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Sample records for erythromycin

  1. Warfarin interaction with erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Sato, R I; Gray, D R; Brown, S E

    1984-12-01

    The drug interaction between warfarin and erythromycin is not well known. We report a case in which erythromycin was observed to markedly potentiate warfarin anticoagulation, resulting in hemorrhage in a patient treated for Legionella pneumonia. The morbidity of this drug interaction is enhanced in elderly patients who have infection accompanied by anorexia and/or fever and who are receiving intravenous erythromycin. The well-documented, temporal relationship established erythromycin as the interacting drug.

  2. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

  3. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2009-01-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice. PMID:24031450

  4. Erythromycin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as infections of the respiratory tract, including ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.Antibiotics such as erythromycin will not work for ...

  5. Ototoxic effect of erythromycin therapy.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, V G; Olson, N R

    1984-04-01

    Thirty-two cases of sudden, symmetrical, high-frequency, sensorineural hearing loss associated with intravenous (IV) and oral erythromycin therapy have been published since 1973. We treated a patient with reversible ototoxicity associated with IV erythromycin for the treatment of legionnaire's disease.

  6. 21 CFR 556.230 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.230 Erythromycin. Tolerances for residues of erythromycin in food are...

  7. 21 CFR 556.230 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.230 Erythromycin. Tolerances for residues of erythromycin in food are...

  8. 21 CFR 556.230 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.230 Erythromycin. Tolerances for residues of erythromycin in food are...

  9. 21 CFR 556.230 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.230 Erythromycin. Tolerances for residues of erythromycin in food are...

  10. 21 CFR 556.230 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.230 Erythromycin. Tolerances for residues of erythromycin in food are...

  11. [Erythromycin in therapy of cyclic vomiting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Momcilo; Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Berenji, Karolina

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an insufficiently understood disorder which manifests itself in stereotypical episodes of vomiting with no detectable organic cause. Considering its unknown aetiology, drugs borrowed from various medication classes are applied in the therapy of this disorder, with variable success. Among other medicaments, erythromycin is also used in treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome. This is a case study in which the application of erythromycin led to the prevention of attacks of cyclic vomiting syndrome. Our case report presents how periodical erythromycin therapy in two-week intervals at expected attack periods in a girl led to disappearance of cyclic vomiting. Adverse effects of erythromycin did not show up.

  12. Bioavailability and stability of erythromycin delayed release tablets.

    PubMed

    Ogwal, S; Xide, T U

    2001-12-01

    Erythromycin is available as the free base, ethylsuccinate, estolate, stearate, gluceptate, and lactobionate derivatives. When given orally erythromycin and its derivatives except the estolate are inactivated to some extent by the gastric acid and poor absorption may result. To establish whether delayed release erythromycin tablets meet the bioequivalent requirement for the market. Sectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the dissolution percentage of the tablets in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography and IBM/XT microcomputer was used to determine the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo. Dissolution percentage in thirty minutes reached 28.9% and in sixty minutes erythromycin was completely released. The parameters of the delayed release tablets were Tlag 2.3 hr, Tmax.4.5 hr, and Cmax 2.123 g/ml Ka 0.38048 hr(-1) T (1/2) 1.8 hr, V*C/F 49.721 AUC 12.9155. The relative bioavailability of erythromycin delayed release tablet to erythromycin capsules was 105.31% The content, appearance, and dissolution bioavailability of delayed release erythromycin tablets conforms to the United States pharmacopoeia standards. The tablets should be stored in a cool and dry place in airtight containers and the shelf life is temporarily assigned two years.

  13. Acute sensitivity of activated sludge bacteria to erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Alighardashi, A; Pandolfi, D; Potier, O; Pons, M N

    2009-12-30

    The presence of antibiotics in water resources has been disturbing news for the stakeholders who are responsible for public health and the drinking water supply. In many cases, biological wastewater treatment plants are the final opportunity in the water cycle to trap these substances. The sensitivity of activated sludge bacteria to erythromycin, a macrolide widely used in human medicine was investigated in batch toxicity tests using a concentration range of 1-300 mg L(-1). Erythromycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, has been found to significantly inhibit ammonification, nitritation and nitratation at concentrations higher than 20 mg L(-1). The degree of inhibition increased with greater concentrations of the antibiotic. Exposure to erythromycin also clearly affected heterotrophs, particularly filamentous bacteria, causing floc disintegration and breakage of filaments. Cell lysis was observed with the concomitant release of organic nitrogen (intracellular proteins) and soluble COD. Although erythromycin exhibits properties of a surfactant, this characteristic alone cannot explain the damage to heterotrophs: the effects from erythromycin were greater than those of Tween 80, a commonly used surfactant. Floc disruption can lead to the release of isolated bacteria, and possibly antibiotic resistance genes, into the environment.

  14. Comparison of the cumulative irritation potential of adapalene gel and cream with that of erythromycin/tretinoin solution and gel and erythromycin/isotretinoin gel.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, C; Poncet, M; Mesaros, S; Clucas, A; Baker, M; Soloff, A M

    2001-02-01

    Adapalene is a naphthoic acid derivative with retinoid activity that is effective in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. This study assessed the cumulative irritation potential of adapalene gel (0.1%) and adapalene cream (0.1%) compared with that of erythromycin (4%)/tretinoin (0.025%) solution, erythromycin (4%)/tretinoin (0.025%) gel, erythromycin (2%)/isotretinoin (0.05%) gel, and white petrolatum (negative control). This was a single-center, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, intraindividual comparison study in healthy subjects with normal skin. The cumulative irritation assay (patch test) was used to assess the potential for irritation (including erythema) of the treatments. Each subject received all study treatments, randomly applied under occlusion (patch), to sites on either side of the midline on the mid-thoracic area of the back. All patches were applied to the same sites throughout the study, unless the degree of reaction to the treatment or adhesive necessitated removal. For 3 weeks, each test material was applied daily, Monday through Friday, for approximately 24 hours; the Friday patches were left in place over the weekend for approximately 72 hours. All 36 subjects (26 men, 10 women; age, 18-49 years [mean, 30 years]) completed the study. In the course of the study, all subjects had > or =1 application discontinued prematurely on > or =1 site due to intolerance. There were no discontinuations with white petrolatum. All erythromycin/tretinoin gel patches were discontinued at day 10; 35 of 36 erythromycin/isotretinoin gel patches were discontinued at day 9; and 35 of 36 erythromycin/tretinoin solution patches were discontinued at day 11 or day 17. The adapalene products, although slightly more irritating (mean cumulative irritation index, 0.25-1) than white petrolatum, were significantly less irritating than the erythromycin/tretinoin and erythromycin/isotretinoin products (P < 0.01). Adapalene gel and cream were well tolerated

  15. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Combination of azelaic acid 5% and erythromycin 2% in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Tabatabaie, Hossein; Ajami, Marjan; Habibey, Rouhollah; Shizarpour, Mohammad; Babakoohi, Shahab; Rahshenas, Makan; Firooz, Alireza

    2010-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common problem, particularly among adolescents, which is usually resistant to monotherapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination of azelaic acid (AA) 5% and erythromycin 2% gel (AzE) compared with AA 20% or erythromycin 2% gels in facial acne vulgaris. We conducted a 12-week, multicenter, randomized double-blind study on 147 patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. Four treatment group were determined (placebo, erythromycin, AA and AzE) and followed in 4-week intervals for 12 weeks, except the placebo group which was changed to routine treatment after 4 weeks. The combination of AA 5% and erythromycin 2% gel significantly reduced the number of papules, pustules and comedones compared with placebo (p < 0.001), erythromycin 2% (p < 0.01) or AA 20% (p < 0.05). The incidence of adverse effects observed in patients treated with AzE (27%) was less than that with erythromycin 2% (54%) and AA 20% (45%). The combination of AA 5% and erythromycin 2% produced more potent therapeutic effects in comparison with erythromycin 2% or AA 20% alone, and with fewer side effects.

  17. Relative resistance to erythromycin in Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, A; Sweet, R L; Sugg, N; Schachter, J

    1980-01-01

    Recent Chlamydia trachomatis isolates were tested in a tissue culture system for susceptibility to tetracycline, erythromycin, rosaramicin, rifampin, and clindamycin. Rifampin was the most active drug (minimal inhibitory concentration, less than or equal to 0.02 microgram/ml). Tetracycline and rasaramicin were highly active, with a concentration of less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml being chlamydicidal. Clindamycin was least active on a weight basis, requiring up to 16 microgram/ml to prevent the passage of chlamydiae into a drug-free tissue culture system. Relative resistance to erythromycin was detected; two isolates were capable of limited replication in 1 microgram/ml. PMID:7447426

  18. SACE_3986, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, negatively controls erythromycin biosynthesis in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Panpan; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Congming; Wu, Hang; Yuan, Li; Huang, Xunduan; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-ce; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Buchang

    2014-07-01

    Erythromycin, a medically important antibiotic, is produced by Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster lacks a regulatory gene, and the regulation of its biosynthesis remains largely unknown. In this study, through gene deletion, complementation and overexpression experiments, we identified a novel TetR family transcriptional regulator SACE_3986 negatively regulating erythromycin biosynthesis in S. erythraea A226. When SACE_3986 was further inactivated in an industrial strain WB, erythromycin A yield of the mutant was increased by 54.2 % in average compared with that of its parent strain, displaying the universality of SACE_3986 as a repressor for erythromycin production in S. erythraea. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that SACE_3986 repressed the transcription of its adjacent gene SACE_3985 (which encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase), erythromycin biosynthetic gene eryAI and the resistance gene ermE. As determined by EMSA analysis, purified SACE_3986 protein specifically bound to the intergenic region between SACE_3985 and SACE_3986, whereas it did not bind to the promoter regions of eryAI and ermE. Furthermore, overexpression of SACE_3985 in A226 led to enhanced erythromycin A yield by at least 32.6 %. These findings indicate that SACE_3986 is a negative regulator of erythromycin biosynthesis, and the adjacent gene SACE_3985 is one of its target genes. The present study provides a basis to increase erythromycin production by engineering of SACE_3986 and SACE_3985 in S. erythraea.

  19. Synthesis of two and antibacterial activity of one novel oxime ether derivatives of erythromycin A.

    PubMed

    Dondas, H A; Yaktubay, N

    2003-10-01

    The synthesis of novel erythromycin A 9-O-(2-ethenesulfony-ethyl)-oxime and erythromycin A 9-O-(3-oxo-butyl)-oxime from erythromycin A (EA) by the Michael reaction is described and to describe the effects of transformation of ketone in position 9 of EA to an oxime ether. This transformation occurred in a single step without protecting of any functional moiety of erythromycin oxime and zero waste manner in good yield. The antibacterial screen of EA 9-O-(2-ethenesulfony-ethyl)-oxime is also reported.

  20. Antibacterial Effects of Levofloxacin, Erythromycin, and Rifampin in a Human Monocyte System against Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Baltch, Aldona L.; Smith, Raymond P.; Franke, Mary A.; Michelsen, Phyllis B.

    1998-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of levofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampin against intracellular Legionella pneumophila L-1033, serogroup 1, were studied. In an in vitro system utilizing adherent human monocytes, L. pneumophila L-1033, a phagocytosis time period of 1 h, and antibiotic (levofloxacin, erythromycin, and/or rifampin) at 1 to 10 times the MIC, the CFU/ml values for the monocyte lysate were determined during 0- to 4-day time periods. The decrease in CFU/ml with levofloxacin at pH 7.4 was rapid, occurring within 24 h, and was drug concentration dependent (P < 0.01). The decrease in CFU with rifampin was first observed at 48 h (P < 0.01), while only a minimal decrease in CFU/ml was observed with erythromycin. Combination of levofloxacin and rifampin and of levofloxacin and erythromycin at ten times their MICs significantly decreased the CFU/ml value (P < 0.01), to the value attained by levofloxacin alone, while combination of rifampin and erythromycin did not. Removal of levofloxacin after 24 h of incubation resulted in regrowth of L. pneumophila L-1033, while a continued slow decrease in CFU/ml was seen following rifampin removal; CFU/ml values were unaffected by the removal of erythromycin. At 4 days, and even in assays performed following antibiotic removal, the CFU/ml value continued to be lower in the levofloxacin and rifampin assays than in the assays with erythromycin. Levofloxacin had a significantly higher bactericidal activity against L. pneumophila L-1033 than erythromycin or rifampin. In these assays, the addition of erythromycin or rifampin did not affect the antibacterial activity of levofloxacin. PMID:9835507

  1. [Pharmacological availability of erythromycin granules for children's use].

    PubMed

    Korenev, S V; Garsheva, G B; Nesterova, L Ia; Grakovskaia, L K; Tentsova, A I

    1990-08-01

    Pharmaceutical availability of erythromycin granules with polymeric coating of different composition+ was studied. With an account of the ++anatomo-physiological features of a child organism and the properties of the antibiotic, acetylphthalyl cellulose in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or methyl cellulose was used as a film forming agent. The coated granules were estimated by such parameters as the time of disintegration and the rate of dissolution in various media. The results of the study showed that coating of the erythromycin granules with the film composed of acetylphthalyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in the ratio of 8 to 2 provided the required protection of the antibiotic in acid media and high pharmaceutical availability of the drug.

  2. Hepatic disposition of fexofenadine: influence of the transport inhibitors erythromycin and dibromosulphothalein.

    PubMed

    Milne, R W; Larsen, L A; Jørgensen, K L; Bastlund, J; Stretch, G R; Evans, A M

    2000-12-01

    To examine the disposition of fexofenadine in the isolated perfused rat liver and the influence of erythromycin and dibromosulphthalein (DBSP) on the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of fexofenadine. Livers from four groups of rats were perfused in a recirculatory manner with fexofenadine HCl added as a bolus (125, 250, 500, or 1000 microg) to perfusate. Livers from another three groups of rats were perfused with 250 microg of fexofenadine HCl. With one group as control, erythromycin (4.0 microg/ml) or DBSP (136 microg/ml) was added to the perfusate of the other groups. In all experiments, perfusate and bile were collected for 60 min; in addition, livers from the second experiment were retained for assay. Fexofenadine was determined in perfusate, bile, and homogenized liver by HPLC. The area under the curve (AUC) of fexofenadine was linearly related to concentration. It was unchanged from control (12,800 +/- 200 ng x h/ml) by erythromycin (14,400 +/- 2000 ng x h/ml), but was increased 95% by DBSP (25,000 +/- 2600 ng x h/ml, P <0.001). The ratios of the concentrations of fexofenadine in liver/perfusate were decreased significantly by DBSP; those for bile/liver were increased by erythromycin. Erythromycin reduced the canalicular transport of fexofenadine into bile, whereas DBSP reduced uptake across the sinusoidal membrane.

  3. Effect of erythromycin exposure on the growth, antioxidant system and photosynthesis of Microcystis flos-aquae.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jinjin; Guo, Peiyong; Peng, Xiaofang; Wen, Keqi

    2015-01-01

    Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, is commonly used in human life. This compound and its derivatives have been detected in various aquatic compartments and may pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. This study investigated the effects of erythromycin on the growth, antioxidant system and photosynthesis of Microcystis flos-aquae. The results showed that at 0.001-0.1 μg L(-1), erythromycin could stimulate the growth of M. flos-aquae and increase its photosynthetic activity; however, it did not significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) or the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, the growth of M. flos-aquae was significantly inhibited (p<0.01) at high levels of erythromycin, reaching an inhibition rate of 81.6% at 40 μg L(-1) erythromycin. At the same time, the activities of SOD and CAT along with MDA content also increased significantly (p<0.01), indicating that the high concentrations of erythromycin caused a severe oxidative stress on algae. However, the balance between oxidants and antioxidant enzymes were disrupted because ROS content simultaneously increased. In addition, the fluorescence parameters of M. flos-aquae decreased significantly with both exposure time and increasing concentration of erythromycin, indicating that photosynthesis was inhibited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Repeated maternal intramuscular or intraamniotic erythromycin incompletely resolves intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection in a sheep model of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Watts, Rory; Megharaj, Smruthi; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Spiller, O Brad; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp are the most commonly isolated microorganisms in association with preterm birth. Maternal erythromycin administration is a standard treatment for preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. There is little evidence of its effectiveness in eradicating Ureaplasma spp from the intrauterine cavity and fetus. We used a sheep model of intrauterine Ureaplasma spp infection to investigate the efficacy of repeated maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment to eradicate such an infection. Thirty ewes with singleton pregnancies received an intraamniotic injection of 10(7) color change units of erythromycin-sensitive Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 at 55 days' gestation. At 116 days' gestation, 28 ewes with viable fetuses were randomized to receive (1) intraamniotic and maternal intramuscular saline solution treatment (n = 8), (2) single intraamniotic and repeated maternal intramuscular erythromycin treatment (n = 10), or (3) single maternal intramuscular and repeated intraamniotic erythromycin treatment (n = 10). Fetuses were surgically delivered at 125 days' gestation. Treatment efficacy was assessed by culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and histopathologic evaluation. Animals treated with intraamniotic erythromycin had significantly less viable U parvum serovar 3 in the amniotic fluid at delivery. However, neither combination of maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment successfully cleared U parvum serovar 3 from the amniotic fluid or fetal tissues. Three de novo erythromycin-resistant U parvum isolates were identified in erythromycin-treated animals. Erythromycin treatment, given both to the ewe and into the amniotic cavity, fails to eradicate intrauterine and fetal U parvum serovar 3 infection and may lead to development of erythromycin resistant U parvum. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering of an Lrp family regulator SACE_Lrp improves erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Yunfu; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Min; Wu, Panpan; Wang, Yansheng; Li, Changrun; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Hang; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Buchang

    2017-01-01

    Leucine-responsive regulatory proteins (Lrps) are a group of transcriptional regulators that regulate diverse cellular processes in bacteria and archaea. However, the regulatory role of Lrps in antibiotic biosynthesis remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that SACE_5388, an Lrp family regulator named as SACE_Lrp, is an efficient regulator for transporting and catabolizing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), playing an important role in regulating erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. SACE_Lrp directly controlled the expression of the divergently transcribed SACE_5387-5386 operon putatively encoding a BCAA ABC transporter by interacting with the intergenic region between SACE_Lrp and SACE_5387 (SACE_Lrp-5387-int), and indirectly controlled the expression of ilvE putatively encoding an aminotransferase catabolizing BCAAs. BCAA catabolism is one source of the precursors for erythromycin biosynthesis. Lysine and arginine promoted the dissociation of SACE_Lrp from SACE_Lrp -5387-int, whereas histidine increased their binding. Gene disruption of SACE_Lrp (ΔSACE_Lrp) in S. erythraea A226 resulted in a 25% increase in erythromycin production, while overexpression of SACE_5387-5386 in A226 enhanced erythromycin production by 36%. Deletion of SACE_Lrp (WBΔSACE_Lrp) in the industrial strain S. erythraea WB enhanced erythromycin production by 19%, and overexpression of SACE_5387-5386 in WBΔSACE_Lrp (WBΔSACE_Lrp/5387-5386) increased erythromycin production by 41% compared to WB. Additionally, supplement of 10mM valine to WBΔSACE_Lrp/5387-5386 culture further increased total erythromycin production up to 48%. In a 5-L fermenter, the erythromycin accumulation in the engineered strain WBΔSACE_Lrp/5387-5386 with 10mM extra valine in the industrial culture media reached 5001mg/L, a 41% increase over 3503mg/L of WB. These insights into the molecular regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis by SACE_Lrp in S. erythraea are instrumental in increasing

  6. SACE_5599, a putative regulatory protein, is involved in morphological differentiation and erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Kirm, Benjamin; Magdevska, Vasilka; Tome, Miha; Horvat, Marinka; Karničar, Katarina; Petek, Marko; Vidmar, Robert; Baebler, Spela; Jamnik, Polona; Fujs, Štefan; Horvat, Jaka; Fonovič, Marko; Turk, Boris; Gruden, Kristina; Petković, Hrvoje; Kosec, Gregor

    2013-12-17

    Erythromycin is a medically important antibiotic, biosynthesized by the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Genes encoding erythromycin biosynthesis are organized in a gene cluster, spanning over 60 kbp of DNA. Most often, gene clusters encoding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites contain regulatory genes. In contrast, the erythromycin gene cluster does not contain regulatory genes and regulation of its biosynthesis has therefore remained poorly understood, which has for a long time limited genetic engineering approaches for erythromycin yield improvement. We used a comparative proteomic approach to screen for potential regulatory proteins involved in erythromycin biosynthesis. We have identified a putative regulatory protein SACE_5599 which shows significantly higher levels of expression in an erythromycin high-producing strain, compared to the wild type S. erythraea strain. SACE_5599 is a member of an uncharacterized family of putative regulatory genes, located in several actinomycete biosynthetic gene clusters. Importantly, increased expression of SACE_5599 was observed in the complex fermentation medium and at controlled bioprocess conditions, simulating a high-yield industrial fermentation process in the bioreactor. Inactivation of SACE_5599 in the high-producing strain significantly reduced erythromycin yield, in addition to drastically decreasing sporulation intensity of the SACE_5599-inactivated strains when cultivated on ABSM4 agar medium. In contrast, constitutive overexpression of SACE_5599 in the wild type NRRL23338 strain resulted in an increase of erythromycin yield by 32%. Similar yield increase was also observed when we overexpressed the bldD gene, a previously identified regulator of erythromycin biosynthesis, thereby for the first time revealing its potential for improving erythromycin biosynthesis. SACE_5599 is the second putative regulatory gene to be identified in S. erythraea which has positive influence on erythromycin yield. Like bld

  7. SACE_5599, a putative regulatory protein, is involved in morphological differentiation and erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythromycin is a medically important antibiotic, biosynthesized by the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Genes encoding erythromycin biosynthesis are organized in a gene cluster, spanning over 60 kbp of DNA. Most often, gene clusters encoding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites contain regulatory genes. In contrast, the erythromycin gene cluster does not contain regulatory genes and regulation of its biosynthesis has therefore remained poorly understood, which has for a long time limited genetic engineering approaches for erythromycin yield improvement. Results We used a comparative proteomic approach to screen for potential regulatory proteins involved in erythromycin biosynthesis. We have identified a putative regulatory protein SACE_5599 which shows significantly higher levels of expression in an erythromycin high-producing strain, compared to the wild type S. erythraea strain. SACE_5599 is a member of an uncharacterized family of putative regulatory genes, located in several actinomycete biosynthetic gene clusters. Importantly, increased expression of SACE_5599 was observed in the complex fermentation medium and at controlled bioprocess conditions, simulating a high-yield industrial fermentation process in the bioreactor. Inactivation of SACE_5599 in the high-producing strain significantly reduced erythromycin yield, in addition to drastically decreasing sporulation intensity of the SACE_5599-inactivated strains when cultivated on ABSM4 agar medium. In contrast, constitutive overexpression of SACE_5599 in the wild type NRRL23338 strain resulted in an increase of erythromycin yield by 32%. Similar yield increase was also observed when we overexpressed the bldD gene, a previously identified regulator of erythromycin biosynthesis, thereby for the first time revealing its potential for improving erythromycin biosynthesis. Conclusions SACE_5599 is the second putative regulatory gene to be identified in S. erythraea which has positive influence

  8. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in infants following pertussis prophylaxis with erythromycin--Knoxville, Tennessee, 1999.

    PubMed

    1999-12-17

    In February 1999, pertussis was diagnosed in six neonates born at hospital A in Knoxville, Tennessee. Because a health-care worker at hospital A was most likely the source of exposure, the local health department recommended on February 25, 1999, that erythromycin be prescribed as postexposure prophylaxis for the approximately 200 infants born at hospital A during February 1-24, 1999. In March 1999, local pediatric surgeons noticed an increased number of cases of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in the area, with seven cases occurring during a 2-week period. All seven IHPS cases were in infants born in hospital A during February who were given erythromycin orally for prophylaxis following possible exposure to pertussis, although none had pertussis diagnosed. The Tennessee Department of Health and CDC investigated the cluster of IHPS cases and its possible association with use of erythromycin. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which suggest a causal role of erythromycin in this cluster of IHPS cases.

  9. Preparation and characterization of erythromycin molecularly imprinted polymers based on distillation-precipitation polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Li, Le; Tang, Hui; Zhao, Feilang; Ye, Bang-Ce; Li, Yingchun; Yao, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Erythromycin-imprinted polymers with excellent recognition properties were prepared by an innovative strategy called distillation-precipitation polymerization. The interaction between erythromycin and methacrylic acid was studied by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, and the as-prepared materials were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, their binding performances were evaluated in detail by static, kinetic and selective sorption tests. It was found that the molecularly imprinted polymers afforded good morphology, monodispersity, and high adsorption capacity when the fraction of the monomers was 7 vol% in the whole reaction system, and the adsorption data for imprinted polymers correlated well with the Langmuir model. The maximum capacity of the imprinted and the non-imprinted polymers for adsorbing erythromycin is 44.03 and 19.95 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the imprinted polymers display higher affinity toward erythromycin, compared with its analogue roxithromycin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electronic structure of antibiotic erythromycin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor; Kovač, Branka

    2015-03-01

    The electronic structure of erythromycin A (ERYMA) molecule has been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and assigned (in the low ionization energy region only) by empirical arguments. The two orbitals with highest energy (lowest ionization energy) are localized on the nitrogen of the desosamine sugar functional group and on the ester group of macrolide (lactone) ring. We discuss how these orbital energies can help to rationalize the known mode of binding of ERYMA to their biological receptors.

  11. Erythromycin prophylaxis for Legionnaire's disease in immunosuppressed patients in a contaminated hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Vereerstraeten, P; Stolear, J C; Schoutens-Serruys, E; Maes, N; Thys, J P; Liesnard, C; Rost, F; Kinnaert, P; Toussaint, C

    1986-01-01

    Between January 1 and June 30, 1983, immunosuppressive drugs were administered in 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing 23 rejection episodes and in 3 patients with renal failure secondary to systemic disease. Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, pneumonia was diagnosed on 12/26 (47%) occasions. In an attempt to decrease this high rate, a program of erythromycin prophylaxis was instituted for every new patient who received immunosuppressive chemotherapy until eradication of the organism from the water supply could be realized. From July 1, 1983 to April 30, 1984, erythromycin prophylaxis (1.5-3 g/day by mouth) was administered during 39 episodes of high-dose immunosuppression (20 kidney graft recipients and 4 patients with systemic diseases); no cases of Legionnaire's disease were recorded. During the same period, erythromycin prophylaxis was withheld from 9 other high-dose immunosuppression episodes (7 kidney graft recipients and one patient with sarcoidosis); 5 cases of Legionnaire's disease occurred (56%) in this group. We conclude that erythromycin effectively protects immunocompromised patients in an environment contaminated with L pneumophila.

  12. Randomized Clinical Trial of Azithromycin vs. Erythromycin for the Treatment of Chlamydia Cervicitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, M. S.; Carter, S. G.; LeBoeuf, F. W.; Menard, M. K.; Rainwater, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the clinical effectiveness of azithromycin and erythromycin for the treatment of chlamydia cervicitis in pregnancy. Methods: All antepartum obstetrical patients underwent routine screening for chlamydia cervicitis using a DNA probe assay (Gen-Probe Pace, San Diego, CA). Women who tested positive for chlamydia cervicitis were prospectively randomized to receive either azithromycin 1 g orally at enrollment, or erythromycin 500 mg orally 4 times a day for 7 days. Sexual partners were referred to the county health department for evaluation and treatment. A test of cure was repeated in 2 weeks. Results were analyzed by chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test when indicated. Results: One hundred forty women tested positive for chlamydia cervicitis and agreed to randomization. There were 4 (6.2%) treatment failures in the azithromycin group and 18 (27.7%) in the erythromycin group (P = 0.005). Gastrointestinal side effects were reported by 42 (65.5%) of the women taking erythromycin, but only 12 (19.4%) of those taking azithromycin (P < 0.002). Gastrointestinal side effects and resultant noncompliance were significantly related to treatment failure with erythromycin. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the conclusion that a single dose of azithromycin is a significantly more effective and better tolerated treatment regimen for chlamydia cervicitis in pregnancy than erythromycin which is currently recommended. PMID:18476121

  13. Inactivation of SACE_3446, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, stimulates erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hang; Wang, Yansheng; Yuan, Li; Mao, Yongrong; Wang, Weiwei; Zhu, Lin; Wu, Panpan; Fu, Chengzhang; Müller, Rolf; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Buchang

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin A is a widely used antibiotic produced by Saccharopolyspora erythraea ; however, its biosynthetic cluster lacks a regulatory gene, limiting the yield enhancement via regulation engineering of S. erythraea . Herein, six TetR family transcriptional regulators (TFRs) belonging to three genomic context types were individually inactivated in S. erythraea A226, and one of them, SACE_3446, was proved to play a negative role in regulating erythromycin biosynthesis. EMSA and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that SACE_3446 covering intact N-terminal DNA binding domain specifically bound to the promoter regions of erythromycin biosynthetic gene eryAI , the resistant gene ermE and the adjacent gene SACE_3447 (encoding a long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase), and repressed their transcription. Furthermore, we explored the interaction relationships of SACE_3446 and previously identified TFRs (SACE_3986 and SACE_7301) associated with erythromycin production. Given demonstrated relatively independent regulation mode of SACE_3446 and SACE_3986 in erythromycin biosynthesis, we individually and concomitantly inactivated them in an industrial S. erythraea WB. Compared with WB, the WBΔ 3446 and WBΔ 3446 Δ 3986 mutants respectively displayed 36% and 65% yield enhancement of erythromycin A, following significantly elevated transcription of eryAI and ermE . When cultured in a 5 L fermentor, erythromycin A of WBΔ 3446 and WBΔ 3446 Δ 3986 successively reached 4095 mg/L and 4670 mg/L with 23% and 41% production improvement relative to WB. The strategy reported here will be useful to improve antibiotics production in other industrial actinomycete.

  14. Investigation into the interaction of methylparaben and erythromycin with human serum albumin using multispectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Naik, Keerti M; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the interaction of methylparaben and erythromycin with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied for the first time using spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy in combination with fluorescence quenching under physiological conditions. The binding parameters were evaluated using a fluorescence quenching method. Based on Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r between the donor (HSA) and the acceptor (methylparaben and erythromycin) was evaluated. UV/vis absorption, FTIR, synchronous and 3D spectral results showed that the conformation of HSA was changed in the presence of methylparaben and erythromycin. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation and are discussed. The effect of some biological metal ions and site probes on the binding of methylparaben and erythromycin to HSA were further examined. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Uptake of erythromycin by first-feeding sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), fed live or freeze-dried enriched adult Artemia or medicated pellets.

    PubMed

    Cook, M A; Rust, M B; Massee, K; Majack, T; Peterson, M E

    2003-05-01

    The potential to use adult Artemia to deliver erythromycin to first-feeding sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), was investigated in three trials. In the first trial, first-feeding sockeye were fed live erythromycin enriched adult Artemia or pellets containing equal amounts of erythromycin for 35 days. At the end of the trial, tissue erythromycin concentration of the fish fed the live Artemia was significantly greater (P < 0.05, 25.52 +/- 1.29 microg mL(-1); mean +/- SEM), than the tissue concentration of the fish fed the pellets (0.72 +/- 0.01 microg mL(-1)). In the second trial, first-feeding sockeye were fed either live or freeze-dried bioencapsulated erythromycin (adult Artemia) or pellets containing erythromycin daily for 21 days. Mean daily erythromycin concentration in fish fed the freeze-dried Artemia, live Artemia, or pellets did not differ significantly. In the third trial, apparent erythromycin digestibility was determined. Significantly more (P < 0.05) erythromycin was retained by juvenile sockeye fed freeze-dried bioencapsulated erythromycin (98.3 +/- 1.0%) compared with medicated pellets (89.2 +/- 1.7%). Uptake of bioencapsulated erythromycin from adult Artemia (live or freeze-dried) appears to be greater than uptake from pellets. Freeze-dried and live Artemia were equally effective at delivery suggesting enriched freeze-dried adult Artemia could be produced into a highly palatable, consistent, off-the-shelf product.

  16. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  17. The antibiotic azithromycin is a motilin receptor agonist in human stomach: comparison with erythromycin

    PubMed Central

    Broad, John; Sanger, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The antibiotic azithromycin is a suggested alternative to erythromycin for treating patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, although hypothesized to activate motilin receptors, supportive evidence is unavailable. This was investigated using recombinant and naturally expressed motilin receptors in human stomach, comparing azithromycin with erythromycin. Experimental Approach [125I]-motilin binding and calcium flux experiments were conducted using human recombinant motilin receptors in CHO cells. Neuromuscular activities were studied using circular muscle of human gastric antrum, after electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic nerves. Key Results Azithromycin (1–100 μM) and erythromycin (3–30 μM) concentration-dependently displaced [125I]-motilin binding to the motilin receptor (52 ± 7 and 58 ± 18% displacement at 100 and 30 μM respectively). Azithromycin, erythromycin and motilin concentration-dependently caused short-lived increases in intracellular [Ca2+] in cells expressing the motilin receptor. EC50 values were, respectively, 2.9, 0.92 and 0.036 μM (n = 3 each); and maximal activities were similar. In human stomach, EFS evoked cholinergically mediated contractions, attenuated by simultaneous nitrergic activation. Azithromycin and erythromycin lactobionate (30–300 μM each) facilitated these contractions (apparent Emax values of 2007 ± 396 and 1924 ± 1375%, n = 3–4 each concentration, respectively). These actions were slow in onset and faded slowly. The higher concentrations also evoked short-lived muscle contraction. Contractions to a submaximally effective concentration of carbachol were unaffected by either drug. Conclusions and Implications Azithromcyin activates human recombinant motilin receptors in therapeutically relevant concentrations, similar to erythromycin. In humans, gastric antrum azithromycin caused long-lasting facilitation of cholinergic activity. These actions explain the gastric prokinetic

  18. The extinction of topical erythromycin therapy for acne vulgaris and concern for the future of topical clindamycin.

    PubMed

    Austin, Brett A; Fleischer, Alan B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate changes in topical antibiotic prescribing trends for acne. We retrospectively reviewed the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 1993 to 2012 for all visits in which acne vulgaris was the primary diagnosis. Acne vulgaris represented an estimated 94.5 million (92.3, 96.8) visits during the 20-year study period. Bivariate analysis showed that over time erythromycin use declined (p < 0.001) and clindamycin use rose (p = 0.10). Multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of erythromycin use declined to near zero (p < 0.001), whereas clindamycin utilization increased (p < 0.05). PubMed searches of "erythromycin AND resistance" and "clindamycin AND resistance" demonstrated increasing publication frequency by year, fit with sigmoidal functions (erythromycin: R 2  =   0.93 and clindamycin: R 2  =   0.94). Yearly publications consistently exceeded 100 papers for erythromycin and clindamycin resistance in 1983 and 2003, respectively, roughly corresponding to the interval between reports of their utility in acne. Our findings suggest topical erythromycin use for acne has essentially ceased. By contrast, clindamycin use is increasing. Current recommendations discourage topical antibiotic monotherapy in favor of combination therapy with benzoyl peroxide and topical retinoids. Our group's previous work demonstrated that this trend is indeed occurring.

  19. Intracellular multiplication of Legionnaires' disease bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) in human monocytes is reversibly inhibited by erythromycin and rifampin.

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, M A; Silverstein, S C

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that virulent egg yolk-grown Legionella pneumophila, Philadelphia 1 strain, multiplies intracellularly in human blood monocytes and only intracellularly under tissue culture conditions. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of erythromycin and rifampin on L. pneumophila-monocyte interaction in vitro; erythromycin and rifampin are currently the drugs of choice for the treatment of Legionnaires' disease. The intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila is inhibited by erythromycin and rifampin, as measured by colony-forming units, whether the antibiotics are added just before or just after infection of monocytes with L. pneumophila, or 2 d after infection when L. pneumophila is in the logarithmic phase of growth in monocytes. Intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila is inhibited by 1.25 microgram/ml but not less than or equal to 0.125 microgram/ml erythromycin and 0.01 microgram/ml but not less than or equal to 0.001 microgram/ml rifampin. These concentrations of antibiotics are comparable to those that inhibit extracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila under cell-free conditions in artificial medium; the minimal inhibitory concentration is 0.37 microgram/ml for erythromycin and 0.002 microgram/ml for rifampin. Multiplication of L. pneumophila in the logarithmic phase of growth in monocytes is inhibited within 1 h of the addition of antibiotics. Intracellular bacteria inhibited from multiplying by antibiotics are not killed. By electron microscopy, the bacteria appear intact within membrane-bound vacuoles, studded with ribosomelike structures. L. pneumophila multiplying extracellularly on artificial medium is killed readily by relatively low concentrations of erythromycin and rifampin; the minimal bactericidal concentration is 1 microgram/ml for erythromycin and 0.009 microgram/ml for rifampin. In contrast, L. pneumophila multiplying intracellularly is resistant to killing by these concentrations of erythromycin and

  20. Thin-layer chromatographic determination of erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics in livestock products.

    PubMed

    Petz, M; Solly, R; Lymburn, M; Clear, M H

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for determination of 4 macrolide antibiotics in livestock products. Erythromycin, tylosin, oleandomycin, and spiramycin were extracted from animal tissues, milk, and egg with acetonitrile at pH 8.5. Cleanup was done by adding sodium chloride and dichloromethane, evaporating the organic layer, and subsequent acid/base partitioning. After the antibiotics were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), they were reacted with xanthydrol and could be detected as purple spots down to 0.02 mg/kg without interference by other commonly used therapeutic drugs (23 were tested). Anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid, cerium sulfate-molybdic acid, phosphomolybdic acid, and Dragendorff's reagent proved to be less sensitive as visualizing agents. For quantitation, TLC plates were scanned at 525 nm. Recoveries were between 71 and 96% for erythromycin and tylosin in liver, muscle, and egg at the 0.1-0.5 mg/kg level and 51% for erythromycin in milk at the 0.02 mg/kg level (coefficient of variation = 10-18%). Bioautography with Bacillus subtilis was used to confirm results, in addition to TLC analysis of derivatized antibiotics and liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Various derivatization procedures for erythromycin were investigated for improved ultra-violet or fluorescence detection in liquid chromatography.

  1. Effect of levofloxacin, erythromycin or rifampicin pretreatment on growth of Legionella pneumophila in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Baltch, A L; Franke, M; Hioe, W; Ritz, W; Michelsen, P

    1997-11-01

    Opsonophagocytic killing of some bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by phagocytes is enhanced by previous brief exposure of the organism to antibiotics. We studied the regrowth of Legionella pneumophila previously pretreated with levofloxacin, erythromycin and/or rifampicin in human monocytes. The MIC for the L. pneumophila isolate of levofloxacin, erythromycin and rifampicin was 0.03, 0.5 and 0.001 mg/L, respectively. Growth of L. pneumophila from buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar for 24 h was subcultured into BYE broth containing from 0 to 4x MIC of levofloxacin, erythromycin or rifampicin. After incubation at 35 degrees C in 5% CO2 for 18 h, the organisms were washed and opsonized with 20% heat inactivated pooled normal human serum. Thereafter, L. pneumophila was exposed to human monocytes (5:1 ratio) previously adhered to wells in tissue culture plates containing RPMI and 10% fetal calf serum. After 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, quantitative cultures of lysed human monocytes were done on BCYE agar. Our results indicate effective inhibition on L. pneumophila at 0 h regardless of the antibiotic (levofloxacin, rifampicin or erythromycin) or their concentrations (1x, 2x or 4x MIC). At 24, 48 and 72 h, recovery and regrowth of L. pneumophila were both antibiotic- and concentration-dependent. In comparison with controls (no antibiotic pretreatment), peak regrowth of L. pneumophila pretreated with either 1x MIC of levofloxacin or erythromycin was delayed (48 versus 24 h) and reduced (30% of control peak regrowth). Regrowth of L. pneumophila pretreated with 1x MIC of rifampicin continued beyond 72 h. Pretreatment with levofloxacin at 4x MIC caused the greatest degree of growth inhibition (2 log10). In contrast, at 72 h, regrowth of organisms pretreated with 4x MIC of erythromycin or rifampicin was less than peak control (P < 0.01) but greater than that seen with levofloxacin (P < 0.01). The rate and degree of regrowth of L

  2. [Antibiotic resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline of 573 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes (1992-1994)].

    PubMed

    Orden, B; Martínez, R; López de los Mozos, A; Franco, A

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this study was to know the antibiotic resistence of Streptococcus pyogenes to erythromycine, clindamycine and/or tetracycline in community samples. The second aim was to determine the existence of multiresistant strains and to know the relationship between resistant strains, clinical samples and age of the patient. A retrospective analysis was performed in all the strains of S. pyogenes isolated from January 1992 to December 1994. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied by MIC by the microdilution method using the Pasco semiautomatic system. During the study period 573 beta hemolytic streptococci were identified as S. pyogenes. The global resistance to erythromycine (2.8%), clindamycine (1.4%) and tetracycline (7.3%) remains at low levels but has significantly increased in the case of erythromycine (p < 0.05) and tetracycline (p < 0.05) over these 3 years. The incidence of strains resistant to clindamycine has also increased slowly although this rise is not significant. Five strains (0.9%) were not sensitive to the three antibiotics studied, 4 being isolated in the last trimester of 1994 in pharyngeal exudates. S. pyogenes resistant to erythromycine was most frequently isolated from cutaneous lesions and in pediatric patients (under the age of 14 years). These results confirm the trend towards an increase in the number of strains of S. pyogenes resistant to erythromycine, clindamycine and/or tetracycline, being most often found in cutaneous lesions and pediatric patients.

  3. Effect of erythromycin on image quality and transit time of capsule endoscopy: A two-center study

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Eva; Bogner, Ido; Barkay, Olga; Halpern, Zamir; Mahajna, Elisabeth; Depsames, Roman; Kopelman, Yael; Fireman, Zvi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of oral erythromycin vs no preparation with prokinetics on the transit time and the image quality of capsule endoscopy (CE) in evaluating small bowel (SB) pathology. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, blinded (to the type of preparation) review of 100 CE studies, 50 with no preparation with prokinetics from one medical center (Group A) and 50 from another center with administration of a single dose of 200 mg oral erythromycin 1 h prior to CE (Group B). Gastric, SB and total transit times were calculated, the presence of bile in the duodenum was scored, as was cleanliness within the proximal, middle and distal intestine. RESULTS: The erythromycin group had a slightly shorter gastric transit time (21 min vs 28 min, with no statistical significance). SB transit time was similar for both groups (all P > 0.05). Total transit time was almost identical in both groups. The rate of incomplete examination was 16% for Group A and 10% for Group B (P = 0.37). Bile and cleanliness scores in different parts of the intestine were similar for the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Preparation for capsule endoscopy with erythromycin does not affect SB or total transit time. It tends to reduce gastric transit time, but it does not increase the cecum-reaching rate. Erythromycin does not adversely affect image quality. We consider the routine use of oral erythromycin preparation as being unjustified, although it might be considered in patients with known prolonged gastric emptying time. PMID:18442206

  4. Structure and Function of the Macrolide Biosensor Protein, MphR(A), with and without Erythromycin

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianting; Sagar, Vatsala; Smolinsky, Adam

    2009-09-02

    The regulatory protein MphR(A) has recently seen extensive use in synthetic biological applications, such as metabolite sensing and exogenous control of gene expression. This protein negatively regulates the expression of a macrolide 2{prime}-phosphotransferase I resistance gene (mphA) via binding to a 35-bp DNA operator upstream of the start codon and is de-repressed by the presence of erythromycin. Here, we present the refined crystal structure of the MphR(A) protein free of erythromycin and that of the MphR(A) protein with bound erythromycin at 2.00- and 1.76-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. We also studied the DNA binding properties of the protein and identified mutants ofmore » MphR(A) that are defective in gene repression and ligand binding in a cell-based reporter assay. The combination of these two structures illustrates the molecular basis of erythromycin-induced gene expression and provides a framework for additional applied uses of this protein in the isolation and engineered biosynthesis of polyketide natural products.« less

  5. Erythromycin and penicillin resistance mechanisms among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Alper; Eser, Özgen Köseoğlu; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the species distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and erythromycin-penicillin resistance mechanisms of viridans streptococci (VGS) isolates from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases. Fifty VGS blood culture isolates were screened for their antibiotic susceptibilities against penicillin G, erythromycin and tetracycline by E-test. Clindamycin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin susceptibility were performed by broth microdilution method. Erythromycin and penicillin resistance genotypes, ermB and mefA/E, pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x are amplified using PCR method. The clinical isolates included Streptococcus mitis (n. 19), S.oralis (n. 13), S.sanguinis, S.parasanguinis (n. 6, each), S.salivarius, S.vestibularis (n. 2, each), S.constellatus, S.sobrinus (n. 1, each). The percentage resistance against erythromycin and penicillin was 36% and 30%, respectively. The genotypic carriage rate of erythromycin resistance genes were: 56% ermB, 28% mefE, 8% ermB+mefE. Penicillin-resistant isolates carried pbp2b (33.3%) and pbp2x (20%) genes. Twenty-four VGS isolates were recovered from patients with cancer. S.mitis and S.oralis predominated among patients with cancer who had erythromycin and penicillin resistance isolates. The importance of classical antimicrobial agents like penicillin and erythromycin warrants the continuous surveillance of invasive VGS isolates and can guide better treatment options especially in patients with underlying diseases.

  6. A comparative study of therapeutic response of patients with clinical chancroid to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and cotrimoxazole.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, P; Pandhi, R K; Khanna, N; Rattan, A; Misra, R S

    1998-07-01

    Cotrimoxazole has traditionally been used as first drug for treatment of chancroid in India. With reports of increasing resistance to the drug, this study was conducted to compare treatment response of clinical chancroid between ciprofloxacin, 500 mg twice daily for 3 days, erythromycin, 500 mg four times daily for 7 days, and double-strength cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim 160 mg + sulfamethoxazole 800 mg), twice daily for 7 days. Forty-six patients with a clinical diagnosis of chancroid were randomly divided into 3 groups. Sixteen patients received ciprofloxacin, whereas 15 each received erythromycin and cotrimoxazole. Patients were seen on day 7, 14, and if needed day 21. Clinical response was noted in terms of cure, improvement, or failure. Excellent response was observed to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin therapy with cure rates of 93.7% and 93.3%, respectively. Improvement was observed in 6.7% cases in both groups. There were no failures with either ciprofloxacin or erythromycin. Poor response to cotrimoxazole therapy was observed with 53.3% cure rates and a high failure rate of 46.7%. Ciprofloxacin and erythromycin are equally effective in chancroid. Ciprofloxacin is better in terms of dosage schedule, duration of treatment, and low cost. Cotrimoxazole should be discontinued as drug of choice because of high failure rates.

  7. Epidemiology of intestinal colonization by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae highly resistant to erythromycin in a hematology-oncology unit.

    PubMed Central

    Andremont, A; Sancho-Garnier, H; Tancrede, C

    1986-01-01

    Intestinal colonization by highly erythromycin-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was surveyed for 4 years in a hematology-oncology unit. Fifty-four of 555 patients (9.7%) were colonized, each with a different strain. The incidence of intestinal carriage was not correlated with erythromycin consumption in the ward but was strongly associated with individual exposure to erythromycin. PMID:3729363

  8. Sulphaphenazole, streptomycin and sulphaphenazole combination, trimethoprim, and erythromycin in the treatment of chancroid.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B; Sharma, V K; Bakaya, V

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and thirty six patients with chancroid were treated with four different treatment regimens; (A) Sulphaphenazole 1 g 12 hourly by mouth x 10 days (B) Inj streptomycin 1 g intramuscularly daily with sulphaphenazole 1 g 12 hourly orally x 10 days; (C) trimethoprim 200 mg 12 hourly by mouth x 7-10 days, and (D) erythromycin 500 mg 6 hourly orally x 7-10 days. Cure rates of 9% with sulphaphenazole alone, 48% with streptomycin and sulphaphenazole combination, 93% with trimethoprim and 100% with erythromycin were obtained. Sulphaphenazole alone or in combination with streptomycin were thus inferior in the treatment of chancroid. There is need for modification of treatment regimens recommended for chancroid in the textbooks of dermatology and venereology. Trimethoprim can be recommended as first line of treatment for chancroid in developing countries like India where resistance to trimethoprim is uncommon and erythromycin is suggested as a second line of therapy because by that time syphilis can be easily ruled out. PMID:2187791

  9. Evaluation of the effect of zinc acetate on the stratum corneum penetration kinetics of erythromycin in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Hoogdalem, E J; Terpstra, I J; Baven, A L

    1996-01-01

    Erythromycin with or without additional zinc acetate is used topically in the treatment of acne vulgaris. A potential effect of zinc on the stratum corneum penetration of erythromycin was investigated in human volunteers. Skin surface washings and tape strippings from the skin of the back were collected after drug applications in 12 subjects for quantification of erythromycin levels. Zinc acetate increased the amount remaining on the back skin at 6 h after application from 40 +/- 19 to 56 +/- 15% of the dose and, vice versa, reduced the amount in stratum corneum strips from 22 +/- 7 to 18 +/- 7%, both with statistical significance. The effect varied with body region. Zinc acetate thus provided to prolong the residence time of erythromycin on the skin.

  10. Ultraviolet reduction of erythromycin and tetracycline resistant heterotrophic bacteria and their resistance genes in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei-Ting; Yuan, Qing-Bin; Yang, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance in wastewater is becoming a major public health concern, but poorly understood about impact of disinfection on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. The UV disinfection of antibiotic resistant heterotrophic bacteria and their relevant genes in the wastewater of a municipal wastewater treatment plant has been evaluated. Two commonly used antibiotics, erythromycin and tetracycline were selected because of their wide occurrences in regard to the antibiotic resistance problem. After UV treatment at a fluence of 5mJcm(-2), the log reductions of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline in the wastewater were found to be 1.4±0.1 and 1.1±0.1, respectively. The proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (5%) was nearly double of that before UV disinfection (3%). Tetracycline-resistant bacteria exhibited more tolerance to UV irradiation compared to the erythromycin-resistant bacteria (p<0.05). Gene copy numbers were quantified via qPCR and normalized to the volume of original sample. The total concentrations of erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistance genes were (3.6±0.2)×10(5) and (2.5±0.1)×10(5) copies L(-1), respectively. UV treatment at a fluence of 5mJcm(-2) removed the total erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistance genes by 3.0±0.1 log and 1.9±0.1 log, respectively. UV treatment was effective in reducing antibiotic resistance in the wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohammad; Constable, Peter D

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves. 8 male Holstein-Friesian calves < 35 days old. Calves received each of 4 treatments in random order (2 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, IM [control treatment]; erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg, IM; tilmicosin, 10 mg/kg, SC; and tylosin, 17.6 mg/kg, IM). Calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg) 30 minutes later. Jugular venous blood samples and transabdominal ultrasonographic abomasal dimensions were obtained periodically after suckling. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed on the basis of the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration and ultrasonographic determination of the halftime of abomasal emptying. One-tailed Dunnett post tests were conducted whenever the F value for group was significant. Emptying rate was faster for erythromycin, tilimicosin, and tylosin than for the control treatment, as determined on the basis of time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Ultrasonography indicated that the half-time of abomasal emptying was significantly shorter for erythromycin than for the control treatment. Tylosin and tilmicosin accelerated the abomasal emptying rate, but not significantly, relative to the emptying rate for the control treatment. Administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin at the label dosage increased abomasal emptying rate in calves. The clinical importance of an increase in abomasal emptying rate in cattle remains to be determined.

  12. Topical Delivery of Erythromycin Through Cubosomes for Acne.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sana; Jain, Poorva; Jain, Sourabh; Jain, Richa; Bhargava, Saurabh; Jain, Aakanchha

    2018-01-01

    Topical delivery is an attractive route for local and systemic treatment. The novel topical application has many advantages like averting the GI-irritation, preventing the metabolism of drugs in the liver and increasing the bioavailability of the drug over the conventional dosage forms. The aim of present work was to prepare and characterized erythromycin encapsulated cubosomes using different concentrations of glyceryl monooleate and poloxamer 407 by the emulsification method. The prepared dispersion of cubosomes was characterized for surface morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Further, optimized formulation was converted to cubosomal gel by incorporating carbopol 934 at different concentrations. The prepared gel was characterized for homogeneity, pH, viscosity, spreadibility, drug content and in vitro drug release study. The result of optimized cubosomes showed average particle size of 264.5±2.84nm and entrapment efficiency about 95.29±1.32 % and the pH of optimized cubosomal was found to be 6.5, viscosity 2475-8901(cp), drug content 95.29% and the spreadability was found to be 11.74 gm.cm/sec. The in vitro drug release kinetics of optimized formulation was found to follow Korsmeyer peppas model having highest R2 value 0.835 and in vitro drug release of optimized erythromycin loaded cubosomal gel and plain drug gel in 24 hr was found to be 89.91±0.73 and 88.64±2.16, while in 36 hr plain drug gel and cubosomal gel showed drug release about 87.64±0.97 and 91.55±1.09, and sustained release was obtained after 24 hr in case of cubosomal gel. Thus, as a whole it can be concluded that erythromycin loaded cubosomes are effective in topically delivering drug in sustained and non-invasive manner for treatment and prevention of acne. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. PccD Regulates Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Exerts a Negative Effect on Erythromycin Production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Liu, Yong; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2018-04-15

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation is a major source of propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), a key precursor of erythromycin biosynthesis in Saccharopolyspora erythraea In this study, we found that the bkd operon, responsible for BCAA degradation, was regulated directly by PccD, a transcriptional regulator of propionyl-CoA carboxylase genes. The transcriptional level of the bkd operon was upregulated 5-fold in a pccD gene deletion strain (Δ pccD strain) and decreased 3-fold in a pccD overexpression strain (WT/pIB- pccD ), demonstrating that PccD was a negative transcriptional regulator of the operon. The deletion of pccD significantly improved the Δ pccD strain's growth rate, whereas pccD overexpression repressed WT/pIB- pccD growth rate, in basic Evans medium with 30 mM valine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The deletion of gdhA1 and the BcdhE1 gene (genes in the bkd operon) resulted in lower growth rates of Δ gdhA1 and ΔBcdhE1 strains, respectively, on 30 mM valine, further suggesting that the bkd operon is involved in BCAA degradation. Both bkd overexpression (WT/pIB- bkd ) and pccD inactivation (Δ pccD strain) improve erythromycin production (38% and 64%, respectively), whereas the erythromycin production of strain WT/pIB- pccD was decreased by 48%. Lastly, we explored the applications of engineering pccD and bkd in an industrial high-erythromycin-producing strain. pccD deletion in industrial strain S. erythraea E3 (E3 pccD ) improved erythromycin production by 20%, and the overexpression of bkd in E3Δ pccD (E3Δ pccD /pIB- bkd ) increased erythromycin production by 39% compared with S. erythraea E3 in an industrial fermentation medium. Addition of 30 mM valine to industrial fermentation medium further improved the erythromycin production by 23%, a 72% increase from the initial strain S. erythraea E3. IMPORTANCE We describe a bkd operon involved in BCAA degradation in S. erythraea The genes of the operon are repressed by a Tet

  14. Low-Dose Nocturnal Tegaserod or Erythromycin Delays Symptom Recurrence After Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Based on Presumed Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Walter; Lezcano, Sheila; Sun-Chuan, Dai; Low, Kimberly; Yang, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Our group previously demonstrated a deficiency of migrating motor complexes in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Based on disturbed fasting motility, we tested whether low-dose nocturnal erythromycin or tegaserod can prevent the recurrence of IBS symptoms after successful antibiotic treatment. Methods: 203 patient charts were reviewed to find IBS patients with SIBO, and treatment cycles were assessed to identify subjects with clinical and breath test resolution. The charts of those who met the inclusion criteria were reviewed to determine the method of prevention of symptom recurrence and the length of remission. The two preventive agents used were erythromycin (50 mg) or tegaserod (2–6 mg) orally at bedtime. Results: 64 patients met the inclusion criteria. Subjects receiving no prevention (n=6) after successful antibiotic treatment experienced symptom recurrence after 59.7±47.4 days. Prevention using erythromycin (n=42) demonstrated 138.5±132.2 symptom-free days (P=.08 vs no prevention) compared to 241.6±162.2 days with tegaserod (n=16; P=.003 vs no prevention; P=.004 vs erythromycin). Switching from erythromycin to tegaserod (n=20) extended resolution from 105.8±73.3 days to 199.7±162.9 days (P=.04). Changing from no therapy to erythromycin or tegaserod (n=6) extended recurrence from 41.0±44.8 days to 195.6±153.5 days (P=.06). Conclusion: Tegaserod significantly prevents the recurrence of IBS symptoms after antibiotic treatment compared to erythromycin or no prevention. PMID:20574504

  15. Dissecting and engineering of the TetR family regulator SACE_7301 for enhanced erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hang; Chen, Meng; Mao, Yongrong; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Xunduan; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce; Zhang, Lixin; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Buchang

    2014-11-13

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea was extensively utilized for the industrial-scale production of erythromycin A (Er-A), a macrolide antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Yet, S. erythraea lacks regulatory genes in the erythromycin biosynthetic gene (ery) cluster, hampering efforts to enhance Er-A production via the engineering of regulatory genes. By the chromosome gene inactivation technique based on homologous recombination with linearized DNA fragments, we have inactivated a number of candidate TetR family transcriptional regulators (TFRs) and identified one TFR (SACE_7301) positively controlling erythromycin biosynthesis in S. erythraea A226. qRT-PCR and EMSA analyses demonstrated that SACE_7301 activated the transcription of erythromycin biosynthetic gene eryAI and the resistance gene ermE by interacting with their promoter regions with low affinities, similar to BldD (SACE_2077) previously identified to regulate erythromycin biosynthesis and morphological differentiation. Therefore, we designed a strategy for overexpressing SACE_7301 with 1 to 3 extra copies under the control of PermE* in A226. Following up-regulated transcriptional expression of SACE_7301, eryAI and ermE, the SACE_7301-overexpressed strains all increased Er-A production over A226 proportional to the number of copies. Likewise, when SACE_7301 was overexpressed in an industrial S. erythraea WB strain, Er-A yields of the mutants WB/7301, WB/2×7301 and WB/3×7301 were respectively increased by 17%, 29% and 42% relative to that of WB. In a 5 L fermentor, Er-A accumulation increased to 4,230 mg/L with the highest-yield strain WB/3×7301, an approximately 27% production improvement over WB (3,322 mg/L). We have identified and characterized a TFR, SACE_7301, in S. erythraea that positively regulated erythromycin biosynthesis, and overexpression of SACE_7301 in wild-type and industrial S. erythraea strains enhanced Er-A yields. This study markedly improves our understanding of the unusual

  16. The motilin agonist erythromycin increases hunger by modulating homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits in healthy women: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongxing; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Deloose, Eveline; Iven, Julie; Weltens, Nathalie; Depoortere, Inge; O'daly, Owen; Tack, Jan; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2018-01-29

    The motilin agonist, erythromycin, induces gastric phase III of the migrating motor complex, which in turn generates hunger peaks. To identify the brain mechanisms underlying these orexigenic effects, 14 healthy women participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Functional magnetic resonance brain images were acquired for 50 minutes interprandially. Intravenous infusion of erythromycin (40 mg) or saline started 10 minutes after the start of scanning. Blood samples (for glucose and hormone levels) and hunger ratings were collected at fixed timepoints. Thirteen volunteers completed the study, without any adverse events. Brain regions involved in homeostatic and hedonic control of appetite and food intake responded to erythromycin, including pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, caudate, pallidum and putamen bilaterally, right accumbens, hypothalamus, and midbrain. Octanoylated ghrelin levels decreased, whereas both glucose and insulin increased after erythromycin. Hunger were higher after erythromycin, and these differences covaried with the brain response in most of the abovementioned regions. The motilin agonist erythromycin increases hunger by modulating neurocircuitry related to homeostatic and hedonic control of appetite and feeding. These results confirm recent behavioural findings identifying motilin as a key orexigenic hormone in humans, and identify the brain mechanisms underlying its effect.

  17. Electrogastrography in experimental pigs: the influence of gastrointestinal injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate on porcine gastric erythromycin-stimulated myoelectric activity.

    PubMed

    Tachecí, Ilja; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Kunes, Martin; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Pavlik, Michal; Kopacova, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bures, Jan; Pleskot, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive investigation of gastric myoelectrical activity. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of erythromycin on EGG in gastrointestinal toxic injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in experimental pigs. The experiments were carried out on 12 adult pigs (weighing 30-35 kg). EGG was recorded using Digitrapper equipment (Synectics Medical AB, Stockholm). Running spectrum activity was used for EGG evaluation. There were two groups of animals: Group I: 6 controls with erythromycin administration (1,600 mg intragastrically); Group II: 6 animals treated with DSS (for 5 days, 0.25 g/kg per day in a dietary bolus) followed by erythromycin administration. Baseline and subsequent six separate 30-minute EGG-recordings (from time 0 to 360 min) were accomplished in each animal. A total of 84 records were analysed. Baseline dominant frequency of slow waves was fully comparable in both groups. In Group I, there was a significant increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration (maximum between 240-360 min). There was a flat non-significant and delayed increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration in Group II. The difference between Group I and II at particular time intervals was not significant but a diverse trend was evident. EGG recording enables us to register a gastric myoelectrical effect of prokinetic drugs. Erythromycin induced a significant increase in the dominant frequency of slow waves. DSS caused toxic injury to the porcine gastrointestinal tract responsible for the delayed and weaker myoelectrical effect of erythromycin in experimental animals.

  18. Correlation between genetic features of the mef(A)-msr(D) locus and erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luca Agostino; Di Luca, Maria Chiara; Prenna, Manuela; Petrelli, Dezemona

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the genetic variation within mef(A)-msr(D) determinants of efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes and the level of erythromycin resistance. Twenty-eight mef(A)-positive strains were selected according to erythromycin MIC (4-32 μg/mL), and their mef(A)-msr(D) regions were sequenced. Strains were classified according to the bacteriophage carrying mef(A)-msr(D). A new Φm46.1 genetic variant was found in 8 strains out of 28 and named VP_00501.1. Degree of allelic variation was higher in mef(A) than in msr(D). Hotspots for recombination were mapped within the locus that could have shaped the apparent mosaic structure of the region. There was a general correlation between mef(A)-msr(D) sequence and erythromycin resistance level. However, lysogenic conversion of susceptible strains by mef(A)-msr(D)-carrying Φm46.1 indicated that key determinants may not all reside within the mef(A)-msr(D) locus and that horizontal gene transfer could contribute to changes in the level of antibiotic resistance in S. pyogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Significant decrease of broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation by dynamic regulation of ammonium sulfate and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Zejian; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Yu, Xiaoguang

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen sources on broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation were investigated. By controlling ammonium sulfate concentration, broth viscosity and glucose consumption were decreased by 18.2% and 61.6%, respectively, whereas erythromycin biosynthesis was little affected. Furthermore, erythromycin A production was increased by 8.7% still with characteristics of low broth viscosity and glucose consumption through the rational regulations of phosphate salt, soybean meal and ammonium sulfate. It was found that ammonium sulfate could effectively control proteinase activity, which was correlated with the utilization of soybean meal as well as cell growth. The pollets formation contributed much to the decrease of broth viscosity. The accumulation of extracellular propionate and succinate under the new regulation strategy indicated that higher propanol consumption might increase the concentration of methylmalonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA and thus could increase the flux leading to erythromycin A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FDA Approved Registration of Erythromycin for Treatment of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) in Juvenile and Adult Chinook Salmon : Annual Report, Reporting Period March 10, 1989 to March 9, 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffitt, Christine A.

    1991-04-01

    Erythromycin is a therapeutic substance useful against bacterial kidney disease in salmon. In 1989 we began a multi year project to learn more about erythromycin applied to juvenile and adult salmon, with the goal of achieving registration of erythromycin with the US Food and Drug Administration. To begin the study, we studied the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin administered to both adult and juvenile chinook salmon. We monitored blood plasmas time curves from individual adult fish injected with two forms of injectable erythromycin using one of three routes of administration. In addition, we began experiments to evaluate hatchery applications of erythromycin tomore » individually marked adult salmon, and we recovered blood tissues from these fish at the time of spawning. To determine how to use erythromycin in juvenile salmon, we evaluated the adsorption and elimination of erythromycin applied arterially and orally to individual juvenile fish. In feeding trials we determined the palatability to juvenile chinook salmon of feed made with one of two different carriers for erythromycin thiocyanate. 35 refs., 4 figs. , 3 tabs.« less

  1. Inhibitory and bactericidal activities of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampin used singly and in combination against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Baltch, A L; Smith, R P; Ritz, W

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 56 Legionella pneumophila isolates (43 clinical and 15 environmental isolates) to levofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampin were studied with buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar (inoculum, 10(4) CFU per spot), and the susceptibilities of five isolates were studied with buffered yeast extract (BYE) broth (inoculum, 10(5) CFU/ml). The MICs inhibiting 90% of strains tested on BCYE agar were 0.125, 0.25, 1.0, and < or = 0.004 micrograms/ml for levofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampin, respectively. The MICs by the BYE broth dilution method were 1 to 3, 2, 1 to 2, and 1 tube lower than those by the agar dilution method for levofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampin, respectively. The MBCs were 1 to 2 tubes higher than the broth dilution MICs for levofloxacin, 1 to 3 tubes higher than the broth dilution MICs for ofloxacin, 1 to 3 tubes higher than the broth dilution MICs for erythromycin, and the same as the broth dilution MICs for rifampin. In kinetic time-kill curve studies, at drug concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 times the MIC, the most active drugs were levofloxacin and rifampin. At 72 h, concentrations of levofloxacin and rifampin of 2.0 times the MIC demonstrated a bactericidal effect against L. pneumophila. In contrast, at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 times the MICs regrowth was observed with ofloxacin and only a gradual decrease in the numbers of CFU per milliliter was observed with erythromycin. Only a minor inhibitory effect was observed with 0.25 or 0.5 time the MICs of all drugs at 24 to 48 h, with regrowth occurring at 72 h. In contrast to erythromycin or ofloxacin plus rifampin at 0.25 time the MICs, only levofloxacin plus rifampin demonstrated synergy. Thus, levofloxacin demonstrated the best inhibitory and bactericidal effects against L. pneumophila when it was studied alone or in a combination with rifampin. PMID:7486896

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and erythromycin resistance mechanisms in beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis isolates from central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsueh-Hsia; Nien, Hao-Hsiang; Cheng, Ya-Yu; Su, Fang-Yi

    2015-12-01

    Information concerning antibiotics susceptibilities of beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) clinical isolates in central Taiwan was limited. Totally, 246 SDSE isolates were collected from mainly five regional hospitals, from February 2007 to August 2011. Disk diffusion method, broth microdilution method, and clindamycin induction test (D test) were respectively performed according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the corresponding erythromycin resistance genes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin. The rate of erythromycin resistance was 24.0% (59/246), whereas that of clindamycin resistance was 12.2% (30/246). The resistance rates of isolates from different hospitals varied from 15.0% to 45.5% for erythromycin and from 7.1% to 36.4% for clindamycin. For erythromycin-resistant SDSE isolates, three different phenotypes with resistance to macrolides (M), lincosamides (L), and type B streptogramins (SB) were observed: M (49.2%), constitutive MLSB (cMLSB, 35.6%), and inducible MLSB (iMLSB, 15.3%). All M phenotypic isolates carried mefA. The most prevalent genotypes among cMLSB and iMLSB phenotypic isolates were ermB, followed by ermTR. One isolate with cMLSB phenotype carried both ermB and ermTR, whereas one isolate with iMLSB phenotype carried both ermB and ermC. This is the first trial investigating the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and erythromycin resistance mechanisms of beta-hemolytic group G SDSE isolates in central Taiwan. The resistance rates for both erythromycin and clindamycin varied significantly among hospitals located in this area and should be monitored continuously in the future. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Arrangement and number of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers are associated with erythromycin susceptibility in emm12, emm75 and emm92 of group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, P-X; Chiang-Ni, C; Wang, S-Y; Tsai, P-J; Kuo, C-F; Chuang, W-J; Lin, Y-S; Liu, C-C; Wu, J-J

    2014-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are composed of numerous repeat-spacer units and are considered a prokaryotic defence system against foreign nucleic acids. Since antibiotic-resistant genes are frequently encoded in foreign nucleic acids, the aim of this study was to test whether erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is associated with characteristics of CRISPR elements. Erythromycin susceptibility of 330 isolates collected between 1997 and 2003 was analysed. Among 29 emm types, emm12, emm75 and emm92 showed significant changes in erythromycin-resistance rates. By sequencing the spacers from two CRISPR loci, spacer contents in emm12, emm75 and emm92 strains were associated with erythromycin susceptibility. Strains with fewer spacers were more resistant to erythromycin. Moreover, in emm4 strains, which showed no significant change in their annual erythromycin-resistance rate, CRISPR type and number of spacers were not correlated with erythromycin susceptibility. These results highlight a novel association between CRISPR spacer content and erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. Impact of Long-Term Erythromycin Therapy on the Oropharyngeal Microbiome and Resistance Gene Reservoir in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jocelyn M; Abell, Guy C J; Thomson, Rachel; Morgan, Lucy; Waterer, Grant; Gordon, David L; Taylor, Steven L; Leong, Lex E X; Wesselingh, Steve L; Burr, Lucy D; Rogers, Geraint B

    2018-04-25

    Long-term macrolide therapy reduces rates of pulmonary exacerbation in bronchiectasis. However, little is known about the potential for macrolide therapy to alter the composition and function of the oropharyngeal commensal microbiota or to increase the carriage of transmissible antimicrobial resistance. We assessed the effect of long-term erythromycin on oropharyngeal microbiota composition and the carriage of transmissible macrolide resistance genes in 84 adults with bronchiectasis, enrolled in the Bronchiectasis and Low-dose Erythromycin Study (BLESS) 48-week placebo-controlled trial of twice-daily erythromycin ethylsuccinate (400 mg). Oropharyngeal microbiota composition and macrolide resistance gene carriage were determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR, respectively. Long-term erythromycin treatment was associated with a significant increase in the relative abundance of oropharyngeal Haemophilus parainfluenzae ( P = 0.041) and with significant decreases in the relative abundances of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae ( P = 0.024) and Actinomyces odontolyticus ( P = 0.027). Validation of the sequencing results by quantitative PCR confirmed a significant decrease in the abundance of Actinomyces spp. ( P = 0.046). Erythromycin treatment did not result in a significant increase in the number of subjects who carried erm (A), erm (B), erm (C), erm (F), mef (A/E), and msrA macrolide resistance genes. However, the abundance of erm (B) and mef (A/E) gene copies within carriers who had received erythromycin increased significantly ( P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that changes in oropharyngeal microbiota composition resulting from long-term erythromycin treatment are modest and are limited to a discrete group of taxa. Associated increases in levels of transmissible antibiotic resistance genes within the oropharyngeal microbiota highlight the potential for this microbial system to act as a reservoir for resistance. IMPORTANCE Recent

  5. Effectiveness of Combined Therapy with Pirfenidone and Erythromycin for Unclassifiable Interstitial Pneumonia Induced by HTLV-1-associated Bronchioloalveolar Disorder (HABA)

    PubMed Central

    Yokohori, Naoko; Sato, Akitoshi; Hasegawa, Mizue; Katsura, Hideki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Takemura, Tamiko

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus involved in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTVL-1-associated bronchioloalveolar disorder (HABA). The clinical and pathological findings of HABA have been characterized as either a diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) pattern or idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) pattern. Treatments for HABA include corticosteroids for the IIP pattern and erythromycin for the DPB pattern. We herein report a case of HABA-associated unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia that improved with combined therapy with pirfenidone and erythromycin. This is the first report on the effectiveness of combined therapy with pirfenidone and erythromycin for HABA. PMID:28050003

  6. Profile of microflora of the posterior intestine of Chinook salmon before, during, and after administration of rations with and without erythromycin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, C.M.; Mobin, S.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the resident heterotrophic aerobic microflora of the salmonid posterior intestine before, during, and after the administration of rations with erythromycin in a hatchery raceway environment. We compare the profiles of medicated Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with those of control fish that were not fed erythromycin. The combined counts of bacteria and yeasts per gram of fish intestine originating from four upstream raceways ranged from 3.0 ?? 102 to 9.6 ?? 105 colony-forming units (CFU) over the study period. Yeasts were commonly identified in the gut, and abundances ranged from 0% to more than 80% of the CFU. Erythromycin therapy decreased the total microbial population and altered the bacterial diversity in the gut during treatment. The intestinal microbial populations in fish medicated with erythromycin increased rapidly after treatment ceased, and by 25 d after treatment the CFU were similar in samples from both medicated and control fish populations. Of 325 isolates from fish selected for biochemical profiles, we identified a total of eight gram-positive and eight gram-negative genera. Bacillus spp. were common throughout sampling and were identified in samples of fish feed. Erythromycin-resistant, gram-positive bacteria were observed throughout the sampling in medicated and control fish. We identified seven gram-positive and two gram-negative genera in 74 selected isolates from control and erythromycin feeds. Our studies suggest that the aerobic microflora of the posterior intestine varies over time, and it is likely that few resistant genera of concern to human health are present.

  7. Phenotypes and genotypes of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from invasive and non-invasive infections from Mexico and the USA during 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Katahira, Eva; Jaramillo-Valdivia, Abril N; Barajas-García, María de los Angeles; Bryant, Amy; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Márquez-Díaz, Francisco; Tinoco, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Corona, José; Stevens, Dennis L

    2012-03-01

    To compare the prevalence, phenotypes, and genes responsible for erythromycin resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Mexico and the USA. Eighty-nine invasive and 378 non-invasive isolates from Mexico, plus 148 invasive, 21 non-invasive, and five unclassified isolates from the USA were studied. Susceptibilities to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin were evaluated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. Phenotypes of erythromycin resistance were identified by triple disk test, and screening for mefA, ermTR, and ermB genes was carried out by PCR. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Erythromycin resistance was found in 4.9% of Mexican strains and 5.2% of USA strains. Phenotypes in Mexican strains were 95% M and 5% cMLS; in strains from the USA, phenotypes were 33.3% iMLS, 33.3% iMLS-D, and 33.3% M. Erythromycin resistance genes in strains from Mexico were mefA (95%) and ermB (5%); USA strains harbored ermTR (56%), mefA (33%), and none (11%). In Mexico, all erythromycin-resistant strains were non-invasive, whereas 89% of strains from the USA were invasive. Erythromycin resistance continues to exist at low levels in both Mexico and the USA, although the genetic mechanisms responsible differ between the two nations. These genetic differences may be related to the invasive character of the S. pyogenes isolated. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of pefloxacin in comparison with erythromycin in the treatment of experimental guinea pig legionellosis.

    PubMed

    Dournon, E; Rajagopalan, P; Vilde, J L; Pocidalo, J J

    1986-04-01

    Pefloxacin was compared to erythromycin in the treatment of guinea pigs severely infected with Legionella pneumophila. In this experimental model, two single intraperitoneal injections of either pefloxacin (10 mg/kg at 48 h and 5 mg/kg at 55 h) or erythromycin (40 mg/kg at 48 and 55 h) were administered 48 h post-infection (2 X 10(7) virulent L. pneumophila intraperitoneally). Counts of bacteria in blood monocytes and lungs of animals killed at different times after the completion of treatment, demonstrated a quick and highly significant reduction of the pretreatment bacterial load in pefloxacin-treated guinea pigs. Conversely, in erythromycin-treated animals the number of bacteria was only slightly reduced 17 h after the completion of the treatment and then multiplication up to pre-treatment levels occurred. The overall mortality was significantly lower in pefloxacin-treated animals with this therapeutic protocol. The remarkable results of pefloxacin in this model, were obtained with serum and lung levels of this drug lower than those achieved in man with the currently accepted regimens. Thus, pefloxacin appears to be a new promising antimicrobial agent for Legionnaire's disease.

  9. Blue-light photoelectrochemical sensor based on nickel tetra-amined phthalocyanine-graphene oxide covalent compound for ultrasensitive detection of erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinyun; Huang, Qing; Zhuge, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuxia; Zhang, Cuizong; Yang, Wei; Xiang, Gang

    2018-05-30

    In this study, we developed a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor for the highly sensitive detection of erythromycin by functionalising graphene oxide (GO) with nickel tetra-amined phthalocyanine (NiTAPc) through covalent bonding, which resulted in the formation of NiTAPc-Gr. The fabricated sensor showed a higher PEC efficiency under blue light, exhibiting a peak wavelength of 456 nm, as compared to that of the monomer. Further, the NiTAPc-Gr/indium tin oxide (ITO) sensor exhibited a photocurrent that was 50-fold higher than that for a GO/ITO sensor under the same conditions. Under optimal conditions, the NiTAPc-Gr PEC sensor showed a linear response for erythromycin concentrations ranging from 0.40 to 120.00 μmol L -1 , with the minimum limit for detection being 0.08 μmol L -1 . Thus, the NiTAPc-Gr sensor exhibited superior performance and excellent PEC characteristics, high stability, and good reproducibility with respect to the sensing of erythromycin. Moreover, it is convenient to use, fast, small, and cheap to produce. Hence, it should find wide use in the analysis of erythromycin in real-world applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Random transposon mutagenesis of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea genome reveals additional genes influencing erythromycin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fedashchin, Andrij; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Leach, Benjamin I.; Kwan, Noelle; Wesley, Roy K.; Weber, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    A single cycle of strain improvement was performed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea mutB and 15 genotypes influencing erythromycin production were found. Genotypes generated by transposon mutagenesis appeared in the screen at a frequency of ∼3%. Mutations affecting central metabolism and regulatory genes were found, as well as hydrolases, peptidases, glycosyl transferases and unknown genes. Only one mutant retained high erythromycin production when scaled-up from micro-agar plug fermentations to shake flasks. This mutant had a knockout of the cwh1 gene (SACE_1598), encoding a cell-wall-associated hydrolase. The cwh1 knockout produced visible growth and morphological defects on solid medium. This study demonstrated that random transposon mutagenesis uncovers strain improvement-related genes potentially useful for strain engineering. PMID:26468041

  11. Comparison of the effect of penicillins versus erythromycin in preventing neonatal group B streptococcus infection in active carriers following preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Sik Wing; Sahota, Daljit Singh; Leung, Tak Yeung

    2014-06-01

    To compare the incidence of neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) infection in active GBS carriers with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROMs) after penicillins and erythromycin prophylaxis. Patients diagnosed to have PPROM between 2004 and 2009 inclusive were treated using erythromycin (erythromycin group), ampicillin, amoxicillin or co-amoxiclav (penicillin group), or no antibiotics (control group) according to department protocols depending on their gestation and their GBS status at the time of presentation. Patients receiving both erythromycin and penicillins were included in the penicillin group. The incidence of neonatal GBS infection was compared between groups categorized according to the antibiotic regime received. A total of 680 women were diagnosed to have PPROM of which 85 (12.5%) were active GBS carriers. GBS isolates were 100% sensitive to penicillins but only 35% were sensitive to erythromycin. There were 16, 22, and 47 patients in the penicillin, erythromycin, and control groups, respectively. The incidence of neonatal GBS infection in the three groups was 0%, 36%, and 13%, respectively, and was statistically significant (p = 0.023). Penicillins are more effective than erythromycin in preventing neonatal GBS infection in women with PPROM who were active GBS carriers. Because most women do not know their GBS status at the time of PPROM and it is practically difficult to identify the active carriers before delivery, ampicillin/amoxicillin should be used as a prophylactic antibiotic for active GBS carriers and women with unknown GBS carriage status to prevent neonatal GBS infection following PPROM. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial consortia of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) upon exposure to trace erythromycin or erythromycin-H2O.

    PubMed

    Fan, Caian; He, Jianzhong

    2011-05-01

    A variety of antibiotics and their metabolites at sub-inhibitory level concentrations are suspected to expand resistance genes in the environment. However, knowledge is limited on the causal correlation of trace antibiotics or their metabolites with resistance proliferation. In this study, erythromycin (ERY) resistance genes were screened on microbial consortia of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) after one year acclimation to ERY (100 μg/L) or dehydrated erythromycin (ERY-H(2)O, 50 μg/L). The identified esterase gene ereA explains that ERY could be degraded to six products by microbes acclimated to ERY (100 μg/L). However, ERY could not be degraded by microbes acclimated to ERY-H(2)O (50 μg/L), which may be due to the less proliferated ereA gene. Biodegradation of ERY required the presence of exogenous carbon source (e.g., glucose) and nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) for assimilation, but overdosed ammonium-N (>40 mg/L) inhibited degradation of ERY. Zoogloea, a kind of biofilm formation bacteria, became predominant in the ERY degradation consortia, suggesting that the input of ERY could induce biofilm resistance to antibiotics. Our study highlights that lower μg/L level of ERY or ERY-H(2)O in the environment encourages expansion of resistance genes in microbes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenotypes and genotypes of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from invasive and non-invasive infections from Mexico and the USA during 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Katahira, Eva; Jaramillo-Valdivia, Abril N.; de los Angeles Barajas-García, María; Bryant, Amy; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Márquez-Díaz, Francisco; Tinoco, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Corona, José; Stevens, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective To compare the prevalence, phenotypes, and genes responsible for erythromycin resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Mexico and the USA. Methods Eighty-nine invasive and 378 non-invasive isolates from Mexico, plus 148 invasive, 21 non-invasive, and five unclassified isolates from the USA were studied. Susceptibilities to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin were evaluated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. Phenotypes of erythromycin resistance were identified by triple disk test, and screening for mefA, ermTR, and ermB genes was carried out by PCR. Results All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Erythromycin resistance was found in 4.9% of Mexican strains and 5.2% of USA strains. Phenotypes in Mexican strains were 95% M and 5% cMLS; in strains from the USA, phenotypes were 33.3% iMLS, 33.3% iMLS-D, and 33.3% M. Erythromycin resistance genes in strains from Mexico were mefA (95%) and ermB (5%); USA strains harbored ermTR (56%), mefA (33%), and none (11%). In Mexico, all erythromycin-resistant strains were non-invasive, whereas 89% of strains from the USA were invasive. Conclusions Erythromycin resistance continues to exist at low levels in both Mexico and the USA, although the genetic mechanisms responsible differ between the two nations. These genetic differences may be related to the invasive character of the S. pyogenes isolated. PMID:22217469

  14. The motilin receptor agonist erythromycin stimulates hunger and food intake through a cholinergic pathway.

    PubMed

    Deloose, Eveline; Vos, Rita; Janssen, Pieter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions have been identified as a hunger signal. These phase III contractions occur as part of the migrating motor complex (MMC), a contractility pattern of the gastrointestinal tract during fasting. The mechanism involved in this association between subjective hunger feelings and gastrointestinal motility during the MMC is largely unknown, however, as is its ability to stimulate food intake. We sought to 1) investigate the occurrence of hunger peaks and their relation to phase III contractions, 2) evaluate whether this relation was cholinergically driven, and 3) assess the ability of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin to induce food intake. An algorithm was developed to detect hunger peaks. The association with phase III contractions was studied in 14 healthy volunteers [50% men; mean ± SEM age: 25 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1]. The impact of pharmacologically induced phase III contractions on the occurrence of hunger peaks and the involvement of a cholinergic pathway were assessed in 14 healthy volunteers (43% men; age: 29 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 1). Last, the effect of erythromycin administration on food intake was examined in 15 healthy volunteers (40% men; age: 28 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 1). The occurrence of hunger peaks and their significant association with phase III contractions was confirmed (P < 0.0001). Pharmacologically induced phase III contractions were also significantly associated with hunger peaks (P < 0.05), and this association involved a cholinergic pathway. Administering erythromycin significantly stimulated food intake compared with placebo (53% ± 13% compared with 10% ± 5%; P < 0.05). Motilin-induced phase III contractions induced hunger feelings through a cholinergic pathway. Moreover, erythromycin stimulated food intake, suggesting a physiologic role of motilin as an orexigenic signal from the gastrointestinal tract. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  15. Azithromycin and erythromycin ameliorate the extent of colonic damage induced by acetic acid in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mahgoub, Afaf; El-Medany, Azza; Mustafa, Ali

    2005-05-15

    Ulcerative colitis is a common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. Recent studies have revealed the role of some microorganisms in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of antibiotics in the possible modulation of colon inflammation is still uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two macrolides, namely azithromycin and erythromycin, at different doses on the extent and severity of ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 3% acetic acid in rats. The lesions and the inflammatory response were assessed by histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and tumor necrosismore » factor alpha (TNF{alpha}) in colonic tissues. Inflammation following acetic acid instillation was characterized by oedema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis. Increase in MPO, NOS and TNF{alpha} was detected in the colonic tissues. Administration of either azithromycin or erythromycin at different dosage (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg orally, daily for 5 consecutive days) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonic damage, MPO and NOS activities as well as TNF{alpha} level. This reduction was highly significant with azithromycin when given at a dose of 40 mg/kg. It is concluded that azithromycin and erythromycin may have a beneficial therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis.« less

  16. Outcome of the Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study: results of a clinical trial of erythromycin among pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, M A; Regan, J A; Rao, A V; Nugent, R P; Blackwelder, W C; Eschenbach, D A; Pastorek, J G; Williams, S; Gibbs, R S; Carey, J C

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether erythromycin treatment of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci would reduce the occurrence of low birth weight (< 2500 gm) and preterm (< 37 completed weeks) birth. In a double-blind clinical trial, 938 carriers of group B streptococci were randomized to receive erythromycin base (333 mg three times a day) or matching placebo beginning during the third trimester and before 30 weeks and continuing for 10 weeks or until 35 weeks 6 days of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes were available for 97% of randomized women; 14% of subjects withdrew from the trial. Birth weight < 2500 gm occurred in 8.6% of the erythromycin and 6.1% of the placebo recipients (relative risk 1.4, 0.9 to 2.2, p = 0.16). Preterm delivery occurred in 11.4% of women randomized to erythromycin and in 12.3% randomized to placebo (relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence limits 0.6 to 1.3, p = 0.65). Greater benefit of erythromycin in reducing these outcomes was not observed among women reporting the best compliance. In this study of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci treatment with erythromycin was not shown to be effective at prolonging gestation or reducing low birth weight. Greater than anticipated complicating factors, including spontaneous clearance of the organism, use of nontrial antibiotics, and density of colonization, may have resulted in population sizes too small to detect a benefit of treatment. Future studies should take these factors into account in determining sample sizes.

  17. Preparation of well-defined erythromycin imprinted non-woven fabrics via radiation-induced RAFT-mediated grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söylemez, Meshude Akbulut; Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun

    2018-01-01

    Radiation-induced RAFT polymerization technique was applied to synthesize well-defined molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) of erythromycin (ERY). Methacrylic acid (MAA) was grafted onto porous polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fabrics, under γ-irradiation by employing 2-pheny-2-propyl benzodithioate as the RAFT agent and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker. MAA/erythromycin ratios of 2/1, 4/1, 6/1 were tested to optimize the synthesis of MIPs. The highest binding capacity was encountered at a MAA/ERY ratio of 4/1. Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were also synthesized in the absence of ERY. The MIPs synthesized by RAFT method presented a better binding capacity compared to those prepared by conventional method where no RAFT agent was employed.

  18. Comparison of the effect of a single dose of erythromycin with pantoprazole on gastric content volume and acidity in elective general surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Nidhi; Palta, Sanjeev; Arora, Kanika

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents remains one of the most feared complications of anesthesia. A gastric pH of 2.5 or less and a volume of 25 ml (0.4 ml/kg body weight) or more in average adult patients are considered critical factors for the development of pulmonary damage in adults. Materials and Methods: This study compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of erythromycin (a macrolide antibiotic) with oral pantoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) on pre-operative gastric fluid volume and pH in a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled fashion in 80 adult patients (of ASA physical status I and II) planned for elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 40 patients each. The pantoprazole group (Group I) received oral pantoprazole 40 mg and the erythromycin group (Group II) received oral erythromycin 250 mg at least 1 h prior to the induction of anesthesia. After tracheal intubation, gastric fluid was aspirated via a Salem Sump tube and its volume and pH were measured. Results: Although both erythromycin and pantoprazole decreased the gastric fluid volume to a similar extent, the decrease in gastric fluid acidity by pantoprazole was significantly greater than that by erythromycin. The proportion of patients at risk of pulmonary aspiration according to traditional criteria, i.e. pH ≤2.5 and volume ≥25ml, was lower in the pantoprazole group. Conclusion: Administration of pantoprazole was found to be more useful than a sub-therapeutic dose of erythromycin in decreasing both volume and acidity of gastric content. PMID:21772679

  19. Effect of Periodontal Therapy With Amoxicillin-Metronidazole on Pharyngeal Carriage of Penicillin- and Erythromycin-Resistant Viridans Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, Andrea; Cionca, Norbert; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria before and after periodontal therapy. The purpose of this analysis is to assess changes in resistance patterns of the commensal Gram-positive microbiota. The viridans group streptococci (VGS) have been suggested to serve as reservoirs of resistance genes for more pathogenic streptococci and may be implicated in some non-oral infections. In this randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with periodontitis are distributed randomly into two groups. In group A, patients received 375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole three times per day for 7 days during the non-surgical treatment phase (T1). In group B, the antibiotics were administered during the surgical phase (T2). Resistance of VGS to penicillin and erythromycin was determined by the epsilometer test. At baseline, VGS from 12.5% (group A) and 11.8% (group B) of patients had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >2 μg/mL to penicillin. Three months after T1, VGS from 15.6% and 16.7% of patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL, respectively. Six months after T2 VGS from 5.9% and 5.9% and 12 months after T2 VGS from 6.1% and 6.3% patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL. There was no effect of therapy with antibiotics, administered either in T1 or T2, on the carriage of penicillin-resistant VGS. Erythromycin resistance was high at baseline and remained unchanged throughout the study. MICs for penicillin and erythromycin were correlated (P <0.05). Amoxicillin plus metronidazole did not significantly affect the resistance pattern of the VGS to penicillin or erythromycin.

  20. Electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles fabricated molecularly imprinted polymer film at chitosan-platinum nanoparticles/graphene-gold nanoparticles double nanocomposites modified electrode for detection of erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Xing, Xianrong; Li, Jie; Cui, Min; Huang, Jiadong

    2012-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on gold electrode decorated by chitosan-platinum nanoparticles (CS-PtNPs) and graphene-gold nanoparticles (GR-AuNPs) nanocomposites for convenient and sensitive determination of erythromycin. The synergistic effects of CS-PtNPs and GR-AuNPs nanocomposites improved the electrochemical response and the sensitivity of the sensor. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared by HAuCl(4), 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA) and erythromycin. Erythromycin and MNA were used as template molecule and functional monomer, respectively. They were first assembled on the surface of GR-AuNPs/CS-PtNPs/gold electrode by the formation of Au-S bonds and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Then the MIPs were formed by electropolymerization of HAuCl(4), MNA and erythromycin. The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption speactra and amperometry. The linear range of the sensor was from 7.0 × 10(-8)mol/L-9.0 × 10(-5)mol/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 × 10(-8)mol/L (S/N=3). The sensor showed high selectivity, excellent stability and good reproducibility for the determination of erythromycin, and it was successfully applied to the detection of erythromycin in real spiked samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interlaboratory study of a liquid chromatography method for erythromycin: determination of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Dehouck, P; Vander Heyden, Y; Smeyers-Verbeke, J; Massart, D L; Marini, R D; Chiap, P; Hubert, Ph; Crommen, J; Van de Wauw, W; De Beer, J; Cox, R; Mathieu, G; Reepmeyer, J C; Voigt, B; Estevenon, O; Nicolas, A; Van Schepdael, A; Adams, E; Hoogmartens, J

    2003-08-22

    Erythromycin is a mixture of macrolide antibiotics produced by Saccharopolyspora erythreas during fermentation. A new method for the analysis of erythromycin by liquid chromatography has previously been developed. It makes use of an Astec C18 polymeric column. After validation in one laboratory, the method was now validated in an interlaboratory study. Validation studies are commonly used to test the fitness of the analytical method prior to its use for routine quality testing. The data derived in the interlaboratory study can be used to make an uncertainty statement as well. The relationship between validation and uncertainty statement is not clear for many analysts and there is a need to show how the existing data, derived during validation, can be used in practice. Eight laboratories participated in this interlaboratory study. The set-up allowed the determination of the repeatability variance, s(2)r and the between-laboratory variance, s(2)L. Combination of s(2)r and s(2)L results in the reproducibility variance s(2)R. It has been shown how these data can be used in future by a single laboratory that wants to make an uncertainty statement concerning the same analysis.

  2. Intrapleural combination therapy with lobaplatin and erythromycin for non-small cell lung cancer-mediated malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lisheng; Wang, Benjie; Gao, Meimei; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Qian; Li, Tao; Li, Caiyu; Wang, Aihua; Li, Yu

    2018-06-19

    Malignant pleural effusion is a common complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, treatment options remain limited. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sequential intrapleural therapy with lobaplatin and erythromycin for NSCLC-mediated malignant pleural effusion. Fifty-six patients with NSCLC complicated with malignant pleural effusion were recruited for a prospective single-arm study from December 2014 to 2016; one patient dropped out. In addition to conventional systemic chemotherapy, lobaplatin and erythromycin were intrapleurally injected into subjects. Short and long-term responses were analyzed. The concentration of ultrafilterable platinum in the pleural effusion and plasma were detected at different time points. Incidences of severe adverse reactions were observed. In the 55 evaluable patients, the effective rate of pleural effusion was 81.8% after six weeks of treatment. Six and twelve months after treatment, the effective rates were 60% and 21.8%, respectively, and the one-year survival rate was 83.6%. The concentrations of lobaplatin in pleural effusion and plasma two hours after injecting 50 mg lobaplatin into the thoracic cavity were 13.763 ± 1.523 μg/mL and 1.120 ± 0.164 μg/mL, and 17 hours later were 1.961 ± 0.351 μg/mL and 0.578 ± 0.095 μg/mL, respectively. The rate of severe adverse reactions of the first cycle of systemic chemotherapy combined with lobaplatin and erythromycin did not significantly differ from the rate in the second cycle. Intrapleural combination therapy with lobaplatin and erythromycin is a safe and efficient treatment for patients with NSCLC-mediated malignant pleural effusion. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. A comparison of erythromycin and cefadroxil in the prevention of flare-ups from asymptomatic teeth with pulpal necrosis and associated periapical pathosis.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Furst, M L; Lefkowitz, R D; D'Angelo, D; Esposito, J V

    1990-05-01

    In a previous study by our group with patients having asymptomatic teeth with pulpal necrosis and an associated periapical radiolucent lesion (PN/PL), it was shown that prophylactic administration of penicillin V or erythromycin (high-dose, 1-day regimen) resulted in a low incidence of flare-up (mean = 2.2%) and a low incidence of swelling and pain not associated with flare-up. No hypersensitivity responses occurred, and gastrointestinal side effects were found primarily with the erythromycins. To ascertain whether a single-dose administration of a long-acting 1-gm tablet of the cephalosporin antibiotic cefadroxil would result in a similar outcome, the present study was undertaken with 200 patients having quiescent PN/PL. The patients were randomly given either cefadroxil or erythromycin (base or stearate). Evaluations of flare-up were done 1 day, 1 week, and 2 months after endodontic treatment. A 2.0% flare-up incidence was found, with no statistically significant differences for cefadroxil (1.0%), stearate (2.0%), or base (4.0%). No hypersensitivity responses occurred. Gastrointestinal side effects were found primarily with the erythromycins (19.0%). The results showed that a 1-gm, single-dose regimen of cefadroxil was as effective as erythromycin and penicillin in preventing flare-ups and serious sequelae. A comparative analysis of the data from our first study (no peritreatment antibiotics) and the pooled data from our last three investigations (including the current trial) showed that peritreatment antibiotic coverage significantly reduced flare-ups and serious sequelae after endodontic treatment of asymptomatic PN/PL (p less than 0.001).

  4. Vaginal dysbiosis increases risk of preterm fetal membrane rupture, neonatal sepsis and is exacerbated by erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard G; Marchesi, Julian R; Lee, Yun S; Smith, Ann; Lehne, Benjamin; Kindinger, Lindsay M; Terzidou, Vasso; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Bennett, Phillip R; MacIntyre, David A

    2018-01-24

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM) precedes 30% of preterm births and is a risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. As PPROM is strongly associated with ascending vaginal infection, prophylactic antibiotics are widely used. The evolution of vaginal microbiota compositions associated with PPROM and the impact of antibiotics on bacterial compositions are unknown. We prospectively assessed vaginal microbiota prior to and following PPROM using MiSeq-based sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and examined the impact of erythromycin prophylaxis on bacterial load and community structures. In contrast to pregnancies delivering at term, vaginal dysbiosis characterised by Lactobacillus spp. depletion was present prior to the rupture of fetal membranes in approximately a third of cases (0% vs. 27%, P = 0.026) and persisted following membrane rupture (31%, P = 0.005). Vaginal dysbiosis was exacerbated by erythromycin treatment (47%, P = 0.00009) particularly in women initially colonised by Lactobacillus spp. Lactobacillus depletion and increased relative abundance of Sneathia spp. were associated with subsequent funisitis and early onset neonatal sepsis. Our data show that vaginal microbiota composition is a risk factor for subsequent PPROM and is associated with adverse short-term maternal and neonatal outcomes. This highlights vaginal microbiota as a potentially modifiable antenatal risk factor for PPROM and suggests that routine use of erythromycin for PPROM be re-examined.

  5. [Effect of erythromycin on electrical activity and gastric emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-feng; Liu, Cheng-jun; Shi, Zhi-hua; Liu, Xin-bo; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Fu-shun; Cao, Fu-min; Li, Bao-qing

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effect of erythromycin on electrical activity and emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Thirty patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer and esophagogastrostomy above the aortic arch were divided into the study group (n=15) and the control group (n=15). Electrogastrography and radionuclide gastric emptying were examined for these patients before and 1, 3, 6, 12 months after surgery. Patients in the study group received erythromycin (0.25 g tid po) for 1 week before examination. The wave amplitude (Uv), dominant frequency (CPM) and percentage of normal slow wave (%) of electrogastrogram decreased after surgery and returned to normal at the first postoperative month in the study group and the 12th postoperative month in the control group (P>0.05). Gastric emptying was significantly delayed after esophagectomy, and returned to normal one year after operation in the study group (P>0.05). However, gastric emptying remained abnormal in the control group (P<0.01). Erythromycin improves electrical activity and emptying of the stomach after esophagectomy for cancer. Gastric emptying recovery later than the recovery of electrical activity, which may be related to gastric ischemia and edema.

  6. Molecular basis for erythromycin-dependent ribosome-stalling during translation of the ErmBL leader peptide

    PubMed Central

    Arenz, Stefan; Ramu, Haripriya; Gupta, Pulkit; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S.; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, ribosome-stalling during translation of ErmBL leader peptide occurs in the presence of the antibiotic erythromycin and leads to induction of expression of the downstream macrolide resistance methyltransferase ErmB. The lack of structures of drug-dependent stalled ribosome complexes (SRCs) has limited our mechanistic understanding of this regulatory process. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the erythromycin-dependent ErmBL-SRC. The structure reveals that the antibiotic does not interact directly with ErmBL, but rather redirects the path of the peptide within the tunnel. Furthermore, we identify a key peptide-ribosome interaction that defines an important relay pathway from the ribosomal tunnel to the peptidyltransferase center (PTC). The PTC of the ErmBL-SRC appears to adopt an uninduced state that prevents accommodation of Lys-tRNA at the A-site, thus providing structural bases for understanding how the drug and the nascent peptide cooperate to inhibit peptide-bond formation and induce translation arrest. PMID:24662426

  7. Explaining the accelerated degradation of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethazine, and erythromycin in different soil exposure scenarios by their aqueous extractability.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Anaïs; Sabourin, Lyne; Asghar, Farah; Haudin, Claire-Sophie; Benoit, Pierre; Topp, Edward

    2018-06-01

    Antibiotics are frequently introduced into agricultural soils with the application of sewage sludge or farm organic fertilizers. Repeated exposure of soils to a pollutant can enrich for microbial populations that metabolize the chemical, reducing its environmental persistence. In London, Canada, soils from a long-term field experiment have received different concentrations of antibiotics annually for several years. The purpose of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of sulfamethazine, erythromycin, or ciprofloxacin through aqueous extractions with borax or EDTA solutions and their biodegradation following different soil exposure scenarios. Control soils and soils treated annually in the field with 10 mg antibiotics per kg were sampled, supplemented in the laboratory with radiolabeled antibiotic either added directly or carried in dairy manure. Sulfamethazine and erythromycin were initially more bioavailable than ciprofloxacin, with aqueous extractabilities representing 60, 36, and 8%, respectively. Sulfamethazine and erythromycin were degraded in soils, with a larger fraction mineralized in the long-term exposed soil (20 and 65%, respectively) than in control soil (0.4 and 3%, respectively) after 7 days of incubation. In contrast, ciprofloxacin was not mineralized neither in control nor long-term exposed soils. The mineralized fractions were similar for antibiotics added directly to soil or carried in dairy manure.

  8. Systems perspectives on erythromycin biosynthesis by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of S. erythraea E3 and NRRL23338 strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background S. erythraea is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium used for the industrial-scale production of erythromycin A which is of high clinical importance. In this work, we sequenced the whole genome of a high-producing strain (E3) obtained by random mutagenesis and screening from the wild-type strain NRRL23338, and examined time-series expression profiles of both E3 and NRRL23338. Based on the genomic data and transcriptpmic data of these two strains, we carried out comparative analysis of high-producing strain and wild-type strain at both the genomic level and the transcriptomic level. Results We observed a large number of genetic variants including 60 insertions, 46 deletions and 584 single nucleotide variations (SNV) in E3 in comparison with NRRL23338, and the analysis of time series transcriptomic data indicated that the genes involved in erythromycin biosynthesis and feeder pathways were significantly up-regulated during the 60 hours time-course. According to our data, BldD, a previously identified ery cluster regulator, did not show any positive correlations with the expression of ery cluster, suggesting the existence of alternative regulation mechanisms of erythromycin synthesis in S. erythraea. Several potential regulators were then proposed by integration analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data. Conclusion This is a demonstration of the functional comparative genomics between an industrial S. erythraea strain and the wild-type strain. These findings help to understand the global regulation mechanisms of erythromycin biosynthesis in S. erythraea, providing useful clues for genetic and metabolic engineering in the future. PMID:23902230

  9. Temporal decline in filling prescriptions for terfenadine closely in time with those for either ketoconazole or erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, G A; Sevka, M J; Temple, R; Honig, P K

    1997-01-01

    Temporal changes in the rates of filling terfenadine prescriptions within 2 days of those for either oral erythromycin or oral ketoconazole were described with use of paid pharmacy claims data from 1988 through 1994 in state Medicaid programs from Michigan and Ohio and in a large health maintenance organization. There were rapid and significant declines in the rates of filling prescriptions for either erythromycin or ketoconazole within 2 days of prescriptions for terfenadine in all three databases that coincided with 1992 publicity about the cardiovascular risk of terfenadine. These findings suggest that the use of terfenadine with contraindicated medications has declined in response to relabeling and publicity concerning the safe use of terfenadine. Further study is necessary to estimate the absolute level of concurrent use of terfenadine with contraindicated medications.

  10. Improving monitoring of erythromycin ribosome methylase genes in swine and cattle manures with gene targeted approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Macrolide antibiotics are often used in feed for animal industry to prevent diseases. Resistance to these antibiotics is associated with erythromycin ribosome methylase genes (erm genes), which were first discovered in Staphylococcus aureus. The erm gene confers resistance by methylating rRNA at the...

  11. Antibacterial activities of gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and erythromycin against intracellular Legionella pneumophila and Legionella micdadei in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Baltch, Aldona L; Bopp, Lawrence H; Smith, Raymond P; Michelsen, Phyllis B; Ritz, William J

    2005-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of a new fluoroquinolone, gemifloxacin, was tested against intracellular Legionella pneumophila and Legionella micdadei and was compared with the activities of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and erythromycin. For intracellular assays, bacteria were used to infect human monocyte-derived macrophages prepared from heparinized blood of healthy volunteers. Antibiotics were added following phagocytosis. Numbers of viable bacteria were determined at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The intracellular antibacterial activity of gemifloxacin was concentration- and time-dependent. All of the quinolones had similar activities against L. pneumophila and L. micdadei at 10 x MIC, but there were minor differences: at 24 h moxifloxacin was significantly more active than the other quinolones against L. pneumophila, while gemifloxacin was more active against L. micdadei (P < 0.01). All of the quinolones were markedly more active than erythromycin (P < 0.01). The antibacterial effect of gemifloxacin against L. pneumophila following drug removal at 24 h persisted for 72 h at 20 x MIC but not at 10 x MIC, while for L. micdadei the antibacterial effect persisted for 24 h at 10 x MIC. All of the quinolones had similar activities against intracellular L. pneumophila and L. micdadei and were markedly more effective than erythromycin.

  12. Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of members of the family Legionellaceae including erythromycin-resistant variants of Legionella micdadei.

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, J N; McDevitt, D A; Pasculle, A W

    1984-01-01

    Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of members of the family Legionellaceae was accomplished on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar by allowing the bacteria to grow for 6 h before placement of the disks, followed by an additional 42-h incubation period before the inhibitory zones were measured. This system was standardized by comparing the zone sizes with the MICs for 20 antimicrobial agents of nine bacterial strains in five Legionella species and of 19 laboratory-derived, erythromycin-resistant variants of Legionella micdadei. A high, linear correlation between zone size and MIC was found for erythromycin, trimethoprim, penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, moxalactam, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, and clindamycin. Disk susceptibility testing could be employed to screen Legionella isolates for resistance to any of these antimicrobial agents, of which only erythromycin is known to be efficacious in the treatment of legionellosis. With selected antibiotics, disk susceptibility patterns also appeared to accurately identify to the species level the legionellae. The range of the MICs of the legionellae for rifampin and the aminoglycosides was too small to determine whether the correlation of zone size with MIC was linear. However, laboratory-derived, high-level rifampin-resistant variants of L. micdadei demonstrated no inhibition zone around the rifampin disk, indicating that disk susceptibility testing would likely identify a rifampin-resistant clinical isolate. Of the antimicrobial agents tested, the only agents for which disk susceptibility testing was definitely not possible on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar were oxacillin, the tetracyclines, and the sulfonamides. PMID:6565706

  13. A Gene Homologous to rRNA Methylase Genes Confers Erythromycin and Clindamycin Resistance in Bifidobacterium breve.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Noelia; Luque, Roberto; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Bañuelos, Oscar; Margolles, Abelardo

    2018-05-15

    Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria, and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are nonpathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance determinants for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. In order to delimit the genomic region responsible for the observed resistance phenotype, a library of genomic DNA was constructed and a fragment of 5.8 kb containing a gene homologous to rRNA methylase genes was able to confer erythromycin resistance in Escherichia coli This genomic region seems to be very uncommon, and homologs of the gene have been detected in only one strain of Bifidobacterium longum and two other strains of B. breve In this context, analysis of shotgun metagenomics data sets revealed that the gene is also uncommon in the microbiomes of adults and infants. The structural gene and its upstream region were cloned into a B. breve -sensitive strain, which became resistant after acquiring the genetic material. In vitro conjugation experiments did not allow us to detect gene transfer to other recipients. Nevertheless, prediction of genes potentially acquired through horizontal gene transfer events revealed that the gene is located in a putative genomic island. IMPORTANCE Bifidobacterium breve is a very common human intestinal bacterium. Often described as a pioneer microorganism in the establishment of early-life intestinal microbiota, its presence has been associated with several beneficial effects for the host, including immune stimulation and protection against infections. Therefore, some strains of this species are considered probiotics. In relation to this

  14. Acid or erythromycin stress significantly improves transformation efficiency through regulating expression of DNA binding proteins in Lactococcus lactis F44.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binbin; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Dongmei; Hao, Panlong; Li, Yanni; Qiao, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the dairy industry and food fermentation, and its biological characteristics are usually improved through genetic manipulation. However, poor transformation efficiency was the main restriction factor for the construction of engineered strains. In this study, the transformation efficiency of L. lactis F44 showed a 56.1-fold increase in acid condition (pH 5.0); meanwhile, erythromycin stress (0.04 μg/mL) promoted the transformation efficiency more significantly (76.9-fold). Notably, the transformation efficiency of F44e (L. lactis F44 harboring empty pLEB124) increased up to 149.1-fold under the synergistic stresses of acid and erythromycin. In addition, the gene expression of some DNA binding proteins (DprA, RadA, RadC, RecA, RecQ, and SsbA) changed correspondingly. Especially for radA, 25.1-fold improvement was detected when F44e was exposed to pH 5.0. Overexpression of some DNA binding proteins could improve the transformation efficiency. The results suggested that acid or erythromycin stress could improve the transformation efficiency of L. lactis through regulating gene expression of DNA binding proteins. We have proposed a simple but promising strategy for improving the transformation efficiency of L. lactis and other hard-transformed microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotics in the human food chain: establishing no effect levels of tetracycline, neomycin, and erythromycin using a chemostat model of the human colonic microflora.

    PubMed

    Carman, Robert J; Simon, Mary Alice; Petzold, H Earl; Wimmer, Robert F; Batra, Monica R; Fernández, A Haydée; Miller, Margaret A; Bartholomew, Mary

    2005-11-01

    A chemostat model of the healthy human large bowel ecosystem was used to establish no effect levels for tetracycline, neomycin, and erythromycin. For each compound, the equivalent to four oral doses (0, 1.5, 15, and 150 mg/60 kg person/d) was studied. Concentrations of the test compounds in the chemostat medium were intended to simulate fecal levels that might be expected following consumption of food containing antibiotic residue and were based on published oral doses and fecal levels. We monitored the following parameters: short chain fatty acids, bile acids, sulfate reduction, azoreductase and nitroreductase activities, beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase activities, a range of bacterial counts and, lastly, the susceptibility among sentinel bacteria to each test compound. Neomycin and erythromycin reduced bile acid metabolism. Neomycin elevated propionate levels and caused a marginal diminution in azoreductase activity. Based on our results, the no observed effect level (NOEL) of both tetracycline and erythromycin was 15 mg/60 kg person/d. The NOEL for neomycin was 1.5 mg/60 kg person/d.

  16. Sensitive determination of tilmicosin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate and clindamycin by CE with electrochemiluminescence detection using azithromycin as internal standard and its applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ming; Shi, Yan-Mei; Liu, Zhuan-Li; Peng, Long-Fei

    2010-05-01

    A sensitive approach for the simultaneous determination of tilmicosin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate and clindamycin was developed by CE coupled with electrochemiluminescence detection with ionic liquid. The parameters for CE, electrochemiluminescence detection and the effect of ionic liquid were investigated systematically. The three analytes were well separated and detected within 8 min. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of tilmicosin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate and clindamycin are 3.4x10(-9), 2.3x10(-8) and 1.3x10(-8) mol/L, respectively. The precisions (RSD%) of the peak area and the migration time are from 0.8 to 1.5% and from 0.2 to 0.5% within a day and from 1.8 to 2.7% and from 0.6 to 0.8% in 3 days, respectively. The limits of quantitation (S/N=10) of tilmicosin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate and clindamycin are 3.2x10(-8), 2.9x10(-7) and 9.1x10(-8) mol/L in human urines and 5.5x10(-8), 3.2x10(-7) and 2.1x10(-7) mol/L in milk samples, respectively. The recoveries of three analytes at different concentration levels in urine, milk and drugs are between 90.0 and 104.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of three analytes in human urine, milk and drugs.

  17. Simultaneous Gram and viability staining on activated sludge exposed to erythromycin: 3D CLSM time-lapse imaging of bacterial disintegration.

    PubMed

    Louvet, Jean-Noël; Attik, Ghania; Dumas, Dominique; Potier, Olivier; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-11-01

    The effect of erythromycin on activated sludge bacteria according to their Gram type was investigated with 3-dimensional Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) time-lapse imaging. The fluorescent stains SYTOX Green and Texas Red-X conjugate of wheat germ agglutinin stained dying bacteria and Gram(+) bacteria respectively. Time-lapse imaging allowed an understanding of the staining mechanism and the measurement of the death rate. In presence of erythromycin (10mg/L), Gram(+) bacteria had a higher mortality rate than the Gram(-) bacteria. This result suggests that antibiotic in wastewater could change the activated sludge bacteria composition, according to their Gram type by selecting the bacteria which are the least sensitive to the antibiotics. However bacterial death was followed by bacterial disintegration leading to a decrease in the fluorescence. Results suggested that the viability indicators based on membrane integrity should be used with a correct sampling method, which can give the initial quantity of living bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Antipneumococcal activities of two novel macrolides, GW 773546 and GW 708408, compared with those of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, and telithromycin.

    PubMed

    Matic, Vlatka; Kosowska, Klaudia; Bozdogan, Bulent; Kelly, Linda M; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M; Lin, Gengrong; Credito, Kim L; Clark, Catherine L; McGhee, Pamela; Pankuch, Glenn A; Jacobs, Michael R; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    The MICs of GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for 164 macrolide-susceptible and 161 macrolide-resistant pneumococci were low. The MICs of GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for macrolide-resistant strains were similar, irrespective of the resistance genotypes of the strains. Clindamycin was active against all macrolide-resistant strains except those with erm(B) and one strain with a 23S rRNA mutation. GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin at two times their MICs were bactericidal after 24 h for 7 to 8 of 12 strains. Serial passages of 12 strains in the presence of sub-MICs yielded 54 mutants, 29 of which had changes in the L4 or L22 protein or the 23S rRNA sequence. Among the macrolide-susceptible strains, resistant mutants developed most rapidly after passage in the presence of clindamycin, GW 773546, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin and slowest after passage in the presence of GW 708408 and telithromycin. Selection of strains for which MICs were >/=0.5 microg/ml from susceptible parents occurred only with erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and clindamycin; 36 resistant clones from susceptible parent strains had changes in the sequences of the L4 or L22 protein or 23S rRNA. No mef(E) strains yielded resistant clones after passage in the presence of erythromycin and azithromycin. Selection with GW 773546, GW 708408, telithromycin, and clindamycin in two mef(E) strains did not raise the erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin MICs more than twofold. There were no change in the ribosomal protein (L4 or L22) or 23S rRNA sequences for 15 of 18 mutants selected for macrolide resistance; 3 mutants had changes in the L22-protein sequence. GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin selected clones for which MICs were 0.03 to >2.0 microg/ml. Single-step studies showed mutation frequencies <5.0 x 10(-10) to 3.5 x 10(-7) for GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for macrolide-susceptible strains and 1.1 x 10(-7) to >4.3 x 10(-3) for

  19. Antipneumococcal Activities of Two Novel Macrolides, GW 773546 and GW 708408, Compared with Those of Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, and Telithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Matic, Vlatka; Kosowska, Klaudia; Bozdogan, Bulent; Kelly, Linda M.; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M.; Lin, Gengrong; Credito, Kim L.; Clark, Catherine L.; McGhee, Pamela; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    The MICs of GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for 164 macrolide-susceptible and 161 macrolide-resistant pneumococci were low. The MICs of GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for macrolide-resistant strains were similar, irrespective of the resistance genotypes of the strains. Clindamycin was active against all macrolide-resistant strains except those with erm(B) and one strain with a 23S rRNA mutation. GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin at two times their MICs were bactericidal after 24 h for 7 to 8 of 12 strains. Serial passages of 12 strains in the presence of sub-MICs yielded 54 mutants, 29 of which had changes in the L4 or L22 protein or the 23S rRNA sequence. Among the macrolide-susceptible strains, resistant mutants developed most rapidly after passage in the presence of clindamycin, GW 773546, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin and slowest after passage in the presence of GW 708408 and telithromycin. Selection of strains for which MICs were ≥0.5 μg/ml from susceptible parents occurred only with erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and clindamycin; 36 resistant clones from susceptible parent strains had changes in the sequences of the L4 or L22 protein or 23S rRNA. No mef(E) strains yielded resistant clones after passage in the presence of erythromycin and azithromycin. Selection with GW 773546, GW 708408, telithromycin, and clindamycin in two mef(E) strains did not raise the erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin MICs more than twofold. There were no change in the ribosomal protein (L4 or L22) or 23S rRNA sequences for 15 of 18 mutants selected for macrolide resistance; 3 mutants had changes in the L22-protein sequence. GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin selected clones for which MICs were 0.03 to >2.0 μg/ml. Single-step studies showed mutation frequencies <5.0 × 10−10 to 3.5 × 10−7 for GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for macrolide-susceptible strains and 1.1 × 10−7 to >4.3 × 10−3 for

  20. Occurrence, species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and clonality of methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Bagcigil, Funda A; Moodley, Arshnee; Baptiste, Keith E; Jensen, Vibeke F; Guardabassi, Luca

    2007-04-15

    beta-Lactams and macrolides are important antibiotics for treatment of staphylococcal infections in both humans and animals. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, species distribution and clonality of methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of dogs, horses, pigs, and cattle in Denmark. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 400 animals, including 100 individuals of each species. Methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci were isolated on selective media, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) harbouring mecA were isolated from horses (50%) and dogs (13%), but not from food animals. The species identified were S. haemolyticus (n=21), S. vitulinus (n=19), S. sciuri (n=13), S. epidermidis (n=8), and S. warneri (n=2). mecA-mediated methicillin resistance in S. vitulinus was described for the first time. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not detected. PFGE analysis revealed the presence of specific MRCoNS clones in samples originating from the same veterinary hospital or equine farm. Erythromycin-resistant S. aureus (ERSA) was detected in 38% of pigs and all isolates harboured a constitutively expressed erm(C) gene. The vast majority (37/38) of pigs carrying ERSA originated from a farm characterized by frequent use of macrolides. Most ERSA isolates (28/38) displayed indistinguishable or closely related PFGE patterns, indicating clonal distribution within the farm. Based on the analysis of data on antimicrobial consumption, the occurrence of MRCoNS in companion animals and that of ERSA in pigs reflected national and local patterns of antimicrobial usage.

  1. Lack of evidence for erm(B) infiltration into erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. from commercial turkey production in the southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides has typically implicated ribosomal mutations, especially substitutions in the 23S rRNA gene. In 2014, the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) was reported for the first time in Campylobacter, and shown to be harbored in a multidrug ...

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of single-dose ciprofloxacin versus erythromycin for the treatment of chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Malonza, I M; Tyndall, M W; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Maclean, I; Omar, S; MacDonald, K S; Perriens, J; Orle, K; Plummer, F A; Ronald, A R; Moses, S

    1999-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, to compare single-dose ciprofloxacin with a 7-day course of erythromycin for the treatment of chancroid. In all, 208 men and 37 women presenting with genital ulcers clinically compatible with chancroid were enrolled. Ulcer etiology was determined using culture techniques for chancroid, serology for syphilis, and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for chancroid, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Ulcer etiology was 31% unmixed chancroid, 23% unmixed syphilis, 16% unmixed HSV, 15% mixed etiology, and 15% unknown. For 111 participants with chancroid, cure rates were 92% with ciprofloxacin and 91% with erythromycin. For all study participants, the treatment failure rate was 15%, mostly related to ulcer etiologies of HSV infection or syphilis, and treatment failure was 3 times more frequent in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects than in others, mostly owing to HSV infection. Ciprofloxacin is an effective single-dose treatment for chancroid, but current recommendations for empiric therapy of genital ulcers may result in high treatment failure due to HSV infection.

  3. Failure of erythromycin breath test to correlate with midazolam clearance as a probe of cytochrome P4503A.

    PubMed

    Kinirons, M T; O'Shea, D; Kim, R B; Groopman, J D; Thummel, K E; Wood, A J; Wilkinson, G R

    1999-09-01

    Cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) activity exhibits considerable interindividual variability, and an in vivo probe to measure such differences would serve several purposes. The erythromycin breath test (ERBT) is an established approach that has proven useful in this regard, but it has several limitations. More recently, the hydroxylation of midazolam has been suggested as an alternative in vivo probe approach, because it is possible to estimate CYP3A activity in the intestinal epithelium as well as in the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship, if any, between the ERBT and midazolam's CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Twenty healthy, medication-free young (24 to 46 years) European Americans (10 women) each received on separate days, in random order, either 3 microCi [14C-N-methyl]-erythromycin intravenously, 1 mg midazolam intravenously, or 2 mg midazolam orally. An ERBT value was determined 60 minutes after administration, and clearances were estimated after midazolam administration. In addition, an endogenous 0- to 4-hour urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio was measured. All three measured drug trait values varied approximately threefold to fivefold, whereas the endogenous phenotype measure exhibited far greater variability (>100-fold). No statistically significant (P < .05) correlations existed between any of the trait values, including the ERBT value, obtained after intravenous administration of the radiolabeled probe and the systemic clearance of midazolam, expressed in terms of either total or unbound drug, or on an absolute or a body weight-corrected basis (r = 0.03 to r = 0.24; P = .08 to P = .90). Substratification according to sex generally did not improve such relationships. Although both erythromycin N-demethylation and the metabolism of midazolam by hydroxylation are mediated by CYP3A, the phenotypic trait measures associated with these two in vivo probe drugs do not provide the same information about the catalytic activity of

  4. AIO LQ-0110: a randomized phase II trial comparing oral doxycycline versus local administration of erythromycin as preemptive treatment strategies of panitumumab-mediated skin toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kripp, Melanie; Prasnikar, Nicole; Vehling-Kaiser, Ursula; Quidde, Julia; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Stein, Alexander; Neben, Kai; Hannig, Carla Verena; Tessen, Hans Werner; Trarbach, Tanja; Hinke, Axel; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2017-12-01

    Dermatologic toxicities, especially akne-like skin rash, are the most common side-effects associated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. Preemptive treatment with oral tetracyclines is recommended as a standard. Topical prophylactic options have thus far not been compared to tetracyclines. In the current study, we sought to establish an alternative topical treatment. In this multicentre, randomized, open-label phase II study patients with (K)Ras-wildtype colorectal cancer receiving panitumumab were randomized (1:1) to receive either doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. (standard arm) or erythromycin ointment 2% followed by doxycycline in case of insufficient activity. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients developing no skin toxicity ≥ grade 2 at any time during the first 8 weeks of panitumumab treatment. Skin toxicity was assessed using the NCI CTCAE v 4.0. Secondary endpoints comprised the assessment of skin toxicity using a more thorough grading system (WoMo score), evaluation of skin-related (DLQI) and global quality of life (EORTC QLQ C30). In total, 88 patients were included in this trial. 69% of the patients in the erythromycin arm suffered from skin toxicity of grade ≥ 2 versus 63% in the standard arm ( P = n.s .). However, as per WoMo score significantly more patients in the erythromycin arm developed moderate or severe skin toxicity at earlier time points. Skin related and overall quality of life was comparable between both arms. Based on this data erythromycin cannot be regarded as an alternative to doxycycline as prevention of EGFR-related skin toxicity.

  5. Liposomes as carriers of macrolides: preferential association of erythromycin A and azithromycin with liposomes of phosphatidylglycerol containing unsaturated fatty acid(s).

    PubMed

    Stuhne-Sekalec, L; Stanacev, N Z; Djokic, S

    1991-01-01

    To assess the most favourable phospholipid composition of a liposomal carrier for antibiotics, small multilamellar liposomes were prepared from phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol of varying fatty acid composition in the presence of erythromycin A and azithromycin. Crude liposomes were subjected to Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography, and liposomes containing antibiotics were well separated from free antibiotics. These experiments established that the greatest association of antibiotics was achieved with liposomes prepared from phosphatidylglycerol rather than phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. Furthermore, the composition of fatty acids in phosphatidylglycerol liposomes influenced the amount of antibiotics associated with liposomes; the highest amount was obtained with dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol followed by phosphatidylglycerol of fatty acid composition similar to that of egg yolk lecithin. It was established that purified liposomes, prepared from [3H]phosphatidylglycerol containing unsaturated fatty acid(s) bind about 25 per cent of originally present antibiotic. Both antibiotics, erythromycin A and azithromycin, were similar in respect to the amount of their association with liposomes. Determination of the size of phosphatidylglycerol/antibiotic liposomes established that the mean diameter of liposomes containing antibiotics was 200-350 nm, very close to that of liposomes without them.

  6. Effects of chlorophyll-derived efflux pump inhibitor pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a on erythromycin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to validate the hypothesis that pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a reduce erythromycin resistance of reference strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria with multidrug or macrolide efflux pumps, as indicative of their effect on bacteria indigenous to anaerobic swine ...

  7. Chronic toxicity of erythromycin thiocyanate to Daphnia magna in a flow-through, continuous exposure test system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Bernardy, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Approval of a new animal drug application for AQUAMYCIN 100?? (erythromycin thiocyanate; ET) to treat freshwater salmonid species with bacterial kidney disease is being pursued in the US. As part of the approval process, ETs impact on an aquatic environment had to be described in an environmental assessment. The environmental assessment was lacking data to characterize the effect ET would have on a chronically exposed aquatic invertebrate organism. A major step to fulfilling the environmental assessment was completed after conducting a comprehensive study continuously exposing Daphnia magna to ET for 21 days. Results indicated that the no observable effect concentration for ET was 179 ??g/L. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  8. Comparative genomics and transcriptional profiles of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 and a classically improved erythromycin over-producing strain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms altered by the traditional mutation and screening approach during the improvement of antibiotic-producing microorganisms are still poorly understood although this information is essential to design rational strategies for industrial strain improvement. In this study, we applied comparative genomics to identify all genetic changes occurring during the development of an erythromycin overproducer obtained using the traditional mutate-and- screen method. Results Compared with the parental Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338, the genome of the overproducing strain presents 117 deletion, 78 insertion and 12 transposition sites, with 71 insertion/deletion sites mapping within coding sequences (CDSs) and generating frame-shift mutations. Single nucleotide variations are present in 144 CDSs. Overall, the genomic variations affect 227 proteins of the overproducing strain and a considerable number of mutations alter genes of key enzymes in the central carbon and nitrogen metabolism and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, resulting in the redirection of common precursors toward erythromycin biosynthesis. Interestingly, several mutations inactivate genes coding for proteins that play fundamental roles in basic transcription and translation machineries including the transcription anti-termination factor NusB and the transcription elongation factor Efp. These mutations, along with those affecting genes coding for pleiotropic or pathway-specific regulators, affect global expression profile as demonstrated by a comparative analysis of the parental and overproducer expression profiles. Genomic data, finally, suggest that the mutate-and-screen process might have been accelerated by mutations in DNA repair genes. Conclusions This study helps to clarify the mechanisms underlying antibiotic overproduction providing valuable information about new possible molecular targets for rationale strain improvement. PMID:22401291

  9. Chronic toxicity of diphenhydramine hydrochloride and erythromycin thiocyanate to Daphnia, Daphnia magna, in a continuous exposure test system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Franz, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DH; Benadryl(TM), an over-the-counter antihistamine) and erythromycin thiocyanate (ET; a commonly used macrolide antibiotic) are pharmaceutical compounds whose chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna had not been characterized. Continuous exposure to DH concentrations about 5 times greater than the maximum reported environmental concentration of 0.023 μg/L for 21 days or to ET concentrations about 40 times the maximum reported environmental concentration of 6 μg/L for 21 days did not significantly impact D. magna survival and production. In this study the no observable effect concentration for DH was 0.12 μg/L and for ET was 248 μg/L.

  10. Application of In Vitro Transposon Mutagenesis to Erythromycin Strain Improvement in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Weber, J Mark; Reeves, Andrew; Cernota, William H; Wesley, Roy K

    2017-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is an invaluable technique in molecular biology for the creation of random mutations that can be easily identified and mapped. However, in the field of microbial strain improvement, transposon mutagenesis has scarcely been used; instead, chemical and physical mutagenic methods have been traditionally favored. Transposons have the advantage of creating single mutations in the genome, making phenotype to genotype assignments less challenging than with traditional mutagens which commonly create multiple mutations in the genome. The site of a transposon mutation can also be readily mapped using DNA sequencing primer sites engineered into the transposon termini. In this chapter an in vitro method for transposon mutagenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea is presented. Since in vivo transposon tools are not available for most actinomycetes including S. erythraea, an in vitro method was developed. The in vitro method involves a significant investment in time and effort to create the mutants, but once the mutants are made and screened, a large number of highly relevant mutations of direct interest to erythromycin production can be found.

  11. Determination of erythromycin in human plasma, using column liquid chromatography with a polymeric packing material, alkaline mobile phase and amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L G; Walldorf, B; Paulsen, O

    1987-12-25

    A method based on column liquid chromatography was developed for determination of plasma concentrations of erythromycin. PRP-1, a polymeric type of packing material suitable for chromatography and amperometric detection at high pH, was used. The effect of pH on the column performance and on the electrochemical response was studied. A pH of ca. 10 was found to be optimal. After extraction with tert.-butyl methyl ether, plasma concentrations down to 0.2 mumol/l could be measured, using automated sample injection. Oleandomycin was used as internal standard. The method was used for determination of plasma concentrations in a pharmacokinetic study under steady-state conditions.

  12. Cornmeal-induced resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in enterococci.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dao-Jin; Lai, Bao-Se; Li, Jian; Ma, Yu-Fang; Yang, Fan; Li, Zhou; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xia; Huang, Yi-Fan

    2012-09-01

    To establish a model ecosystem to study the impact of cornmeal on the appearance and persistence of the erythromycin (ERY)- and ciprofloxacin (CIP)-resistant phenotypes in waterborne enterococci. After the model ecosystem was established, the system was divided into six dose groups, with the addition of 8, 4, 1, 0.25, 0.05, and 0 g L(-1) sterilized cornmeal. System mud samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 40, 61, and 130 d, and enterococci present in the mud samples were evaluated for their sensitivities to CIP and ERY. PCR was employed to detect genes such as gyrA and ermB. The gyrA gene was sequenced, and codons 83 and 87 were analyzed for mutations. (1) The addition of 0.05-8 g L(-1) cornmeal had an impact on CIP resistance. The higher the dose of cornmeal added, the larger the impact it generated. Furthermore, the earlier the emergence of CIP-resistant strains, the greater the incidence of drug resistance. The impact of cornmeal on resistance to ERY was less consistent, and the degree of the impact was not in proportion to the dose of cornmeal added. (2) There were no mutations at codons 83 and 87 in the gyrA genes from 102 strains isolated from the model ecosystem. The incidence of ermB-positive strains of ERY-resistant enterococci (28 strains) was 78.6%, and the incidence of ermB-positive strains of ERY-sensitive enterococci (16 strains) was 0%. (1) Adding different doses of cornmeal can facilitate resistance to CIP and ERY in waterborne enterococci. In this study, the degree of resistance was related to the cornmeal dose. (2) In the model ecosystem, enterococcal CIP resistance was not caused by a gyrA gene mutation; however, in the vast majority of cases, resistance to ERY was related to the ermB resistance gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Characteristics of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes Strains Isolated from Children Patients in Tunis, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ksia, Sonia; Smaoui, Hanen; Hraoui, Manel; Bouafsoun, Aida; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ihem; Kechrid, Amel

    2017-07-01

    The aims of our study were to characterize phenotypically and genotypically erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococci (ERGAS) isolates, to evaluate macrolide resistance and to analyze the association between emm types and virulence factors. Included in this study were all ERGAS strains isolated from 2000 to 2013 at the Children's hospital of Tunis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the CA-SFM guidelines. Macrolide resistance genes were revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Virulence factor genes (pyrogenic exotoxin genes and superantigen gene) were detected by PCR, and the emm types were defined by the sequencing of the variable 5' end of the emm gene. Among the 289 GAS isolates collected, 15 (5.2%) were resistant to erythromycin; 7 of the strains were assigned to the cMLS B phenotype (46.6%); 5 harbored ermB gene alone (33.3%); and 2 strains coharbored ermB and mefA (13.3%). The remaining (53.4%) were assigned to the M phenotype and harbored the mefA gene. The frequency of detection of each toxin gene among ERGAS was 13.4% for speA (2 strains), 53.4% for speC (8 strains), and 13.4% for ssa (2 strains). Emm types 1, 58, 11, and 78 were the most frequent among ERGAS strains. The distribution of the cMLS B and M phenotypes changed over the period of investigation with a decrement of cMLS B phenotype and ermB gene that predominated between 2000 and 2006 and an increase of M phenotype and mefA gene between 2007 and 2013, but this difference was nonstatistically significant because of the low number of resistant strains. Emm types 1, 58, and 4 were only present among strains assigned to the M phenotype. However strains assigned to the cMLS B phenotype were associated to emm11, emm22, emm28, emm78, or emm76. There was diversity in emm distribution in ERGAS between the two study periods. There was diversity in emm distribution among ERGAS particularly in 2000-2006. Indeed, from 2000 to 2006, the 6 ERGAS

  14. Selective removal of erythromycin by magnetic imprinted polymers synthesized from chitosan-stabilized Pickering emulsion.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hongxiang; Chen, Qunhui; Pan, Jianming; Zhang, Yunlei; Huang, Yong; Qi, Xueyong

    2015-05-30

    Magnetic imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization and used to adsorb erythromycin (ERY) from aqueous solution. The oil-in-water Pickering emulsion was stabilized by chitosan nanoparticles with hydrophobic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic carrier. The imprinting system was fabricated by radical polymerization with functional and crosslinked monomer in the oil phase. Batches of static and dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to analyze the adsorption performance on ERY. Isotherm data of MIPs well fitted the Freundlich model (from 15 °C to 35 °C), which indicated heterogeneous adsorption for ERY. The ERY adsorption capacity of MIPs was about 52.32 μmol/g at 15 °C. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-first-order model, which suggested that physical interactions were primarily responsible for ERY adsorption. The Thomas model used in the fixed-bed adsorption design provided a better fit to the experimental data. Meanwhile, ERY exhibited higher affinity during adsorption on the MIPs compared with the adsorption capacity of azithromycin and chloramphenicol. The MIPs also exhibited excellent regeneration capacity with only about 5.04% adsorption efficiency loss in at least three repeated adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in diversity of cultured bacteria resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline in swine manure during simulated composting and lagoon storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Gutek, A; Grewal, S; Michel, F C; Yu, Z

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting and lagoon storage on survival and change in diversity of tetracycline-resistant (Tc(r) ) and erythromycin-resistant (Em(r) ) bacteria and the resistance genes they carry in swine manure. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial design: composting vs lagoon storage and 0 vs 1% Surround WP Crop Protectant (a clay product) in three replicates. After 48 days of treatments, resistant bacteria were enumerated by selective plating and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The erm and the tet gene(s) carried by the resistant isolates were screened using class-specific PCR assays. The plate counts of Tc(r) and Em(r) bacteria decreased by 4-7 logs by composting, but only by 1-2 logs by the lagoon treatment. During the treatments, Acinetobacter gave way to Pseudomonas and Providencia as the largest resistant genera. The clay product had little effect on survival or diversity of resistant bacteria. Of six classes of erm and seven classes of tet genes tested, changes in prevalence were also noted. The results indicate that composting can dramatically shift Tc(r) and Em(r) bacterial populations, and composting can be an effective and practical approach to decrease dissemination of antibiotic resistance from swine farms to the environment. The presented research provided evidence that composting is much more effective than lagoon storage in dramatically decreasing culturable bacteria resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline in swine manure. Considerable diversity changes of resistant bacteria were also demonstrated during composting or lagoon storage. Overall, Acinetobacter was the major resistant genus in untreated swine manure, but pseudomonads and Providencia became the major resistant genera after the treatments. This is the first study that investigated diversity changes of cultured bacteria resistant to these two antibiotics during composting and lagoon storage of swine manure. New genes encoding resistance to

  16. Activities of two novel macrolides, GW 773546 and GW 708408, compared with those of telithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kosowska, Klaudia; Credito, Kim; Pankuch, Glenn A; Hoellman, Dianne; Lin, Gengrong; Clark, Catherine; Dewasse, Bonifacio; McGhee, Pamela; Jacobs, Michael R; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    The MIC at which 50% of strains are inhibited (MIC(50)) and the MIC(90) of GW 773546, a novel macrolide, were 1.0 and 2.0 microg/ml, respectively, for 223 beta-lactamase-positive, beta-lactamase-negative, and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains. The MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s of GW 708408, a second novel macrolide, and telithromycin, an established ketolide, were 2.0 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively, while the MIC(50) and MIC(90) of azithromycin were 1.0 and 2.0 microg/ml, respectively. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of erythromycin were 4.0 and 8.0 microg/ml, respectively; and those of clarithromycin were 4.0 and 16.0 microg/ml, respectively. All compounds except telithromycin were bactericidal (99.9% killing) against nine strains at two times the MIC after 24 h. Telithromycin was bactericidal against eight of the nine strains. In addition, both novel macrolides and telithromycin at two times the MIC showed 99% killing of all nine strains after 12 h and 90% killing of all strains after 6 h. After 24 h, all drugs were bactericidal against four to seven strains when they were tested at the MIC. Ten of 11 strains tested by multistep selection analysis yielded resistant clones after 14 to 43 passages with erythromycin. Azithromycin gave resistant clones of all strains after 20 to 50 passages, and clarithromycin gave resistant clones of 9 of 11 strains after 14 to 41 passages. By comparison, GW 708408 gave resistant clones of 9 of 11 strains after 14 to 44 passages, and GW 773546 gave resistant clones of 10 of 11 strains after 14 to 45 passages. Telithromycin gave resistant clones of 7 of 11 strains after 18 to 45 passages. Mutations mostly in the L22 and L4 ribosomal proteins and 23S rRNA were detected in resistant strains selected with all compounds, with alterations in the L22 protein predominating. Single-step resistance selection studies at the MIC yielded spontaneous resistant mutants at frequencies of 1.5 x 10(-9) to 2.2 x 10(-6) with

  17. Activities of Two Novel Macrolides, GW 773546 and GW 708408, Compared with Those of Telithromycin, Erythromycin, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin against Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Kosowska, Klaudia; Credito, Kim; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Hoellman, Dianne; Lin, Gengrong; Clark, Catherine; Dewasse, Bonifacio; McGhee, Pamela; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    The MIC at which 50% of strains are inhibited (MIC50) and the MIC90 of GW 773546, a novel macrolide, were 1.0 and 2.0 μg/ml, respectively, for 223 β-lactamase-positive, β-lactamase-negative, and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains. The MIC50s and MIC90s of GW 708408, a second novel macrolide, and telithromycin, an established ketolide, were 2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml, respectively, while the MIC50 and MIC90 of azithromycin were 1.0 and 2.0 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of erythromycin were 4.0 and 8.0 μg/ml, respectively; and those of clarithromycin were 4.0 and 16.0 μg/ml, respectively. All compounds except telithromycin were bactericidal (99.9% killing) against nine strains at two times the MIC after 24 h. Telithromycin was bactericidal against eight of the nine strains. In addition, both novel macrolides and telithromycin at two times the MIC showed 99% killing of all nine strains after 12 h and 90% killing of all strains after 6 h. After 24 h, all drugs were bactericidal against four to seven strains when they were tested at the MIC. Ten of 11 strains tested by multistep selection analysis yielded resistant clones after 14 to 43 passages with erythromycin. Azithromycin gave resistant clones of all strains after 20 to 50 passages, and clarithromycin gave resistant clones of 9 of 11 strains after 14 to 41 passages. By comparison, GW 708408 gave resistant clones of 9 of 11 strains after 14 to 44 passages, and GW 773546 gave resistant clones of 10 of 11 strains after 14 to 45 passages. Telithromycin gave resistant clones of 7 of 11 strains after 18 to 45 passages. Mutations mostly in the L22 and L4 ribosomal proteins and 23S rRNA were detected in resistant strains selected with all compounds, with alterations in the L22 protein predominating. Single-step resistance selection studies at the MIC yielded spontaneous resistant mutants at frequencies of 1.5 × 10−9 to 2.2 × 10−6 with GW 773546, 1.5 × 10−9 to 6.0

  18. A seventeen-year observation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Campylobacter jejuni and the molecular mechanisms of erythromycin-resistant isolates in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiyuan; Zhang, Maojun; Yang, Wanna; Fang, Yuqing; Wang, Guiqiang; Hou, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dynamic development of the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human diarrhea in Beijing, China, between 1994 and 2010, and to further analyze the molecular mechanisms of erythromycin-resistant strains. Susceptibility tests were performed on 203 non-duplicate clinical C. jejuni strains against eight common antibiotics using the standard agar dilution method. The molecular determinants were further studied in the erythromycin (ERY) non-susceptible strains. The analysis focused on the 23S rRNA gene, the rplD and rplV ribosomal genes, the ermB gene, and the regulatory region of the CmeABC efflux pump. The rates of resistance of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid (NAL), doxycycline (DOX), tetracycline (TET), florfenicol (FFC), and chloramphenicol (CHL) increased significantly over the period studied (all p<0.05). Similarly, the proportions of resistant patterns (CIP-NAL-DOX-TET, CIP-NAL-DOX-TET-FFC, and CIP-NAL-DOX-TET-CHL) increased remarkably. In this study, 4.4% (9/203) of C. jejuni strains were ERY non-susceptible. The A2075G mutation in the 23S rRNA was found in all of the resistant strains except cj8091, which harbored the ermB gene. Interestingly, the ermB gene was also detected in intermediately resistant isolates, and the earliest ermB-positive strain cj94473 was derived in 1994. Moreover, none of the ribosomal rplD or rplV genes harbored mutations that have been described to confer resistance to macrolides. Different mutations affecting the regulatory region of the CmeABC efflux pump were also found. This is the first comprehensive study on the recent trend in antimicrobial resistance and the molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance in clinical C. jejuni strains isolated in China. More stringent monitoring and regulation of human and animal antimicrobial use are warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Erythromycin on Chronic Respiratory Infection Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Biofilm Formation in an Experimental Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Towako; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kadota, Junichi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Fujii, Takeshi; Kuroki, Misuzu; Shirai, Ryo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Tomono, Kazunori; Koji, Takehiko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic lower respiratory tract infection commonly associated with persistent late-stage Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, low-dose long-term therapy with certain macrolides is effective in most patients with DPB. The present study was designed to examine the effects of long-term erythromycin (ERY) therapy by using our established murine model of chronic respiratory P. aeruginosa infection. ERY or saline was administered from day 80 after intubation with a P. aeruginosa-precoated tube for the subsequent 10, 20, 40, and 80 days. Bacteriologic and histologic analyses of the murine lungs and electron microscopy of the intubated tube were performed. In the murine model, treatment with ERY for 80 days significantly reduced the number of viable P. aeruginosa organisms in the lungs (P < 0.05). The biofilm formed in situ by P. aeruginosa on the inner wall of the inoculation tube placed into the murine bronchus became significantly thinner after 80 days of ERY treatment. We conclude that the clinical efficacy of macrolides in DPB may be due at least in part to the reduction in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. PMID:15155229

  20. An analogous wood barrel theory to explain the occurrence of hormesis: A case study of sulfonamides and erythromycin on Escherichia coli growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dali; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Ting; Ding, Xiruo; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Hormesis has aroused much attention during the past two decades and may have great implications on many fields, including toxicology and risk assessment. However, the observation of hormesis remains challenged under laboratory conditions. To determine favorable conditions under which to observe hormesis, we investigated the hormetic responses of Escherichia coli (E. coli) upon exposure of different concentrations of sulfonamides and erythromycin at different time points and in different culture media: Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and Mueller Hinton (MH) broth. Our results reveal that the antibiotics, both individually and combined, produce hormetic effects on E. coli growth in MH broth at the stationary phase, with the maximum stimulatory response increasing with time. However, in LB broth, the hormetic response was not observed, which can be explained by an analogous "wood barrel theory". Our study suggests that the culture medium and time should be taken into consideration in hormetic studies, and compound mixtures should also receive more attention for their potential to induce hormesis.

  1. The ORACLE Children Study: educational outcomes at 11 years of age following antenatal prescription of erythromycin or co-amoxiclav

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Neil; Bower, Hannah; Jones, David; Brocklehurst, Peter; Kenyon, Sara; Pike, Katie; Taylor, David; Salt, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibiotics used for women in spontaneous preterm labour without overt infection, in contrast to those with preterm rupture of membranes, are associated with altered functional outcomes in their children. Methods From the National Pupil Database, we used Key Stage 2 scores, national test scores in school year 6 at 11 years of age, to explore the hypothesis that erythromycin and co-amoxiclav were associated with poorer educational outcomes within the ORACLE Children Study. Results Anonymised scores for 97% of surviving children born to mothers recruited to ORACLE and resident in England were analysed against treatment group adjusting for key available socio-demographic potential confounders. No association with crude or with adjusted scores for English, mathematics or science was observed by maternal antibiotic group in either women with preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour with intact membranes. While the proportion receiving special educational needs was similar in each group (range 31.6–34.4%), it was higher than the national rate of 19%. Conclusions Despite evidence that antibiotics are associated with increased functional impairment at 7 years, educational test scores and special needs at 11 years of age show no differences between trial groups. Trial registration number ISCRT Number 52995660 (original ORACLE trial number). PMID:27515985

  2. Prevalence of penicillin and erythromycin resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates reported by laboratories in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A; Tiemersma, E; Scicluna, E; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N; de Kraker, M; Monen, J; Grundmann, H

    2009-03-01

    Information about the epidemiology of resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae within southern and eastern countries of the Mediterranean region is incomplete, as reports have been sporadic and difficult to compare. Over a 36-month period, from 2003 to 2005, the ARMed project collected 1298 susceptibility test results of invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae from blood and spinal fluid cultures routinely processed within 59 participating laboratories situated in Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Overall, 26% (335) of isolates were reported as non-susceptible to penicillin, with the highest proportions being reported from Algeria (44%) and Lebanon (40%). During the same time period, the highest proportions of pneumococci that were not susceptible to erythromycin were reported from Malta (46%) and Tunisia (39%). Proportions of dual non-susceptibility in excess of 5% were found in laboratories in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey. ARMed data on the antimicrobial resistance epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region provided evidence of high rates of resistance, especially to penicillin. This evidence calls for a greater focus on the identification of relevant drivers of resistance and on the implemention of effective practices in order to address the problem of resistence.

  3. Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in Staphylococcus capitis during growth under erythromycin stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and reproducible measurement of gene transcription requires appropriate reference genes, which are stably expressed under different experimental conditions to provide normalization. Staphylococcus capitis is a human pathogen that produces biofilm under stress, such as imposed by antimicrobial agents. In this study, a set of five commonly used staphylococcal reference genes (gyrB, sodA, recA, tuf and rpoB) were systematically evaluated in two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis (S. capitis subspecies urealyticus and capitis, respectively) under erythromycin stress in mid-log and stationary phases. Two public software programs (geNorm and NormFinder) and two manual calculation methods, reference residue normalization (RRN) and relative quantitative (RQ), were applied. The potential reference genes selected by the four algorithms were further validated by comparing the expression of a well-studied biofilm gene (icaA) with phenotypic biofilm formation in S. capitis under four different experimental conditions. The four methods differed considerably in their ability to predict the most suitable reference gene or gene combination for comparing icaA expression under different conditions. Under the conditions used here, the RQ method provided better selection of reference genes than the other three algorithms; however, this finding needs to be confirmed with a larger number of isolates. This study reinforces the need to assess the stability of reference genes for analysis of target gene expression under different conditions and the use of more than one algorithm in such studies. Although this work was conducted using a specific human pathogen, it emphasizes the importance of selecting suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression more generally.

  4. Global review and analysis of erythromycin in the environment: Occurrence, bioaccumulation and antibiotic resistance hazards.

    PubMed

    Schafhauser, Bruno Henrique; Kristofco, Lauren A; de Oliveira, Cíntia Mara Ribas; Brooks, Bryan W

    2018-07-01

    Environmental observations of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have received attention as indicators of an urbanizing global water cycle. When connections between environment and development of antibiotic resistance (ABR) are considered, it is increasingly important to understand the life cycle of antibiotics. Here we examined the global occurrence of erythromycin (ERY) in: 1. wastewater effluent, inland waters, drinking water, groundwater, and estuarine and coastal systems; 2. sewage sludge, biosolids and sediments; and 3. tissues of aquatic organisms. We then performed probabilistic environmental hazard assessments to identify probabilities of exceeding the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 1.0 μg L -1 for promoting ABR, based on previous modeling of minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimal selective concentrations of ERY, and measured levels from different geographic regions. Marked differences were observed among geographic regions and matrices. For example, more information was available for water matrices (312 publications) than solids (97 publications). ERY has primarily been studied in Asia, North America and Europe with the majority of studies performed in China, USA, Spain and the United Kingdom. In surface waters 72.4% of the Asian studies have been performed in China, while 85.4% of the observations from North America were from the USA; Spain represented 41.9% of the European surface water studies. Remarkably, results from PEHAs indicated that the likelihood of exceeding the ERY PNEC for ABR in effluents was markedly high in Asia (33.3%) followed by Europe (20%) and North America (17.8%). Unfortunately, ERY occurrence data is comparatively limited in coastal and marine systems across large geographic regions including Southwest Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa, and Central and South America. Future studies are needed to understand risks of ERY and other antibiotics to human health and the environment, particularly in developing

  5. Assessing the concentrations and risks of toxicity from the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin in European rivers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Keller, Virginie; Dumont, Egon; Sumpter, John P

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential concentrations of four antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SUF), trimethoprim (TRI) and erythromycin (ERY) throughout the rivers of Europe. This involved reviewing national consumption rates together with assessing excretion and sewage treatment removal rates. From this information, it was possible to construct best, expected and worst case scenarios for the discharge of these antibiotics into rivers. Consumption data showed surprising variations, up to 200-fold in the popularity of different antibiotics across different European nations. Using the water resources model GWAVA which has a spatial resolution of approximately 6×9 km, river water concentrations throughout Europe were predicted based on 31-year climate data. The modelled antibiotic concentrations were within the range of measurements reported previously in European effluents and rivers. With the expected scenario, the predicted annual-average antibiotic concentrations ranged between 0 and 10 ng/L for 90% by length of surface waters. In the worst case scenario concentrations could reach between 0.1 and 1 μg/L at the most exposed locations. As both predicted and observed sewage effluent concentrations were below reported effect levels for the most sensitive aquatic wildlife, no direct toxicity in rivers is expected. Predicted river concentrations for CIP and ERY were closest to effect levels in wildlife, followed by SUF which was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. TRI appeared to be of the least concern with around 6 orders of magnitude difference between predicted and effect levels. However, mixture toxicity may elevate this risk and antibiotic levels of 0.1-1 μg/L in hotspots may contribute to local environmental antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The ORACLE Children Study: educational outcomes at 11 years of age following antenatal prescription of erythromycin or co-amoxiclav.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Neil; Bower, Hannah; Jones, David; Brocklehurst, Peter; Kenyon, Sara; Pike, Katie; Taylor, David; Salt, Alison

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics used for women in spontaneous preterm labour without overt infection, in contrast to those with preterm rupture of membranes, are associated with altered functional outcomes in their children. From the National Pupil Database, we used Key Stage 2 scores, national test scores in school year 6 at 11 years of age, to explore the hypothesis that erythromycin and co-amoxiclav were associated with poorer educational outcomes within the ORACLE Children Study. Anonymised scores for 97% of surviving children born to mothers recruited to ORACLE and resident in England were analysed against treatment group adjusting for key available socio-demographic potential confounders. No association with crude or with adjusted scores for English, mathematics or science was observed by maternal antibiotic group in either women with preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour with intact membranes. While the proportion receiving special educational needs was similar in each group (range 31.6-34.4%), it was higher than the national rate of 19%. Despite evidence that antibiotics are associated with increased functional impairment at 7 years, educational test scores and special needs at 11 years of age show no differences between trial groups. ISCRT Number 52995660 (original ORACLE trial number). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance genes, and multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Song, Yajing; Wei, Zigong; He, Hongkui; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing significant economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility, associated antibiotic-resistant determinants and sequence type (ST) of S. suis isolates from diseased pigs in China from 2008 to 2010. Serotype 2 was the most frequently observed strain (n=95) among the 106 S. suis strains collected, followed by serotypes 3 (n=3), 5 (n=3), 4 (n=2), 7 (n=1), 11 (n=1) and 28 (n=1). Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed that ST1 (n=21) and ST7 (n=74) were the predominant STs, and serotype 2 was found to be significantly correlated with ST7 (P=0.017, Fisher's exact test) and CC1 (P=0.024, Fisher's exact test). The antimicrobial susceptibility results indicated that the antibiotic resistance rate was highest for tetracycline (99.1%), followed by azithromycin (68.9%), erythromycin (67.9%), clindamycin (67.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (16%), levofloxacin (2.8%), chloramphenicol (1.9%), cefaclor (0.9%) and ceftriaxone (0.9%). Antibiotic-resistant genes tet(M), tet(O), tet(O/W/32/O), tet(O/32/O), tet(S), tet(W), tet(L), tet(40), erm(B), mef(A/E) and msr(D) could be detected, and several tandem organizations of antibiotic resistance genes were also found in this study. In conclusion, S. suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in China were less diverse and multi-drug resistant.

  8. Epidemiological study of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes from Korea and Japan by emm genotyping and multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takashi; Arai, Kazuaki; Lee, Dong Hyun; Koh, Eun Ha; Yoshida, Haruno; Yano, Hisakazu; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kim, Sunjoo

    2016-01-01

    We determined the epidemiological characteristics of erythromycin (EM)-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) strains isolated from Korea and Japan, using emm genotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Clinical isolates of GAS had been collected from 1992 to 2012 in Korea and from 2004 to 2009 in Japan. EM resistance was determined by the microdilution method, and resistance genotypes were assessed by PCR. The emm genotyping and MLST were performed by DNA sequencing. The emm genotypes and sequence types (STs) were concordant in 143 (85.1%) of 168 EM-resistant GAS strains from Korea. ST36/emm12 (35.1%), ST52/emm28 (22.6%), and ST49/emm75 (16.1%) were the most common types. Most of the ST36 (93.9%) and ST52 (95.8%) strains harbored erm(B), whereas strains ST49, ST42, and ST15 contained mef(A). The concordance between emm genotypes and STs was 41 (93.2%) among 44 EM-resistant GAS strains from Japan. ST36/emm12 (34.1%), ST49/emm75 (18.2%), and ST28/emm1 (15.9%) were the major types. ST36 isolates harbored either erm(B) (56.3%) or mef(A) (37.5%), whereas isolates ST28, ST49, and ST38 carried only mef(A). The proportion of erm(B) and mef(A) was 66.1% and 33.3% in Korea and 22.7% and 68.2% in Japan, respectively. The common STs in Korea and Japan were ST36 and ST49, whereas ST52 was present only in Korea and ST28 only in Japan. Genotype erm(B) was predominant in Korea, whereas mef(A) was frequent in Japan. There were differences between Korea and Japan regarding the frequencies of emm genotypes, STs, and EM resistance genes among the EM-resistant GAS.

  9. [Erythromycin restores oxidative stress-induced corticosteroid responsiveness of human THP-1 cells by up-regulating the expression of histone deacetylase 2].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; He, Zhiyi; Sun, Xuejiao; Li, Zhanhua; Zhao, Lin; Mao, Congzheng; Huang, Dongmei; Zhang, Jianquan; Zhong, Xiaoning

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of erythromycin (EM) on corticosteroid insensitivity of human THP-1 cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and its mechanism. THP-1 cells were treated with EM followed by CSE stimulation. Histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) short interference RNA (HDAC2-siRNA) was transfected into the cells using Lipofectamine(TM); 2000. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) level in supernatants was measured by ELISA and HDAC2 expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The inhibition ratio of IL-8 in the EM group was significantly higher than that in the CSE group, but lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of dexamethasone (IC50;-Dex) in the EM group was lower than that in the CSE group, but higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The expression of HDAC2 protein in the EM group was higher than that in the CSE group, but lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Besides, HDAC2 mRNA and HDAC2 protein expressions were lower in the HDAC2-siRNA group than in the scrambled oligonucleotide (SC) group. EM could reverse HDAC2 mRNA and HDAC2 protein reduction induced by HDAC2-siRNA (P<0.05). Corticosteroid sensitivity of THP-1 cells could be reduced by CSE. EM could reverse the corticosteroid insensitivity by up-regulating the expression of HDAC2 protein.

  10. SciTech Connect

    Digenis, G.A.; Sandefer, E.P.; Parr, A.F.

    The behavior of single 250-mg doses of a multiparticulate form of erythromycin base (ERYC(R)), each including five pellets radiolabeled with neutron-activated samarium-153, was observed by gamma scintigraphy in seven male subjects under fasting and nonfasting conditions. The residence time and locus of radiolabeled pellets within regions of the gastrointestinal tract were determined and were correlated with plasma concentrations of erythromycin at coincident time points. Administration of food 30 minutes postdosing reduced fasting plasma erythromycin Cmax and area under the plasma erythromycin versus time curve (AUC) values by 43% and 54%, respectively. Mean peak plasma concentration of erythromycin (Cmax) in themore » fasting state was 1.64 micrograms/mL versus 0.94 micrograms/mL in the nonfasting state. Total oral bioavailability, as determined by mean AUC (0-infinity) of the plasma erythromycin concentration versus time curve, was 7.6 hr/micrograms/mL in the fasted state, versus 3.5 hr/micrograms/mL in the nonfasting state. Mean time to peak plasma erythromycin concentration (tmax) in the fasting state was 3.3 hours, versus 2.3 hours in the nonfasting state. Plasma concentrations of erythromycin in both fasting and nonfasting states were within acceptable therapeutic ranges.« less

  11. Erythromycin and Sulfisoxazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, yellowing of the skin or eyes, colitis, or stomach problems.tell your doctor if you ... rash If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: severe skin rash itching hives difficulty breathing or swallowing wheezing ...

  12. Comparison of the activity of three antibiotic regimens in severe Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Dournon, E; Mayaud, C; Wolff, M; Schlemmer, B; Samuel, D; Sollet, J P; Levasseur-Rajagopalan, P

    1990-10-01

    Comparison of the activity of different antibiotic regimens in Legionnaire's disease has never been made because of the rarity of well documented cases of that disease. We have retrospectively compared severe cases of Legionnaires' disease treated with pefloxacin alone or in combination with erythromycin and/or rifampicin using computer-matched cases treated either with erythromycin or with erythromycin in combination with rifampicin. This study suggests that: (1) combined therapy including erythromycin, rifampicin and/or pefloxacin is superior to therapy with erythromycin alone; (2) combinations including pefloxacin may be the most active ones; and (3) pefloxacin alone may be as active as combination therapy. Although these results are in agreement with data obtained in cell and in animal models of legionella infection they need to be further confirmed by the study of larger number of patients.

  13. Modulation of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis using topical mitomycin C and steroids

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, J.H.; Gollamudi, S.; Green, W.R.

    1991-08-01

    A 193-nm excimer laser system was used to create deep stromal ablations in seven New Zealand white rabbits and shallow ablations in three. Eyes were randomized for treatment with topical mitomycin C, steroids, and erythromycin; topical steroids and erythromycin; or topical erythromycin only. All treatment regimens were instituted twice daily for 14 days. All eyes reepithelialized normally within 3 to 5 days. During 10 weeks of follow-up, all eyes developed moderate reticular subepithelial haze without significant differences among treatment groups. Results of light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic examination showed anterior stromal scarring and markedly reduced new subepithelial collagen formation inmore » the group treated with mitomycin C, corticosteroids, and erythromycin. Focal abnormalities of Descemet's membrane and endothelial abnormalities were present in all treatment groups. Combination therapy with topical steroids, mitomycin C, and erythromycin to control the corneal wound healing response after refractive laser surgery appears promising and warrants further study.« less

  14. In vitro activity of RP 74501-RP 74502, a novel streptogramin antimicrobial mixture, against clinical isolates of Legionella species.

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1993-01-01

    Agar and broth microdilution MICs of RP 74501-RP 74502, a mixture of streptogramin antimicrobial agents that inhibited 90% of 22 Legionella strains tested, were 0.64 and 0.08 microgram/ml, respectively; respective erythromycin values were 1.0 and 0.12 microgram/ml. RP 74501-RP 74502 at 1 microgram/ml was more active than the same erythromycin concentration in a macrophage system for both L. pneumophila strains studied but at a lower concentration (0.25 microgram/ml) was much less active than erythromycin. PMID:8494390

  15. High GC Content Cas9-Mediated Genome-Editing and Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Activation in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wei, Wen-Ping; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2018-05-18

    The overexpression of bacterial secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes is the basis for industrial overproducing strains. Genome editing tools can be used to further improve gene expression and yield. Saccharopolyspora erythraea produces erythromycin, which has extensive clinical applications. In this study, the CRISPR-Cas9 system was used to edit genes in the S. erythraea genome. A temperature-sensitive plasmid containing the PermE promoter, to drive Cas9 expression, and the Pj23119 and PkasO promoters, to drive sgRNAs, was designed. Erythromycin esterase, encoded by S. erythraea SACE_1765, inactivates erythromycin by hydrolyzing the macrolactone ring. Sequencing and qRT-PCR confirmed that reporter genes were successfully inserted into the SACE_1765 gene. Deletion of SACE_1765 in a high-producing strain resulted in a 12.7% increase in erythromycin levels. Subsequent PermE- egfp knock-in at the SACE_0712 locus resulted in an 80.3% increase in erythromycin production compared with that of wild type. Further investigation showed that PermE promoter knock-in activated the erythromycin biosynthetic gene clusters at the SACE_0712 locus. Additionally, deletion of indA (SACE_1229) using dual sgRNA targeting without markers increased the editing efficiency to 65%. In summary, we have successfully applied Cas9-based genome editing to a bacterial strain, S. erythraea, with a high GC content. This system has potential application for both genome-editing and biosynthetic gene cluster activation in Actinobacteria.

  16. ORACLE--antibiotics for preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes: short-term and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, S; Taylor, D J; Tarnow-Mordi, W O

    2002-01-01

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM) is the most common antecedent of preterm birth and can lead to death, neonatal disease and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for pPROM suggested some health benefits for the neonate, but the results were inconclusive. A large, randomized, multicentre trial was undertaken to try to resolve this issue. In total, 4826 women with pPROM were randomized to one of four treatments: 325 mg co-amoxiclav plus 250 mg erythromycin, co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin placebo, erythromycin plus co-amoxiclav placebo, or co-amoxiclav placebo plus erythromycin placebo, four times daily for 10 d or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. The analysis was undertaken by intention to treat. Indications of short-term respiratory function, chronic lung disease and major neonatal cerebral abnormality were reduced with the prescription of erythromycin. In contrast, the use of co-amoxiclav was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Prophylactic antibiotics can play a role in preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes in reducing infant morbidity.

  17. Antibacterial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) from healthy carriers and tonsillitis patients and association with antibacterial sale in the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Marita D; Gaini, Shahin; Gislason, Hannes; Kristinsson, Karl G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), and correlate the findings with the sales of erythromycin and tetracycline. General practitioners in the Faroe Islands were recruited to send oropharyngeal swabs. From an ongoing pneumococcal study, nasopharyngeal swabs were sampled from healthy children 0-7 years of age. Erythromycin susceptibility data from Iceland were obtained from the reference laboratory at the Landspitali University Hospital. Susceptibility testing in the Faroe Islands and Iceland was performed according to CLSI methods and criteria. The resistance rate to erythromycin and tetracycline found in patients in the Faroe Islands in 2009/2010 was 6% and 30% respectively. Tetracycline resistance in patients declined significantly from 2009 to 2010 (37-10%, p-value = 0.006 < 0.05) and differed significantly between age groups (p-value = 0.03 < 0.05). In Iceland, there was a peak in erythromycin resistance in 2008 (44%) and a substantial decrease in 2009 (5%). Although the prevalence of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance in the Faroe Islands and Iceland may be associated with antimicrobial use, sudden changes can occur with the introduction of new resistant clones. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Insights into resistance mechanism of the macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) binding to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tingting; Zhang, Yanjun; Ding, Jing-Na; Fan, Song; Han, Ju-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) has been known as a key regulatory protein in metabolite sensing and genetic expression regulating. MphR(A) protein binds to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (Ery) and releases the gene operon, thus activates expression of the mphA gene and initiates Ery resistance. The two mutant amino acid residues (V66L and V126L) might potentially disrupt Ery binding to MphR(A). In these studies, the binding of macrolide antibiotic Ery to wild type (Wt) MphR(A) and double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A) are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the Apo-MphR(A) protein and Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, many interesting effects owing to the double mutant (V66L/V126L) are discovered. In the case of Ery, Helix I which plays an important role in transcription shows itself a right-hand α helix in Wt-MphR(A)-Ery, whereas the activated helix is broken down in double mutant-V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery. The calculated results exhibit that the double mutant V66L/V126L reduces the binding affinity of the V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery, resulting in the block of Ery resistance. The binding free energy decomposition analysis reveals that the decrease of the binding affinity for the variant V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery is mainly attributed to the gas phase electrostatic energies. The residue Leu66, Thr154, and Arg122 enhance the binding affinity of V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery. The residues Tyr103 and His147 contributes mainly to binding energies in the Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, whereas the two residues have no contribution to the binding free energy inV66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery complex. Our study gives useful insights into the nature of amino acids mutation effect, the mechanism of blocking drug resistance at the atomic level and the characteristics in binding affinity for Ery to double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A), which will contribute to the design of more effective macrolide antibiotics.

  19. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for preterm, prelabour rupture of fetal membranes: the ORACLE I randomised trial. ORACLE Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, S L; Taylor, D J; Tarnow-Mordi, W

    2001-03-31

    Preterm, prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes (pPROM) is the commonest antecedent of preterm birth, and can lead to death, neonatal disease, and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for pPROM suggested some health benefits for the neonate, but the results were inconclusive. We did a randomised multicentre trial to try to resolve this issue. 4826 women with pPROM were randomly assigned 250 mg erythromycin (n=1197), 325 mg co-amoxiclav (250 mg amoxicillin plus 125 mg clavulanic acid; n=1212), both (n=1192), or placebo (n=1225) four times daily for 10 days or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease, or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. Analysis was by intention to treat. Two women were lost to follow-up, and there were 15 protocol violations. Among all 2415 infants born to women allocated erythromycin only or placebo, fewer had the primary composite outcome in the erythromycin group (151 of 1190 [12.7%] vs 186 of 1225 [15.2%], p=0.08) than in the placebo group. Among the 2260 singletons in this comparison, significantly fewer had the composite primary outcome in the erythromycin group (125 of 1111 [11.2%] vs 166 of 1149 [14.4%], p=0.02). Co-amoxiclav only and co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin had no benefit over placebo with regard to this outcome in all infants or in singletons only. Use of erythromycin was also associated with prolongation of pregnancy, reductions in neonatal treatment with surfactant, decreases in oxygen dependence at 28 days of age and older, fewer major cerebral abnormalities on ultrasonography before discharge, and fewer positive blood cultures. Although co-amoxiclav only and co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin were associated with prolongation of pregnancy, they were also associated with a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. Erythromycin for women with pPROM is associated with a range of health

  20. 21 CFR 558.62 - Arsanilic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... efficiency; improving pigmentation Withdraw 5 days before slaughter; as sole source of organic arsenic 015565... pigmentation. As erythromycin thiocyanate; withdraw 5 days before slaughter; as sole source of organic arsenic... pigmentation As erythromycin thiocyanate; withdraw 5 days before slaughter; as sole source of organic arsenic...

  1. 21 CFR 558.62 - Arsanilic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Indications for use Limitations Sponsor (i) 45 to 90 1. Growing chickens: For growth promotion and feed...) .......do 015565 (iii) Erythromycin 4.6 Chickens; growth promotion and feed efficiency; improving.... 012487 (iv) Erythromycin 4.6 to 18.5 Chickens; growth promotion and feed efficiency; improving...

  2. Efficacy of azithromycin or clarithromycin for prophylaxis of viridans group streptococcus experimental endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, M S; Steckelberg, J M; Brandt, C M; Patel, R; Miro, J M; Wilson, W R

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of azithromycin or clarithromycin was compared to that of amoxicillin, clindamycin, or erythromycin for the prevention of viridans group streptococcus experimental endocarditis. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve vegetations were given no antibiotics or two doses of amoxicillin at 25 mg/kg of body weight, azithromycin at 10 mg/kg, clarithromycin at 10 mg/kg, clindamycin at 40 mg/kg followed by clindamycin at 20 mg/kg, or erythromycin at 10 mg/kg. Antibiotics were administered 0.5 h before and 5.5 h after intravenous infusion of 5 x 10(5) CFU of Streptococcus milleri. Forty-eight hours after bacterial inoculation, the rabbits were killed and aortic valve vegetations were aseptically removed and cultured for bacteria. Infective endocarditis occurred in 88% of untreated animals, 1% of animals receiving amoxicillin, 9% of animals receiving erythromycin, 0% of animals receiving clindamycin, 2.5% of animals receiving clarithromycin, and 1% of animals receiving azithromycin. All five regimens were more effective (P < 0.001) than no prophylaxis. Erythromycin was less effective (P < 0.05) than amoxicillin or clindamycin. Azithromycin or clarithromycin was as effective as amoxicillin, clindamycin, or erythromycin for the prevention of viridans group streptococcus experimental endocarditis in this model. PMID:9257739

  3. Macrolide resistance and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries: a study of the Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP).

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Jung, Sook-In; Oh, Won Sup; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Yang, Yonghong; Chongthaleong, Anan; Aswapokee, Nalinee; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lalitha, M K; Perera, Jennifer; Yee, Ti Teow; Kumararasinghe, Gamini; Jamal, Farida; Kamarulazaman, Adeeba; Parasakthi, Navaratnam; Van, Pham Hung; So, Thomas; Ng, Tak Keung

    2004-03-01

    To characterize mechanisms of macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae from 10 Asian countries during 1998-2001. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates and their resistance mechanisms. Of 555 isolates studied, 216 (38.9%) were susceptible, 10 (1.8%) were intermediate and 329 (59.3%) were resistant to erythromycin. Vietnam had the highest prevalence of erythromycin resistance (88.3%), followed by Taiwan (87.2%), Korea (85.1%), Hong Kong (76.5%) and China (75.6%). Ribosomal methylation encoded by erm(B) was the most common mechanism of erythromycin resistance in China, Taiwan, Sri Lanka and Korea. In Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia, efflux encoded by mef(A) was the more common in erythromycin-resistant isolates. In most Asian countries except Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore, erm(B) was found in >50% of pneumococcal isolates either alone or in combination with mef(A). The level of erythromycin resistance among pneumococcal isolates in most Asian countries except Thailand and India was very high with MIC(90)s of >128 mg/L. Molecular epidemiological studies suggest the horizontal transfer of the erm(B) gene and clonal dissemination of resistant strains in the Asian region. Data confirm that macrolide resistance in pneumococci is a serious problem in many Asian countries.

  4. Childhood outcomes after prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with spontaneous preterm labour: 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE II trial.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, S; Pike, K; Jones, D R; Brocklehurst, P; Marlow, N; Salt, A; Taylor, D J

    2008-10-11

    The ORACLE II trial compared the use of erythromycin and/or amoxicillin-clavulanate (co-amoxiclav) with that of placebo for women in spontaneous preterm labour and intact membranes, without overt signs of clinical infection, by use of a factorial randomised design. The aim of the present study--the ORACLE Children Study II--was to determine the long-term effects on children after exposure to antibiotics in this clinical situation. We assessed children at age 7 years born to the 4221 women who had completed the ORACLE II study and who were eligible for follow-up with a structured parental questionnaire to assess the child's health status. Functional impairment was defined as the presence of any level of functional impairment (severe, moderate, or mild) derived from the mark III Multi-Attribute Health Status classification system. Educational outcomes were assessed with national curriculum test results for children resident in England. Outcome was determined for 3196 (71%) eligible children. Overall, a greater proportion of children whose mothers had been prescribed erythromycin, with or without co-amoxiclav, had any functional impairment than did those whose mothers had received no erythromycin (658 [42.3%] of 1554 children vs 574 [38.3%] of 1498; odds ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37). Co-amoxiclav (with or without erythromycin) had no effect on the proportion of children with any functional impairment, compared with receipt of no co-amoxiclav (624 [40.7%] of 1523 vs 608 [40.0%] of 1520; 1.03, 0.89-1.19). No effects were seen with either antibiotic on the number of deaths, other medical conditions, behavioural patterns, or educational attainment. However, more children whose mothers had received erythromycin or co-amoxiclav developed cerebral palsy than did those born to mothers who received no erythromycin or no co-amoxiclav, respectively (erythromycin: 53 [3.3%] of 1611 vs 27 [1.7%] of 1562, 1.93, 1.21-3.09; co-amoxiclav: 50 [3.2%] of 1587 vs 30 [1.9%] of 1586, 1

  5. 21 CFR 522.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (tonsillitis... for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (rhinitis, bronchitis... disease (shipping fever complex and bacterial pneumonia) associated with Pasteurella multocida susceptible...

  6. 21 CFR 522.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (tonsillitis... for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (rhinitis, bronchitis... disease (shipping fever complex and bacterial pneumonia) associated with Pasteurella multocida susceptible...

  7. 21 CFR 522.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (tonsillitis... for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (rhinitis, bronchitis... disease (shipping fever complex and bacterial pneumonia) associated with Pasteurella multocida susceptible...

  8. 21 CFR 522.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (tonsillitis... for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (rhinitis, bronchitis... disease (shipping fever complex and bacterial pneumonia) associated with Pasteurella multocida susceptible...

  9. 21 CFR 522.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (tonsillitis... for use. For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, upper respiratory infections (rhinitis, bronchitis... disease (shipping fever complex and bacterial pneumonia) associated with Pasteurella multocida susceptible...

  10. 21 CFR 526.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (as the base), 0.45 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.45 milligram of butylated... (as the base), 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxytoluene. (3) The vehicle is triglyceride of saturated fatty acids from coconut oil. (4) The drug may or...

  11. 21 CFR 526.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (as the base), 0.45 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.45 milligram of butylated... (as the base), 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxytoluene. (3) The vehicle is triglyceride of saturated fatty acids from coconut oil. (4) The drug may or...

  12. 21 CFR 526.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (as the base), 0.45 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.45 milligram of butylated... (as the base), 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxytoluene. (3) The vehicle is triglyceride of saturated fatty acids from coconut oil. (4) The drug may or...

  13. 21 CFR 526.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (as the base), 0.45 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.45 milligram of butylated... (as the base), 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxyanisole, and 0.90 milligram of butylated hydroxytoluene. (3) The vehicle is triglyceride of saturated fatty acids from coconut oil. (4) The drug may or...

  14. 21 CFR 526.820 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Lactating cows: After milking, cleaning, and disinfecting, infuse contents of a single 6-milliliter syringe... infusions. (ii) Dry cows: After milking, cleaning, and disinfecting, infuse contents of a single 12... Streptococcus uberis in lactating or dry cows. (3) Limitations. Milk taken from animals during treatment and for...

  15. 21 CFR 558.248 - Erythromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; growth promotion and feed efficiency ,061623 (ii) 9.25 to 18.5 Turkeys; growth promotion and feed efficiency For turkeys not over 12 weeks of age ,061623 (iii) 9.25 to 64.75 Swine; increase in weight gain... before slaughter 3. Turkeys; as an aid in the prevention of chronic respiratory disease during periods of...

  16. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... on to step 5. If your medication comes in small pouches, use scissors or your fingers to tear off the top at the notched tab. Do not open the pouch with your teeth. Squeeze the contents of the pouch onto your ...

  17. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel 15-membered macrolide derivatives: 4''-carbamate, 11,12-cyclic carbonate-4''-carbamate and 11,4''-di-O-arylcarbamoyl analogs of azithromycin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shutao; Ma, Ruixin; Liu, Zhaopeng; Ma, Chenchen; Shen, Xuecui

    2009-10-01

    4''-Carbamate, 11,12-cyclic carbonate-4''-carbamate and 11,4''-di-O-arylcarbamoyl analogs of azithromycin were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The 4''-carbamate analogs retained excellent activity against erythromycin-susceptible Staphylococcus pneumoniae and showed improved activity against erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus pneumoniae. Compared with 4''-carbamate analogs, 11,12-cyclic carbonate-4''-carbamate analogs exhibited improved activity against erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus pneumoniae encoded by the mef gene or the erm and mef genes, and 11,4''-di-O-arylalkylcarbamoyl analogs showed greatly improved activity (0.25-0.5 microg/mL) against erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus pneumoniae encoded by the erm gene. Among them, the novel series of 11,4''-di-O-arylalkylcarbamoyl analogs 7a-k exhibited potent and balanced activity against susceptible and resistant bacteria. In particular, compounds 7f and 7k were the most effective against susceptible bacteria and resistant bacteria encoded by the erm gene or the mef gene.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of resistance to macrolides in Streptococcus pyogenes from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Silvia; Amoroso, Ana M; Famiglietti, Angela; de Mier, Carmen; Vay, Carlos; Gutkind, Gabriel O

    2004-01-01

    Five hundred and seventy-eight strains of group A streptococci (GAS) isolated mostly from paediatric pharyngeal swabs were tested to evaluate their susceptibility to erythromycin. Resistant strains were then tested for their MICs to erythromycin and clindamycin, their phenotype of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin (MLS(B)) and for the presence of macrolide resistance genes. The rate of resistance to erythromycin was 8.2%. Constitutive, inducible and M phenotypes of resistance were detected in 2.1, 2.1 and 95.8% of resistant strains, respectively. All M phenotypes harboured the mefA gene, whereas constitutive and inducible phenotypes had ermB and ermTR genes, respectively.

  19. Interaction of insulin with prokinetic drugs in STZ-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mohamed A Fouad; Latif, Hekma A Abd El; Sayed, Mostafa E El

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the possible interactions of metoclopramide, domperidone and erythromycin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice treated with insulin by various parameters. METHODS: Effects of the individual as well as combined drugs were studied in diabetic mice via estimation of the blood glucose and serum insulin levels, small intestinal transit (SIT), gastric emptying (GE), xylose absorption and glucose tolerance tests. Groups were given insulin 2 IU/kg s.c., metoclopramide 20 mg/kg p.o., domperidone 20 mg/kg p.o. and erythromycin 6 mg/kg p.o. individually and in combination. There were also normal and diabetic control groups. The first set of experiments was carried out to investigate the subchronic effect on blood glucose and serum insulin levels in diabetic mice of one week of daily dose administration of the tested drugs individually as well as the combination of insulin with each prokinetic drug. The other five sets of experiments were carried out to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of each drug individually and in combination on blood glucose and serum insulin levels, SIT, GE, oral xylose absorption and glucose tolerance tests. RESULTS: The study included the prokinetic drugs metoclopramide (20 mg/kg), domperidone (20 mg/kg) and erythromycin (6 mg/kg), as well as insulin (2 IU/kg), which was individually effective in decreasing SIT, enhancing GE and increasing xylose absorption significantly in diabetic mice. Erythromycin tended to decrease blood glucose level and increase serum insulin level after 1 wk of daily administration in diabetic mice. Erythromycin potentiated the effect of insulin on blood glucose level and serum insulin level whereas other prokinetic agents failed to do so after repeated dose administration in diabetic mice. Metoclopramide or erythromycin in combination with insulin significantly decreased SIT, in diabetic mice, to lower levels than with insulin alone. Administration of prokinetic drugs along with insulin

  20. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1996-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 to > 128 micrograms/ml. The strains were classified into three groups according to their penicillin susceptibility: 42 (63.6%) were susceptible, 8 (12.1%) were intermediately resistant, and 16 (24.3%) were highly resistant. The percentages of erythromycin-resistant strains in each group were 23.8, 62.5, and 68.8%, respectively. Streptococcus mitis was the species most frequently isolated (83.3%) and showed the highest rates of penicillin (40%) and erythromycin (43.6%) resistance. MICs of all macrolide antibiotics tested and of quinupristin-dalfopristin were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for penicillin-susceptible strains. All macrolide antibiotics tested had cross-resistance to erythromycin, which was not observed with quinupristin-dalfopristin. Our study shows a high rate of macrolide resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood samples of neutropenic cancer patients, especially those infected with penicillin-resistant strains. These findings make macrolides unsuitable prophylactic agents against viridans group streptococcal bacteremia in this patient population. PMID:8878591

  1. The distribution of antibiotics in water of a river basin in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, T.; Cheng, W.; Wang, M.; Wan, T.; Cheng, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Jia, Z. Y.

    2017-08-01

    In water environment field, one of the most attractive research topics is the determination of contamination characteristics of antibiotics in water. In order to investigate the distribution of antibiotics in surface water and drinking water of a certain river basin in southern China, we determined the types and concentrations of antibiotics that contaminated the river by performing HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Thus, we detected 17 antibiotics in four surface water samples (B1, B2, B3, and B4). In sampling points B3 and B4, we detected 16 antibiotics separately. The detection rates of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and erythromycin-H2O were 100%, and the antibiotic erythromycin-H2O had the maximum concentration. In six drinking water samples (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6), we detected 13 antibiotics. In A5 water samples, we detected all the 13 antibiotics. The detection rate of ofloxacin and erythromycin-H2O was 100%, and erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration. We also found that from the upstream to the downstream of the river basin, the types of antibiotics in river increased gradually. In the upstream water samples (B1), we detected three antibiotics. Erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration of 6.61 ng/L, and sulfapyridine had the lowest concentration of 2.82 ng/L. In the downstream water samples (B4), we detected 16 antibiotics. Erythromycin-H2O was the antibiotic with the highest concentration of 277.58 ng/L, and the Sulfamonomethoxine was the antibiotic with the second-highest concentration of 242.1 ng/L. In addition, different membrane treatment processes could remove different amounts of antibiotics from the water samples. The study is an important reference for providing environmental protection to river water basin.

  2. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of group B streptococci in pregnant women: results from a Swiss tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Fröhlicher, Simone; Reichen-Fahrni, Gabriela; Müller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel; Droz, Sara; Spellerberg, Barbara; Sendi, Parham

    2014-03-20

    To evaluate the rates of penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin resistance and the serotype distribution among isolates of group B streptococcus (GBS) obtained from pregnant women at the University Hospital of Bern in Switzerland. We prospectively collected screening samples for GBS colonisation at the University Women's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, between March 2009 and August 2010. We included 364 GBS isolates collected from vaginal, cervical or vaginal-perianal swabs at any gestation time. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin were established using Etest with 24 hours of incubation, and inducible clindamycin resistance was tested with double disk diffusion tests. Serotyping was done with a rapid latex agglutination test or, if not conclusive, with polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) testing. We looked for significant associations between resistance patterns, age groups, serotype and ethnicity. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Resistance rates were 14.5% for erythromycin and 8.2% for clindamycin. Of 364 isolates, 5.8% were susceptible to clindamycin but not to erythromycin, although demonstrating inducible clindamycin resistance. Hence, the final reported clindamycin resistance rate was 14%. Serotype III was the most frequent serotype (29%), followed by V (25%) and Ia (19%). Serotype V was associated with erythromycin resistance (p = 0.0007). In comparison with all other ethnicities, patients from Asia showed a higher proportion of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance (p = 0.018). No significant association between resistance patterns and age groups was found. In pregnant women with GBS colonisation, penicillin is the antibiotic of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis to prevent neonatal early-onset GBS sepsis. In women with penicillin allergy and at high risk for anaphylactic reaction, clindamycin may be an alternative. The resistance rate for clindamycin at our institution was 14%; therefore

  3. History of macrolide use in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Klein, J O

    1997-04-01

    Erythromycin, the prototypical macrolide, has been widely used since the 1950s in the management of pediatric infections. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for infants and children with Legionnaire's disease, pertussis, diphtheria, lower respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis and enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. It is also indicated for treatment of syphilis; for streptococcal, staphylococcal and pneumococcal infections; genital infections caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum; and for the prevention of rheumatic fever and endocarditis in patients who are allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics. The new macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin are also active against Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii. Erythromycin is associated with a low risk of serious side effects, although gastric distress occurs in a significant proportion of patients. Drug interactions with theophylline, carbamazepine, warfarin, cyclosporine, terfenadine and digoxin limit erythromycin use. The newer macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin are more stable, better absorbed and better tolerated than erythromycin. Azithromycin is more active than erythromycin against Haemophilus influenzae. Excellent tissue and intracellular penetration may contribute to their clinical efficacy. In children both azithromycin and clarithromycin are indicated for acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis and for pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. (As of December, 1996, azithromycin for oral suspension was approved for community-acquired pneumonia in children caused by C. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae.) Claritromycin is also indicated for acute maxillary sinusitis, uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, pneumonia and disseminated

  4. Fate of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes during Wastewater Chlorination: Implication for Antibiotic Resistance Control

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fates of nine antibiotic-resistant bacteria as well as two series of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treated by various doses of chlorine (0, 15, 30, 60, 150 and 300 mg Cl2 min/L). The results indicated that chlorination was effective in inactivating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most bacteria were inactivated completely at the lowest dose (15 mg Cl2 min/L). By comparison, sulfadiazine- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria exhibited tolerance to low chlorine dose (up to 60 mg Cl2 min/L). However, quantitative real-time PCRs revealed that chlorination decreased limited erythromycin or tetracycline resistance genes, with the removal levels of overall erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes at 0.42 ± 0.12 log and 0.10 ± 0.02 log, respectively. About 40% of erythromycin-resistance genes and 80% of tetracycline resistance genes could not be removed by chlorination. Chlorination was considered not effective in controlling antimicrobial resistance. More concern needs to be paid to the potential risk of antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater after chlorination. PMID:25738838

  5. In vitro synergy testing of macrolide-quinolone combinations against 41 clinical isolates of Legionella.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S J; Pendland, S L; Chen, C; Schreckenberger, P; Danziger, L H

    1996-01-01

    Combination antimicrobial therapy against Legionella species has not been well studied. Several quinolones have activity against Legionella strains, which prompted this in vitro search for a synergistic combination with the macrolides. By a checkerboard assay, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, each in combination with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, were tested for synergy against 46 isolates of Legionella. The agar dilution method was employed using buffered charcoal-yeast extract media. A final inoculum of 10(4) CFU per spot was prepared from 24-h growth of each isolate. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Synergy, partial synergy, additive effect, or indifference was observed for all combinations of antibiotics tested. There was no antagonism observed. Synergy occurred to a significantly greater extent for the clarithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.0001) and azithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.003) combinations versus erythromycin-levofloxacin. The azithromycin-ciprofloxacin combination demonstrated significantly greater synergy than did either erythromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.003) or clarithromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001). The newer macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin may be more active in combination with a fluoroquinolone than is erythromycin. PMID:8726012

  6. [The effect of biyuanshu oral liquid on the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shengqing

    2012-07-01

    To observe the effect of biyuanshu oral liquid on the formation of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was established by plate culture and detected by Scanning electron microscopy and AgNO3 staining. After treated with different dosages of biyuanshu oral liquid and erythromycin, the pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were observed by AgNO3 staining and the number of viable bacteria were measured by serial dilution. The pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms could be detected by SEM at the seventh culture day and it was consistent with the detection of AgNO3 staining. The biyuanshu oral liquid and erythromycin have the effect on inhibiting the formation of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. But with the already formed pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms the inhibition was not significant. The serial dilution method showed that the viable counts of bacteria of biyuanshu oral liquid and erythromycin treated groups were significantly lower than those untreated groups (P < 0.05). The biyuanshu oral liquid and erythromycin can inhibit the formation of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro.

  7. TetR Family Transcriptional Regulator PccD Negatively Controls Propionyl Coenzyme A Assimilation in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Wang, Miaomiao; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2017-10-15

    Propanol stimulates erythromycin biosynthesis by increasing the supply of propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), a starter unit of erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea Propionyl-CoA is assimilated via propionyl-CoA carboxylase to methylmalonyl-CoA, an extender unit of erythromycin. We found that the addition of n -propanol or propionate caused a 4- to 16-fold increase in the transcriptional levels of the SACE_3398-3400 locus encoding propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in propionate metabolism. The regulator PccD was proved to be directly involved in the transcription regulation of the SACE_3398-3400 locus by EMSA and DNase I footprint analysis. The transcriptional levels of SACE_3398-3400 were upregulated 15- to 37-fold in the pccD gene deletion strain (Δ pccD ) and downregulated 3-fold in the pccD overexpression strain (WT/pIB- pccD ), indicating that PccD was a negative transcriptional regulator of SACE_3398-3400. The Δ pccD strain has a higher growth rate than that of the wild-type strain (WT) on Evans medium with propionate as the sole carbon source, whereas the growth of the WT/pIB- pccD strain was repressed. As a possible metabolite of propionate metabolism, methylmalonic acid was identified as an effector molecule of PccD and repressed its regulatory activity. A higher level of erythromycin in the Δ pccD strain was observed compared with that in the wild-type strain. Our study reveals a regulatory mechanism in propionate metabolism and suggests new possibilities for designing metabolic engineering to increase erythromycin yield. IMPORTANCE Our work has identified the novel regulator PccD that controls the expression of the gene for propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in propionyl-CoA assimilation in S. erythraea PccD represses the generation of methylmalonyl-CoA through carboxylation of propionyl-CoA and reveals an effect on biosynthesis of erythromycin. This finding provides novel insight into propionyl-CoA assimilation, and

  8. TetR Family Transcriptional Regulator PccD Negatively Controls Propionyl Coenzyme A Assimilation in Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Wang, Miaomiao

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propanol stimulates erythromycin biosynthesis by increasing the supply of propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), a starter unit of erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Propionyl-CoA is assimilated via propionyl-CoA carboxylase to methylmalonyl-CoA, an extender unit of erythromycin. We found that the addition of n-propanol or propionate caused a 4- to 16-fold increase in the transcriptional levels of the SACE_3398–3400 locus encoding propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in propionate metabolism. The regulator PccD was proved to be directly involved in the transcription regulation of the SACE_3398–3400 locus by EMSA and DNase I footprint analysis. The transcriptional levels of SACE_3398–3400 were upregulated 15- to 37-fold in the pccD gene deletion strain (ΔpccD) and downregulated 3-fold in the pccD overexpression strain (WT/pIB-pccD), indicating that PccD was a negative transcriptional regulator of SACE_3398–3400. The ΔpccD strain has a higher growth rate than that of the wild-type strain (WT) on Evans medium with propionate as the sole carbon source, whereas the growth of the WT/pIB-pccD strain was repressed. As a possible metabolite of propionate metabolism, methylmalonic acid was identified as an effector molecule of PccD and repressed its regulatory activity. A higher level of erythromycin in the ΔpccD strain was observed compared with that in the wild-type strain. Our study reveals a regulatory mechanism in propionate metabolism and suggests new possibilities for designing metabolic engineering to increase erythromycin yield. IMPORTANCE Our work has identified the novel regulator PccD that controls the expression of the gene for propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in propionyl-CoA assimilation in S. erythraea. PccD represses the generation of methylmalonyl-CoA through carboxylation of propionyl-CoA and reveals an effect on biosynthesis of erythromycin. This finding provides novel insight into propionyl

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of 1,684 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 2,039 Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates and Their Ecological Relationships: Results of a 1-Year (1998–1999) Multicenter Surveillance Study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Trallero, E.; Fernández-Mazarrasa, C.; García-Rey, C.; Bouza, E.; Aguilar, L.; García-de-Lomas, J.; Baquero, F.

    2001-01-01

    A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study which included 1,684 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 2,039 S. pyogenes isolates was carried out over 1 year in order to assess the current resistance patterns for the two most important gram-positive microorganisms responsible for community-acquired infections in Spain. Susceptibility testing was done by a broth microdilution method according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M100-S10 interpretative criteria. For S. pneumoniae, the prevalences of highly resistant strains were 5% for amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; 7% for cefotaxime; 22% for penicillin; 31% for cefuroxime; 35% for erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin; and 42% for cefaclor. For S. pyogenes, the prevalence of erythromycin resistance was 20%. Efflux was encountered in 90% of S. pyogenes and 5% of S. pneumoniae isolates that exhibited erythromycin resistance. Erythromycin resistance was associated with clarithromycin and azithromycin in both species, regardless of phenotype. Despite the different nature of the mechanisms of resistance, a positive correlation (r = 0.612) between the two species in the prevalence of erythromycin resistance was found in site-by-site comparisons, suggesting some kind of link with antibiotic consumption. Regarding ciprofloxacin, the MIC was ≥4 μg/ml for 7% of S. pneumoniae and 3.5% of S. pyogenes isolates. Ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with macrolide resistance in both S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae and with penicillin nonsusceptibility in S. pneumoniae. PMID:11709305

  10. Identification of new transformation products during enzymatic treatment of tetracycline and erythromycin antibiotics at laboratory scale by an on-line turbulent flow liquid-chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer LTQ-Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Couillerot, Olivier; Panigoni, Karine; de Gunzburg, Jean; Bayer, Sally; Czaja, Rico; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the formation of transformation products (TPs) by the enzymatic degradation at laboratory scale of two highly consumed antibiotics: tetracycline (Tc) and erythromycin (ERY). The analysis of the samples was carried out by a fast and simple method based on the novel configuration of the on-line turbulent flow system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap - high resolution mass spectrometer. The method was optimized and validated for the complete analysis of ERY, Tc and their transformation products within 10 min without any other sample manipulation. Furthermore, the applicability of the on-line procedure was evaluated for 25 additional antibiotics, covering a wide range of chemical classes in different environmental waters with satisfactory quality parameters. Degradation rates obtained for Tc by laccase enzyme and ERY by EreB esterase enzyme without the presence of mediators were ∼78% and ∼50%, respectively. Concerning the identification of TPs, three suspected compounds for Tc and five of ERY have been proposed. In the case of Tc, the tentative molecular formulas with errors mass within 2 ppm have been based on the hypothesis of dehydroxylation, (bi)demethylation and oxidation of the rings A and C as major reactions. In contrast, the major TP detected for ERY has been identified as the "dehydration ERY-A", with the same molecular formula of its parent compound. In addition, the evaluation of the antibiotic activity of the samples along the enzymatic treatments showed a decrease around 100% in both cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 558.248 - Erythromycin thiocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disease during periods of stress Feed for 2 d before stress and 3 to 6 d after stress; withdraw 24 h... during periods of stress Feed for 2 d before stress and 3 to 6 d after stress (vi) 185 1. Chickens; as an...

  12. 21 CFR 558.248 - Erythromycin thiocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... disease during periods of stress Feed for 2 d before stress and 3 to 6 d after stress; withdraw 24 h... during periods of stress Feed for 2 d before stress and 3 to 6 d after stress (vi) 185 1. Chickens; as an...

  13. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chickens—(i) Amount. 0.500 gram per gallon. (ii) Indications for use. As an aid in the control of chronic... for 5 days; do not use in replacement pullets over 16 weeks of age; do not use in chickens producing... before slaughter. (2) Replacement chickens and chicken breeders—(i) Amount. 0.500 gram per gallon. (ii...

  14. 21 CFR 558.248 - Erythromycin thiocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18.5 Chickens; growth promotion and feed efficiency ,061623 (ii) 9.25 to 18.5 Turkeys; growth promotion and feed efficiency For turkeys not over 12 weeks of age ,061623 (iii) 9.25 to 64.75 Swine...; withdraw 24 h before slaughter 3. Turkeys; as an aid in the prevention of chronic respiratory disease...

  15. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... not be used; withdraw 1 day before slaughter. (3) Growing turkeys—(i) Amount. 0.500 gram per gallon... turkeys producing eggs for human consumption; to assure effectiveness, treated birds must consume enough...

  16. 21 CFR 558.248 - Erythromycin thiocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18.5 Chickens; growth promotion and feed efficiency ,061623 (ii) 9.25 to 18.5 Turkeys; growth promotion and feed efficiency For turkeys not over 12 weeks of age ,061623 (iii) 9.25 to 64.75 Swine...; withdraw 24 h before slaughter 3. Turkeys; as an aid in the prevention of chronic respiratory disease...

  17. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... not be used; withdraw 1 day before slaughter. (3) Growing turkeys—(i) Amount. 0.500 gram per gallon... turkeys producing eggs for human consumption; to assure effectiveness, treated birds must consume enough...

  18. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not be used; withdraw 1 day before slaughter. (3) Growing turkeys—(i) Amount. 0.500 gram per gallon... turkeys producing eggs for human consumption; to assure effectiveness, treated birds must consume enough...

  19. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... not be used; withdraw 1 day before slaughter. (3) Growing turkeys—(i) Amount. 0.500 gram per gallon... turkeys producing eggs for human consumption; to assure effectiveness, treated birds must consume enough...

  20. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever , scrub typhus, trench fever, R. prowazekil, R. mooseri, R. Canada, R...rickettsia- static action: erythromycin and rifampin. Although erythromycin aiready had proven to be unreliable in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever , the...DC. 9. DuPont, H. L., R. B. Hornick, A. T. Dawkins, G. G. heiner. I. B. Fabrikant, C. L. Wisseman. Jr, and T. E. Woodward. 1VU1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever :

  1. Aeromedical Aspects of CH-47C Helicopter Self-Deployment (Operation Northern Leap),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    layover at Loring AFB. He was treated with erythromycin, pseudoephedrine and a cough prep- aration, and was restricted from performing pilot duties...tab- lets, pseudoephedrine tablets, and throat lozenges. Erythromycin was the only antibiotic dispensed in significant quantities and most emer- gency...medi(al supplies were not used. The fliqht surgeon obtained one refill of his stock of pseudoephedrine tablets in Goose Bay after his first stoc; was

  2. Identifying modules of coexpressed transcript units and their organization of Saccharopolyspora erythraea from time series gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yong-Tao; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2010-08-12

    The Saccharopolyspora erythraea genome sequence was released in 2007. In order to look at the gene regulations at whole transcriptome level, an expression microarray was specifically designed on the S. erythraea strain NRRL 2338 genome sequence. Based on these data, we set out to investigate the potential transcriptional regulatory networks and their organization. In view of the hierarchical structure of bacterial transcriptional regulation, we constructed a hierarchical coexpression network at whole transcriptome level. A total of 27 modules were identified from 1255 differentially expressed transcript units (TUs) across time course, which were further classified in to four groups. Functional enrichment analysis indicated the biological significance of our hierarchical network. It was indicated that primary metabolism is activated in the first rapid growth phase (phase A), and secondary metabolism is induced when the growth is slowed down (phase B). Among the 27 modules, two are highly correlated to erythromycin production. One contains all genes in the erythromycin-biosynthetic (ery) gene cluster and the other seems to be associated with erythromycin production by sharing common intermediate metabolites. Non-concomitant correlation between production and expression regulation was observed. Especially, by calculating the partial correlation coefficients and building the network based on Gaussian graphical model, intrinsic associations between modules were found, and the association between those two erythromycin production-correlated modules was included as expected. This work created a hierarchical model clustering transcriptome data into coordinated modules, and modules into groups across the time course, giving insight into the concerted transcriptional regulations especially the regulation corresponding to erythromycin production of S. erythraea. This strategy may be extendable to studies on other prokaryotic microorganisms.

  3. Systemic therapy of ocular and cutaneous rosacea in children.

    PubMed

    Gonser, L I; Gonser, C E; Deuter, C; Heister, M; Zierhut, M; Schaller, M

    2017-10-01

    In paediatric rosacea, ocular symptoms are often predominant. Literature about systemic therapy of paediatric ocular rosacea is sparse, though. Analysis of children with ocular rosacea treated systemically, particularly addressing remission and recurrence rates. Retrospective study reviewing the medical records of children with ocular rosacea treated with systemic antibiotic therapy. Nine of 19 patients were chosen for detailed analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first study in paediatric ocular rosacea requiring systemic therapy with a larger patient group and a longer follow-up (mean follow-up = 30.2 months). 17 patients (89.5%) suffered from blepharitis, 15 patients (78.9%) from conjunctivitis, twelve patients (63.2%) from chalazia/styes and nine female patients (47.4%) from corneal involvement. We used erythromycin (n = 9) or roxithromycin (n = 1) in patients younger than 8 years and doxycycline (n = 8) or minocycline (n = 1) in patients older than 8 years. Seven of nine patients treated with erythromycin, one of eight patients treated with doxycycline and the patient treated with minocycline achieved a complete remission of ocular and cutaneous symptoms. Two of nine patients treated with erythromycin, seven of eight patients treated with doxycycline and the patient treated with roxithromycin achieved a partial remission. Relapses occurred in the patient treated with minocycline (cutaneous), two of eight patients treated with doxycycline (ocular and cutaneous) and one of nine patients treated with erythromycin (cutaneous). To achieve a complete remission of cutaneous and ocular rosacea, a long-term anti-inflammatory treatment of at least 6 months is necessary. The relapse rates seem to be lower than in adults especially in the patients treated with erythromycin. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Appropriate antibiotic therapy improves Ureaplasma sepsis outcome in the neonatal mouse.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Leonard E; Leeming, Angela H; Kong, Lingkun

    2012-11-01

    Ureaplasma causes sepsis in human neonates. Although erythromycin has been the standard treatment, it is not always effective. No published reports have evaluated Ureaplasma sepsis in a neonatal model. We hypothesized that appropriate antibiotic treatment improves Ureaplasma sepsis in a neonatal mouse model. Two ATCC strains and two clinical strains of Ureaplasma were evaluated in vitro for antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, FVB albino mice pups infected with Ureaplasma were randomly assigned to saline, erythromycin, or azithromycin therapy and survival, quantitative blood culture, and growth were evaluated. MICs ranged from 0.125 to 62.5 µg/ml and 0.25 to 1.0 µg/ml for erythromycin and azithromycin, respectively. The infecting strain and antibiotic selected for treatment appeared to affect survival and bacteremia, but only the infecting strain affected growth. Azithromycin improved survival and bacteremia against each strain, whereas erythromycin was effective against only one of four strains. We have established a neonatal model of Ureaplasma sepsis and observed that treatment outcome is related to infecting strain and antibiotic treatment. We speculate that appropriate antibiotic selection and dosing are required for effective treatment of Ureaplasma sepsis in neonates, and this model could be used to further evaluate these relationships.

  5. Analysis of macrolide antibiotics in water by magnetic solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; Férriz, Macarena; Tadeo, José Luis

    2017-11-30

    Macrolides are one of the most commonly used families of antibiotics employed in human and veterinary treatment. These compounds are considered emerging contaminants with potential ecological and human health risks that could be present in surface water. This paper describes the development and application of a simple and efficient extraction procedure for the determination of tilmicosin; erythromycin, tylosin and erythromycin-H 2 O from water samples. Sample extraction was carried out using magnetic solid-phase extraction using oleate functionalized magnetic nanoparticles followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The effects of several parameters on the extraction efficiency of MLs from water were evaluated. The recovery results obtained were >84% for most of the compounds, except for erytromycin. The LOD and LOQ values ranged from 11.5 to 26ngL -1 and from 34 to 77ngL -1 , respectively. The selected method was applied to monitor these contaminants in water samples from different sources. Tilmicosin and tylosin were not detected in any of the samples, but erythromycin and erythromycin-H 2 O were found in 50% of the surface water samples at levels from

  6. Determination of antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Erginkaya, Z; Turhan, E U; Tatlı, D

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the antibiotic resistance (AR) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products was investigated. Yogurt, white cheese, tulum cheese, cokelek, camız cream and kefir as dairy products were collected from various supermarkets. Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Enterecoccus spp. were isolated from these dairy products. Lactobacillus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (58%), erythromycin (10.8%), tetracycline (4.3%), gentamicin (28%), and ciprofloxacin (26%). Streptococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (40%), erythromycin (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (30%). Bifidobacterium spp. were resistant to vancomycin (60%), E 15 (6.6%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (33%). Enterococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (100%), erythromycin (100%), rifampin (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%). As a result, LAB islated from dairy products in this study showed mostly resistance to vancomycin.

  7. Rapid lysostaphin test to differentiate Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species.

    PubMed Central

    Geary, C; Stevens, M

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, simple lysostaphin lysis susceptibility test to differentiate the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus was evaluated. Of 181 strains from culture collections, 95 of 95 Staphylococcus strains were lysed, and 79 of 79 Micrococcus strains were not lysed. The seven Planococcus strains were resistant. Clinical isolates (890) were tested with lysostaphin and for the ability to produce acid from glycerol in the presence of erythromycin. Overall agreement between the methods was 99.2%. All clinical Micrococcus strains (43) were resistant to lysostaphin, and all clinical Staphylococcus strains (847) were susceptible. Seven of the Staphylococcus strains did not produce acid from glycerol in the presence of erythromycin. This lysostaphin test provides results in 2 h. It is easier to perform than previously described lysostaphin lysis methods. It is also more rapid and accurate than the glycerol-erythromycin test. PMID:3519667

  8. DoD/VA Health Information Technology (IT) Data Sharing to Benefit Our Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

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  9. Detection of tetQ and ermF antibiotic resistance genes in Prevotella and Porphyromonas isolates from clinical specimens and resident microbiota of humans.

    PubMed

    Arzese, A R; Tomasetig, L; Botta, G A

    2000-05-01

    Gram-negative anaerobes belonging to the genera Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Porphyromonas were investigated for the presence of tetQ and ermF, which have been shown to be spread by conjugal elements. One hundred isolates from either sites of infection or various body sites in healthy subjects were studied. PCR was used to detect tetQ, and DNA-DNA hybridization studies on EcoRI chromosomal digests were undertaken to detect the presence of tetQ and ermF. Antibiotic sensitivity assays were performed on selected isolates to detect tetracycline, erythromycin and penicillin resistance. Twenty Fusobacterium isolates lacked tetQ, and were tetracycline sensitive. Twenty per cent of Prevotella spp. isolates both from clinical specimens and from healthy subjects were found to possess tetQ. Of 20 Porphyromonas isolates tested, one (Porphyromonas levii) from a case of bacterial vaginosis was shown to possess tetQ in the chromosome. The presence of tetQ was always associated with tetracycline resistance. Four isolates of Prevotella melaninogenica and one isolate of Prevotella were ermF-positive, although expression of erythromycin resistance was not consistently associated with detection of this gene. Antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Prevotella isolates were shown to be related to specific chromosomal restriction patterns by hybridization studies: tetracycline resistance and tetracycline/erythromycin resistance are conferred by Bacteroides tetracycline-resistant ERL elements, whereas the tetracycline/penicillin resistance phenotype could be due to spread of elements identified in Prevotella only. Tetracycline/erythromycin-resistant and tetracycline/erythromycin/penicillin-resistant P. melaninogenica isolates were found in this study. It appeared that the presence of tetQ and ermF in Bacteroides and Prevotella contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance isolates within the host and to potential spread to other organisms through conjugal elements.

  10. MLST typing of antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium acnes isolates from patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Lambros; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Refene, Eirini; Daikos, Georgios; Stavrianeas, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2015-02-01

    Molecular typing data on antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium strains are limited in the literature. We examined antimicrobial resistance profiles and the underlying resistance mechanisms in Propionibacterium spp. isolates recovered from patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Greece. The clonallity of the resistant Propionibacterium acnes isolates was also investigated. Propionibacterium spp. isolates were detected using Tryptone-Yeast Extract-Glucose (TYG) agar plates supplemented with 4% furazolidone. Erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, penicillin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, minocycline and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined using the gradient strip method. Erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline mechanisms of resistance were determined using PCR and sequencing of the domain V of 23S rRNA and 16S rRNA, as well as the presence of the ermX gene. Typing was performed using the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) methodology. Seventy nine isolates from 76 patients were collected. Twenty-three isolates (29.1%) exhibited resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, while two additional isolates (2.5%) were resistant only to erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was not detected. The underlying molecular mechanisms were point mutations A2059G and A2058G. MLST typing of the P. acnes resistant isolates revealed that lineage type IA1 (ST-1, 3 and 52) prevailed (12/18; 66.7%), whilst lineage type IA2 (ST-2 and 22) accounted for five more isolates (27.8%). Susceptible isolates were more evenly distributed between ST types. Propionibacterium spp. from moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Greece are frequently resistant to erythromycin/clindamycin but not to tetracyclines, mainly due to the point mutations A2059G and A2058G. P. acnes resistant isolates were more clonally related than susceptible ones and belonged to a limited number of MLST types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical significance of serotype V among infants with invasive group B streptococcal infections in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In Ae; Jo, Dae Sun; Cho, Eun Young; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong; Lee, Hyunju

    2015-09-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) strains are classified by the polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor and stimulator of antibody-associated immunity. As GBS infections in neonates may be life-threatening, GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis have been implemented for prevention. In Korea, there are few reports on the GBS serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance patterns because GBS screening and intrapartum prophylaxis are not done routinely. The serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of GBS in infants in Korea with invasive bacterial infections were examined for the 19-year period 1995-2013. Isolates obtained previously from hospitals located in three different regions were analyzed for capsular serotype by PCR and sequencing and for antimicrobial susceptibility. Among 56 isolates serotyped, the most common serotypes were III (44.6%) and V (28.6%), followed by Ia (14.3%), Ib (10.7%), and VI (1.8%). No penicillin-resistant strains were detected, however 51.8% of the strains had resistance to erythromycin and 55.4% showed clindamycin resistance. Resistance was highest (93.8%) to both erythromycin and clindamycin for serotype V; all 15 isolates resistant to erythromycin were cMLSB phenotype and had a high level of resistance to both erythromycin and clindamycin with MIC levels >256μg/ml, and all but one were positive for ermB. In this study in Korea, serotype V was identified in a relatively large proportion of GBS isolates and this serotype showed a high level of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in a statistically significant majority. Continuous monitoring of changes in clinical disease and molecular characteristics is important for the treatment and prevention of invasive GBS disease in infants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombineering reveals a diverse collection of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 that confer resistance to macrolide antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Diner, Elie J.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 confer resistance to erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics in a variety of bacteria. L4 and L22 have elongated loops whose tips converge in the peptide exit tunnel near the macrolide binding site, and resistance mutations typically affect residues within these loops. Here, we use bacteriophage λ Red-mediated recombination, or “recombineering”, to uncover new L4 and L22 alleles that confer macrolide resistance in Escherichia coli. We randomized residues at the tips of the L4 and L22 loops using recombineered oligonucleotide libraries, and selected the mutagenized cells for erythromycin-resistant mutants. These experiments led to the identification of 341 different resistance mutations encoding 278 unique L4 and L22 proteins – the overwhelming majority of which are novel. Many resistance mutations were complex, involving multiple missense mutations, in-frame deletions, and insertions. Transfer of L4 and L22 mutations into wild-type cells by phage P1-mediated transduction demonstrated that each allele was sufficient to confer macrolide resistance. Although L4 and L22 mutants are typically resistant to most macrolides, selections carried out on different antibiotics revealed macrolide-specific resistance mutations. L22 Lys90Trp is one such allele, which confers resistance to erythromycin, but not tylosin or spiramycin. Purified L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes show reduced erythromycin binding, but have the same affinity for tylosin as wild-type ribosomes. Moreover, DMS methylation protection assays demonstrated that L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes bind tylosin more readily than erythromycin in vivo. This work underscores the exceptional functional plasticity of the L4 and L22 proteins, and highlights the utility of Red-mediated recombination in targeted genetic selections. PMID:19150357

  13. ICESag37, a Novel Integrative and Conjugative Element Carrying Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Potential Virulence Factors in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaixin; Xie, Lianyan; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Wang, Yong; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    ICE Sag37 , a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae . Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae , Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations. Through mating experiments, the erythromycin resistance gene was found to be transferable from Sag37 to Sag158. Sma I-PFGE revealed a new Sma I fragment, confirming the transfer of the fragment containing the erythromycin resistance gene. Whole genome sequencing and sequence analysis revealed a mobile element, ICE Sag37 , which was characterized using several molecular methods and in silico analyses. ICE Sag37 was excised to generate a covalent circular intermediate, which was transferable to S. agalactiae . Inverse PCR was performed to detect the circular form. A serine family integrase mediated its chromosomal integration into rumA , which is a known hotspot for the integration of streptococcal ICEs. The integration site was confirmed using PCR. ICE Sag37 carried genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics, including erythromycin [ erm(B) ], tetracycline [ tet(O) ], and aminoglycosides [ aadE, aphA , and ant(6) ]. Potential virulence factors, including a two-component signal transduction system ( nisK/nisR ), were also observed in ICE Sag37 . S1-PFGE analysis ruled out the existence of plasmids. ICE Sag37 is the first ICE Sa2603 family-like element identified in S. agalactiae carrying both resistance and potential virulence determinants. It might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity among S. agalactiae .

  14. Heat treatment effects on the antimicrobial activity of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2011-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk can cause serious problems for consumers and the dairy industry. Heat treatment of milk may diminish the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotic residues. This study analyzed the effect of milk processing (60 °C for 30 min, 120 °C for 20 min, and 140 °C for 10 s) on the antimicrobial activity of milk samples fortified with three concentrations of three macrolides (erythromycin: 20, 40 and 80 μg/liter; spiramycin: 100, 200, and 400 μg/liter; and tylosin: 500, 1,000, and 2,000 μg/liter) and one lincosamide (lincomycin: 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 μg/liter). To measure the loss of antimicrobial activity, a bioassay based on the growth inhibition of Micrococcus luteus was done. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. The results indicate that treatment at 120 °C for 20 min produces inactivation percentages of 93% (erythromycin), 64% (spiramycin), 51% (tylosin), and 5% (lincomycin), while treatment at 140 °C for 10 s results in generally lower percentages (30% erythromycin, 35% spiramycin, 12% tylosin, and 5% lincomycin). The lowest loss or lowest reduction of antimicrobial activity (21% erythromycin and 13% spiramycin) was obtained by treatment at 60 °C for 30 min. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  15. The crystal structure of two macrolide glycosyltransferases provides a blueprint for host cell antibiotic immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bolam, David N.; Roberts, Shirley; Proctor, Mark R.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Martinez-Fleites, Carlos; Yang, Min; Davis, Benjamin G.; Davies, Gideon J.; Gilbert, Harry J.

    2007-01-01

    Glycosylation of macrolide antibiotics confers host cell immunity from endogenous and exogenous agents. The Streptomyces antibioticus glycosyltransferases, OleI and OleD, glycosylate and inactivate oleandomycin and diverse macrolides including erythromycin, respectively. The structure of these enzyme–ligand complexes, in tandem with kinetic analysis of site-directed variants, provide insight into the interaction of macrolides with their synthetic apparatus. Erythromycin binds to OleD and the 23S RNA of its target ribosome in the same conformation and, although the antibiotic contains a large number of polar groups, its interaction with these macromolecules is primarily through hydrophobic contacts. Erythromycin and oleandomycin, when bound to OleD and OleI, respectively, adopt different conformations, reflecting a subtle effect on sugar positioning by virtue of a single change in the macrolide backbone. The data reported here provide structural insight into the mechanism of resistance to both endogenous and exogenous antibiotics, and will provide a platform for the future redesign of these catalysts for antibiotic remodelling. PMID:17376874

  16. Comparative in-vitro activities of quinupristin-dalfopristin against Gram-positive bloodstream isolates.

    PubMed

    Schouten, M A; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A

    1997-08-01

    The in-vitro activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin was compared with those of vancomycin, teicoplanin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, rifampicin, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against 414 bloodstream isolates of Gram-positive cocci. Quinupristin-dalfopristin inhibited strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae at 0.12 mg/L, methicillin- and/or erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at 0.5 mg/L, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus anginosus at 1 mg/L and Enterococcus faecalis at 8 mg/L.

  17. In Vitro Activity of the Ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 6647) for Legionella spp., Its Pharmacokinetics in Guinea Pigs, and Use of the Drug To Treat Guinea Pigs with Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Paul H.; Edelstein, Martha A. C.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of HMR 3647, HMR 3004, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin for 97 Legionella spp. isolates were determined by microbroth dilution susceptibility testing. Growth inhibition of two Legionella pneumophila strains grown in guinea pig alveolar macrophages was also determined. The concentrations required to inhibit 50% of strains tested were 0.06, 0.02, 0.25, 0.03, and 0.02 μg/ml for HMR 3647, HMR 3004, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, respectively. BYEα broth did not significantly inhibit the activities of the drugs tested, as judged by the susceptibility of the control Staphylococcus aureus strain; however, when Escherichia coli was used as the test strain, levofloxacin activity tested in BYEα broth was fourfold lower. HMR 3647, HMR 3004, erythromycin, and clarithromycin (0.25 and 1 μg/ml) reduced bacterial counts of two L. pneumophila strains grown in guinea pig alveolar macrophages by 0.5 to 1 log10, but regrowth occurred over a 2-day period. HMR 3647, erythromycin, and clarithromycin appeared to have equivalent intracellular activities which were solely static in nature. HMR 3004 was more active than all drugs tested except levofloxacin. In contrast, levofloxacin (1 μg/ml) was bactericidal against intracellular L. pneumophila and significantly more active than the other drugs tested. Therapy studies with HMR 3647 and erythromycin were performed in guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia. When HMR 3647 was given (10 mg/kg of body weight) by the intraperitoneal route to infected guinea pigs, mean peak plasma levels were 1.4 μg/ml at 0.5 h and 1.0 μg/ml at 1 h postinjection. The terminal half-life phase of elimination from plasma was 1.4 h. All 16 L. pneumophila-infected guinea pigs treated with HMR 3647 (10 mg/kg/dose given intraperitoneally once daily) for 5 days survived for 9 days after antimicrobial therapy, as did all 16 guinea pigs treated with the same dose of HMR 3647 given twice daily. Fourteen of 16

  18. The development of macrolides: clarithromycin in perspective.

    PubMed

    Neu, H C

    1991-02-01

    Macrolide antibiotics have been available and used clinically since 1952. The class of drugs originated from a soil sample obtained from the City of Ilo-Ilo on the Island of Paray in the Philippines. Erythromycin has been the most widely used agent of this class called 'macrolides' because they possess the macrocyclic lactone nucleus. Many esters of erythromycin are well established as agents to treat a variety of respiratory and cutaneous infections, particularly in children. There has been a resurgence of interest in macrolides as a result of the recognition of pathogens such as Legionella, Chlamydia and Campylobacter spp. A number of new 14-membered macrolides have been synthesised in recent years with the goal of overcoming some of the problems of the older erythromycin agents. There has been variable activity of erythromycin against Haemophilus influenzae; there has been gastrointestinal irritation, particularly in adults; and the older agents are administered four times a day. Clarithromycin has increased activity against Legionella, and Branhamella spp., and Pasteurella multocida, and, with its 14-OH metabolite, inhibits Haemophilus spp. It is also more active against chlamydia and against anaerobic species while retaining excellent activity against streptococci including Streptococcus pneumoniae. It has increased plasma peak levels and a sufficiently long half-life for twice daily administration. Furthermore, it is well tolerated. Thus clarithromycin offers potential for use in those areas in which a safe, well tolerated macrolide will be used, namely respiratory, skin structure and selected diarrhoeal and genital infections.

  19. Microbial selectivity of UV treatment on antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic bacteria in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei-Ting; Yuan, Qing-Bin; Yang, Jian

    2013-10-15

    Little is known about the microbial selectivity of UV treatment for antibiotic resistant bacteria, and the results of limited studies are conflicting. To understand the effect of UV disinfection on antibiotic resistant bacteria, both total heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria (including cephalexin-, ciprofloxacin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin-, vancomycin-, sulfadiazine-, rifampicin-, tetracycline- and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria) were examined in secondary effluent samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline were chosen as the representative of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their characteristics after UV treatment were also investigated. UV disinfection results in effective inactivation for total heterotrophic bacteria, as well as all antibiotic resistant bacteria. After UV treatment at a fluence of 5 mJ/cm(2), the log reductions of nine types of antibiotic resistant bacteria varied from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.4 ± 0.1. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline had a similar fluence response as did total heterotrophic bacteria. The findings suggest that UV disinfection could eliminate antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment effluents and thus ensure public health security. Our experimental results indicated that UV disinfection led to enrichment of bacteria with resistance to sulfadiazine, vancomycin, rifampicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, while the proportions of cephalexin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in the wastewater decreased. This reveals the microbial selectivity of UV disinfection for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species by broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, K; Laverdière, M; Rivest, R

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are increasingly being implicated in foreign-body infections and in immunocompromised-host infections. However, there are no specific recommendations on the method or the criteria to use in order to determine the in vitro activities of the antibiotics commonly used to treat Corynebacterium infections. The first aim of our study was to compare the susceptibilities of various species of Corynebacterium to vancomycin, erythromycin, and penicillin by using a broth microdilution method and a disk diffusion method. Second, the activity of penicillin against our isolates was assessed by using the interpretative criteria recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for the determination of the susceptibility of streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes to penicillin. Overall, 100% of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, while considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin were noted for the different species tested, including the non-Corynebacterium jeikeium species. A good correlation in the susceptibilities of vancomycin and erythromycin between the disk diffusion and the microdilution methods was observed. However, a 5% rate of major or very major errors was detected with the Listeria criteria, while a high rate of minor errors (18%) was noted when the streptococcus criteria were used. Our findings indicate considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin against the various species of Corynebacterium. Because of the absence of definite recommendations, important discrepancies were observed between the methods and the interpretations of the penicillin activity. PMID:8849254

  1. Antimicrobial activity of topical agents against Propionibacterium acnes: an in vitro study of clinical isolates from a hospital in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Nanxue; Wu, Shi; Huang, Haihui; Cao, Yanpei

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial activities of topical agents against Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients admitted to a hospital in Shanghai, China. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the cultured P. acnes were determined in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Susceptibilities to clindamycin and erythromycin were compared in terms of gender, age, disease duration, previous treatment, and disease severity. A total of 69 P. acnes strains were isolated from 98 patients (70.41%). The susceptibility to triple antibiotic ointment (neomycin/bacitracin/polymyxin B) and bacitracin was 100%. The susceptibility to fusidic acid was 92.7%. The resistance rates to neomycin sulfate, erythromycin, and clindamycin were 11.7%, 49.3%, and 33.4%, respectively. The high resistance rate to clindamycin and erythromycin was significantly affected by gender, previous treatment, and disease severity rather than by age and disease duration. Topical antibiotics should not be used separately for long-term therapy to avoid multiresistance. The use of topical antibiotics should be determined by clinicians on the basis of clinical conditions.

  2. Activities of tigecycline and comparators against Legionella pneumophila and Legionella micdadei extracellularly and in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Lawrence H; Baltch, Aldona L; Ritz, William J; Michelsen, Phyllis B; Smith, Raymond P

    2011-01-01

    The activity of tigecycline against Legionellae, which are intracellular pathogens, was evaluated intracellularly in human phagocytes and extracellularly, and compared to the activities of erythromycin and levofloxacin. Clinical isolates of L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 5, and 6 and L. micdadei were tested in time-kill experiments. Extracellular experiments were done using buffered yeast extract broth. For intracellular assays, monolayers of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were infected with L. pneumophila or L. micdadei. Antibiotics (0.05-2.5 × MIC) were then added. MDM were lysed at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and viable bacteria in the lysates were enumerated. Based on multiples of the MICs, tigecycline was less active extracellularly than levofloxacin or erythromycin. However, intracellular killing of both L. pneumophila and L. micdadei by tigecycline at 72 h was greater than for erythromycin or levofloxacin. Currently, evidence does not support the use of tigecycline as a first-line drug for treatment of Legionella infections. However, since Legionellae are intracellular pathogens, these results suggest that tigecycline should be effective for treatment of infections caused by these bacteria. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Legionella: macrolides or quinolones?

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, L; Yu, V L

    2006-05-01

    Following the first outbreaks of legionnaire's disease, erythromycin emerged as the treatment of choice without the foundation of rigorous clinical trials. The number of therapeutic failures with erythromycin, as well as the side-effects and drug interactions, led to the consideration of other drugs such as the new macrolides and quinolones for the treatment of legionnaire's disease in the 1990s. In this article, 19 studies in in-vitro intracellular models and seven animal studies that compared macrolides to quinolones were reviewed. Quinolones were found to have greater activity in intracellular models and improved efficacy in animal models compared with macrolides. No randomised trials comparing the clinical efficacy of the new macrolides and new quinolones have ever been performed. Three observational studies totalling 458 patients with legionnaire's disease have compared the clinical efficacy of macrolides (not including azithromycin) and quinolones (mainly levofloxacin). The results suggested that quinolones may produce a superior clinical response compared with the macrolides (erythromycin and clarithromycin) with regard to defervescence, complications, and length of hospital stay. Little data exist for direct comparison of quinolones and azithromycin.

  4. Antibiotics in typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: occurrence, bioaccumulation and human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence, bioaccumulation, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 37 antibiotics in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China were investigated in this study. Sulfamethoxazole, salinomycin and trimethoprim were widely detected in the water samples (0.4-36.9 ng/L), while oxytetracycline was the predominant antibiotic in the water samples of shrimp larvae pond. Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6-31.8 ng/g) and erythromycin-H2O was the most frequently detected antibiotic in the sediment samples (0.8-4.8 ng/g). Erythromycin-H2O was the dominant antibiotic in the adult Fenneropenaeus penicillatus with concentrations ranging from 2498 to 15,090 ng/g. In addition, trimethoprim was found to be bioaccumulative in young Lutjanus russelli with a median bioaccumulation factor of 6488 L/kg. Based on daily intake estimation, the erythromycin-H2O in adult F. penicillatus presented a potential risk to human safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multidrug-resistant enterococci in animal meat and faeces and co-transfer of resistance from an Enterococcus durans to a human Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, Carla; Zandri, Giada; Aquilanti, Lucia; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Biavasco, Francesca

    2011-05-01

    Forty-eight isolates resistant to at least two antibiotics were selected from 53 antibiotic-resistant enterococci from chicken and pig meat and faeces and analysed for specific resistance determinants. Of the 48 multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, 31 were resistant to two antibiotics (29 to erythromycin and tetracycline, 1 to erythromycin and vancomycin, 1 to vancomycin and tetracycline), 14 to three (erythromycin, tetracycline and vancomycin or ampicillin) and 3 to four (erythromycin, vancomycin, ampicillin and gentamicin). erm(B), tet(M), vanA and aac (6')-Ie aph (2'')-Ia were the antibiotic resistance genes most frequently detected. All 48 MDR enterococci were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin. Enterococcus faecalis (16), Enterococcus faecium (8), Enterococcus mundtii (2) and Enterococcus gallinarum (1) were identified in meat, and E. faecium (13) and Enterococcus durans (13) in faeces. Clonal spread was not detected, suggesting a large role of gene transfer in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conjugative transfer of resistance genes was more successful when donors were enterococcal strains isolated from faeces; co-transfer of vanA and erm(B) to a human E. faecium occurred from both E. faecium and E. durans pig faecal strains. These data show that multidrug resistance can be found in food and animal species other than E. faecium and E. faecalis, and that these species can efficiently transfer antibiotic resistance to human strains in inter-specific matings. In particular, the occurrence of MDR E. durans in the animal reservoir could have a role in the emergence of human enterococcal infections difficult to eradicate with antibiotics.

  6. Characterization of resistance to selected antibiotics and Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus in a healthy student population at a Malaysian University

    PubMed Central

    Suhaili, Zarizal; Rafee, Putri ’Amira; Mat Azis, Norhidayah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Nordin, Syafinaz Amin; Abdul Rahim, Abdul Rachman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This study aims to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from university students and to determine the prevalence of constitutive and inducible clindamycin resistance, the latter being able to cause therapeutic failure due to false in vitro clindamycin susceptibility. Methods S. aureus strains were isolated from the nasal swabs of 200 health sciences students of a Malaysian university. Twelve classes of antibiotics were used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles with the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype for inducible clindamycin resistance determined by the double-diffusion test (D-test). Carriage of resistance and virulence genes was performed by PCR on S. aureus isolates that were methicillin resistant, erythromycin resistant and/or positive for the leukocidin gene, pvl (n=15). Results Forty-nine isolates were viable and identified as S. aureus with four of the isolates characterized as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 2.0%). All isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics tested except for penicillin (resistance rate of 49%), erythromycin (16%), oxacillin (8%), cefoxitin (8%) and clindamycin (4%). Of the eight erythromycin-resistant isolates, iMLSB was identified in five isolates (three of which were also MRSA). The majority of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored the msrA gene (four iMLSB) with the remaining iMLSB isolate harboring the ermC gene. Conclusion The presence of MRSA isolates which are also iMLSB in healthy individuals suggests that nasal carriage may play a role as a potential reservoir for the transmission of these pathogens. PMID:29564245

  7. Ureaplasma parvum undergoes selection in utero resulting in genetically diverse isolates colonizing the chorioamnion of fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Knox, Christine L

    2014-02-01

    Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intraamniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intraamniotic injection of a nonclonal, clinical Ureaplasma parvum strain followed by (i) erythromycin treatment (intramuscularly, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or (ii) saline (intramuscularly, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all the ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intraamniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaiclike sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harbored the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma subtypes within nonclonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections.

  8. Bacteriological Efficacies of Three Macrolides Compared with Those of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Valerie; Thorburn, Christine E.; Knott, Sarah J.; Woodnutt, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Comparative antibacterial efficacies of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were examined against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, with amoxicillin-clavulanate used as the active control. In vitro, the macrolides at twice their MICs and at concentrations achieved in humans were bacteriostatic or reduced the numbers of viable S. pneumoniae slowly, whereas amoxicillin-clavulanate showed a rapid antibacterial effect. Against H. influenzae, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and clarithromycin plus 14-hydroxy clarithromycin at twice their MICs produced a slow reduction in bacterial numbers, whereas azithromycin was bactericidal. Azithromycin at the concentrations achieved in the serum of humans was bacteriostatic, whereas erythromycin and clarithromycin were ineffective. In experimental respiratory tract infections in rats, clarithromycin (equivalent to 250 mg twice daily [b.i.d.]) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (equivalent to 500 plus 125 mg b.i.d., respectively) were highly effective against S. pneumoniae, but azithromycin (equivalent to 500 and 250 mg once daily) was significantly less effective (P < 0.01). Against H. influenzae, clarithromycin treatment (equivalent to 250 or 500 mg b.i.d.) was similar to no treatment and was significantly less effective than amoxicillin-clavulanate treatment (P < 0.01). Azithromycin demonstrated significant in vivo activity (P < 0.05) but was significantly less effective than amoxicillin-clavulanate (P < 0.05). Overall, amoxicillin-clavulanate was effective in vitro and in vivo. Clarithromycin and erythromycin were ineffective in vitro and in vivo against H. influenzae, and azithromycin (at concentrations achieved in humans) showed unreliable activity against both pathogens. These results may have clinical implications for the utility of macrolides in the empiric therapy of respiratory tract infections. PMID:9835514

  9. Characterization of resistance to selected antibiotics and Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus in a healthy student population at a Malaysian University.

    PubMed

    Suhaili, Zarizal; Rafee, Putri 'Amira; Mat Azis, Norhidayah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Nordin, Syafinaz Amin; Abdul Rahim, Abdul Rachman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from university students and to determine the prevalence of constitutive and inducible clindamycin resistance, the latter being able to cause therapeutic failure due to false in vitro clindamycin susceptibility. S. aureus strains were isolated from the nasal swabs of 200 health sciences students of a Malaysian university. Twelve classes of antibiotics were used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles with the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B ) phenotype for inducible clindamycin resistance determined by the double-diffusion test (D-test). Carriage of resistance and virulence genes was performed by PCR on S. aureus isolates that were methicillin resistant, erythromycin resistant and/or positive for the leukocidin gene, pvl (n=15). Forty-nine isolates were viable and identified as S. aureus with four of the isolates characterized as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 2.0%). All isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics tested except for penicillin (resistance rate of 49%), erythromycin (16%), oxacillin (8%), cefoxitin (8%) and clindamycin (4%). Of the eight erythromycin-resistant isolates, iMLS B was identified in five isolates (three of which were also MRSA). The majority of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored the msrA gene (four iMLS B ) with the remaining iMLS B isolate harboring the ermC gene. The presence of MRSA isolates which are also iMLS B in healthy individuals suggests that nasal carriage may play a role as a potential reservoir for the transmission of these pathogens.

  10. In vitro antimycoplasmal activities of rufloxacin and its metabolite MF 922.

    PubMed Central

    Furneri, P M; Bisignano, G; Cerniglia, G; Nicoletti, G; Cesana, M; Tempera, G

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro activities of rufloxacin and its metabolite, MF 922, were compared with those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and minocycline against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma fermentans, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Rufloxacin, MF 922, and ciprofloxacin shared similar activities against all mycoplasmas tested. (MICs for 90% of isolates tested [MIC90s], 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml. Ofloxacin had the lowest MIC90s for U. urealyticum, M. fermentans, and M. hominis (MIC90s, 0.25 to 1 micrograms/ml) and erythromycin had the lowest MIC90 for M. pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.004 micrograms/ml). PMID:7872762

  11. Vectorization efforts to increase Gram-negative intracellular drug concentration: a case study on HldE-K inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Atamanyuk, Dmytro; Faivre, Fabien; Oxoby, Mayalen; Ledoussal, Benoit; Drocourt, Elodie; Moreau, François; Gerusz, Vincent

    2013-03-14

    In this paper, we present different strategies to vectorize HldE kinase inhibitors with the goal to improve their gram-negative intracellular concentration. Syntheses and biological effects of siderophoric, aminoglycosidic, amphoteric, and polycationic vectors are discussed. While siderophoric and amphoteric vectorization efforts proved to be disappointing in this series, aminoglycosidic and polycationic vectors were able for the first time to achieve synergistic effects of our inhibitors with erythromycin. Although these effects proved to be nonspecific, this study provides information about the required stereoelectronic arrangement of the polycationic amines and their basicity requirements to fulfill outer membrane destabilization resulting in better erythromycin synergies.

  12. High prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae from vaginas of women in Taiwan and its mechanisms of macrolide and quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Tsung; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), is the most common pathogen causing infections among perinatal women and neonatal babies. Nonetheless, there are few studies on the occurrence of GBS among the pregnant women and the mechanisms of GBS resistance to quinolones and macrolides in Taiwan. GBS were isolated from vaginas of the pregnant and non-pregnant symptomatic women in Taiwan. The prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and mechanisms of resistance against erythromycin and quinolone of total 188 isolates were studied. The isolation rate of GBS from pregnant women was significantly higher at 21.8% compare with the non-pregnant women of 13.2%. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the 188 GBS isolates revealed a high non-susceptible rate for erythromycin (50.0%) while the rate for levofloxacin was only 4.8%. Among 94 erythromycin non-susceptible GBS isolates, ermB gene was detected 83.1% (59/71) for those GBS that were non-susceptible to both clindamycin and tetracycline, which was significantly higher than GBS that are susceptible to clindamycin but resistant to tetracycline at 43.8% (7/16). No ermA or mef gene was detected in any isolate. Mutations were detected in the parC and gyrA genes in 14 out of 18 levofloxacin non-susceptible isolates. The predominant mutation type was the combination of Ser79Tyr in parC and Ser81Leu mutations in gyrA. GBS is the most common isolated pathogens in vaginal infections in Taiwan, resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin is higher than the rate observed for other regions of the world, while the resistance rate for levofloxacin was relatively lower in Taiwan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Interrelation of the antibiotic sensitivity (resistance) of staphylococci, clinical forms of the infection and production of protein A].

    PubMed

    Fomenko, G A

    1984-06-01

    Two hundred and thirty-two strains of Staph. aureus isolated from patients with staphylococcal infections were studied. The strains were isolated from the blood of patients with sepsis, from the purulent foci on the skin and in the subcutaneous fat, from the nasopharyngeal mucosa of patients with tonsillitis and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, from the sputum of patients with the pneumonia signs and from the pus of patients with otitis. The pathogens were identified with the routine methods. The quantitative content of protein A in the strains was determined by the method of indirect hemagglutination with red blood cells sensitized with the hemolytic serum. The data obtained were analysed with regard to the strain group and characteristics of the strain resistance or sensitivity to benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, oleandomycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, monomycin, ristomycin and furagin K. Statistically significant differences in the protein A content in certain strain groups were observed. These differences might be correlated with the strain antibiotic resistance but not sensitivity. Pronounced changes in the levels of protein A were detected in the staphylococcal hemocultures resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin. The cultures resistant to erythromycin were characterized by decreased content of protein A and those resistant to streptomycin were characterized by increased content of protein A. Comparison of the antibiotic sensitivity of the strains of 5 groups by variation statistics revealed significant differences in the levels of sensitivity to streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, monomycin, ristomycin and furagin K but not to erythromycin, oleandomycin and chloramphenicol in the strains of certain groups. The staphylococcal hemocultures isolated from patients with sepsis proved to be the most sensitive to the antibiotics.

  14. Effects of macrolides on antigen-induced increases in cough reflex sensitivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Akira; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Furusho, Shiho; Abo, Miki; Katayama, Nobuyuki

    2010-02-01

    Macrolides are antibiotics that have anti-inflammatory activities. Hence, they are used for both acute and chronic inflammatory airway diseases. However, the effects of these agents on allergic airway disorders presenting with an isolated chronic cough, such as non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity (atopic cough), still remain to be elucidated. To determine if macrolides are effective in the management of chronic cough caused by eosinophilic airway inflammation. The cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was measured at 48h after challenge with an aerosolized antigen in actively sensitized guinea pigs. The 14-, 15- or 16-membered macrolides (erythromycin, azythromycin, or josamycin, respectively) were given intraperitoneally every 12h after the antigen challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage and the resection of the tracheal tissue were performed immediately after the measurement of the cough response to capsaicin. The antigen-induced increase in the number of coughs elicited by capsaicin inhalation was significantly reduced by treatments with erythromycin and azythromycin, but not with josamycin. Erythromycin dose-dependently inhibited the increases in the substance P, prostaglandin E(2) and leukotriene B(4) levels, but not the histamine levels, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, erythromycin did not influence the antigen-induced decrease in the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity in the tracheal tissue. Both 14- and 15-membered, but not 16-membered, macrolides could reduce the antigen-induced cough reflex hypersensitivity by inhibiting the antigen-induced release of the afferent sensory nerve sensitizers. These macrolides may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of isolated chronic cough based on cough reflex hypersensitivity in allergic airway diseases such as non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and atopic cough. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Micromonospora resistence to definite antibiotics and their ability to produce structurally analogous antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Bibikova, M V; Ivanitskaia, L P; Tikhonova, A S

    1980-01-01

    Thirty six cultures of Micromonospora freshly isolated from soil samples were studied with respect to their sensitivity to a number of antibiotics of various structures and modes of action. It was found that all of them were highly sensitive to penicillin, ristomycin, tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, olivomycin, carminomycin and dactinomycin. Significant differences in sensitivity of the Micromonospora cultures were revealed only with respect to gentamicin, tobramicin, erythromycin and lincomycin. Seven cultures were resistant to gentamicin and tobramicin and sensitive to all of the other antibiotics. Broad spectrum antibiotics were isolated from these cultures. The study of the antibiotic chemistry showed that they were 2-desoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycosides. Two cultures proved to be resistant to erythromycin and lincomycin. When identified with the use of antibiotic resistant staphylococcal strains, the crude antibiotic substances isolated from these cultures appeared to be not active against staphylococci resistant to erythromycin and lincomycin. By their chromatograpi- behaviour the antibiotics were close to macrolides. Therefore, it was found that production of aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics was most characteristic of Micromonospora. A certain correlation between resistance of Micromonospora to these 2 antibiotic groups and capacity for their production was shown.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance trends in community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens in the Western Pacific Region and South Africa: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, (1998-1999) including an in vitro evaluation of BMS284756.

    PubMed

    Bell, J M; Turnidge, J D; Jones, R N

    2002-02-01

    From 1998 to 1999, a large number of community-acquired respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=566), Haemophilus influenzae (n=513) and Moraxella catarrhalis (n=228) were collected from 15 centres in Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, China, the Philippines, Singapore, South Africa and Taiwan through the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Isolates were tested against 26 antimicrobial agents using the NCCLS-recommended methods. Overall, 40% of S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin with 18% of strains having high-level resistance (MIC > or =2 mg/l). Rates of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance were 41 and 23%, respectively. Penicillin-resistant strains showed high rates of resistance to other antimicrobial agents: 96% to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 84% to tetracycline and 81% to erythromycin. A significant proportion of penicillin-susceptible strains was also resistant to erythromycin (21%), tetracycline (29%) and TMP-SMZ (26%). Small numbers of strains were resistant to levofloxacin (0.7%), trovafloxacin (0.4%) and grepafloxacin (1.3%) where as all strains remained uniformly susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and BMS284756 (MIC(90), 0.06 mg/l), a new desfluoroquinolone. beta-lactamases were, produced by 20% H. influenzae isolates and only rare strains showed intrinsic resistance to amoxycillin. Other beta-lactam agents showed good activity with rates of resistance less than 2% and all isolates showed susceptibility to cefixime, ceftibuten, cefepime and cefotaxime. Rates of resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol were also relatively low at 3%. The majority (98%) of M. catarrhalis isolates was found to be beta-lactamase-positive and resistant to penicillins, however, resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was also low at 1.8%. Both H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were uniformly susceptible to the new desfluoroquinolone and tested fluoroquinolones.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Primary Starters for African Traditional Bread Production and Characterization of the Bacitracin Operon and Bacitracin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Thorsen, Line; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Derkx, Patrick M. F.; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are widely used as feed additives and probiotics. However, there is limited information on their resistance to various antibiotics, and there is a growing concern over the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The MIC for 8 antibiotics was determined for 85 Bacillus species strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (n = 29), Bacillus licheniformis (n = 38), and Bacillus sonorensis (n = 18), all of which were isolated from starters for Sudanese bread production. All the strains were sensitive to tetracycline (8.0 mg/liter), vancomycin (4.0 mg/liter), and gentamicin (4.0 mg/liter) but resistant to streptomycin. Sensitivity to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was species specific. The erythromycin resistance genes ermD and ermK were detected by PCR in all of the erythromycin-resistant (MIC, ≥16.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strains and one erythromycin-sensitive (MIC, 4.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strain. Several amino acid changes were present in the translated ermD and ermK nucleotide sequences of the erythromycin-sensitive strain, which could indicate ErmD and ErmK protein functionalities different from those of the resistance strains. The ermD and ermK genes were localized on an 11.4-kbp plasmid. All of the B. sonorensis strains harbored the bacitracin synthetase gene, bacA, and the transporter gene bcrA, which correlated with their observed resistance to bacitracin. Bacitracin was produced by all the investigated species strains (28%), as determined by ultra-high-definition quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHD-QTOF LC/MS). The present study has revealed species-specific variations in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Bacillus spp. and provides new information on MIC values, as well as the occurrence of resistance genes in Bacillus spp., including the newly described species B. sonorensis. PMID:22941078

  18. High frequency of the 23S rRNA A2058G mutation of Treponema pallidum in Shanghai is associated with a current strategy for the treatment of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haikong; Li, Kang; Gong, Weimin; Yan, Limeng; Gu, Xin; Chai, Ze; Guan, Zhifang; Zhou, Pingyu

    2015-02-01

    The preferred drugs for the treatment of syphilis, benzathine and procaine penicillin, have not been available in Shanghai for many years, and currently, the incidence of syphilis is increasing. Alternative antibiotics for patients with syphilis during the benzathine and procaine penicillin shortage include macrolides. The failure of macrolide treatment in syphilis patients has been reported in Shanghai, but the reason for this treatment failure remains unclear. We used polymerase chain reaction technology to detect a 23S rRNA A2058G mutation in Treponema pallidum in 109 specimens from syphilis patients. The use of azithromycin/erythromycin in the syphilis patients and the physicians' prescription habits were also assessed based on two questionnaires regarding the use of macrolides. A total of 104 specimens (95.4%) were positive for the A2058G mutation in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene, indicating macrolide resistance. A questionnaire provided to 122 dermatologists showed that during the penicillin shortage, they prescribed erythromycin and azithromycin for 8.24±13.95% and 3.21±6.37% of their patients, respectively, and in the case of penicillin allergy, erythromycin and azithromycin were prescribed 15.24±22.89% and 7.23±16.60% of the time, respectively. A second questionnaire provided to the syphilis patients showed that 150 (33.7%), 106 (23.8%) and 34 (7.6%) individuals had used azithromycin, erythromycin or both, respectively, although the majority did not use the drugs for syphilis treatment. Our findings suggest that macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum is widespread in Shanghai. More than half of the syphilis patients had a history of macrolide use for other treatment purposes, which may have led to the high prevalence of macrolide resistance. Physicians in China are advised to not use azithromycin for early syphilis.

  19. Childhood outcomes after prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with preterm rupture of the membranes: 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE I trial.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, S; Pike, K; Jones, D R; Brocklehurst, P; Marlow, N; Salt, A; Taylor, D J

    2008-10-11

    The ORACLE I trial compared the use of erythromycin and/or amoxicillin-clavulanate (co-amoxiclav) with that of placebo for women with preterm rupture of the membranes without overt signs of clinical infection, by use of a factorial randomised design. The aim of the present study--the ORACLE Children Study I--was to determine the long-term effects on children of these interventions. We assessed children at age 7 years born to the 4148 women who had completed the ORACLE I trial and who were eligible for follow-up with a structured parental questionnaire to assess the child's health status. Functional impairment was defined as the presence of any level of functional impairment (severe, moderate, or mild) derived from the mark III Multi-Attribute Health Status classification system. Educational outcomes were assessed with national curriculum test results for children resident in England. Outcome was determined for 3298 (75%) eligible children. There was no difference in the proportion of children with any functional impairment after prescription of erythromycin, with or without co-amoxiclav, compared with those born to mothers who received no erythromycin (594 [38.3%] of 1551 children vs 655 [40.4%] of 1620; odds ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.05) or after prescription of co-amoxiclav, with or without erythromycin, compared with those born to mothers who received no co-amoxiclav (645 [40.6%] of 1587 vs 604 [38.1%] of 1584; 1.11, 0.96-1.28). Neither antibiotic had a significant effect on the overall level of behavioural difficulties experienced, on specific medical conditions, or on the proportions of children achieving each level in reading, writing, or mathematics at key stage one. The prescription of antibiotics for women with preterm rupture of the membranes seems to have little effect on the health of children at 7 years of age. UK Medical Research Council.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus strains isolated from primary starters for African traditional bread production and characterization of the bacitracin operon and bacitracin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Adimpong, David B; Sørensen, Kim I; Thorsen, Line; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Abdelgadir, Warda S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus spp. are widely used as feed additives and probiotics. However, there is limited information on their resistance to various antibiotics, and there is a growing concern over the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The MIC for 8 antibiotics was determined for 85 Bacillus species strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (n = 29), Bacillus licheniformis (n = 38), and Bacillus sonorensis (n = 18), all of which were isolated from starters for Sudanese bread production. All the strains were sensitive to tetracycline (8.0 mg/liter), vancomycin (4.0 mg/liter), and gentamicin (4.0 mg/liter) but resistant to streptomycin. Sensitivity to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was species specific. The erythromycin resistance genes ermD and ermK were detected by PCR in all of the erythromycin-resistant (MIC, ≥16.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strains and one erythromycin-sensitive (MIC, 4.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strain. Several amino acid changes were present in the translated ermD and ermK nucleotide sequences of the erythromycin-sensitive strain, which could indicate ErmD and ErmK protein functionalities different from those of the resistance strains. The ermD and ermK genes were localized on an 11.4-kbp plasmid. All of the B. sonorensis strains harbored the bacitracin synthetase gene, bacA, and the transporter gene bcrA, which correlated with their observed resistance to bacitracin. Bacitracin was produced by all the investigated species strains (28%), as determined by ultra-high-definition quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHD-QTOF LC/MS). The present study has revealed species-specific variations in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Bacillus spp. and provides new information on MIC values, as well as the occurrence of resistance genes in Bacillus spp., including the newly described species B. sonorensis.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie A; Kock, Marleen M

    2014-03-28

    Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Results Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for

  3. Use of natural antimicrobials to increase antibiotic susceptibility of drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Holley, Richard A

    2010-06-15

    Plant-derived antibacterial compounds may be of value as a novel means for controlling antibiotic resistant zoonotic pathogens which contaminate food animals and their products. Individual activity of natural antimicrobials (eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT)) and activity when paired with an antibiotic was studied using broth microdilution and checkerboard methods. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interactions between the inhibitors. Bacteria tested were chosen because of their resistance to at least one antibiotic which had a known genetic basis. Substantial susceptibility of these bacteria toward the natural antimicrobials and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) of the antibiotics were noted when paired combinations of antimicrobial and antibiotic were used. In the interaction study, thymol and carvacrol were found to be highly effective in reducing the resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium SGI 1 (tet A) to ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, bacitracin, erythromycin and novobiocin (FIC<0.4) and resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes ermB to erythromycin (FIC<0.5). With Escherichia coli N00 666, thymol and cinnamaldehyde were found to have a similar effect (FIC<0.4) in reducing the MIC's of ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, erythromycin and novobiocin. Carvacrol, thymol (FIC<0.3) and cinnamaldehyde (FIC<0.4) were effective against Staphylococcus aureus blaZ and in reducing the MIC's of ampicillin, penicillin and bacitracin. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was effective in reducing the MIC of erythromycin (FIC<0.3) when tested against S. pyogenes. Fewer combinations were found to be synergistic when the decrease in viable population (log DP) was calculated. Together, fractional inhibitory concentrations < or = 0.5 and log DP<-1 indicated synergistic action between four natural antimicrobials and as many as three antibiotics

  4. Bactericidal activity of antibiotics against Legionella micdadei (Pittsburgh pneumonia agent).

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, J N; Weyant, R S; Pasculle, A W

    1982-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of five antibiotics for Legionella micdadei was determined by the construction of time-kill curves. Erythromycin, rifampin, penicillin G, cephalothin, and gentamicin were bactericidal for L. micdadei at readily achievable concentrations. The minimal bactericidal concentrations, defined as those producing 99.9% killing within 24 h, were: erythromycin, 4.6; rifampin, 0.13; penicillin G, 0.25; cephalothin, 2.5; and gentamicin, 0.25 micrograms/ml. The ratios of the minimal bactericidal to minimal inhibitory concentrations for these antibiotics ranged from 1 to 8. Thus, the poor in vivo activity of beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics against L. micdadei cannot be ascribed to a lack of killing by these agents. PMID:6927637

  5. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    PubMed

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  6. A multiple antibiotic-resistant enterobacter cloacae strain isolated from a bioethanol fermentation facility.

    PubMed

    Murphree, Colin A; Li, Qing; Heist, E Patrick; Moe, Luke A

    2014-09-17

    An Enterobacter cloacae strain (E. cloacae F3S3) that was collected as part of a project to assess antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from bioethanol fermentation facilities demonstrated high levels of resistance to antibiotics added prophylactically to bioethanol fermentors. PCR assays revealed the presence of canonical genes encoding resistance to penicillin (ampC) and erythromycin (ermG). Assays measuring biofilm formation under antibiotic stress indicated that erythromycin induced biofilm formation in E. cloacae F3S3. Planktonic growth and biofilm formation were observed at a high ethanol content, indicating E. cloacae F3S3 can persist in a bioethanol fermentor under the highly variable environmental conditions found in fermentors.

  7. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  8. Interference of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B with the action of various antibiotics against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vorland, L H; Osbakk, S A; Perstølen, T; Ulvatne, H; Rekdal, O; Svendsen, J S; Gutteberg, T J

    1999-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin, can be generated upon gastric pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. We have examined the interaction of lactoferricin of bovine origin, Lf-cin B, with the antibiotics penicillin G, vancomycin, gentamicin, colistin, D-cycloserine and erythromycin against E. coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. We demonstrated synergism between Lf-cin B and erythromycin against E. coli, and partial synergism between Lf-cin B and penicillin G, vancomycin and gentamicin against E. coli. Only penicillin G acted in partial synergism with Lf-cin B against S. aureus. Lf-cin B antagonized vancomycin and gentamicin against S. aureus in low concentration. We conclude that Lf-cin B may facilitate the uptake of antibiotics across the cell envelope.

  9. Genital mycoplasmas in women attending a family planning clinic in Guiné-Bissau and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Domingues, D; Távora Tavira, L; Duarte, A; Sanca, A; Prieto, E; Exposto, F

    2003-04-01

    A study on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and their susceptibility to the most common antimicrobial agents used for treating the infection was conducted on 94 women attending a family planning clinic in Guiné-Bissau. Fifty-four women (57.4%) were positive for Mycoplasma hominis and/or Ureaplasma urealyticum. M. hominis and U. urealyticum separately isolated from infected women yielded frequencies of 31.5 and 27.8%, respectively, the remainder were infected with both species. No strain was found to be resistant to all three commonly employed antibiotics for the management of these infections (erythromycin, tetracycline and ofloxacin), although multiple resistance to two antibiotics was frequent, especially when both genital mycoplasmas were present. Some 90.7 and 24.1% of all isolates were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, respectively. No resistance was observed to ofloxacin, although 50% of the strains had intermediate resistance. The high prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in women attending a family planning clinic in Guiné-Bissau, as demonstrated in this study, appears to be associated with trichomonosis and bacterial vaginosis. These infections were also found to be highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline and to have intermediate resistance to ofloxacin. However, further studies are necessary to establish the burden of infection due to antibiotic resistant genital mycoplasmas.

  10. Inhibition of Legionella pneumophila multiplication within human macrophages by antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Vildé, J L; Dournon, E; Rajagopalan, P

    1986-01-01

    The activity of serial concentrations of different antimicrobial agents on the multiplication of Legionella pneumophila within human monocyte-derived macrophages was studied. The results led to the definition of a minimal extracellular concentration inhibiting intracellular multiplication (MIEC). According to the MIECs, the antimicrobial agents tested were classified in three groups: very active (MIEC less than or equal to 0.06 microgram/ml), such as erythromycin, rifampin, and pefloxacin; active (1 microgram/ml greater than or equal to MIEC greater than or equal to 0.1 microgram/ml), such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or doxycycline; and ineffective, such as cefoxitin, which was not active within macrophages at as high as 64 micrograms/ml despite a low MIC (0.2 microgram/ml) on bacterial charcoal-yeast extract agar. The activity of netilmicin was difficult to assess because of its effect on extracellular legionellae. Combinations of erythromycin with rifampin and pefloxacin with erythromycin, rifampin, doxycycline, or netilmicin showed an additive effect and no antagonism. These results obtained in a cellular model are in agreement with the efficacy of antimicrobial agents in experimental infections and in Legionnaires disease. They sustain clinical interest in the new quinolones, such as pefloxacin, and in combinations of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of Legionnaires disease. PMID:3492176

  11. Management of non-neoplastic ovarian cysts with sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kafali, H; Yurtseven, S; Atmaca, F; Ozardali, I

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin in the management of simple ovarian cysts. Twenty-four simple ovarian cysts were subjected to sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia and in an outpatient setting. Cytological examination was carried out in all cases and two patients were excluded from the study because of suspicious cytological results. The patients were followed up monthly with color Doppler sonography for more than 12 months. Cyst fluid was serous in 17 cases and dark-chocolate colored in seven cases. The volume of aspirated fluid ranged from 100 to 220 ml. The size of ovarian masses and cyst-wall thickness ranged from 5.5 to 8.5 cm and 1.5 to 5 mm, respectively. Cytological analysis of 15 cysts revealed acellular sediment, seven cysts were compatible with endometrioma, and two were reported as suspicious. During the 12-month follow-up, seven cyst recurrences were detected. Aspiration and sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin are followed by a relatively high recurrence rate when the aspirate is bloody. However, patients with a simple cyst that is painful or liable to torsion could benefit from sclerotherapy. Such patients, who are at low risk for malignancy, are relieved with sclerotherapy while avoiding surgery.

  12. Chromatographic methods for determination of macrolide antibiotic residues in tissues and milk of food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Moats, W A

    1985-01-01

    Tylosin, an antibiotic developed specifically for agricultural use, and erythromycin are the main macrolide antibiotics used in animal production. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography has been used for detection of tylosin in poultry meat, eggs, and milk and for erythromycin in poultry meat. Detection limits reported are, for tylosin, 0.1 ppm in poultry meat, 0.05 ppm in egg, and 0.01 ppm in milk, and for erythromycin, 0.25 ppm in poultry meat. Liquid chromatography (LC) has also been used for determination of tylosin in milk, blood, and tissues of animals. Samples (milk, blood serum, or tissue homogenates in water or pH 2.2 buffer) were deproteinized with acetonitrile, tylosin was partitioned into methylene chloride, and the extracts were concentrated and dissolved in acetonitrile. Chromatography was done on a reverse phase end-capped C18 column using 0.002-0.005 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate-acetonitrile-methanol (10 + 60 + 30-5 + 80 + 15). Solvent composition was varied with the type of sample analyzed. The method will detect 0.1 ppm tylosin in tissues and less in milk and blood serum. The LC method was more sensitive than microbiological assays for detection of tylosin in tissues of treated swine; recoveries of tylosin by the LC method were frequently several-fold higher.

  13. Intravenous azithromycin as salvage therapy in a patient with Legionnaire's disease

    PubMed Central

    Dorrell, L; Fulton, B; Ong, E L C

    1994-01-01

    A patient with proven Legionnaire's disease is described whose clinical condition improved with intravenous azithromycin after failure to respond to treatment with erythromycin and rifampicin. Images PMID:8016806

  14. SACE_0012, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator, affects the morphogenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinqiang; Wu, Hang; Yuan, Li; Huang, Xunduan; Zhang, Buchang

    2013-12-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea, a mycelium-forming actinomycete, produces a clinically important antibiotic erythromycin. Extensive investigations have provided insights into erythromycin biosynthesis in S. erythraea, but knowledge of its morphogenesis remains limited. By gene inactivation and complementation strategies, the TetR-family transcriptional regulator SACE_0012 was identified to be a negative regulator of mycelium formation of S. erythraea A226. Detected by quantitative real-time PCR, the relative transcription of SACE_7115, the amfC homolog for an aerial mycelium formation protein, was dramatically increased in SACE_0012 mutant, whereas erythromycin biosynthetic gene eryA, a pleiotropic regulatory gene bldD, and the genes SACE_2141, SACE_6464, SACE_6040, that are the homologs to the sporulation regulators WhiA, WhiB, WhiG, were not differentially expressed. SACE_0012 disruption could not restore its defect of aerial development in bldD mutant, and also did not further accelerate the mycelium formation in the mutant of SACE_7040 gene, that was previously identified to be a morphogenesis repressor. Furthermore, the transcriptional level of SACE_0012 had not markedly changed in bldD and SACE_7040 mutant over A226. Taken together, these results suggest that SACE_0012 is a negative regulator of S. erythraea morphogenesis by mainly increasing the transcription of amfC gene, independently of the BldD regulatory system.

  15. Effect of spiramycin and tulathromycin on abomasal emptying rate in milk-fed calves

    PubMed Central

    Rashnavadi, Mehdi; Nouri, Mohammad; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad R.; Najafzadeh, Housain; Constable, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired abomasal motility is common in cattle with abomasal disorders. The macrolide erythromycin has been demonstrated to be an effective prokinetic agent in healthy calves and in adult cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum. We hypothesized that 2 structurally related macrolides, spiramycin and tulathromycin, would also be effective prokinetic agents in cattle. Six milk-fed, male, Holstein-Friesian calves were administered each of the following 4 treatments: spiramycin, 75 000 IU/kg BW, IM, this dose approximates 25 mg/kg BW, IM; tulathromycin, 2.5 mg/kg BW, SC; 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl (negative control); and erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg BW, IM (positive control). Calves were fed 2 L of cow’s milk containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg body weight) 30 min after each treatment was administered and jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically after the start of sucking. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed by the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Spiramycin, tulathromycin, and the positive control erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate compared to the negative control. We conclude that the labeled antimicrobial dose of spiramycin and tulathromycin increases the abomasal emptying rate in healthy milk-fed calves. Additional studies investigating whether spiramycin and tulathromycin exert a prokinetic effect in adult cattle with abomasal hypomotility appear indicated. PMID:24396182

  16. Metal and antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Moskot, Marta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena; Fari, Karolina; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Borys

    2012-09-01

    The resistance of 49 strains of bacteria isolated from surface Baltic Sea waters to 11 antibiotics was analyzed and the resistance of selected strains to three metal ions (Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+) was tested. Most isolates belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (78%), while Alphaproteobacteria (8%), Actinobacteria (10%), and Bacteroidetes (4%) were less abundant. Even though previous reports suggested relationships between resistance and the presence of plasmids or the ability to produce pigments, no compelling evidence for such relationships was obtained for the strains isolated in this work. In particular, strains resistant to multiple antibiotics did not carry plasmids more frequently than sensitive strains. A relation between resistance and the four aminoglycosides tested (gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin), but not to spectinomycin, was demonstrated. This observation is of interest given that spectinomycin is not always classified as an aminoglycoside because it lacks a traditional sugar moiety. Statistical analysis indicated relationships between resistance to some antibiotics (ampicillin and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, erythromycin and tetracycline), suggesting the linkage of resistance genes for antibiotics belonging to different classes. The effects of NiSO4, ZnCl2 and MnCl2 on various media suggested that the composition of Marine Broth might result in low concentrations of Mn2+ due to chemical interactions that potentially lead to precipitation.

  17. Biotransformation and recovery of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein from industrial antibiotic fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Weber, J. Mark; Reeves, Andrew R.; Seshadri, Ramya; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Gray, Danielle L.; Wesley, Roy K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein and daidzein, together make up 0.1 - 0.2% of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by x-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O-α-rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of S. erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance were also found to have isoflavone coproduct potential. PMID:23604533

  18. [Group B Streptococcus carriers among pregnant women].

    PubMed

    García, S D; Eliseth, M Cora; Lazzo, M J; Copolillo, E; Barata, A D; de Torres, R; Vay, C A; Famiglietti, A M

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae--group B streptococci (GBS)--is a main cause of severe neonatal infections with a high mortality rate. The detection of pregnant GBS carriers (5-35%) allows intrapartum administration of antibiotic prophylaxis to these women and prevents perinatal infection. We studied the prevalence of GBS in 259 patients between 28 and 37 weeks gestation from April 2000 to March 2002. The anorectum (AR) and vaginal introitus swabs (VI) were cultured in selective Todd-Hewitt broth containing colistin (10 micrograms/ml) and nalidixic acid (15 micrograms/ml) while vaginal swabs (VFS) were cultured following conventional methods. A total of 47 strains of EGB were isolated from 259 patients (18.15%). The prevalence in different samples were: 5.40% in VFS, 13.51% in VI, 11.58% in AR and 17.76% in VI + AR (reference method). The isolates were tested against penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GBS were determined by the double-disk test. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone and vancomycin, only one strain was erythromycin and clindamycin resistant by IMLSB mechanism. None of the isolated strains had a high resistant level to aminoglycosides. The sensitivity of cultures increased when selective broths were used as the primary detection method.

  19. Serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates circulating in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Tong, Jing-jing; Ma, Xiu-hua; Song, Feng-li; Fan, Ling; Guo, Cui-mei; Shi, Wei; Yu, Sang-jie; Yao, Kai-hu; Yang, Yong-hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in Beijing to provide references for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections. All isolates were identified using the CAMP test and the latex-agglutination assay and serotyped using a Strep-B-Latex kit, after which they were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, macrolide-resistance genes, and MLST profiles. In total, 56 S. agalactiae isolates were identified in 863 pregnant women (6.5%). Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V were identified, among which types III (32.1%), Ia (17.9%), Ib (16.1%), and V (14.3%) were the predominant serotypes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The nonsusceptiblity rates measured for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were 85.7%, 92.9%, 98.2%, 30.4%, 73.2%, 91%, and 39.3%, respectively. We identified 14 sequence types (STs) for the 56 isolates, among which ST19 (30.4%) was predominant. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was higher in serotype III than in the other serotypes. Among the 44 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 32 (72.7%) carried ermB. S. agalactiae isolates of the serotypes Ia, Ib, III, and V are common in Beijing. Among the S. agalactiae isolates, the macrolide and clindamycin resistance rates are extremely high. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates carry ermB.

  20. Underlying mechanism of drug-drug interaction between pioglitazone and gemfibrozil: Gemfibrozil acyl-glucuronide is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C8.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Motoi; Sakamoto, Masaya; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-08-01

    While co-administered gemfibrozil can increase the area under the concentration/time curve (AUC) of pioglitazone more than 3-fold, the underlying mechanism of the drug-drug interaction between gemfibrozil and pioglitazone has not been fully understood. In the present study, gemfibrozil preincubation time-dependently inhibited the metabolism of pioglitazone in the cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-activated human liver microsomes. We estimated the kinact and K'app values, which are the maximum inactivation rate constant and the apparent dissociation constant, of gemfibrozil to be 0.071 min(-1) and 57.3 μM, respectively. In this study, the kobs, in vivo value was defined as a parameter that indicates the potency of the mechanism-based inhibitory effect at the blood drug concentration in vivo. The kobs, in vivo values of potent mechanism-based inhibitors, clarithromycin and erythromycin, were estimated to be 0.0096 min(-1) and 0.0051 min(-1), respectively. The kobs, in vivo value of gemfibrozil was 0.0060 min(-1), which was comparable to those of clarithromycin and erythromycin, suggesting that gemfibrozil could be a mechanism-based inhibitor as potent as clarithromycin and erythromycin in vivo. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developments in the control of bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibactenum salrnoninarum, was first reported more than 50 yr ago; nevertheless, large gaps persist in our knowledge of the infection - particularly in methods for its control. In the 1950's, principal control measures consisted of prophylactic or therapeutic feeding of sulfonamides, which were later supplanted by the antibiotic erythromycin. Chemotherapy has effected some reduction of mortality, but benefits are typically transient and mortality usually resumes after the drug is withdrawn. Some studies have indicated that diet composition affects the prevalence and severity of the disease. Although tests of chemotherapeutants and diet modification have continued, research emphasis has shifted partly toward prevention of the disease by breaking the infection cycle. It is now generally accepted that R. salrnoninarum can be transmitted both vertically and horizontally. Experimental evidence indicates that immersion of newly fertilized eggs in iodophor or erythromycin does not prevent vertical transmission. However, the injection of female salmon with erythromycin before they spawn shows promise as a practical means of interrupting vertical transmission. The results of attempts to prevent infection of juvenile salmonids by vaccination against bacterial kidney disease have been disappointing, thus underscoring a basic need for a better understanding of protective mechanisms in salmonids. The recent development of more sensitive and quantitative detection methods should aid in evaluating the efficacy of current and future control strategies.

  2. [Activity of macrolides and fluoroquinolones against intracellular Legionella pneumophila].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling-ling; Hu, Bi-jie; Huang, Sheng-lei; Zhou, Zhao-yan; Tao, Li-li

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the activity of macrolides and fluoroquinolones against Legionella pneumophila by intracellular susceptibility testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by standard agar dilution test according to the CLSI. For intracellular assays, legionella pneumonia was used to infect human monocytic cell line THP-1. Erythromycin, azithromycin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin at 1 × MIC, 4 × MIC, 8 × MIC were added following phagocytosis. Number of viable bacteria was enumerated at 24 h on BCYE (buffered charcoal yeast extract) agar in duplicates using standard plate count method. The result was expressed as percentage inhibition. Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the significant differences in mean percentage inhibition between agents. Percentage inhibition at 24 h were as follows: Erythromycin 1 × MIC (50.18 ± 27.29)%, 4 × MIC (79.48 ± 20.08)%, 8 × MIC (91.46 ± 8.70)%; Azithromycin 1 × MIC (66.77 ± 26.18)%, 4 × MIC (91.73 ± 8.72)%, 8 × MIC (97.10 ± 3.37)%; Levofloxacin 1 × MIC (99.84 ± 0.25)%, 4 × MIC (99.99 ± 0.02)%, 8 × MIC (99.99 ± 0.01)%; Moxifloxacin 1 × MIC (99.90 ± 0.10)%, 4 × MIC (99.99 ± 0.03)%, 8 × MIC (99.99 ± 0.03)%. The fluoroquinolones showed greater inhibitory activity than macrolides against legionella pneumophila(u = 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, P < 0.05). Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin had the same intracellular activity against legionella pneumophila (u = 190, 183, 217, P > 0.05). Azithromycin was more effective than erythromycin in inhibiting intracellular legionella pneumophila (u = 132, 125, 128, P < 0.05). The fluoroquinolones were more active than macrolides against legionella pneumophila. The intracellular activity of levofloxacin against legionella pneumophila appeared to be similar to moxifloxacin. Azithromycin was demonstrated to have superior activity against legionella pneumophila compared with erythromycin.

  3. [Identification of lactic acid bacteria in commercial yogurt and their antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuxuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Qiuya; Gao, Kexin; Zhu, Baoli; Lv, Na

    2013-08-04

    To identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial yogurts and investigate their antibiotic resistance. LABs were cultured from 5 yogurt brands and the isolates were identified at the species level by 16S rRNA sequence. Genotyping was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR). The sensitivity to 7 antibiotics was tested for all LAB isolates by Kirby-Bauer paper diffusion (K-B method). Meanwhile, 9 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including erythromycin resistance genes (ermA and ermB) and tetracycline resistance genes (tetM, tetK, tetS, tetQ, tetO, tetL and tetW), were detected by PCR amplification in the identified LAB isolates. The PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. Total 100 LABs were isolated, including 23 Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, 26 Lactobacillus casei, 30 Streptococcus thermophilus, 5 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 6 Lactobacillus plantarum, and 10 Lactobacillus paracasei. The drug susceptibility test shows that all 100 isolates were resistant to gentamicin and streptomycin, 42 isolates were resistant to vancomycin, and on the contrary all were sensitive to cefalexin, erythromycin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline. Moreover, 5 ARGs were found in the 28 sequencing confirmed isolates, ermB gene was detected in 8 isolates, tet K in 4 isolates, tetL in 2 isolates, tetM in 4 isolates, tetO in 2 isolates. erm A, tet S, tet Q and tet W genes were not detected in the isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in 53.57% (15/28) sequenced isolates, 2 -3 antibiotic resistance genes were detected in 4 isolates of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Some LABs were not labeled in commercial yogurt products. Antibiotic resistance genes tend to be found in the starter culture of L. delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. All the LAB isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and tetracycline, even though some carried erythromycin and/or tetracycline resistance genes. We proved again that LAB could carry antibiotic

  4. Genetic Basis and Clonal Population Structure of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni Isolated From Broiler Carcasses in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Miller, William G; Arguello, Hector; Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Duarte, Alexandra; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2018-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading food-borne zoonosis in industrialized countries. This study characterized the clonal population structure, antimicrobial resistance profiles and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance determinants of a set of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broiler carcasses in Belgium. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against five commonly-used antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, gentamicin, and erythromycin) were determined for 204 C. jejuni isolates. More than half of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid. In contrast, a lower percentage of screened isolates were resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. C. jejuni isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and/or nalidixic acid were screened for the substitution T86I in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene, while C. jejuni isolates resistant to tetracycline were screened for the presence of the tet(O) gene. These resistance determinants were observed in most but not all resistant isolates. Regarding resistance to erythromycin, different mutations occurred in diverse genetic loci, including mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, the rplD and rplV ribosomal genes, and the intergenic region between cmeR and cmeABC . Interestingly, and contrary to previous reports, the A2075G transition mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was only found in one strain displaying a high level of resistance to erythromycin. Ultimately, molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing revealed that two sequence types (ST-824 and ST-2274) were associated to quinolones resistance by the presence of mutations in the gene gyrA ( p = 0.01). In addition, ST-2274 was linked to the CIP-NAL-TET-AMR multidrug resistant phenotype. In contrast, clonal complex CC-45 was linked to increased susceptibility to the tested antibiotics. The results obtained in this study provide better understanding of the phenotypic and the molecular basis of antibiotic

  5. Inducible clindamycin and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, R P; Shrestha, S; Barakoti, A; Amatya, R

    2017-07-11

    Staphylococcus aureus, an important nosocomial pathogen, is frequently associated with infections in human. The management of the infections by it especially methicillin resistant ones is often difficult because methicillin resistant S. aureus is usually resistant to multiple antibiotics. Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B family of antibiotics is commonly used to treat such infections as an alternative to vancomycin. This study was conducted over the period of one and half year from November 2013-April 2015 in Microbiology laboratory of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal to find the incidence of different phenotypes of MLS B resistance among S. aureus from clinical samples and their association with methicillin resistance. Two hundred seventy isolates of S. aureus were included in the study. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and inducible clindamycin resistance by erythromycin and clindamycin disc approximation test (D-test). Of the 270 clinical isolates of S. aureus, 25.1% (68/270) were MRSA. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance was seen in 54.4% (147/270) and 41.8% (113/270) isolates respectively. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were higher in MRSA as compared to MSSA (erythromycin-resistance: 88.2% Vs 39.1% and clindamycin-resistance: 79.4% Vs 41.8%). The overall prevalence of i MLS B and c MLS B phenotype was 11.48% (31/270) and 29.25% (79/270) respectively. Both i MLS B and c MLS B phenotypes predominated in MRSA strains. Detection rate of MRSA in our study shows the necessity to improve in healthcare practices and to formulate new policy for the control of MRSA infections. Clindamycin resistance in the form of i MLS B and c MLS B especially among MRSA emphasizes the need of D-test to be performed routinely in our set up while using clindamycin as an alternative choice to anti-staphylococcal antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid in the treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  6. Macrolide drug interactions: an update.

    PubMed

    Pai, M P; Graci, D M; Amsden, G W

    2000-04-01

    To describe the current drug interaction profiles for the commonly used macrolides in the US and Europe, and to comment on the clinical impact of these interactions. A MEDLINE search (1975-1998) was performed to identify all pertinent studies, review articles, and case reports. When appropriate information was not available in the literature, data were obtained from the product manufacturers. All available data were reviewed to provide an unbiased account of possible drug interactions. Data for some of the interactions were not available from the literature, but were available from abstracts or company-supplied materials. Although the data were not always explicit, the best attempt was made to deliver pertinent information that clinical practitioners would need to formulate practice opinions. When more in-depth information was supplied in the form of a review or study report, a thorough explanation of pertinent methodology was supplied. Several clinically significant drug interactions have been identified since the approval of erythromycin. These interactions usually were related to the inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzyme systems, which are responsible for the metabolism of many drugs. The decreased metabolism by the macrolides has in some instances resulted in potentially severe adverse events. The development and marketing of newer macrolides are hoped to improve the drug interaction profile associated with this class. However, this has produced variable success. Some of the newer macrolides demonstrated an interaction profile similar to that of erythromycin; others have improved profiles. The most success in avoiding drug interactions related to the inhibition of cytochrome P450 has been through the development of the azalide subclass, of which azithromycin is the first and only to be marketed. Azithromycin has not been demonstrated to inhibit the cytochrome P450 system in studies using a human liver microsome model, and to date has produced none of the

  7. [Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital].

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, S; Gentile, M; Priore, G; Valle, S; Di Bella, A

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus), is the most frequent microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work was to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism). We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

  8. Telbivudine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called nucleoside analogues. It works by decreasing the amount of hepatitis ... IMPORTANT WARNING section and any of the following: chloroquine (Aralen);erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Erythrocin); fenofibrate ( ...

  9. New insights into the structural and functional involvement of the gate loop in AcrB export activity.

    PubMed

    Ababou, Abdessamad

    2018-02-01

    AcrB is a major multidrug exporter in Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Its gate loop, located between the proximal and the distal pockets, have been reported to play important role in the export of many antibiotics. This loop location, rigidity and interactions with substrates have led recent reports to suggest that AcrB export mechanism operates in a sequential manner. First the substrate binds the proximal pocket in the access monomer, then it moves to bind the distal pocket in the binding monomer and subsequently it is extruded in the extrusion monomer. Recently, we have demonstrated that the gate loop is not required for the binding of Erythromycin but the integrity of this loop is important for an efficient export of this substrate. However, here we show that the antibiotic susceptibilities of the same AcrB gate loop mutants for Doxorubicin were unaffected, suggesting that this loop is not required for its export, and we demonstrate that this substrate may use principally the tunnel-1, located between transmembranes 8 and 9, more often than previously reported. To further explain our findings, here we address the gate loop mutations effects on AcrB solution energetics (fold, stability, molecular dynamics) and on the in vivo efflux of Erythromycin and Doxorubicin. Finally, we discuss the efflux and the discrepancy between the structural and the functional experiments for Erythromycin in these gate loop mutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in enterococci from coastal marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, Carla; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Citterio, Barbara; Di Cesare, Andrea; Mangiaterra, Gianmarco; Fattorini, Daniele; Biavasco, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    Sediment samples from three coastal sites - two beach resorts (Beach 1 and Beach 2 sites) and an area lying between an oil refinery and a river estuary (Estuarine site) - were analyzed for antibiotic- and heavy metal (HM)-resistant enterococci. A total of 123 enterococci, 36 E. faecium, 34 E. casseliflavus, 33 E. hirae, 5 E. faecalis, 3 E. durans, 3 E. gallinarum, and 9 Enterococcus spp, were recovered. Strains resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) were recovered from all sites, whereas multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered only from "Beach 2" (14%) and "Estuarine" (3.7%). As regards HM resistance, the strains showed a high frequency (68%) of cadmium and/or copper resistance and uniform susceptibility to mercury. The prevalence of cadmium-resistant strains was significantly higher among erythromycin-resistant than among erythromycin-susceptible strains. A significant association between cadmium or copper resistance and Q/D resistance was also observed at "Estuarine" site. The levels of the two HMs in sediment from all sites were fairly low, ranging from 0.070 to 0.126 μg/g, for cadmium and from 1.00 to 7.64 μg/g for copper. Mercury was always undetectable. These findings are consistent with reports that low HM concentrations may contribute to co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, including enterococci. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN AUTOMATED SYSTEM AND PCR-BASED METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF CLINICAL Enterococcus spp

    PubMed Central

    Furlaneto-Maia, Luciana; Rocha, Kátia Real; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg), gentamicin (120 µg), tetracycline (30 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg) were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30). For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%), vancomycin (80.0%), tetracycline (43.35) and gentamicin (33.3%). The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A) gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci. PMID:24626409

  12. Serotypes, Antibiotic Susceptibilities, and Multi-Locus Sequence Type Profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates Circulating in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiu-hua; Song, Feng-li; Fan, Ling; Guo, Cui-mei; Shi, Wei; Yu, Sang-jie; Yao, Kai-hu; Yang, Yong-hong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in Beijing to provide references for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections. Methods All isolates were identified using the CAMP test and the latex-agglutination assay and serotyped using a Strep-B-Latex kit, after which they were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, macrolide-resistance genes, and MLST profiles. Results In total, 56 S. agalactiae isolates were identified in 863 pregnant women (6.5%). Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V were identified, among which types III (32.1%), Ia (17.9%), Ib (16.1%), and V (14.3%) were the predominant serotypes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The nonsusceptiblity rates measured for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were 85.7%, 92.9%, 98.2%, 30.4%, 73.2%, 91%, and 39.3%, respectively. We identified 14 sequence types (STs) for the 56 isolates, among which ST19 (30.4%) was predominant. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was higher in serotype III than in the other serotypes. Among the 44 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 32 (72.7%) carried ermB. Conclusion S. agalactiae isolates of the serotypes Ia, Ib, III, and V are common in Beijing. Among the S. agalactiae isolates, the macrolide and clindamycin resistance rates are extremely high. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates carry ermB. PMID:25781346

  13. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux. PMID:26528273

  14. Back to the Future: Penicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Matthew P; René, Pierre; Cheng, Alexandre P; Lee, Todd C

    2016-12-01

    Widespread penicillin usage rapidly resulted in the emergence of penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. However, new data suggest that penicillin susceptibility may be in a period of renaissance. The objective of our study was to quantify penicillin resistance in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. We retrospectively reviewed all adult MSSA bacteremia from April 2010 to April 2015 at the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, QC, Canada). Susceptibility to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was determined in accordance with the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. There were 324 unique episodes of MSSA bacteremia. Ninety (28%) isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 229 (71%) to erythromycin, 239 (74%) to clindamycin, and 317 (98%) to TMP-SMX. Isolates that were penicillin resistant were more likely to also be resistant to other antibiotics, but a statistically significant association was apparent only for erythromycin resistance (76/234, 32.2% vs 19/90, 21.1%, P = .04). The median age of patients was 67.5 years (interquartile range 52-78) and overall in-hospital 30-day mortality was 16.3% (53 deaths). After adjustment for patient age, there was no association between penicillin resistance and either intensive care unit admission or death. More than one-quarter of patients with MSSA bacteremia potentially could be treated with parenteral penicillin, which may offer pharmacokinetic advantages over other beta-lactam drugs and potentially improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria from ceftiofur-treated and nonantimicrobial-treated comingled beef cows at a cow-calf operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared the occurrences of 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr ), tetracycline-resistant (TETr) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr ) Escherichia coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica and erythromycin-resistant (ERYr) enterococci from ...

  16. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  17. Distribution of animal drugs among curd, whey, and milk protein fractions in spiked skim milk and whey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is important to understand the partitioning of drugs in processed milk and milk products, when drugs are present in raw milk, in order to estimate the potential consumer exposure. Radioisotopically labelled erythromycin, ivermectin, ketoprofen, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and...

  18. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  19. SULFAMETHOXAZOLE-TRIMETHOPRIM TREATMENT OF GUINEA PIGS INFECTED WITH 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMPOPHILA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of L. pneumophila in vitro, but only erythromycin and rifampin have been clinically effective. Parallel results have been observed in guinea pigs infected ip with ...

  20. In vitro susceptibility of rabbit strains of Clostridium spiroforme to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Carman, R J; Wilkins, T D

    1991-08-30

    Using an agar dilution method we measured the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12 antimicrobial agents against 11 strains of iota-toxigenic strains of Clostridium spiroforme. Each strain was isolated from a separate outbreak of toxic diarrhoea of rabbits. Vancomycin and bacitracin, both agents used to treat intestinal clostridioses of humans and other animals, had a relatively high MIC (8 micrograms/ml or more). Metronidazole was uniformly active against C. spiroforme. With MIC of 8 micrograms/ml or more, both lincomycin (11 strains) and erythromycin (9 strains) were relatively inactive against C. spiroforme, conversely, penicillin G was active (MIC for 8 strains was 0.5 micrograms/ml or less). Exposure to any one of these drugs has been implicated as a predisposing factor for C. spiroforme mediated diarrhoea of rabbits. The greatest variation in MIC was seen for erythromycin (8-fold), penicillin G (8-fold) and tetracycline (16-fold).

  1. Drug-Sensing by the Ribosome Induces Translational Arrest via Active Site Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Arenz, Stefan; Meydan, Sezen; Starosta, Agata L.; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During protein synthesis, nascent polypeptide chains within the ribosomal tunnel can act in cis to induce ribosome stalling and regulate expression of downstream genes. The Staphylococcus aureus ErmCL leader peptide induces stalling in the presence of clinically important macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, leading to the induction of the downstream macrolide resistance methyltransferase ErmC. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the erythromycin-dependent ErmCL-stalled ribosome at 3.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals how the ErmCL nascent chain directly senses the presence of the tunnel-bound drug and thereby induces allosteric conformational rearrangements at the peptidyltransferase center (PTC) of the ribosome. ErmCL-induced perturbations of the PTC prevent stable binding and accommodation of the aminoacyl-tRNA at the A-site leading to inhibition of peptide bond formation and translation arrest. PMID:25306253

  2. Activity of nadifloxacin (OPC-7251) and seven other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria isolated from bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Haustein, U-F; Hittel, N

    2004-10-01

    The in vitro activity of nadifloxacin (OPC-7251), a novel topical fluoroquinolone, was assessed and compared with those of ofloxacin, oxacillin, flucloxacillin, cefotiam, erythromycin, clindamycin, and gentamicin against 144 Gram-positive bacteria: 28 Staphylococcus aureus, 10 Streptococcus spp., 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), 36 Propionibacterium acnes, and 2 Propionibacterium granulosum strains. All strains originated from bacterial-infected skin disease and were isolated from patients with impetigo, secondary infected wounds, folliculitis and sycosis vulgaris, and impetiginized dermatitis. In vitro susceptibility of all clinical isolates was tested by agar dilution procedure and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. Nadifloxacin was active against all aerobic and anaerobic isolates. MIC(90) (MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited) was 0.1 microg/ml for S. aureus, 0.78 microg/ml for both Streptococcus spp. and CNS, and 0.39 microg/ml for Propionibacterium spp. On the other hand, resistant strains with MICs exceeding 12.5 mug/ml were found in tests with the other antibiotics. For both CNS and Propionibacterium acnes, MIC(90) values > or =100 microg/ml were demonstrated for erythromycin. Ofloxacin, cefotiam, erythromycin, clindamycin and gentamicin exhibited MIC(90) values < or =1 microg/ml for some bacterial species tested. Both oxacillin and flucloxacillin were active against all investigated bacterial species with MIC(90) values < or =1 microg/ml. In summary, nadifloxacin, a topical fluoroquinolone, was found to be highly active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with infected skin disease, and seems to be a new alternative for topical antibiotic treatment in bacterial skin infections.

  3. Diabetic and Nondiabetic Gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    McCallum; Brown

    1998-12-01

    Nutritional support is essential in treating patients with gastroparesis. Initially, dietary changes should be instituted to reduce extra fat and bulk, and patients should be encouraged to eat frequent small meals with liquid supplementation. Enteral feeding should be introduced in the event of weight loss or persistent vomiting. Medical therapy is usually necessary early in treatment. Cisapride is the initial agent of choice and may be combined with an antiemetic agent, such as promethazine or chlorpromazine or, if side effects occur, ondansetron and granesitron. If cisapride is ineffective or contraindicated, metoclopramide is a reasonable option, though limited by side effects. Erythromycin is useful in the acute treatment of postoperative ileus and hospitalized gastroparetic patients, but its role is limited based on concerns about poor long-term effectiveness and antimicrobial resistance. Once domperidone becomes available in the United States, it will be useful for its promotility and antiemetic qualities. Combination therapy should be considered if monotherapy with cisapride or metoclopramide alone is ineffective. While not yet well studied, combination therapy has the potential to offer dramatic benefit for patients with refractory gastroparesis. Metoclopramide may be added to cisapride for patients with breakthrough symptoms or refractory chronic symptoms. Other combinations include metoclopramide with erythromycin, domperidone with cisapride, and domperidone with erythromycin. In the future, gastric pacing may become an effective option for patients not responding to medical therapy. Total gastrectomy should be performed only for end-stage gastroparesis when all other therapy has failed. Both procedures should be reserved for centers that specialize in severe gastric motility disorders.

  4. The draft genomes and investigation of serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance of group B Streptococcus strains isolated from urine in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Deng, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Yan

    2018-06-26

    The group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a human commensal bacterium, which is capable of causing several infectious diseases in infants, and people with chronic diseases. GBS has been the most common cause of infections in urinary tract of the elders, but relatively few studies reported the urine-isolated GBS and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Hence, we decided to investigate GBS specially isolated from urine in Suzhou, China. 27 GBS samples were isolated from urine in Suzhou, China. The PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to identify the serotype distribution. Susceptibility tests were based on MIC test and Kirby-Bauer test. Genome were sequenced via Illumina Hiseq platform and assembled by SPAdes. Genomes of five isolates were sequenced and submitted to NCBI genome database. The sequencing files in fastq format were submitted to NCBI SRA database. Five serotypes were identified. The resistant rates measured for tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones were 74.1, 63.0, 44.4 and 48.1%, respectively. 18.5% of the isolates were nonsusceptible to nitrofurantoin. The resistance to tetracycline was mainly associated with the gene tetM. The erythromycin resistance was mainly associated with the genes ermB and mefE. The genes ermB and lnuB were the prevalent genes in cMLSB type. No known nitrofurantoin resistance gene was found in nitrofurantoin-nonsusceptible GBS. Five serotypes were identified in our study. High rates of GBS isolates were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones. The genes ermB and lnuB occupied high rates in cMLS B phenotype.

  5. Inactivation of Penicillins by Thiol Broth

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick R.; Niles, Ann C.

    1982-01-01

    Thiol broth with sodium polyanetholesulfonate inactivated penicillin G, carbenicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, and gentamicin, but had no effect on cephalothin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Only Thiol broth was capable of this inactivation, which was not influenced by the presence of blood. PMID:7153352

  6. Legal and Institutional Constraints on Aquaculture in Dredged Material Containment Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    and Wildlife Service La Crosse, WI 54602-0818 48 2A. FIVE DRUGS APPROVED FOR FOOD FISH: 1. Oxytetracycline (feed): Salmonids, Catfish. 21 C.F.R. 558.540...Erythromycin Salmonids Bacterial Kidney U. of Idaho (injection) Disease Oxytetracycline Striped Bass Bacterial Auburn U. Infections Formalin Striped Bass

  7. [A case of legionnaire's disease in Germany (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Missalek, W; Helmecke, G

    1979-12-07

    Severe bronchopneumonia in a 66-year-old patient failed to respond to sensitivity-tested antibiotics, with only erythromycin providing improvement. The indirect immunofluorescence test for legionnaire's disease gave a highly significant titre rise (eightfold). Legionnaire's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of treatment-resistant bronchopneumonia.

  8. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass frymore » (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.« less

  9. Antibiotic resistance assessment in S. aureus strains isolated from raw sheep's milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Spanu, V; Virdis, S; Scarano, C; Cossu, F; De Santis, E P L; Cosseddu, A M

    2010-06-01

    In vitro activities of 16 antibiotics were tested against 36 Staphylococcus aureus (SA) strains isolated from raw sheep's milk cheese from six dairies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using a broth microdilution method (CLSI). All 36 isolates were analyzed for the presence of the accessory gene regulator gene, agr (I-IV), and genes encoding resistance to methicillin (mecA), erythromycin (ermA), penicillin (blaZ), and vancomycin (vanA-B). The isolates were also analyzed for similarities in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. SA strains showed resistance to ampicillin (36.1%), penicillin (33.3%), tetracycline (11.1%), and cloxacillin (2.8%) but were susceptible (>or=94.4%) to 12 out of 16 tested antimicrobials. The overall susceptibility of the strains to oxacillin, vancomycin, and erythromycin was confirmed by the absence of the mecA, vanA-B, and ermA genes. The PFGE results showed that 32 strains belonged to 10 different clusters (P1-P10) while four strains were untypeable.

  10. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318ng/L (erythromycin-H2O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photodegradation of antibiotics under simulated solar radiation: implications for their environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Batchu, Sudha Rani; Panditi, Venkata R; O'Shea, Kevin E; Gardinali, Piero R

    2014-02-01

    Roxithromycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole are frequently detected antibiotics in environmental waters. Direct and indirect photolysis of these problematic antibiotics were investigated in pure and natural waters (fresh and salt water) under irradiation of different light sources. Fundamental photolysis parameters such as molar absorption coefficient, quantum yield and first order rate constants are reported and discussed. The antibiotics are degraded fastest under ultraviolet 254 nm, followed by 350 nm and simulated solar radiation. The composition of the matrix (pH, dissolved organic content, chloride ion concentration) played a significant role in the observed photodegradation. Under simulated solar radiation, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole degrade relatively quickly with half-lives of 0.5 and 1.5h, respectively. However, roxithromycin and erythromycin, macrolides are persistent (half-life: 2.4-10 days) under solar simulation. The transformation products (15) of the targeted antibiotics produced under irradiation experiments were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry and degradation pathways were proposed. © 2013.

  12. Occurrence and distribution of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments: a comparative study of regions in China with different urbanization levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Saichang

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed and compared the distributions of 13 target pharmaceuticals in different water samples from the Hangzhou metropolitan area and Linan County, Southeast China. Sampling was conducted in five hospitals, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and Qiantang River. Samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and PPCP concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Trimethoprim, erythromycin A dihydrate, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, diclofenac sodium, and atenolol were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Most of the pharmaceutical concentrations in hospital effluents were higher than those in the WWTP influents. Although both WWTPs adopt the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic treatment process, the removal rates for pharmaceuticals, such as trimethoprim and diclofenac sodium, were completely different. Meanwhile, erythromycin A dihydrate, ofloxacin, penicillin-G, cephalexin, cefazolin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac sodium were detected in Qiantang River. These results indicate that hospitals are more concentrated sources of pharmaceuticals than WWTPs, and the WWTPs are not the only route of entry of pharmaceuticals into aquatic environments in these two regions.

  13. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M S; Siqueira-Júnior, J P

    1995-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from apparently healthy cattle in the State of Paraiba, Brazil were characterized in relation to resistance to 21 antimicrobial agents. Among the 46 isolates obtained, resistance to penicillin was most frequent, followed by resistance to cadmium, streptomycin, arsenate, tetracycline, mercury, erythromycin and kanamycin/neomycin. All isolates were susceptible to fusidic acid, ethidium bromide, cetrimide, chloramphenicol, benzalkonium chloride, doxycycline, gentamicin, methicillin, minocycline, novobiocin, rifamycin, tylosin and vancomycin. Only six isolates were susceptible to all the drugs tested. With respect to the antibiotics, multi-resistant isolates were uncommon. These results are probably a consequence of the peculiarities of local drug usage pressures. In relation to metal ions, resistance to mercury was rare while resistance to arsenate was relatively frequent, which contrasts with the situation for human Staph. aureus strains. After treatment with ethidium bromide, elimination of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and cadmium was observed, which was consistent with the genetic determinants being plasmid-borne.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, DFT study and antimicrobial activity of novel alkylaminopyrazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalaru, Christina; Dumitrascu, Florea; Draghici, Constantin; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Tatia, Rodica; Moldovan, Lucia; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Marinescu, Maria; Nitulescu, Mihai George; Ferbinteanu, Marilena

    2018-03-01

    A new series of substituted N,N-bis-[(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]-aminohexadecane Mannich bases were synthesized, characterized by IR, 1H NMR 13C NMR, UV-Vis, MS and elemental analysis, and tested for their biological activity. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of selected bacterial and fungal strains using erythromycin and clotrimazole as standards. Most of the synthesized compounds demonstrated very good activity at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Compound 3b with an halogen atom into the pharmacophore structure exhibited the most significant activity against Bacillus subtilis (MIC = 0.007 μgmLL-1) versus erythromycin as standard. In vitro cytotoxicity of the new compounds was studied using MTT assay. The analysis of the test cells showed that the newly synthesized alkylaminopyrazoles derivatives were biocompatible until a concentration of 5 μgmL-1; two compounds presented a high degree of biocompatibility on the studied concentration range.

  15. Mutation in a locus linked to penB-nmp causes suppression of the Mtr phenotype of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Shinners, E N; Catlin, B W

    1988-01-01

    The chromosomal locus mtr, which encodes low-level resistance to multiple antibacterial agents in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is subject to phenotypic suppression by env mutations that increase the permeability of the envelope. We have identified a new locus, mom (for modifier of Mtr), which is located on the chromosome very close to penB and nmp, loci known to be linked to each other and to spc. Phenotypic suppression of Mtr was recognized by reductions of resistance to benzylpenicillin and also to oxacillin and the hydrophobic agents novobiocin and erythromycin. The resistance to each of these antibiotics returned to the Mtr levels in mom+ transformants isolated by selection for increased resistance to either novobiocin or erythromycin; the accompanying change of the outer membrane protein I seroreactions confirmed the proximity of nmp and mom. Thus, some mutant gonococci display wild-type antibiotic susceptibilities but can express multiple resistance following a mom+ mutation that releases the suppressed Mtr phenotype. PMID:3142343

  16. Measurement of the Dissociation-Equilibrium Constants for Low Affinity Antibiotic Binding Interaction with Bacterial Ribosomes by the T2 (CPMG) and Line-Broadening Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdier, L.; Gharbi-Benarous, J.; Bertho, G.; Mauvais, P.; Girault, J.-P.

    1999-10-01

    In this study the dissociation constants of the low antibiotic-ribosomes interaction were determined by the T2 (CPMG), the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo decay rate and the line-broadening methods. Three MLSB antibiotics were studied, a macrolide roxithromycin, a ketolide HMR 3647 and a lincosamide clindamycin for their weak interaction with three bacterial ribosomes, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Nous avons mesuré la constante de dissociation, Kd correspondant à l'interaction faible antibiotique-ribosome bactérien pour des antibiotiques de différentes classes, un macrolide (roxithromycine), un kétolide (HMR 3647) et une lincosamide (clindamycine) avec des ribosomes de différentes souches bactériennes (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensible ou résistant à l'erythromycin) par deux méthodes : l'une basée sur la variation des largeurs de raies et l'autre sur les temps de relaxation transversaux T2 en utilisant une séquence CPMG.

  17. A combined cryo-EM and molecular dynamics approach reveals the mechanism of ErmBL-mediated translation arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, Stefan; Bock, Lars V.; Graf, Michael; Innis, C. Axel; Beckmann, Roland; Grubmüller, Helmut; Vaiana, Andrea C.; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2016-07-01

    Nascent polypeptides can induce ribosome stalling, regulating downstream genes. Stalling of ErmBL peptide translation in the presence of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin leads to resistance in Streptococcus sanguis. To reveal this stalling mechanism we obtained 3.6-Å-resolution cryo-EM structures of ErmBL-stalled ribosomes with erythromycin. The nascent peptide adopts an unusual conformation with the C-terminal Asp10 side chain in a previously unseen rotated position. Together with molecular dynamics simulations, the structures indicate that peptide-bond formation is inhibited by displacement of the peptidyl-tRNA A76 ribose from its canonical position, and by non-productive interactions of the A-tRNA Lys11 side chain with the A-site crevice. These two effects combine to perturb peptide-bond formation by increasing the distance between the attacking Lys11 amine and the Asp10 carbonyl carbon. The interplay between drug, peptide and ribosome uncovered here also provides insight into the fundamental mechanism of peptide-bond formation.

  18. A Transforming Marker That Produces Merodiploids with High Efficiency and Stable Transformants with Low Efficiency in Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, Arnold W.; Ma, Michael

    1975-01-01

    A mutation (ery-r8) conferring a high level of resistance to erythromycin in the Challis strain of Streptoccus sanguis can be transferred to wild-type erythromycin-sensitive recipients via single molecules of donor DNA. The transformants thus produced are of two types: (1) cells slightly more resistant to erythromycin than wild-type and capable of segregating (at a frequency of 2 x 10-4/bacterium/generation) either wild-type or highly-resistant cells like the original donor type; (2) cells phenotypically and genotypically identical to the original donor type. The unstable diploids (ery-r8/+) occur with a frequency equivalent to that obtained with high-efficiency (HE) markers, whereas the stable donor-type (ery-r8) transformants occur with about five hundred times lower frequency. Penetration of the wild-type recipient by more than one molecule of DNA bearing the ery-r8 marker increases by as much as seven times the incidence of stable transformants. UV-irradiation of molecules bearing the ery-r8 marker diminishes their ability to cooperate in producing a stable transformant, although the UV sensitivity of stable transformant production by a single DNA molecule is not different from that of diploid production. Hence, stable transformants do not appear to be produced by a process typical of low efficiency (LE) markers, which are generally highly sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation. Moreover, stable ery-r8 transformants are produced with equally low frequencies in strains of S. pneumoniae that discriminate (hex+) and fail to discriminate (hex -) between HE and LE markers. We postulate that all transformations by the ery-r8 marker result in ery-r8/+ diploids, and that segregation results in the infrequent stable transformants of the original donor type. This hypothesis is supported by the observations that rifampin treatment of ery-r8/+ populations increases the frequency of segregation and similar treatment of wild-type recipients undergoing transformation by the ery

  19. Campylobacter coli Outbreak in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Quebec, Canada, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Helferty, Melissa; Sylvestre, Jean-Loup; Allard, Robert; Pilon, Pierre A.; Poisson, Michel; Bekal, Sadjia

    2013-01-01

    During September 2010–November 2011, a cluster of erythromycin-susceptible, tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli pulsovar 1 infections was documented, involving 10 case-patients, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The findings suggested sexual transmission of an enteric infection among men who have sex with men. PMID:23647786

  20. Capturing the target genes of BldD in Saccharopolyspora erythraea using improved genomic SELEX method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hang; Mao, Yongrong; Chen, Meng; Pan, Hui; Huang, Xunduan; Ren, Min; Wu, Hao; Li, Jiali; Xu, Zhongdong; Yuan, Hualing; Geng, Ming; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Buchang

    2015-03-01

    BldD (SACE_2077), a key developmental regulator in actinomycetes, is the first identified transcriptional factor in Saccharopolyspora erythraea positively regulating erythromycin production and morphological differentiation. Although the BldD of S. erythraea binds to the promoters of erythromycin biosynthetic genes, the interaction affinities are relatively low, implying the existence of its other target genes in S. erythraea. Through the genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method that we herein improved, four DNA sequences of S. erythraea A226, corresponding to the promoter regions of SACE_0306 (beta-galactosidase), SACE_0811 (50S ribosomal protein L25), SACE_3410 (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase), and SACE_6014 (aldehyde dehydrogenase), were captured with all three BldD concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 μM, while the previously identified intergenic regions of eryBIV-eryAI and ermE-eryCI plus the promoter region of SACE_7115, the amfC homolog for aerial mycelium formation, could be captured only when the BldD's concentration reached 2 μM. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis indicated that BldD specifically bound to above seven DNA sequences, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that the transcriptional levels of the abovementioned target genes decreased when bldD was disrupted in A226. Furthermore, SACE_7115 and SACE_0306 in A226 were individually inactivated, showing that SACE_7115 was predominantly involved in aerial mycelium formation, while SACE_0306 mainly controlled erythromycin production. This study provides valuable information for better understanding of the pleiotropic regulator BldD in S. erythraea, and the improved method may be useful for uncovering regulatory networks of other transcriptional factors.

  1. Diversity and dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in cheese as determined by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Ana Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-12-02

    This work reports the composition and succession of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacterial communities in a model cheese, monitored by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were examined using this technique to detect structural changes in the cheese microbiota over manufacturing and ripening. Total bacterial genomic DNA, used as a template, was extracted from cultivable bacteria grown without and with tetracycline or erythromycin (both at 25 μg ml(-1)) on a non-selective medium used for enumeration of total and viable cells (Plate Count agar with Milk; PCA-M), and from those grown on selective and/or differential agar media used for counting various bacterial groups; i.e., lactic acid bacteria (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar; MRSA), micrococci and staphylococci (Baird-Parker agar; BPA), and enterobacteria (Violet Red Bile Glucose agar; VRBGA). Large numbers of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria were detected in cheese samples at all stages of ripening. Counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria varied widely depending on the microbial group and the point of sampling. In general, resistant bacteria were 0.5-1.0 Log10 units fewer in number than the corresponding susceptible bacteria. The PCR-DGGE profiles obtained with DNA isolated from the plates for total bacteria and the different bacterial groups suggested Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. as the microbial types resistant to both antibiotics tested. This study shows the suitability of the PCR-DGGE technique for rapidly identifying and tracking antibiotic resistant populations in cheese and, by extension, in other foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of invasive group B Streptococcus isolates recovered from Chinese neonates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ma, Zhuoya; Tong, Jingjing; Zhao, Ruizhen; Shi, Wei; Yu, Sangjie; Yao, Kaihu; Zheng, Yuejie; Yang, Yonghong

    2015-08-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important neonatal pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality in developed countries. However, data describing neonatal GBS disease in developing countries, particularly in Asia, are largely incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characteristics of invasive GBS isolates recovered from Chinese neonates. From 2008 to 2013, 40 GBS isolates were recovered from infected neonates less than 3 months of age. All isolates were identified with the CAMP test and commercially available techniques. Serotyping was performed by latex agglutination. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested with Etest strips and the disk diffusion method. Multilocus sequence typing and erythromycin resistance gene detection (ermB and mefA) were performed by PCR. Four serotypes were identified. Serotype III (85%) was the most prevalent, followed by Ia (7.5%), Ib (5%), and V (2.5%). All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin. However, resistance to erythromycin (92.5%), clindamycin (87.5%), and tetracycline (100%) was observed. Among erythromycin-resistant isolates, 73.0% carried the ermB gene alone, 5.4% carried the mefA gene alone, and 21.6% expressed both ermB and mefA genes. A total of seven sequence types (STs) were identified; the most prevalent was ST17, accounting for 80% of all isolates. Further, serotype III isolates contained ST17 (94.2%), ST19 (2.9%), and ST650 (2.9%). Serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and sequence type characterization in Asia and in other global regions may contribute to improve the prevention and treatment of neonatal GBS infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic diversity and clonal characteristics of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Chilean patients with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Collado, Luis; Muñoz, Nataly; Porte, Lorena; Ochoa, Sofía; Varela, Carmen; Muñoz, Ivo

    2018-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, it has also been associated with other diseases such as bacteremia and with several post-infection sequelae. Although campylobacteriosis is usually a self-limited infection, antibiotics are indicated for severe and chronic conditions. Unfortunately, several industrialised nations have reported a substantial increase in antibiotic resistance of C. jejuni. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of resistance developed by this pathogen in the developing world. For this reason, our objective was to determine the resistance of clinical C. jejuni strains to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in Chile and their associated genotypes. Fifty C. jejuni isolates recovered from fecal samples of people with acute gastroenteritis, in central and southern Chile between 2006 and 2015, were analysed. Resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was assessed by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Furthermore, these strains were genotyped by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Only one of the isolates was resistant to erythromycin. However, 48% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The minimal inhibitory concentration of these ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates was in the range between 4 and 32 μg/ml. Moreover, MLST analyses showed that most ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were grouped into three dominant clonal complexes (ST-21, ST-48 and ST-353), while the unique strain resistant to both antibiotics belonged to the ST-45 complex. Our results evidence a high ciprofloxacin resistance and suggest that there is a dissemination of resistant clonal lineages responsible for cases of campylobacteriosis in Chile. Further studies should elucidate the origin of these resistant genotypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, and C lari isolated from humans in north west England and Wales, 1997.

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, R T; Frost, J A

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To test the sensitivity of strains of Campylobacter species isolated from humans in England and Wales against a range of antimicrobial agents for the purpose of monitoring therapeutic efficacy and as an epidemiological marker. METHODS: An agar dilution breakpoint technique was used to screen isolates against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also determined for a sample of quinolone resistant strains. RESULTS: Approximately 50% of strains tested were resistant to at least one drug. Strains which were resistant to four or more of the drugs tested were classified as multiresistant; this occurred in 11.3% of C jejuni, 19.9% of C coli, and 63.6% of C lari. Resistance to erythromycin occurred in 1.0% of C jejuni and 12.8% of C coli. Resistance to quinolones occurred in 12% of strains, with a ciprofloxacin MIC of > 8 mg/l and a nalidixic acid MIC of > 256 mg/l; a further 4% of strains had intermediate resistance with a ciprofloxacin MIC of between 0.5 and 2 mg/l (fully sensitive strains, 0.25 mg/l or less) and a nalidixic acid MIC of between 32 and 64 mg/l (fully sensitive strains, 8 mg/l or less). CONCLUSIONS: Resistance to quinolones in campylobacters from human infection may relate to clinical overuse or use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry. Both veterinary and clinical use should be reconsidered and fluoroquinolone drugs used only as a treatment for serious infections requiring hospital admission. Erythromycin resistance is still rare in C jejuni but much more common in C coli. PMID:10690169

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Udder Pathogens Isolated from Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    A total of 522 strains belonging to streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci isolated from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the west littoral region of Uruguay were analysed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility patterns were studied by agar disk diffusion methods (ADDM) and broth micro-dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC90) of the analysed strains reported in micrograms per millilitre, for Staphylococcus aureus were > 8, 8, ≤ 0.5, ≤ 4, ≤ 1, ≤ 0.5, > 64, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, ≤ 1 and ≤ 1 to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxitetracycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and clindamycin, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) had different values for penicillin (4) and ampicillin (2), while the other antimicrobial agents had the same MIC90 values as reported for S. aureus. The MIC90 values for streptococci were 0.12, 0.25, ≤ 4, 16, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, 0.25 for penicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas MIC90 for enterococci were 4, 4, 4, ≤ 0.5, 2, > 8 for penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Of 336 strains of S. aureus, 160 (47.6%) were resistant to penicillin. For 41 CNS strains, 10 (27%) presented penicillin-resistance. All the streptococcal strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 3 (7%) of the 43 enteroccocal strains were resistant. Non significant statistical differences were found between the results obtained by ADDM and broth micro-dilution for classifying bacterial isolates as susceptible or resistant according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:12071114

  6. Importance of adhesins in the recurrence of pharyngeal infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Aniela; Scioscia, Natalia; Geoffroy, Enrique; Ponce, Iván; García, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    Pharyngo-amygdalitis is the most common infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). Reinfection with strains of different M types commonly occurs. However, a second infection with a strain of the same M type can still occur and is referred to as recurrence. We aimed to assess whether recurrence of S. pyogenes could be associated to erythromycin resistance, biofilm formation or surface adhesins like fibronectin-binding proteins and pilus proteins, both located in the fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T-antigen (FCT) region. We analyed clinical isolates of S. pyogenes obtained from children with multiple positive cultures of throat swabs. We analysed potential associations between M types, clonal patterns, biofilm production and FCT types with their capacity of producing a recurrent infection. We genetically defined recurrence as an infection with the same M type (same strain) and reinfection as an infection with a different M type. No differences were observed between recurrent and reinfection isolates in relation to erythromycin resistance, presence and number of domains of prtF1 gene, and biofilm formation capacity; the only significant difference was the higher frequency of FCT-4 type among recurrent isolates. However, when all the factors that could contribute to recurrence (erythromycin resistance, biofilm production, presence of prtF1 gene and FCT-4 type) were analysed together, we observed that recurrent isolates have a higher number of factors than reinfection isolates. Recurrence seems not to be associated with biofilm formation. However, pili and fibronectin-binding proteins could be associated with recurrence because FCT-4 isolates which harbour two fibronectin-binding proteins are more frequent among recurrent isolates.

  7. Enrofloxacin and Macrolides Alone or in Combination with Rifampicin as Antimicrobial Treatment in a Bovine Model of Acute Chlamydia psittaci Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Lohr, Markus; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Schroedl, Wieland; Rothe, Michael; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6–8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e. cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks. PMID:25768665

  8. Molecular evidence and functional expression of multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Karla, Pradeep K; Pal, Dananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) is a major family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify if the role of efflux transporters. MRP-2 is a major homologue of MRP family and found to express on the apical side of cell membrane. Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells (rCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium. [14C]-erythromycin which is a proven substrate for MRP-2 was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. MK-571, a known specific and potent inhibitor for MRP-2 was added to inhibit MRP mediated efflux. Membrane fraction of rCEC was used for western blot analysis. Polarized transport of [14C]-erythromycin was observed in rCEC and transport from B-->A was significantly high than from A-->B. Permeability's increased significantly from A-->B in the presence of MK-571 and ketoconozole. Uptake of [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly higher than control in rCEC. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at approximately 498 bp corresponding to MRP-2 in rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at approximately 190 kDa in membrane fraction of rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. For the first time we have demonstrated high expression of MRP-2 in rabbit corneal epithelium and its functional activity causing drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis further confirms the result.

  9. Activities of tigecycline (GAR-936) against Legionella pneumophila in vitro and in guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Paul H; Weiss, William J; Edelstein, Martha A C

    2003-02-01

    The activities of tigecycline (Wyeth Research) against extracellular and intracellular Legionella pneumophila and for the treatment of guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia were studied. The tigecycline MIC at which 50% of strains are inhibited for 101 different Legionella sp. strains was 4 micro g/ml versus 0.125 and 0.25 micro g/ml for azithromycin and erythromycin, respectively. Tigecycline was about as active as erythromycin (tested at 1 micro g/ml) against the F889 strain of L. pneumophila grown in guinea pig alveolar macrophages and more active than erythromycin against the F2111 strain. Azithromycin (0.25 micro g/ml) was more active than (F889) or as active as (F2111) tigecycline (1 micro g/ml) in the macrophage model. When tigecycline was given (7.5 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously once) to guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia, the mean peak serum and lung levels were 2.3 and 1.8 micro g/ml (1.2 and 1.5 micro g/g) at 1 and 2 h postinjection, respectively. The serum and lung areas under the concentration time curve from 0 to 24 h were 13.7 and 15.8 micro g. h/ml, respectively. Thirteen of 16 guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia treated with tigecycline (7.5 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily for 5 days) survived for 7 days post-antimicrobial therapy, as did 11 of 12 guinea pigs treated with azithromycin (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily for 2 days). None of 12 guinea pigs treated with saline survived. Tigecycline-treated guinea pigs had average end of therapy lung counts of 1 x 10(6) CFU/g (range, 2.5 x 10(4) to 3.2 x 10(6) CFU/g) versus <1 x 10(2) CFU/g for azithromycin (range, undetectable to 100 CFU/g). A second guinea pig study examined the ability of tigecycline to clear L. pneumophila from the lung after 5 to 9 days of therapy; bacterial concentrations 1 day posttherapy ranged from log(10) 4.2 to log(10) 5.5 CFU/g for four different dosing regimens. Tigecycline is about as effective as erythromycin against intracellular L

  10. Prevalence of multiple drug resistant Streptococcus suis in and around Guwahati, India.

    PubMed

    Devi, Mrinalee; Dutta, Jyoti B; Rajkhowa, Swaraj; Kalita, Dhireswar; Saikia, Girindra Kumar; Das, Bipin Chandra; Hazarika, Razibuddin Ahmed; Mahato, Gauranga

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. suis by biochemical characterization and polymerase chain reaction targeting the housekeeping gene glutamate dehydrogenase. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the recovered isolates against nine antibiotic groups comprising 17 antimicrobial agents was studied by standard method. Of the 497 samples examined, 7 (1.41%) isolates were confirmed to be S. suis of which 5 (1.87%) and 2 (0.87%) were derived from clinically healthy and diseased pigs, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and erythromycin (100%) followed by the penicillin group and enrofloxacin (85.71%), ceftriaxone, doxycycline HCL, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol (71.43%), to kanamycin, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole (42.85%). The isolates showed least susceptibility to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin (28.57%). All the five S. suis isolates from clinically healthy pigs were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxyclav, doxycycline HCl, gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, 80.00% isolates susceptible to ampicillin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin, 60.00% to ceftriaxone, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, 40% to cefalexin, tetracycline, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Only 20.00% isolates were susceptible to streptomycin. Both the isolates recovered from diseased pigs were susceptible to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. On the other hand, both the isolates were resistant to cefalexin

  11. Activities of Tigecycline (GAR-936) against Legionella pneumophila In Vitro and in Guinea Pigs with L. pneumophila Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Paul H.; Weiss, William J.; Edelstein, Martha A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The activities of tigecycline (Wyeth Research) against extracellular and intracellular Legionella pneumophila and for the treatment of guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia were studied. The tigecycline MIC at which 50% of strains are inhibited for 101 different Legionella sp. strains was 4 μg/ml versus 0.125 and 0.25 μg/ml for azithromycin and erythromycin, respectively. Tigecycline was about as active as erythromycin (tested at 1 μg/ml) against the F889 strain of L. pneumophila grown in guinea pig alveolar macrophages and more active than erythromycin against the F2111 strain. Azithromycin (0.25 μg/ml) was more active than (F889) or as active as (F2111) tigecycline (1 μg/ml) in the macrophage model. When tigecycline was given (7.5 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously once) to guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia, the mean peak serum and lung levels were 2.3 and 1.8 μg/ml (1.2 and 1.5 μg/g) at 1 and 2 h postinjection, respectively. The serum and lung areas under the concentration time curve from 0 to 24 h were 13.7 and 15.8 μg · h/ml, respectively. Thirteen of 16 guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia treated with tigecycline (7.5 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily for 5 days) survived for 7 days post-antimicrobial therapy, as did 11 of 12 guinea pigs treated with azithromycin (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily for 2 days). None of 12 guinea pigs treated with saline survived. Tigecycline-treated guinea pigs had average end of therapy lung counts of 1 × 106 CFU/g (range, 2.5 × 104 to 3.2 × 106 CFU/g) versus <1 × 102 CFU/g for azithromycin (range, undetectable to 100 CFU/g). A second guinea pig study examined the ability of tigecycline to clear L. pneumophila from the lung after 5 to 9 days of therapy; bacterial concentrations 1 day posttherapy ranged from log10 4.2 to log10 5.5 CFU/g for four different dosing regimens. Tigecycline is about as effective as erythromycin against intracellular L. pneumophila, but tigecycline inactivation by

  12. Corynebacterium macginleyi Conjunctivitis in Canada▿

    PubMed Central

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R.; Wiebe, Deborah; Burdz, Tamara; Ng, Betty; Reimer, Aleisha; Singh, Cathleen; Bernard, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This report describes for the first time Corynebacterium macginleyi as a cause of conjunctivitis in Canada, where menaquinone analysis was done as part of the strain characterization. This species is typically isolated from ocular surfaces of patients from Europe and Japan. The isolate was resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. PMID:20702661

  13. Emergency Medical Response Capability Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Analgesics, non-narcotic Anesthesia aooaratus Antibiotics and anti-bacterials Basin, qash, solution Antidiabetic Agents (Oral) Blade, surgical Knife...for replace- Holder, suture needle nent therapy Inhaler, anesthesia , Yankauer (atner fask) Local anesthetics Intravenous injection sets Lubricant...Medium-Spectrum Erythromycin Kanamycin Clindamycin Narrow-Spectrum Penicillins Oxacillin Methicillin Streptomycin Gentamicin Other Amphotericin B Nystatin

  14. Fatal infection caused by a multiply resistant type 3 pneumococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, J B; Klugman, K P; Eidelman, J I; Wasas, A; Miller, S D; Lipman, J

    1988-01-01

    The most virulent pneumococcal serotype (type 3) has not to date been associated with multiple antimicrobial resistance. We report an unusual gastrointestinal presentation of fatal septicemia caused by a multiply resistant type 3 pneumococcus in a setting of increasing prevalence of multiple resistance, including resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. PMID:3170717

  15. [Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of Legionnaires' disease].

    PubMed

    Zabel, L; Hirschmann, W D

    1990-06-01

    Case report on a granulocytopenic patient suffering from acute myeloid leukaemia and legionnaire's disease as a complication. Under therapy with ciprofloxacin (2 x 200 mg/die) the symptoms decreased within five days; hence, ciprofloxacin seems to be a good alternative to erythromycin and rifampicin in the therapy of legionnaire's disease in immunodeficient patients.

  16. Molecular epidemiology and distribution of serotypes, genotypes, and antibiotic resistance genes of Streptococcus agalactiae clinical isolates from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Bergal, A; Loucif, L; Benouareth, D E; Bentorki, A A; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-12-01

    This study describes, for the first time, the genetic and phenotypic diversity among 93 Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) isolates collected from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The molecular support of antibiotic resistance and serotyping were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The phylogenetic lineage of each GBS isolate was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and grouped into clonal complexes (CCs) using eBURST. The isolates represented 37 sequence types (STs), 16 of which were novel, grouped into five CCs, and belonging to seven serotypes. Serotype V was the most prevalent serotype in our collection (44.1%). GBS isolates of each serotype were distributed among multiple CCs, including cps III/CC19, cps V/CC1, cps Ia/CC23, cps II/CC10, and cps III/CC17. All isolates presented susceptibility to penicillin, whereas resistance to erythromycin was detected in 40% and tetracycline in 82.2% of isolates. Of the 37 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 75.7% showed the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant phenotype and 24.3% exhibited the macrolide (M)-resistant phenotype. Constitutive MLSB resistance (46%) mediated by the ermB gene was significantly associated with the Guelma isolates, whereas the M resistance phenotype (24.3%) mediated by the mefA/E gene dominated among the Marseille isolates and belonged to ST-23. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly due to tetM, which was detected alone (95.1%) or associated with tetO (3.7%). These results provide epidemiological data in these regions that establish a basis for monitoring increased resistance to erythromycin and also provide insight into correlations among clones, serotypes, and resistance genes.

  17. Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis).

    PubMed

    Altunaiji, S; Kukuruzovic, R; Curtis, N; Massie, J

    2007-07-18

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease. Infants are at highest risk of severe disease and death. Erythromycin for 14 days is currently recommended for treatment and contact prophylaxis, but is of uncertain benefit. To study the benefits and risks of antibiotic treatment of and contact prophylaxis against whooping cough. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2007); MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2007); EMBASE (January 1974 to March 2007). All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotics for treatment of, and contact prophylaxis against, whooping cough. Three to four review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial. Thirteen trials with 2197 participants met the inclusion criteria: 11 trials investigated treatment regimens; 2 investigated prophylaxis regimens. The quality of the trials was variable.Short-term antibiotics (azithromycin for three to five days, or clarithromycin or erythromycin for seven days) were as effective as long-term (erythromycin for 10 to 14 days) in eradicating Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) from the nasopharynx (relative risk (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.05), but had fewer side effects (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for seven days was also effective. Nor were there differences in clinical outcomes or microbiological relapse between short and long-term antibiotics. Contact prophylaxis of contacts older than six months of age with antibiotics did not significantly improve clinical symptoms or the number of cases developing culture-positive B. pertussis. Although antibiotics were effective in eliminating B. pertussis, they did not alter the subsequent clinical course of the illness. There is insufficient evidence to determine the benefit of prophylactic treatment of pertussis contacts.

  18. Motilin-induced gastric contractions signal hunger in man.

    PubMed

    Tack, J; Deloose, E; Ang, D; Scarpellini, E; Vanuytsel, T; Van Oudenhove, L; Depoortere, I

    2016-02-01

    Hunger is controlled by the brain, which receives input from signals of the GI tract (GIT). During fasting, GIT displays a cyclical motor pattern, the migrating motor complex (MMC), regulated by motilin. To study the relationship between hunger and MMC phases (I-III), focusing on spontaneous and pharmacologically induced phase III and the correlation with plasma motilin and ghrelin levels. The role of phase III was also studied in the return of hunger after a meal in healthy individuals and in patients with loss of appetite. In fasting healthy volunteers, mean hunger ratings during a gastric (62.5±7.5) but not a duodenal (40.4±5.4) phase III were higher (p<0.0005) than during phase I (27.4±4.7) and phase II (37±4.5). The motilin agonist erythromycin, but not the cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine, induced a premature gastric phase III, which coincided with an increase in hunger scores from 29.2±7 to 61.7±8. The somatostatin analogue octreotide induced a premature intestinal phase III without a rise in hunger scores. Hunger ratings significantly correlated (β=0.05; p=0.01) with motilin plasma levels, and this relationship was lost after erythromycin administration. Motilin, but not ghrelin administration, induced a premature gastric phase III and a rise in hunger scores. In contrast to octreotide, postprandial administration of erythromycin induced a premature gastric phase III accompanied by an early rise in hunger ratings. In patients with unexplained loss of appetite, gastric phase III was absent and hunger ratings were lower. Motilin-induced gastric phase III is a hunger signal from GIT in man. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  20. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Sara; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David

    2008-04-24

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. The ORACLE Trial and Children Study is registered in the Current Controlled Trials registry. ISCRTN 52995660.

  1. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Sara; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David

    2008-01-01

    Background The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. Methods The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. Discussion This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. Trial registration The ORACLE Trial and Children Study is registered in the

  2. Antibiotics for ureaplasma in the vagina in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Raynes-Greenow, C H; Roberts, C L; Bell, J C; Peat, B; Gilbert, G L

    2004-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant obstetric problem in high-income countries. Genital infection including ureaplasmas are suspected of playing a role in preterm birth and preterm rupture of the membranes. Antibiotics are used to treat women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes and results in prolongation of pregnancy and lowers the risks of maternal and neonatal infection. However, antibiotics may be beneficial earlier in pregnancy to eradicate potentially causative agents. The objective of this review is to assess whether antibiotic treatment of pregnant women with ureaplasma in the vagina reduces the incidence of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (April 2003). All randomised controlled trials that compared any antibiotic regimen with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with ureaplasma detected in the vagina. Three reviewers independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. One trial involving 1071 women was included. Of these, 644 randomly received antibiotic treatment (174 erythromycin estolate, 224 erythromycin sterate, and 246 clindamycin hydrochloride) and 427 received placebo. This trial did not report data on preterm birth. Incidence of low birthweight less than 2500 grams was only evaluated for erythromycin (combined) (n = 398 ) compared to placebo (n = 427) and there was no statistically significant difference between those treated and those not treated (relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 1.07). In regards to side-effects sufficient to stop treatment, data were available for all women, and there were no statistically significant differences between any antibiotic (combined) and the placebo group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.85). There is insufficient evidence to show whether giving antibiotics to women with ureaplasma in the vagina will prevent preterm birth.

  3. Detection of macrolide resistance genes in culture-negative specimens from Bangladeshi children with invasive pneumococcal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Md; Malaker, Roly; Islam, Maksuda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Whitney, Cynthia G; Saha, Samir K

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistance among pneumococci in Bangladesh has been observed. However, the scenario remains incomplete, as few isolates (<1%) are available from pneumonia cases and most pneumococcal meningitis cases (>80%) are culture-negative. This study optimised a triplex PCR method to detect macrolide resistance genes (MRGs) (mefA and ermB) and cpsA from culture-negative pneumococcal cases to predict the prevalence and level of macrolide resistance. The presence of MRGs among pneumococcal strains (n=153) with a wide range of erythromycin MICs (<0.5 to ≥256mg/L) was determined by PCR. Triplex PCR was validated by simultaneous detection of MRG(s) and cpsA in culture-negative clinical specimens and corresponding isolates. The known impact of the presence of specific MRG(s) on MICs of strains was used to predict the MICs of non-culturable strains based on the presence/absence of MRG(s) in the specimens. None of the erythromycin-susceptible isolates possessed any of the MRGs, and all non-susceptible strains had ≥1 MRG. MICs were 2-16mg/L and ≥256mg/L for 93% of strains with mefA and ermB, respectively, whereas 100% of isolates with both genes had MICs≥256mg/L. PCR for body fluids showed 100% concordance with corresponding isolates when tested for MRG(s) in parallel. Erythromycin MICs can be predicted for non-culturable strains with 93-100% precision based on detection of ermB and/or mefA. This method will be useful for establishing comprehensive surveillance for macrolide resistance among pneumococci, specifically in the population with prior antibiotic use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant non-vaccine serotype pneumococci in nasopharyngeal carriage in children after the use of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hoan Jong; Lee, Hyunju; Oh, Chi Eun; Cho, Eun Young; Choi, Jae Hong; Kang, Hyun Mi; Yoon, In Ae; Jung, Hyun Joo; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2016-09-14

    This study was performed to assess the serotype distribution and antibiotic nonsusceptibility of pneumococcal carriage isolates from children in Korea following the introduction of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). From April to June 2014, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children who were attending daycare centers in Korea. The collection was conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization Pneumococcal Carriage Working Group standards. Isolates were identified based on colony morphology, the presence of alpha-hemolysis, and inhibition by optochin test. Serotype was determined by Quellung reaction and sequencing analysis (for serogroup 6). The E-test was performed to determine antibiotic susceptibility. A total of 267 pneumococcal isolates were collected from 734 children. Non-PCV13 serotypes accounted for 88.3% and 23A (12.6%), 15B (10.4%), and 15C (9.5%) were most common. Younger age was associated with higher carriage (65.6% vs. 31.2%, P<0.001), while completion of PCV vaccination was associated with lower carriage caused by PCV13 serotypes (7.4% vs. 20.8%, P=0.007). Overall, nonsusceptibility rates were 86.0% to penicillin and 90.5% to erythromycin, with a multidrug resistance rate of 81.5%. Among penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates, those caused by PCV13 serotypes were 11% and non-PCV13 serotypes were 89%. Frequent non-PCV13 serotypes (23A, 15B, and 15C) were all nonsusceptible to both penicillin and erythromycin except one. High rates of carriage caused by non-PCV13 serotypes such as 23A, 15B, and 15C that show nonsusceptibilities to penicillin and erythromycin were noted following the introduction of extended-valency PCVs in Korea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Activities of a new oral streptogramin, XRP 2868, compared to those of other agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus species.

    PubMed

    Pankuch, Glenn A; Kelly, Linda M; Lin, Gengrong; Bryskier, Andre; Couturier, Catherine; Jacobs, Michael R; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2003-10-01

    MIC methodology was used to test the antibacterial activity of XRP 2868, a new oral combination of two semisynthetic streptogramins, RPR 132552A and RPR 202868, compared to activities of other antibacterial agents against pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. For 261 pneumococci, XRP 2868 and pristinamycin MICs were similar, irrespective of penicillin G and erythromycin A susceptibilities (MIC at which 50% of isolates were inhibited [MIC(50)], 0.25 micro g/ml; MIC(90), 0.5 micro g/ml), while quinupristin/dalfopristin had MICs which were 1 to 2 dilutions higher. Single components of both XRP 2868 and quinupristin/dalfopristin had higher MICs. Erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and clindamycin MICs were higher for penicillin G-intermediate and -resistant than -susceptible pneumococci. Against 150 H. influenzae strains, all compounds tested had unimodal MIC distributions. XRP 2868 had an overall MIC(50) of 0.25 micro g/ml and an MIC(90) of 1.0 micro g/ml, with no differences between beta-lactamase-positive, beta-lactamase-negative, and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains. Of note was the similarly low activity of one of its components, RPR 132552A. Pristinamycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin had MICs of 0.125 to 8.0 micro g/ml; quinupristin alone had MICs of 8.0 to >64.0 micro g/ml, and dalfopristin had MICs of 1.0 to >64.0 micro g/ml. Erythromycin A, azithromycin, and clarithromycin had modal MICs of 4.0, 1.0, and 8.0 micro g/ml, respectively. MICs of all compounds against H. parainfluenzae were 1 to 2 dilutions higher than against H. influenzae. XRP 2868 showed potent activity against pneumococci and Haemophilus strains irrespective of their susceptibility to other agents.

  6. Activities of a New Oral Streptogramin, XRP 2868, Compared to Those of Other Agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus Species

    PubMed Central

    Pankuch, Glenn A.; Kelly, Linda M.; Lin, Gengrong; Bryskier, Andre; Couturier, Catherine; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    MIC methodology was used to test the antibacterial activity of XRP 2868, a new oral combination of two semisynthetic streptogramins, RPR 132552A and RPR 202868, compared to activities of other antibacterial agents against pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. For 261 pneumococci, XRP 2868 and pristinamycin MICs were similar, irrespective of penicillin G and erythromycin A susceptibilities (MIC at which 50% of isolates were inhibited [MIC50], 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), while quinupristin/dalfopristin had MICs which were 1 to 2 dilutions higher. Single components of both XRP 2868 and quinupristin/dalfopristin had higher MICs. Erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and clindamycin MICs were higher for penicillin G-intermediate and -resistant than -susceptible pneumococci. Against 150 H. influenzae strains, all compounds tested had unimodal MIC distributions. XRP 2868 had an overall MIC50 of 0.25 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 1.0 μg/ml, with no differences between β-lactamase-positive, β-lactamase-negative, and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains. Of note was the similarly low activity of one of its components, RPR 132552A. Pristinamycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin had MICs of 0.125 to 8.0 μg/ml; quinupristin alone had MICs of 8.0 to >64.0 μg/ml, and dalfopristin had MICs of 1.0 to >64.0 μg/ml. Erythromycin A, azithromycin, and clarithromycin had modal MICs of 4.0, 1.0, and 8.0 μg/ml, respectively. MICs of all compounds against H. parainfluenzae were 1 to 2 dilutions higher than against H. influenzae. XRP 2868 showed potent activity against pneumococci and Haemophilus strains irrespective of their susceptibility to other agents. PMID:14506040

  7. Pharmacokinetics of the Novel, Selective, Non-steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Finerenone in Healthy Volunteers: Results from an Absolute Bioavailability Study and Drug-Drug Interaction Studies In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Roland; Gerisch, Michael; Engelen, Anna; Nagelschmitz, Johannes; Loewen, Stephanie

    2018-05-19

    Finerenone is a selective, non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to assess absolute bioavailability of finerenone, the effect of metabolic enzyme inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of finerenone and its metabolites, the quantitative contribution of the involved enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C8 and the relevance of gut wall versus liver metabolism. The pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of finerenone (1.25-10 mg orally or 0.25-1.0 mg intravenously) were evaluated in healthy male volunteers in four crossover studies. Absolute bioavailability was assessed in volunteers receiving finerenone orally and by intravenous infusion (n = 15) and the effects of erythromycin (n = 15), verapamil (n = 13) and gemfibrozil (n = 16) on finerenone pharmacokinetics were investigated. Finerenone was also incubated with cryopreserved human hepatocytes in vitro in the presence of erythromycin, verapamil or gemfibrozil. Finerenone absolute bioavailability was 43.5% due to first-pass metabolism in the gut wall and liver. The geometric mean AUC 0-∞ ratios of finerenone (drug + inhibitor/drug alone) were 3.48, 2.70 and 1.10 with erythromycin, verapamil and gemfibrozil, respectively. The contribution ratio of CYP3A4 to the metabolic clearance of finerenone derived from these values was 0.88-0.89 and was consistent with estimations based on in vitro data, with the remaining metabolic clearance due to CYP2C8 involvement. Finerenone is predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4 in the gut wall and liver. Increases in systemic exposure upon concomitant administration of inhibitors of this isoenzyme are predictable and consistent with in vitro data. Inhibition of CYP2C8, the second involved metabolic enzyme, has no relevant effect on finerenone in vivo.

  8. An antibiotic recipe for an arrhythmic disaster.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Keir; Manga, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient who developed torsade de pointes during temporary pacemaker insertion after administration of intravenous erythromycin. The case highlights the dangers of administering drugs that prolong the QT interval in patients with complete atrioventricular block, and we discuss the underlying pathophysiological recipe that can lead to a potential arrhythmic disaster.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance among lower respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: results of a 1992-93 western Europe and USA collaborative surveillance study. The Alexander Project Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, F W; Acar, J F

    1996-07-01

    One thousand, eight hundred and fifty-six Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, collected in 1992 and 1993 from 15 centres in Western Europe and USA were tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics. The overall resistance to penicillin was 23% (range 6-54%), with the highest prevalences in Madrid, Barcelona, Toulouse and Cleveland. Seven centres reported low-level penicillin resistance only. Amoxycillin was more active than ceftriaxone against strains with intermediate resistance to penicillin, and at least four-fold more active than cefuroxime; cefaclor and cefixime had poor activity. Against penicillin-resistant strains, ceftriaxone was slightly more active than amoxycillin, cefuroxime exhibited borderline activity and cefixime and cefaclor were inactive. Ten strains fully susceptible to penicillin had MICs of ceftriaxone > or = 0.1 mg/L; this may represent a first step towards the development of cephalosporin resistance. With the exception of fluoroquinolones, resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics (chloramphenicol, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin) was considerably higher in penicillin-resistant strains compared with penicillin-susceptible isolates. Erythromycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to the other macrolides tested.

  10. Susceptibility of Legionella spp. to mycinamicin I and II and other macrolide antibiotics: effects of media composition and origin of organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, P H; Pasiecznik, K A; Yasui, V K; Meyer, R D

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-three strains of Legionella spp., 29 of which were L. pneumophila, were tested for their susceptibilities to erythromycin (EM), rosaramicin, tylosin, mycinamicin I (Sch-27897), and mycinamicin II (Sch-27896). Testing was performed using an agar dilution method with two different types of media: buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with 0.1% alpha-ketoglutarate (BCYE alpha) and filter-sterilized yeast extract medium with 0.1% alpha-ketoglutarate (BYE alpha). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the drugs tested relative to the MICs of erythromycin were: rosaramicin, MIC approximately equal to 0.2 EM MIC; tylosin, MIC approximately equal to 2 EM MIC; mycinamicin I, MIC approximately equal to 0.5 EM MIC; and mycinamicin II, MIC approximately equal to EM MIC. Both types of media caused equivalent partial inactivation of the macrolides which was apparently due entirely to pH effect. MICs on BCYE alpha were one to five times more than those observed on BYE alpha; this may be due to poorer growth on BYE alpha. PMID:7125633

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolates of bovine, chicken, porcine, and turkey origin from Ontario.

    PubMed

    Slavić, Durđa; Boerlin, Patrick; Fabri, Marta; Klotins, Kim C; Zoethout, Jennifer K; Weir, Pat E; Bateman, Debbie

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin types were determined for 275 Clostridium perfringens isolates collected in Ontario in the spring of 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of C. perfringens isolates for 12 antimicrobials used in therapy, prophylaxis, and/or growth promotion of cattle (n = 40), swine (n = 75), turkeys (n = 50), and chickens (n = 100) were determined using the microbroth dilution method. Statistical analyses and MIC distributions showed reduced susceptibility to bacitracin, clindamycin, erythromycin, florfenicol, and tetracycline for some isolates. Reduced susceptibility to bacitracin was identified in chicken (64%) and turkey (60%) isolates. Swine isolates had predominantly reduced susceptibility to clindamycin (28%) and erythromycin (31%), whereas bovine isolates had reduced susceptibility to clindamycin (10%) and florfenicol (10%). Reduced susceptibility to tetracycline was spread across all species. No clear reduced susceptibility, but elevated MIC(50) for virginiamycin was found in chicken isolates in comparison with isolates from other species. Toxin typing revealed that C. perfringens type A is the dominant toxin type isolated in this study across all 4 host species.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolates of bovine, chicken, porcine, and turkey origin from Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Slavić, Đurđa; Boerlin, Patrick; Fabri, Marta; Klotins, Kim C.; Zoethout, Jennifer K.; Weir, Pat E.; Bateman, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin types were determined for 275 Clostridium perfringens isolates collected in Ontario in the spring of 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of C. perfringens isolates for 12 antimicrobials used in therapy, prophylaxis, and/or growth promotion of cattle (n = 40), swine (n = 75), turkeys (n = 50), and chickens (n = 100) were determined using the microbroth dilution method. Statistical analyses and MIC distributions showed reduced susceptibility to bacitracin, clindamycin, erythromycin, florfenicol, and tetracycline for some isolates. Reduced susceptibility to bacitracin was identified in chicken (64%) and turkey (60%) isolates. Swine isolates had predominantly reduced susceptibility to clindamycin (28%) and erythromycin (31%), whereas bovine isolates had reduced susceptibility to clindamycin (10%) and florfenicol (10%). Reduced susceptibility to tetracycline was spread across all species. No clear reduced susceptibility, but elevated MIC50 for virginiamycin was found in chicken isolates in comparison with isolates from other species. Toxin typing revealed that C. perfringens type A is the dominant toxin type isolated in this study across all 4 host species. PMID:21731178

  13. Distribution of emm types among group A Streptococcus isolates from children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Hong; Yang, Nu-Ri; Lee, Woon-Jeong; Lee, Hyunju; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 155 clinical group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates from children at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 1991 and 2012 and the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between 2006 and 2012. The erythromycin resistance rate was 10.3% (16/155), and all isolates during the recent 3 years were susceptible to erythromycin. Among isolates, emm1 (19.4%), emm12 (18.7%), and emm4 (18.1%) were the most prevalent emm types. According to clinical disease, emm1 was most common in invasive GAS infections (47.4%), and emm4, in scarlet fever (48.8%). From 2010 to 2012, an increase in invasive GAS infections and scarlet fever that correlated with an increase in emm1 and emm4 types was observed. The speC detection rate was higher in patients with scarlet fever than in those with other GAS infections (P=0.017). Recently, invasive GAS infections and scarlet fever were associated with an increase in emm1 and emm4, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nepem-211 ion exchange conductive membrane immobilized tris(2,2´-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) electrogenerated chemiluminescence flow sensor for high-performance liquid chromatography and its application.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongbo; Zhang, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    We developed a sensitive and robust electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) flow sensor based on Ru(bpy)3(2+) immobilized with a Nepem-211 perfluorinated ion exchange conductance membrane, which has robustness and stability under a wide range of chemical and physical conditions, good electrical conductivity, isotropy and a high exchange capacity for immobilization of Ru(bpy)3(2+). The flow sensor has been used as a post-column detector in high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of erythromycin and clarithromycin in honey and pork, and tricyclic antidepressant drugs in human urine. Under optimal conditions, the linear ranges were 0.03-26 ng/μL and 0.01-1 ng/μL for macrolides and tricyclic antidepressant drugs, respectively. The detection limits were 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.06 and 0.003 ng/μL for erythromycin, clarithromycin, doxepin, amitriptyline and clomipramine, respectively. There is no post-column reagent addition. In addition to the conservation expensive reagents, the experimental setup was simplified. The flow sensor was used for 2 years with high sensitivity and stability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Serotype changes in adult invasive pneumococcal infections in Portugal did not reduce the high fraction of potentially vaccine preventable infections.

    PubMed

    Horácio, Andreia N; Diamantino-Miranda, Jorge; Aguiar, Sandra I; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José

    2012-01-05

    We determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of 1100 isolates responsible for adult invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in Portugal between 2006 and 2008. Serotypes 3 (13%), 1 (12%), 7F (11%), 19A (10%) and 14 (7%) were the most frequent causes of IPD and the two later serotypes accounted for the majority of erythromycin and penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. Serotype 1 was associated with younger adults whereas serotype 3 was associated with older adults. Despite the availability of the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in Portugal since 1996, the proportion of PPV23 preventable IPD remained stable and above 80%. Comparing with previous data from Portugal, we showed a continued decline of the serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in adult IPD and a rise of serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine, increasing its potential coverage of adult IPD to 70% in 2008. Penicillin non-susceptibility remained stable (17%) whereas erythromycin resistance (18%) has continued to rise in the post-PCV7 years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved survival and antagonistic effect of sodium fusidate on tumor necrosis factor alpha in a neonatal mouse model of endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, F; Mancuso, G; Cuzzola, M; Cusumano, V; Nicoletti, F; Bendtzen, K; Teti, G

    1996-01-01

    Unlike the antibiotics erythromycin and penicillin G, sodium fusidate (fusidin) pretreatment (80 mg/kg of body weight) increased the survival rate of neonatal BALB/c mice challenged with Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide. Fusidin also significantly reduced the plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. Hence, fusidin may prove useful in the management of bacterial sepsis in humans. PMID:8807074

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Survey of Streptococcus pyogenes Isolated in Japan from Patients with Severe Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Suzuki, Rieko; Isobe, Junko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Katsukawa, Chihiro; Kawahara, Ryuji; Tomita, Masaaki; Ogata, Kikuyo; Endoh, Miyoko; Okuno, Rumi; Watanabe, Haruo

    2005-01-01

    We assessed antimicrobial susceptibility against 211 Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from patients with severe invasive group A streptococcal infections. Overall, 3.8, 1.4, 1.4, and 0.5% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, telithromycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively, and 10.4% had intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and cefotaxime. PMID:15673769

  18. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli Isolates from Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, C. J.; Hampson, D. J.; Riley, T. V.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira pilosicoli was investigated by an agar dilution method. Human (n = 123) and porcine (n = 16) isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, ceftriaxone, meropenem, tetracycline, moxifloxacin, and chloramphenicol; erythromycin and ciprofloxacin were not active. Resistance to amoxicillin and clindamycin varied. Amoxicillin susceptibility was restored by clavulanic acid. PMID:12821498

  19. Brief communication: Legionnaire's disease successfully treated in acute myelocytic leukemia during severe neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, T H; Mahizhnan, P

    1983-01-01

    A patient with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia developed progressive lung infiltrates and unremitting fevers during a profound neutropenic state. Legionnaire's disease was diagnosed by simple immunologic studies and successfully treated with erythromycin. This index case alerts physicians toward a treatable infection which would not normally be susceptible to the empiric antibiotic regimens given neutropenic patients with fevers.

  20. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium Falciparum-Aotus Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    infections. Although erythromycin is inactive against chloroquine -resistant falciparum infections, an analogue , azithromycin, is effective in vitro...s, infection parameters characterized, confirm their response to chloroquine , and then expand the evaluation of WR 238605, a primaquine analogue ... chloroquine resistance was confirmed, as was the activity of WR 238605 (a primaquine analogue ), 1.0 mglkg (x 3 days) cleared parasitemias but with

  1. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium Falciparum - Aotus Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-15

    falciparum infections. Althogh erythromycin is inactive against chloroquine -resistant falciparum infections, an analogue , azithromycin, is effective in vitro...response to chloroquine , and then expand the evaluation of WR 238605, a primaquine analogue against infections. Each cyopreserved sample was thawed rapidly...confirmedo.4 chloroquine -sensitive p. via -strai-n[as not Infective for unaltered Panamanian Aotus. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Malaria

  2. Annual Progress Report (SEATO Medical Research Laboratory)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Vibrio porahemolyticus Infection in Thailand . 105 Cholera Study at Samutsongkram . . . . .. 110 Detection of Specific Bacterial Antigen by...clinical picture of the mild form of the disease needs to be described. Dehydration was not as severe as that seen in infection with Vibrio cholera ...co-trimoxazole, neomycin, erythromycin and streptomycin. Only 6 , and 62 % of the vibrios tested were sensitive to ampicillin and colistin

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility/Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Karcic, Emina; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Karcic, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, whose treatment is threatened with an increase in the number of strains resistant to antibiotic therapy. Goal: The main goal of this research was to investigate the presence of antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance of S. pneumoniae. Material and methods: Taken are swabs of the nose and nasopharynx, eye and ear. In vitro tests that were made in order to study the antimicrobial resistance of pneumococci are: disk diffusion method and E-test. Results: The resistance to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis was recorded at 39.17%, protein synthesis inhibitors 19.67%, folate antagonists 47.78% and quinolone in 1.11%. S. pneumoniae has shown drug resistance to erythromycin in 45%, clindamycin in 45%, chloramphenicol–0.56%, rifampicin–6.11%, tetracycline–4.67%, penicillin-G in 4.44%, oxacillin in 73.89%, ciprofloxacin in 1.11% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 5.34% of cases. Conclusion: The highest resistance pneumococcus showed to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and these should be avoided in the treatment. The least resistance pneumococcus showed to tetracycline, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, penicillin-G and ciprofloxacin. PMID:26236165

  4. The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, W; Nicholas, R A J; Janakat, S; Abu-Basha, E; Ayling, R D

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions of Jordan. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed some Mycoplasma species-specific differences, with M. capricolum subsp. capricolum being more susceptible to tylosin and erythromycin. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were the least effective for all three Mycoplasma species. No trends or significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities were observed between sheep and goat isolates, between milk or nasal swab isolates, or between isolates from different regions of Jordan. Some isolates of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens showed higher MIC levels with oxytetracycline, as did two isolates of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC with tylosin, possibly indicating signs of development of antimicrobial resistance.

  5. Spatial and seasonal distribution of selected antibiotics in surface waters of the Pearl Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Tao, Ran; Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and occurrence of 15 antibiotics in surface water of the Pearl River System (Liuxi River, Shijing River and Zhujiang River) and effluents of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated in two sampling events representing wet season and dry season by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in positive ionization mode. Only eight antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, roxithromycin, erythromycin-H₂O and norfloxacin) were detected in the water samples of the three rivers and the effluents. The detection frequencies and levels of antibiotics in the dry season were higher than those in the wet season. This could be attributed to the dilution effects in the wet season and relatively lower temperature in the dry season under which antibiotics could persist for a longer period. The levels of the detected antibiotics in different sites are generally in a decreasing order as follows: Shijing River ≥WWTP effluent ≥Zhujiang River ≥ Liuxi River. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients showed that only erythromycin-H₂O and roxithromycin detected in the Pearl Rivers might have adverse effects on aquatic organisms.

  6. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for spontaneous preterm labour: the ORACLE II randomised trial. ORACLE Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, S L; Taylor, D J; Tarnow-Mordi, W

    2001-03-31

    Preterm birth after spontaneous preterm labour is associated with death, neonatal disease, and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for spontaneous preterm labour have reported inconclusive results. We did a randomised multicentre trial to resolve this issue. 6295 women in spontaneous preterm labour with intact membranes and without evidence of clinical infection were randomly assigned 250 mg erythromycin (n=1611), 325 mg co-amoxiclav (250 mg amoxicillin and 125 mg clavulanic acid; n=1550), both (n=1565), or placebo (n=1569) four times daily for 10 days or until delivery, whichever occurred earlier. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease, or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. Analysis was by intention to treat. None of the trial antibiotics was associated with a lower rate of the composite primary outcome than placebo (erythromycin 90 [5.6%], co-amoxiclav 76 [5.0%], both antibiotics 91 [5.9%], vs placebo 78 [5.0%]). However, antibiotic prescription was associated with a lower occurrence of maternal infection. This trial provides evidence that antibiotics should not be routinely prescribed for women in spontaneous preterm labour without evidence of clinical infection.

  7. Multiclass analysis of antibiotic residues in honey by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jose Luis Martínez; Aguilera-Luiz, María Del Mar; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2009-03-11

    A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey. Honey samples were dissolved with Na(2)EDTA, and veterinary residues were extracted from the supernatant by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using OASIS HLB cartridges. The separation and determination was carried out by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in positive mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two ion transitions per compound to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The method was validated, and mean recoveries were evaluated at three concentration levels (10, 50, and 100 microg/kg), ranging from 70 to 120% except for doxycycline, erythromycin, and tylmicosin with recovery higher than 50% at the three levels assayed. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the recoveries were less than 20% within the intraday precision and less than 25% within the interday precision. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were always lower than 4 microg/kg. The developed procedure was applied to 16 honey samples, and erythromycin, sarafloxacin, and tylosin were found in a few samples.

  8. Influence of subinhibitory antibiotic concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes adherence and biofilm production.

    PubMed

    Šmitran, Aleksandra; Vuković, Dragana; Opavski, Nataša; Gajić, Ina; Marinković, Jelena; Božić, Ljiljana; Živanović, Irena; Kekić, Dušan; Popović, Sunčica; Ranin, Lazar

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the focus was on the effects of sub-MICs of the antibiotics on adherence, hydrophobicity, and biofilm formation by two groups of Streptococcus pyogenes strains, which were responsible for different clinical cases. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of sub-MICs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and clindamycin on adherence, surface hydrophobicity, and biofilm biomass in two selected collections of group A streptococcus (GAS): strains isolated from carriers (CA) and strains isolated from patients with tonsillopharyngitis (TPh). Isolates were tested for hydrophobicity to xylene, adherence, and biofilm production in uncoated microtiter plates before and after treatment with 1/2 and 1/4 MICs of antibiotics. Penicillin reduced adherence and biofilm production in TPh strains, whereas ceftriaxone diminished adherence and biofilm formation in CA group. On the contrary, clindamycin enhanced adherence and biofilm production in both groups of strains. Erythromycin did not significantly alter adherence, but triggered biofilm production in both groups of isolates. Hydrophobicity of both groups of strains was significantly reduced after exposure to all antibiotics. Beta-lactams displayed anti-biofilm activity; penicillin diminished both adherence and biofilm production in TPh strains, whereas ceftriaxone reduced it in strains isolated from CA.

  9. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sze-Chin; Tan, Justina W-L

    2011-08-01

    Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), previously termed drug-related baboon syndrome, is a benign and self-limiting type IV hypersensitivity reaction characterized by symmetrical erythema involving the gluteal and intertriginous areas in the absence of systemic involvement. It may also occur in the absence of previous drug exposure. Antibiotics, in particular beta-lactams, comprise the majority of causes of SDRIFE. Other drugs which have been implicated include antihypertensives, radiocontrast media, chemotherapeutic agents, and biologics. Histology of lesional skin is variable with predominance of superficial perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates. Outcomes of allergy tests are variable with positive delayed intradermal tests reported for penicillin V, allopurinol; positive patch tests for erythromycin, mitomycin, nystatin, pseudoephdrine; positive lymphocyte transformation tests for erythromycin; and positive drug provocation tests for clindamycin, cimetidine, corticosteroids, terbinafine, and valacyclovir. Diagnosis of SDRIFE is dependent upon recognition of the clinical morphology and distribution of the rash, and its temporal relationship to the use of the suspected drug. Outcomes of in-vivo and in-vitro tests have been inconsistent, and thus may not be useful in the identification of the putative drug.

  10. [Gardnerella vaginalis: transport, microscopy, testing resistance].

    PubMed

    Altrichter, T; Heizmann, W R

    1994-11-01

    G. vaginalis is an important pathogen in the aetiology of bacterial vaginosis. Therefore, we investigated the influence of transport systems in isolation, a scoring system for Gram stains, and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The comparison between a simple (Transwab) and a sophisticated (Port-A-Cul) system showed no differences with regard to for instance Enterococcus faecalis or Escherichia coli; however, isolation of G. vaginalis, a fastidious microorganism, was significantly higher (alpha < 0.0001) in Port-A-Cul. There was a strong correlation (97.5%) using the scoring system indicating bacterial vaginosis and isolation of G. vaginalis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of metronidazole for 60 strains of G. vaginalis were higher than 32 mg/l, some strains showing heteroresistance. This phenomenon may be an explanation for treatment failures. Clindamycin and erythromycin were much more active, with MIC's between 0.016 and 0.19 mg/l, in-vitro development of resistance being slower for clindamycin than for erythromycin. (I) for isolation of G. vaginalis, a sophisticated transport system is mandatory; (II) a scoring system for Gram staining is helpful in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis; (III) in patients with metronidazole treatment failures, clindamycin should be used.

  11. [Severe legionellosis after abuse of anti-inflammatory drugs--diagnostic and intensive care aspects based on a case report].

    PubMed

    Bein, T; Ehret, W; Metz, C; Hobbhahn, J; Taeger, K

    1995-06-01

    Legionella infections are getting increasingly important as causes of severe pneumonias or of acute respiratory insufficiency. Consumptive or immunosuppressive underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiac insufficiency, alcohol-induced liver damage, malignant tumours or drug-induced immunosuppression after organ transplantation, are among the risk factors. Diagnosis is based on direct identification of the pathogen from body secretions by means of direct immunofluorescence. The serological immunoresponse often takes place long after outbreak of the disease or fails entirely to appear and is therefore only suitable for retrospective confirmation. Therapy of choice is an intravenous administration of erythromycin. There are now increasing pointers to the efficiency of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin. We report on the course of a severe case of legionnaire's disease with multiple organ failure occurring in a patient after bone marrow depression induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. Treatment erythromycin resulted in a marked cholestasis, so that antibiotic treatment was changed to ciprofloxacin. This therapy as well as the supportive intensive-care treatment eventually led to the patient's complete recovery. Based on the case report, fundamental aspects of diagnostics, antibiotic treatment, intensive-care treatment and prognosis of severe cases of legionellosis are discussed.

  12. Small intestinal sulphoxidation of albendazole.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, C; Alvarez, A I; Redondo, P; Voces, J; Del Estal, J L; Prieto, J G

    1995-05-01

    1. The in vitro sulphoxidation of Albendazole (ABZ) by rat intestinal microsomes has been examined. The results revealed intestinal sulphoxidation of ABZ by intestinal microsomes in a NADPH-dependent enzymatic system. The kinetic constants for sulphoxidase activity were Vmax = 46 pmol/min/mg protein and Michaelis constant Km = 6.8 microM. 2. The possible effect of inducers (Arochlor 1254 and ABZ pretreatment) and inhibitors (erythromycin, methimazole, carbon monoxide and fenbendazole), was also studied. In rat pretreated with Arochlor 1254, Vmax was 52 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas oral administration of ABZ increased the intestinal sulphoxidation of the drug, Vmax being 103 pmol/min/mg protein. 3. Erythromycin did not change the enzymatic bioconversion of ABZ, but methimazole and carbon monoxide inhibited the enzyme activity by approximately 60 and 30% respectively. Fenbendazole (a structural analogue of ABZ) was a competitive inhibitor of the sulphoxidation process, characterized by a Ki or 69 microM. 4. These data demonstrate that the intestinal enzymes contributing to the initial sulphoxidation of ABZ may be similar to the hepatic enzymes involved in the biotransformation process by the P450 and FMO systems, a conclusion that needs to be further established.

  13. Genotypes of macrolide-resistant pneumococci from children in southwestern Japan: raised incidence of strains that have both erm(B) and mef(A) with serotype 6B clones.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Masaaki; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Gotoh, Kenji; Hidaka, Hidenobu; Koga, Hiroyasu; Masunaga, Kenji; Nagai, Kensuke; Tsumura, Naoki; Appelbaum, Peter C; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2008-09-01

    MICs of penicillin G, erythromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin were tested for 189 clinical isolates collected during 2002 to 2005 from children in southwestern Japan. Serotyping and polymerase chain reaction for presence of erm(B) and mef(A) were performed. All strains with erm(B) + mef(A) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared to 3 global clones: Spain(23F)-1; Spain(9V)-3 and its variant -14; a South Korean strain same as Taiwan (19F)-14 clone and 5 strains with erm(B) + mef(A) from other countries. Of the 173 macrolide-resistant (erythromycin MIC > or =0.5 microg/mL) strains, 104 (60.1%) had erm(B), 47 (27.2%) had mef(A), and 22 (12.7%) had erm(B) + mef(A). Strains expressing erm(B) or both erm(B) and mef(A) had high macrolide MIC(90)s (>64 microg/mL), except telithromycin (MIC(90), 0.25 microg/mL). Of the 22 erm(B) + mef(A) strains, 10 had 4 distinct PFGE patterns and were mainly serotype 6B clones, which differed from those described in previous reports; 5 other strains had unique profiles.

  14. A school-based program for control of group a streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections: a controlled trial in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuguang; Kaplan, Edward L; Rao, Xuxu; Johnson, Dwight R; Deng, Mulan; Zhuo, Qiling; Yang, Pingzhen; Mai, Jinzhuang; Dong, Taiming; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2008-08-01

    A prospective, school-based study included daily monitoring for incidence of symptomatic streptococcal-associated pharyngitis and monthly determinations of group A streptococcal prevalence. A treatment group received penicillin/erythromycin therapy at school for positive throat cultures; the control group sought medical care from their regular provider. Prevalence and incidence of group A streptococcal pharyngitis were significantly lower among the treatment group than in the controls.

  15. Intra- and Inter-Pandemic Variations of Antiviral, Antibiotics and Decongestants in Wastewater Treatment Plants and Receiving Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Andrew C.; Järhult, Josef D.; Grabic, Roman; Khan, Ghazanfar A.; Lindberg, Richard H.; Fedorova, Ganna; Fick, Jerker; Bowes, Michael J.; Olsen, Björn; Söderström, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir’s active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP’s influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max = 6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009’s weekly river samples (max = 193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late- and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17–74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max = 292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max = 448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well

  16. Occurrence and fate of most prescribed antibiotics in different water environments of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Roya; Yunesian, Masud; Nasseri, Simin; Gholami, Mitra; Jalilzadeh, Esfandiyar; Shoeibi, Shahram; Mesdaghinia, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    The presence of most prescribed antibiotic compounds from four therapeutic classes (β-lactam, cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones) were studied at two full-scale WWTPs, two rivers, thirteen groundwater resources, and five water treatment plants in Tehran. Analytical methodology was based on high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. Samples were collected at 33 sample locations on three sampling periods over four months from June to August 2016. None of the target antibiotics were detected in groundwater resources and water treatment plants, while seven out of nine target antibiotics were analyzed in two studied river waters as well as the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants at concentrations ranging from erythromycin, azithromycin, and cefixime due to the deconjugation of conjugated metabolites via biological transformation in the studied WWTPs. From a statistical point of view, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in the concentrations of cefixime, cephalexin, azithromycin, and erythromycin in the effluent of both studied WWTPs. Ciprofloxacin and cephalexin were the most abundant detected antibiotics in the two studied river waters. Statistical results revealed that there were significant differences in the concentrations of ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and erythromycin (p<0.05) in Firozabad ditch (receiving WWTP effluent) and Kan River (non-receiving WWTP effluent) which demonstrated that WWTPs discharges could

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance among Respiratory Pathogens in Spain: Latest Data and Changes over 11 Years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007)▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Martín-Herrero, Jose E.; Mazón, Ana; García-Delafuente, Celia; Robles, Purificación; Iriarte, Victor; Dal-Ré, Rafael; García-de-Lomas, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study (Susceptibility to the Antimicrobials Used in the Community in España [SAUCE] project), SAUCE-4, including 2,559 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2,287 Streptococcus pyogenes, and 2,736 Haemophilus influenzae isolates was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 in 34 Spanish hospitals. Then, the results from SAUCE-4 were compared to those from all three previous SAUCE studies carried out in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 to assess the temporal trends in resistance and the phenotypes of resistance over the 11-year period. In SAUCE-4, on the basis of the CLSI breakpoints, penicillin (parenteral, nonmeningitis breakpoint) and cefotaxime were the antimicrobials that were the most active against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6%, respectively). Only 0.9% of isolates had a penicillin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml. In S. pyogenes, nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. Among the H. influenzae isolates, a β-lactamase-positive prevalence of 15.7% was found. A statistically significant temporal decreasing trend over the 11-year period was observed for nonsusceptibility (from 60.0% to 22.9%) and resistance (from 36.5% to 0.9%) to penicillin and for the proportion of erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype (from 98.4% to 81.3%). A similar trend was observed for the prevalence of ampicillin resistance (from 37.6% to 16.1%), β-lactamase production (from 25.7% to 15.7%), and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) in H. influenzae (from 13.5% to 0.7%). Among erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of MLSB was observed (from 7.0% to 35.5%). SAUCE-4 confirms a generalized decline in the resistance of the main respiratory pathogens to the antimicrobials as well as a shift in their resistance phenotypes. PMID:20439616

  18. Dogs Leaving the ICU Carry a Very Large Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcal Population with Capacity for Biofilm Formation and Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Dowd, Scot E.; Zurek, Ludek

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2–9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×108 CFU gram−1 of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five

  19. Management of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook Salmon hatcheries based on broodstock testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: A multiyear study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, A. Douglas; Elliott, Diane G.; Johnson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    From the mid-1980s through the early 1990s, outbreaks of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum continued in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) hatcheries despite the use of three control methods: (1) injection of returning adult fish with erythromycin to reduce prespawning BKD mortality and limit vertical transmission of R. salmoninarum, (2) topical disinfection of green eggs with iodophor, and (3) prophylactic treatments of juvenile fish with erythromycin-medicated feed. In addition, programs to manage BKD through measurement of R. salmoninarum antigen levels in kidney tissues from spawning female Chinook salmon by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were tested over 13–15 brood years at three IDFG hatcheries. The ELISA results were used for either (1) segregated rearing of progeny from females with high ELISA optical density (OD) values (usually ≥0.25), which are indicative of high R. salmoninarum antigen levels, or (2) culling of eggs from females with high ELISA OD values. The ELISA-based culling program had the most profound positive effects on the study populations. Mortality of juvenile fish during rearing was significantly lower at each hatchery for brood years derived from culling compared with brood years for which culling was not practiced. The prevalence of R. salmoninarum in juvenile fish, as evidenced by detection of the bacterium in kidney smears by the direct fluorescent antibody test, also decreased significantly at each hatchery. In addition, the proportions of returning adult females with kidney ELISA OD values of 0.25 or more decreased 56–85% for fish reared in brood years during which culling was practiced, whereas the proportions of ELISA-negative adults increased 55–58%. This management strategy may allow IDFG Chinook salmon hatcheries to reduce or eliminate prophylactic erythromycin-medicated feed treatments. We recommend using ELISA

  20. Molecular Evidence and Functional Expression of a Novel Drug Efflux pump (ABCC2) in Human Corneal Epithelium and Rabbit Cornea and its role in Ocular drug efflux

    PubMed Central

    Karla, Pradeep K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Quinn, Tim; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2007-01-01

    Cornea is considered as a major barrier for ocular drug delivery. Low ocular bioavailability of drugs has been attributed primarily to low permeability across corneal epithelium thus leading to sub-therapeutic concentrations of drug in the eye and treatment failure. The role of drug efflux proteins, particularly the Pglycoprotein in ocular drug bioavailability has been reported. The objective of this research was to determine whether human corneal epithelium expresses multi drug resistance associated proteins contributing to drug efflux by employing both cultured corneal cells and freshly excised rabbit cornea. SV40 HCEC and rPCEC were selected for in-vitro testing. SV40-HCEC and freshly excised rabbit corneas were utilized for transport studies. [3H]-cyclosporine-A and [14C]-erythromycin which are known substrates for ABCC2 and MK-571, a specific inhibitor for MRP were applied in this study. RT-PCR indicated a unique and distinct band at ∼272 bp corresponding to ABCC2 in HCEC, SV40-HCEC, rabbit cornea, rPCEC and MDCKII-MRP2 cells. Also RT-PCR indicated a unique band ∼181 bp for HCEC and SV40-HCEC. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis revealed a specific band at ∼190-kDa in membrane fraction of SV40-HCEC, MDCKII-MRP2 and no band with isotype control. Uptake of [3H]-cyclosporine-A and [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly enhanced than control in both SV40 HCEC and rPCEC. Similarly a significant elevation in (A→B) permeability of [3H]-cyclosporine-A and [14C]-erythromycin was observed in the presence of MK-571 in SV40-HCEC. A→B transport of [3H]-cyclosporine-A was elevated in the presence of MK-571 in freshly excised rabbit cornea indicating potential role of this efflux transporter and high clinical significance of this finding. PMID:17156953

  1. Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Halpert, James R.

    1997-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human cytochrome P450 3A4 was modeled based on crystallographic coordinates of four bacterial P450s: P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The P450 3A4 sequence was aligned to those of the known proteins using a structure-based alignment of P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The coordinates of the model were then calculated using a consensus strategy, and the final structure was optimized in the presence of water. The P450 3A4 model resembles P450 BM-3 the most, but the B' helix is similar to that of P450eryF, which leads to an enlarged active site when compared with P450 BM-3, P450cam, and P450terp. The 3A4 residues equivalent to known substrate contact residues of the bacterial proteins and key residues of rat P450 2B1 are located in the active site or the substrate access channel. Docking of progesterone into the P450 3A4 model demonstrated that the substrate bound in a 6β-orientation can interact with a number of active site residues, such as 114, 119, 301, 304, 305, 309, 370, 373, and 479, through hydrophobic interactions. The active site of the enzyme can also accommodate erythromycin, which, in addition to the residues listed for progesterone, also contacts residues 101, 104, 105, 214, 215, 217, 218, 374, and 478. The majority of 3A4 residues which interact with progesterone and/or erythromycin possess their equivalents in key residues of P450 2B enzymes, except for residues 297, 480 and 482, which do not contact either substrate in P450 3A4. The results from docking of progesterone and erythromycin into the enzyme model make it possible to pinpoint residues which may be important for 3A4 function and to target them for site-directed mutagenesis.

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Dairy Leuconostoc, Analysis of the Genetic Basis of Atypical Resistances and Transfer of Genes In Vitro and in a Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Susana; Alegría, Ángel; Salvetti, Elisa; Felis, Giovanna E.; Mayo, Baltasar; Torriani, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a global concern on the transfer of antibiotic resistances (AR) via the food chain, limited information exists on this issue in species of Leuconostoc and Weissella, adjunct cultures used as aroma producers in fermented foods. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 16 antibiotics in 34 strains of dairy origin, belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides (18), Leuconostoc citreum (11), Leuconostoc lactis (2), Weissella hellenica (2), and Leuconostoc carnosum (1). Atypical resistances were found for kanamycin (17 strains), tetracycline and chloramphenicol (two strains each), and erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin (one strain each). Surprisingly, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LbE16, showed resistance to four antibiotics, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and virginiamycin. PCR analysis identified tet(S) as responsible for tetracycline resistance in LbE16, but no gene was detected in a second tetracycline-resistant strain, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris LbT16. In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum LbE15, erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, an erm(B) gene was amplified. Hybridization experiments proved erm(B) and tet(S) to be associated to a plasmid of ≈35 kbp and to the chromosome of LbE15 and LbE16, respectively. The complete genome sequence of LbE15 and LbE16 was used to get further insights on the makeup and genetic organization of AR genes. Genome analysis confirmed the presence and location of erm(B) and tet(S), but genes providing tetracycline resistance in LbT16 were again not identified. In the genome of the multi-resistant strain LbE16, genes that might be involved in aminoglycoside (aadE, aphA-3, sat4) and virginiamycin [vat(E)] resistance were further found. The erm(B) gene but not tet(S) was transferred from Leuconostoc to Enterococcus faecalis both under laboratory conditions and in cheese. This study contributes to the characterization of AR in the

  3. Persistent Campylobacter Jejuni Infections in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    on the fifth hospital day h-is found in the Leum. Gram and Warthin -Starry stains showed stone-filled gallbladder was removed; the intraoperative exami...colonoscopic findings were considered to be all antibiotic treatments tested. Erythromycin therapy was con- most consistent with Crohn ileitis, prednisone...erally, he had 6 to 10 watery stools per day for 3 weeks each manIA). month. Sigmoidoscopic findings were consistent with Crohn ifornia). disease

  4. Prevention and Management of Infections Associated With Burns in the Combat Casualty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    even including staff members, to detect “carriers” of such organisms as methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and drug- resistant gram-negatives.80–83...Lilly HA, Lowbury EJ. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in a burns unit after stopping routine prophylaxis with erythromycin. J...nosocomial transmission of multidrug- resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus. Infect Control Hosp Epi. 2003;24:362–386. 89. Siegel JD

  5. [Legionnaire's disease contracted in Brussels. One case (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pepersack, F; Vincken, W; Van Beers, D; Prigogine, T; Yourassowsky, E

    1980-12-06

    A 71-year-old patient living in a street where major road works were taking place developed diffuse bronchopneumonia with changes in hepatic and renal biochemical tests. Since neutrophilia was moderate and all bacteriological investigations were negative, the patient was given erythromycin and was tested for antibodies directed against Legionella pneumophila. The titers of these antibodies rose from 32 to 2048 after one month. The patient was cured.

  6. Nosocomial Legionnaire's disease--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woo, J H; Kim, S A; Park, C S; Choi, T Y; Chang, I C; Lee, I S

    1992-01-01

    We report a case of nosocomial legionellosis in a 63 year-old man who was managed with neurosurgery under the diagnosis of subarachnoidal hemorrhage and complicated pneumonia in the intensive care unit. A legionella species was reported from sputum culture and direct immunofluorescent antibody test revealed L. pneumophila (serogroup 2). Our patient's pneumonia was cured with medical therapy including erythromycin and was the first case of microbiologically confirmed legionellosis in Korea.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of Micrococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    von Eiff, C; Herrmann, M; Peters, G

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 63 isolates of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of 188 isolates of Micrococcus spp. to 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Many beta-lactams, imipenem, rifampin, and the glycopeptides were shown to be active in vitro against Stomatococcus and Micrococcus isolates, whereas the activities of antibiotics such as some aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and fosfomycin against an important number of these microorganisms are limited. PMID:7695321

  8. [Clinical characteristics of whooping cough in neonates and antimicrobial resistance of the pathogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Hui-Xin; Yuan, Lin; Gu, Song; Jiang, Min; Ding, Yi-Jun; Guo, Dan; Yao, Kai-Hu; Wang, Ya-Juan

    2014-10-01

    To study the clinical characteristics of whooping cough in neonates and the antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates. Clinical information of 7 neonates with whooping cough confirmed by bacterial culture was collected. The antimirobial resistance of the isolates was tested using E-test and disk diffusion methods. The children′s mothers or other family members had cough for more than 10 days in 6 neonates, in which four neonates contacted with 3 or more family members with cough. All the neonates had rhinobyon and slight cough at the beginning of the disease. Five cases presented typical spasmodic cough after 4-7 days of the onset. Five cases displayed cyanosis, four cases occurred apnea, three cases suffered breath holding, and only two cases had fever. Nares flaring and three depression signs were found in the physical examination. No bacteriostatic ring around the erythromycin disks were found for five bacterial isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and clindamycin were all >256 mg/L against the five isolates. Whooping cough should be considered for neonates with respiratory symptoms and a history of close contact with respiratory infection patients. Macrolide-resistant Bordetella pertussis is common in children with whooping cough.

  9. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in enterococci recovered from seagulls (Larus cachinnans) representing an environmental health problem.

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Igrejas, Gilberto; Pinto, Luís; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Coelho, Céline; Rodrigues, Jorge; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated were studied in 54 enterococci recovered from 57 seagull fecal samples. Almost 78% of the recovered enterococci showed resistance against one or more antibiotics and these isolates were identified to the species level. E. faecium was the most prevalent species (52.4%). High percentages of erythromycin and tetracycline resistances were found among our isolates (95.2%), and lower percentages were identified to other antibiotics. Most of the tetracycline-resistant strains carried the tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. Genes associated with Tn916/Tn1545 and/or Tn5397 transposons were detected in 45% of tetracycline-resistant isolates. The erm(B) gene was detected in 65% of erythromycin-resistant isolates. The vat(D) and vat(E) genes were present in 5.9% and 11.8% of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant isolates, respectively. The ant(6)-Ia gene was identified in 57.1% of streptomycin-resistant isolates. All nine kanamycin-resistant isolates carried the aph(3)'-IIIa gene. The cat(A) gene was found in two chloramphenicol-resistant isolates. Seagulls should be considered a risk species for spreading in the environment antimicrobial resistant enterococci and can serve as a sentinel for antibiotic pressure from the surrounding farm and urban setting.

  10. The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads in Turkey: a focus on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Gurler, Zeki; Pamuk, Sebnem; Yildirim, Yeliz; Ertas, Nurhan

    2015-03-02

    The microbiological safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods is of special concern as they are not exposed to further processing before consumption. In the present study, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 15(6%) and 21(8%) samples respectively out of 261 RTE foods commercialized in Turkey. Escherichia coli was present in 10(4%) samples analyzed. Psychrotrophic aerobic populations >6logCFU/g were found in 36 (14%) of the samples, while total coliforms were detected in 155 (59%) of samples analyzed. All of the Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes isolates tested, exhibited resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents used. For Salmonella spp. isolates, resistance to penicillin (69%), erythromycin (38%), gentamicin (36%), tetracycline (36%) neomycin (33%), ampicillin (33%), amikacin (33%), vancomycin (33%), streptomycin (29%) cefotaxime (9%) and oxacillin (9%) was observed. For L. monocytogenes isolates, resistance to erythromycin (23%) and cephalothin (20%) was evident. The presence of pathogens and the relatively high resistance among the bacteria tested in RTE foods could pose public health and therapeutic problems in consumers. These results indicate the need of implementing hygienic rules in the production chain of RTE foods to ensure microbiological safety and to improve shelf life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Infectious flare-ups and serious sequelae following endodontic treatment: a prospective randomized trial on efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in cases of asymptomatic pulpal-periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Furst, M L; Belott, R M; Lefkowitz, R D; Spritzer, I B; Sideman, B H

    1987-07-01

    Without peritreatment antibiotics, infectious flare-ups (about 15% incidence) and serious sequelae follow endodontic treatment of asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps and associated periapical lesions. Antibiotics administered after endodontic treatment (4-day regimen) reduce the flare-up incidence to about 2%, but hypersensitivity responses, sensitization, resistant microbes, and drug-taking compliance are potential problems. To ascertain whether a specific prophylactic antibiotic (high-dose, 1-day regimen) would preferentially maintain this low flare-up incidence while overcoming antibiotic-related problems, 315 patients with quiescent pulpal necrosis and an associated periapical lesion were randomly given either penicillin V or erythromycin (base or stearate). Evaluations of flare-up after endodontic treatment were done at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 months. A 2.2% flare-up incidence was found, with no statistically significant differences for penicillin (0.0%), base (2.9%), and stearate (3.8%). No hypersensitivity responses occurred. Gastrointestinal side effects were found primarily with the erythromycins (12.4%). A comparative analysis of the data from our first study (no peritreatment antibiotics) and the pooled data from our last two investigations (including the current trial) showed that peritreatment antibiotic coverage significantly reduced flare-ups and serious sequelae after endodontic treatment (p less than 0.001).

  12. Occurrence, distribution, and potential sources of antibiotics pollution in the water-sediment of the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kafaei, Raheleh; Papari, Fatemeh; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Sahebi, Soleyman; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Sorial, George A; Asgari, Ghorban; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2018-06-15

    Occurrence and frequency of six most prescribed antibiotics (tetracycline, norfloxacin, azithromycin, anhydro erythromycin, cephalexin, and amoxicillin) were assessed in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf at Bushehr coastline, Iran. The antibiotics concentration in the influent and effluent of septic tank (the hospital WWTP), activated sludge (the hospital WWTP), and stabilization pond (municipal WWTP) ranged between 7.89 and 149.63, 13.49-198.47, 6.55-16.37 ng/L, respectively. Conventional treatment resulted in incomplete removal of most of the studied antibiotics. Furthermore, the activated sludge was more effective in terms of antibiotic elimination compared to the stabilization pond or septic tank. The mean concentration of antibiotics ranged 1.21-51.50 ng/L in seawater and 1.40-25.32 ng/g in sediments during summer and winter. Norfloxacin was the dominant detected antibiotic in seawater, sediments, and influent of two hospital WWTPs. Seasonal comparisons showed significant differences for erythromycin and amoxicillin concentrations in seawater. Spatial variation indicated the role of physicochemical properties on distribution of antibiotics in seawater and sediments. The results emphasize the need to pay attention to antibiotic contamination in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of antimicrobial use with antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli from grow-finish pigs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, M; Makita, K; Tamura, Y; Asai, T

    2012-10-01

    To determine associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli, 155 isolates were obtained from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in Japan. In addition, data on the use of antibiotics collected through the national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system in Japan were used for the analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in C. coli in pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, and enrofloxacin. The data suggested the involvement of several different mechanisms of resistance selection. The statistical relationships were suggestive of co-selection; use of macrolides was associated with enrofloxacin resistance (OR=2.94; CI(95%): 0.997, 8.68) and use of tetracyclines was associated with chloramphenicol resistance (OR=2.37; CI(95%): 1.08, 5.19). The statistical relationships were suggestive of cross-resistance: use of macrolides was associated with erythromycin resistance (OR=9.36; CI(95%): 2.96, 29.62) and the use of phenicols was associated with chloramphenicol resistance (OR=11.83; CI(95%): 1.41, 99.44). These data showed that the use of antimicrobials in pigs selects for resistance in C. coli within and between classes of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and associated environmental risks in the central and lower Yangtze river, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Huang, Xiaolong; Witter, Jason D; Spongberg, Alison L; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding; Liu, Jiantong

    2014-08-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) residues are being highlighted around the world as of emerging concern in surface waters. Here the occurrence of PPCPs in the central and lower Yangtze River, along with four large freshwater lakes within the river basin (Dongting, Poyang, Tai, and Chao) was reported. Fifteen out of twenty selected PPCPs were detected in the collected surface water samples. Caffeine, paraxanthine, sulfamethazine, and clindamycin were detected with 100 percent frequency in the Yangtze River. In the river, the highest average concentration was observed for erythromycin (296 ng L(-1)), followed by caffeine (142 ng L(-1)) and paraxanthine (41 ng L(-1)). In the four lakes, total PPCP concentrations were much higher in the Chao (1547 ng L(-1)) and Tai (1087 ng L(-1)) lakes compared to the Poyang (108 ng L(-1)) and Dongting (137 ng L(-1)) lakes. Lincomycin and clindamycin were most abundant in the lakes, especially in the Tai Lake. Environmental risk assessment for the worst case scenario was assessed using calculated risk quotients, and indicates a high environmental risk of erythromycin and clarithromycin in the Yangtze River, clarithromycin in the Chao Lake, and clindamycin in the Tai Lake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in surface water impacted by crab culturing: a case study of Lake Guchenghu, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxia; Zhou, Lijun; Gu, Xiaohong; Chen, Huihui; Zeng, Qingfei; Mao, Zhigang

    2018-05-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence, distribution, potential sources, and ecological risk of antibiotics in aqueous phase of Lake Guchenghu, China. Target antibiotics in surface water of Lake Guchenghu, adjacent streams, and crab ponds were detected seasonally. The results showed that erythromycin-H 2 O (1.60-2450 ng/L), sulfadiazine (ND-654 ng/L), and florfenicol (ND-919 ng/L) were the predominant antibiotics in Lake Guchenghu. The concentrations of antibiotics in Lake Guchenghu Basin showed obvious seasonal variation, with the highest concentration in summer. In general, the concentrations of antibiotics in crab ponds and streams were higher than those in the lake and spatial distributions of antibiotics were affected by pollution sources. The types and origins of antibiotics indicated that wastewater from ponds was the main source of antibiotics in the lake. Risk assessment suggested that as individual compound, erythromycin-H 2 O and clarithromycin posed a high risk to algae while other compounds might pose low or no risk. The mixture of antibiotics may pose a high risk to aquatic organisms in Lake Guchenghu. Overall, our study revealed the occurrence and spatiotemporal variation of antibiotics in Lake Guchenghu, which was related with crab culturing.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the antibiotic lock technique (ALT) for the treatment of catheter-related infections caused by staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Ko, Kwan Soo; Peck, Kyong Ran; Oh, Won Sup; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2006-06-01

    To investigate appropriate antimicrobial agents, the optimal concentration and treatment duration for the antibiotic lock technique (ALT) to treat catheter-related infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. We evaluated the bacterial killing activity of vancomycin, teicoplanin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, cefazolin, gentamicin, nafcillin and erythromycin against biofilms formed by two strains of S. aureus and two strains of S. epidermidis. The effectiveness of the antibiotic lock was assayed after exposure to antibiotics (1, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days using an in vitro model of biofilms on polyurethane film. The biofilms were completely sterile after exposure to vancomycin (5 mg/mL) for 5 days and teicoplanin (5 and 10 mg/mL) for 7 days. Ciprofloxacin and rifampicin (both 5 mg/mL) achieved eradication of the biofilms of both staphylococcal species more rapidly than vancomycin or teicoplanin. Significant biofilm eradication was not achieved with cefazolin, nafcillin, gentamicin and erythromycin at any of the time exposures examined. The data suggest that 5 mg/mL vancomycin, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin can eradicate S. epidermidis and S. aureus biofilms within 5 days. These findings warrant prospective clinical trials for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of ALT for less than 10 days.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Iowa wildlife.

    PubMed

    Wardyn, Shylo E; Kauffman, Lin K; Smith, Tara C

    2012-10-01

    Livestock and pets have been identified as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; however, the role of wild animals as a reservoir of S. aureus strains has not yet been examined. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 37 species of wild animals rehabilitated at a university clinic. Nasal, wing, wound, and cloacal swabs were collected. Of 114 animals, seven (6.1%) were MSSA-positive and three (2.6%) were MRSA-positive. The MRSA isolates were obtained from two eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and a Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), a migratory shorebird. Antibiotic resistance testing of the MRSA isolates revealed that two were additionally resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the third isolate was also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. All three isolates were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Sequence typing of the staphylococcal protein A (spa) region revealed one MRSA isolate to be t002, whereas the other two MRSA isolates were found to be t008. Our results suggest that S. aureus, including MRSA, is being carried by wild animals, although at a low prevalence with the limited number of animals tested. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may impact human health.

  18. Improved Predictions of Drug-Drug Interactions Mediated by Time-Dependent Inhibition of CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jaydeep; Korzekwa, Ken; Nagar, Swati

    2018-05-07

    Time-dependent inactivation (TDI) of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) is a leading cause of clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Current methods tend to overpredict DDIs. In this study, a numerical approach was used to model complex CYP3A TDI in human-liver microsomes. The inhibitors evaluated included troleandomycin (TAO), erythromycin (ERY), verapamil (VER), and diltiazem (DTZ) along with the primary metabolites N-demethyl erythromycin (NDE), norverapamil (NV), and N-desmethyl diltiazem (NDD). The complexities incorporated into the models included multiple-binding kinetics, quasi-irreversible inactivation, sequential metabolism, inhibitor depletion, and membrane partitioning. The resulting inactivation parameters were incorporated into static in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) models to predict clinical DDIs. For 77 clinically observed DDIs, with a hepatic-CYP3A-synthesis-rate constant of 0.000 146 min -1 , the average fold difference between the observed and predicted DDIs was 3.17 for the standard replot method and 1.45 for the numerical method. Similar results were obtained using a synthesis-rate constant of 0.000 32 min -1 . These results suggest that numerical methods can successfully model complex in vitro TDI kinetics and that the resulting DDI predictions are more accurate than those obtained with the standard replot approach.

  19. Practical implications of erythromycin resistance gene diversity on surveillance and monitoring of resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs s...

  20. Chemotherapy of Rodent Malaria Evaluation of Drug Action Against Normal and Resistant Strains, Including Exo-Erythrocytic Stages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    RESISTANCEI (U) CHLOROQUINE 20. iXDsrRAcT (Contrate a reverse atide ft nwce~saty and Identify by block number) Data are provided on the blood schizontocidal...litl meffeoqne uptake ofadequoine. TL synergistic action of chloroquine and erythromycin against chioroquine-resistant parasites has benfurther...Causal prophylaxis - the value of the rodent screen 3 4.3 Sustained release of drugs 4 4.4 Mode of drug action 5 4.4.1 Chloroquine and mefloquine 5

  1. Lymphogranuloma venereum of the rectum in a homosexual man. Case report.

    PubMed Central

    Mindel, A

    1983-01-01

    A male homosexual presented initially with bloody diarrhoea and a swelling in the left groin, which was unsuccessfully treated with erythromycin. Examination in hospital showed a rectal mass and an abscess in the left groin. Histological examination of the rectal mass and a positive lymphogranuloma complement fixation test result confirmed the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum. This disease, although rare, should not be forgotten in the differential diagnosis of rectal problems in male homosexuals. PMID:6850267

  2. Biosynthesis of Enterobacterial Common Antigen: The ECA-Trace Phenotype of Salmonella Typhimurium and The Role of the rfe Gene in 08 Side-Chain Synthesis in Escherichia Coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-18

    malachite green, 2mg/ml; erythromycin, 2mg/ml; bacitracin, 20mg/ml; streptomycin, 50mg/ml; crystal violet, 100mg/ml; novobiocin, Smg/ml; rifamycin...cephalosporin C, ISug/ml; actinomycin D, 37Sug/ml; kanamycin, S.6ug/ml; chlorotetracycline, 3.8ug/ml; vancomycin, 900ug/ml; malachite green, 60ug...carbenicillin; Ceph, cephalosporin C; AcID, actinomycin D; ((an, kanamycin; Ctet, chlorotetracycline; Van, vancomycin; MalG, malachite green; Eryth

  3. The AcrAB-TolC pump is involved in macrolide resistance but not in telithromycin efflux in Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Renaud; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Bryskier, André; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2004-09-01

    The role of the AcrAB-TolC pump in macrolide and ketolide susceptibility in Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes was studied. Efflux pump inhibitor restored erythromycin, clarithromycin, and telithromycin susceptibilities to multidrug-resistant isolates. No modification of telithromycin accumulation was detected in E. aerogenes acrAB or tolC derivatives compared to that in the parental strain. Two independent efflux pumps, inhibited by phenylalanine arginine beta-naphthylamide, expel macrolides and telithromycin in E. aerogenes.

  4. Nosocomial Legionnaire’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Shin Ae; Park, Choon Sik; Choi, Tai Youn; Chang, Ik Chin; Lee, In Soo

    1992-01-01

    We report a case of nosocomial legionellosis in a 63 year-old man who was managed with neurosurgery under the diagnosis of subarachnoidal hemorrhage and complicated pneumonia in the intensive care unit. A legionella species was reported from sputum culture and direct immunofluorescent antibody test revealed L. pneumophila (serogroup 2). Our patient’s pneumonia was cured with medical therapy including erythromycin and was the first case of microbiologically confirmed legionellosis in Korea. PMID:1477034

  5. Antibiotics for ureaplasma in the vagina in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Raynes Greenow, Camille H; Roberts, Christine L; Bell, Jane C; Peat, Brian; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Parker, Sharon

    2011-09-07

    Preterm birth is a significant perinatal problem contributing to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Heavy vaginal ureaplasma colonisation is suspected of playing a role in preterm birth and preterm rupture of the membranes. Antibiotics are used to treat infections and have been used to treat pregnant women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes, resulting in some short-term improvements. However, the benefit of using antibiotics in early pregnancy to treat heavy vaginal colonisation is unclear. To assess whether antibiotic treatment of pregnant women with heavy vaginal ureaplasma colonisation reduces the incidence of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2011). Randomised controlled trials comparing any antibiotic regimen with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with ureaplasma detected in the vagina. Three review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. We included one trial, involving 1071 women. Of these, 644 women between 22 weeks and 32 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to one of three groups of antibiotic treatment (n = 174 erythromycin estolate, n = 224 erythromycin stearate, and n = 246 clindamycin hydrochloride) or a placebo (n = 427). Preterm birth data was not reported in this trial. Incidence of low birthweight less than 2500 grams was only evaluated for erythromycin (combined, n = 398) compared to placebo (n = 427) and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 1.07). There were no statistically significant differences in side effects sufficient to stop treatment between either group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.85). There is insufficient evidence to assess whether pregnant women who have vaginal colonisation with ureaplasma should be treated with antibiotics to prevent preterm birth.Preterm birth is a

  6. Molecular characterization of Group A streptococcal isolates causing scarlet fever and pharyngitis among young children: a retrospective study from a northern Taiwan medical center.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Chuang; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Wang, Chih-Chien

    2014-08-01

    Little information is available on the differences in frequency of pyrogenic exotoxin genes between strains of group A streptococci that cause scarlet fever and those that cause pharyngotonsillitis in children in Taiwan. This study retrospectively monitored the presence of pyrogenic exotoxin genes, the emm typing, and the susceptibility of macrolide drugs in Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children diagnosed with scarlet fever and pharyngotonsillitis in northern Taiwan. Isolates of S. pyogenes were recovered from children with scarlet fever (n = 21) and acute pharyngotonsillitis (n = 29) during 2000-2011. The isolates were characterized according to the presence of spe genes and emm typing. Antibiograms were determined by the disk diffusion method and agar dilution test. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of erm genes in isolates that showed nonsusceptibility to erythromycin. All isolates underwent additional genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In isolates from patients with scarlet fever, the frequencies of pyrogenic exotoxin genes were 9.5% for speA, 81.0% for speB, 4.8% for speC, and 71.4% for speF. In isolates from patients with pharyngotonsillitis, the frequencies were 17.2% for speA, 72.4% for speB, 13.8% for speC, and 69.0% for speF. There were no significant differences in frequencies of the exotoxin genes between the two groups of isolates. Eight emm sequence types were identified from all group A streptococci isolates. The most common types were emm12 followed by emm1 and emm4. The erythromycin resistant rate was 4/50 (8%). The ermB gene was detected in only one isolate from a patient with pharyngotonsillitis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis had a total of three sets of clustered strains, which showed >80% homology and belonged to the same emm type. There were no significant differences in frequencies of the spe genes between S. pyogenes isolates from patients with scarlet fever and patients with

  7. Incidence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility to Clostridium perfringens in Premarket Broilers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Chi; Wang, Chia-Lan; Wang, Chinling; Chen, Tsung-Cheng; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens infection causes subclinical and clinical necrotic enteritis in poultry flocks, and it is estimated to result in US$2 billion of losses worldwide every year. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence, toxin types, and antimicrobial resistance levels to C. perfringens isolated from premarket, 5-wk-old, clinically healthy broiler chickens in Taiwan, and to examine the relationships between intestinal lesions and the numbers of C. perfringens in intestinal contents. In total, 435 samples of chicken ileum contents were collected from 98 broiler farms during June 2012 to February 2013. The C. perfringens isolation rate was 9.9% (43/435). The positive rate of tested farms was 29.6% (29/98). All the isolates were C. perfringens type A, only possessing the cpa gene encoding for toxin α. No netB gene encoding NetB toxin associated with necrotic enteritis, and no cpe gene encoding for the C. perfringens enterotoxin causing human intestinal disorder were detected. A quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mean C. perfringens number in the intestinal contents was 3.9 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, ranging from 6.85 × 10(2) to 1.61 × 10(7) CFU/g. The gross and histopathologic lesions revealed a positive correlation (p < 0.05) between lesion score and C. perfringens number in the ilea of C. perfringens -positive chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of all C. perfringens isolates indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentration inhibiting 50% of isolates (MIC50) for amoxicillin, bacitracin, chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, and lincomycin was ≤0.125, 0.5, 128, 0.25, ≥256, 2, and ≥256 μg/ml, respectively. Most of the C. perfringens isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, bacitracin, and enrofloxacin but resistant to chlortetracycline, erythromycin, and lincomycin. Interestingly, C. perfringens isolated from chickens with severe lesions had higher MIC50 for erythromycin and lincomycin

  8. Emerging trends in invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a Latin American hospital: a 17-year study.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Ortiz, Maria del Pilar; Castañeda-Ramirez, Claudia Rocio; Recalde-Bolaños, Monica; Vélez-Londoño, Juan Diego

    2014-08-03

    Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been recognized as a lethal pathogen in neonates worldwide. S. agalactiae infections also severely affect pregnant women and immunosuppressed adults with substantial attributable morbidity and mortality. However, in Latin America, studies on the epidemiology and behaviour of S. agalactiae infections remain limited. To better understand the behaviour of S. agalactiae infections in our region, we conducted a retrospective study to phenotypically describe S. agalactiae isolates collected in one of the largest hospitals in Colombia at two time periods: 1994-2001 and 2004-2012. The isolates were identified by biochemical analysis and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. In 1994-2001 a total of 201 S. agalactiae isolates were found in urine 38.3%, vaginal exudates 27.8%, soft tissue 12.9%, and blood 8.5%. Susceptibility to ampicillin or penicillin was 94% whereas resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were 2.8% and 5.2% respectively. In total 46 culture-positive cases of invasive infections were reported, 11 (24%) in neonates and 35 (76%) in adults. In 2004-2012 a total of 671 isolates were found in urine 47.8%, vaginal exudates 32.6%, soft tissue 2.7% and blood 9%. Susceptibility rates to ampicillin and penicillin were 98% whereas resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were 12.5% and 9.4%. A total of 95 severe infections were reported: 12 (12.6%) were in neonates, 5 (5.3%) in children and 78 (82.1%) in adults. Over the 17-year study period the averaged prevalence of invasive S. agalactiae isolates was 17.4%. The estimated incidence for neonatal infections was 1.34 per 1000 livebirths (0.99 × 1000 livebirths for early- onset disease and 0.35 × 1000 livebirths for late- onset disease) whereas for non-pregnant adults the estimated incidence was 0.75 × 1000 admissions. A remarkable increase in bloodstream infections in immunosuppressed adults and a shift to early neonatal S. agalactiae infections

  9. Antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States in 1994 and 1995 and detection of beta-lactamase-positive strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate: results of a national multicenter surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Doern, G V; Brueggemann, A B; Pierce, G; Holley, H P; Rauch, A

    1997-02-01

    A total of 1,537 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were recovered in 30 U.S. medical center laboratories between 1 November 1994 and 30 April 1995 and were characterized in a central laboratory with respect to serotype and beta-lactamase production and the in vitro activities of 15 oral antimicrobial agents. Overall, 36.4% of the isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. The rank order of activity of six cephalosporins on the basis of MICs was cefixime > cefpodoxime > cefuroxime > loracarbef > or = cefaclor > cefprozil. On the basis of current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) breakpoints ages of isolates found to be resistant or intermediate to these agents were as follows: 0.1, 0.3, 6.4, 16.3, 18.3, and 29.8, respectively (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 4th ed. M7-A4, 1995). Azithromycin was, on a weight basis, the most potent of the macrolides tested in this study, followed by erythromycin and then clarithromycin. Azithromycin was typically fourfold more active than erythromycin, which was, in turn, slightly more active than clarithromycin. However, when compared on the basis of the frequency of resistance determined by using current NCCLS breakpoints, there was essentially no difference between azithromycin and clarithromycin, i.e., 0.5 and 1.9%, respectively (P = 0.086). Interpretive breakpoints for erythromycin MIC tests versus H. influenzae have not been developed. Resistance to other non- beta-lactam agents was variable, as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 9.0%; chloramphenicol, 0.2%; tetracycline, 1.3%; and rifampin, 0.3%. Two conspicuous findings in this study were the identification of 39 strains H. influenzae that were beta-lactamase negative but ampicillin intermediate or resistant (BLNAR) and, even more surprisingly, 17 beta-lactamase-positive isolates that were resistant to amoxicillin

  10. In Vitro Sensitivity and Resistance of 46 Leptospira Strains Isolated from Rats in the Philippines to 14 Antimicrobial Agents▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Antara; Miyahara, Satoshi; Villanueva, Sharon Y. A. M.; Gloriani, Nina G.; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 46 Leptospira isolates from rats to 14 antimicrobial agents were tested. All of the strains were found to be sensitive to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, and streptomycin. In contrast, the tested isolates showed resistance to amphotericin B, 5-fluorouracil, fosfomycin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and vancomycin. These findings will help in selecting effective and ineffective antimicrobials for treatment of leptospirosis and for the development of new selective media, respectively. PMID:20855741

  11. Design and synthesis via click chemistry of 8,9-anhydroerythromycin A 6,9-hemiketal analogues with anti-MRSA and -VRE activity.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Akihiro; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Nagai, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Yukie; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sharpless, K Barry; Omura, Satoshi

    2007-11-15

    An erythromycin analogue, 11,12-di-O-iso-butyryl-8,9-anhydroerythromycin A 6,9-hemiketal (1b), was found to be a potential anti-MRSA and anti-VRE agent. The use of copper catalyzed azide-acetylene cycloaddition, and click chemistry, readily provided 10 types of triazole analogues of 1b in good to nearly quantitative yield. Among the library, 5b exhibited activity against MRSA and VRE bacterial strains, representing more than twice the potency of 1b.

  12. Determination of asymptomatic carrier rate of beta-haemolytic group B Streptococcus in vaginas of pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olanisebe, S B; Adetosoye, A I

    1986-04-01

    Bacteriological studies of 500 vaginal swabs from pregnant women in second and third trimester from 4 government hospitals in Ibadan showed that 8 (1.6 per cent) were found to be culture-positive for Group B Streptococcus. Five (1.0 per cent) were found to harbour group D streptococci. All the 8 group B Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, methicillin, penicillin G, ampicillin and chloramphenicol in decreasing order. They were resistant to tetracycline, sulphafurazole and streptomycin.

  13. Membrane-active macromolecules kill antibiotic-tolerant bacteria and potentiate antibiotics towards Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Uppu, Divakara S. S. M.; Konai, Mohini M.; Sarkar, Paramita; Samaddar, Sandip; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Farias-Junior, Celio; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandam; Shome, Bibek R.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic bacterial biofilms place a massive burden on healthcare due to the presence of antibiotic-tolerant dormant bacteria. Some of the conventional antibiotics such as erythromycin, vancomycin, linezolid, rifampicin etc. are inherently ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly in their biofilms. Here, we report membrane-active macromolecules that kill slow dividing stationary-phase and antibiotic tolerant cells of Gram-negative bacteria. More importantly, these molecules potentiate antibiotics (erythromycin and rifampicin) to biofilms of Gram-negative bacteria. These molecules eliminate planktonic bacteria that are liberated after dispersion of biofilms (dispersed cells). The membrane-active mechanism of these molecules forms the key for potentiating the established antibiotics. Further, we demonstrate that the combination of macromolecules and antibiotics significantly reduces bacterial burden in mouse burn and surgical wound infection models caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) clinical isolate respectively. Colistin, a well-known antibiotic targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria fails to kill antibiotic tolerant cells and dispersed cells (from biofilms) and bacteria develop resistance to it. On the contrary, these macromolecules prevent or delay the development of bacterial resistance to known antibiotics. Our findings emphasize the potential of targeting the bacterial membrane in antibiotic potentiation for disruption of biofilms and suggest a promising strategy towards developing therapies for topical treatment of Gram-negative infections. PMID:28837596

  14. Shattering a myth - Whooping cough susceptible to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Syed, Muhammad Ali; Jamil, Bushra; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is the causative agent of a milder form of pertussis or whooping cough. Little is reported about the antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanism of drug resistance of Bordetella parapertussis. The objective of this study has been to investigate antimicrobial resistance, distribution of integrons and presence of gene cassettes to quinolones (qnr) and sulfonamides (sul) among B. parapertussis strains' isolated from Pakistan. Thirty-five (35) samples were collected from various hospitals of Pakistan from children (median age 3 years) with pertussis-like symptoms, all were tested and confirmed to be B. Parapertussis. Resistance profile of Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Sulphamethoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin and Erythromycin were investigated through all samples. Majority of the isolates were found to be resistant to the afore-mentioned antibiotics except erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to quinolones phenotypically, but qnr genes were detected in only 25.7% (9/35) of isolates. On the other hand, 71.4% (25/35) isolates were resistant to sulfonamides phenotypically. From these 71% strains showing phenotypical resistance, 96% (24/25) were found to possess sul genes. Only two isolates were carrying class 1 integrons, which also harbored sul gene and qnr gene cassettes. It can be safely concluded that the phenotypic resistance patterns seemed mostly independent of presence of integrons. However, interestingly both integrons harboring strains were resistant to quinolones and sulfonamides and also possessed qnr and sul genes.

  15. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  16. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  17. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments. PMID:24688529

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs with swine erysipelas in Japan, 1988-1998.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Kijima, M; Yoshimura, H; Takahashi, T

    2001-03-01

    The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents of 214 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs affected with swine erysipelas in Japan between 1988 and 1998 was determined. Ampicillin, cloxacillin, benzylpenicillin, ceftiofur, tylosin, enrofloxacin and danofloxacin were the most active agents [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); < or = 0.025-0.78 microgram/ml], followed by cefazolin, virginiamycin, tiamulin, chloramphenicol, florphenicol and oxolinic acid (MICs; 0.1-25 micrograms/ml). Activity was poor or absent with kanamycin and sulfadimethoxine. Strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline were detected. The susceptibilities to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline tended to decrease. Investigation of the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of the 214 strains according to their serotypes, sources, isolation years and regions, showed that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin were most frequently found in the strains of serotype 1a and in strains from septicaemic cases. Strains resistant to oxytetracycline were detected in all serotypes and all sources, and most of the strains resistant to erythromycin were detected in the strains of serotype 2. The frequency of strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin gradually increased from 1988 to 1996, but then decreased between 1997 and 1998. The frequency of strains resistant to oxytetracycline was remained more than 38% from 1988 to 1998. It was suggested that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline were distributed over almost all districts of Japan.

  19. Fluorescence quenching effects of antibiotics on the main components of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wei-Hua; Liu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater can be characterized using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis. Wastewater from animal farms or pharmaceutical plants usually contains high concentration of antibiotics. In this study, the quenching effect of antibiotics on the typical components of DOM was explored using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC analysis. Four antibiotics (roxarsone, sulfaquinoxaline sodium, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin) at the concentration of 0.5∼4.0 mg/L and three typical components of DOM (tyrosine, tryptophan, and humic acid) were selected. Fluorescence quenching effects were observed with the addition of antibiotics. Among these four antibiotics, roxarsone (2.9∼20.2 %), sulfaquinoxaline sodium (0∼32.0 %), and oxytetracycline (0∼41.8 %) led to a stronger quenching effect than erythromycin (0∼8.0 %). From the side of DOM, tyrosine and tryptophan (0.5∼41.8 %) exhibited a similar quenching effect, but they were higher than humic acids (0∼20.2 %) at the same concentration of antibiotics. For humic acid, a significant quenching effect was observed only with the addition of roxarsone. This might be the first report about the fluorescence quenching effect caused by antibiotics. The results from this study confirmed the interference of antibiotics on the fluorescence intensity of the main components of DOM and highlighted the importance of correcting fluorescence data in the wastewater containing antibiotics.

  20. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes strains involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever in China, 2011.

    PubMed

    You, Yuan Hai; Song, Yan Yan; Yan, Xiao Mei; Wang, Hai Bin; Zhang, Meng Han; Tao, Xiao Xia; Li, Lei Lei; Zhang, Yu Xin; Jiang, Xi Hong; Zhang, Bing Hua; Zhou, Hao; Xiao, Di; Jin, Lian Mei; Feng, Zi Jian; Luo, Feng Ji; Zhang, Jian Zhong

    2013-11-01

    To investigate molecular characterization of streptococcus pyogenes isolates involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever in China in 2011. Seventy-four Streptococcal pyogenes involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever were isolated from pediatric patients in the areas with high incidence in China from May to August of 2011. Emm genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling were analyzed for these isolates. A total of 4 different emm types were identified. Emm12 was the most prevalent type which contained four predominating PFGE patterns corresponding to four different virulence and superantigen profiles. Emm12 (79.7%) and emm1 (14.9%) accounted for approximately 94% of all the isolates. The speA gene was all negative in emm12 isolates and positive in emm1 isolates. All strains were resistant to erythromycin, and 89.4% of them were resistant to erythromycin, tracycline, and clindamycin simultaneously. Several highly diversified clones with a high macrolide resistance rate comprise a predominant proportion of circulating strains, though no new emm type was found in this outbreak. The data provide a baseline for further surveillance of scarlet fever, which may contribute to the explanation of the outbreak and development of a GAS vaccine in China. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents among bovine mastitis pathogens isolated from North American dairy cattle, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Cynthia J; Portis, Ellen; Johansen, Lacie; Mullins, Lisa M; Stoltman, Gillian A

    2013-09-01

    Approximately 8,000 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, isolated by 25 veterinary laboratories across North America between 2002 and 2010, were tested for in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the beta-lactam drugs remained low against most of the Gram-positive strains tested, and no substantial changes in the MIC distributions were seen over time. Of the beta-lactam antimicrobial agents tested, only ceftiofur showed good in vitro activity against E. coli. The MICs of the macrolides and lincosamides also remained low against Gram-positive mastitis pathogens. While the MIC values given by 50% of isolates (MIC50) for erythromycin and pirlimycin and the streptococci were all low (≤0.5 µg/ml), the MIC values given by 90% of isolates (MIC90) were higher and more variable, but with no apparent increase over time. Staphylococcus aureus showed little change in erythromycin susceptibility over time, but there may be a small, numerical increase in pirlimycin MIC50 and MIC90 values. Overall, the results suggest that mastitis pathogens in the United States and Canada have not shown any substantial changes in the in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs tested over the 9 years of the study.

  2. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; Silva, Lígia Guedes da; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes de; Fernandes, Flávio Gimenis; Costa, Natalia Silva da; Mattos, Marcos Corrêa de; Fracalanzza, Sergio Eduardo Longo; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.

  3. Macrolide antibiotics broadly and distinctively inhibit cytokine and chemokine production by COPD sputum cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Marjanović, Nikola; Bosnar, Martina; Michielin, Francesca; Willé, David R; Anić-Milić, Tatjana; Culić, Ognjen; Popović-Grle, Sanja; Bogdan, Mile; Parnham, Michael J; Eraković Haber, Vesna

    2011-05-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are known to exert anti-inflammatory actions in vivo, including certain effects in COPD patients. In order to investigate the immunomodulatory profile of activity of macrolide antibiotics, we have studied the effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin on the in vitro production of a panel of inflammatory mediators from cells isolated from human, steroid-naïve, COPD sputum samples. Macrolide effects were compared to three other commonly used anti-inflammatory compounds, the corticosteroid dexamethasone, the PDE4 inhibitor, roflumilast and the p38 kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Three of the four tested macrolides, azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin, exhibited pronounced, concentration-related reduction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, CCL3, CCL5, CCL20, CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL5, and G-CSF release. Further slight inhibitory effects on IL-1α, CXCL8, GM-CSF, and PAI-1 production were also observed. Erythromycin was very weakly active. Qualitatively and quantitatively, macrolides exerted distinctive and, compared to other tested classes of compounds, more pronounced immunomodulatory effects, particularly in terms of chemokine (CCL3, CCL5, CCL20, CCL22, and CXCL5), IL-1β, G-CSF and PAI-1 release. The described modulation of inflammatory mediators could potentially contribute to further definition of biomarkers of macrolide anti-inflammatory activity in COPD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, K G; Meyer, Michael T

    2006-05-15

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H(2)O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%)>sulfamethoxazole (70%)>erythromycin-H(2)O (45%)>ciprofloxacin (40%)>sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (

  5. Antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in the Gomti river water and determination of their tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Asma; Imran, Mohd; Akhter, Firoz

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among coliform in the Gomti river water samples was investigated. The coliform populations were isolated on Mac Conky and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates supplemented with antibiotics. The incidence of resistance among the coliform population varied considerably in different drug and water sampling sites. Coliform bacteria showed lower drug resistant viable count in sampling site-III (receiving treated wastewater) as compared to more polluted site-I and site-II. Viable count of coliform population obtained on both medium was recorded higher against erythromycin from sampling site-III. Lower viable count of coliforms was recorded against tetracycline in site-II and III. Similar resistance pattern was obtained in the frequency of E. coli and Enterobacter species from all the three sampling sites. Percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli was observed higher than Enterobacter spp among the total coliforms against all antibiotics tested without Erythromycin and penicillin in site-I and II respectively. Isolates of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. showed their tolerance level (MIC) in the range of 2-100 against the antibiotics tested. Maximum number of isolates of both genus exhibited their MICs at lower concentration range 2-5µg/ml against ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin and amoxycillin. EMB - Eosin methylene blue, IMViC tests - Indole, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer and Citrate Utilization Tests, MIC - Minimum inhibitory concentration.

  6. Antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in the Gomti river water and determination of their tolerance level

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Asma; Imran, Mohd; Akhter, Firoz

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among coliform in the Gomti river water samples was investigated. The coliform populations were isolated on Mac Conky and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates supplemented with antibiotics. The incidence of resistance among the coliform population varied considerably in different drug and water sampling sites. Coliform bacteria showed lower drug resistant viable count in sampling site-III (receiving treated wastewater) as compared to more polluted site-I and site-II. Viable count of coliform population obtained on both medium was recorded higher against erythromycin from sampling site-III. Lower viable count of coliforms was recorded against tetracycline in site-II and III. Similar resistance pattern was obtained in the frequency of E. coli and Enterobacter species from all the three sampling sites. Percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli was observed higher than Enterobacter spp among the total coliforms against all antibiotics tested without Erythromycin and penicillin in site-I and II respectively. Isolates of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. showed their tolerance level (MIC) in the range of 2-100 against the antibiotics tested. Maximum number of isolates of both genus exhibited their MICs at lower concentration range 2-5µg/ml against ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin and amoxycillin. Abbreviations EMB - Eosin methylene blue, IMViC tests - Indole, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer and Citrate Utilization Tests, MIC - Minimum inhibitory concentration. PMID:24966515

  7. The occurrence, transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in fish processing plant.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Grudlewska, Katarzyna; Świeca, Agnieszka; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Bauza-Kaszewska, Justyna; Wałecka-Zacharska, Ewa; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    2018-06-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and fish processing plant and to determine their transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance. L. monocytogenes was isolated according to the ISO 11290-1. The identification of L. monocytogenes was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. Genetic similarity of L. monocytogenes strains was determined with the Pulsed-Filed Gene Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The multiplex PCR was used for identification of L. monocytogenes serogroups and detection of selected virulence genes (actA, fbpA, hlyA, iap, inlA, inlB, mpl, plcA, plcB, prfA). The L. monocytogens isolates susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was evaluated with disc diffusion method according to EUCAST v. 7.1. The presence of 237 L. monocytogenes isolates (before genetic similarity assessment) in 614 examined samples was confirmed. After strain differentiation by PFGE techniques the presence of 161 genetically different strains were confirmed. The genetic similarity of the examined isolates suggested that the source of the L. monocytogenes strains were fishes originating from farms. All tested strains possessed all detected virulence genes. Among examined strains, the most (26, 38.6%) belonged to the group 1/2a-3a. The most of tested strains were resistant to erythromycin (47.1%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (47.1%). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Presence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Alexandre; Fravalo, Philippe; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Guévremont, Evelyne; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the presence of the important foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in the province of Quebec. The recovered isolates were further characterized for their antimicrobial resistance profile, autoagglutination property and chemotaxis. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated using agar dilution for: tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, azithromycin, bacitracin, and ceftiofur. Autoagglutination was measured by monitoring optical density changes in a bacterial suspension after 3 h of incubation at room temperature. Chemotaxis was evaluated after a contact time of 3 h between isolates and mucin, using a quantitative protocol. A total of 10 lots of chickens was sampled in August and September 2009; half of them were positive for the presence of C. jejuni. Antimicrobial resistance was found only for tetracycline (44%), erythromycin (6%), azithromycin (6%) and clindamycin (2%). Variation was observed in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ceftiofur and bacitracin, for which C. jejuni possess intrinsic resistance. Autoagglutination and chemotaxis varied among isolates and lot-level differences in these were observed. Autoagglutination and chemotaxis levels appeared as independent isolate properties. Further monitoring and characterization of isolates originating from organic chickens is of interest since this type of production might represent another source of exposure of consumers to a variety of the foodborne pathogen C. jejuni. PMID:22468028

  9. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in Taiwan's surface waters: impact of waste streams from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Ting

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics, estrogens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-blockers, and lipid regulators) in three rivers and in the waste streams of six hospitals and four pharmaceutical production facilities in Taiwan. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were acetaminophen, erythromycin-H(2)O, sulfamethoxazole, and gemfibrozil. NSAIDs were the next most-often detected compounds, with a detection frequency >60%. The other analytes were not detected or were seen in only a few samples at trace concentrations. The present study demonstrates a significant discharge of human medications from hospital and drug production facilities into surface waters in the Taipei district. The high concentrations of pharmaceuticals found in the Sindian and Dahan rivers demonstrate the alarming degree to which they have been impacted by urban drainage (waste effluents from hospitals, households, and pharmaceutical production facilities). The ubiquitous occurrence at extremely high concentrations of acetaminophen and erythromycin-H(2)O in both rivers (up to 15.7 and 75.5 microg/L) and in wastewater from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities (up to 417.5 and 7.84 microg/L) was unique. This finding, in combination with acetaminophen's status as the drug most often prescribed by Taiwan's dominant clinical institute, suggests the potential use of acetaminophen as a molecular indicator of contamination of Taiwan's aqueous environments with untreated urban drainage.

  10. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages.

    PubMed

    Wimalarathna, Helen M L; Richardson, Judith F; Lawson, Andy J; Elson, Richard; Meldrum, Richard; Little, Christine L; Maiden, Martin C J; McCarthy, Noel D; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2013-07-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004-5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens.

  11. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-05

    Erythromycin (CVE) agar; MM10 agar; and Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA) with hemin and menadione (TSAHK). CVE agar (pH 7.2 contains in g/l the following... menadione in 95% ETOH and 50 ml of defibrinated sheep blood were added. Mlcrobioloaical Culturing of ANLIG Lesion Samples of subgingival plaque were...supplemented with 5 g/ml hemin and 2 g/ml menadione using the BBL anaerobe jar-Gas Pak system. After 24 to 72 h of growth, the organisms were harvested by

  12. Surveillance of group B streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in nonpregnant adults and characterization of the strains in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bin; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Wada, Akihito; Ogata, Kikuyo; Tomita, Masaaki; Katsukawa, Chihiro; Kawahara, Ryuji; Suzuki, Rieko; Endo, Miyoko; Isobe, Junko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Watanabe, Haruo

    2006-06-01

    Nine group B streptococci (GBS) strains were isolated from five toxic shock-like syndrome cases of nonpregnant adults in Japan from 2001 to 2005. All of them were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. The serotypes of these strains were Ib, III, V, and VII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the patterns of the strains isolated from the different patients were variable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all of the strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefotaxime, clindamycin, and telithromycin. One strain showed intermediate resistance to erythromycin.

  13. Antimicrobial therapy of experimental Legionella micdadei pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Pasculle, A W; Dowling, J N; Frola, F N; McDevitt, D A; Levi, M A

    1985-01-01

    Several antimicrobial agents were evaluated for activity against experimental Legionella micdadei pneumonia in guinea pigs. Erythromycin, rifampin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim produced significant reductions in mortality. Penicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin were not efficacious even though, at the doses administered, the peak concentrations of these agents in serum substantially exceeded their MICs for the test strain. It is suggested that the poor performance of the latter group of agents resulted from poor penetration into cells in which L. micdadei was multiplying. PMID:3878688

  14. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance-Susceptibility Profiles of Streptococcus thermophilus Isolated from Raw Milk and Genome Analysis of the Genetic Basis of Acquired Resistances

    PubMed Central

    Flórez, Ana B.; Mayo, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    The food chain is thought to play an important role in the transmission of antibiotic resistances from commensal and beneficial bacteria to pathogens. Streptococcus thermophilus is a lactic acid bacterium of major importance as a starter for the dairy industry. This study reports the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16 representative antimicrobial agents to 41 isolates of S. thermophilus derived from raw milk. Strains showing resistance to tetracycline (seven), erythromycin and clindamycin (two), and streptomycin and neomycin (one) were found. PCR amplification identified tet(S) in all the tetracycline-resistant strains, and ermB in the two erythromycin/clindamycin-resistant strains. Hybridisation experiments suggested each resistance gene to be located in the chromosome with a similar genetic organization. Five antibiotic-resistant strains -two resistant to tetracycline (St-2 and St-9), two resistant to erythromycin/clindamycin (St-5 and St-6), and one resistant to streptomycin/neomycin (St-10)- were subjected to genome sequencing and analysis. The tet(S) gene was identified in small contigs of 3.2 and 3.7 kbp in St-2 and St-9, respectively, flanked by truncated copies of insertion sequence (IS) elements. Similarly, ermB in St-6 and St-5 was found in contigs of 1.6 and 28.1 kbp, respectively. Sequence analysis and comparison of the largest contig showed it to contain three segments (21.9, 3.7, and 1.4 kbp long) highly homologous to non-collinear sequences of pRE25 from Enterococcus faecalis. These segments contained the ermB gene, a transference module with an origin of transfer (oriT) plus 15 open reading frames encoding proteins involved in conjugation, and modules for plasmid replication and segregation. Homologous stretches were separated by short, IS-related sequences, resembling the genetic organization of the integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) found in Streptococcus species. No gene known to provide aminoglycoside resistance was seen in St

  16. [Microbiological characteristics and patterns of resistance in prosthetic joint infections in a referral hospital].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Peña, Silvestre; Colín-Castro, Claudia; Hernández-Duran, Melissa; López-Jácome, Esaú; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The prosthetic joint infection is the most feared and catastrophic complication for cause severe physical damage to patients and, generates high economic costs. To describe the microbiological characteristics and to determine the resistance pattern in prosthetic joint infections in a reference hospital in Mexico. Patients whose prosthetic devices were withdrawn due to suspicion of septic and aseptic loosening were included. Cultures were performed to identify microorganisms and susceptibility analysis. Of the 111 patients included, 55% were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection, with the most frequent prosthesis being of the hip (43%). Positive cultures were obtained in 97% of the infected cases, of which 75% were monomicrobial infections. The most frequent bacterial species isolated were: Staphylococcus epidermidis (31%), Enterococcus faecalis (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%), and Escherichia coli (8%). The resistance patterns for the Staphylococcus genus were: oxacillin (79%), erythromycin (45%) and ciprofloxacin (37%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a high percentage of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (86%), and fluoroquinolones (43%). The large majority (86%) of Escherichia coli were extended spectrum beta-lactamases positive, in addition to having high resistance to fluoroquinolones (86%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (86%) and gentamicin (72%). The microbiological characteristics found in prosthetic joint infections vary according to the hospitals. In this series, a high proportion of coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Enterococcus spp. were found, as well as a high bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RESPIRATORY ISOLATES OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN THE CLINICAL CENTER NIS.

    PubMed

    Dinić, Marina M; Mladenović Antić, Snezana; Kocić, Branislava; Stanković Dordević, Dobrila; Vrbić, Miodrag; Bogdanović, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of respiratory infections. The aim was to study the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of respiratory isolates ofStreptococcus pneumoniae obtained from hospitalized children. A total of 190 respiratory pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged from 0 to 14 years were isolated and identified by using standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin and rifampicin was tested by disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin and ceftriaxone were determined by means of E test. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was detected by double disc diffusion test. All tested isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftriaxone. The minimal amoxicillin concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.50 microg/ml and 1.0 microg/ml, respectively and the minimal ceftriaxone concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.25 microg/ml and 0.50 microg/ml, respectively. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 21.6% and 29.47% of isolates, respectively. The resistence to macrolides-M phenotype was detected in 10.07% of isolates and constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin phenotype (constitutive MLS phenotype) was found in 89.93% of isolates. All tested isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin and rifampicin. Amoxicillin could be the therapy of choice in pediatric practice. The macrolides should not be recommended for the empirical therapy of pneumococcal respiratory tract infection in our local area.

  18. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  19. Distribution, fate and risk assessment of antibiotics in sewage treatment plants in Hong Kong, South China.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Minh, T B; Murphy, M B; Lam, James C W; So, M K; Martin, Michael; Lam, Paul K S; Richardson, B J

    2012-07-01

    Occurrence, removal, consumption and environmental risks of sixteen antibiotics were investigated in several sewage treatment plants (STPs) featuring different treatment levels in Hong Kong, China. Cefalexin, ofloxacin and erythromycin-H(2)O were predominant with concentrations of 1020-5640, 142-7900 and 243-4740 ng/L in influent, respectively; their mass loads were comparable to levels reported in urban regions in China and were at the high end of the range reported for western countries. The target antibiotics behaved differently depending on the treatment level employed at the STPs and relatively higher removal efficiencies (>70%) were observed for cefalexin, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol during secondary treatment. ß-lactams were especially susceptible to removal via the activated sludge process while macrolides were recalcitrant (<20%) in the dissolved phase. Two fluoroquinolones, ofloxacin (4%) and norfloxacin (52%), differed greatly in their removal efficiencies, probably because of disparities in their pK(a) values which resulted in different sorption behaviour in sludge. Overall antibiotic consumption in Hong Kong was back-calculated based on influent mass flows and compared with available prescription and usage data. This model was verified by a good approximation of 82% and 141% to the predicted consumption of total ofloxacin, but a less accurate estimate was obtained for erythromycin usage. Risk assessment indicated that algae are susceptible to the environmental concentrations of amoxicillin as well as the mixture of the nine detected antibiotics in receiving surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Folliculitis decalvans--a retrospective study in a tertiary referred centre, over five years.

    PubMed

    Chandrawansa, P H; Giam, Y C

    2003-02-01

    Folliculitis decalvans is a rare condition affecting mainly the scalp leading to scarring alopecia. Aetiology of the condition is still unknown, abnormal host response to Staphylococcus aureus has been postulated. We present a retrospective analysis of six cases of folliculitis decalvans presented to National Skin Centre (NSC), Singapore for the past five years, 1995-2000. The mean age of presentation was 39 years and ages ranged from 17 to 62 years. There were five male patients and one female patient. Duration of symptoms at presentation varied from six months to seven years. Occipital and vertex areas of the scalp were the only regions involved. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in three patients; in one patient culture yielded negative results and no culture was done in the other two patients. All our patients were treated with several separate courses of systemic antibiotics which include doxycycline, erythromycin, minocycline, co-trimoxazole, cloxacillin, erythromycin, rifampicin and clindamycin. In addition one patient was treated with fucidic acid and zinc sulphate. The disease ran a protracted course with temporary improvement while on antibiotic and flare up of disease when antibiotics were stopped. The effectiveness of early treatment with rifampicin has been highlighted in some case reports in the past. We did use rifampicin in one of our patients. Our concern over emergence of antibiotic resistance, if used widely, may not permit us to use rifampicin on a wide scale.

  1. Occurrence, removal, and risk assessment of antibiotics in 12 wastewater treatment plants from Dalian, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Hongxia; Du, Juan; Qu, Yixuan; Shen, Chen; Tan, Feng; Chen, Jingwen; Quan, Xie

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 31 antibiotics, including 11 sulfonamides (SAs), five fluoroquinolones (FQs), four macrolides (MLs), four tetracyclines (TCs), three chloramphenicols (CAPs), and four other antibiotics (Others), were investigated in 12 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Dalian, China. A total of 29 antibiotics were detected in wastewater samples with the concentration ranging from 63.6 to 5404.6 ng/L. FQs and SAs were the most abundant antibiotic classes in most wastewater samples, accounting for 42.2 and 23.9% of total antibiotic concentrations, respectively, followed by TCs (16.0%) and MLs (14.8%). Sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin were the most frequently detected antibiotics; of these, the concentration of ofloxacin was the highest in most of influent (average concentration = 609.8 ng/L) and effluent (average concentration = 253.4 ng/L) samples. The removal efficiencies varied among WWTPs in the range of -189.9% (clarithromycin) to 100% (enoxacin, doxycycline, etc), and more than 50% of antibiotics could not be efficiently removed with the removal efficiency less than 65%. An environmental risk assessment was also performed in the WWTP effluents by calculating the risk quotient (RQ), and high RQ values (>1) indicated erythromycin and clarithromycin might cause the ecological risk on organisms in surrounding water near discharge point of WWTPs in this area, which warrants further attention.

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from Cattle Farms in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Wonki; Kaya, Katherine N.; Hancock, Dale D.; Call, Douglas R.; Park, Yong Ho; Besser, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was investigated in cattle on Washington State farms. A total of 350 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates were isolated from 686 cattle sampled on 15 farms (eight dairies, two calf rearer farms, two feedlots, and three beef cow-calf ranches). Isolate species were identified with a combination of phenotypic tests, hipO colony blot hybridization, and multiplex lpxA PCR. Breakpoint resistance to four antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, and doxycycline) was determined by agar dilution. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequent species isolated (34.1%), followed by Campylobacter coli (7.7%) and other thermophilic campylobacters (1.5%). The most frequently detected resistance was to doxycycline (42.3% of 350 isolates). Isolates from calf rearer facilities were more frequently doxycycline resistant than isolates from other farm types. C. jejuni was most frequently susceptible to all four of the antimicrobial drugs studied (58.8% of 272 isolates). C. coli isolates were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni, including resistance to quinolone antimicrobials (89.3% of isolates obtained from calves on calf rearer farms) and to erythromycin (72.2% of isolates obtained from feedlot cattle). Multiple drug resistance was more frequent in C. coli (51.5%) than in C. jejuni (5.1%). The results of this study demonstrate that C. jejuni is widely distributed among Washington cattle farms, while C. coli is more narrowly distributed but significantly more resistant. PMID:15640184

  3. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-02

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of subtherapeutic vs. therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Klima, Cassidy L.; Stanford, Kim; Alexander, Trevor; Topp, Edward; Read, Ron R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic) or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic), on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05) the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherapeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica from the nasopharynx included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of erythromycin resistant enterococci within the population, which was comprised almost exclusively of Enterococcus hirae. Injectable macrolides impacted both respiratory and enteric microbes, whereas orally administered macrolides only influenced enteric bacteria. PMID:23750157

  5. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  6. High frequency of fluoroquinolone- and macrolide-resistant streptococci among clinically isolated group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kouji; Nagano, Noriyuki; Nagano, Yukiko; Suzuki, Satowa; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2013-03-01

    Recently several clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae [also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS)] that have acquired reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) by amino acid substitutions in the penicillin-binding protein 2X have emerged. The frequency of fluoroquinolone (FQ)- and macrolide-resistant streptococci among PRGBS is not yet known. Fifty-seven GBS [19 PRGBS and 38 penicillin-susceptible GBS (PSGBS)], isolated from different medical institutions in Japan, were studied. For GBS, the MICs of penicillin G, levofloxacin and erythromycin were determined using the agar dilution method. Nineteen PRGBS were previously confirmed as genetically diverse streptococci by PFGE. Further, the mechanisms underlying penicillin, FQ and macrolide non-susceptibility/resistance were analysed. The frequency of non-susceptibility to FQs among PSGBS was 18.4% (7/38), whereas that among PRGBS was 100% (19/19). The frequency of resistance to erythromycin among PSGBS was 7.9% (3/38), while that among PRGBS was 47.4% (9/19). Statistical significance was determined using Fisher's exact test between reduced penicillin susceptibility and FQ non-susceptibility (P ≤ 0.0001) and macrolide resistance (P=0.0012). The resistance/non-susceptibility mechanisms among PRGBS were diverse, suggesting that the PRGBS examined were not clonal. PRGBS isolates tend to show resistance to FQs and/or macrolides. Because the drug choice for treating these multidrug-resistant GBS is more limited than that for usual GBS, these strains may present future public health challenges.

  7. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 strains isolated from pigs.

    PubMed

    Seol, B; Kelneric, Z; Hajsig, D; Madic, J; Naglic, T

    1996-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for thirty-three epidemiologicaly unrelated clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 were determined in relation to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, clavulanate-amoxicillin, penicillin G, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tylosin and doxycycline, using the microtitre broth dilution procedure described by the U.S. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Gentamicin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of 0.4 mg/L. Overall, 70% of strains were resistant to doxycycline (MIC(90) > or = 100.0 mg/L), followed by penicillin G (51% of strains) (MIC(90) + or = 100.0 mg/L). Resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin was 36.4% (MIC(90) 12.5 mg/L) and 33.3% (MIC(90) 50.0 mg/L), respectively. 15.2% of S. suis strains were resistant to streptomycin, tylosin and cephalexin with MIC90 values of 25.0 mg/L, 12.5 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively. A combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (MIC(90) 6.3 mg/L) and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate (MIC(90) 3.1 mg/L) as well as erythromycin (1.6 mg/L) were of the same efficacy, with a total of 9.1% resistant S. suis strains. This high percentage of resistance to doxycycline and penicillin G precludes the use of these antibiotics as empiric therapy of swine diseases.

  8. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  10. Deriving acute and chronic predicted no effect concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products based on species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenxing; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yujue; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), as emerging contaminants, have been detected in various environmental matrices and caused adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. But water quality criterias (WQCs) of PPCPs for protecting aquatic environment are lacking, which hinders the environmental management of these emerging contaminants. In the present study, in order to support their WQC derivation, acute and chronic hazardous concentrations for 5% of species (HC 5 s) of some frequently detected PPCPs in China were calculated based on acute and chronic species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), respectively, using both parametric (log-normal and log-logistic) and nonparametric bootstrap approaches. The groups of aquatic species used in SSDs included planktons, zooplanktons, invertebrates and vertebrates. Acute and chronic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived from the HC 5 s. The acute PNECs of the selected PPCPs were in a range from 1.1 to 4993μg/L. While the chronic PNECs were one or two orders of magnitude lower than the acute PNECs, with a range from 0.02 to 298μg/L. Among these PPCPs, the compound with the highest acute effect on the aquatic environment was clarithromycin while erythromycin was the one with the highest chronic toxicity effect. Among the studied PPCPs, erythromycin caused a relatively higher aquatic ecological risk in China. This study helps derive WQCs of PPCPs in the aquatic environment, which is essential for environmental managment of these emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance among Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Australian Food Production Chains

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Annaleise; Gray, Jessica; Chandry, P. Scott; Fox, Edward M.

    2018-01-01

    The current global crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among important human bacterial pathogens has been amplified by an increased resistance prevalence. In recent years, a number of studies have reported higher resistance levels among Listeria monocytogenes isolates, which may have implications for treatment of listeriosis infection where resistance to key treatment antimicrobials is noted. This study examined the genotypic and phenotypic AMR patterns of 100 L. monocytogenes isolates originating from food production supplies in Australia and examined this in the context of global population trends. Low levels of resistance were noted to ciprofloxacin (2%) and erythromycin (1%); however, no resistance was observed to penicillin G or tetracycline. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was associated with a mutation in the fepR gene in one isolate; however, no genetic basis for resistance in the other isolate was identified. Resistance to erythromycin was correlated with the presence of the ermB resistance gene. Both resistant isolates belonged to clonal complex 1 (CC1), and analysis of these in the context of global CC1 isolates suggested that they were more similar to isolates from India rather than the other CC1 isolates included in this study. This study provides baseline AMR data for L. monocytogenes isolated in Australia, identifies key genetic markers underlying this resistance, and highlights the need for global molecular surveillance of resistance patterns to maintain control over the potential dissemination of AMR isolates. PMID:29425131

  12. Six-Year Retrospective Review of Hospital Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infections from a Single Institution in Greece.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Christina; Ieronymaki, Alexandra; Matoula, Theoni; Caroni, Chrysseis; Polythodoraki, Evaggelia; Chryssou, Stella-Eugenia; Kontochristopoulos, George; Antoniou, Christina

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010-2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. EUCAST breakpoints were applied if no CLSI were available. Results: Of 2069 S. aureus isolates identified, 1845 (88%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for benzylpenicillin (71.9%), followed by erythromycin (34.3%). Resistant strains to cefoxitin defined as MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus ) represented 21% of total isolates. Interestingly, resistance to fusidic acid was 22.9% and to mupirocin as high as 12.7%. Low rates were observed for minocycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). Resistance to antibiotics remained relatively stable throughout the six-year period, with the exception of cefoxitin, fusidic acid and SXT. A high percentage of MRSA strains were resistant to erythromycin (60%), fusidic acid (46%), clindamycin (38%) and tetracycline (35.5%). Conclusions: Special attention is required in prescribing appropriate antibiotic therapeutic regimens, particularly for MRSA. These data on the susceptibility of S. aureus may be useful for guiding antibiotic treatment.

  13. Comparative evaluation of yogurt and low-fat cheddar cheese as delivery media for probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Sharp, M D; McMahon, D J; Broadbent, J R

    2008-09-01

    This study used Lactobacillus casei 334e, an erythromycin-resistant derivative of ATCC 334, as a model to evaluate viability and acid resistance of probiotic L. casei in low-fat Cheddar cheese and yogurt. Cheese and yogurt were made by standard methods and the probiotic L. casei adjunct was added at approximately 10(7) CFU/g with the starter cultures. Low-fat cheese and yogurt samples were stored at 8 and 2 degrees C, respectively, and numbers of the L. casei adjunct were periodically determined by plating on MRS agar that contained 5 microg/mL of erythromycin. L. casei 334e counts in cheese and yogurt remained at 10(7) CFU/g over 3 mo and 3 wk, respectively, indicating good survival in both products. Acid challenge studies in 8.7 mM phosphoric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C showed numbers of L. casei 334e in yogurt dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to less than 10(1) CFU/g after 30 min, while counts in cheese samples dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to about 10(5) after 30 min, and remained near 10(4) CFU/g after 120 min. As a whole, these data showed that low-fat Cheddar cheese is a viable delivery food for probiotic L. casei because it allowed for good survival during storage and helped protect cells against the very low pH that will be encountered during stomach transit.

  14. Use of fibrin sealants for the localized, controlled release of cefazolin

    PubMed Central

    Tredwell, Stephen; Jackson, John K.; Hamilton, Donald; Lee, Vivian; Burt, Helen M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Fibrin sealants are used increasingly in surgery to reduce bleeding and improve wound healing. They have great potential as biocompatible, biodegradable drug delivery systems, because the sealant may adhere to the target tissue and allow controlled release of the drug over an extended period. We investigated the encapsulation, stability and controlled release of erythromycin and cefazolin from Beriplast fibrin sealants (Aventis Behring Canada). Methods Drug-loaded clots were cast in glass vials and allowed to set. We observed the clots for drug precipitation and aggregation, and we assessed the effect of drug encapsulation on clot strength. Drug stability and release from the clots in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was quantified by ultraviolet and visible violet absorbance spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Erythromycin was found to release slowly from the fibrin clots over the first 2 hours but then degrade rapidly. Cefazolin was found to be very stable in clots in PBS (97% stable at 2 d and 93% stable at 5 d). The drug released in a controlled manner over 2 days, with most being released during the first day. The dose of drug released could be varied by changing the amount placed in the thrombin solution. Clot thickness had no effect on the rate of cefazolin release. Conclusion Overall, the 2-day release profile and the excellent stability of the drug suggest that cefazolin-loaded fibrin sealants may offer an effective route of postoperative antibiotic delivery. PMID:17152573

  15. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Li, L; Li, S M; Huang, J Y; Fan, Y P; Yao, Z J; Ye, X H; Chen, S D

    2017-07-01

    Pig farmers and veterinarians have high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) due to the occupational livestock exposure, while few reported this association on slaughterhouse workers. We conducted this cross-sectional study to explore the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China. Participants were interviewed and provided two nasal swabs. Swabs were tested for S. aureus, and isolates were further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes and multi-locus sequence typing. Compared with control workers, pig-related workers have significantly higher prevalence of MRSA carriage (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 3·70, 95% CI 1·63-8·40). The proportions of MRSA resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline or chloromycetin were significantly higher in pig-related workers than in control workers. The predominant phenotypes of S. aureus were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Three MRSA CC9 isolates with livestock-associated characteristics (resistance to tetracycline and absence of immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes) were detected in pig-related workers but not in control workers. For human-associated CCs (CC7, CC59, CC6, and CC188), there was no significant difference in IEC profile or antimicrobial resistance between the groups. These findings reveal that there may be a potential risk for livestock-to-human transmission of LA-MRSA and human-to-human transmission of human-associated MRSA.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes of Streptococcus obtained from dairy cows with mastitis in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuexia; Zhao, Junli; He, Xiuling; Li, Man; Guan, Hong; Zhang, Ziying; Li, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is the most expensive disease in the dairy cattle industry and results in decreased reproductive performance. Streptococcus, especially Streptococcus agalactiae, possesses a variety of virulence factors that contribute to pathogenicity. Streptococcus isolated from mastitis was tested to assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and distribution of antibiotic resistance- and virulence-related genes. Eighty-one Streptococcus isolates were phenotypically characterized for antimicrobial resistance against 15 antibiotics by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using a micro-dilution method. Resistance- and virulence-related genes were detected by PCR. High percentage of resistance to β-lactams, along with tetracycline and erythromycin, was found. Resistance to three or more of seven antimicrobial agents was observed at 88.9%, with penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin-clindamycin as the major profile in Streptococcus isolates. Resistant genes were detected by PCR, the result showed that 86.4, 86.4, 81.5, and 38.3% of isolates were mainly carrying the pbp2b, tetL, tetM, and ermB genes, respectively. Nine virulence genes were investigated. Genes cyl, glnA, cfb, hylB, and scaA were found to be in 50% of isolates, while 3.7, 21, and 4.9% of isolates were positive for bca, lmb, and scpB, genes, respectively. None of the isolates carried the bac gene. This study suggests the need for prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary clinical medicine to avoid the increase and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in animals.

  17. Effects of antibiotic treatment on the lactobacillus composition of vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Melkumyan, A R; Priputnevich, T V; Ankirskaya, A S; Murav'eva, V V; Lubasovskaya, L A

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed sensitivity of 123 vaginal lactobacillus strains to antibacterial substances. All lactobacillus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin, and insensitive to metronidazole, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Lactobacillus strains demonstrated different sensitivity to gentamycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. The phenomenon of preferential selective influence of antibacterial drugs on the composition of lactobacilli of the vaginal microbiota, in which some lactobacilli survive as part of the vaginal microbiota and have a selective advantage over other types of lactobacilli, should be taken into account during treatment of vaginal infections and dysbiosis.

  18. Impairment of innate immune killing mechanisms by bacteriostatic antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kristian, Sascha A; Timmer, Anjuli M; Liu, George Y; Lauth, Xavier; Sal-Man, Neta; Rosenfeld, Yosef; Shai, Yechiel; Gallo, Richard L; Nizet, Victor

    2007-04-01

    Antibiotics are designed to support host defense in controlling infection. Here we describe a paradoxical inhibitory effect of bacteriostatic antibiotics on key mediators of mammalian innate immunity. When growth of species including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus is suppressed by chloramphenicol or erythromycin, the susceptibility of the bacteria to cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides or serum complement was markedly diminished. Survival of the bacteria in human whole blood, human wound fluid, or a mouse wound infection model was in turn increased after antibiotic-induced bacteriostasis. These findings provide a further rationale against the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.

  19. In vitro drug susceptibility pattern of Mycoplasma alligatoris isolated from symptomatic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Brown, Daniel R; Jacobson, Elliott R; Brown, Mary B

    2002-06-01

    A recently described mycoplasma, Mycoplasma alligatoris, was isolated from dead American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) that had demonstrated clinical signs of lethargy, anorexia, bilateral ocular discharge, edema. paraparesis, and polyarthritis. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration for nine antibacterial agents was determined through serial dilution in broth and plate culture for M. alligatoris isolates. The inhibitory concentration obtained for doxycycline, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and tylosin (< 1 microg/ml) was lower than that of clindamycin (1-8 microg/ml), chloramphenicol (8-16 microg/ml), and erythromycin (32-138 microg/ml).

  20. Ocular bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompromised man.

    PubMed

    Murray, Meltzer A; Zamecki, Katherine J; Paskowski, Joseph; Lelli, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    An immunocompromised man presented with an inflammatory eyelid lesion. Biopsy was performed; histopathology and special staining confirmed a diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. The man was treated with oral erythromycin, and the lesion resolved. The etiologic agents of bacillary angiomatosis are Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, Gram-negative coccobacilli. The organisms stain positively with the Warthin-Starry silver stain. Lesions can be cutaneous or visceral and have been commonly described in immunocompromised patients. Histopathologic examination of lesions reveals angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. Bacillary angiomatosis can be treated with oral antibiotics.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae recovered from Missouri swine.

    PubMed

    Fales, W H; Morehouse, L G; Mittal, K R; Bean-Knudsen, C; Nelson, S L; Kintner, L D; Turk, J R; Turk, M A; Brown, T P; Shaw, D P

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae isolates from swine in Missouri was determined with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test system. Serotyping was accomplished by means of co-agglutination. Serotype 1 (39/73) and serotype 5 (30/73) were commonly found, whereas serotype 7 (4/73) was infrequently encountered. Most isolates (MIC90) were found susceptible to ampicillin (amoxicillin), cephalothin, penicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Marked resistance was found with oxytetracycline, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine. The data indicate that use of ampicillin (amoxicillin) or penicillin may correlate well with the favorable outcome of treatment.

  2. Treating chancroid: summary of studies in southern Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, R C; Duncan, M O; Fehler, H G; Dangor, Y; Exposto, F L; Latif, A S

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies undertaken in southern Africa and elsewhere indicate that many short or single dose treatments are available to treat chancroid. Erythromycin 500 mg three times a day for five days, ciprofloxacin 500 mg, sulphamethopyrazine 800 mg and trimethoprim 1000 mg or sulphametrole 3200 mg and trimethoprim 640 mg as single oral doses, or ceftriaxone 250 mg as a single intramuscular injection are all effective in treating the disease. The widespread use of these regimens largely depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, susceptibilities of local Haemophilus ducreyi isolates to antimicrobials, and financial considerations. PMID:2629710

  3. A fatal case of Legionnaire's disease following a total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Maniglia, A J; Greenman, R L; Saldana, M

    1979-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease (LD) has been responsible for the death of many patients in several outbreaks in the United States and abroad. The Legionnaire's bacterium is still unclassified. Deoxyribonucleic acid studies of its genes have not yet found a near relative. A case of a 63-year-old man who had a total larynegectomy for cancer of the larynx is reported. He had an extensive postoperative pneumonia, secondary to LD. The diagnosis was made while the patient was alive, but he died on the 35th hospital day in spite of erythromycin treatment.

  4. Antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    PubMed

    Yudin, Mark H; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Eyk, Nancy Van

    2009-09-01

    -A) 2. The use of antibiotics should be gestational-age dependent. The evidence for benefit is greater at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks). (I-A) 3. For women with PPROM at > 32 weeks' gestation, administration of antibiotics to prolong pregnancy is recommended if fetal lung maturity can not be proven and/or delivery is not planned. (I-A) 4. Antibiotic regimens may consist of an initial parenteral phase followed by an oral phase, or may consist of only an oral phase. (I-A) 5. Antibiotics of choice are penicillins or macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin) in parenteral and/or oral forms. (I-A) In patients allergic to penicillin, macrolide antibiotics should be used alone. (III-B) 6. The following two regimens may be used (the two regimens were used in the largest PPROM randomized controlled trials that showed a decrease in both maternal and neonatal morbidity): (1) ampicillin 2 g IV every 6 hours and erythromycin 250 mg IV every 6 hours for 48 hours followed by amoxicillin 250 mg orally every 8 hours and erythromycin 333 mg orally every 8 hours for 5 days (I-A); (2) erythromycin 250 mg orally every 6 hours for 10 days (I-A) 7. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should not be used because of an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates exposed to this antibiotic. Amoxicillin without clavulanic acid is safe. (I-A) 8. Women presenting with PPROM should be screened for urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, and group B streptococcus carriage, and treated with appropriate antibiotics if positive. (II-2B).

  5. 75 FR 21300 - North American Bioproducts Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... antimicrobial processing aid in fuel- ethanol fermentations with respect to its consequent presence in by... aid in fuel- ethanol fermentations with respect to its consequent presence in by- product distiller...

  6. 76 FR 22904 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...-ethanol fermentations with respect to its consequent presence in byproduct distiller grains used as an... thiocyanate as an antimicrobial processing aid in fuel-ethanol fermentations with respect to its [[Page 22905...

  7. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log K ow ), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synergy between antibiotics and natural agents results in increased antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Syed Hani; Ahmed, Khalid; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2015-09-27

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most frequent causes of biofilm-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. With the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), there is an urgent need to discover novel active agents against a range of Gram-positive pathogens. We screened the clinical isolates of S. epidermidis for susceptibility/resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Furthermore, we tested some natural agents alone and in combination with antibiotics to find possible synergistic antimicrobial effects. S. epidermidis clinical isolates were screened for susceptibility/resistance against vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ofloxacin, cephalexin, and gentamicin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The antimicrobial potential of Camellia sinensis, Juglans regia, and Hippophae rhamnoides alone and in combination with antibiotics were examined using the disk diffusion method, where the antimicrobial potential activity was measured in terms of formation of zones of inhibition. Most S. epidermidis isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. Gentamycin and ofloxacin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against S. epidermidis isolates. Extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides, Juglans regia, and Camellia sinensis were found to be equally effective against S. epidermidis isolates. In combination with antibiotics, these extracts exhibited appreciable synergistic activity; the highest synergistic activity was observed with erythromycin and cephalexin. In the case of cephalexin, a reversion in resistance was observed. The plant extracts used in the study exhibited additive and synergistic antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis, hence providing an effective alternative to deal with the problem of multidrug resistance.

  9. Costs and health consequences of chlamydia management strategies among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Romoren, M; Hussein, F; Steen, T W; Velauthapillai, M; Sundby, J; Hjortdahl, P; Kristiansen, I S

    2007-12-01

    Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a major cause of morbidity-particularly among women and neonates. We compared costs and health consequences of using point-of-care (POC) tests with current syndromic management among antenatal care attendees in sub-Saharan Africa. We also compared erythromycin with azithromycin treatment and universal with age-based chlamydia management. A decision analytical model was developed to compare diagnostic and treatment strategies, using Botswana as a case. Model input was based upon (1) a study of pregnant women in Botswana, (2) literature reviews and (3) expert opinion. We expressed the study outcome in terms of costs (US$), cases cured, magnitude of overtreatment and successful partner treatment. Azithromycin was less costly and more effective than erythromycin. Compared with syndromic management, testing all attendees on their first visit with a 75% sensitive POC test increased the number of cases cured from 1500 to 3500 in a population of 100,000 women, at a cost of US$38 per additional case cured. This cost was lower in high-prevalence populations or if testing was restricted to teenagers. The specific POC tests provided the advantage of substantial reductions in overtreatment with antibiotics and improved partner management. Using POC tests to diagnose chlamydia during antenatal care in sub-Saharan Africa entails greater health benefits than syndromic management does-and at acceptable costs-especially when restricted to younger women. Changes in diagnostic strategy and treatment regimens may improve people's health and even reduce healthcare budgets.

  10. Higher plasma motilin levels in obese patients decrease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and regulate hunger.

    PubMed

    Deloose, E; Janssen, P; Lannoo, M; Van der Schueren, B; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2016-07-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex (MMC) signal hunger in healthy volunteers. The current aim was to study the role of motilin as a hunger-inducing factor in obese patients and to evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on plasma motilin levels and hunger scores. Motilin and ghrelin plasma levels were determined during a complete MMC cycle in controls and obese patients selected for RYGB before, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 20 min after the end of the second phase III, obese patients received an intravenous infusion of 40 mg erythromycin. Hunger was scored every 5 min. Hedonic hunger was assessed in obese patients with the Power of Food Scale questionnaire. Obesity caused a switch in the origin of phase III from antrum to duodenum. Obese patients had significantly higher motilin levels compared with controls during the MMC but tended to lack the motilin peak prior to phase III necessary to trigger hunger. Hunger scores during phase III were significantly lower in obese patients, but could be restored to control levels through the administration of a low dose of the motilin agonist, erythromycin. After RYGB surgery motilin, but not ghrelin, levels decreased in parallel with hedonic hunger scores. Motilin may be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Oxyrase, a method which avoids CO2 in the incubation atmosphere for anaerobic susceptibility testing of antibiotics affected by CO2.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Appelbaum, P C

    1993-02-01

    The Oxyrase agar dilution method, with exclusion of CO2 from the environment, was compared with the reference agar dilution method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (anaerobic chamber with 10% CO2) to test the susceptibility of 51 gram-negative and 43 gram-positive anaerobes to azithromycin and erythromycin. With the Oxyrase method, anaerobiosis was achieved by incorporation of the O2-binding enzyme Oxyrase in addition to susceptibility test medium, antibiotic, and enzyme substrates into the upper level of a biplate. Plates were covered with a Brewer lid and incubated in ambient air. With azithromycin, Oxyrase yielded an MIC for 50% of strains tested (MIC50) and MIC90 of 2.0 and 8.0 micrograms/ml, compared to 8.0 and > 32.0 micrograms/ml in standard anaerobic conditions. At a breakpoint of 8.0 micrograms/ml, 90.4% of strains were susceptible to azithromycin with Oxyrase, compared to 53.2% in the chamber. The corresponding erythromycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 1.0 and 8.0 micrograms/ml with Oxyrase, compared to 4.0 and > 32.0 micrograms/ml by the reference method, with 89.3% of strains susceptible at a breakpoint of 4 micrograms/ml with Oxyrase, compared to 60.6% in CO2. Exclusion of CO2 from the anaerobic atmosphere when testing for susceptibility to azalides and macrolides yielded lower MICs, which may lead to a reconsideration of the role played by these compounds in treatment of infections caused by these strains.

  12. Phenotypical and Genotypical Antimicrobial Resistance of Coagulase-negative staphylococci Isolated from Cow Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Klimiene, I; Virgailis, M; Pavilonis, A; Siugzdiniene, R; Mockeliunas, R; Ruzauskas, M

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci were evaluated by breakpoint values specific to the species (EU-CAST). The presence of resistance-encoding genes was detected by multiplex PCR. A total of 191 CNS isolates were obtained. The CNS isolates were typically resistant to penicillin (67.4%), tetracyc-line (18.9%), and erythromycin (13.7%). CNS isolates (78.0%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound, and 22.0% were multiresistant. The multiresistant isolates were predominantly Staphylococcus chromogenes (28.6%), Staphylococcus warneri (19%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (14.3%). According to MIC pattern data, multiresistant isolates showed the highest resistance (p<0.05) rates to penicillin (85.7%), tetracycline (66.7%), and erythromycin (48.2%), but all of them were sensitive to daptomycin, oxacillin, qiunupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin. S. chromogenes (9.5%), S. haemolyticus (4.8%), and S. capitis ss capitis (2.4%) strains were resistant to methicillin; their resistance to oxacillin and penicillin was more than 8 mg/l. A high rate of resistance to penicillin was linked to a blaZ gene found in 66.6% of the isolated multiresistant CNS strains. Resistance to tetracycline via the tetK (38.1%) gene and penicillin via the mecA (23.8%) gene were detected less frequently. Gene msrAB was responsible for macrolides and lincosamides resistance and detected in 28.6% of the CNS isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified more frequently in S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes, and S. warneri.

  13. Solvent effect on the synthesis of clarithromycin: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Dilek; Aviyente, Viktorya; Baysal, Canan

    2004-02-01

    Clarithromycin (6- O-methylerythromycin A) is a 14-membered macrolide antibiotic which is active in vitro against clinically important gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The selectivity of the methylation of the C-6 OH group is studied on erythromycin A derivatives. To understand the effect of the solvent on the methylation process, detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in pure DMSO, pure THF and DMSO:THF (1:1) mixture by using the anions at the C-6, C-11 and C-12 positions of 2',4''-[ O-bis(TMS)]erythromycin A 9-[ O-(dimethylthexylsilyl)oxime] under the assumption that the anions are stable on the sub-nanosecond time scale. The conformations of the anions are not affected by the presence of the solvent mixture. The radial distribution functions are computed for the distribution of different solvent molecules around the `O-' of the anions. At distances shorter than 5 Å, DMSO molecules are found to cluster around the C-11 anion, whereas the anion at the C-12 position is surrounded by the THF molecules. The anion at the C-6 position is not blocked by the solvent molecules. The results are consistent with the experimental finding that the methylation yield at the latter position is increased in the presence of a DMSO:THF (1:1) solvent mixture. Thus, the effect of the solvent in enhancing the yield during the synthesis is not by changing the conformational properties of the anions, but rather by creating a suitable environment for methylation at the C-6 position.

  14. Fate of NDMA precursors through an MBR-NF pilot plant for urban wastewater reclamation and the effect of changing aeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Julian; Insa, Sara; Monclús, Hèctor; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim; Barceló, Damià; Farré, Maria José

    2016-10-01

    The removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential through a membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled to a nanofiltration (NF) pilot plant that treats urban wastewater is investigated. The results are compared to the fate of the individual NDMA precursors detected: azithromycin, citalopram, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ranitidine, venlafaxine and its metabolite o-desmethylvenlafaxine. Specifically, the effect of dissolved oxygen in the aerobic chamber of the MBR pilot plant on the removal of NDMA formation potential (FP) and individual precursors is studied. During normal aerobic operation, implying a fully nitrifying system, the MBR was able to reduce NDMA precursors above 94%, however this removal percentage was reduced to values as low as 72% when changing the conditions to minimize nitrification. Removal decreased also for azithromycin (68-59%), citalopram (31-17%), venlafaxine (35-15%) and erythromycin (61-16%) on average during nitrifying versus non-nitrifying conditions. The removal of clarithromycin, o-desmethylvenlafaxine and ranitidine could not be correlated with the nitrification inhibition, as it varied greatly during the experiment time. The MBR pilot plant is coupled to a nanofiltration (NF) system and the results on the rejection of both, NDMA FP and individual precursors, through this system was above 90%. Finally, results obtained for the MBR pilot plant are compared to the percentage of removal by a conventional full scale biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fed with the same influent. During aerobic operation, the removal of NDMA FP by the MBR pilot plant was similar to the full scale WWTP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary surgical and trauma hospital in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Buzaid, Najat; Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Taher, Ibrahim; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2011-10-13

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant organism that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide and causes a threat almost exclusively in hospitals and long-term care settings. This study investigated the prevalence of MRSA strains and their sensitivity patterns against various antibiotics used for treating hospitalized patients in a major tertiary surgical hospital in Benghazi, Libya. We investigated 200 non-duplicate S. aureus strains isolated from different clinical specimens submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Aljala Surgical and Trauma Hospital, Benghazi, Libya from April to July 2007. Isolates were tested for methicillin resistance by the oxacillin disc-diffusion assay according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. MRSA strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance (i.e., vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and fusidic acid) using commercial discs. Information on patient demographics and clinical disease was also collected. Of the isolates examined 31% (62/200) were MRSA. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus from females or males or from different age groups. Most MRSA were isolated from burns and surgical wound infections. Antibiotic resistance patterns of 62 patients with MRSA to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and erythromycin were 17.7%, 33.9%, 41.9%, 38.7% and 46.8% of cases, respectively. MRSA prevalence in our hospital was high and this may be the case for other hospitals in Libya. A sound surveillance program of nosocomial infections is urgently needed to reduce the incidence of infections due to MRSA and other antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in Libyan hospitals.

  16. Prophylactic Antibiotic Use in COPD and the Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Anthony W; Fairclough, Lucy C; Todd, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotics have previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, and they have been linked to therapeutic benefit in several pulmonary conditions that feature inflammation. Previous research suggests that these anti-inflammatory properties may be beneficial in the treatment of COPD. This review assesses the potential benefit of prophylactic, long-term, and low-dose antibiotic therapy in COPD, and whether any effects seen are anti-inflammatory in nature. Randomized, controlled trials comparing antibiotic therapy with placebo in subjects with stable COPD were evaluated. Twelve trials involving 3,784 participants and a range of antibiotics were included: azithromycin (6 studies, 1,972 participants), clarithromycin (1 study, 67 participants), erythromycin (3 studies, 254 participants), roxithromycin (1 study, 191 participants), and moxifloxacin (2 studies, 1,198 participants). In vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo experimental study designs exploring the mechanisms via which antibiotics may act in subjects with stable COPD were evaluated. Azithromycin and erythromycin showed the greatest effect in subjects with COPD, with evidence suggesting improvement in exacerbation-related outcomes and health status, as measured by the St George Respiratory Questionnaire. An increase in antibiotic resistance was reported in 2 studies. The macrolide class of antibiotics exhibited convincing anti-inflammatory properties with relevance to COPD, implicating several pathways as potential mechanisms of action. In conclusion, the therapeutic benefit of macrolide antibiotics in subjects with stable COPD is consistent with anti-inflammatory properties, and macrolides should be considered as a potential therapy in COPD. Safety concerns regarding antibiotic resistance need to be addressed before widespread use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Changing Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asian Countries: an Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Hyun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Yang, Yonghong; Wang, Hui; Lu, Min; So, Thomas Man-kit; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Yasin, Rohani M.; Carlos, Celia C.; Pham, Hung Van; Lalitha, M. K.; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Perera, Jennifer; Shibl, Atef M.; Baek, Jin Yang; Kang, Cheol-In; Ko, Kwan Soo; Peck, Kyong Ran

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a serious concern worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) performed a prospective surveillance study of 2,184 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients with pneumococcal infections from 60 hospitals in 11 Asian countries from 2008 to 2009. Among nonmeningeal isolates, the prevalence rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) was 4.6% and penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml) was extremely rare (0.7%). Resistance to erythromycin was very prevalent in the region (72.7%); the highest rates were in China (96.4%), Taiwan (84.9%), and Vietnam (80.7%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 59.3% of isolates from Asian countries. Major serotypes were 19F (23.5%), 23F (10.0%), 19A (8.2%), 14 (7.3%), and 6B (7.3%). Overall, 52.5% of isolates showed PCV7 serotypes, ranging from 16.1% in Philippines to 75.1% in Vietnam. Serotypes 19A (8.2%), 3 (6.2%), and 6A (4.2%) were the most prominent non-PCV7 serotypes in the Asian region. Among isolates with serotype 19A, 86.0% and 79.8% showed erythromycin resistance and MDR, respectively. The most remarkable findings about the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Asian countries after the introduction of PCV7 were the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and MDR and distinctive increases in serotype 19A. PMID:22232285

  18. Evidence on Possible Mycoplasma Etiology of Aster Yellows Disease II. Suppression of Aster Yellows in Insect Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, R. F.; Davis, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    Chlortetracycline or chloramphenicol (but not kanamycin, penicillin, or erythromycin), when administered in hydroponic solution to diseased aster, reduced the availability of the aster yellows (AY) agent to nymphs of Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål). Insects exposed to healthy plants whose roots were immersed in chlortetracycline were able to acquire AY agent from diseased plants the day after removal from the antibiotic-treated plants, but the latent period of the ensuing disease in the insects was prolonged. Chlortetracycline or tylosin tartrate blocked AY infection in nymphs injected with a mixture of antibiotic and the AY agent, but polymyxin, neomycin, vancomycin, penicillin, carbomycin, or chloramphenicol did not. All tetracyclines tested, methacycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline, produced a dramatic reduction in the ability of infected vectors to transmit AY agent. Tylosin tartrate also reduced transmission when injected into AY-transmitting vectors, but carbomycin, spectinomycin, cycloserine, penicillin, erythromycin, or kanamycin had no such effect. During the first 10 days after injection of tylosin tartrate or oxytetracycline into transmitting vectors, ability of the insects to transmit AY decayed rapidly. Transmission by insects injected with buffer alone, after decreasing the first day after injection, gradually returned to its normal level in less than 1 week. By 2 to 3 weeks after injection with tylosin or oxytetracycline, ability to transmit AY was regained by vectors. The results suggest that tetracycline antibiotics and tylosin tartrate inhibit multiplication of AY agent in the insect. The spectrum of antibiotic activity in the insect is consistent with the hypothesis that AY and other plant yellows diseases are caused by mycoplasma-like organisms. PMID:16557821

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Actinomyces and related genera reveals an unusual clindamycin resistance among Actinomyces urogenitalis strains.

    PubMed

    Barberis, Claudia; Budia, Mabel; Palombarani, Susana; Rodriguez, Carlos Hernán; Ramírez, María Soledad; Arias, Barbara; Bonofiglio, Laura; Famiglietti, Angela; Mollerach, Marta; Almuzara, Marisa; Vay, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in Actinomyces and related genera are very limited in the literature. Data of predominant susceptibility profiles could contribute to the establishment of an accurate empirical treatment. A total of 113 isolates from clinical samples were included in this study. Each isolate was identified using phenotypic methods and MALDI-TOF/MS. When discrepancies were observed, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antimicrobial agents (penicillin, ceftriaxone, linezolid, tetracycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and vancomycin) were tested against the species Actinotignum schaalii (n=23), Actinomyces turicensis (n=18), Actinomyces europaeus (n=13), Actinomyces naeslundii/Actinomyces viscosus group (n=12), Actinomyces urogenitalis (n=11), Actinomyces radingae (n=11), Actinomyces neuii (n=9), Actinomyces odontolyticus (n=8), Bifidobacterium scardovii (n=3), Actinomyces graevenitzii (n=2), Alloscardovia omnicolens (n=2) and Varibaculum cambriense (n=1). All of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin and linezolid. Almost all of the A. urogenitalis isolates (8/11) were resistant to clindamycin and showed susceptibility to erythromycin, suggesting an L-phenotype, however no determinants of clindamycin resistance (lnu and lsa genes) were detected by PCR. High MIC values to quinolones were observed in 54/113 isolates (47.8%). All of the A. urogenitalis isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. These data highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance to provide relevant information for empirical management of infections caused by these organisms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Haemophilus parasuis CpxRA two-component system confers bacterial tolerance to environmental stresses and macrolide resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi; Feng, Fenfen; Wang, Huan; Xu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Huanchun; Cai, Xuwang; Wang, Xiangru

    2018-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen localized in the upper respiratory tracts of pigs, its infection begins from bacterial survival under complex conditions, like hyperosmosis, oxidative stress, phagocytosis, and sometimes antibiotics as well. The two-component signal transduction (TCST) system serves as a common stimulus-response mechanism that allows microbes to sense and respond to diverse environmental conditions via a series of phosphorylation reactions. In this study, we investigated the role of TCST system CpxRA in H. parasuis in response to different environmental stimuli by constructing the ΔcpxA and ΔcpxR single deletion mutants as well as the ΔcpxRA double deletion mutant from H. parasuis serotype 4 isolate JS0135. We demonstrated that H. parasuis TCST system CpxRA confers bacterial tolerance to stresses and bactericidal antibiotics. The CpxR was found to play essential roles in mediating oxidative stress, osmotic stresses and alkaline pH stress tolerance, as well as macrolide resistance (i.e. erythromycin), but the CpxA deletion did not decrease bacterial resistance to abovementioned stresses. Moreover, we found via RT-qPCR approach that HAPS_RS00160 and HAPS_RS09425, both encoding multidrug efflux pumps, were significantly decreased in erythromycin challenged ΔcpxR and ΔcpxRA mutants compared with wild-type strain JS0135. These findings characterize the role of the TCST system CpxRA in H. parasuis conferring stress response tolerance and bactericidal resistance, which will deepen our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism in H. parasuis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibiotic prescription in the treatment of odontogenic infection by health professionals: A factor to consensus

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Raquel; Cortell-Ballester, Isidoro; Herráez-Vilas, José M.; Arnau-de Bolós, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the attitude of dentists and family doctors in prescribing antibiotics for the treatment of dental infections. Study Design: A poll was performed to determine the differences in the prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of odontogenic infection by dentists and family doctors of the primary care department of the Catalan Health Care Service. Results: A hundred polls were distributed among family doctors, and another 100 ones among primary care dentists assigned to the Catalan Health Care Service of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Of the total of questionnaires distributed, 63 were retuned and answered from dentists and 71 from family doctors. Eighty-one percent of dentists included in the opinion poll considered amoxicillin as the first antibiotic choice for the treatment of odontogenic infections, while 73.2% of family doctors preferred the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. With regard to antibiotics of choice in patients allergic to penicillin, 67.7% of family doctors preferred macrolides (25.4% opted for clarithromycin, 25.4% for erythromycin and 16.9% for spiramycin). However, clindamycin was the antibiotic most frequently prescribed by dentists (66.7%), followed by erythromycin (28.6%). Conclusions: The results of this study show a large discrepancy in the criteria for the treatment of odontogenic infections on the part of leading professionals involved in the management of this condition. Although the most common prescription involved beta-lactam antibiotics in both groups, several significant differences have been detected with regard to the second antibiotic choice. Key words:Odontogenic infections, antibiotics, antimicrobials. PMID:22143715

  2. Different Antibiotic Resistance and Sporulation Properties within Multiclonal Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes 078, 126, and 033 in a Single Calf Farm

    PubMed Central

    Zidaric, Valerija; Pardon, Bart; dos Vultos, Tiago; Deprez, Piet; Brouwer, Michael Sebastiaan Maria; Roberts, Adam P.; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile strains were sampled periodically from 50 animals at a single veal calf farm over a period of 6 months. At arrival, 10% of animals were C. difficile positive, and the peak incidence was determined to occur at the age of 18 days (16%). The prevalence then decreased, and at slaughter, C. difficile could not be isolated. Six different PCR ribotypes were detected, and strains within a single PCR ribotype could be differentiated further by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PCR ribotype diversity was high up to the animal age of 18 days, but at later sampling points, PCR ribotype 078 and the highly related PCR ribotype 126 predominated. Resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and erythromycin was detected, while all strains were susceptible to amoxicillin and metronidazole. Multiple variations of the resistance gene tet(M) were present at the same sampling point, and these changed over time. We have shown that PCR ribotypes often associated with cattle (ribotypes 078, 126, and 033) were not clonal but differed in PFGE type, sporulation properties, antibiotic sensitivities, and tetracycline resistance determinants, suggesting that multiple strains of the same PCR ribotype infected the calves and that calves were likely to be infected prior to arrival at the farm. Importantly, strains isolated at later time points were more likely to be resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin and showed higher early sporulation efficiencies in vitro, suggesting that these two properties converge to promote the persistence of C. difficile in the environment or in hosts. PMID:23001653

  3. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 μg/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  4. Antimicrobial resistance, heavy metal resistance and integron content in bacteria isolated from a South African tilapia aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chenia, Hafizah Y; Jacobs, Anelet

    2017-11-21

    Antibacterial compounds and metals co-select for antimicrobial resistance when bacteria harbour resistance genes towards both types of compounds, facilitating the proliferation and evolution of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance. Antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance indices of 42 Gram-negative bacteria from a tilapia aquaculture system were determined to identify possible correlations between these phenotypes. Agar dilution assays were carried out to determine susceptibility to cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, chromate and zinc, while susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was investigated by disk diffusion assays. Presence of merA, the mercury resistance gene, was determined by dot-blot hybridizations and PCR. Association of mercury resistance with integrons and transposon Tn21 was also investigated by PCR. Isolates displayed a high frequency of antimicrobial (erythromycin: 100%; ampicillin: 85%; trimethoprim: 78%) and heavy metal (Zn2+: 95%; Cd2+: 91%) resistance. No correlation was established between heavy metal and multiple antibiotic resistance indices. Significant positive correlations were observed between heavy metal resistance profiles, indices, Cu2+ and Cr3+ resistance with erythromycin resistance. Significant positive correlations were observed between merA (24%)/Tn21 (24%) presence and heavy metal resistance profiles and indices; however, significant negative correlations were obtained between integron-associated qacE∆1 (43%) and sulI (26%) gene presence and heavy metal resistance indices. Heavy metal and antimicrobial agents co-select for resistance, with fish-associated, resistant bacteria demonstrating simultaneous heavy metal resistance. Thus, care should be taken when using anti-fouling heavy metals as feed additives in aquaculture facilities.

  5. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay

    2016-11-21

    The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.

  6. Effect of frequency-doubling pulse Nd:YAG laser on microbial mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yansheng; Wang, Luyan; Zheng, Heng; Yin, Hongping; Chen, Xiangdong; Tan, Zheng; Wu, Wutong

    1999-09-01

    We are going to report the mutagenic effect of frequency-doubling pulse Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) on microbe. After irradiation with pulse laser, mutants of abscisic acid producing strains and erythromycin producing strains were obtained, one of which could produce 62.1% and 57% more products than control, respectively. In the study of mutagenization of Spirulina platensis caused by pulse laser, we selected a high photosynthetic strains, with improved productivity of protein and exocellular ploysaccharides of 12% and 246%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that frequency-doubling pulse laser (532 nm) is a potential new type of physical mutagenic factor.

  7. Susceptibility of Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (Legionella micdadei) and other newly recognized members of the genus Legionella to nineteen antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Pasculle, A W; Dowling, J N; Weyant, R S; Sniffen, J M; Cordes, L G; Gorman, G M; Feeley, J C

    1981-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 11 strains representing the five recognized species of Legionella were determined by agar dilution testing on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar. All of the legionellae tested were susceptible to rifampin, erythromycin, rosaramycin, chloramphenicol, and the aminoglycosides and were resistant to clindamycin and vancomycin. Susceptibilities to penicillins and cephalosporins were variable. Legionella micdadei, Legionella bozemanii, and Legionella gormanii were susceptible to these agents, but minimal inhibitory concentrations for each species were different. Legionella dumoffii resembled Legionella pneumophila in being resistant to penicillin, cephalothin, and cephamandole and susceptible to moxalactam and cefoxitin. All species except L. micdadei produced beta-lactamase. PMID:7325645

  8. Activities of potential therapeutic and prophylactic antibiotics against blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from neutropenic patients receiving ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, P H; Patel, S; Whiley, R A; Hardie, J M; Gillespie, S H; Kibbler, C C

    1993-01-01

    All 47 sequential blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from febrile neutropenic patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and imipenem. Resistance to benzylpenicillin (MIC for 50% of isolates [MIC50], 0.125 microgram/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC50, 4 micrograms/ml) was common. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid at a 2:1 ratio by weight), azlocillin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin, with azithromycin showing comparable activity. The MIC90 of sparfloxacin was 1 microgram/ml; those for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were > 16 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:8285642

  9. [First confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Koeck, J L; Merle, C; Bimet, F; Kiredjian, M; Goullin, B; Teyssou, R

    2000-01-01

    The first bacteriologically confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti was reported in 1998. It involved a three-year-old native-born infant who had been vaccinated during the first year of life with three doses of a combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and pertussis. A rapid clinical improvement was observed under erythromycin treatment. Other cases of laryngeal diphtheria have been observed. It is important to reverse decreasing vaccinal coverage in Djibouti and to warn incoming travelers of the need to be adequate immunized against diphtheria. Enhanced epidemiologic surveillance of this disease is also needed.

  10. In vitro activities of nine peptide deformylase inhibitors and five comparator agents against respiratory and skin pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bowker, K E; Noel, A R; MacGowan, A P

    2003-12-01

    The activity of nine peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitors undergoing clinical evaluation were compared with co-amoxiclav, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin and telithromycin against a range of respiratory and skin pathogens (n=166). The PDF inhibitor showed good activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moxarella catarrhalis, Group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus irrespective of beta-lactam or fluoroquinolone susceptibility. Against Haemophilus influenzae, MIC(90) values were generally higher. BB-88488 was the most active compound. Overall these data suggest that PDF inhibitors are an interesting new class of antimicrobial worthy of further investigation in the treatment of respiratory tract and skin infections.

  11. Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Characterization of Enterococci from Houseflies Collected in Food Settings†

    PubMed Central

    Macovei, Lilia; Zurek, Ludek

    2006-01-01

    In this project, enterococci from the digestive tracts of 260 houseflies (Musca domestica L.) collected from five restaurants were characterized. Houseflies frequently (97% of the flies were positive) carried enterococci (mean, 3.1 × 103 CFU/fly). Using multiplex PCR, 205 of 355 randomly selected enterococcal isolates were identified and characterized. The majority of these isolates were Enterococcus faecalis (88.2%); in addition, 6.8% were E. faecium, and 4.9% were E. casseliflavus. E. faecalis isolates were phenotypically resistant to tetracycline (66.3%), erythromycin (23.8%), streptomycin (11.6%), ciprofloxacin (9.9%), and kanamycin (8.3%). Tetracycline resistance in E. faecalis was encoded by tet(M) (65.8%), tet(O) (1.7%), and tet(W) (0.8%). The majority (78.3%) of the erythromycin-resistant E. faecalis isolates carried erm(B). The conjugative transposon Tn916 and members of the Tn916/Tn1545 family were detected in 30.2% and 34.6% of the identified isolates, respectively. E. faecalis carried virulence genes, including a gelatinase gene (gelE; 70.7%), an aggregation substance gene (asa1; 33.2%), an enterococcus surface protein gene (esp; 8.8%), and a cytolysin gene (cylA; 8.8%). Phenotypic assays showed that 91.4% of the isolates with the gelE gene were gelatinolytic and that 46.7% of the isolates with the asa1 gene aggregated. All isolates with the cylA gene were hemolytic on human blood. This study showed that houseflies in food-handling and -serving facilities carry antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci that have the capacity for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria. PMID:16751512

  12. Ecology of antibiotic resistance genes: characterization of enterococci from houseflies collected in food settings.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Lilia; Zurek, Ludek

    2006-06-01

    In this project, enterococci from the digestive tracts of 260 houseflies (Musca domestica L.) collected from five restaurants were characterized. Houseflies frequently (97% of the flies were positive) carried enterococci (mean, 3.1 x 10(3) CFU/fly). Using multiplex PCR, 205 of 355 randomly selected enterococcal isolates were identified and characterized. The majority of these isolates were Enterococcus faecalis (88.2%); in addition, 6.8% were E. faecium, and 4.9% were E. casseliflavus. E. faecalis isolates were phenotypically resistant to tetracycline (66.3%), erythromycin (23.8%), streptomycin (11.6%), ciprofloxacin (9.9%), and kanamycin (8.3%). Tetracycline resistance in E. faecalis was encoded by tet(M) (65.8%), tet(O) (1.7%), and tet(W) (0.8%). The majority (78.3%) of the erythromycin-resistant E. faecalis isolates carried erm(B). The conjugative transposon Tn916 and members of the Tn916/Tn1545 family were detected in 30.2% and 34.6% of the identified isolates, respectively. E. faecalis carried virulence genes, including a gelatinase gene (gelE; 70.7%), an aggregation substance gene (asa1; 33.2%), an enterococcus surface protein gene (esp; 8.8%), and a cytolysin gene (cylA; 8.8%). Phenotypic assays showed that 91.4% of the isolates with the gelE gene were gelatinolytic and that 46.7% of the isolates with the asa1 gene aggregated. All isolates with the cylA gene were hemolytic on human blood. This study showed that houseflies in food-handling and -serving facilities carry antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci that have the capacity for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria.

  13. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in global lakes: A review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Song, Wenjuan; Lin, Hui; Wang, Weibo; Du, Linna; Xing, Wei

    2018-04-10

    Lakes are an important source of freshwater, containing nearly 90% of the liquid surface fresh water worldwide. Long retention times in lakes mean pollutants from discharges slowly circulate around the lakes and may lead to high ecological risk for ecosystem and human health. In recent decades, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been regarded as emerging pollutants. The occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and ARGs in global freshwater lakes are summarized to show the pollution level of antibiotics and ARGs and to identify some of the potential risks to ecosystem and human health. Fifty-seven antibiotics were reported at least once in the studied lakes. Our meta-analysis shows that sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfameter, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, and roxithromycin were found at high concentrations in both lake water and lake sediment. There is no significant difference in the concentration of sulfonamides in lake water from China and that from other countries worldwide; however, there was a significant difference in quinolones. Erythromycin had the lowest predicted hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC 5 ) and the highest ecological risk in lakes. There was no significant difference in the concentration of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2) in lake water and river water. There is surprisingly limited research on the role of aquatic biota in propagation of ARGs in freshwater lakes. As an environment that is susceptible to cumulative build-up of pollutants, lakes provide an important environment to study the fate of antibiotics and transport of ARGs with a broad range of niches including bacterial community, aquatic plants and animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Azithromycin: an assessment of its pharmacokinetics and therapeutic potential in CAPD.

    PubMed

    Kent, J R; Almond, M K; Dhillon, S

    2001-01-01

    Azithromycin is an azalide antibiotic with a similar antibacterial spectrum to erythromycin but with greater gram-negative activity. Azithromycin displays a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, with improved absorption and higher sustained tissue concentrations compared with erythromycin. This results in a prolonged elimination half-life, suggesting a potential for treating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. This study aimed to define the potential role of azithromycin in treating CAPD peritonitis. The pharmacokinetics and peritoneal dialysis (PD) clearance of azithromycin were studied following a single 500-mg oral dose of azithromycin. Blood and dialysate samples were taken over a 10-day period and assayed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The study took place within the Renal Unit at Southend Hospital NHS Trust, a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Eight patients with oliguric end-stage renal failure without peritonitis maintained on CAPD (3 x 2 L/day). Peak plasma concentrations occurred at 2-3 hours with 0.35-1.35 microg/mL (mean 0.75). The mean elimination half-life was 84.55 hrs, and plasma clearance was 21.93 L/hour. This compares with values of greater than 40 hours and 40.8 L/hour reported in healthy volunteers. After 8 hours, the mean dialysate concentration was 0.07 microg/mL; PD clearance was 0.06 L/hr. Azithromycin is not substantially removed by CAPD in the absence of peritonitis and cannot be recommended for widespread use in this setting at present. However, the successful use of azithromycin in CAPD peritonitis, due possibly to an intracellular drug transport mechanism, has been reported. Future research should address this possibility.

  15. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011–13 in the Gulf States

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer, A.; Rafay, A. M.; Daoud, Z.; Morrissey, I.; Torumkuney, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide surveillance data on the susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract isolates from four Gulf and Near East countries from 2011 to 2013. Methods MICs were determined using Etests® for all antibiotics evaluated except erythromycin, where testing was by disc diffusion. Susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. Results Seven hundred and twenty-six respiratory isolates comprising 265 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 125 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 336 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were collected from Bahrain, Lebanon, Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Among S. pneumoniae, susceptibility to penicillin was low in the UAE and Bahrain. Macrolide susceptibility was ∼45%–60% in the UAE and Oman but higher in Lebanon (73.7%) and Bahrain (84%–85%). Penicillin susceptibility using CLSI intravenous breakpoints was >85% in all countries. Antibiotic susceptibility of S. pneumoniae was lower in UAE and Oman. Among S. pyogenes isolates, resistance to erythromycin was highest in Oman (31.6%) but <20% in the other countries. In H. influenzae, susceptibility to most antibiotics was high, except for ampicillin in Lebanon (70.2%) and amoxicillin in Oman (95.4%). Lebanon also had a high percentage (14.9%) of β-lactamase-positive isolates with non-susceptibility to ampicillin. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid susceptibility was >95% in all countries. Use of EUCAST versus CLSI breakpoints demonstrated profound differences for cefaclor and cefuroxime in S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, with EUCAST showing lower susceptibility. Conclusions There was considerable variability in susceptibility among countries in the same region. Thus, continued surveillance is necessary to track future changes in antibiotic resistance. PMID:27048582

  16. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2012–14 in Thailand, India, South Korea and Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Torumkuney, D.; Chaiwarith, R.; Reechaipichitkul, W.; Malatham, K.; Chareonphaibul, V.; Rodrigues, C.; Chitins, D. S.; Dias, M.; Anandan, S.; Kanakapura, S.; Park, Y. J.; Lee, K.; Lee, H.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, Y.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Tan, T. Y.; Heng, Y. X.; Mukherjee, P.; Morrissey, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide susceptibility data for community-acquired respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected in 2012–14 from four Asian countries. Methods MICs were determined using Etest® for all antibiotics except erythromycin, which was evaluated by disc diffusion. Susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. For macrolide/clindamycin interpretation, breakpoints were adjusted for incubation in CO2 where available. Results Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae was generally lower in South Korea than in other countries. Penicillin susceptibility assessed using CLSI oral or EUCAST breakpoints ranged from 21.2% in South Korea to 63.8% in Singapore. In contrast, susceptibility using CLSI intravenous breakpoints was much higher, at 79% in South Korea and ∼95% or higher elsewhere. Macrolide susceptibility was ∼20% in South Korea and ∼50%–60% elsewhere. Among S. pyogenes isolates (India only), erythromycin susceptibility (∼20%) was lowest of the antibiotics tested. In H. influenzae antibiotic susceptibility was high except for ampicillin, where susceptibility ranged from 16.7% in South Korea to 91.1% in India. South Korea also had a high percentage (18.1%) of β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant isolates. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid susceptibility for each pathogen (PK/PD high dose) was between 93% and 100% in all countries except for H. influenzae in South Korea (62.5%). Conclusions Use of EUCAST versus CLSI breakpoints had profound differences for cefaclor, cefuroxime and ofloxacin, with EUCAST showing lower susceptibility. There was considerable variability in susceptibility among countries in the same region. Thus, continued surveillance is necessary to track future changes in antibiotic resistance. PMID:27048580

  17. Fate of antibiotics from hospital and domestic sources in a sewage network.

    PubMed

    Dinh, QuocTuc; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Eurin, Joelle; Chevreuil, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of domestic and hospital effluents in a sewage system of an elementary watershed showed that antibiotics belonging to eight classes were present with concentrations ranging from erythromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, ormethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin and seven quinolones (flumequine, enrofloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin). Antibiotic concentrations in the hospital effluent (from 0.04 to 17.9μgL -1 ) were ten times higher than those measured in the domestic effluent (from 0.03 to 1.75μgL -1 ), contributing to 90% of the antibiotic inputs to the WWTP. Some molecules such as sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin and trimethoprim displayed higher concentrations after wastewater treatment due to deconjugation of their metabolites, which restores the parent molecules. For other compounds, the antibiotic elimination showed discrepancies depending on their physicochemical properties. For fluoroquinolones, the apparent removal processes were mainly based on adsorption mechanisms, followed by settling, leading to sludge contamination (from 13 to 18,800μgkg -1 dry weight). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Shared Population of Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 Circulates in Humans and Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ewan M.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Welch, John J.; Wilson, Katherine; Morgan, Fiona J. E.; Harris, Simon R.; Loeffler, Anette; Boag, Amanda K.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Waller, Andrew S.; Parkhill, Julian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a global human health problem causing infections in both hospitals and the community. Companion animals, such as cats, dogs, and horses, are also frequently colonized by MRSA and can become infected. We sequenced the genomes of 46 multilocus sequence type (ST) 22 MRSA isolates from cats and dogs in the United Kingdom and compared these to an extensive population framework of human isolates from the same lineage. Phylogenomic analyses showed that all companion animal isolates were interspersed throughout the epidemic MRSA-15 (EMRSA-15) pandemic clade and clustered with human isolates from the United Kingdom, with human isolates basal to those from companion animals, suggesting a human source for isolates infecting companion animals. A number of isolates from the same veterinary hospital clustered together, suggesting that as in human hospitals, EMRSA-15 isolates are readily transmitted in the veterinary hospital setting. Genome-wide association analysis did not identify any host-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or virulence factors. However, isolates from companion animals were significantly less likely to harbor a plasmid encoding erythromycin resistance. When this plasmid was present in animal-associated isolates, it was more likely to contain mutations mediating resistance to clindamycin. This finding is consistent with the low levels of erythromycin and high levels of clindamycin used in veterinary medicine in the United Kingdom. This study furthers the “one health” view of infectious diseases that the pathogen pool of human and animal populations are intrinsically linked and provides evidence that antibiotic usage in animal medicine is shaping the population of a major human pathogen. PMID:24825010

  19. Ribosomal Mutations Conferring Macrolide Resistance in Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Descours, Ghislaine; Ginevra, Christophe; Jacotin, Nathalie; Forey, Françoise; Chastang, Joëlle; Kay, Elisabeth; Etienne, Jerome; Lina, Gérard; Doublet, Patricia; Jarraud, Sophie

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring the emergence of antibiotic resistance is a recent issue in the treatment of Legionnaires' disease. Macrolides are recommended as first-line therapy, but resistance mechanisms have not been studied in Legionella species. Our aim was to determine the molecular basis of macrolide resistance in L. pneumophila Twelve independent lineages from a common susceptible L. pneumophila ancestral strain were propagated under conditions of erythromycin or azithromycin pressure to produce high-level macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 12 selected clones, and we investigated mutations common to all lineages. We reconstructed the dynamics of mutation for each lineage and demonstrated their involvement in decreased susceptibility to macrolides. The resistant mutants were produced in a limited number of passages to obtain a 4,096-fold increase in erythromycin MICs. Mutations affected highly conserved 5-amino-acid regions of L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins and of domain V of 23S rRNA (G2057, A2058, A2059, and C2611 nucleotides). The early mechanisms mainly affected L4 and L22 proteins and induced a 32-fold increase in the MICs of the selector drug. Additional mutations related to 23S rRNA mostly occurred later and were responsible for a major increase of macrolide MICs, depending on the mutated nucleotide, the substitution, and the number of mutated genes among the three rrl copies. The major mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility to macrolides in L. pneumophila and their dynamics were determined. The results showed that macrolide resistance could be easily selected in L. pneumophila and warrant further investigations in both clinical and environmental settings. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Ribosomal Mutations Conferring Macrolide Resistance in Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Ginevra, Christophe; Jacotin, Nathalie; Forey, Françoise; Chastang, Joëlle; Kay, Elisabeth; Etienne, Jerome; Lina, Gérard; Doublet, Patricia; Jarraud, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monitoring the emergence of antibiotic resistance is a recent issue in the treatment of Legionnaires' disease. Macrolides are recommended as first-line therapy, but resistance mechanisms have not been studied in Legionella species. Our aim was to determine the molecular basis of macrolide resistance in L. pneumophila. Twelve independent lineages from a common susceptible L. pneumophila ancestral strain were propagated under conditions of erythromycin or azithromycin pressure to produce high-level macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 12 selected clones, and we investigated mutations common to all lineages. We reconstructed the dynamics of mutation for each lineage and demonstrated their involvement in decreased susceptibility to macrolides. The resistant mutants were produced in a limited number of passages to obtain a 4,096-fold increase in erythromycin MICs. Mutations affected highly conserved 5-amino-acid regions of L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins and of domain V of 23S rRNA (G2057, A2058, A2059, and C2611 nucleotides). The early mechanisms mainly affected L4 and L22 proteins and induced a 32-fold increase in the MICs of the selector drug. Additional mutations related to 23S rRNA mostly occurred later and were responsible for a major increase of macrolide MICs, depending on the mutated nucleotide, the substitution, and the number of mutated genes among the three rrl copies. The major mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility to macrolides in L. pneumophila and their dynamics were determined. The results showed that macrolide resistance could be easily selected in L. pneumophila and warrant further investigations in both clinical and environmental settings. PMID:28069647

  1. In vitro activity of pazufloxacin, tosufloxacin and other quinolones against Legionella species.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Akamine, Morikazu; Haranaga, Shusaku; Tohyama, Masato; Shinzato, Takashi; Tateyama, Masao; Koide, Michio; Saito, Atsushi; Fujita, Jiro

    2005-12-01

    The activities of pazufloxacin and tosufloxacin against Legionella spp. were evaluated in vitro and compared with those of other quinolones, macrolides and azithromycin. The conventional MICs were determined by the microbroth dilution method. Intracellular activities of drugs were evaluated by a cfu count. The minimal extracellular concentration inhibiting intracellular growth of bacteria (MIEC) was determined by a colorimetric cytopathic assay. MICs of pazuloxacin and tosufloxacin at which 90% (MIC90) of isolates are inhibited in 76 different Legionella spp. strains (38 ATCC strains and 38 clinical isolates) were 0.032 and 0.016 mg/L, whereas the MIC90s of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, garenoxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin were 0.032, 0.032, 0.032, 2.0, 0.125 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively. Pazufloxacin and tosufloxacin at 4x MIC inhibited intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila SG1 (80-045 strain), as did other quinolones, clarithromycin and azithromycin, whereas erythromycin at 4x MIC did not. MIECs of pazufloxacin, tosufloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and garenoxacin for the strain were 0.063, 0.004, 0.016, 0.032 and 0.008 mg/L respectively, which were superior to those of macrolides and azithromycin. Pazufloxacin showed potent activity against three additional clinical isolates of L. pneumophila SG1, one clinical isolate each of L. pneumophila SG3 and SG5, as well as Legionella micdadei, Legionella dumoffii and Legionella longbeachae SG1. Pazufloxacin and tosufloxacin, as well as other quinolones, were more potent than macrolides and an azalide. Present data warrant further study on the efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of Legionella infections.

  2. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Asia (an ANSORP study).

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Jung, Sook-In; Ko, Kwan Soo; Kim, Na Young; Son, Jun Seong; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Oh, Won Sup; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Yang, Yonghong; Lu, Quan; Chongthaleong, Anan; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lalitha, M K; Perera, Jennifer; Yee, Ti Teow; Kumarasinghe, Gamini; Jamal, Farida; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Parasakthi, Navaratnam; Van, Pham Hung; Carlos, Celia; So, Thomas; Ng, Tak Keung; Shibl, Atef

    2004-06-01

    A total of 685 clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumococcal diseases were collected from 14 centers in 11 Asian countries from January 2000 to June 2001. The in vitro susceptibilities of the isolates to 14 antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution test. Among the isolates tested, 483 (52.4%) were not susceptible to penicillin, 23% were intermediate, and 29.4% were penicillin resistant (MICs >/= 2 mg/liter). Isolates from Vietnam showed the highest prevalence of penicillin resistance (71.4%), followed by those from Korea (54.8%), Hong Kong (43.2%), and Taiwan (38.6%). The penicillin MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(90)s) were 4 mg/liter among isolates from Vietnam, Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan. The prevalence of erythromycin resistance was also very high in Vietnam (92.1%), Taiwan (86%), Korea (80.6%), Hong Kong (76.8%), and China (73.9%). The MIC(90)s of erythromycin were >32 mg/liter among isolates from Korea, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. Isolates from Hong Kong showed the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance (11.8%), followed by isolates from Sri Lanka (9.5%), the Philippines (9.1%), and Korea (6.5%). Multilocus sequence typing showed that the spread of the Taiwan(19F) clone and the Spain(23F) clone could be one of the major reasons for the rapid increases in antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in Asia. Data from the multinational surveillance study clearly documented distinctive increases in the prevalence rates and the levels of antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in many Asian countries, which are among the highest in the world published to date.

  3. Bacterial profile of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at Antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Derese, Behailu; Kedir, Haji; Teklemariam, Zelalem; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial profile of urinary tract infection (UTI) and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at antenatal clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 18, 2015 to March 25, 2015. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 186 pregnant women using sterile containers. Then, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by standard disk diffusion method. Patient information was obtained using pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered and cleaned using EpiData Version 3 and then exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 16) for further analysis. Results The prevalence of significant bacteriuria was 14%. Gram-negative bacteria were more prevalent (73%). Escherichia coli (34.6%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%), and Klebsiella spp. (11.5%) were common bacterial isolates, where most of them were resistant against ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance (resistance in ≥2 drugs) was seen in 100% of the isolated bacteria. A majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Conclusion This study found a number of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs from pregnant women with and without symptoms of UTI. Therefore, the early routine detection of causative agents of UTI and determining their drug susceptibility pattern are important for pregnant women to avoid complications in mother and fetus. Ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and erythromycin can be used with great care for the empirical treatment of UTI. PMID:26937197

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae: prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in vaginal and rectal swabs in Italian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Matani, Chiara; Trezzi, Michele; Matteini, Alice; Catalani, Carlotta; Messeri, Daniela; Catalani, Corrado

    2016-09-01

    Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) reduces both the vertical transmission of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and the early onset of neonatal sepsis. However, existing guidelines do not recommend that antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) be routinely performed. Penicillin or ampicillin are indicated as first-choice antibiotics, cefazolin being an alternative in the case of history of mild allergic reactions, and vancomycin or clindamycin an alternative in the event of severe reactions. We performed a cross-sectional analysis to identify the presence of any bacterial resistance towards the antibiotics most frequently used for IAP in pregnant women with GBS positive vaginal-rectal swabs, in the Pistoia area of central Italy. Of the 255 tested samples, 65 (25.5%) were positive for GBS. Sensitivity to glycopeptides was over 90%, but lower to ampicillin and penicillin (87.10% and 87.93% respectively). Resistance towards clindamycin and erythromycin was as high as 43.75% and 32.20%. All tested GBS proved susceptible to moxifloxacin, linezolid and tigecycline. Our observed prevalence is aligned or slightly higher than data reported in other series. The less than full effectiveness and low percentages of ampicillin and penicillin sensitivity observed give cause for concern. We confirmed the increase in clindamycin and erythromycin resistance. Glycopeptides can be used as second-line antibiotics, but the complete AST of GBS should always be performed before IAP. Given that gentamicin is used synergically with penicillin when treating chorioamnionitis, it needs to be always included in the AST. This is the first study on the GBS sensitivity profile in Tuscany. Further investigation on a larger scale is required prior to implementing any changes in the current guidelines.

  5. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of rivastigmine with quercetin nanoparticles by inhibiting CYP3A4 and esterases.

    PubMed

    Palle, Suresh; Neerati, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid, has pharmacokinetic interaction with ester drugs due to its capability of esterase inhibition in the gut and liver. However, the interaction between quercetin nanoparticles (NQC) and rivastigmine has not been reported. Hence, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of quercetin alone and its nanoparticles on the pharmacokinetics of rivastigmine in rats. NQC prepared by antisolvent precipitation method. The influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of rivastigmine was evaluated by following methods i.e. in vitro inhibitory effect on esterase enzyme in rat liver microsomes and in vitro assessment of CYP3A activity using erythromycin-N-demethylase (EMD) assay. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study of orally administered rivastigmine in rats with quercetin and NQC pretreatments was performed. The size of NQC was observed below 300nm. Quercetin significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the esterase-mediated metabolism of rivastigmine. In in vitro assessment of CYP3A activity model the erythromycin-N-demethylation (EMD) levels in quercetin treated group were significantly reduced (p<0.05). C max , AUC 0-t and AUC 0- ∞ of rivastigmine were found to be increased in quercetin and NQC pretreated groups. Further, the CL/F and Vd/F of rivastigmine were significantly decreased. The results revealed that enhanced bioavailability of rivastigmine might be caused by the combination of their effects due to CYP3A and esterase inhibition, Therefore, concomitant administration of NQC influences the bioavailability of rivastigmine and also has synergetic effect in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Inappropriate breast secretions of possible bacterial etiology in the parous nonpuerperal female.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J J; Altieri, R H; Freeman, A H; Kuo, T; Sardinha, F; Buckingham, C C; Sklar, J J; Dyroff, K; Floyd, A

    1994-03-01

    This article presents two cases of spontaneous green breast secretions of parous nonpuerperal patients. To understand the nature of these secretions, bacterial evaluations and subsequent treatment were undertaken. Case 1 culture and sensitivity studies from breast secretions were commenced within 24 hours yielding an isolate identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, with sensitivity to cephalothin, erythromycin, and tetracycline but resistant to penicillin. Cephalothin, 500 mg four times a day for 10 days, followed by erythromycin 100 mg twice a day for 10 days and doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 10 days, did not alter the breast secretions. Four weeks later, ciprofloxacin HCI 500 mg twice a day for 6 weeks caused a 50% decrement in breast secretion at 4 weeks but increased clinical depression. At 6 weeks, no evidence of breast secretions persisted. Mental depression decreased within 2 weeks postciprofloxacin treatment. In Case 2, a total of 35 minutes elapsed between sample collection and initiation of culture and sensitivity studies. Moraxella osloensis was identified and found sensitive to ampicillin and tetracycline but resistant to trimethoprim. Ampicillin 500 mg four times a day for 10 days and doxycycline 100 mg twice a day by mouth for 10 days were administered at 2-week intervals with no effect on breast discharge. After 4 weeks of treatment failure, ciprofloxacin HCI 500 mg twice a day for 6 weeks caused a 50% decrease in discharge at 2 weeks and total elimination at 6 weeks. Lethargy during treatment ceased with termination of therapy. These results support the importance of bacterial evaluation of breast secretions with subsequent antibiotic therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Throat Carriage Rate and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes In Rural Children in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Gastón; Sparo, Mónica; Baldaccini, Beatriz; Pourcel, Gisela; Lissarrague, Sabina; García Allende, Leonardo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) in children living in a rural community and to investigate the association between episodes of acute pharyngitis and carrier status. Throat swabs were collected from September to November 2013 among children 5-13 years of age from a rural community (Maria Ignacia-Vela, Argentina). The phenotypic characterization of isolates was performed by conventional tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed for penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and clindamycin (disk diffusion). The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for penicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The carriage of β-hemolytic streptococci was detected in 18.1% of participants, with Streptococcus pyogenes in 18 participants followed by S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis in 5. The highest proportion of GAS was found in 8 to 10-year-old children. No significant association between the number of episodes of acute pharyngitis suffered in the last year and the carrier state was detected ( p >0.05). Tetracycline resistance (55.5%) and macrolide-resistant phenotypes (11.1%) were observed. Resistance to penicillin, cefotaxime, or chloramphenicol was not expressed in any streptococcal isolate. The present study demonstrated significant throat carriage of GAS and the presence of group C streptococci ( S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis ) in an Argentinian rural population. These results point out the need for continuous surveillance of GAS and non-GAS carriage as well as of antimicrobial resistance in highly susceptible populations, such as school-aged rural children. An extended surveillance program including school-aged children from different cities should be considered to estimate the prevalence of GAS carriage in Argentina.

  8. Co-selection of antibiotic resistance via copper shock loading on bacteria from a drinking water bio-filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglu; Chen, Lihua; Ye, Chengsong; Yu, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination of source water frequently occurred in developing countries as a result of accidents. To address the problems, most of the previous studies have focused on engineering countermeasures. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals, particularly copper, on the development of antibiotic resistance by establishing a copper shock loading test. Results revealed that co-selection occurred rapidly within 6 h. Copper, at the levels of 10 and 100 mg/L, significantly increased bacterial resistance to the antibiotics tested, including rifampin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and a few others. A total of 117 antimicrobial-resistance genes were detected from 12 types of genes, and the relative abundance of most genes (particularly mobile genetic elements intⅠand transposons) was markedly enriched by at least one fold. Furthermore, the copper shock loading altered the bacterial community. Numerous heavy metal and antibiotic resistant strains were screened out and enriched. These strains are expected to enhance the overall level of resistance. More noticeably, the majority of the co-selected antibiotic resistance could sustain for at least 20 h in the absence of copper and antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to vancomycin, erythromycin and lincomycin even could remain for 7 days. The prominent selection pressure by the copper shock loading implies that a real accident most likely poses similar impacts on the water environment. An accidental release of heavy metals would not only cause harm to the ecological environment, but also contribute to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. Broader concerns should be raised about the biological risks caused by sudden releases of pollutants by accidents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Distribution of the ACME-arcA gene among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Matthew J; Yearwood, Lianne; Ganner, Mark; East, Claire; Kearns, Angela M

    2008-01-01

    The ST8-SCCmecIVa (USA300) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone can harbour the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME). The arc gene cluster within the ACME may function as a virulence or strain survival factor. We determined the distribution of the ACME-associated arcA gene among genetically diverse MRSA from around England and Wales. MRSA isolates (n = 203) of diverse genetic types, referred to the England and Wales Staphylococcus reference laboratory, were tested for the presence of the ACME-arcA gene. ACME-arcA-positive isolates were characterized by toxin gene profiling, PFGE and spa sequence typing. MICs of a range of antimicrobials were also determined. The ACME-arcA gene was detected in 17 isolates. Twelve were related to known ST8-MRSA-SCCmecIVa isolates of the USA300 lineage by pulsotype and were resistant to oxacillin, with variable ciprofloxacin and erythromycin resistance. Outside the USA300 lineage, four of the remaining five ACME-arcA isolates were closely related ST97-MRSA-SCCmecV, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-negative, resistant to oxacillin and variously resistant to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and fusidic acid. The remaining isolate was ST1, PVL-positive and resistant to fusidic acid as well as oxacillin. Thirteen out of the 17 isolates were associated with skin and soft tissue infections. The detection of ACME-arcA in diverse MRSA types highlights the mobility of the elements encoding ACME-arcA genes. The diversity of strain types and resistance profiles among ACME-arcA-encoding MRSA is a cause for public-health concern and demands continued surveillance and close monitoring.

  10. Antibiotic resistances of intestinal lactobacilli isolated from wild boars.

    PubMed

    Klose, Viviana; Bayer, Katharina; Kern, Corinna; Goelß, Florian; Fibi, Silvia; Wegl, Gertrude

    2014-01-10

    Acquired antibiotic resistances have been reported in lactobacilli of various animal and food sources, but there are no data from wild boar. The objective was a preliminary examination of the antibiotic resistance prevalence of intrinsically vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli isolated from wild boar intestines and analysis of the genetic determinants implicated. Out of three wild boars, 121 lactobacilli were recovered and grouped according to their whole cell protein patterns. Initial phenotypic screening revealed that all were susceptible to erythromycin (2 μg/ml), but 30 were resistant to tetracycline (32 μg/ml). Based on Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR clustering, 64 strains were selected as representative genotypes for identification and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified four species: (i) L. mucosae (n=57), (ii) L. reuteri (n=47), (iii) L. fermentum (n=12), and (iv) L. murinus (n=5). Most heterofermentative strains displayed low MICs for ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CHL), streptomycin (STR), kanamycin (KAN), gentamicin (GEN), erythromycin (ERY), quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), and clindamycin (CLI). Atypical MICs were found mainly in L. mucosae and L. reuteri for TET, KAN, STR, AMP and CHL, but except the TET MICs of L. mucosae mostly at low level. L. murinus strains revealed atypical MICs for aminoglycosides, and/or CHL, AMP, CLI. PCR screening detected tet(W) in 12 and tet(M) in one of heterofermentative strains, as well as the aph(3')-III kanamycin gene in L. murinus. This is the first report showing acquired antibiotic resistance determinants in intestinal lactobacilli of wild boar origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from children with pharyngitis and emm type analysis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Azar D; Ebrahimifard, Nasim; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Shoja, Saeed

    2016-05-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) M protein, encoded by the emm gene, acts as a major virulence factor. Emm-typing is the GAS gold standard molecular typing and is based on the DNA sequence of the nucleotides of the emm gene. The aim of the present study was to isolate GAS from patients and to detect the emm types of the isolates using emm typing. A total of 1000 throat samples were collected from patients with pharyngitis referred to Aboozar Children's Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. We performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on all isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Additionally, amplification of the emm gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction using the standard primers and described protocol. From all throat samples screened, 25 isolates (2.5%) were identified as GAS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that all the GAS isolates were susceptible to penicillin and erythromycin, but 44% showed resistance to vancomycin. Based on polymerase chain reaction for the emm gene, the obtained emm types were: emm-3, observed in 20 isolates (80%); emm-1 observed in four isolates (16%); and emm-75 observed in one isolate (4%). The result of the present study showed that penicillin and erythromycin are still the most effective antibiotics against the organism. The emm typing revealed that emm type-3 was detected in most of the isolates from patients with purulent pharyngitis. On the basis of the findings of this study, we may conclude that emm typing provides new insights on the genetic diversity of the M proteins, and is of demonstrable value for molecular studies of GAS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  12. Predominant role of msr(D) over mef(A) in macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Okada, Ryo; Hata, Nanako; Matsumoto, Masakado; Isaka, Masanori; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the number of patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is reported to be increasing. mef(A) gene-positive macrolide-resistant emm1 strains are thought to possibly contribute to the rise in the frequency of STSS. Although analyses of macrolide-resistant mechanisms, including mef(A) resistance, have been performed mainly in Streptococcus pneumoniae, the role of this gene in Streptococcus pyogenes has not been completely investigated. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, we established the first mef(A)-knockout strain using an emm1-type S. pyogenes strain, and tested its susceptibility to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin. We found that the antimicrobial susceptibilities were almost identical to those of the parental strain. Hence, we established a knockout strain for another gene, msr(D), that is located immediately downstream of mef(A). The macrolide resistances of the resulting strain significantly decreased, and were further altered when both mef(A) and msr(D) were knocked out. The introduction of the msr(D) gene into a macrolide-sensitive strain conferred more resistance than the introduction of the mef(A) gene. The erythromycin susceptibilities of knockout strains were further dissected using two additional emm4- and emm75-type S. pyogenes strains. We found almost identical results for both strains except for the mef(A) knockout emm4 type, whose susceptibility was altered, although the change was less than that for the msr(D) knockout. These results suggest that both mef(A) and msr(D) are involved in macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes, and that the msr(D) gene plays a more predominant role in macrolide resistance than mef(A).

  13. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Lebanese hospitals: retrospective nationwide compiled data.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Kamal; Farah, Maya; Araj, Georges; Daoud, Ziad; Moghnieh, Rima; Salameh, Pascale; Saade, Danielle; Mokhbat, Jacques; Abboud, Emme; Hamze, Monzer; Abboud, Edmond; Jisr, Tamima; Haddad, Antoine; Feghali, Rita; Azar, Nadim; El-Zaatari, Mohammad; Chedid, Marwan; Haddad, Christian; Zouain Dib Nehme, Mireille; Barakat, Angelique; Husni, Rola

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is closely linked to antimicrobial use and is a growing concern worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance increases healthcare costs substantially in many countries, including Lebanon. National data from Lebanon have, in the most part, been limited to a few academic hospitals. The Lebanese Society of Infectious Diseases conducted a retrospective study to better describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates in Lebanon. Data were based on records retrieved from the bacteriology laboratories of 16 different Lebanese hospitals between January 2011 and December 2013. The susceptibility results of a total 20684 Gram-positive and 55594 Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed. The prevalence rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 27.6% and of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp was 1%. Streptococcus pneumoniae had susceptibilities of 46% to oxacillin, 63% to erythromycin, and 98% to levofloxacin. Streptococcus pyogenes had susceptibilities of 94% to erythromycin and 95% to clindamycin. The mean ampicillin susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae, Salmonella spp, and Shigella spp isolates was 79%, 81.3%, and 62.2%, respectively. The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production rate for Escherichia coli was 32.3% and for Klebsiella spp was 29.2%. Acinetobacter spp showed high resistance to most antimicrobials, with low resistance to colistin (17.1%). Pseudomonas spp susceptibilities to piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem were lower than 80% (79.7% and 72.8%, respectively). This study provides population-specific data that are valuable in guiding antimicrobial use in Lebanon and neighbouring countries and will help in the establishment of a surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance following the implementation of a nationwide standardization of laboratory methods and data entry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Clostridium difficile Isolates from Family Dairy Farms.

    PubMed

    Bandelj, P; Golob, M; Ocepek, M; Zdovc, I; Vengust, M

    2017-05-01

    A significant risk factor for developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans and animals is associated with the antimicrobial use. It has often been hypothesized that farm animals could be the source for human infection with Clostridium difficile (CD). In the European Union, family-run dairy farms are the predominant farming model, which are more interlinked within the community compared to large-scale intensive dairy or beef farms. Therefore, it is important to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of CD in such environment. A total of 159 CD isolates from 20 family dairy farms were tested with a customized broth microdilution plate for their antimicrobial resistance. Seventeen antimicrobials were selected (amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, daptomycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, imipenem, levofloxacin, linezolid, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, oxacillin, rifampicin, tetracycline, tigecycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin), which are commonly used for treatment of CDI in veterinary and human medicine, or were previously applied in CD epidemiological studies. Antimicrobials, which are used for treatment of CDI in humans (metronidazole, vancomycin, fusidic acid, tigecycline, linezolid) inhibited CD growth in vitro. Most CD isolates were resistant to erythromycin (93.1%), daptomycin (69.2%) and clindamycin (46.5%). High multiple-resistance was found in CD ribotype 012 (n = 5, 100%), some CD SLO 060 (n = 4, 25%) and one CD 033 (n = 1, 1.1%). High multiple-resistance in this study was linked with CD ribotypes and not with the origin of CD. The low prevalence of these ribotypes (6.3%; 10/159) indicates that family-run dairy farms are an unlikely source of CD with multiple-resistance to antimicrobials. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes and genotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with swine pneumonia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2017-09-21

    Pasteurella multocida (PM) can cause progressive atrophic rhinitis and suppurative bronchopneumonia in pigs. The present study performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotype and genotype identification on the 62 PM strains isolated from the lungs of diseased pigs with respiratory symptoms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing examined 13 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin, cefazolin, doxycycline, flumequine, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, kanamycin, lincomycin, Linco-Spectin (lincomycin and spectinomycin), erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and tiamulin). Antimicrobial resistance ratios were over 40% in all of the antimicrobial agents except for cefazolin. The highest levels of resistance (100%) were found for kanamycin, erythromycin and tylosin. The majority of isolated strains was serotype D:L6 (n=35) followed by A:L3 (n=17). Comparison of the antimicrobial resistance levels between the two serotypes showed that the antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in D:L6 than in A:L3 for all the tested antimicrobials except for tylosin and tilmicosin. For PM with erm (B), erm (T) or erm (42), the results showed no significant difference compared with non-resistance gene strains in phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping using Apa I restriction digestion of the genomic DNA demonstrated that there were 17 distinct clusters with a similarity of 85% or more, and the genotyping result was similar to that of serotyping. The results of the present study demonstrated that the PM isolated from diseased pigs in Taiwan was resistant to multiple antimicrobials, and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance was associated with pulsotype and serotype. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P < 0.05) differences in frequency of resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from poultry and cattle sources in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Raji, Mashood Abiola; Kwanashie, Clara Nna; Kwaga, Jacob Kwada Paghi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Enterococcus was recovered from 167 (42.8%) of the 390 samples tested with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (27.7%). Other species detected were Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus durans. All the isolates tested were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin was also observed among 61.0, 61.0, 45.1 and 32.7% of the isolates, respectively. Sixty (53.1%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant presenting as 24 different resistance patterns with resistance to gentamicin-erythromycin-streptomycin-tetracycline (CN-ERY-STR-TET) being the most common (n = 11) pattern. In addition to expression of virulence traits (haemolysin, gelatinase, biofilm production), antibiotic resistance (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO and ermB) and virulence (asa1, gelE, cylA) genes were detected among the isolates. Also, in vitro transfer of resistance determinants was observed among 75% of the isolates tested. Our data revealed poultry, cattle and manure in this area are hosts to varying Enterococcus species harbouring virulence and resistance determinants that can be transferred to other organisms and also are important for causing nosocomial infection.

  18. Evolved Escherichia coli strains for amplified, functional expression of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nadia; Linares, Daniel M; Ho, Franz Y; Poolman, Bert

    2014-01-09

    The major barrier to the phys