Melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on Medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. We suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions. Images PMID:1729688

  4. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipo-oligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, M.; Kondorosi, E.; Quiclet-Sire, B.; Gero, S.D. ); Virelizier, H. ); Glushka, J.N. ); Endre, G.; Kondorosi, A. Inst. of Genetics, Szeged )

    1992-01-01

    The authors have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain over expressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-{beta}-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C{sub 16:2} or a C{sub 16:3} acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 {mu}M, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. They suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions.

  5. Generation of New Hydrogen-Recycling Rhizobiaceae Strains by Introduction of a Novel hup Minitransposon

    PubMed Central

    Báscones, Elena; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Jose Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution by nitrogenase is a source of inefficiency for the nitrogen fixation process by the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. To develop a strategy to generate rhizobial strains with H2-recycling ability, we have constructed a Tn5 derivative minitransposon (TnHB100) that contains the ca. 18-kb H2 uptake (hup) gene cluster from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791. Bacteroids from TnHB100-containing strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae PRE, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, R. etli, and Mesorhizobium loti expressed high levels of hydrogenase activity that resulted in full recycling of the hydrogen evolved by nitrogenase in nodules. Efficient processing of the hydrogenase large subunit (HupL) in these strains was shown by immunoblot analysis of bacteroid extracts. In contrast, Sinorhizobium meliloti, M. ciceri, and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae UML2 strains showed poor expression of the hup system that resulted in H2-evolving nodules. For the latter group of strains, no immunoreactive material was detected in bacteroid extracts using anti-HupL antiserum, suggesting a low level of transcription of hup genes or HupL instability. A general procedure for the characterization of the minitransposon insertion site and removal of antibiotic resistance gene included in TnHB100 has been developed and used to generate engineered strains suitable for field release. PMID:11010872

  6. Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2010-02-01

    Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body.

  7. A Study of Strategic Planning in the Defense-Electronics Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    modeled, but rather suggests what top magement should seek in plan content. Like Steiner, Payne presents his steps in question form: - Has the...labor costs so c. arketing strategy d. Trends within iudustry e. Technological changes affecting product cost and usage f. Ihrket penetration (percent...cannels Changing technology Trends in the economy Regulatory constraints Comumity constraints 5. Impact of trends and conditions on the company Problems

  8. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  9. Leachates of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash from Macao: heavy metal concentrations and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaolong; Wang, Xinming; Wei, Gangjian; Peng, Pingan; Yang, Yun; Cao, Zhaohui

    2007-04-01

    Heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) may leach into soil and groundwater and pose long-term risks to the environment. In this study, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was carried out on the MSWIBA from Macao. Heavy metals in leachates were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and genotoxicity of leachates was also evaluated by micronucleus (MN) assay with Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that the concentrations of aluminium (Al), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in the leachates were less than 0.01 mg l(-1), and those of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and molybdenum (Mo) were less than 0.1 mg l(-1). The concentrations of chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), selemium (Se), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and caesium (Cs) were between 0.11 mg l(-1) and 2.19 mg l(-1). Lead (Pb) concentrations, in particular, reached as high as 19.6 mg l(-1), significantly exceeding the maximum concentration limit (5 mg l(-1) for lead by TCLP). Compared with the negative group, a significant increase of MN frequencies was observed in the leachate-exposed groups (P<0.05). With the increase of heavy metals in the leachates, the toxic effects on the Vicia faba root tip cells increased, implying that heavy metals were the main factors causing the genotoxic effects. Our results suggested that apart from chemical analysis, bioassays like the MN assay of Vicia faba root tip cells should also be included in a battery of tests to assess the eco-environmental risks of bottom ashes before decisions can be made on the utilization, treatment or disposal.

  10. Natural variation in host-specific nodulation of pea is associated with a haplotype of the SYM37 LysM-type receptor-like kinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghui; Knox, Maggie R; Edwards, Anne; Hogg, Bridget; Ellis, T H Noel; Wei, Gehong; Downie, J Allan

    2011-11-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, which nodulates pea and vetch, makes a mixture of secreted nodulation signals (Nod factors) carrying either a C18:4 or a C18:1 N-linked acyl chain. Mutation of nodE blocks the formation of the C18:4 acyl chain, and nodE mutants, which produce only C18:1-containing Nod factors, are less efficient at nodulating pea. However, there is significant natural variation in the levels of nodulation of different pea cultivars by a nodE mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. Using recombinant inbred lines from two pea cultivars, one which nodulated relatively well and one very poorly by the nodE mutant, we mapped the nodE-dependent nodulation phenotype to a locus on pea linkage group I. This was close to Sym37 and PsK1, predicted to encode LysM-domain Nod-factor receptor-like proteins; the Sym2 locus that confers Nod-factor-specific nodulation is also in this region. We confirmed the map location using an introgression line carrying this region. Our data indicate that the nodE-dependent nodulation is not determined by the Sym2 locus. We identified several pea lines that are nodulated very poorly by the R. leguminosarum bv. viciae nodE mutant, sequenced the DNA of the predicted LysM-receptor domains of Sym37 and PsK1, and compared the sequences with those derived from pea cultivars that were relatively well nodulated by the nodE mutant. This revealed that one haplotype (encoding six conserved polymorphisms) of Sym37 is associated with very poor nodulation by the nodE mutant. There was no such correlation with polymorphisms at the PsK1 locus. We conclude that the natural variation in nodE-dependent nodulation in pea is most probably determined by the Sym37 haplotype.

  11. The cytochemical localization of ascorbic acid in root tip cells.

    PubMed

    JENSEN, W A; KAVALJIAN, L G

    1956-01-25

    The intracellular distribution of ascorbic acid was studied in frozen-dried root tips of Allium cepa and Vicia faba by the silver nitrate procedure. The sites of the ascorbic acid as indicated by the deposited silver appear as spherical (0.2 to 0.6 micro in diameter) cytoplasmic particles. The site appears to have small amounts of lipides and to be rich in ribonucleic acid. These particles are concluded to be submicroscopic in size and associated, in the elongating cell, with the cell surface. In the meristematic cells they appear fewer in number and are distributed throughout the cytoplasm.

  12. [A cytogenetic analysis of the antimutagenic action of alpha-tocopherol on spontaneous and radiation-induced chromosomal mutations].

    PubMed

    Alekperov, U K; Akhundova, D D

    1975-01-01

    The antimutagenic effect of alpha-tocopherol at concentrations of 1-10(-5)-1-10 mcC/ml was studied with respect to spontaneous and radiation-induced chromosome mutations in Allium fistulosum L. and Vicia faba L. It is established that at these concentrations alpha-tocopherol exhibits a significant antimutagenic activity, decreasing the frequency of chromosome mutations more than by 40-50%. No changes resulting from the antimutagenic effect of alpha-tocopherol were observed in the spectrum of structual mutations of chromosomes.

  13. THE CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN ROOT TIP CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, William A.; Kavaljian, Leroy G.

    1956-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of ascorbic acid was studied in frozen-dried root tips of Allium cepa and Vicia faba by the silver nitrate procedure. The sites of the ascorbic acid as indicated by the deposited silver appear as spherical (0.2 to 0.6 µ in diameter) cytoplasmic particles. The site appears to have small amounts of lipides and to be rich in ribonucleic acid. These particles are concluded to be submicroscopic in size and associated, in the elongating cell, with the cell surface. In the meristematic cells they appear fewer in number and are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. PMID:13295313

  14. Nonphysiological binding of ethylene by plants.

    PubMed

    Abeles, F B

    1984-03-01

    Ethylene binding to seedling tissue of Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, and Triticum aestivum was demonstrated by determining transit time required for ethylene to move through a glass tube filled with seedling tissue. Transit time for ethylene was greater than that for methane indicating that these tissues had an affinity for ethylene. However, the following observations suggest that the binding was not physiological. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as Ag(+) ions and CO(2) did not decrease binding. Mushrooms which have no known sites of ethylene action also demonstrated ethylene binding. The binding of acetylene, propylene, ethylene, propane, and ethane more closely followed their solubility in water than any known physiological activity.

  15. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  16. Lightcurve Results for Eleven Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartrelle, Gordon M.

    2012-04-01

    Differential photometry techniques were used to develop lightcurves, rotation periods and amplitudes for eleven main-belt asteroids: 833 Monica, 962 Aslog, 1020 Arcadia, 1082 Pirola, 1097 Vicia, 1122 Lugduna, 1145 Robelmonte, 1253 Frisia, 1256 Normannia, 1525 Savolinna, and 2324 Janice. Ground-based observations from Badlands Observatory (BLO) in Quinn, SD, as well as the University of North Dakota Observatory (UND) in Grand Forks, ND, provided the data for the project. A search of the asteroid lightcurve database (LCDB) did not reveal any previously reported results for seven of the eleven targets in this study.

  17. Absorption and translocation of 4-(trifluoromethyl)chlorobenzene in soil and crops

    SciTech Connect

    Cacco, G.; Ferrari, G.

    1982-01-01

    Water containing 1 mg/L 4-(trifluoro(/sup 14/C)methyl)chlorobenzene (TFCB) was supplied to pot cultures of three grass (Zea mays L.; Festuca rubra L.; Lolium multiflorum L.) and three legume (Vicia sativa L.; Trifolium perenne L.; Medicago sativa L.) species. The chemical was absorbed by soil and subsequently translocated to plant leaves at increasing amounts for maize to ryegrass, clover, alfalfa, red fescue, and vetch. Legumes showed a high capacity of degradation of the contaminant, suggesting their utilization to reclaim soil and water contaminated by TFCB.

  18. Nitrogen mineralization from selected /sup 15/N-labelled crop residues and humus as affected by inorganic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cover crops or crop residues as a source of N to succeeding crops has become a matter of increasing importance for economic and environmental reason. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the N contribution of four /sup 15/N labelled crop residues, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crimson clover (Trifolium encarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia sativa L.), to successive crops and to evaluate the effect of different organic (ON) and inorganic N (IN) combinations on mineralization of the above residues. Total /sup 15/N recovery from the residues ranged from 51% to 85% and 4% to 74% for the greenhouse and field studies, respectively.

  19. Effects of lectins with various carbohydrate binding specificities on lipid metabolism in isolated rat and hamster adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1989-01-01

    1. Mannose-binding and N-acetylglucosamine binding lectins exhibited potent antilipolytic and lipogenic activities. 2. Fucose-binding lectins had minimal lipogenic activity but possessed antilipolytic activity. 3. Most galactose-binding and N-acetylgalactosamine-binding lectins were devoid of significant antilipolytic and lipogenic activities. Notable exceptions were lectins from Momordica charantia, Wisteria floribunda, Vicia villosa, Codium fragile and the Siberian pine tree. lipogenic activity but lacked antilipolytic activity. 5. The galactose-binding horse gram and osage orange lectins exerted antilipolytic activity in hamster but not in rat adipocytes.

  20. Biological activities of pseudomycin A, a lipodepsinonapeptide from Pseudomonas syringae MSU 16H.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, D; Camoni, L; Marchiafava, C; Ballio, A

    1997-08-01

    Similarly to other Pseudomonas lipodepsinonapeptides, pseudomycin A inhibits proton extrusion from maize roots, promotes closure of stomata in Vicia faba, necrosis of tobacco leaves, haemolysis of human erythrocytes, affects H(+)-ATPase activity and proton translocation in plasma membrane vesicles, and stimulates succinate respiration in pea mitochondria. In general, the biological activities of pseudomycin A are lower than those of syringomycin-E, the prototype member of this family of bacterial metabolities. This difference might depend on the diverse number and distribution of charged residues in the peptide moiety of these compounds.