Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.
Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995
Cummings, D J; Mondale, L
Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, B(s-12), K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon(-), all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation.
Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee
Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772
Dubois, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Cady, Anne; Robin, Frédéric; Sivignon, Adeline; Oswald, Eric; Bonnet, Richard
Determinants of urosepsis in Escherichia coli remain incompletely defined. Cyclomodulins (CMs) are a growing functional family of toxins that hijack the eukaryotic cell cycle. Four cyclomodulin types are actually known in E. coli: cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNFs), cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif), cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), and the pks-encoded toxin. In the present study, the distribution of CM-encoding genes and the functionality of these toxins were investigated in 197 E. coli strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urosepsis (n = 146) and from uninfected subjects (n = 51). This distribution was analyzed in relation to the phylogenetic background, clinical origin, and antibiotic resistance of the strains. It emerged from this study that strains harboring the pks island and the cnf1 gene (i) were strongly associated with the B2 phylogroup (P, <0.001), (ii) frequently harbored both toxin-encoded genes in phylogroup B2 (33%), and (iii) were predictive of a urosepsis origin (P, <0.001 to 0.005). However, the prevalences of the pks island among phylogroup B2 strains, in contrast to those of the cnf1 gene, were not significantly different between fecal and urosepsis groups, suggesting that the pks island is more important for the colonization process and the cnf1 gene for virulence. pks- or cnf1-harboring strains were significantly associated with susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and quinolones [P, <0.001 to 0.043]). Otherwise, only 6% and 1% of all strains harbored the cdtB and cif genes, respectively, with no particular distribution by phylogenetic background, antimicrobial susceptibility, or clinical origin.
Lytle, Darren A.; Rice, Eugene W.; Johnson, Clifford H.; Fox, Kim R.
The electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs) of a number of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and wild-type E. coli strains were measured. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the EPMs were investigated. The EPMs of E. coli O157:H7 strains differed from those of wild-type strains. As the suspension pH decreased, the EPMs of both types of strains increased. PMID:10388724
The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...
The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...
Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Porta, Helena; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; Eslava-Campos, Carlos
ABSTRACT Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness, affecting practically every population worldwide, and was estimated to cause 120,800 deaths in 2010. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain FMU073332, isolated from a 25-month-old girl from Tlaltizapán, Morelos, México. PMID:28232434
Giurov, B; Korudzhiĭski, N; Bineva, I
Studied was the sensitivity of a total of 143 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from young birds and broilers died from coli septicaemia, to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. The following descending order was established: gentamycin, carbenicillin, ampicillin, furazolidon, borgal, kanamycin, strep tomycin, chloramphenicol, neomycin sulphathiazole, and tetracycline. Markers of resistance were established with all strains with regard to the therapeutic agents in current and prospective use in industrial poultry farming. It is stated that a preliminary antibiogram is indispensable in order to obtain dependable results in the treatment of animals affected with colibacteriosis. An alternative is to apply directly those drugs to which the strains have shown highest sensitivity.
García, Alexis; Mannion, Anthony; Feng, Yan; Madden, Carolyn M; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Shen, Zeli; Ge, Zhongming; Fox, James G
Escherichia coli strains have not been fully characterized in laboratory mice and are not currently excluded from mouse colonies. Colibactin (Clb), a cytotoxin, has been associated with inflammation and cancer in humans and animals. We performed bacterial cultures utilizing rectal swab, fecal, and extra intestinal samples from clinically unaffected or affected laboratory mice. Fifty-one E. coli were isolated from 45 laboratory mice, identified biochemically, and selected isolates were serotyped. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced for specific isolates, PCR used for clbA and clbQ gene amplification, and phylogenetic group identification was performed on all 51 E. coli strains. Clb genes were sequenced and selected E. coli isolates were characterized using a HeLa cell cytotoxicity assay. Forty-five of the 51 E. coli isolates (88%) encoded clbA and clbQ and belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Mouse E. coli serotypes included: O2:H6, O-:H-, OM:H+, and O22:H-. Clb-encoding O2: H6 mouse E. coli isolates were cytotoxic in vitro. A Clb-encoding E. coli was isolated from a clinically affected genetically modified mouse with cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Our findings suggest that Clb-encoding E. coli colonize laboratory mice and may induce clinical and subclinical diseases that may impact experimental mouse models.
Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin
Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form sister species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. In view of the overall success and high resolution power of the CVTree approach, this result should be taken seriously. We hope that the present report may promote further in-depth study of the Shigella-E. coli relationship.
Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T
Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics.
Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodea, Gerardo E; Porta, Helena; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; Eslava-Campos, Carlos; Cevallos, Miguel A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness, affecting practically every population worldwide, and was estimated to cause 120,800 deaths in 2010. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain FMU073332, isolated from a 25-month-old girl from Tlaltizapán, Morelos, México. Copyright © 2017 Saldaña-Ahuactzi et al.
Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson
The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.
Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P.; Nishio, Erick K.; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.; Nakazato, Gerson
The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections. PMID:25170683
Zalewska-Piątek, Beata; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Bruździak, Piotr; Piątek, Rafał; Kur, Józef
Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli are very common health problem in the developed countries. The virulence of the uropathogenic E. coli Dr(+) IH11128 is determined by Dr fimbriae, which are homopolymeric structures composed of DraE subunits with the DraD protein capping the fiber. In this study, we have analyzed the structural and biochemical properties of biofilms developed by E. coli strains expressing Dr fimbriae with or without the DraD tip subunit and the surface-exposed DraD protein. We have also demonstrated that these E. coli strains form biofilms on an abiotic surface in a nutrient-dependent fashion. We present evidence that Dr fimbriae are necessary during the first stage of bacterial interaction with the abiotic surface. In addition, we reveal that the DraD alone is also sufficient for the initial surface attachment at an even higher level than Dr fimbriae and that chloramphenicol is able to reduce the normal attachment of the analyzed E. coli. The action of chloramphenicol also shows that protein synthesis is required for the early events of biofilm formation. Additionally, we have identified reduced exopolysaccharide coverage in E. coli that express only Dr fimbrial polyadhesins at the cell surface with or without the DraD capping subunit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Nimmich, W; Voigt, W; Seltmann, G
Forty-four Escherichia coli O75 strains from patients with urinary tract infections were characterized by a variety of methods to obtain evidence of their clonal distribution and uropathogenic properties. By K and H antigen typing, the strains were divided into the following serotypes: O75:K5:H- (18 strains), O75:K95:H- (10 strains), O75:K95:H5 (7 strains), O75:K100:H5 (4 strains), and O75:K-:H55 (5 strains). Generally, biotyping proved to be of no discriminative value. With two exceptions the strains were found to be sensitive to the bactericidal effect of normal human serum. As shown by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, the whole-cell protein profile (WCPP), and the patterns of the outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharides, all but the five O75:H55 strains were genetically closely related to each other and could be classified into one clonal group. The O75:K-:H55 strains proved to be quite different and lacked type 1 fimbriae. All 17 K95 (H-, H5) strains produced hemolysin and P fimbriae. Five of the O75:K5:H- strains were different from the other K5 strains by showing hemagglutinating properties, on the basis of the presence of the OX adhesin. The last two groups are suggested to be uropathogenic and are proposed to represent separate clonal groups or subgroups. PMID:9114391
Investigations were carried out into the susceptibility of a total of 223 strains of Escherichia coli to therapeutic agents with the employment of the disk diffusion method. The organisms were isolated from internal organs and bone marrow of birds died of coli septicaemia. The serologic classification of the strains was defined with the use of 88 anti-group OK-agglutinating sera obtained through hyperimmunization of rabbits with the following Escherichia coli serotypes: 01-063, 068, 071, 073, 075, 078, 086, 0101, 0103, 0111-0114, 0119, 0124, 0129, 0135-0141, 0146, 0147, and 0149. It was found that serologically the strains referred as follows: 01-41 strains, 02-70 strains, 04-2 strains, 08-3 strains, 026-1 strain, 078-70 strains, 0111-2 strains, 0103-1 strain, 0141-1 strain. The number of untypable strains amounted to 32. Highest number of strains proved sensitive to colistin--96.06%, the remaining drugs following in a descending order: flumequine--95.65%, apramycin - 95.5%, gentamycin--93.72%, amoxicillin--93,8%, amikacin--88.57%, carbenicillin--86.88%, furazolidone--83,13%, and kanamycin--79.36%. High was the percent of strains resistant to tetracycline--66.17%, spectinomycin--61.67%, ampicillin--51.12%, chloramphenicol--50.23%, and streptomycin--44.84%.
Shaked, Hila; Samra, Zmira; Paul, Michal; Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitlik, Silvio; Bishara, Jihad
Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis (type II) is typically caused by group A streptococcus alone or in combination with Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli has been isolated from polymicrobial or Fournier's gangrene but has rarely been reported in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of seven cases of monomicrobial E. coli necrotizing fasciitis and/or severe soft tissue infection diagnosed at a single institution during an 18-month period. Four isolates from three patients and two isolates from two patients with type I polymicrobial severe soft tissue infection (controls) were assayed by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for fingerprinting and PCR amplification of primers in order to detect cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2) genes. All patients had some type of immune suppression. The limb was the most commonly involved organ. In all cases, E. coli was isolated as a monomicrobial pathogen from blood, fascia, or both. All patients died during hospitalization, three within the first 48 h. The RAPD amplification assay showed a high degree of genetic diversity among the "flesh-eating" strains and controls. The cnf1 toxin gene was identified in two out of three cases, but not in the controls. cnf2 was not detected in any of the patients. E. coli may be responsible for life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis. Further research is needed to reveal relevant risk factors, reservoirs, and modes of transmission of cnf1 E. coli.
Ang, C Wim; Bouts, Antonia H M; Rossen, John W A; Van der Kuip, Martijn; Van Heerde, Marc; Bökenkamp, Arend
We describe an 8-month-old girl with diarrhea, urosepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Escherichia coli. Typing of cultured E. coli strains from urine and blood revealed the presence of virulence factors from multiple pathotypes of E. coli. This case exemplifies the genome plasticity of E. coli and the resulting heteropathogenic strains.
Siegel, Eli C.
An ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive mutator gene, mutU, was identified in Escherichia coli K-12. The mutation mutU4 is very close to uvrD, between metE and ilv, on the E. coli chromosome. It was recessive as a mutator and as a UV-sensitive mutation. The frequency of reversion of trpA46 on an F episome was increased by mutU4 on the chromosome. The mutator gene did not increase mutation frequencies in virulent phages or in lytically grown phage λ. The mutU4 mutation predominantly induced transitional base changes. Mutator strains were normal for recombination and host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated phage T1. They were normally resistant to methyl methanesulfonate and were slightly more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Mut+ strains. UV irradiation induced mutations in a mutU4 strain, and phage λ was UV-inducible. Double mutants containing mutU4 and recA, B, or C were extremely sensitive to UV irradiation; a mutU4 uvrA6 double mutant was only slightly more sensitive than a uvrA6 strain. The mutU4 uvrA6 and mutU4 recA, B, or C double mutants had mutation rates similar to that of a mutU4 strain. Two UV-sensitive mutators, mut-9 and mut-10, isolated by Liberfarb and Bryson in E. coli B/UV, were found to be co-transducible with ilv in the same general region as mutU4. PMID:4345920
Vahjen, W; Cuisiniere, T; Zentek, J
To investigate the inhibitory effect of indigenous enterobacteria on pathogenic Escherichia coli, a challenge trial with postweaning pigs was conducted. A pathogenic E. coli strain was administered to all animals and their health was closely monitored thereafter. Faecal samples were taken from three healthy and three diarrhoeic animals. Samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar and isolates were subcultured. A soft agar overlay assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of the isolates. A total of 1,173 enterobacterial isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the E. coli challenge strain. Colony forming units of enterobacteria on MacConkey agar were not different between healthy and diarrhoeic animals in the original samples. Furthermore, numbers of isolates per animal were also not significantly different between healthy (482 isolates) and diarrhoeic animals (691 isolates). A total of 43 isolates (3.7%) with inhibitory activity against the pathogenic E. coli challenge strain were detected. All inhibitory isolates were identified as E. coli via MALDI-TOF. The isolates belonged to the phylotypes A, C and E. Many isolates (67.4%) were commensal E. coli without relevant porcine pathogenic factors, but toxin- and fimbrial genes (stx2e, fae, estIb, elt1a, fas, fan) were detected in 14 inhibitory isolates. Healthy animals showed significantly (P=0.003) more inhibitory isolates (36 of 482 isolates; 7.5%) than diseased animals (7 of 691 isolates; 1.0%). There were no significant correlations regarding phylotype or pathogenic factors between healthy and diseased animals. This study has shown that a small proportion of indigenous E. coli is able to inhibit in vitro growth of a pathogenic E. coli strain in pigs. Furthermore, healthy animals possess significantly more inhibitory E. coli strains than diarrhoeic animals. The inhibition of pathogenic E. coli by specific indigenous E. coli strains may be an underlying principle for the containment of pathogenic
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Bilker, Warren B.; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel N.
Of 49 subjects, 21 were colonized with more than one strain of Escherichia coli and 12 subjects had at least one strain present in fewer than 20% of colonies. The ability to accurately characterize E. coli strain diversity is directly related to the number of colonies sampled and the underlying prevalence of the strain. PMID:18650357
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Bilker, Warren B; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel N
Of 49 subjects, 21 were colonized with more than one strain of Escherichia coli and 12 subjects had at least one strain present in fewer than 20% of colonies. The ability to accurately characterize E. coli strain diversity is directly related to the number of colonies sampled and the underlying prevalence of the strain.
Mi, Zu-huang; Wang, Chun-xin; Zhu, Jian-ming
Escherichia coli NB8 is a clinical pyelonephritis isolate. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic E. coli NB8, which contains drug resistance genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, colistin, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. NB8 infects the kidney and bladder, making it an important tool for studying E. coli pathogenesis. PMID:27609920
Visai, L.; Speziale, P.; Bozzini, S. )
An enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli, B34289c, has been shown to bind the N-terminal region of fibronectin with high affinity. We now report that this strain also binds collagen. The binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to bacteria was time dependent and reversible. Bacteria expressed a limited number of collagen receptors (2.2 x 10(4) per cell) and bound collagen with a Kd of 20 nM. All collagen types tested (I to V) as well as all tested cyanogen bromide-generated peptides (alpha 1(I)CB2, alpha 1(I)CB3, alpha 1(I)CB7, alpha 1(I)CB8, and alpha 2(I)CB4) were recognized by bacterial receptors, as demonstrated by the ability of these proteins to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled collagen to bacteria. Of several unlabeled proteins tested in competition experiments, fibronectin and its N-terminal region strongly inhibited binding of the radiolabeled collagen to E. coli cells. Conversely, collagen competed with an 125I-labeled 28-kilodalton fibronectin fragment for bacterial binding. Collagen bound to bacteria could be displaced by excess amounts of either unlabeled fibronectin or its N-terminal fragment. Similarly, collagen could displace 125I-labeled N-terminal peptide of fibronectin bound to the bacterial cell surface. Bacteria grown at 41 degrees C or in the presence of glucose did not express collagen or fibronectin receptors. These results indicate the presence of specific binding sites for collagen on the surface of E. coli cells and furthermore that the collagen and fibronectin binding sites are located in close proximity, possibly on the same structure.
Li, Qing; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin
In this study, an engineered strain Escherichia coli MLB (ldhA(-)pflB(-)) was constructed for production of succinate from glycerol. The succinate yield was 0.37mol/mol in anaerobic culture, however, the growth and glycerol consumption rates were very slow, resulting in a low succinate level. Two-stage fermentation was performed in flasks, and the succinate yield reached 0.93mol/mol, but the succinate titer was still low. Hence, overexpression of malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase (PCK) from E. coli, and pyruvate carboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum in MLB was investigated for improving succinate production. Overexpression of PCK resulted in remarkable enhancement of glycerol consumption and succinate production. In flask experiments, the succinate concentration reached 118.1mM, and in a 1.5-L bioreactor the succinate concentration further increased to 360.2mM. The highest succinate yield achieved 0.93mol/mol, which was 93% of the theoretical yield, in the anaerobic stage.
Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H; Assatourian, Lillian; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Rasko, David A; Donnenberg, Michael S
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries. EPEC strain E2348/69 is used worldwide as a prototype to study EPEC genetics and disease. However, isolates of E2348/69 differ phenotypically, reflecting a history of in vitro selection. To identify the genomic and phenotypic changes in the prototype strain, we sequenced the genome of the nalidixic acid-resistant (Nal(r)) E2348/69 clone. We also sequenced a recent nleF mutant derived by one-step PCR mutagenesis from the Nal(r) strain. The sequencing results revealed no unintended changes between the mutant and the parent strain. However, loss of the pE2348-2 plasmid and 3 nonsynonymous mutations were found in comparison to the published streptomycin-resistant (Str(r)) E2348/69 reference genome. One mutation is a conservative amino acid substitution in ftsK. Another, in gyrA, is a mutation known to result in resistance to nalidixic acid. The third mutation converts a stop codon to a tryptophan, predicted to result in the fusion of hflD, the lysogenization regulator, to purB. The purB gene encodes an adenylosuccinate lyase involved in purine biosynthesis. The Nal(r) clone has a lower growth rate than the Str(r) isolate when cultured in minimal media, a difference which is corrected upon addition of adenine or by genetic complementation with purB. Addition of adenine or genetic complementation also restored the invasion efficiency of the Nal(r) clone. This report reconciles longstanding inconsistencies in phenotypic properties of an archetypal strain and provides both reassurance and cautions regarding intentional and unintentional evolution in vitro.
Background Escherichia coli (E. coli) is commonly used as a surrogate for pathogens in research to identify sources of agricultural contamination and to characterize how pathogens persist on plant surfaces. However, E. coli strains are highly diverse, exhibiting differences in physical, chemical and...
Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature and lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli can cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that enable certain strains of E. coli to cause a p...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reserv...
Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Peng, Yuanyi; Yin, Yulong; Hardwidge, Philip R
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and newly weaned pigs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain W25K, which causes diarrhea in piglets.
Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Peng, Yuanyi; Hardwidge, Philip R.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and newly weaned pigs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain W25K, which causes diarrhea in piglets. PMID:24970825
Given the importance of Escherichia coli as both an indicator of fecal contamination and a potential pathogen, it is imperative that genotypic and phenotypic variability among strains of E. coli from the same host and/or environmental niche are understood. Strain survival and variation are regulated...
Lutterodt, G; Foppen, J W A; Uhlenbrook, S
We present a new methodology to scale up bacteria transport experiments carried out in the laboratory to practical field situations. The key component of the methodology is to characterize bacteria transport not by a constant sticking efficiency, but by a range of sticking efficiency values determined from laboratory column experiments. In this study, initially, we harvested six Escherichia coli strains from springs in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, and then we carried out a number of experiments with 1.5m high columns of quartz sand with various sampling ports in order to determine the fraction of bacteria as a function of sticking efficiency. Furthermore, we developed a simple mathematical formulation, based on the steady-state analytical solution for the transport of mass in the subsurface, to arrive at bacteria concentrations as a function of transport distance. The results of the quartz sand column experiments indicated that the fractional bacteria mass and sticking efficiency of most of the strains we harvested could be adequately described by a power law. When applying the power distributions to the field situation in Kampala, we found that the transport distance required to reduce bacteria concentrations with five log units ranged from 1.5 to 23m, and this was up to three times more than when using a constant sticking efficiency. The methodology we describe is simple, can be carried out in a spreadsheet, and in addition to parameters describing transport, like pore water flow velocity and dispersion, only two constants are required, which define the relation between sticking efficiency and percentage of bacteria mass.
Blanco Crivelli, Ximena; Rumi, María V.; Carfagnini, Julio C.; Degregorio, Osvaldo; Bentancor, Adriana B.
Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for different cases of human disease including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Transmission of STEC to humans occurs through the consumption of food and water contaminated by faeces of carriers and by person-to-person contact. The objective of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate whether synanthropic rodents are possible reservoirs of STEC in the urban area and (2) whether a particular genus out of synanthropic rodent is the principal carrier of STEC. One hundred and forty-five rodents were captured in Buenos Aires City. Screening for stx1/stx2 and rfbO157 was done by PCR from the confluence zone. STEC isolates were further characterized with biochemical tests by standard methods. Additional virulence factors (eae, ehxA, and saa) were also determined by PCR. Forty-one of the rodents were necropsied and sample of kidney and small and large intestine were taken for histopathological diagnosis. The samples sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and observed by light microscopy to evaluate the systemic involvement of these species in natural infections. STEC was isolated from seven out of 27 suspect animals at screening. The following genotypes were found in the STEC strains: stx1/stx2/ehxA (1), stx2 (4), stx2/ehxA (1), stx2/ehxA/eae (1). Neither gross nor microscopic lesions compatible with those produced by Shiga toxin were observed in the studied organs of necropsied rodents. The bivariate analysis including the 145 rodent's data showed that the isolation of STEC is associated positively to Rattus genus. This synanthropic species may play a role in the transmissibility of the agent thus being a risk to the susceptible population. Their control should be included specifically in actions to dismiss the contamination of food and water by STEC in the urban area, as additional strategies for epidemiological control. PMID:23125967
Al-Jassim, Nada; Mantilla-Calderon, David; Wang, Tiannyu; Hong, Pei-Ying
This study examined the decay kinetics and molecular responses of two Escherichia coli strains upon solar irradiation. The first is E. coli PI-7, a virulent and antibiotic-resistant strain that was isolated from wastewater and carries the emerging NDM-1 antibiotic resistance gene. The other strain, E. coli DSM1103, displayed lower virulence and antibiotic resistance than E. coli PI-7. In a buffer solution, E. coli PI-7 displayed a longer lag phase prior to decay and a longer half-life compared with E. coli DSM1103 (6.64 ± 0.63 h and 2.85 ± 0.46 min vs 1.33 ± 0.52 h and 2.04 ± 0.36 min). In wastewater, both E. coli strains decayed slower than they did in buffer. Although solar irradiation remained effective in reducing the numbers of both strains by more than 5-log10 in <24 h, comparative genomics and transcriptomics revealed differences in the genomes and overall regulation of genes between the two E. coli strains. A wider arsenal of genes related to oxidative stress, cellular repair and protective mechanisms were upregulated in E. coli PI-7. Subpopulations of E. coli PI-7 expressed genes related to dormancy and persister cell formation during the late decay phase, which may have accounted for its prolonged persistence. Upon prolonged solar irradiation, both E. coli strains displayed upregulation of genes related to horizontal gene transfer and antibiotic resistance. Virulence functions unique to E. coli PI-7 were also upregulated. Our findings collectively indicated that, whereas solar irradiation is able to reduce total cell numbers, viable E. coli remained and expressed genes that enable survival despite solar treatment. There remains a need for heightened levels of concern regarding risks arising from the dissemination of E. coli that may remain viable in wastewater after solar irradiation.
Thacker, Tyler C; Lippolis, John D; Brunelle, Brian W; Casey, Thomas A; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Sacco, Randy E; Holman, Devin B
We report here the genome sequences of two strains of Escherichia coli (ECA-B and ECC-M) that cause bovine mastitis. These strains are known to be associated with persistent and transient mastitis; strain ECA-B causes a transient infection, and ECC-M leads to a persistent infection.
Boiandin, A N; Lobova, T I; Krylova, T Iu; Kargatova, T V; Popova, L Iu; Pechurkin, N S
Effect of different concentrations of salts on natural and recombinant strains of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli was studied. The recombinant strain of B. subtilis was found to be more osmotolerant than the wild-type strain of this bacterium, whereas the opposite situation was observed for the recombinant and wild-type strains of E. coli. Some salts exerted a bacteriostatic effect on E. coli and B. subtilis. The adaptive capacity of recombinant strains depended on the number of plasmid copies in the cells. The introduction of recombinant bacteria into model ecosystems resulted in the generation of their variants with increased osmotolerance.
Ferrières, Lionel; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per
Many bacterial infections are associated with biofilm formation. In the urinary tract bacterial biofilms develop on both living surfaces and artificial implants, producing chronic and often intractable infections. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with urinary tract infections. In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which cause symptomatic urinary tract infection, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains are associated with essentially symptom-free infections. Here the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of selected E. coli ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine was investigated. It was found that there is a strong bias for biofilm formation by the ABU strains. Not only were the ABU strains significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains, they were also able to out-compete UPEC strains as well as uropathogenic strains of Klebsiella spp. during biofilm formation. The results support the notion of bacterial prophylaxis employing selected ABU strains to eliminate UPEC strains and other pathogens in patients prone to recalcitrant infections.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains of the O91: H21 serotype have caused severe infections, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Strains of the O91 serogroup have been isolated from food, animals, and the environment worldwide but are not well characterized. We used a microarray an...
Hudnik-Plevnik, Tamara A.; Djordjević, Nadežda
Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 was compared with radioresistant (B/r) and radiosensitive (Bs−2) strains of Escherichia coli in respect to the survival, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) breakdown, and DNA synthesis after X irradiation. It is shown that S. typhimurium LT-2 is about four times more sensitive than E. coli B/r but less sensitive than Bs−2. The DNA breakdown is in S. typhimurium LT-2 lower than the postirradiation breakdown of DNA in both E. coli strains and DNA synthesis proceeds in this bacterium in spite of a much lower survival, as in the radioresistant E. coli B/r. PMID:4916313
Cox, G. B.; Gibson, F.; Pittard, James
A strain of Escherichia coli was isolated which was unable to form ubiquinone. This mutant was obtained by selecting strains unable to grow on malate as sole source of carbon. Such strains were further screened by examination of the quinone content of cells grown on a glucose medium. A mutant unable to form vitamin K was also isolated by this procedure. A genetic analysis of the ubiquinoneless strain showed that it possessed two mutations affecting ubiquinone biosynthesis. Images PMID:4870277
Sandberg, Torsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Clabots, Connie; Johnston, Brian D.; Thuras, Paul; Johnson, James R.
Of 23 unique Escherichia coli strains from 10 men with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their female sex partners, 6 strains (all UTI causing) were shared between partners. Molecularly, the 6 shared strains appeared more virulent than the 17 nonshared strains, being associated with phylogenetic group B2, sequence types ST73 and ST127, and multiple specific virulence genes. This indicates that UTIs are sometimes sexually transmitted. PMID:25832302
Fofana, A; Bada Alambédji, R; Seydi, M; Akakpo, A J
Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and others pathogens bacteria can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption of contaminated food and foods products and thus present a public health risk. The increase in E. coli resistance to commonly used antimicrobials both in the public health and veterinary sectors is one of the major threats of health care worldwide. The present study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from raw chicken meat in Dakar. Levying of skin and muscle have been carried out on 120 chicken carcasses bought from 13 sale points and 23 flocks beetween November 2003 and April 2004. 102 Escherichia coli strains have been isolated, among which, 90 were tested for their susceptibilities to 16 selected antibiotics by agar diffusion method. All Escherichia coli strains (100%), were resistant to one or more antibiotic; 60 strains (66.66%) being resistant to more than five antibiotics. Those frequently encountererd are: ampicillin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, tetracycline, sulfonamides, streptomycin, nalidixic acid. Multiple resistances to 12 antibiotics were also observed. The lowest resistances were noted with gentamicin (3.33%) and neomycin (5.56%). This study showed the significance of chicken meat as source of Escherichia coli strains with a simple or multiple resistance to various antibiotics tested. Further studies are necessary in order to determine bacterium mechanisms of resistance.
Fofana, A; Bada Alambedji, R; Seydi, M; Akakpo, A J
Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and others pathogens bacteria can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption of contaminated food and foods products and thus present a public health risk. The increase in E. coli resistance to commonly used antimicrobials both in the public health and veterinary sectors is one of the major threats of health care worldwide. The present study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from raw chicken meat in Dakar. Levying of skin and muscle have been carried out on 120 chicken carcasses bought from 13 sale points and 23 flocks beetween November 2003 and April 2004. 102 Escherichia coli strains have been isolated, among which, 90 were tested for their susceptibilities to 16 selected antibiotics by agar diffusion method. All Escherichia coli strains (100%), were resistant to one or more antibiotic; 60 strains (66.66%) being resistant to more than five antibiotics. Those frequently encountererd are: ampicillin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, tetracycline, sulfonamides, streptomycin, nalidixic acid. Multiple resistances to 12 antibiotics were also observed. The lowest resistances were noted with gentamicin (3.33%) and neomycin (5.56%). This study showed the significance of chicken meat as source of Escherichia coli strains with a simple or multiple resistance to various antibiotics tested. Further studies are necessary in order to determine bacterium mechanisms of resistance.
Ma, Jincai; Mark Ibekwe, A; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that of non-O157 E. coli strains in agricultural soils collected from three major fresh produce growing areas of California (CA) and Arizona (AZ). Results showed that the nonpathogenic E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived longer than the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in Imperial Valley CA and Yuma AZ, but not in soils from the Salinas area. However, E. coli O157:NM was found to persist significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soil tested from the three regions. Furthermore, two non-O157 (E. coli O26:H21 and E. coli O103:H2) survived significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soils tested. Pearson correlation analysis showed that survival of the E. coli strains was affected by different environmental factors. Our data suggest that survival of E. coli O157 and non-O157 may be strain and soil specific, and therefore, care must be taken in data interpretation with respect to survival of this pathogen in different soils.
Goodsell, David S.
Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…
Goodsell, David S.
Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…
Crossman, Lisa C; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Beatson, Scott A; Wells, Timothy J; Desvaux, Mickael; Cunningham, Adam F; Petty, Nicola K; Mahon, Vivienne; Brinkley, Carl; Hobman, Jon L; Savarino, Stephen J; Turner, Susan M; Pallen, Mark J; Penn, Charles W; Parkhill, Julian; Turner, A Keith; Johnson, Timothy J; Thomson, Nicholas R; Smith, Stephen G J; Henderson, Ian R
In most cases, Escherichia coli exists as a harmless commensal organism, but it may on occasion cause intestinal and/or extraintestinal disease. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the predominant cause of E. coli-mediated diarrhea in the developing world and is responsible for a significant portion of pediatric deaths. In this study, we determined the complete genomic sequence of E. coli H10407, a prototypical strain of enterotoxigenic E. coli, which reproducibly elicits diarrhea in human volunteer studies. We performed genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains, revealing that the chromosome is closely related to that of the nonpathogenic commensal strain E. coli HS and to those of the laboratory strains E. coli K-12 and C. Furthermore, these analyses demonstrated that there were no chromosomally encoded factors unique to any sequenced ETEC strains. Comparison of the E. coli H10407 plasmids with those from several ETEC strains revealed that the plasmids had a mosaic structure but that several loci were conserved among ETEC strains. This study provides a genetic context for the vast amount of experimental and epidemiological data that have been published.
Smith, J. L.; Drum, D. J. V.; Dai, Y.; Kim, J. M.; Sanchez, S.; Maurer, J. J.; Hofacre, C. L.; Lee, M. D.
Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial broilers and an experimental flock of chickens were screened to determine phenotypic expression of antimicrobial resistance and carriage of drug resistance determinants. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of oxytetracycline, sarafloxacin, and enrofloxacin administration on the distribution of resistance determinants and strain types among intestinal commensal E. coli strains isolated from broiler chickens. We detected a high prevalence of resistance to drugs such as tetracycline (36 to 97%), sulfonamides (50 to 100%), and streptomycin (53 to 100%) in E. coli isolates from treated and untreated flocks. These isolates also had a high prevalence of class 1 integron carriage, and most of them possessed the streptomycin resistance cassette, aadA1. In order to investigate the contribution of E. coli strain distribution to the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the resistance determinants, isolates from each flock were DNA fingerprinted by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC) PCR. Although very diverse E. coli strain types were detected, four ERIC strain types were present on all of the commercial broiler farms, and two of the strains were also found in the experimental flocks. Each E. coli strain consisted of both susceptible and antimicrobial agent-resistant isolates. In some instances, isolates of the same E. coli strain expressed the same drug resistance patterns although they harbored different tet determinants or streptomycin resistance genes. Therefore, drug resistance patterns could not be explained solely by strain prevalence, indicating that mobile elements contributed significantly to the prevalence of resistance. PMID:17194843
Ludwig, Albrecht; von Rhein, Christine; Bauer, Susanne; Hüttinger, Christian; Goebel, Werner
Cytolysin A (ClyA) of Escherichia coli is a pore-forming hemolytic protein encoded by the clyA (hlyE, sheA) gene that was first identified in E. coli K-12. In this study we examined various clinical E. coli isolates with regard to the presence and integrity of clyA. PCR and DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that 19 of 23 tested Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, all 7 tested enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) strains, 6 of 8 enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strains, and 4 of 7 tested enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains possess a complete clyA gene. The remaining STEC, EAEC, and ETEC strains and 9 of the 17 tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains were shown to harbor mutant clyA derivatives containing 1-bp frameshift mutations that cause premature termination of the coding sequence. The other eight EPEC strains and all tested uropathogenic and new-born meningitis-associated E. coli strains (n = 14 and 3, respectively) carried only nonfunctional clyA fragments due to the deletion of two sequences of 493 bp and 204 or 217 bp at the clyA locus. Expression of clyA from clinical E. coli isolates proved to be positively controlled by the transcriptional regulator SlyA. Several tested E. coli strains harboring a functional clyA gene produced basal amounts of ClyA when grown under standard laboratory conditions, but most of them showed a clyA-dependent hemolytic phenotype only when SlyA was overexpressed. The presented data indicate that cytolysin A can play a role only for some of the pathogenic E. coli strains.
James, Chloe E.; Stanley, Karen N.; Allison, Heather E.; Flint, Harry J.; Stewart, Colin S.; Sharp, Richard J.; Saunders, Jon R.; McCarthy, Alan J.
A verocytotoxigenic bacteriophage isolated from a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, into which a kanamycin resistance gene (aph3) had been inserted to inactivate the verocytotoxin gene (vt2), was used to infect Enterobacteriaceae strains. A number of Shigella and E. coli strains were susceptible to lysogenic infection, and a smooth E. coli isolate (O107) was also susceptible to lytic infection. The lysogenized strains included different smooth E. coli serotypes of both human and animal origin, indicating that this bacteriophage has a substantial capacity to disseminate verocytotoxin genes. A novel indirect plaque assay utilizing an E. coli recA441 mutant in which phage-infected cells can enter only the lytic cycle, enabling detection of all infective phage, was developed. PMID:11526041
James, C E; Stanley, K N; Allison, H E; Flint, H J; Stewart, C S; Sharp, R J; Saunders, J R; McCarthy, A J
A verocytotoxigenic bacteriophage isolated from a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, into which a kanamycin resistance gene (aph3) had been inserted to inactivate the verocytotoxin gene (vt2), was used to infect Enterobacteriaceae strains. A number of Shigella and E. coli strains were susceptible to lysogenic infection, and a smooth E. coli isolate (O107) was also susceptible to lytic infection. The lysogenized strains included different smooth E. coli serotypes of both human and animal origin, indicating that this bacteriophage has a substantial capacity to disseminate verocytotoxin genes. A novel indirect plaque assay utilizing an E. coli recA441 mutant in which phage-infected cells can enter only the lytic cycle, enabling detection of all infective phage, was developed.
Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto
The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples.
Goldberg, I; Lonberg-Holm, K; Bagley, E A; Stieglitz, B
Two recombinant plasmid Escherichia coli strains containing amplified fumarate reductase activity converted fumarate to succinate at significantly higher rates and yields than a wild-type E. coli strain. Glucose was required for the conversion of fumarate to succinate, and in the absence of glucose or in cultures with a low cell density, malate accumulated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of proteins from the recombinant DNA and wild-type strains showed that increased quantities of both large and small fumarate reductase subunits were expressed in the recombinant DNA strains. Images PMID:6349526
Adamus-Bialek, Wioletta; Zajac, Elzbieta; Parniewski, Pawel; Kaca, Wieslaw
Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are important urinary tract pathogens. The constant increase in the antibiotic resistance of clinical bacterial strains has become an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to compare the antibiotic resistance of 141 clinical (Sweden and Poland) and 42 laboratory (Czech Republic) P. mirabilis strains and 129 clinical (Poland) uropathogenic E. coli strains. The proportion of unique versus diverse patterns in Swedish clinical and laboratory P. mirabilis strain collections was comparable. Notably, a similar proportion of unique versus diverse patterns was observed in Polish clinical P. mirabilis and E. coli strain collections. Mathematical models of the antibiotic resistance of E. coli and P. mirabilis strains based on Kohonen networks and association analysis are presented. In contrast to the three clinical strain collections, which revealed complex associations with the antibiotics tested, laboratory P. mirabilis strains provided simple antibiotic association diagrams. The monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns of clinical E. coli and P. mirabilis strains plays an important role in the treatment procedures for urinary tract infections and is important in the context of the spreading drug resistance in uropathogenic strain populations. The adaptability and flexibility of the genomes of E. coli and P. mirabilis strains are discussed.
The recent high-throughput sequencing has enabled the composition of Escherichia coli strains in the human microbial community to be profiled en masse. However, there are two challenges to address: (1) exploring the genetic differences between E. coli strains in human gut and (2) dynamic responses of E. coli to diverse stress conditions. As a result, we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. The metabolic models show obvious strain-specific characteristics, both in network contents and in behaviors. We predicted optimal biomass production for three models on four different carbon sources (acetate, ethanol, glucose, and succinate) and found that these stress-associated genes were involved in host-microbial interactions and increased in human obesity. Besides, it shows that the growth rates are similar among the models, but the flux distributions are different, even in E. coli core reactions. The correlations between human diabetes-associated metabolic reactions in the E. coli models were also predicted. The study provides a systems perspective on E. coli strains in human gut microbiome and will be helpful in integrating diverse data sources in the following study. PMID:25126572
Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrières, Lionel; Klemm, Per
Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic urinary tract infection, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious E. coli seems to be associated with ABU strains and appears to be an important strategy used by these strains for persistence in this high-flow environment.
Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.
Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432
Geornaras, Ifigenia; Hastings, John W.; von Holy, Alexander
Plasmid profiling and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis were used to genotype 50 Escherichia coli strains from poultry carcasses. Thirty different plasmid profiles were evident, and clustering of the AFLP data showed that they were a distinctly heterogeneous group of strains. Susceptibility testing against five antimicrobial agents used in the South African poultry industry showed all strains to be susceptible to danofloxacin and colistin, while the majority (96%) were resistant to two tetracyclines. PMID:11282652
Seo, Dong Joo; Choi, SunKeum; Jeon, Su Been; Jeong, Suntak; Park, Hyunkyung; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Kim, Geun-Bae; Yang, Soo-Jin; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu; Choi, Changsun
The aim of this study was to compare the sequence of the astA gene found in 8 Korean and 11 Japanese Escherichia coli isolates. Conventional PCR was used to amplify the astA gene from the chromosomal and plasmid DNA preparation samples of each isolate using commercial DNA extraction kits. Cloning of the PCR products, sequence analysis, and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were sequentially performed. An identical copy of astA in each isolate were found for 8 Korean and 8 Japanese E. coli strains isolated from bovine, porcine, and healthy human carriers. Among these, 1 Korean and 4 Japanese isolates carried a stop mutation at residue 16. Three Japanese outbreak strains (V199, V638, and 96-127-23) carried multiple clones of astA gene with multiple amino acids changes at residues 11, 16, 20, 23, 30, 33, and 34. Compared with the non-diarrheal isolates, clonal diversity and sequence variations of the astA gene in outbreak isolates may be associated with virulence potential of EAST1.
Diedrich, Jonathan; Rehse, Steven J.; Palchaudhuri, Sunil
A pathogenic strain of bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (enterohemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC), has been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with nanosecond pulses and compared to three nonpathogenic E. coli strains: a laboratory strain of K-12 (AB), a derivative of the same strain termed HF4714, and an environmental strain, E. coli C (Nino C). A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was performed on the LIBS spectra obtained from live colonies of all four strains. Utilizing the emission intensity of 19 atomic and ionic transitions from trace inorganic elements, the DFA revealed significant differences between EHEC and the Nino C strain, suggesting the possibility of identifying and discriminating the pathogenic strain from commonly occurring environmental strains. EHEC strongly resembled the two K-12 strains, in particular, HF4714, making discrimination between these strains difficult. DFA was also used to analyze spectra from two of the nonpathogenic strains cultured in different media: on a trypticase soy (TS) agar plate and in a liquid TS broth. Strains cultured in different media were identified and effectively discriminated, being more similar than different strains cultured in identical media. All bacteria spectra were completely distinct from spectra obtained from the nutrient medium or ablation substrate alone. The ability to differentiate strains prepared and tested in different environments indicates that matrix effects and background contaminations do not necessarily preclude the use of LIBS to identify bacteria found in a variety of environments or grown under different conditions.
Schwan, William R.; Briska, Adam; Stahl, Buffy; Wagner, Trevor K.; Zentz, Emily; Henkhaus, John; Lovrich, Steven D.; Agger, William A.; Callister, Steven M.; DuChateau, Brian; Dykes, Colin W.
Optical maps were generated for 33 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates. For individual genomes, the NcoI restriction fragments aligned into a unique chromosome map for each individual isolate, which was then compared with the in silico restriction maps of all of the sequenced E. coli and Shigella strains. All of the UPEC isolates clustered separately from the Shigella strains as well as the laboratory and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains. Moreover, the individual strains appeared to cluster into distinct subgroups based on the dendrogram analyses. Phylogenetic grouping of these 33 strains showed that 32/33 were the B2 subgroup and 1/33 was subgroup A. To further characterize the similarities and differences among the 33 isolates, pathogenicity island (PAI), haemolysin and virulence gene comparisons were performed. A strong correlation was observed between individual subgroups and virulence factor genes as well as haemolysis activity. Furthermore, there was considerable conservation of sequenced-strain PAIs in the specific subgroups. Strains with different antibiotic-resistance patterns also appeared to sort into separate subgroups. Thus, the optical maps distinguished the UPEC strains from other E. coli strains and further subdivided the strains into distinct subgroups. This optical mapping procedure holds promise as an alternative way to subgroup all E. coli strains, including those involved in infections outside of the intestinal tract and epidemic strains with distinct patterns of antibiotic resistance. PMID:20378655
Rahmatabadi, Seyyed Soheil; Nezafat, Navid; Negahdaripour, Manica; Hajighahramani, Nasim; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Ghasemi, Younes
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) system is a novel type of innate defense system in prokaryotes for destruction of exogenous elements. To gain further insight into behavior and organization of the system, the extensive analysis of the available sequenced genomes is necessary. The dynamic nature of CRISPR loci is possibly valuable for typing and relative analyses of strains and microbial population. There are a few orderly bioinformatics investigations about the structure of CRISPR sequences in the Escherichia coli strains. In this study, 57 CRISPR loci were selected from 32 Escherichia coli strains to investigate their structural characteristics and potential functions using bioinformatics tools. Our results showed that most strains contained several loci that mainly included conserved direct repeats, while the spacers were highly variable. Moreover, RNA analysis of the sequences indicated that all loci could form stable RNA secondary structures and showed homology mostly with phages compared to plasmids. Only three strains included cas genes around their loci.
Orden, José Antonio; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José Antonio; García, Silvia; Cid, Dolores; de la Fuente, Ricardo
The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. PMID:10049259
Bopp, Cheryl A.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years and in adults living in developing countries, as well as in travelers to these countries. In this announcement, we release the draft whole-genome sequences of 10 ETEC serogroup O6 strains. PMID:26044422
Siddharth, Jay; Membrez, Mathieu; Chakrabarti, Anirikh; Betrisey, Bertrand; Chou, Chieh Jason
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli is one of the common inhabitants of the mammalian gastrointestinal track. We isolated a strain from an ob/ob mouse and performed whole-genome sequencing, which yielded a chromosome of ~5.1 Mb and three plasmids of ~160 kb, ~6 kb, and ~4 kb. PMID:28572322
Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...
Thompson, J S; Hodge, D S; Borczyk, A A
Fluorogenic procedures were used with the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) to identify Escherichia coli. Most strains produced beta-glucuronidase and, thus, were MUG positive. A 20-min procedure was developed to detect glucuronidase activity in 1,295 bacterial cultures, representing 23 genera, of strains that were isolated from clinical specimens. Very few organisms other than E. coli were MUG positive. Of 682 E. coli strains that were isolated, 630 (92.4%) were MUG positive. When an additional 188 E. coli serotype O157 isolates were examined, 155 E. coli O157:H7, 10 E. coli O157:H-, and 1 E. coli O157:H (rough) isolate were MUG negative. All 166 cultures were verocytotoxin positive. Of the remaining 22 E. coli O157 isolates, 2 isolates were O157:H-, 1 isolate was O157:H (rough), and 19 isolates were other H types (H6, H16, H19, H25, H42, and H45); these 22 isolates were MUG positive. All 22 cultures were verocytotoxin negative. The rapid MUG procedure can be used to predict verocytotoxin-positive isolates of E. coli O157; that is, there is a very good likelihood that MUG-negative E. coli O157 isolates are verocytotoxin positive. PMID:2229338
Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Hobman, Jon L.; Webber, Mark A.; Leyton, Denisse L.; Goldberg, Martin D.; Cunningham, Adam F.; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; Ferguson, Paul R.; Thomas, Christopher M.; Frankel, Gad; Tang, Christoph M.; Dudley, Edward G.; Roberts, Ian S.; Rasko, David A.; Pallen, Mark J.; Parkhill, Julian; Nataro, James P.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Henderson, Ian R.
Background Escherichia coli can experience a multifaceted life, in some cases acting as a commensal while in other cases causing intestinal and/or extraintestinal disease. Several studies suggest enteroaggregative E. coli are the predominant cause of E. coli-mediated diarrhea in the developed world and are second only to Campylobacter sp. as a cause of bacterial-mediated diarrhea. Furthermore, enteroaggregative E. coli are a predominant cause of persistent diarrhea in the developing world where infection has been associated with malnourishment and growth retardation. Methods In this study we determined the complete genomic sequence of E. coli 042, the prototypical member of the enteroaggregative E. coli, which has been shown to cause disease in volunteer studies. We performed genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains revealing previously uncharacterised virulence factors including a variety of secreted proteins and a capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. In addition, by using Biolog™ Phenotype Microarrays we have provided a full metabolic profiling of E. coli 042 and the non-pathogenic lab strain E. coli K-12. We have highlighted the genetic basis for many of the metabolic differences between E. coli 042 and E. coli K-12. Conclusion This study provides a genetic context for the vast amount of experimental and epidemiological data published thus far and provides a template for future diagnostic and intervention strategies. PMID:20098708
Ghilardi, A. C. R.; Gomes, T. A. T.; Elias, W. P.; Trabulsi, L. R.
A total of 102 Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O127 and O142 were examined for genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The most frequent serotypes found were O127:H21, O127:H40 and O142:H34. The virulence properties were evaluated by adhesion to HeLa cells and hybridization with gene probes for diarrhoeagenic E. coli. Most strains in the two serogroups were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, but enteroaggregative E. coli was also detected in both serogroups. All strains that carried the eae sequence presented the LEE region inserted in selC. Five ribotypes were detected in serogroup O127 and four in serogroup O142 and a correlation between serotypes and ribotypes was observed mainly in serogroup O142. PMID:14596521
In most cases Escherichia coli strains phenotypically resistant against nourseothricin (streptothricin) harbour a plasmid which codes for an acetyltransferase. This enzyme transfers an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A to an amino group of the beta-lysine (peptide) chain of the antibiotic, thus inactivating it. Additionally, the penetrability for nourseothricin of the cell wall is drastically reduced in a high percentage of the resistant strains. Both resistance mechanisms seem to be independent of each other.
Pohl, P; Lintermans, P; Vandergheynst, M C; Van Muylem, K; Schlicker, C; Van Robaeys, G
Simmons citrate agar supplemented with 0.2% adonitol (SCA medium) was used as a differential medium for some enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: all strains with either a cryptic K99 antigen or a glucose-dependent K99 antigen and 70% of strains with a glucose-independent K99 antigen gave yellow colonies on SCA medium. Other faecal bacteria did not grow or else developed as blue colonies.
Akita, Hironaga; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu
To generate an organism capable of producing d-lactate, NAD(+)-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase was expressed in our pyruvate-producing strain, Escherichia coli strain LAFCPCPt-accBC-aceE. After determining the optimal culture conditions for d-lactate production, 18.4 mM d-lactate was produced from biomass-based medium without supplemental mineral or nitrogen sources. Our results show that d-lactate can be produced in simple batch fermentation processes.
Doregiraee, Fatemeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Nayeri Fasaei, Bahar; Charkhkar, Saeed; Tajedin, Elahe; Zali, Mohammad Reza
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains in healthy broilers in Iran. Background: STEC and EPEC strains as diarrheagenic E. coli are among the most prevalent causative agents in acute diarrhea. Domestic animals, mainly cattle and sheep, have been implicated as the principal reservoirs of these pathotypes; however their prevalence among the broilers is varied among different countries. Patients and methods: A total of 500 cloacal swab samples from broilers of five different poultry houses (A-E) were collected to investigate the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, eae, and bfp virulence genes among the E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction. The shiga toxin encoding strains were evaluated serologically to detect their interaction with a commercial antiserum against O157 antigen. Results: Out of the 500 collected samples, 444 E. coli strains were isolated. Three strains (0.67%) presented at least one of the studied virulence genes (stx2, hly and eae), two strains were identified as STEC (stx2+, O157:nonH7) and one as an atypical EPEC strains (eae+ bfp-). Conclusion: The study established the presence of STEC and atypical EPEC in healthy broilers in Iran. Poultry might serve as vectors for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to human populations. PMID:26744615
Johnson, David E.; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Russell, Robert G.; Hebel, J. Richard; Island, Michael D.; Stapleton, Ann; Stamm, Walter E.; Warren, John W.
Urinary tract infection, most frequently caused by Escherichia coli, is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. A vast amount of literature regarding the mechanisms through which E. coli induces pyelonephritis has accumulated. Although cystitis accounts for 95% of visits to physicians for symptoms of urinary tract infections, few in vivo studies have investigated possible differences between E. coli recovered from patients with clinical symptoms of cystitis and that from patients with symptoms of pyelonephritis. Epidemiological studies indicate that cystitis-associated strains appear to differ from pyelonephritis-associated strains in elaboration of some putative virulence factors. With transurethrally challenged mice we studied possible differences using three each of the most virulent pyelonephritis and cystitis E. coli strains in our collection. The results indicate that cystitis strains colonize the bladder more rapidly than do pyelonephritis strains, while the rates of kidney colonization are similar. Cystitis strains colonize the bladder in higher numbers, induce more pronounced histologic changes in the bladder, and are more rapidly eliminated from the mouse urinary tract than pyelonephritis strains. These results provide evidence that cystitis strains differ from pyelonephritis strains in this model, that this model is useful for the study of the uropathogenicity of cystitis strains, and that it would be unwise to use pyelonephritis strains to study putative virulence factors important in the development of cystitis. PMID:9632566
Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan
The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment.
Crémet, Lise; Broquet, Alexis; Brulin, Bénédicte; Jacqueline, Cédric; Dauvergne, Sandie; Brion, Régis; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane; Heymann, Dominique; Caroff, Nathalie
Escherichia coli is one of the first causes of Gram-negative orthopedic implant infections (OII), but little is known about the pathogenicity of this species in such infections that are increasing due to the ageing of the population. We report how this pathogen interacts with human osteoblastic MG-63 cells in vitro, by comparing 20 OII E. coli strains to two Staphylococcus aureus and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. LDH release assay revealed that 6/20 (30%) OII E. coli induced MG-63 cell lysis whereas none of the four control strains was cytotoxic after 4 h of coculture. This high cytotoxicity was associated with hemolytic properties and linked to hlyA gene expression. We further showed by gentamicin protection assay and confocal microscopy that the non-cytotoxic E. coli were not able to invade MG-63 cells unlike S. aureus strains (internalization rate <0.01% for the non-cytotoxic E. coli versus 8.88 ± 2.31% and 4.60 ± 0.42% for both S. aureus). The non-cytotoxic E. coli also demonstrated low adherence rates (<7%), the most adherent E. coli eliciting higher IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cells. Either highly cytotoxic or slightly invasive OII E. coli do not show the same infection strategies as S. aureus towards osteoblasts. PMID:26333570
Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan
The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514
El Bouamri, M C; Arsalane, L; Kamouni, Y; Yahyaoui, H; Bennouar, N; Berraha, M; Zouhair, S
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a very common reason for consultation and prescription in current practice. Excessive or inappropriate use of antibiotics in treating urinary tract infections is responsible for the emergence and spread of multiresistant uropathogenic bacteria. To evaluate the isolation frequency and antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated at the Marrakech region. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of three years (from 1st January 2010 to 31 December 2012). It included all non-redundant uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated in the microbiology laboratory of the Avicenne hospital of Marrakech, Morocco. During this study, 1472 uropathogenic enterobacteriaceae were isolated including 924 non-repetitive E. coli strains, an overall isolation frequency of 63%. Antibiotic resistance of isolated E. coli strains showed resistance rates to amoxicillin (65%), sulfamethoxazole-triméthropime (55%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43%), ciprofloxacin (22%), gentamicin (14%), nitrofurans (11%), amikacin (8%) and fosfomycin (7%). The number of E. coli strains resistant to C3G by ESBL production was 67, an average frequency of 4.5% of all isolated uropathogenic enterobacteria. The associated antibiotic resistance in the case of ESBL-producing E. coli were 82% for ciprofloxacin, 76% for sulfamethozole trimethoprim, 66% for gentamicin and 56% for amikacin. No resistance to imipenem was recorded for the isolated E. coli strains, which represents an imipenem sensitivity of 100%. Antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic E. coli strains limits treatment options and therefore constitutes a real public health problem. The regular updating of antibiotic susceptibility statistics of E. coli strains allows a better adaptation of the probabilistic antibiotic therapy to local epidemiological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Watt, Stéphane; Lanotte, Philippe; Mereghetti, Laurent; Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne; Picard, Bertrand; Quentin, Roland
To determine the extent to which the vagina, endocervix, and amniotic fluid screen the Escherichia coli strains responsible for neonatal infections, we studied the genetic relationships among 105 E. coli strains isolated from all of the ecosystems involved in this infectious process. Twenty-four strains were isolated from the intestinal flora, and 25 strains were isolated from the vaginas of pregnant women. Twenty-seven strains were isolated from the amniotic fluid, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected neonates. The intraspecies genetic characteristics of all of the isolates were determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, PCR ECOR (E. coli reference) grouping, and PCR virulence genotyping. A correlation was found between the intraspecies distributions of the strains in the A, B1, B2, and D ECOR groups and in the two major RAPD groups (I and II). Nevertheless, the distribution of the E. coli strains in the RAPD groups according to their anatomical origins was more significant than their distribution in the ECOR groups. This may be explained by the existence of an E. coli subpopulation, defined by the RAPD I group, within the ECOR B2 group. This RAPD I group presents a major risk for neonates: 75% of the strains isolated from patients with meningitis and 100% of the strains isolated from patients with bacteremia were in this group. The vagina and the amniotic fluid are two barriers that favor colonization by highly infectious strains. Indeed, only 17% of fecal strains belonged to the RAPD I group, whereas 52% of vaginal strains and 67% of amniotic fluid strains belonged to this subpopulation. The ibeA and iucC genes were significantly associated with CSF strains, whereas the hly and sfa/foc genes were more frequent in blood strains. These findings could serve as a basis for developing tools to recognize vaginal strains, which present a high risk for neonates, for use in prophylaxis programs.
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N
Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N.
Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with two or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest future efforts to efficiently identify diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging. PMID:19292660
Strotksaya, Alexandra; Semenova, Ekaterina; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin
In Escherichia coli, acquisition of new spacers in the course of CRISPR-Cas adaptation is dramatically stimulated by preexisting partial matches between a bacterial CRISPR cassette spacer and a protospacer sequence in the DNA of the infecting bacteriophage or plasmid. This phenomenon, which we refer to as "priming," can be used for very simple and rapid construction of multiple E. coli strains capable of targeting, through CRISPR interference, any phage or plasmid of interest. Availability of such strains should allow rapid progress in the analysis of CRISPR-Cas system function against diverse mobile genetic elements.
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D; Smith, Catherine A; Maslow, Joel
We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples.
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Smith, Catherine A.; Maslow, Joel
We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070
Adlerberth, I.; Jalil, F.; Carlsson, B.; Mellander, L.; Hanson, L. A.; Larsson, P.; Khalil, K.; Wold, A. E.
The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health. PMID:10030708
Roussel, Perrine; Porcherie, Adeline; Répérant-Ferter, Maryline; Cunha, Patricia; Gitton, Christophe; Rainard, Pascal; Germon, Pierre
Mastitis remains a major infection of dairy cows and an important issue for dairy farmers and the dairy industry, in particular infections due to Escherichia coli strains. So far, properties specific to E. coli causing mastitis remain ill defined. In an attempt to better understand the properties required for E. coli to trigger mastitis, we used a range of in vitro assays to phenotypically characterize four E. coli strains, including the prototypical E. coli mastitis strain P4, possessing different relative abilities to cause mastitis in a mouse model. Our results indicate that a certain level of serum resistance might be required for colonization of the mammary gland. Resistance to neutrophil killing is also likely to contribute to a slower clearance of bacteria and higher chances to colonize the udder. In addition, we show that the four different strains do induce a pro-inflammatory response by mammary epithelial cells but with different intensities. Interestingly, the prototypical mastitis strain P4 actually induces the less intense response while it is responsible for the most severe infections in vivo. Altogether, our results suggest that different strategies can be used by E. coli strains to colonize the mammary gland and cause mastitis.
Cornelis, G; Luke, R K; Richmond, M H
Introduction of plasmids carrying the lacY gene (lactose permease gene) into Yersinia enterocolitica results in cells being able to ferment both lactose and raffinose. Transfer of such plasmids into Escherichia coli C600 (lacY) confers ability to ferment lactose but not raffinose. Derivatives of C600 that ferment both lactose and sucrose (Lac+ Scr+ strains) are able to ferment raffinose, but do not grow well on raffinose minimal medium. Fermentation of raffinose by Lac+ strains of Y. enterocolitica, and by Lac+ Scr+ strains of E. coli, is explained in terms of transport of raffinose via the lac permease and subsequent breakdown catalyzed by invertase. PMID:344338
Kobayashi, Renata K T; Aquino, Ivani; Ferreira, Ana Lívia da S; Vidotto, Marilda C
Escherichia coli strains designated as avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) are responsible for avian colibacillosis, an acute and largely systemic disease that promotes significant economic losses in poultry industry worldwide because of mortality increase, medication costs, and condemnation of carcasses. APEC is a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli pathotype, which includes uropathogenic E. coli, neonatal meningitis E. coli, and septicemic E. coli. We isolated E. coli from commercial chicken carcasses in a Brazilian community and compared by polymerase chain reaction-defined phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, or D) with APEC strains isolated from sick chickens from different poultry farms. A substantial number of strains assigned to phylogenetic E. coli reference collection group B2, which is known to harbor potent extraintestinal human and animal E. coli pathogens, were identified as APEC (26.0%) in both commercial chicken carcasses and retail poultry meat (retail poultry E. coli [RPEC]) (21.25%). The majority of RPEC were classified as group A (35%), whereas the majority of APEC were groups B1 (30.8) and A (27.6%). APEC and RPEC presented the genes pentaplex, iutA, hly, iron, ompT, and iss, but with different virulence profiles. The similarity between APEC and RPEC indicates RPEC as potentially pathogenic strains and supports a possible zoonotic risk for humans.
Hudault, S; Guignot, J; Servin, A
BACKGROUND—Escherichia coli is part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora which exerts a barrier effect against enteropathogens. Several E coli strains develop a protective effect against other Enterobacteriaceae. AIMS—Two E coli strains, EM0, a human faecal strain, and JM105 K-12 were tested for their ability to prevent in vivo and in vitro infection by Salmonella typhimurium C5. METHODS—Inhibition of C5 cell invasion by E coli was investigated in vitro using Caco-2/TC7 cells. The protective effect of E coli was examined in vivo in germfree or conventional C3H/He/Oujco mice orally infected by the lethal strain C5. RESULTS—EMO expresses haemolysin and cytotoxic necrotising factor in vitro. In vitro, the two strains did not prevent the growth of C5 by secreted microcins or modified cell invasion of C5. In vivo, establishment of EM0 or JM105 in the gut of germfree mice resulted in a significant increase in the number of surviving mice: 11/12 and 9/12, respectively, at 58 days after infection (2×106/mouse) versus 0/12 in control germfree group at 13 days after infection. Colonisation level and translocation rate of C5 were significantly reduced during the three days after infection. In contrast, no reduction in faecal C5 excretion was observed in C5 infected conventional mice (1×108/mouse) receiving the EM0 or JM105 cultures daily. CONCLUSIONS—Establishment of E coli strains, which do not display antimicrobial activity, protects germfree mice against infection and delays the establishment of C5 in the gut. Possible mechanisms of defence are discussed. Keywords: Escherichia coli; gastrointestinal infection; Salmonella; germfree mice; bacterial antagonism PMID:11413110
Nyholm, Outi; Halkilahti, Jani; Wiklund, Gudrun; Okeke, Uche; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja
Background Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. These two pathogroups are defined based on the pathogroup-associated virulence genes: stx encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) for STEC and elt encoding heat-labile and/or est encoding heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) for ETEC. The study investigated the genomics of STEC/ETEC hybrid strains to determine their phylogenetic position among E. coli and to define the virulence genes they harbor. Methods The whole genomes of three STEC/ETEC strains possessing both stx and est genes were sequenced using PacBio RS sequencer. Two of the strains were isolated from the patients, one with hemolytic uremic syndrome, and one with diarrhea. The third strain was of bovine origin. Core genome analysis of the shared chromosomal genes and comparison with E. coli and Shigella spp. reference genomes was performed to determine the phylogenetic position of the STEC/ETEC strains. In addition, a set of virulence genes and ETEC colonization factors were extracted from the genomes. The production of Stx and ST were studied. Results The human STEC/ETEC strains clustered with strains representing ETEC, STEC, enteroaggregative E. coli, and commensal and laboratory-adapted E. coli. However, the bovine STEC/ETEC strain formed a remote cluster with two STECs of bovine origin. All three STEC/ETEC strains harbored several other virulence genes, apart from stx and est, and lacked ETEC colonization factors. Two STEC/ETEC strains produced both toxins and one strain Stx only. Conclusions This study shows that pathogroup-associated virulence genes of different E. coli can co-exist in strains originating from different phylogenetic lineages. The possibility of virulence genes to be associated with several E. coli pathogroups should be taken into account in strain typing and in epidemiological surveillance. Development of novel hybrid E. coli strains may cause a new public health risk, which
Terzolo, H R; Zoratti de Verona, A; d'Empaire, M; Furowicz, A J
On a commercial poultry farm, a large percentage (9%) of clinically healthy fowls had positive reaction to the plate test, with commercial polyvalent pullorum antigens. We could not isolate Salmonella from the positive birds. An strain, of Escherichia coli Balcarce (E. coli B) was isolated from the feces of one of the birds. The isolate was identified biochemically and the antigenic study showed correlation with E. coli 044 and the somatic fraction 1, 2, 8, 14 and 23 of the Salmonella genus. The common antigens were studied by agglutination, absorption and crossed immunodiffusion tests, comparing the isolated strain and the different Salmonella serotypes. Four pullorum polyvalent commercial antigens reacted with sera containing somatic agglutinins 1, and with the E. coli B antiserum. These observations confirm the high antigenic correlation between the genus of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is indicated that for the diagnosis of avian salmonelosis rather than using a single serological tests, the isolation and identification of the etiological agent is required.
Braga, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho; Chanteloup, Nathalie Katy; Trotereau, Angélina; Baucheron, Sylvie; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Ecco, Roselene; Schouler, Catherine
Locomotor disorders and infections by Escherichia coli represent major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is associated with extraintestinal infections leading to respiratory or systemic disease known as colibacillosis. The most common lesions seen in cases of colibacillosis are perihepatitis, airsacculitis, pericarditis, peritonitis/salpingitis and arthritis. These diseases are responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. E. coli has been recently isolated from vertebral osteomyelitis cases in Brazil and there are no data on molecular and phenotypic characteristics of E. coli strains isolated from lesions in the locomotor system of broilers. This raised the question whether specific E. coli strains could be responsible for bone lesions in broilers. The aim of this study was to assess these characteristics of E. coli strains isolated from broilers presenting vertebral osteomyelitis and arthritis in Brazil. Fifteen E. coli strains from bone lesions were submitted to APEC diagnosis and setting of ECOR phylogenic group, O serogroup, flagella type, virulence genes content, genetic patterns by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). In addition, bacterial isolates were further characterized through a lethality test, serum resistance test and antibiotic resistance profile. E. coli strains harbored different genetic pattern as assessed by PFGE, regardless of flock origin and lesion site. The strains belonged to seven sequence types (STs) previously described (ST117, ST101, ST131, ST 371 and ST3107) or newly described in this study (ST5766 and ST5856). ECOR group D (66.7 %) was the most frequently detected. The strains belonged to diverse serogroups (O88, O25, O12, and O45), some of worldwide importance. The antibiotic resistance profile confirmed strains' diversity and revealed a high proportion of multidrug-resistant strains (73 %), mainly to quinolones and
Sabaté, Montserrat; Prats, Guillem; Moreno, Eva; Ballesté, Elisenda; Blanch, Anicet R; Andreu, Antonia
To gain insight into whether Escherichia coli isolated from humans and resistant to some common antimicrobial agents are derived from animals, 85 E. coli strains were selected by ERIC-PCR from human and animal wastewater samples. Phylogroup, pathogenicity islands (PAIs), resistance to quinolones, fluoroquinolones and presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were analyzed. Among the total, 55% were resistant to nalidixic acid and 38% to ciprofloxacin; 12% produced ESBLs. Chicken-derived strains were associated with quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance and presence of ESBLs, while human strains were associated with susceptibility. Group B2 E. coli strains were associated with human origin, susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and presence of PAIs, whereas groups A, B1 and D showed a low virulence profile and a high level of antimicrobial resistance. In both human and animal wastewater, E. coli A, B1 and D were prevalent, and strains from both origins showed a similar virulence profile in each phylogroup. These findings led us to hypothesize that abusive antibiotic use in food animal production may promote the development of resistance among these intestinal E. coli phylogroups, which could later be transmitted to humans through the food supply. The low prevalence of E. coli group B2 in the animal gut may explain, at least in part, the absence of emergence of resistant B2 isolates.
Likotrafiti, E; Tuohy, K M; Gibson, G R; Rastall, R A
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two synbiotic combinations, Lactobacillus fermentum with short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS-LF) and Bifidobacterium longum with isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO-BL), against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli O86. Antimicrobial activity was determined (1) by co-culturing the synbiotics and pathogens in batch cultures, and (2) with the three-stage continuous culture system (gut model), inoculated with faecal slurry from an elderly donor. In the co-culture experiments, IMO-BL was significantly inhibitory to both E. coli strains, while FOS-LF was slightly inhibitory or not inhibitory. Factors other than acid production appeared to play a role in the inhibition. In the gut models, both synbiotics effectively inhibited E. coli O157 in the first vessel, but not in vessels 2 and 3. E. coli O86 was not significantly inhibited.
Scotland, S M; Willshaw, G A; Cheasty, T; Rowe, B
AIMS: To determine whether 17 Escherichia coli O157:H8 strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea in the United Kingdom were putative pathogens. METHODS: The strains had been isolated by the use of O157 antiserum, available for the detection of Vero cytotoxin (VT) producing strains of E coli O157 that are usually of flagellar (H) type 7, but may also be non-motile. The strains were examined for VT production, for their ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells, and for hybridisation with several DNA probes that recognise pathogenic properties of E coli. Their ability to ferment sorbitol and to produce beta-glucuronidase was also investigated, as these tests are used to discriminate VT positive O157 strains. RESULTS: The O157:H8 strains did not produce VT. All gave localised attachment to HEp-2 cells, associated with a positive fluorescence-actin staining test, and all hybridised with the E coli attaching and effacing (eae) probe. In addition to the difference in VT production, O157:H8 strains could be distinguished from VT positive O157 strains by their beta-glucuronidase activity, their failure to produce enterohaemolysin, and their lack of hybridisation with the CVD419 probe derived from a plasmid in an O157:H7 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The 0157:H8 strains had in vitro properties characteristic of the class of E coli that causes attaching and effacing lesions in epithelial intestinal cells. They may therefore be considered a putative cause of diarrhoea but their prevalence remains to be established. Several O157:H8 strains failed to ferment sorbitol in agar plates and therefore could be misidentified as VT positive O157 strains. Confirmatory tests for VT production are needed when O157 strains are isolated from faeces. PMID:1479033
Leonard, Susan R.; Mammel, Mark K.; Lacher, David W.; Elkins, Christopher A.
Consumption of fresh bagged spinach contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has led to severe illness and death; however current culture-based methods to detect foodborne STEC are time consuming. Since not all STEC strains are considered pathogenic to humans, it is crucial to incorporate virulence characterization of STEC in the detection method. In this study, we assess the comprehensiveness of utilizing a shotgun metagenomics approach for detection and strain-level identification by spiking spinach with a variety of genomically disparate STEC strains at a low contamination level of 0.1 CFU/g. Molecular serotyping, virulence gene characterization, microbial community analysis, and E. coli core gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis were performed on metagenomic sequence data from enriched samples. It was determined from bacterial community analysis that E. coli, which was classified at the phylogroup level, was a major component of the population in most samples. However, in over half the samples, molecular serotyping revealed the presence of indigenous E. coli which also contributed to the percent abundance of E. coli. Despite the presence of additional E. coli strains, the serotype and virulence genes of the spiked STEC, including correct Shiga toxin subtype, were detected in 94% of the samples with a total number of reads per sample averaging 2.4 million. Variation in STEC abundance and/or detection was observed in replicate spiked samples, indicating an effect from the indigenous microbiota during enrichment. SNP analysis of the metagenomic data correctly placed the spiked STEC in a phylogeny of related strains in cases where the indigenous E. coli did not predominate in the enriched sample. Also, for these samples, our analysis demonstrates that strain-level phylogenetic resolution is possible using shotgun metagenomic data for determining the genomic relatedness of a contaminating STEC strain to other closely related E
Lai, X H; Wang, S Y; Uhlin, B E
The standard Escherichia coli collection of reference (ECOR) strains was examined for ability to exert cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells. A group of strains with functional haemolysin expression caused strong cytotoxicity and detachment in J774 macrophage cells as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release and as observed under a microscope. The expression of haemolysin was monitored by using antisera recognizing the E. coli alpha-haemolysin, the HlyA protein, and by quantitative haemolysis assays. The presence of the hlyA gene, which may be part of a pathogenicity island, was also confirmed. These analyses revealed that different ECOR strains express quantitatively different levels of haemolysin. One putative enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain was also found in the ECOR collection. The EAEC strain was characterized by the clump formation assay, PCR amplification of the EAEC DNA probe sequence and confirmative sequence analysis of the amplified fragment. The EAEC heat-stable enterotoxin 1 gene, astA, was found in 14% (10/72) of the ECOR strains and a consensus sequence for astA was proposed by comparing these sequences with those from pathogens. The astA gene appeared to be plasmid-located. Based on evidence from the work of other laboratories and from the present findings, it is concluded that the ECOR collection contains strains that may represent pathogenic E. coli. It is noted that caution is necessary when handling or disposing of those potentially pathogenic ECOR strains.
Picco, Natalia Y; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Bellingeri, Romina V; Grosso, María C; Motta, Carlos E; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Vissio, Claudina; Tiranti, Karina I; Terzolo, Horacio R; Moreira, Ana R; Vivas, Adriana B
The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7%) healthy and 225 (36.3%) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1% isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yajing; Mehmood, Khalid; Huang, Shucheng; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Li, Jiakui
The present study has examined the virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolates harboring at least one virulence gene (associated with ExPEC or InPEC pathotype and belonging to different phylogenetic groups: A, B1, B2 or D), isolated from free ranging Tibetan yak feces. The E. coli isolates (n = 87) were characterized for different serogroups and a mouse model of subcutaneous-infection was used to envisage the virulence within these E. coli strains. Of the 87 E. coli isolates examined, 23% of the E. coli isolates caused lethal infections in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection and were classified as killer. Moreover, the majority of the killer strains belonged to phylogroup A (65%) and serogroup O60 or O101 (35%). Phylogroup B1, serogroups O60 and O101 were statistically associated with the killer status (P < 0.05). However, positive associations (OR >1) were observed between the killer status isolates and all other bacterial virulence traits. This study comprises the first report on the virulence potential of E. coli strains isolated from free-ranging Tibetan yaks feces. Our findings suggest that pathogenic E. coli of free ranging yaks is highly worrisome, as these feces are used as manures by farmers and therewith pose a health risk to humans upon exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zalewska-Piatek, Beata M; Wilkanowicz, Sabina I; Piatek, Rafał J; Kur, Józef W
Urinary tract infections are the most common health problem affecting millions of people each year. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the major factor causing lower and upper urinary tract infections. UPEC produce several virulence factors among which are surface exposed adhesive organelldes (pili/fimbriae) responsible for colonization, invasion and amplification within uroepithelial cells. The virulence of the uropathogenic E. coli Dr IH11128 is associated with Dr fimbriae belonging to the Dr family of adhesins (associated with diarrhea and urinary tract infections) and a DraD protein capping the linear fiber at the bacterial cell surface. In this study we revealed that biofilm development can be another urovirulence determinant allowing pathogenic E. coli Dr+ to survive within the urinary tract. E. coli strains were grown in rich or minimal media, allowed to adhere to abiotic surfaces and analyzed microscopically by staining of cells with cristal violet. We found that both Dr fimbriae and DraD, exposed at the cell surface in two forms, fimbria-associated or fimbria non-associated, (DraE+/DraD+, DraE+/DraD- or DraE-/DraD+ E. coli strains) are required for biofilm formation. Additionally, we demonstrated the biofilm formation capacity of E. coli strains deficient in the surface secretion or production of the DraE adhesin.
Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Johnson, James R; Logue, Catherine M; Nolan, Lisa K
Escherichia coli strains that cause disease outside the intestine are known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and include pathogens of humans and animals. Previously, the genome of avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC) O1:K1:H7 strain O1, from ST95, was sequenced and compared to those of several other E. coli strains, identifying 43 genomic islands. Here, the genomic islands of APEC O1 were compared to those of other sequenced E. coli strains, and the distribution of 81 genes belonging to 12 APEC O1 genomic islands among 828 human and avian ExPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was determined. Multiple islands were highly prevalent among isolates belonging to the O1 and O18 serogroups within phylogenetic group B2, which are implicated in human neonatal meningitis. Because of the extensive genomic similarities between APEC O1 and other human ExPEC strains belonging to the ST95 phylogenetic lineage, its ability to cause disease in a rat model of sepsis and meningitis was assessed. Unlike other ST95 lineage strains, APEC O1 was unable to cause bacteremia or meningitis in the neonatal rat model and was significantly less virulent than uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) CFT073 in a mouse sepsis model, despite carrying multiple neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) virulence factors and belonging to the ST95 phylogenetic lineage. These results suggest that host adaptation or genome modifications have occurred either in APEC O1 or in highly virulent ExPEC isolates, resulting in differences in pathogenicity. Overall, the genomic islands examined provide targets for further discrimination of the different ExPEC subpathotypes, serogroups, phylogenetic types, and sequence types.
Sevastopoulos, C. G.; Glaser, D. A.
Several newly isolated temperature-sensitive dnaE mutants of Escherichia coli exhibit powerful mutagenic action at permissive temperatures. Mutation rates for the two most active mutants were assayed at four different temperatures and compared to wild-type behavior. Temperature-resistant revertants of the original temperature-sensitive dnaE mutants exhibited lower, nearly normal, mutation rates, but no antimutator strains were found. PMID:333443
Paoli, George C.; Zhang, Xinmin; Dudley, Edward G.; Figler, Hillary M.; Cottrell, Bryan J.; Andreozzi, Elisa
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain PA20 is a Pennsylvania Department of Health clinical isolate. It has been used to study biofilm formation in O157:H7 clinical isolates, where the high incidence of prophage insertions in the mlrA transcription factor disrupts traditional csgD biofilm regulation. Here, we report the complete PA20 genome sequence. PMID:28082498
Santiso, Rebeca; Tamayo, María; Fernández, José Luis; del Carmen Fernández, María; Molina, Francisca; Villanueva, Rosa; Gosálvez, Jaime; Bou, Germán
We recently reported a simple new in situ diffusion assay, developed as a kit, to visualize DNA fragmentation in single bacterial cells. Use of this assay in a collection of 95 genetically unrelated Escherichia coli clinical strains resulted in correct identification of all of the isolates as resistant or susceptible to ciprofloxacin, consistent with the MIC results. This relevant information is obtained in 80 min.
de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Gaziri, Luiz Carlos J.; Vidotto, Marilda C.
In this study, we compared Escherichia coli isolates from chickens with avian cellulitis with those from feces of healthy chickens. Cellulitis-derived strains presented phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of greater virulence than did the fecal isolates. Phylogenetic analysis by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR showed that, in agreement with their virulence characteristics, the cellulitis isolates form two clonal groups distinct from the fecal isolates. PMID:12819112
Wientjes, F.B.; Pas, E.; Taschner, P.E.; Woldringh, C.L.
The rate at which the peptidoglycan precursor meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) is incorporated into the cell wall of Escherichia coli cells was determined by pulse-label experiments. For different E. coli strains, the incorporation rate was compared with the rate of uptake of DAP into the cell. With E. coli W7, a dap lys mutant generally used in this kind of studies, steady-state incorporation was reached only after about 0.75 of the doubling time. This lag period can be ascribed to the presence of a large internal DAP pool in the cells. An E. coli K-12 lysA strain was constructed which could be grown without DAP in its medium. Consequently, due to the higher specific activity of the added (TH)DAP, faster incorporation and higher levels of radioactivity in the peptidoglycan layer were observed in the K-12 lysA strain than in the W7 strain. In addition, uptake and incorporation were faster in steady state (within about 0.2 of the doubling time), indicating a smaller DAP pool. The lag period could be further diminished and the incorporation rate could be increased by feedback inhibition of the biosynthetic pathway to DAP with threonine and methionine. These results make MC4100 lysA a suitable strain for studies on peptidoglycan synthesis. To explain our observations, the authors suggest the existence of an expandable pool of DAP in E. coli which varies with the DAP concentration in the growth medium.
Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 EDL 933 is a ground beef isolate associated with a 1983 hemorrhagic colitis outbreak. Considered the prototype O157:H7 strain, its derived genome sequence is a standard reference strain for comparative genomic studies of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Here we...
Rosario, C C; Puente, J L; Verdugo-Rodríguez, A; Anderson, R C; Eslava, C C
Seventy-six Escherichia coli serotypes possessing the ipaH gene typical of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) strains were characterized. Biochemical identification of our strains shows positive reactions for lactose fermentation (100% of strains), lysine decarboxylase (98.7% of strains) and motility (67.1% of strains), properties that do not correspond with those described to the EIEC group. The serotypes agree with an initial classification. In this, some common O antigens identified among ipaH+ strains were O2 (n=20), OR (n=11) and non-determined O? (n=10). The O2:NM serotype was the most common. Sixty-six percent (n=50) of the ipaH+ E. coli strains were colicin producers, of them, 26 (34%) produced Col V and other colicins, 13 (17%) produced colicins other than Col V, and 11 (14.5%) produced Col V only. Trimethoprim/Sulfa (72%), ampicillin (64.5%), enrofloxacin (55.3%), and ciprofloxacin (47.4%) were the major antimicrobial resistance frequencies observed. Twenty-five different multiresistance patterns were observed, where sixty-six strains (86.8%) were included. A MIC test showed that most of the strains were sensitive to low gentamicin and kanamycin concentrations, whereas most of the strains were resistant to tetracycline. An invasiveness assay showed that the predominant alterations caused to HEp-2 cells were changes in shape and staining, and in most of the specimens, a partial monolayer detachment was also seen. Fifteen strains invaded more than 30% of the monolayer cells, causing the formation of intercellular bridges or filipoidal-like protrusions. The results suggest the existence of specific clone complexes derived from EIEC strains adapted to the avian host. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of extraintestinal invasive E. coli (ExIEC) strains.
Matsumoto, Akiko; Sekoguchi, Ayuka; Imai, Junko; Kondo, Kumiko; Shibata, Yuka; Maeda, Sumio
Horizontal gene transfer is a strong tool that allows bacteria to adapt to various environments. Although three conventional mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction, and conjugation) are well known, new variations of these mechanisms have also been observed. We recently reported that DNase-sensitive cell-to-cell transfer of nonconjugative plasmids occurs between laboratory strains of Escherichia coli in co-culture. We termed this phenomenon "cell-to-cell transformation." In this report, we found that several combinations of Escherichia coli collection of reference (ECOR) strains, which were co-cultured in liquid media, resulted in DNase-sensitive cell-to-cell transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid isolation of these new transformants demonstrated cell-to-cell plasmid transfer between the ECOR strains. Natural transformation experiments, using a combination of purified plasmid DNA and the same ECOR strains, revealed that cell-to-cell transformation occurs much more frequently than natural transformation under the same culture conditions. Thus, cell-to-cell transformation is both unique and effective. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate cell-to-cell plasmid transformation in natural E. coli strains.
Boukef, I; El Bour, M; Al Gallas, N; El Bahri, O; Mejri, S; Mraouna, R; Ben Aissa, R; Boudabous, A; Got, P; Troussellier, M
This study investigated survival and virulence of Escherichia coli strains exposed to natural conditions in brackish water. Two E. coli strains (O126:B16 and O55:B5) were incubated in water microcosms in the Bizerte lagoon in northern Tunisia and exposed for 12 days to natural sunlight in June (231 to 386 W/m2, 26 +/- 1 degrees C, 30 g/L) and in April (227 to 330 W/m2, 17 +/- 1 degrees C, 27 g/L) or maintained in darkness for 21 days (17 +/- 1 degrees C, 27 g/L). The results revealed that sunlight was the most significant inactivating factor (decrease of 3 Ulog within 48 hours for the two strains) compared to salinity and temperature (in darkness). Survival time of the strains was prolonged as they were maintained in darkness. Local strain (E. coli O55:B5) showed better survival capacity (T90 = 52 hours) than E. coli O126:B16 (T90 = 11 h). For both, modifications were noted only for some metabolic activities of carbohydrates hydrolysis. Cytotoxicity of the two strains, tested on Vero cell, was maintained during the period of survival.
Formal, Samuel B.; LaBrec, E. H.; Kent, T. H.; Falkow, S.
Formal, Samuel B., (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), E. H. LaBrec, T. H. Kent, and S. Falkow. Abortive intestinal infection with an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain. J. Bacteriol. 89:1374–1382. 1965.—The mechanism of the apparent loss of virulence of an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain was studied. The parent Shigella strain caused a fatal enteric infection when fed to starved guinea pigs, and signs of dysentery followed its oral administration to monkeys. The hybrid strain failed to produce any apparent symptoms when fed to either of these species. The parent strain was shown to invade the intestinal mucosa of starved guinea pigs. This caused a severe inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria, which progressed to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium and resulted in death of the animal. The hybrid strain also invaded the intestinal mucosa and produced an inflammatory reaction. In this case, the inflammatory reaction subsided, the intestine returned to normal within 4 days after challenge, and the animal survived. Both fluorescent-antibody techniques and in vivo growth studies have shown that the hybrid strain can not maintain itself in the intestinal mucosa. Preliminary studies have indicated that a similar situation also exists in the monkey. It is concluded that the virulence of dysentery bacilli rests not only in the capacity to reach the lamina propria, but also in the ability to multiply in this region. Images PMID:14293011
Izaki, K; Kiuchi, K; Arima, K
Izaki, Kazuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), Kan Kiuchi, and Kei Arima. Specificity and mechanism of tetracycline resistance in a multiple drug resistant strain of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:628-633. 1966.-A decrease in the uptake of tetracycline occurred concurrently with a rise in the level of resistance of a multiple drug resistant strain of Escherichia coli grown in the presence of tetracycline. Although the strain was also resistant to streptomycin and chloramphenicol, growth in the presence of these two antibiotics did not influence the uptake of tetracycline. The induction of resistance, or decreased uptake of tetracycline, was dependent on growth of the organism in the presence of the drug. Decreased uptake of tetracycline could not be induced in a sensitive strain of the same organism under conditions suitable for induction of the resistant strain. The decrease in accumulating power of the resistant organism cultured in the presence of tetracycline does not appear to be due to selection of a resistant strain from cultures containing both resistant and sensitive strains.
Gomes, Tânia A T; Elias, Waldir P; Scaletsky, Isabel C A; Guth, Beatriz E C; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Piazza, Roxane M F; Ferreira, Luís C S; Martinez, Marina B
Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Faldyna, Martin; Kulich, Pavel; Kummer, Vladimir; Maskova, Jarmila; Alexa, Pavel
The virulence factors EAST1 and AIDA are often detected in ETEC/VTEC strains isolated from pigs and their role in diarrhoeal infections is discussed. In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of AIDA, the colonisation patterns of F4 positive and AIDA positive strains were investigated. Two wild-type Escherichia coli strains AIDA/EAST1 and F4/EAST1 isolated from diarrhoeal piglets were used for animal experiment to evaluate the ability of the EAST1 toxin to be involved in induction of diarrhoea. Gnotobiotic piglets were supplemented with normal porcine serum and orally inoculated with the strains. Faecal bacterial shedding of the challenge strains was observed during the experiment. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to detect the colonisation pattern of both challenge strains. Although bacterial isolation demonstrated shedding of the challenge strains until the end of the experiment, diarrhoea did not develop in any piglet. Based on histological examination, piglets were more heavily colonised in the case of infection with E. coli O149/F4/EAST1 strain. Scanning electron microscopy showed bacterial cells of F4/EAST1 E. coli adhering to enterocytes, in contrast to AIDA/EAST1 which were poorly present on the intestinal surface. The EAST1 toxin alone was not able to induce diarrhoea in animals. Therefore our results demonstrate that the function/role of EAST1 and AIDA in colibacillosis of pigs remains to be elucidated.
Göttig, Stephan; Bülte, Maria; Fiedler, Sophie; Tietgen, Manuela; Leidner, Ursula; Heydel, Carsten; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Semmler, Torsten
Sequence type 131 (ST131) is one of the predominant Escherichia coli lineages among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) that causes a variety of diseases in humans and animals and frequently shows multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first genome sequence of an ST131-ExPEC strain from poultry carrying the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene mcr-1. PMID:27587807
Wurm, David J.; Hausjell, Johanna; Ulonska, Sophia; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver
When producing recombinant proteins, the use of Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) in combination with the T7-based pET-expression system is often the method of choice. In a recent study we introduced a mechanistic model describing the correlation of the specific glucose uptake rate (qs,glu) and the corresponding maximum specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac,max) for a pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strain producing a single chain variable fragment (scFv). We showed the effect of qs,lac,max on productivity and product location underlining its importance for recombinant protein production. In the present study we investigated the mechanistic qs,glu/qs,lac,max correlation for four pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains producing different recombinant products and thereby proved the mechanistic model to be platform knowledge for E. coli BL21(DE3). However, we found that the model parameters strongly depended on the recombinant product. Driven by this observation we tested different dynamic bioprocess strategies to allow a faster investigation of this mechanistic correlation. In fact, we succeeded and propose an experimental strategy comprising only one batch cultivation, one fed-batch cultivation as well as one dynamic experiment, to reliably determine the mechanistic model for qs,glu/qs,lac,max and get trustworthy model parameters for pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains which are the basis for bioprocess development. PMID:28332595
Sainz, T; Wacher, C; Espinoza, J; Centurión, D; Navarro, A; Molina, J; Inzunza, A; Cravioto, A; Eslava, C
In this study, the presence and pathogenic characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in pozol, an acid-fermented maize beverage consumed in South-eastern Mexico, were determined. Seventy-three E. coli strains were isolated at early and late times (6 and 48 h) during the pozol fermentation process, when pH values of the doughs were 6.7-4.7 (6 h) and 4.7-3.7 (48 h). Serotypes that belong to diarrheagenic E. coli serogroups O18, O88, O8, O11, O20, O173 were identified. HEp-2 cell adherence in vitro assays showed localized, diffuse and aggregative adherence patterns among some of these strains. A DNA colony hybridization analysis with different probes showed the presence of virulence genes related to diarrheal pathogenesis. Thirty-three percent of the E. coli strains were tetracycline-resistant and 95% had a 20 kb plasmid. The presence and survival of potentially pathogenic E. coli in acid-fermented pozol suggest that such foods may be a potential source of foodborne outbreaks.
Sacristán, C; Esperón, F; Herrera-León, S; Iglesias, I; Neves, E; Nogal, V; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A
The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxazole (18.9%). Five isolates had class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes encoding for dihydrofolate reductase A (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase A (aadA), one in a feral pigeon and four in spotless starlings. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first detection of virulence genes from E. coli in spotless starlings and house sparrows, and is also the first identification worldwide of integrons containing antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in E. coli strains from spotless starlings and pigeons.
Maldonado-Puga, Samantha; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmin; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando
Introduction. Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), encoded by cdt genes, have DNase activity leading to cellular and nuclear distension, resulting in irreversible cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of target cells. cdt-positive Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from children with diarrhoea. There is, however, scant information on the prevalence and clinical presentation of diarrhoeal disease caused by these strains. Furthermore, toxin production of cdt-positive strains is rarely confirmed. We report five young children with diarrhoea caused by CDT-producing E. coli in whom stools were negative for other bacterial or enteric pathogens. Case presentation. On admission to hospital, all children presented watery diarrhoea with high stool output (range 7–20 stools/24 h); five had fever of 38 °C or more and four presented vomiting. Dehydration was present in four patients, one of whom had hypovolaemic shock; one child also presented hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia. In two children, cdt-positive strains were classified as typical and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, and the remaining three harboured cdt-positive strains that did not belong to any diarrhoeagenic pathogroup. One cdt-positive strain from each case was characterized by a CDT cytotoxic assay and a cdt type-specific PCR. All strains produced the characteristic cellular intoxication due to CDT. Two strains carried the cdt-I, one cdt-III, one cdt-IV, and one concurrently had cdt-I, cdt-II and cdt-III genes. Conclusion. Our results suggest that CDT-producing E. coli strains are an infrequent, albeit significant, cause of severe diarrhoeal illness in children. Future research should measure the true burden of cdt-positive E. coli diarrhoea among children. PMID:28348804
Tiba, Monique Ribeiro; Yano, Tomomasa; Leite, Domingos da Silva
Adhesins (P-fimbriae, S-fimbriae, type 1 fimbriae and afimbrial adhesin), toxins (alpha-hemolysin and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1), iron acquisition systems (aerobactin) and host defense avoidance mechanisms (capsule or lipopolysaccharide) have been shown to be prevalent in Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary tract infections. In this work, 162 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains from patients with cystitis were genotypically characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. We developed three multiplex PCR assays for virulence-related genes papC, papE/F, papG alleles, fimH, sfa/foc, afaE, hly, cnf-1, usp, cdtB, iucD, and kpsMTII, all of them previously identified in UPEC strains. The PCR assay results identified 158 fimH (97.5%), 86 kpsMTII (53.1%), 53 papC/papEF/papG (32.7%), 45 sfa (27.8%), 42 iucD (25.9%), 41 hly (25.3%), 36 usp (22.2%), 30 cnf-1(18.5%) and 10 afa (6.2%) strains. No strain was positive for cdtB. In this work, we also demonstrated that adhesins may be multiple within a single strain and that several virulence genes can occur combined in association.
Moxley, R A; Francis, D H
Gnotobiotic calves were inoculated with an O5:K4:H-, urease-positive strain of Escherichia coli isolated from a 2-day-old calf with diarrhea. The calves developed elevated temperatures and passed loose mucoid feces, with or without blood. The E. coli strain was negative for heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins but produced high levels of Shiga-like toxin. Bacteria attached diffusely to the epithelium of the large intestine and multifocally to the epithelium of the ileum. The duodenum and jejunum were not affected. At the sites of bacterial attachment, microvilli were effaced, enterocytes were degenerate, and necrosis and exfoliation had occurred. These results confirm a previous report from England that calves may naturally contract infections similar to those caused by enteropathogenic E. coli strains pathogenic to humans or rabbits. This suggests that the calf bacterial strains, like some enteropathogenic E. coli strains, produce high levels of Shiga-like toxin and cause attachment and effacement lesions in the colonic epithelium of the infected host. Images PMID:3525410
Wada, Keisuke; Toya, Yoshihiro; Banno, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi
Mevalonate (MVA) is used to produce various useful products such as drugs, cosmetics and food additives. An MVA-producing strain of Escherichia coli (engineered) was constructed by introducing mvaES genes from Enterococcus faecalis. The engineered strain produced 1.84 mmol/gDCW/h yielding 22% (C-mol/C-mol) of MVA from glucose in the aerobic exponential growth phase. The mass balance analysis revealed that the MVA yield of the engineered strain was close to the upper limit at the biomass yield. Since MVA is synthesized from acetyl-CoA using NADPH as a cofactor, the production of MVA affects central metabolism in terms of carbon utilization and NADPH requirements. The reason for this highly efficient MVA production was investigated based on (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. The estimated flux distributions revealed that the fluxes of acetate formation and the TCA cycle in the engineered strain were lower than those in the control strain. Although the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is considered as the NADPH generating pathway in E. coli, no difference of the flux was observed between the control and engineered strains. The production/consumption balance of NADPH suggested that additional requirement of NADPH for MVA synthesis was obtained from the transhydrogenase reaction in the engineered strain. Comparison between the measured flux distribution and the ideal values for MVA production proposes a strategy for further engineering to improve the MVA production in E. coli.
Ryu, Young Shin; Biswas, Rajesh Kumar; Shin, Kwangsu; Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Kim, Suk Min; Lee, Sung Kuk
Multiplex genome engineering is a standalone recombineering tool for large-scale programming and accelerated evolution of cells. However, this advanced genome engineering technique has been limited to use in selected bacterial strains. We developed a simple and effective strain-independent method for effective genome engineering in Escherichia coli. The method involves introducing a suicide plasmid carrying the λ Red recombination system into the mutS gene. The suicide plasmid can be excised from the chromosome via selection in the absence of antibiotics, thus allowing transient inactivation of the mismatch repair system during genome engineering. In addition, we developed another suicide plasmid that enables integration of large DNA fragments into the lacZ genomic locus. These features enable this system to be applied in the exploitation of the benefits of genome engineering in synthetic biology, as well as the metabolic engineering of different strains of E. coli.
Portnoy, Vasiliy A; Herrgård, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard Ø
Fermentation of glucose to D-lactic acid under aerobic growth conditions by an evolved Escherichia coli mutant deficient in three terminal oxidases is reported in this work. Cytochrome oxidases (cydAB, cyoABCD, and cbdAB) were removed from the E. coli K12 MG1655 genome, resulting in the ECOM3 (E. coli cytochrome oxidase mutant) strain. Removal of cytochrome oxidases reduced the oxygen uptake rate of the knockout strain by nearly 85%. Moreover, the knockout strain was initially incapable of growing on M9 minimal medium. After the ECOM3 strain was subjected to adaptive evolution on glucose M9 medium for 60 days, a growth rate equivalent to that of anaerobic wild-type E. coli was achieved. Our findings demonstrate that three independently adaptively evolved ECOM3 populations acquired different phenotypes: one produced lactate as a sole fermentation product, while the other two strains exhibited a mixed-acid fermentation under oxic growth conditions with lactate remaining as the major product. The homofermenting strain showed a D-lactate yield of 0.8 g/g from glucose. Gene expression and in silico model-based analyses were employed to identify perturbed pathways and explain phenotypic behavior. Significant upregulation of ygiN and sodAB explains the remaining oxygen uptake that was observed in evolved ECOM3 strains. E. coli strains produced in this study showed the ability to produce lactate as a fermentation product from glucose and to undergo mixed-acid fermentation during aerobic growth.
Formal, Samuel B.; LaBrec, E. H.; Schneider, H.; Falkow, Stanley
Formal, Samuel B. (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), E. H. LaBrec, H. Schneider, and Stanley Falkow. Restoration of virulence to a strain of Shigella flexneri by mating with Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:835–838. 1965.—Three spontaneous avirulent variants of Shigella flexneri 5 were isolated and employed as genetic recipients in matings with Escherichia coli K-12. The various hybrid classes isolated from these matings were subsequently examined for their ability to induce keratoconjunctivitis and to kill pretreated guinea pigs. All hybrids derived from two of the variants remained avirulent. A majority of the mal+ hybrids of the third avirulent variant were observed to be restored to complete virulence. Images PMID:14273669
Nicoletti, M; Superti, F; Conti, C; Calconi, A; Zagaglia, C
Lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains were isolated at high frequency from children with diarrhea in Somalia during a 2-year study on diarrheal diseases. Sixty-four of these strains, considered to be a representative sample, were characterized for virulence factors, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Of these strains, 5 were recognized as enteroinvasive E. coli (they were serotyped as O135:K-:H-), 6 belonged to classical enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes, 9 were able to adhere to tissue culture cells (of these, 4 showed a pattern of localized adherence and 1 was an enteropathogenic strain), 18 were both adherent and hemolytic, and 8 were simply hemolytic. None hybridized with 32P-labeled heat-labile or heat-stable (a and b) enterotoxin gene probes or produced moderate or high-level cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Of the 64 strains examined, 24 produced mannose-resistant hemagglutination with human, chicken, and monkey erythrocytes. One of these was serotyped as O4:K-:H8, and a rabbit O antiserum raised against this strain allowed us to establish that 23 strains had the same O antigen. The 23 O4 strains were hemolytic and were not enterotoxic for rabbit ileal loops, and intact bacteria were able to destroy tissue culture cell monolayers very rapidly. The uniformity of the antibiotic resistance pattern and of the plasmid DNA content, together with the fact that they were isolated in different years and in different children, suggests that the O4 strains must be epidemiologically relevant in Somalia. A possible diarrheagenic role for the adherent-hemolytic E. coli strains is also discussed. Images PMID:3281977
Background The xanthophyll astaxanthin is a high-value compound with applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetic, food, and animal feed industries. Besides chemical synthesis and extraction from naturally producing organisms like Haematococcus pluvialis, heterologous biosynthesis in non-carotenogenic microorganisms like Escherichia coli, is a promising alternative for sustainable production of natural astaxanthin. Recent achievements in the metabolic engineering of E. coli strains have led to a significant increase in the productivity of carotenoids like lycopene or β-carotene by increasing the metabolic flux towards the isoprenoid precursors. For the heterologous biosynthesis of astaxanthin in E. coli, however, the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin is obviously the most critical step towards an efficient biosynthesis of astaxanthin. Results Here we report the construction of the first plasmid-free E. coli strain that produces astaxanthin as the sole carotenoid compound with a yield of 1.4 mg/g cdw (E. coli BW-ASTA). This engineered E. coli strain harbors xanthophyll biosynthetic genes from Pantoea ananatis and Nostoc punctiforme as individual expression cassettes on the chromosome and is based on a β-carotene-producing strain (E. coli BW-CARO) recently developed in our lab. E. coli BW-CARO has an enhanced biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and produces β-carotene in a concentration of 6.2 mg/g cdw. The expression of crtEBIY along with the β-carotene-ketolase gene crtW148 (NpF4798) and the β-carotene-hydroxylase gene (crtZ) under controlled expression conditions in E. coli BW-ASTA directed the pathway exclusively towards the desired product astaxanthin (1.4 mg/g cdw). Conclusions By using the λ-Red recombineering technique, genes encoding for the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway were stably integrated into the chromosome of E. coli. The expression levels of chromosomal integrated recombinant biosynthetic genes were
Avelino, Fabiola; Saldaña, Zeus; Islam, Sohidul; Monteiro-Neto, Valerio; Dall'Agnol, Monique; Eslava, Carlos A; Girón, Jorge A
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) have emerged as a significant worldwide cause of chronic diarrhea in the pediatric population and in HIV patients. The vast majority of EAEC strains do not produce the aggregative adherence fimbriae I-III (AAFs) so far reported and thus, what adherence factors are present in these strains remains unknown. Here, we investigated the prevalence of the chromosomal E. coli common pilus (ECP) genes and ECP production amongst 130 EAEC strains of diverse origin as well as the role of ECP in EAEC adherence. Through multiplex PCR analysis we found that 96% of EAEC strains contained the ecpA structural pilin gene whereas only 3.1% and 5.4% were positive for AAF fimbrial genes aggA or aafA, respectively. Among the ecpA(+) strains, 63% produced ECP when adhering to cultured epithelial cells. An ecpA mutant derived from prototypic strain 042 (AAF/II(+)) was not altered in adherence suggesting that the AAF/II, and not ECP, plays a major role in this strain. In contrast, strain 278-1 (AAF(-)) deleted of the ecpA gene was significantly reduced in adherence to cultured epithelial cells. In all, these data indicate a potential role of ECP in adherence for EAEC strains lacking the known AAFs and that in association with other adhesive determinants, ECP may contribute to their survival and persistence within the host and in the environment.
Goebel, Werner; Schrempf, Hildgund
Covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules were isolated by cesium chloride centrifugation in the presence of ethidium bromide from a naturally occurring beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli strain (SC52). The open circular forms have contour lengths of 2.25 ± 0.1 μm, 24.0 ± 0.3 μm, and 29.5 ± 0.5 μm. The beta-hemolytic character of E. coli SC52 can be transferred by conjugation to a nonhemolytic recipient strain. Analysis of the supercoiled DNA of the hemolytic recipient demonstrated that the two large supercoiled DNA molecules of E. coli SC52 are transferred during this event, too. A beta-hemolytic laboratory E. coli strain and several of its derivatives have been shown to contain at least one circular DNA molecule, slightly larger in size than those isolated from E. coli SC52 and its conjugant. The possible significance of these DNA molecules for hemolysin production and transfer is discussed. Images PMID:4929855
Ahmed, Rafiq; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Schmidt, John W.; Bono, James L.
Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 104 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram or greater are now referred to as supershedders. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of E. coli O157:H7 strain type to supershedding and to determine if supershedding was restricted to a specific set of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Fecal swabs (n = 5,086) were collected from cattle at feedlots or during harvest. Supershedders constituted 2.0% of the bovine population tested. Supershedder isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA), Stx-associated bacteriophage insertion (SBI) site determination, and variant analysis of Shiga toxin, tir, and antiterminator Q genes. Isolates representing 52 unique PFGE patterns, 19 phage types, and 12 SBI clusters were obtained from supershedding cattle, indicating that there is no clustering to E. coli O157:H7 genotypes responsible for supershedding. While being isolated directly from cattle, this strain set tended to have higher frequencies of traits associated with human clinical isolates than previously collected bovine isolates with respect to lineage and tir allele, but not for SBI cluster and Q type. We conclude that no exclusive genotype was identified that was common to all supershedder isolates. PMID:23645203
Arthur, Terrance M; Ahmed, Rafiq; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Schmidt, John W; Bono, James L
Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10(4) CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram or greater are now referred to as supershedders. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of E. coli O157:H7 strain type to supershedding and to determine if supershedding was restricted to a specific set of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Fecal swabs (n = 5,086) were collected from cattle at feedlots or during harvest. Supershedders constituted 2.0% of the bovine population tested. Supershedder isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA), Stx-associated bacteriophage insertion (SBI) site determination, and variant analysis of Shiga toxin, tir, and antiterminator Q genes. Isolates representing 52 unique PFGE patterns, 19 phage types, and 12 SBI clusters were obtained from supershedding cattle, indicating that there is no clustering to E. coli O157:H7 genotypes responsible for supershedding. While being isolated directly from cattle, this strain set tended to have higher frequencies of traits associated with human clinical isolates than previously collected bovine isolates with respect to lineage and tir allele, but not for SBI cluster and Q type. We conclude that no exclusive genotype was identified that was common to all supershedder isolates.
Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Armenta-Ruiz, Carolina; Sarabia-Sainz, Jose Andre-i; Guzmán-Partida, Ana María; Ledesma-Osuna, Ana Irene; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela
Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes traveller's diarrhoea and high mortality among baby animals. ETEC adhesion is mediated by lectins (adhesins) that bind to glycoconjugates on the surface of host cells. Glycans that compete for adhesion could be used for disease prevention. Neoglycans of porcine albumin (PSA) that were conjugated with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) were synthesised using the Maillard reaction. PSA glycation was confirmed by a reduction in the number of available free amino groups, decreased tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence, increased molecular mass and Ricinus communis lectin recognition. The adhesion of four ETEC strains (E. coli H10407, CFA(+), K99 and K88) to PSA-GOS was examined by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. E. coli K88 bound to PSA-GOS with greater affinity (P<0.05) than did E. coli H10407, CFA(+) and K99. In addition, PSA-GOS partially inhibited the adherence of the K88 strain to intestinal mucins. Pig ETEC strain was unable to ferment galactooligosaccharide-neoglycans. These results suggest that neoglycans obtained by the Maillard reaction may serve in the prophylaxis of ETEC K88 diarrhoea.
Aguila, Adalberto; Bernedo, Robert; Llop, Alina; Ramírez, Margarita; Bravo, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ledo, Yudith
Forty strains of Escherichia coli isolated from children under 5 years of age with acute diarreas, coming from different provinces of the country , were analyzed. Four important phenotypical determinants were tested: sorbosa, sorbitol, enterohemolysin and 0157:H7 serology, in order to select those strains from enterohemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing category. Likewise, they were characterized by biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility methods. The use of phenotypical tests showed six strains with presumptive characteristics, four of which were most likely to be Shiga toxin-producing strains. In antimicrobial susceptibility test, the strains showed high resistance mainly to ampicillin and trimethrophin-sulfamethoxasole. Another interesting finding were intermediate resistance and susceptibility values to augmentin, aztreonan and ceftriaxone. There were 12 antimicrobial resistance patterns of which 10 were multi-resistant.
Kamada, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Kenichi; Inoue, Nagamu; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Okamoto, Susumu; Hong, Kyong Su; Yamada, Takaya; Watanabe, Noriaki; Tsuchimoto, Kanji; Ogata, Haruhiko; Hibi, Toshifumi
Although the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 has been used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, the precise mechanisms of action of this strain remain unclear. In the present study, we estimated the anti-inflammatory effect of E. coli Nissle 1917 on inflammatory responses in vitro to determine the suppressive mechanism of Nissle 1917 on the inflammatory process. To determine the effect of E. coli Nissle 1917, the human colonic epithelial cell line HCT15 was incubated with or without E. coli Nissle 1917 or another nonpathogenic E. coli strain, K-12, and then tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production from HCT15 cells was assessed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time quantitative PCR showed that Nissle 1917 treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced IL-8 transcription and production. In addition, results from luciferase assays indicated that Nissle 1917 inhibited IL-8 promoter activity. On the other hand, these anti-inflammatory effects were not seen with E. coli K-12. In addition, heat-killed Nissle 1917 or its genomic DNA did not have this anti-inflammatory effect. Surprisingly, Nissle 1917 did not affect IL-8 transactivation pathways, such as NF-κB activation, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding, or even activation of other transcriptional factors. Furthermore, it also became evident that Nissle 1917 induced the anti-inflammatory effect without contact to epithelial cells. In conclusion, these data indicate that the nonpathogenic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 expresses a direct anti-inflammatory activity on human epithelial cells via a secreted factor which suppresses TNF-α-induced IL-8 transactivation through mechanisms different from NF-κB inhibition. PMID:17967864
Zhi, Shuai; Banting, Graham; Li, Qiaozhi; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward; Sokurenko, Mykola; Scott, Candis; Braithwaite, Shannon; Ruecker, Norma J.; Yasui, Yutaka; McAllister, Tim; Chui, Linda
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli has been proposed to have two habitats—the intestines of mammals/birds and the nonhost environment. Our goal was to assess whether certain strains of E. coli have evolved toward adaptation and survival in wastewater. Raw sewage samples from different treatment plants were subjected to chlorine stress, and ∼59% of the surviving E. coli strains were found to contain a genetic insertion element (IS30) located within the uspC-flhDC intergenic region. The positional location of the IS30 element was not observed across a library of 845 E. coli isolates collected from various animal hosts or within GenBank or whole-genome reference databases for human and animal E. coli isolates (n = 1,177). Phylogenetics clustered the IS30 element-containing wastewater E. coli isolates into a distinct clade, and biomarker analysis revealed that these wastewater isolates contained a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) biomarker pattern that was specific for wastewater. These isolates belonged to phylogroup A, possessed generalized stress response (RpoS) activity, and carried the locus of heat resistance, features likely relevant to nonhost environmental survival. Isolates were screened for 28 virulence genes but carried only the fimH marker. Our data suggest that wastewater contains a naturalized resident population of E. coli. We developed an endpoint PCR targeting the IS30 element within the uspC-flhDC intergenic region, and all raw sewage samples (n = 21) were positive for this marker. Conversely, the prevalence of this marker in E. coli-positive surface and groundwater samples was low (≤5%). This simple PCR assay may represent a convenient microbial source-tracking tool for identification of water samples affected by municipal wastewater. IMPORTANCE The results of this study demonstrate that some strains of E. coli appear to have evolved to become naturalized populations in the wastewater environment and possess a number of stress-related genetic
Background Trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (trans-Hyp), one of the hydroxyproline (Hyp) isomers, is a useful chiral building block in the production of many pharmaceuticals. Although there are some natural biosynthetic pathways of trans-Hyp existing in microorganisms, the yield is still too low to be scaled up for industrial applications. Until now the production of trans-Hyp is mainly from the acid hydrolysis of collagen. Due to the increasing environmental concerns on those severe chemical processes and complicated downstream separation, it is essential to explore some environment-friendly processes such as constructing new recombinant strains to develop efficient process for trans-Hyp production. Result In this study, the genes of trans-proline 4-hydroxylase (trans-P4H) from diverse resources were cloned and expressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, respectively. The trans-Hyp production by these recombinant strains was investigated. The results showed that all the genes from different resources had been expressed actively. Both the recombinant C. glutamicum and E. coli strains could produce trans-Hyp in the absence of proline and 2-oxoglutarate. Conclusions The whole cell microbial systems for trans-Hyp production have been successfully constructed by introducing trans-P4H into C. glutamicum and E. coli. Although the highest yield was obtained in recombinant E. coli, using recombinant C. glutamicum strains to produce trans-Hyp was a new attempt. PMID:24885047
Gopee, N V; Adesiyun, A A; Caesar, K
A longitudinal study was conducted of the prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli in mammals, birds, and reptiles housed at the Emperor Valley Zoo, Trinidad. During a 6-mo study period, swabs were obtained from fecal samples that were randomly collected from the enclosures of animals from these three taxonomic groups every 3 wk. With snakes, both cloacal and fecal swabs were obtained. Fecal and cloacal swabs were cultured for E. coli on eosin methylene blue agar. The production of mucoid colonies and hemolytic colonies and non-sorbitol fermenter status were identified. The occurrence of O157 strains was determined amongst E. coli isolates that were non-sorbitol fermenters, and the disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibiograms of isolates. The frequency of E. coli isolation was significantly higher in mammals compared with birds and reptiles. Overall, the frequencies of isolation of E. coli from omnivores. herbivores, and carnivores, 87.2%, 70.0%, and 57.3%, respectively, regardless of animal class, were significantly different. Most (99.6%) of the E. coli isolates tested for antibiotic sensitivity exhibited resistance to one or more of the eight antimicrobial agents used. The possession of phenotypic virulence markers by the E. coli isolates studied and the generally high resistance to antimicrobial agents may have health implications for the zoological collection.
Background Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) have been considered a diarrheagenic category of E. coli for which several potential virulence factors have been described in the last few years. Despite this, epidemiological studies involving DAEC have shown inconsistent results. In this work, two different collections of DAEC possessing Afa/Dr genes, from children and adults, were studied regarding characteristics potentially associated to virulence. Results DAEC strains were recovered in similar frequencies from diarrheic and asymptomatic children, and more frequently from adults with diarrhea (P < 0.01) than from asymptomatic adults. Association with diarrhea (P < 0.05) was found for SAT-positive strains recovered from children and for curli-positive strains recovered from adults. Mixed biofilms involving DAEC and a Citrobacter freundii strain have shown an improved ability to form biofilms in relation to the monocultures. Control strains have shown a greater diversity of Afa/Dr adhesins and higher frequencies of cellulose, TTSS, biofilm formation and induction of IL-8 secretion than strains from cases of diarrhea in children. Conclusions DAEC strains possessing Afa/Dr genes isolated from children and adults represent two different bacterial populations. DAEC strains carrying genes associated to virulence can be found as part of the normal microbiota present in asymptomatic children. PMID:23374248
Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Lee, Sang Jun; Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook
The production of bioethanol was studied using recombinant Escherichia coli with glycerol as a carbon source. Glycerol is an attractive feedstock for biofuels production since it is generated as a major byproduct in biodiesel industry; therefore, we investigated the conversion of glycerol to bioethanol using E. coli BL21 (DE3) which harbors several genes in ethanol production pathway of Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190. Fermentation was carried out at 34°C for 42h, pH 7.6, using defined production medium. Under optimal conditions, bioethanol production by the recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3), strain pEB, was two-fold (3.01g/L) greater than that (1.45g/L) by the wild-type counterpart. The results obtained in this study will provide valuable guidelines for engineering bioethanol producers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saha, Badal C; Qureshi, Nasib; Kennedy, Gregory J; Cotta, Michael A
Effects of substrate-selective inoculum prepared by growing on glucose, xylose, arabinose, GXA (glucose, xylose, arabinose, 1:1:1) and corn stover hydrolyzate (dilute acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed, CSH) on ethanol production from CSH by a mixed sugar utilizing recombinant Escherichia coli (strain FBR5) were investigated. The initial ethanol productivity was faster for the seed grown on xylose followed by GXA, CSH, glucose and arabinose. Arabinose grown seed took the longest time to complete the fermentation. Delayed saccharifying enzyme addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of dilute acid pretreated CS by the recombinant E. coli strain FBR5 allowed the fermentation to finish in a shorter time than adding the enzyme simultaneously with xylose grown inoculum. Use of substrate selective inoculum and fermenting pentose sugars first under glucose limited condition helped to alleviate the catabolite repression of the recombinant bacterium on ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzate.
Nesbeth, Darren N; Perez-Pardo, Miguel-Angel; Ali, Shaukat; Ward, John; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli
Host cell engineering is becoming a realistic option in whole bioprocess strategies to maximize product manufacturability. High molecular weight (MW) genomic DNA currently hinders bioprocessing of Escherichia coli by causing viscosity in homogenate feedstocks. We previously showed that co-expressing Staphylococcal nuclease and human Fab' fragment in the periplasm of E. coli enables auto-hydrolysis of genomic DNA upon cell disruption, with a consequent reduction in feedstock viscosity and improvement in clarification performance. Here we report the impact of periplasmic nuclease expression on stability of DNA and Fab' fragment in homogenates, host-strain growth kinetics, cell integrity at harvest and Fab' fragment productivity. Nuclease and Fab' plasmids were shown to exert comparable levels of growth burden on the host W3110 E. coli strain. Nuclease co-expression did not compromise either the growth performance or volumetric yield of the production strain. 0.5 g/L Fab' fragment (75 L scale) and 0.7 g/L (20 L scale) was achieved for both unmodified and cell-engineered production strains. Unexpectedly, nuclease-modified cells achieved maximum Fab' levels 8-10 h earlier than the original, unmodified production strain. Scale-down studies of homogenates showed that nuclease-mediated hydrolysis of high MW DNA progressed to completion within minutes of homogenization, even when homogenates were chilled on ice, with no loss of Fab' product and no need for additional co-factors or buffering.
Ideguchi, Yamato; Oshikoshi, Yuta; Ryo, Masashi; Motoki, Shogo; Kuwano, Takashi; Tezuka, Takafumi; Aoki, Setsuyuki
We continuously monitored bioluminescence from a wild-type reporter strain of Escherichia coli (lacp::luc+/WT), which carries the promoter of the lac operon (lacp) fused with the firefly luciferase gene (luc+). This strain showed a bioluminescence burst when shifted into the stationary growth phase. Bioluminescence profiles of other wild-type reporter strains (rpsPp::luc+ and argAp::luc+) and gene-deletion reporter strains (lacp::luc+/crp- and lacp::luc+/lacI-) indicate that transcriptional regulation is not responsible for generation of the burst. Consistently, changes in the luciferase protein levels did not recapitulate the profile of the burst. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen levels increased over the period across the burst, suggesting that the burst is, at least partially, caused by an increase in intracellular oxygen levels. We discuss limits of the firefly luciferase when used as a reporter for gene expression and its potential utility for monitoring metabolic changes in cells.
The highly virulent Escherichia coli O104:H4 that caused the large 2011 outbreak of diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secretes blended virulence factors of enterohaemorrhagic and enteroaggregative E. coli, but their secretion pathways are unknown. We demonstrate that the outbreak strain rele...
Chen, R.; Yap, W.M.G.J.; Postma, P.W.; Bailey, J.E.
Modifying substrate uptake systems is a potentially powerful tool in metabolic engineering. This research investigates energetic and metabolic changes brought about by the genetic modification of the glucose uptake and phosphorylation system of Escherichia coli. The engineered strain PPA316, which lacks the E. coli phosphotransferase system (PTS) and uses instead the galactose-proton symport system for glucose uptake, exhibited significantly altered metabolic patterns relative to the parent strain PPA305 which retains PTS activity. Replacement of a PTS uptake system by the galactose-proton symport system is expected to lower the carbon flux to pyruvate in both aerobic and anaerobic cultivations. The extra energy cost in substrate uptake for the non-PTS strain PPA316 had a greater effect on anaerobic specific growth rate, which was reduced by a factor of five relative to PPA 305, while PPA316 reached a specific growth rate of 60% of that of the PTS strain under aerobic conditions. The maximal cell densities obtained with PPA316 were approximately 8% higher than those of the PTS strain under aerobic conditions and 14% lower under anaerobic conditions. In vivo NMR results showed that the non-PTS strain possesses a dramatically different intracellular environment, as evidenced by lower levels of total sugar phosphate, NAD(H), nucleoside triphosphates and phosphoenolpyruvate, and higher levels of nucleoside diphosphates. The sugar phosphate compositions, as measured by extract NMR, were considerably different between these two strains.
Balière, C.; Rincé, A.; Delannoy, S.; Fach, P.
ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains may be responsible for food-borne infections in humans. Twenty-eight STEC and 75 EPEC strains previously isolated from French shellfish-harvesting areas and their watersheds and belonging to 68 distinguishable serotypes were characterized in this study. High-throughput real-time PCR was used to search for the presence of 75 E. coli virulence-associated gene targets, and genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae) were subtyped using PCR tests and DNA sequencing, respectively. The results showed a high level of diversity between strains, with 17 unique virulence gene profiles for STEC and 56 for EPEC. Seven STEC and 15 EPEC strains were found to display a large number or a particular combination of genetic markers of virulence and the presence of stx and/or eae variants, suggesting their potential pathogenicity for humans. Among these, an O26:H11 stx1a eae-β1 strain was associated with a large number of virulence-associated genes (n = 47), including genes carried on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) or other pathogenicity islands, such as OI-122, OI-71, OI-43/48, OI-50, OI-57, and the high-pathogenicity island (HPI). One O91:H21 STEC strain containing 4 stx variants (stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2d) was found to possess genes associated with pathogenicity islands OI-122, OI-43/48, and OI-15. Among EPEC strains harboring a large number of virulence genes (n, 34 to 50), eight belonged to serotype O26:H11, O103:H2, O103:H25, O145:H28, O157:H7, or O153:H2. IMPORTANCE The species E. coli includes a wide variety of strains, some of which may be responsible for severe infections. This study, a molecular risk assessment study of E. coli strains isolated from the coastal environment, was conducted to evaluate the potential risk for shellfish consumers. This report describes the characterization of virulence gene profiles and stx/eae polymorphisms of E. coli
Haberbeck, Leticia Ungaretti; Wang, Xiang; Michiels, Chris; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Geeraerd, Annemie H
Given the importance of pH reduction and thermal treatment in food processing and food preservation strategies, the cross-protection between acid adaptation and subsequent thermal inactivation for 48 Escherichia coli strains was investigated. Those strains were selected among 188 E. coli strains according to their odds of growth under low pH conditions as determined by Haberbeck et al. (2015) [Haberbeck, L.U., Oliveira, R.C., Vivijs, B., Wenseleers, T., Aertsen, A., Michiels, C., Geeraerd, A.H., 2015. Variability in growth/no growth boundaries of 188 different Escherichia coli strains reveals that approximately 75% have a higher growth probability under low pH conditions than E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43888. Food Microbiol. 45, 222-230]. E. coli cells were acid and nonacid-adapted during overnight growth in controlled acidic pH (5.5) and neutral pH (7.0), respectively, in buffered Lysogenic Broth (LB). Then, they were heat inactivated at 58°C in non-buffered LB adjusted to pH6.2 and 7.0. Thus, four conditions were tested in total by combining the different pH values during growth/thermal inactivation: 5.5/6.2, 5.5/7.0, 7.0/6.2 and 7.0/7.0. Acid adaptation in buffered LB at pH5.5 increased the heat resistance of E. coli strains in comparison with nonacid-adaptation at pH7.0. For instance, the median D58-value of strains inactivated at pH7.0 was approximately 6 and 4min for acid-adapted and nonacid-adapted strains, respectively. For the nonacid-adapted strains, the thermal inactivation at pH6.2 and 7.0 was not significantly (p=0.06) different, while for the acid-adapted strains, the thermal treatment at pH6.2 showed a higher heat resistance than at pH7.0. The correlation between the odds of growth under low pH previously determined and the heat resistance was significant (p<0.05). Remarkably, a great variability in heat resistance among the strains was observed for all pH combinations, with D58-values varying between 1.0 and 69.0min. In addition, highly heat
LYSERGIC ACIDS , *ESCHERICHIA COLI), GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), CHROMOSOMES, DAMAGE, DOSAGE, PURINE ALKALOIDS, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS , INHIBITION, HALLUCINOGENS, CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, BIOASSAY
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier
Data about the behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on seeds and alfalfa sprouts are not available. The behavior of STEC, EIEC, ETEC, and EPEC was determined during germination and sprouting of alfalfa seeds at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C and on alfalfa sprouts at 3 ± 2°C. When alfalfa seeds were inoculated with STEC, EIEC, ETEC, or EPEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 and 6 log CFU/g after 1 day at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seed germination and stored at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C, no growth was observed for any DEP during sprouting at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C for 9 days. Refrigeration reduced significantly (P < 0.0.5) the number of viable DEPs on sprouts after 20 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance for the safety of the sprouts.
Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia
Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role.
Deonier, R C; Hadley, R G; Hu, M
Escherichia coli K-12 strains ordinarily contain five IS3 elements. Three of these correspond to previously mapped IS3 elements (R. C. Deonier, G. R. Oh, and M. Hu, J. Bacteriol. 129:1129--1140, 1977; S. Hu, E. Ohtsubo, and N. Davidson, J. Bacteriol. 122:749--763, 1975), and two additional IS3 elements are identified. The distribution of IS3 elements among deoxyribonucleic acid fragments generated by digestion with EcoRI indicates a basic pattern from which deviation is detected. Images PMID:374349
Giammanco, A; Maggio, M; Giammanco, G; Morelli, R; Minelli, F; Scheutz, F; Caprioli, A
Fifty-five Escherichia coli strains belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroups were examined for phenotypic and genetic factors associated with virulence. The strains were isolated in Italy from children with diarrhea and identified as EPEC by clinical laboratories using commercially available antisera. O:H serotyping showed that 35 strains (27 of O26, O111, and O128 serogroups) belonged to 11 serotypes considered to be classical EPEC O:H serotypes. The other 20 isolates were classified as 15 nonclassical EPEC O:H serotypes. All the potential EPEC virulence factors associated with bacterial adhesion (localized adherence, fluorescentactin staining test positivity, presence of the attaching and effacing [eaeA] gene), the production of verotoxin, and the positivity with the enterohemorrhagic E. coli probe were significantly more frequent among isolates belonging to classical than nonclassical serotypes. Strains displaying an aggregative adhesion and hybridizing with the enteroaggregative DNA probe were found in serogroups O86, O111, and O126. Verotoxin-producing isolates belonged to serogroups O26, O111, and O128. Only one of the isolates hybridized with the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) probe, but 33 strains gave positive results with the eae probe, confirming that the former is more suitable in epidemiological studies in European countries. These results indicate that up to 75% of strains identified as EPEC by commercial antisera may possess potential virulence properties and/or belong to classical EPEC O:H serotypes and suggest that O grouping is still a useful diagnostic tool for presumptive identification of diarrheagenic E. coli in clinical laboratories. PMID:8904439
Hebisch, Elke; Knebel, Johannes; Landsberg, Janek; Frey, Erwin; Leisner, Madeleine
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are widely used in biochemistry, biology and biophysics. For quantitative analysis of gene expression FPs are often used as marking molecules. Therefore, sufficient knowledge of maturation times and their affecting factors is of high interest. Here, we investigate the maturation process of the FPs GFP and mCherry expressed by the three closely related Escherichia coli strains of the Colicin E2 system, a model system for colicinogenic interaction. One strain, the C strain produces Colicin, a toxin to which the S strain is sensitive, and against which the R strain is resistant. Under the growth conditions used in this study, the S and R strain have similar growth rates, as opposed to the C strain whose growth rate is significantly reduced due to the toxin production. In combination with theoretical modelling we studied the maturation kinetics of the two FPs in these strains and could confirm an exponential and sigmoidal maturation kinetic for GFP and mCherry, respectively. Our subsequent quantitative experimental analysis revealed a high variance in maturation times independent of the strain studied. In addition, we determined strain dependent maturation times and maturation behaviour. Firstly, FPs expressed by the S and R strain mature on similar average time-scales as opposed to FPs expressed by the C strain. Secondly, dependencies of maturation time with growth conditions are most pronounced in the GFP expressing C strain: Doubling the growth rate of this C strain results in an increased maturation time by a factor of 1.4. As maturation times can vary even between closely related strains, our data emphasize the importance of profound knowledge of individual strains' maturation times for accurate interpretation of gene expression data. PMID:24155882
Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Medeiros, Leonardo; Chiconi, Carolina; Martins, Fernando; Pelayo, Jacinta; Rocha, Sérgio; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Zanutto, Marcelo; Kobayashi, Renata; Nakazato, Gerson
Escherichia coli are gut microbiota bacteria that can cause disease in some humans and other animals, including dogs and cats that humans often keep as pets. Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) strains are classified into six categories: enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), and diffuse-adhering E. coli (DAEC). In this study 144 and 163 E. coli colonies were isolated from the fecal samples of 50 dogs and 50 cats, respectively, with and without diarrhea from a Veterinary Hospital (clinical isolates). The virulence factors were determined using multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction. Adherence assays, antibacterial susceptibility and serotyping (somatic or flagellar antigens) were performed on DEC isolates. We found 25 (17.4%) and 4 (2.5%) DEC strains isolated from dogs and cats, respectively. Only the EPEC and EAEC pathotypes were found in both animals. Meanwhile, genes from other pathotypes (STEC, EIEC, and ETEC) were not found in these clinical isolates. All of the DEC strains showed mannose-resistant adherence to HEp-2 and HeLa cells, and aggregative adherence was predominant in these isolates. Multiresistant strains to antimicrobials were found in most DEC strains including usual and unusual antimicrobials in veterinary practices. The serotypes of these DEC isolates were variable. The ONT serotype was predominant in these isolates. Some serotypes found in our study were described to human DEC. Here, we demonstrate that pets carry virulent DEC genes, which are mainly strains of EPECs and EAECs. The presence of these virulence factors in isolates from animals without diarrhea suggests that pets can act as a reservoir for human infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lopes, Lucia M.; Fabbricotti, Sandra H.; Ferreira, Antonio J. P.; Kato, Maria A. M. F.; Michalski, Jane; Scaletsky, Isabel C. A.
One hundred twelve diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from children in a case control study were evaluated for virulence-associated characteristics, serotyping, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profiles. Half of the strains hybridized with the probes for icuA (aerobactin) and fimH (type 1 pili); daaE (F1845 fimbriae), afa (afimbrial Dr adhesin), agg-3A (aggregative adhesion fimbria type III fimbriae), pap (P fimbriae), astA (EAST1 toxin), and shET1 (Shigella enterotoxin 1) sequences were present in <20% of the strains. The shET1 gene was noted most frequently in strains isolated from patients. A minority (7%) of the strains produced hemolysin or colicin or showed cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. Forty-five different serotypes were found. The majority (70%) of the strains presented multiple antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance and diffuse adherence were located on the same conjugative plasmids. These results suggest that the transfer of these potential virulence markers could be important in the epidemiology of diffusely adherent E. coli. PMID:15815034
Maluta, Renato Pariz; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Riccardi, Kátia; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Marin, José Moacir; Carvalho, Marileda Bonafim; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio
Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are the most common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections in both humans and companion animals. Standard biochemical tests may be useful in demonstrating detailed phenotypical characteristics of these strains. Thirteen strains of E. coli isolated from dogs with UTIs were submitted to biochemical tests, serotyping for O and H antigens and antimicrobial resistance testing. Furthermore, the presence of papC, sfa, and afa genes was evaluated by PCR, and genetic relationships were established using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). The antimicrobial that showed the highest resistance rate among the isolates was nalidixic acid (76.9%), followed by cephalotin (69.2%), sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (61.5%), tetracycline (61.5%), streptomycin (53.8%), ciprofloxacin (53.8%), ampicillin (46.2%), gentamicin (30.8%) and chloramphenicol (23.1%). No isolate was resistant either to meropenem or nitrofurantoin. Among the five clusters that were identified using ERIC-PCR, one cluster (A) had only one strain, which belonged to a serotype with zoonotic potential (O6:H31) and showed the genes papC+, sfa+, afa-. Strains with the genes papC-, sfa+, afa- were found in two other clusters (C and D), whereas all strains in clusters B and E possessed papC-, sfa-, afa- genes. Sucrose and raffinose phenotypic tests showed some ability in discriminating clusters A, B and C from clusters D and E. PMID:24031842
Soussy, C-J; Lascols, C; Dib-Smahi, C
The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro activity of levofloxacin compared to other antibiotics against Escherichia coli strains isolated from female patients with acute pyelonephritis in 23 French hospitals in 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined in a central laboratory, by agar dilution method in compliance with the recommendations of the Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société française de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). The percentages of susceptible strains were calculated according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints approved by the CA-SFM (2005) for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin and according to the CA-SFM breakpoints for the other antibiotics. Amongst the 231 strains collected, 46.3% of strains were isolated from urinary samples, 10.8% from blood culture, and 42.9% from both. Concerning fluoroquinolones, the percentages of susceptibility were 93.1%, 90.5%, and 92.7% for levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. For the other antibiotics, a higher percentage of susceptibility was observed with ceftriaxone (99.6%) and amikacin (94.8%), whereas a lower percentage of susceptibility was observed with amoxiclav (68.8%), and cotrimoxazole (65.4%). Levofloxacin exhibited a good in vitro activity against E. coli strains isolated from acute pyelonephritis with 93.1% of susceptible strains.
Background Elucidation of a genotype-phenotype relationship is critical to understand an organism at the whole-system level. Here, we demonstrate that comparative analyses of multi-omics data combined with a computational modeling approach provide a framework for elucidating the phenotypic characteristics of organisms whose genomes are sequenced. Results We present a comprehensive analysis of genome-wide measurements incorporating multifaceted holistic data - genome, transcriptome, proteome, and phenome - to determine the differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains. A genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli B was reconstructed and used to identify genetic bases of the phenotypes unique to B compared with K-12 through in silico complementation testing. This systems analysis revealed that E. coli B is well-suited for production of recombinant proteins due to a greater capacity for amino acid biosynthesis, fewer proteases, and lack of flagella. Furthermore, E. coli B has an additional type II secretion system and a different cell wall and outer membrane composition predicted to be more favorable for protein secretion. In contrast, E. coli K-12 showed a higher expression of heat shock genes and was less susceptible to certain stress conditions. Conclusions This integrative systems approach provides a high-resolution system-wide view and insights into why two closely related strains of E. coli, B and K-12, manifest distinct phenotypes. Therefore, systematic understanding of cellular physiology and metabolism of the strains is essential not only to determine culture conditions but also to design recombinant hosts. PMID:22632713
Korhonen, T K; Väisänen, V; Saxén, H; Hultberg, H; Svenson, S B
P-antigen-recognizing fimbriae (P fimbriae) from four pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli strains and type 1 fimbriae from an E. coli strain and a Salmonella typhimurium strain were purified. The P fimbriae were morphologically similar to type 1 fimbriae. The purified P fimbriae agglutinated neuraminidase-treated human P1 and P2k erythrocytes but not p erythrocytes, which lack all P-blood group-specific glycosphingolipids. However, coating of neuraminidase-treated p erythrocytes with globoside rendered such erythrocytes agglutinable by the P fimbriae. The hemagglutinations were in all instances fully inhibited by the synthetic alpha-D-Galp-(1-4)-beta-D-Galp-1-O-Me glycoside. The binding specificity of the P fimbriae could also be demonstrated by using fimbriae coated onto latex particles and nontreated erythrocytes. It was thus concluded that the P fimbriae recognize and bind to the alpha-D-Galp-(1-4)-beta-D-Galp carbohydrate sequence occurring in the series of P-blood group antigen-specific glycosphingolipids. In contrast to both type 1 fimbriae, all four P fimbriae preparations showed multiple bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antisera were raised in rabbits against the various E. coli fimbriae. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays each one of the antisera to the P fimbriae reacted to titers of log 4 to 7 with both the homologous and the heterologous P fimbriae, but not with the type 1 fimbriae of E. coli. In a reciprocal fashion, the antiserum to the type 1 fimbriae of one E. coli strain reacted only with the homologous type 1 but not with any of the P fimbriae preparations. Images PMID:6125477
Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Kirsch, Franziska; Eitinger, Thomas
Biotin is an essential cofactor of carboxylase enzymes in all kingdoms of life. The vitamin is produced by many prokaryotes, certain fungi, and plants. Animals depend on biotin uptake from their diet and in humans lack of the vitamin is associated with serious disorders. Many aspects of biotin metabolism, uptake, and intracellular transport remain to be elucidated. In order to characterize the activity of novel biotin transporters by a sensitive assay, an Escherichia coli strain lacking both biotin synthesis and its endogenous high-affinity biotin importer was constructed. This strain requires artificially high biotin concentrations for growth. When only trace levels of biotin are available, it is viable only if equipped with a heterologous high-affinity biotin transporter. This feature was used to ascribe transport activity to members of the BioY protein family in previous work. Here we show that this strain together with its parent is also useful as a diagnostic tool for wide-concentration-range bioassays.
Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M; Reichenberger, Erin R; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan
The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here.
Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Reichenberger, Erin R.; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan
The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here. PMID:27469964
The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented....
Vranic, Sabina Mahmutovic; Uzunovic, Aida
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine in outpatient population. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective study for tree months period, between January 1st and March 31st, 2015, at the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. We determined the E. coli antimicrobial resistance in 556 first urine samples from outpatient population of Hrasno community in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. E. coli is the most frequent agent causing urinary tract infections in outpatients as well. The standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for data analysis. Results: We observed the highest antimicrobial resistance of E. coli for ampicillin (82,79%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40,86%), nalidixic acid (19,35%), cephazolin (7,52%), nitrofurantoin (5,37%), gentamicin (2,15%) and ciprofloxacin (4,30%). Conclusions: The results of study showed that E. coli has the highest resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in outpatient population of Hrasno community. PMID:27147918
Kariuki, S.; Gilks, C.; Kimari, J.; Obanda, A.; Muyodi, J.; Waiyaki, P.; Hart, C. A.
Escherichia coli isolates from rectal swabs from 62 chickens and stools from 42 children living in close contact with chickens on the same farms in Kiambu district, Kenya, were compared for their genetic relatedness. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles broadly categorized isolates from the children and from the chickens into two separate clusters: the majority (144; 85.5%) of the E. coli isolates from children were multidrug resistant, while the majority (216; 87.1%) of the E. coli isolates from chickens were either fully susceptible or resistant only to tetracycline. Sixty- and 100- to 110-MDA plasmids were found to encode the transferable resistance to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. HindIII restriction endonuclease digestion of the 60- and 100- to 110-MDA plasmids produced four distinct patterns for isolates from children and three distinct patterns for isolates from chickens. XbaI digestion of genomic DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis produced 14 distinct clusters. There were six distinct PFGE clusters among the isolates from children, while among the isolates from chickens there were seven distinct clusters. Only one PFGE cluster contained isolates from both children and chickens, with the isolates displaying an approximately 60% coefficient of similarity. This study showed that although several different genotypes of E. coli were isolated from children and chickens from the same farms, the E. coli strains from these two sources were distinct. PMID:9925570
Sabri, Suriana; Nielsen, Lars K.
Sucrose is an industrially important carbon source for microbial fermentation. Sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli, however, is poorly understood, and most industrial strains cannot utilize sucrose. The roles of the chromosomally encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) genes in E. coli W were examined by knockout and overexpression experiments. At low sucrose concentrations, the csc genes are repressed and cells cannot grow. Removal of either the repressor protein (cscR) or the fructokinase (cscK) gene facilitated derepression. Furthermore, combinatorial knockout of cscR and cscK conferred an improved growth rate on low sucrose. The invertase (cscA) and sucrose transporter (cscB) genes are essential for sucrose catabolism in E. coli W, demonstrating that no other genes can provide sucrose transport or inversion activities. However, cscK is not essential for sucrose utilization. Fructose is excreted into the medium by the cscK-knockout strain in the presence of high sucrose, whereas at low sucrose (when carbon availability is limiting), fructose is utilized by the cell. Overexpression of cscA, cscAK, or cscAB could complement the WΔcscRKAB knockout mutant or confer growth on a K-12 strain which could not naturally utilize sucrose. However, phenotypic stability and relatively good growth rates were observed in the K-12 strain only when overexpressing cscAB, and full growth rate complementation in WΔcscRKAB also required cscAB. Our understanding of sucrose utilization can be used to improve E. coli W and engineer sucrose utilization in strains which do not naturally utilize sucrose, allowing substitution of sucrose for other, less desirable carbon sources in industrial fermentations. PMID:23124236
Horn, Fabiana; Corrêa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.
The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424
Wunderlich, Martin; Taymaz-Nikerel, Hilal; Gosset, Guillermo; Ramírez, Octavio T; Lara, Alvaro R
Two engineered Escherichia coli strains, designated VH33 and VH34, were compared to their parent strain W3110 in chemostat mode during plasmid DNA (pDNA) production. In strain VH33 the glucose uptake system was modified with the aim of reducing overflow metabolism. The strain VH34 has an additional deletion of the pyruvate kinase A gene (pykA) to increase pDNA formation. pDNA formation rates as well as kinetic and stoichiometric parameters were investigated in dependence of the growth rate within a range from 0.02 to 0.25 h(-1). Differences between strains were found in terms of the biomass yields on nitrogen and oxygen, as well as on the cell maintenance coefficients. The deletion of pykA led to a significantly increased pDNA yield and productivity. At an optimal growth rate of 0.20 h(-1) it was nearly 60% higher than that of W3110 and VH33. Metabolic fluxes calculated by metabolite balance analysis showed differences mainly in reactions catalyzed by pyruvate kinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The obtained data are useful for the design of cultivation schemes for pDNA production by E. coli.
Hull, Richard A.; Rudy, Delbert C.; Donovan, William H.; Wieser, Inge E.; Stewart, Colleen; Darouiche, Rabih O.
Little is known about bacteria associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) with regard to urinary tract colonization mechanisms. In this study, virulence properties of Escherichia coli 83972, a strain that was isolated from a clinical ABU episode, were examined. The genetic potential for expression of P and type 1 pili was demonstrated, and DNA sequences related to type 1C and G (UCA) pilus genes were also detected. However, E. coli 83972 did not express d-mannose-resistant or d-mannose-sensitive hemagglutination after growth under standard conditions in vitro or upon isolation from the urine of colonized test subjects. Limited uroepithelial cell adherence was observed in vivo, and weak d-mannose-sensitive hemagglutination was detected after extended growth in urine in vitro. PMID:9864249
Finkelstein, R A; Yang, Z S; Moseley, S L; Moon, H W
A latex particle agglutination test previously shown to be suitable for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli strains of human origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin (R. A. Finkelstein and Z. Yang, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:23-28) is equally applicable to strains of porcine origin. PMID:6361056
Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Rump, Lydia; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are human pathogens. Although >400 non-O157 serotypes have been involved in human disease, whole-genome sequencing information is missing for many serotypes. We sequenced 64 STEC strains comprising 38 serotypes, isolated from clinical sources, animals, and environmental samples, to improve the phylogenetic understanding of these important foodborne pathogens. PMID:26430026
Stephan, R.; Untermann, F.
Fourteen verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from stool samples of 14 different asymptomatic human carriers were further characterized. A variety of serotypes was found, but none of the strains belonged to serogroup O157. Only one isolate carried most of the virulence genes that are associated with increased pathogenicity. PMID:10203524
Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Tasara, Taurai
Survival of Escherichia coli in food depends on its ability to adapt against encountered stress typically involving induction of stress response genes. In this study, the transcriptional induction of selected acid (cadA, speF) and salt (kdpA, proP, proW, otsA, betA) stress response genes was investigated among five E. coli strains, including three Shiga toxin-producing strains, exposed to sodium chloride or lactic acid stress. Transcriptional induction upon lactic acid stress exposure was similar in all but one E. coli strain, which lacked the lysine decarboxylase gene cadA. In response to sodium chloride stress exposure, proW and otsA were similarly induced, while significant differences were observed between the E. coli strains in induction of kdpA, proP and betA. The kdpA and betA genes were significantly induced in four and three strains, respectively, whereas one strain did not induce these genes. The proP gene was only induced in two E. coli strains. Interestingly, transcriptional induction differences in response to sodium chloride stress exposure were associated with survival phenotypes observed for the E. coli strains in cheese as the E. coli strain lacking significant induction in three salt stress response genes investigated also survived poorly compared to the other E. coli strains in cheese.
Rodrigues, J; Scaletsky, I C; Campos, L C; Gomes, T A; Whittam, T S; Trabulsi, L R
Virulence properties and genetic variation as determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were studied in 70 strains of Escherichia coli 055, a common serogroup of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), a major cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Nearly 40% of the strains were originally isolated in Brazil and represented serotypes 055:H6, 055:H7, and 055:H51 and nonmotile (055:H-) strains. The analysis of electrophoretic variants of 20 enzymes defined seven distinct electrophoretic types (ETs). ET 1 was represented by 41% of the strains, including strains which usually hybridized with DNA probes for the intimin gene (eaeA), the EPEC adherence plasmid (EAF), and the gene for the pilin subunit of the bundle-forming pilus (bfpA). The ET 1 strains were also typically serotype 055:H6, displayed localized adherence (LA) in tissue culture assays, and were positive in the fluorescent-actin staining test for intimate cell adherence. These same characteristics were observed in the closely related ETs 2 to 4, which clustered in the same branch as ET 1. No known virulence marker could be identified in ET 6. ET 5 included 23 strains, all of which carried the eaeA gene but otherwise displayed a striking array of distinct virulence traits. This ET was represented by 055:H7 strains with phenotypes as diverse as the simultaneous expression of LA and diffuse adherence and the ability to form a newly described adherence pattern, called LA-like adherence. The results suggest that ET 5 marks a special pathogenic clone with a propensity to acquire virulence factors which may facilitate the emergence of new pathogenic strains. PMID:8698495
Lim, Ji Youn; Hong, Joon Bae; Sheng, Haiqing; Shringi, Smriti; Kaul, Rajinder; Hovde, Carolyn J.
Escherichia coli O157:H7, a food-borne pathogen, causes hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. A putative virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7 is a 60-MDa plasmid (pO157) found in 99% of all clinical isolates and many bovine-derived strains. The well characterized E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain (Sakai) and its pO157-cured derivative (Sakai-Cu) were compared for phenotypic differences. Sakai-Cu had enhanced survival in synthetic gastric fluid, did not colonize cattle as well as wild-type Sakai, and had unchanged growth rates and tolerance to salt and heat. These results are consistent with our previous findings with another E. coli O157:H7 disease outbreak isolate ATCC 43894 and its pO157-cured (43894-Cu). However, despite the essentially sequence identical pO157 in these strains, Sakai-Cu had changes in antibiotic susceptibility and motility that did not occur in the 43894-Cu strain. This unexpected result was systematically analyzed using phenotypic microarrays testing 1,920 conditions with Sakai, 43894, and the plasmid-cured mutants. The influence of the pO157 differed between strains on a wide number of growth/survival conditions. Relative expression of genes related to acid resistance (gadA, gadX, and rpoS) and flagella production (fliC and flhD) were tested using quantitative real-time PCR and gadA and rpoS expression differed between Sakai-Cu and 43894-Cu. The strain-specific differences in phenotype that resulted from the loss of essentially DNA-sequence identical pO157 were likely due to the chromosomal genetic diversity between strains. The O157:H7 serotype diversity was further highlighted by phenotypic microarray comparisons of the two outbreak strains with a genotype 6 bovine E. coli O157:H7 isolate, rarely associated with human disease. PMID:20571953
Diamant, Eran; Palti, Yniv; Gur-Arie, Riva; Cohen, Helit; Hallerman, Eric M.; Kashi, Yechezkel
Multilocus sequencing of housekeeping genes has been used previously for bacterial strain typing and for inferring evolutionary relationships among strains of Escherichia coli. In this study, we used shorter intergenic sequences that contained simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of repeating mononucleotide motifs (mononucleotide repeats [MNRs]) to infer the phylogeny of pathogenic and commensal E. coli strains. Seven noncoding loci (four MNRs and three non-SSRs) were sequenced in 27 strains, including enterohemorrhagic (six isolates of O157:H7), enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, B, and K-12 strains. The four MNRs were also sequenced in 20 representative strains of the E. coli reference (ECOR) collection. Sequence polymorphism was significantly higher at the MNR loci, including the flanking sequences, indicating a higher mutation rate in the sequences flanking the MNR tracts. The four MNR loci were amplifiable by PCR in the standard ECOR A, B1, and D groups, but only one (yaiN) in the B2 group was amplified, which is consistent with previous studies that suggested that B2 is the most ancient group. High sequence compatibility was found between the four MNR loci, indicating that they are in the same clonal frame. The phylogenetic trees that were constructed from the sequence data were in good agreement with those of previous studies that used multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The results demonstrate that MNR loci are useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships and provide much higher sequence variation than housekeeping genes. Therefore, the use of MNR loci for multilocus sequence typing should prove efficient for clinical diagnostics, epidemiology, and evolutionary study of bacteria. PMID:15066845
Background Homologous recombination mediated by the λ-Red genes is a common method for making chromosomal modifications in Escherichia coli. Several protocols have been developed that differ in the mechanisms by which DNA, carrying regions homologous to the chromosome, are delivered into the cell. A common technique is to electroporate linear DNA fragments into cells. Alternatively, DNA fragments are generated in vivo by digestion of a donor plasmid with a nuclease that does not cleave the host genome. In both cases the λ-Red gene products recombine homologous regions carried on the linear DNA fragments with the chromosome. We have successfully used both techniques to generate chromosomal mutations in E. coli K-12 strains. However, we have had limited success with these λ-Red based recombination techniques in pathogenic E. coli strains, which has led us to develop an enhanced protocol for recombineering in such strains. Results Our goal was to develop a high-throughput recombineering system, primarily for the coupling of genes to epitope tags, which could also be used for deletion of genes in both pathogenic and K-12 E. coli strains. To that end we have designed a series of donor plasmids for use with the λ-Red recombination system, which when cleaved in vivo by the I-SceI meganuclease generate a discrete linear DNA fragment, allowing for C-terminal tagging of chromosomal genes with a 6 × His, 3 × FLAG, 4 × ProteinA or GFP tag or for the deletion of chromosomal regions. We have enhanced existing protocols and technologies by inclusion of a cassette conferring kanamycin resistance and, crucially, by including the sacB gene on the donor plasmid, so that all but true recombinants are counter-selected on kanamycin and sucrose containing media, thus eliminating the need for extensive screening. This method has the added advantage of limiting the exposure of cells to the potential damaging effects of the λ-Red system, which can lead to unwanted secondary
Briñez, Wilfido José; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Hernández Herrero, M Manuel; Guamis López, Búenaventura
The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrahigh-pressure homogenization (UHPH) for inactivation and/or sublethal injury of two strains of Escherichia coli (O58:H21 ATCC 10536 and O157:H7 CCUG 44857) inoculated into orange juice (pH 3.6). The effects of orange juice inlet temperature (6 and 20 degrees C) on the lethality values and the capacity of these strains for survival, repair, and growth during refrigerated storage after UHPH treatment also was evaluated. Samples of orange juice that had been treated with ultrahigh temperatures were inoculated with E. coli in the stationary phase of growth until a final concentration of approximately 7.0 log CFU/ml was reached. These samples were then treated for one cycle with a double-valve UHPH machine, with 300 MPa at the primary homogenizing valve and 30 MPa at the secondary valve. Counts of viable and injured bacterial cells were obtained for samples taken 2 h after UHPH treatment and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 27, and 33 days of storage at 4 degrees C. The inlet temperature and the strain type both influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the lethality effect on E. coli, which was higher when the inlet temperature was 20 degrees C. No sublethal injuries were detected after any treatment. The changes in viable counts over time for both strains in pressurized and control samples were similar. The viable counts remained high from day 0 to day 18 and then tended to decrease. After 27 days of storage at 4 degrees C, E. coli O157: H7 was more resistant in orange juice samples pressurized at inlet temperatures of 6 and 20 degrees C, with viable counts of 3.41 and 3.20 log CFU/ml, respectively.
Lindsay, S E; Bothast, R J; Ingram, L O
Hemicellulose hydrolysates of agricultural residues often contain mixtures of hexose and pentose sugars. Ethanologenic Escherichia coli that have been previously investigated preferentially ferment hexose sugars. In some cases, xylose fermentation was slow or incomplete. The purpose of this study was to develop improved ethanologenic E. coli strains for the fermentation of pentoses in sugar mixtures. Using fosfomycin as a selective agent, glucose-negative mutants of E. coli KO11 (containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the ethanol pathway from Zymomonas mobilis) were isolated that were unable to ferment sugars transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. These strains (SL31 and SL142) retained the ability to ferment sugars with independent transport systems such as arabinose and xylose and were used to ferment pentose sugars to ethanol selectively in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Additional fosfomycin-resistant mutants were isolated that were superior to strain KO11 for ethanol production from hexose and pentose sugars. These hyperproductive strains (SL28 and SL40) retained the ability to metabolize all sugars tested, completed fermentations more rapidly, and achieved higher ethanol yields than the parent. Both SL28 and SL40 produced 60 gl-1 ethanol from 120 gl-1 xylose in 60 h, 20% more ethanol than KO11 under identical conditions. Further studies illustrated the feasibility of sequential fermentation. A mixture of hexose and pentose sugars was fermented with near theoretical yield by SL40 in the first step followed by a second fermentation in which yeast and glucose were added. Such a two-step approach can combine the attributes of ethanologenic E. coli for pentoses with the high ethanol tolerance of conventional yeasts in a single vessel.
Sienkiewicz, Monika; Wasiela, Małgorzata; Głowacka, Anna
The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum L.) essential oil against clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of oregano essential oil was investigate against 2 tested and 20 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and 20 clinical strains o Pseudomonas aeruginosa come from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar dilution method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations ofoil. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the tested oil was active against all of the clinical strains from both genus of bacteria, but strains of Escherichia coli were more sensitive to tested oil. Essential oil from Origanum heracleoticum L. inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains with different patters of resistance. The obtained outcomes will enable further investigations using oregano essential oil obtained from Origanum heracleoticum L. as alternative antibacterial remedies enhancing healing process in bacterial infections and as an effective means for the prevention of antibiotic-resistant strain development.
Arikawa, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Fujiki, Tetsuya
Cupriavidus necator H16 is the most promising bacterium for industrial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) because of their remarkable ability to accumulate them in the cells. With genetic modifications, this bacterium can produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), which has better physical properties, as well as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) using plant oils and sugars as a carbon source. Considering production cost, sucrose is a very attractive raw material because it is inexpensive; however, this bacterium cannot assimilate sucrose. Here, we used the sucrose utilization (csc) genes of Escherichia coli W to generate C. necator strains that can assimilate sucrose. Especially, glucose-utilizing recombinant C. necator strains harboring the sucrose hydrolase gene (cscA) and sucrose permease gene (cscB) of E. coli W grew well on sucrose as a sole carbon source and accumulated PHB. In addition, strains introduced with a crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr), ethylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase gene (emd), and some other genetic modifications besides the csc genes and the glucose-utilizing mutations produced PHBHHx with a 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) content of maximum approximately 27 mol% from sucrose. Furthermore, when one of the PHBHHx-producing strains was cultured with sucrose solution in a fed-batch fermentation, PHBHHx with a 3HHx content of approximately 4 mol% was produced and reached 113 g/L for 65 h, which is approximately 1.5-fold higher than that produced using glucose solution.
Smith, Kevin M; Liao, James C
Higher alcohols such as isobutanol possess several physical characteristics that make them attractive as biofuels such as higher energy densities and infrastructure compatibility. Here we have developed a rapid evolutionary strategy for isolating strains of Escherichia coli that effectively produce isobutanol from glucose utilizing random mutagenesis and a growth selection scheme. By selecting for mutants with the ability to grow in the presence of the valine analog norvaline, we obtained E. coli NV3; a strain with improved 24-h isobutanol production (8.0 g/L) in comparison with a productivity of 5.3g/L isobutanol obtained with the parental wild type strain. Genomic sequencing of NV3 identified the insertion of a stop codon in the C-terminus of the RNA polymerase σ(s)-factor, RpoS. Upon repair of this inhibitory mutation (strain NV3r1), a final isobutanol titer of 21.2g/L isobutanol was achieved in 99 h with a yield of 0.31 g isobutanol/g glucose or 76% of theoretical maximum. Furthermore, a mutation in ldhA, encoding d-lactate dehydrogenase, was identified in NV3; however, repair of LdhA in NV3r1 had no affect on LdhA activity detected from cell extracts or on isobutanol productivity. Further study of NV3r1 may identify novel genotypes that confer improved isobutanol production. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mondello, F J
Pseudomonas strain LB400 is able to degrade an unusually wide variety of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A genomic library of LB400 was constructed by using the broad-host-range cosmid pMMB34 and introduced into Escherichia coli. Approximately 1,600 recombinant clones were tested, and 5 that expressed 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase activity were found. This enzyme is encoded by the bphC gene of the 2,3-dioxygenase pathway for PCB-biphenyl metabolism. Two recombinant plasmids encoding the ability to transform PCBs to chlorobenzoic acids were identified, and one of these, pGEM410, was chosen for further study. The PCB-degrading genes (bphA, -B, -C, and -D) were localized by subcloning experiments to a 12.4-kilobase region of pGEM410. The ability of recombinant strains to degrade PCBs was compared with that of the wild type. In resting-cell assays, PCB degradation by E. coli strain FM4560 (containing a pGEM410 derivative) approached that of LB400 and was significantly greater than degradation by the original recombinant strain. High levels of PCB metabolism by FM4560 did not depend on the growth of the organism on biphenyl, as it did for PCB metabolism by LB400. When cells were grown with succinate as the carbon source, PCB degradation by FM4560 was markedly superior to that by LB400. Images PMID:2493454
Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J
Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE strain and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion strains revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered strain was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE strain versus the wild-type strain. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE strain. Beyond allowing accumulation of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE strain expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates.
Céspedes, Sandra; Saitz, Waleska; Del Canto, Felipe; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Quera, Rodrigo; Hermoso, Marcela; Muñoz, Rául; Ginard, Daniel; Khorrami, Sam; Girón, Jorge; Assar, Rodrigo; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Vidal, Roberto M
Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are genetically variable and virulence factors for AIEC are non-specific. FimH is the most studied pathogenicity-related protein, and there have been few studies on other proteins, such as Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriacea (SPATEs). The goal of this study is to characterize E. coli strains isolated from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in Chile and Spain, and identify genetic differences between strains associated with virulence markers and clonality. We characterized virulence factors and genetic variability by pulse field electrophoresis (PFGE) in 50 E. coli strains isolated from Chilean and Spanish patients with CD, and also determined which of these strains presented an AIEC phenotype. Twenty-six E. coli strains from control patients were also included. PFGE patterns were heterogeneous and we also observed a highly diverse profile of virulence genes among all E. coli strains obtained from patients with CD, including those strains defined as AIEC. Two iron transporter genes chuA, and irp2, were detected in various combinations in 68-84% of CD strains. We found that the most significant individual E. coli genetic marker associated with CD E. coli strains was chuA. In addition, patho-adaptative fimH mutations were absent in some of the highly adherent and invasive strains. The fimH adhesin, the iron transporter irp2, and Class-2 SPATEs did not show a significant association with CD strains. The V27A fimH mutation was detected in the most CD strains. This study highlights the genetic variability of E. coli CD strains from two distinct geographic origins, most of them affiliated with the B2 or D E. coli phylogroups and also reveals that nearly 40% of Chilean and Spanish CD patients are colonized with E.coli with a characteristic AIEC phenotype.
Kessler, Robert; Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H; Horneman, Amy; Amoroso, Anthony; Rasko, David A; Donnenberg, Michael S
A 55-year-old man with well-controlled HIV had severe diarrhea for 3 weeks and developed multiorgan dysfunction and bacteremia due to Escherichia coli. The genome of the patient's isolate had features characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and genes distantly related to those defining enteropathogenic E. coli.
Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C; Garde, J; Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L
Antimicrobial resistance can make the efficient treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals more difficult. Antimicrobial use in food animals may be one of the factors contributing to resistance. The Spanish surveillance network VAV has established a baseline of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains from healthy pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration and patterns of resistance to antimicrobials used in animals and humans were determined for 205 faecal strains isolated in a sampling frame of four slaughterhouses in Spain from 220 pigs in 1998. Higher levels of resistance were seen against antimicrobial agents authorised for use in food animals especially tetracycline, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and amoxycillin. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials employed mainly in humans such as ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem, aztreonam and amikacin.
Bogyiová, E; Kmetová, M; Biros, E; Siegfried, L
P-fimbriae, S-fimbriae and AFA-adhesins are virulence factors responsible for adherence of Escherichia coli strains to extraintestinal host-cell surface. Detection of pap-, sfa- and afa-specific sequences performed by PCR revealed 74% pap+, 65% sfa+, and 8.3% afa+ strains in a group of 84 extraintestinal E. coli isolates. Detection in a group of fecal strains showed 29% pap+, 21% sfa+ and 4% afa+ strains. pap together with sfa were found as the most frequent combination (56%) among extraintestinal isolates probably due to localization of pap- and sfa-operons on a common pathogenicity island. The occurrence of afa-specific sequence among 56 urine strains was 11%, although no afa+ strain was detected among 28 gynecological isolates. No strains with detected adhesin operons were found among twenty (24%) extraintestinal E. coli strains.
Muntean, Cristina M; Lapusan, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Liora; Stefan, Razvan
In this work we present a method for detection of DNA isolated from nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strains, respectively. Untreated and UV irradiated bacterial DNAs were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, to investigate their screening characteristic features and their structural radiotolerance at 253.7nm. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 800-1800cm(-1). FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Also, UV damage at the DNA molecular level is of interest. Strain dependent UV degradation of DNA from E. coli has been observed. Particularly, alterations in nucleic acid bases, base pairing and base stacking have been found. Also changes in the DNA conformation and deoxyribose were detected. Based on this work, specific E. coli DNA-ligand interactions, drug development and vaccine design for a better understanding of the infection mechanism caused by an interference between pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and for a better control of disease, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides, understanding the pathways for UV damaged DNA response, like nucleic acids repair mechanisms is appreciated.
Lin, Myat T; Fukazawa, Risako; Miyajima-Nakano, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Shinichi; Choi, Sylvia K; Iwasaki, Toshio; Gennis, Robert B
Enrichment of proteins with isotopes such as (2)H, (15)N, and (13)C is commonly carried out in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic characterization of protein structures, mechanisms, and dynamics. Although uniform isotopic labeling of proteins is straightforward, efficient labeling of proteins with only a selected set of amino acid types is often challenging. A number of approaches have been described in the literature for amino acid-selective isotope labeling of proteins, each with its own limitations. Since Escherichia coli represents the most cost-effective and widely used host for heterologous production of foreign proteins, an efficient method to express proteins selectively labeled with isotopes would be highly valuable for these studies. However, an obvious drawback is misincorporation and dilution of input isotope labels to unwanted amino acid types due to metabolic scrambling in vivo. To overcome this problem, we have generated E. coli auxotroph strains that are compatible with the widely used T7 RNA polymerase overexpression systems and that minimize metabolic scrambling. We present several examples of selective amino acid isotope labeling of simple and complex proteins with bound cofactors, as an initial guide for practical applications of these E. coli strains. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crossman, Lisa C.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Beatson, Scott A.; Wells, Timothy J.; Desvaux, Mickael; Cunningham, Adam F.; Petty, Nicola K.; Mahon, Vivienne; Brinkley, Carl; Hobman, Jon L.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Turner, Susan M.; Pallen, Mark J.; Penn, Charles W.; Parkhill, Julian; Turner, A. Keith; Johnson, Timothy J.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Smith, Stephen G. J.; Henderson, Ian R.
In most cases, Escherichia coli exists as a harmless commensal organism, but it may on occasion cause intestinal and/or extraintestinal disease. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the predominant cause of E. coli-mediated diarrhea in the developing world and is responsible for a significant portion of pediatric deaths. In this study, we determined the complete genomic sequence of E. coli H10407, a prototypical strain of enterotoxigenic E. coli, which reproducibly elicits diarrhea in human volunteer studies. We performed genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains, revealing that the chromosome is closely related to that of the nonpathogenic commensal strain E. coli HS and to those of the laboratory strains E. coli K-12 and C. Furthermore, these analyses demonstrated that there were no chromosomally encoded factors unique to any sequenced ETEC strains. Comparison of the E. coli H10407 plasmids with those from several ETEC strains revealed that the plasmids had a mosaic structure but that several loci were conserved among ETEC strains. This study provides a genetic context for the vast amount of experimental and epidemiological data that have been published. PMID:20802035
Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Budzynska, Anna; Gospodarek, Eugenia
Multiplex PCR was used to detect genes encoding selected virulence determinants associated with strains of Escherichia coli with K1 antigen (K1(+)) and non-K1 E. coli (K1(-)). The prevalence of the fimA, fimH, sfa/foc, ibeA, iutA and hlyF genes was studied for 134 (67 K1(+) and 67 K1(-)) E. coli strains isolated from pregnant women and neonates. The fimA gene was present in 83.6 % of E. coli K1(+) and in 86.6 % of E. coli K1(-) strains. The fimH gene was present in all tested E. coli K1(+) strains and in 97.0 % of non-K1 strains. E. coli K1(+) strains were significantly more likely to possess the following genes than E. coli K1(-) strains: sfa/foc (37.3 vs 16.4 %, P = 0.006), ibeA (35.8 vs 4.5 %, P<0.001), iutA (82.1 vs 35.8 %, P<0.001) and hlyF (28.4 vs 6.0 %, P<0.001). In conclusion, E. coli K1(+) seems to be more virulent than E. coli K1(-) strains in developing severe infections, thereby increasing possible sepsis or neonatal bacterial meningitis.
Michelacci, Valeria; Bondì, Roslen; Gigliucci, Federica; Franz, Eelco; Badouei, Mahdi Askari; Schlager, Sabine; Minelli, Fabio; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano
Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in humans cause disease ranging from uncomplicated intestinal illnesses to bloody diarrhea and systemic sequelae, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Previous research indicated that pigeons may be a reservoir for a population of verotoxigenic E. coli producing the VT2f variant. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize a set of VT2f-producing E. coli strains from human patients with diarrhea or HUS and from healthy pigeons. We describe a phage conveying the vtx2f genes and provide evidence that the strains causing milder diarrheal disease may be transmitted to humans from pigeons. The strains causing HUS could derive from VT2f phage acquisition by E. coli strains with a virulence genes asset resembling that of typical HUS-associated verotoxigenic E. coli. PMID:27584691
Bibbal, D.; Dupouy, V.; Prère, M. F.; Toutain, P. L.; Bousquet-Mélou, A.
The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of the development of resistance in fecal Escherichia coli populations during treatment with ampicillin for 7 days in pigs. Before treatment, only 6% of the isolates were ampicillin resistant, whereas more than 90% of the isolates were resistant after days 4 and 7 of treatment. Ampicillin-resistant E. coli isolates were mainly multiresistant, and 53% of the isolates from the treated pigs had one phenotype that included resistance to six antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and streptomycin) at day 7. Determination of the frequency of the four phylogenetic groups showed that there was a shift in the E. coli population in ampicillin-treated pigs; before treatment 75% of the isolates belonged to phylogroup B1, whereas at day 7 85% of the isolates belonged to phylogroup A. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed that ampicillin treatment selected ampicillin-resistant isolates with genotypes which were present before treatment. Comparison of antimicrobial phenotypes and PFGE genotypes showed that resistance traits were disseminated by vertical transmission through defined strains. One PFGE genotype, associated with the six-antibiotic-resistant phenotype and including a specific combination of resistance determinants, was predominant among the ampicillin-resistant strains before treatment and during treatment. These data indicate that ampicillin administration selected various ampicillin-resistant isolates that were present in the digestive tract before any treatment and that E. coli isolates belonging to one specific PFGE genotype encoding resistance to six antibiotics became the predominant strains as soon as ampicillin was present in the digestive tract. PMID:19270132
Aguilar, Catalina; Vanegas, Consuelo; Klotz, Bernadette
The current work studied four types of binary antagonist/pathogen bacterial culture system, in order to determine the effect of interaction between two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and two food-borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, in whole UHT milk at 37°C. To determine the type of interaction between the two bacterial populations in co-cultures and to evaluate the antagonistic activity of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the pathogenic bacteria, the growth curves, the kinetic parameters, and the pH profiles of mono- and co-cultures were compared. The Lb. plantarum strains showed different bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) production, auto- and co-inducible. The antibacterial effect of neutralized supernatants of mono and co-cultures harvested at different times of incubation was assessed in order to establish the presence of bacteriocin-like inhibitory-substances (BLIS) and their possible relation to the growth inhibition of the pathogen. The LAB reduced the growth of Esch. coli and of List. monocytogenes by 4 and ∼5 log cycles, respectively and influenced other growth kinetic parameters, such as μ(max) and lag phase, in the different binary combinations. The growth of the LAB was not relevantly altered by simultaneous growth with the pathogenic strains showing an interaction of amensalism. The pattern of inhibition exerted by the LAB on the pathogens was different; Lb. plantarum LB279 inhibited the growth of List. monocytogenes more effectively than that of Esch. coli. The behaviour of Esch. coli in co-culture with Lb. plantarum WS4174 suggested the presence of metabolic crowding in the mechanism of growth suppression. This exploratory study showed the complexity and specific particularities of the inhibition phenomena between bacterial communities.
Yoshida, Akihito; Nishimura, Taku; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki
Genetic recombination of Escherichia coli in conjunction with process manipulation was employed to elevate the efficiency of hydrogen production in the resultant strain SR13 2 orders of magnitude above that of conventional methods. The formate hydrogen lyase (FHL)-overexpressing strain SR13 was constructed by combining FHL repressor (hycA) inactivation with FHL activator (fhlA) overexpression. Transcription of large-subunit formate dehydrogenase, fdhF, and large-subunit hydrogenase, hycE, in strain SR13 increased 6.5- and 7.0-fold, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain. On its own, this genetic modification effectively resulted in a 2.8-fold increase in hydrogen productivity of SR13 compared to the wild-type strain. Further enhancement of productivity was attained by using a novel method involving the induction of the FHL complex with high-cell-density filling of a reactor under anaerobic conditions. Continuous hydrogen production was achieved by maintaining the reactor concentration of the substrate (free formic acid) under 25 mM. An initial productivity of 23.6 g hydrogen h(-1) liter(-1) (300 liters h(-1) liter(-1) at 37 degrees C) was achieved using strain SR13 at a cell density of 93 g (dry weight) cells/liter. The hydrogen productivity reported in this work has great potential for practical application.
Wu, Qinggang; Zhang, Jingping; Zhao, Chuncheng; Zhu, Jianguo
Cloning and sequencing of the papA gene from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 4030 strain to investigate the differences of the sequences of the papA of UPEC4030 strain and the ones of related genes, in order to make whether or not it was a new genotype. Cloning and sequencing methods were used to analyze the sequence of the papA of UPEC4030 strain in comparison with related sequences. The sequence analysis of papA revealed a 722 bp gene and encode 192 amino acid polypeptide. The overall homology of the papA genes between UPEC4030 and the standard strains of ten F types were 36.11%-77.95% and 22.20%-78.34% at nucleotide and deduced amino acid levels. The homology between the sequence of the reverse primers and the corresponding sequence of UPEC4030 papA was 10%-66.67%. The results confirmed that UPEC4030 strain contained a novel papA variant. UPEC4030 strain could contain an unknown papA variant or the novel genotype. The pathogenic mechanism and epidemiology related need to be further studied.
Applebee, M Kenyon; Herrgård, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard Ø
We measured the relative fitness among a set of experimentally evolved Escherichia coli strains differing by a small number of adaptive mutations by directly measuring allelic frequencies in head-to-head competitions using a mass spectrometry-based method. We compared the relative effects of mutations to the same or similar genes acquired in multiple strains when expressed in allele replacement strains. We found that the strongest determinant of fitness among the evolved strains was the impact of beneficial mutations to the RNA polymerase beta and beta' subunit genes. We also identified several examples of epistatic interactions between rpoB/C and glpK mutations and identified two other mutations that are beneficial only in the presence of previously acquired mutations but that have little or no adaptive benefit to the wild-type strain. Allele frequency estimation is shown to be a highly sensitive method for measuring selection rates during competitions between strains differing by as little as a single-nucleotide polymorphism and may be of great use for investigating epistatic interactions.
Andraud, M; Chauvin, C; Sanders, P; Laurentie, M
A mathematical pharmacodynamic model was developed to describe the bactericidal activity of marbofloxacin against Escherichia coli strains with reduced susceptibility levels (determined using MICs) under optimal and intestinal growth conditions. Model parameters were estimated using nonlinear least-square curve-fitting procedures for each E. coli strain. Parameters related to bactericidal activity were subsequently analyzed using a maximum-effect (E(max)) model adapted to account for a direct and a delayed effect. While net growth rates did not vary significantly with strain susceptibility, culture medium had a major effect. The bactericidal activity of marbofloxacin was closely associated with the concentration and the duration of exposure of the bacteria to the antimicrobial agent. The value of the concentration inducing a half-maximum effect (C(50)) was highly correlated with MIC values (R(2) = 0.87 and R(2) = 0.94 under intestinal and optimal conditions, respectively). Our model reproduced the time-kill kinetics with good accuracy (R(2) of >0.90) and helped explain observed regrowth.
Balagué, Claudia; Véscovi, Eleonora García
Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are prototypical pharmacological agents administered in the treatment of hypertrigliceridemia and as a diuretic agent, respectively. They share with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (the widely used herbicide known as 2,4-D) a chlorinated phenoxy structural moiety. These aryloxoalcanoic agents (AOAs) are mainly excreted by the renal route as unaltered or conjugated active compounds. The relatedness of these agents at the structural level and their potential effect on therapeutically treated or occupationally exposed individuals who are simultaneously undergoing a bacterial urinary tract infection led us to analyze their action on uropathogenic, clinically isolated Escherichia coli strains. We found that exposure to these compounds increases the bacterial resistance to an ample variety of antibiotics in clinical isolates of both uropathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli strains. We demonstrate that the AOAs induce an alteration of the bacterial outer membrane permeability properties by the repression of the major porin OmpF in a micF-dependent process. Furthermore, we establish that the antibiotic resistance phenotype is primarily due to the induction of the MarRAB regulatory system by the AOAs, while other regulatory pathways that also converge into micF modulation (OmpR/EnvZ, SoxRS, and Lrp) remained unaltered. The fact that AOAs give rise to uropathogenic strains with a diminished susceptibility to antimicrobials highlights the impact of frequently underestimated or ignored collateral effects of chemical agents. PMID:11353631
Gutiérrez, Daniela; Pardo, Mirka; Montero, David; Oñate, Angel; Farfán, Mauricio J.; Ruiz-Pérez, Fernando
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a leading cause of acute diarrhea, colonizes the intestine by means of adhesins. However, 15 to 50% of clinical isolates are negative for known adhesins, making it difficult to identify antigens for broad-coverage vaccines. The ETEC strain 1766a, obtained from a child with watery diarrhea in Chile, harbors the colonization factor CS23 but is negative for other known adhesins. One clone, derived from an ETEC 1766a genomic library (clone G10), did not produce CS23 yet was capable of adhering to Caco-2 cells. The goal of this study was to identify the gene responsible for this capacity. Random transposon-based mutagenesis allowed the identification of a 4,110-bp gene that codes for a homologue of the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh) autotransporter described in avian E. coli strains (97% identity, 90% coverage) and that is called TleA (Tsh-like ETEC autotransporter) herein. An isogenic ETEC 1766a strain with a tleA mutation showed an adhesion level similar to that of the wild-type strain, suggesting that the gene does not direct attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, expression of tleA conferred the capacity for adherence to nonadherent E. coli HB101. This effect coincided with the detection of TleA on the surface of nonpermeabilized bacteria, while, conversely, ETEC 1766a seems to secrete most of the produced autotransporter to the medium. On the other hand, TleA was capable of degrading bovine submaxillary mucin and leukocyte surface glycoproteins CD45 and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). These results suggest that TleA promotes colonization of the intestinal epithelium and that it may modulate the host immune response. PMID:25712927
Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida
Characterizing the complex spatial and temporal interactions among cells in a biological system (i.e. bacterial colony, microbiome, tissue, etc.) remains a challenge. Metabolic cooperativity in these systems can arise due to the subtle interplay between microenvironmental conditions and the cells’ regulatory machinery, often involving cascades of intra- and extracellular signalling molecules. In the simplest of cases, as demonstrated in a recent study of the model organism Escherichia coli, metabolic cross-feeding can arise in monoclonal colonies of bacteria driven merely by spatial heterogeneity in the availability of growth substrates; namely, acetate, glucose and oxygen. Another recent study demonstrated that even closely related E. coli strains evolved different glucose utilization and acetate production capabilities, hinting at the possibility of subtle differences in metabolic cooperativity and the resulting growth behavior of these organisms. Taking a first step towards understanding the complex spatio-temporal interactions within microbial populations, we performed a parametric study of E. coli growth on an agar substrate and probed the dependence of colony behavior on: 1) strain-specific metabolic characteristics, and 2) the geometry of the underlying substrate. To do so, we employed a recently developed multiscale technique named 3D dynamic flux balance analysis which couples reaction-diffusion simulations with iterative steady-state metabolic modeling. Key measures examined include colony growth rate and shape (height vs. width), metabolite production/consumption and concentration profiles, and the emergence of metabolic cooperativity and the fractions of cell phenotypes. Five closely related strains of E. coli, which exhibit large variation in glucose consumption and organic acid production potential, were studied. The onset of metabolic cooperativity was found to vary substantially between these five strains by up to 10 hours and the relative
Kadiyala, Venkateswarlu; Nadeau, Lloyd J.; Spain, Jim C.
The predominant bacterial pathway for nitrobenzene (NB) degradation uses an NB nitroreductase and hydroxylaminobenzene (HAB) mutase to form the ring-fission substrate ortho-aminophenol. We tested the hypothesis that constructed strains might accumulate the aminophenols from nitroacetophenones and other nitroaromatic compounds. We constructed a recombinant plasmid carrying NB nitroreductase (nbzA) and HAB mutase A (habA) genes, both from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45, and expressed the enzymes in Escherichia coli JS995. IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside)-induced cells of strain JS995 rapidly and stoichiometrically converted NB to 2-aminophenol, 2-nitroacetophenone (2NAP) to 2-amino-3-hydroxyacetophenone (2AHAP), and 3-nitroacetophenone (3NAP) to 3-amino-2-hydroxyacetophenone (3AHAP). We constructed another recombinant plasmid containing the nitroreductase gene (nfs1) from Enterobacter cloacae and habA from strain JS45 and expressed the enzymes in E. coli JS996. Strain JS996 converted NB to 2-aminophenol, 2-nitrotoluene to 2-amino-3-methylphenol, 3-nitrotoluene to 2-amino-4-methylphenol, 4-nitrobiphenyl ether to 4-amino-5-phenoxyphenol, and 1-nitronaphthalene to 2-amino-1-naphthol. In larger-scale biotransformations catalyzed by strain JS995, 75% of the 2NAP transformed was converted to 2AHAP, whereas 3AHAP was produced stoichiometrically from 3NAP. The final yields of the aminophenols after extraction and recovery were >64%. The biocatalytic synthesis of ortho-aminophenols from nitroacetophenones suggests that strain JS995 may be useful in the biocatalytic production of a variety of substituted ortho-aminophenols from the corresponding nitroaromatic compounds. PMID:14602609
King, Thea; Ishihama, Akira; Kori, Ayako; Ferenci, Thomas
There are few existing indications that strain variation in prokaryotic gene regulation is common or has evolutionary advantage. In this study, we report on isolates of Escherichia coli with distinct ratios of sigma factors (RpoD, sigmaD, or sigma70 and RpoS or sigmaS) that affect transcription initiated by RNA polymerase. Both laboratory E. coli K-12 lineages and nondomesticated isolates exhibit strain-specific endogenous levels of RpoS protein. We demonstrate that variation in genome usage underpins intraspecific variability in transcription patterns, resistance to external stresses, and the choice of beneficial mutations under nutrient limitation. Most unexpectedly, RpoS also controlled strain variation with respect to the metabolic capability of bacteria with more than a dozen carbon sources. Strains with higher sigmaS levels were more resistant to external stress but metabolized fewer substrates and poorly competed for low concentrations of nutrients. On the other hand, strains with lower sigmaS levels had broader nutritional capabilities and better competitive ability with low nutrient concentrations but low resistance to external stress. In other words, RpoS influenced both r and K strategist functions of bacteria simultaneously. The evolutionary principle driving strain variation is proposed to be a conceptually novel trade-off that we term SPANC (for "self-preservation and nutritional competence"). The availability of multiple SPANC settings potentially broadens the niche occupied by a species consisting of individuals with narrow specialization and reveals an evolutionary advantage offered by polymorphic regulation. Regulatory diversity is likely to be a significant contributor to complexity in a bacterial world in which multiple sigma factors are a universal feature.
Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D
Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828
Yao, Yufeng; Xie, Yi; Kim, Kwang Sik
Escherichia coli is a major cause of enteric/diarrheal diseases, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. E. coli K1 is the leading gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis, but the microbial basis of E. coli K1 meningitis is incompletely understood. Here we employed comparative genomic hybridization to investigate 11 strains of E. coli K1 isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis. These 11 strains cover the majority of common O serotypes in E. coli K1 isolates from CSF. Our data demonstrated that these 11 strains of E. coli K1 can be categorized into two groups based on their profile for putative virulence factors, lipoproteins, proteases, and outer membrane proteins. Of interest, we showed that some open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the type III secretion system apparatus were found in group 2 strains but not in group 1 strains, while ORFs encoding the general secretory pathway are predominant in group 1 strains. These findings suggest that E. coli K1 strains isolated from CSF can be divided into two groups and these two groups of E. coli K1 may utilize different mechanisms to induce meningitis. PMID:16552050
Background Understanding ethanol tolerance in microorganisms is important for the improvement of bioethanol production. Hence, we performed parallel-evolution experiments using Escherichia coli cells under ethanol stress to determine the phenotypic changes necessary for ethanol tolerance. Results After cultivation of 1,000 generations under 5% ethanol stress, we obtained 6 ethanol-tolerant strains that showed an approximately 2-fold increase in their specific growth rate in comparison with their ancestor. Expression analysis using microarrays revealed that common expression changes occurred during the adaptive evolution to the ethanol stress environment. Biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, including tryptophan, histidine, and branched-chain amino acids, were commonly up-regulated in the tolerant strains, suggesting that activating these pathways is involved in the development of ethanol tolerance. In support of this hypothesis, supplementation of isoleucine, tryptophan, and histidine to the culture medium increased the specific growth rate under ethanol stress. Furthermore, genes related to iron ion metabolism were commonly up-regulated in the tolerant strains, which suggests the change in intracellular redox state during adaptive evolution. Conclusions The common phenotypic changes in the ethanol-tolerant strains we identified could provide a fundamental basis for designing ethanol-tolerant strains for industrial purposes. PMID:20955615
Brusa, Victoria; Costa, Magdalena; Londero, Alejandra; Leotta, Gerardo A; Galli, Lucía
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important emerging foodborne human pathogens. Ruminants are the main animal reservoir of STEC currently known, and meat can become contaminated at different stages of the production chain. The aim of this work was to subtype and establish the epidemiological relatedness of non-O157 STEC strains isolated from ground beef and the environment in butcher shops before (evaluation stage, 2010-2011 period) and after (verification stage, 2013) implementing improvement actions. Sixty-eight non-O157 STEC strains were tested for eae, saa, ehxA, iha, efa1, toxB, subAB, cdt-V, astA, aggR, and aaiC genes, and stx1 and stx2 variants were determined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was carried out with XbaI and XmaJI. From the 68 strains, 92.6%, 75.0%, 58.8%, 53.5%, 10.3%, 7.3%, and 4.4% were positive for iha, ehxA, subAB, saa, cdt-V, astA, and eae, respectively. All strains were aggR/aaiC-negative. PFGE showed that 19 strains grouped in 9 clusters and 41 showed unique XbaI patterns. During the evaluation stage (2010-2011), we identified clonal strains in different samples, circulating clones in different butcher shops, and more than one different strain in the same butcher shop. The bovine origin of meat and its manufacturing process could not ensure the total absence of all non-O157 STEC serotypes in this foodstuff. Most strains isolated during the evaluation (2010-2011) and verification (2013) stages did not exhibit a genotypic profile associated with human disease. It is necessary to conduct periodic reviews of the new epidemiological information and verify that the analyses of non-O157 STEC in food are appropriate to identify strains affecting the population.
Le Bouguénec, C; Bertin, Y
AFA and F17 are afimbrial and fimbrial adhesins, respectively, produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in domestic animals. F17-related fimbriae are mainly detected on bovine and ovine E. coli associated with diarrhoea or septicaemia. The F17-G adhesin subunits recognize N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) receptors present on bovine intestinal cells. Some F17 subtypes also bind to GlcNAc receptors present on human uroepithelial and intestinal Caco-2 cells or to the laminin contained in the basement of mammalian membranes. F17 is often associated with other virulence factors (aerobactin, serum resistance, CNF2 toxin, K99, CS31A or AFA adhesins) on pathogenic E. coli. A cluster of only four genes is required to synthesize functional F17-related fimbrial structures. The hypothesis of multifunctional F17 fimbrial subunits is supported by the fact that: i) the N-terminal part of the adhesin subunit participates in receptor recognition, whereas the C-terminal part is required for biogenesis of the fimbrial filament; and ii) the interaction between structural and adhesin subunits seems to be crucial for the initiation of monomer polymerization. Recently, determinants related to the afa gene clusters from human pathogenic E. coli associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections were identified in strains isolated from calves and piglets with diarrhoea and septicaemia. Two afa-related gene clusters, designated afa-7 and afa-8, that encode afimbrial adhesins were cloned and characterized from bovine pathogenic E. coli. These animal afa gene clusters were plasmid and chromosome borne and were expressed by strains that produced other virulence factors such as CNF toxins, F17, PAP and CS31A adhesins. A high frequency of afa-8 and a low prevalence of afa-7 among bovine E. coli isolates were suggested by preliminary epidemiological studies. As with the human afa gene clusters, the animal ones encode an adhesive structure composed of two proteins: AfaE which
Matsuo, Junji; Oguri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinji; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Akizawa, Kouzi; Suzuki, Haruki; Simizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki
The mechanism underlying bacterial conjugation through protozoa was investigated. Kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli SM10λ+ carrying pRT733 with TnphoA was used as donor bacteria and introduced by conjugation into ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli clinical isolate recipient bacteria. Equal amounts of donor and recipient bacteria were mixed together in the presence or absence of protozoa (ciliates, free-living amoebae, myxamoebae) in Page's amoeba saline for 24 h. Transconjugants were selected with Luria broth agar containing kanamycin and ciprofloxacin. The frequency of conjugation was estimated as the number of transconjugants for each recipient. Conjugation frequency in the presence of ciliates was estimated to be approximately 10⁻⁶, but in the absence of ciliates, or in the presence of other protozoa, it was approximately 10⁻⁸. Conjugation also occurred in culture of ciliates at least 2 h after incubation. Successful conjugation was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. Addition of cycloheximide or latrunculin B resulted in suppression of conjugation. Heat killing the ciliates or bacteria had no effect on conjugation frequency. Co-localization of green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli and PKH-67-vital-stained E. coli was observed in the same ciliate vesicles, suggesting that both donor and recipient bacteria had accumulated in the same vesicle. In this study, the conjugation frequency of bacteria was found to be significantly higher in vesicles purified from ciliates than those in culture suspension. We conclude that ciliates rapidly enhance the conjugation of E. coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.
Shin, Hyun-Ho; Cho, Seung-Hak
Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from the fecal samples of fishery workers who work in fish farms and often use antibiotics for the feeding fishes. Methods: Seventy-three E. coli strains isolated from the fecal samples of fishery workers and 180 isolates from a control group of restaurant workers were tested for antibiotic resistance by agar disk diffusion with 16 antimicrobial agents. Results: About 30% of isolates from each group showed antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, and 60% of isolates from fishery workers and 41% from restaurant workers were resistant to tetracycline. The isolates showed higher resistance to cephalothin and cefoxitin than to other cephem antibiotics and to gentamicin than to other aminogycosides. Our data indicated that fecal E. coli isolates from fishery workers showed higher antibiotic resistance than those of non-fishery workers (restaurant workers), especially to cephalothin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (p < 0.05). However, rates of multidrug resistance were similar among the fishery workers and restaurant workers. Conclusion: Frequent use of antibiotics may cause increased antibiotic resistance in the human microbiome. PMID:24159534
Stribling, Donald; Perham, Richard N.
Two fructose diphosphate aldolases (EC 184.108.40.206) were detected in extracts of Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain) grown on pyruvate or lactate. The two enzymes can be resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH7.5, or by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and both have been obtained in a pure state. One is a typical bacterial aldolase (class II) in that it is strongly inhibited by metal-chelating agents and is reactivated by bivalent metal ions, e.g. Ca2+, Zn2+. It is a dimer with a molecular weight of approx. 70000, and the Km value for fructose diphosphate is about 0.85mm. The other aldolase is not dependent on metal ions for its activity, but is inhibited by reduction with NaBH4 in the presence of substrate. The Km value for fructose diphosphate is about 20μm (although the Lineweaver–Burk plot is not linear) and the enzyme is probably a tetramer with molecular weight approx. 140000. It has been crystallized. On the basis of these properties it is tentatively assigned to class I. The appearance of a class I aldolase in bacteria was unexpected, and its synthesis in E. coli is apparently favoured by conditions of gluconeogenesis. Only aldolase of class II was found in E. coli that had been grown on glucose. The significance of these results for the evolution of fructose diphosphate aldolases is briefly discussed. PMID:4198624
Fitzhenry, R. J.; Reece, S.; Trabulsi, L. R.; Heuschkel, R.; Murch, S.; Thomson, M.; Frankel, G.; Phillips, A. D.
Four enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains belonging to the O55 serogroup (G21 and G30 [both O55:H6], G35 [O55:H−], and G58 [O55:H7]) were tested for their tissue tropism by using human intestinal in vitro organ culture. Strains showed restricted adhesion with attaching-and-effacing activity to follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches, with no apparent adhesion to duodenum or colon. G35 and G58 express intimin γ and show a similar tropism to intimin γ-expressing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7. However, strains G21 and G30 were unusual because they expressed intimin α and had a restricted tissue tropism of intimin γ phenotype. The amino acid sequence of the carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids of intimin from G21 was determined. Comparison with the prototype intimin α from strain E2348/69 (O127:H6) showed a single amino acid difference (corresponding to Val907 and Ala907 in the whole intimins). This mutation was reproduced by site-directed mutagenesis in an intimin α plasmid template, pCVD438, with the hypothesis that it may induce a change in tropism. However, when the mutated plasmid was placed in both EPEC and EHEC backgrounds, duodenal adhesion in a manner similar to strain E2348/69 was evident upon in vitro organ culture. Thus, additional factor(s) unrelated to intimin exist in the O55:H6 genome that influence human intestinal tissue tropism. PMID:12117946
Kantor, George J.; Deering, R. A.
Short periods of incubation in medium containing nalidixic acid or hydroxyurea, followed by a return to normal growth conditions, induced filament formation in Escherichia coli B (fil+) and AB1899NM (lon−) but not in B/r (fil−) and AB1157 (lon+). These drugs reversibly stopped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis with little or no effect on ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis or mass increase. The initial imbalance caused by incubation in these drugs was the same for B and B/r as was macromolecular synthesis following a return to normal growth conditions. DNA degradation caused by nalidixic acid was measured and found to be the same for B and B/r. Hydroxyurea caused no DNA degradation in these two strains. Survival curves as determined under various conditions by colony formation suggested that the property of filament formation was responsible for the extrasensitivity of fil+ and lon− strains to either nalidixic acid or hydroxyurea. E. coli B was more sensitive to either drug than was B/r or Bs-1. Pantoyl lactone or liquid holding treatment aided division and colony formation of nalidixic acid-treated B but had no effect on B/r. Likewise, the filament-former AB1899NM was more sensitive to nalidixic acid than was the non-filament-former AB1157. The sensitivity of B/r and Bs-1 to nalidixic acid was nearly the same except at longer times in nalidixic acid, when Bs-1 appeared more resistant. Even though nalidixic acid, hydroxyurea, and ultraviolet light may produce quite different molecular alterations in E. coli, they all cause a metabolic imbalance resulting in a lowered ratio of DNA to RNA and protein. We propose that it is this imbalance per se rather than any specific primary chemical or photochemical alterations which leads to filament formation by some genetically susceptible bacterial strains such as lon− and fil+. PMID:4867744
Bryan, L. E.; Elzen, H. M. Van Den
Streptomycin accumulation by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been shown to be prevented or inhibited by inhibitors of electron transport, sulfhydryl groups and protein synthesis, and agents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Streptomycin is recovered from cells in an unchanged form and is intracellularly concentrated above extracellular concentrations. Accumulation kinetics are multiphasic; an initial phase which cannot be prevented by the above inhibitors is unable to cause inhibition of cell growth or loss of cell viability. Prevention of further phases of uptake does prevent these events. Inhibitor-susceptible accumulation is time dependent and begins almost immediately upon exposure of cells to streptomycin. Streptomycin accumulation remains energy dependent even when cells are losing acid-soluble [3H]adenine, presumably through loss of permeability control. These results demonstrate that streptomycin accumulation necessary for inhibition of cell growth or cell death requires energy and is not a process of diffusion or secondary to membrane leakage. Streptomycin accumulation in ribosomally resistant mutants of E. coli and P. aeruginosa is similar in that both energy-independent and energy-dependent accumulation can be demonstrated. The total energy-dependent accumulation is, however, significantly lower than that in streptomycin-susceptible cells due to the absence of an additional energy-dependent phase of accumulation, which seems dependent on ribosomal binding of streptomycin. Ribosomally resistant strains can be shown to concentrate streptomycin accumulated by the energy-dependent process above the external concentration in nutrient broth but not in Trypticase soy broth. The energy-dependent accumulation can be saturated in the Strr strain of E. coli in nutrient broth, implying limited accumulation sites. PMID:820248
Jordan, Dianna M; Sperandio, Vanessa; Kaper, James B; Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Moon, Harley W
Gnotobiotic piglets inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, its luxS mutant derivative, or nonpathogenic E. coli were evaluated for attaching and effacing lesions. Although no differences in clinical symptoms were seen between pigs inoculated with the parent and those inoculated with the luxS mutant, the luxS mutant-inoculated pigs had a lower frequency of attaching and effacing lesions in the spiral colon than parent strain-inoculated pigs.
Johnning, Anna; Jakobsson, Hedvig E.; Boulund, Fredrik; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Åhrén, Christina; Kristiansson, Erik
The draft genome sequence has been determined for an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (blaCTX-M-15) Escherichia coli strain (CCUG 62462), composed of 119 contigs and a total size of 5.27 Mb. This E. coli is serotype O25b and sequence type 131, a pandemic clonal group, causing worldwide antimicrobial-resistant infections. PMID:27979938
Finch, G.R.; Stiles, M.E.; Smith, D.W.
Selective and nonselective growth media were evaluated at two incubation temperatures, 35 and 44.5 degrees C, for the recovery of a nalidixic acid-resistant marker strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 by membrane filtration from ozonated 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). There were significantly fewer bacteria recovered with the standard m-FC agar when compared with the same growth medium prepared without bile salts and rosolic acid. This effect was particularly noticeable at the elevated incubation temperature of 44.5 degrees C. These findings are contrary to previous work which concluded that the standard American Public Health Association membrane filtration procedure is suitable for recovery of fecal coliform indicator bacteria from ozonated wastewater.
Nunes, A P M; De Mattos, J C P; Ferreira-Machado, S C; Nunes, R M; Asad, N R; Dantas, F J S; Bezerra, R J A C; Caldeira-de-Araujo, A
Stevioside is widely used daily in many countries as a non-caloric sugar substitute. Its sweetening power is higher than that of sucrose by approximately 250-300 times, being extensively employed as a household sweetener, or added to beverages and food products. The purpose of this study was to ascertain stevioside genotoxic and cytotoxic potentiality in different biological systems, as its use continues to increase. Agarose gel electrophoresis and bacterial transformation were employed to observe the occurrence of DNA lesions. In addition to these assays, Escherichia coli strains were incubated with stevioside so that their survival fractions could be obtained. Results show absence of genotoxic activity through electrophoresis and bacterial transformation assays and drop of survival fraction of E. coli strains deficient in rec A and nth genes, suggesting that stevioside (i) is cytotoxic; (ii) could need metabolization to present deleterious effects on cells; (iii) is capable of generating lesions in DNA and pathways as base excision repair, recombination and SOS system would be important to recover these lesions.
Sugiyama, T; Kido, N; Komatsu, T; Ohta, M; Kato, N
To investigate the effect of chromosomal mutation on the synthesis of rfe-dependent Escherichia coli O9 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the cloned E. coli O9 rfb gene was introduced into Salmonella typhimurium strains defective in various genes involved in the synthesis of LPS. When E. coli O9 rfb was introduced into S. typhimurium strains possessing defects in rfb or rfc, they synthesized E. coli O9 LPS on their cell surfaces. The rfe-defective mutant of S. typhimurium synthesized only very small amounts of E. coli O9 LPS after the introduction of E. coli O9 rfb. These results confirmed the widely accepted idea that the biosynthesis of E. coli O9-specific polysaccharide does not require rfc but requires rfe. By using an rfbT mutant of the E. coli O9 rfb gene, the mechanism of transfer of the synthesized E. coli O9-specific polysaccharide from antigen carrier lipid to the R-core of S. typhimurium was investigated. The rfbT mutant of the E. coli O9 rfb gene failed to direct the synthesis of E. coli O9 LPS in the rfc mutant strain of S. typhimurium, in which rfaL and rfbT functions are intact, but directed the synthesis of the precursor. Because the intact E. coli O9 rfb gene directed the synthesis of E. coli O9 LPS in the same strain, it was suggested that the rfaL product of S. typhimurium and rfbT product of E. coli O9 cooperate to synthesize E. coli O9 LPS in S. typhimurium. Images PMID:1987133
Shiga – toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant group of foodborne pathogens that can cause mild diarrhea to serious human illnesses. The gastrointestinal tracts of cattle and other ruminants are the primary reservoirs of STEC strains and may co-harbor bacteriophages as part of its ...
Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shiori; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Takai, Shinji
ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the major foodborne pathogens. Having observed the wide distribution of this pathogen in wild deer, we report here the draft genome sequence of five STEC strains isolated from wild deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan. PMID:28254967
High variability in the expression of csgD-dependent, biofilm-forming and adhesive properties is common among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Although many strains of serotype O157:H7 form little biofilm, conversion to stronger biofilm phenotypes has been observed. In this study we sc...
Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Khadake, Prashant P.; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B.; Apurwa, Sachin R.; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U.; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India. PMID:25838484
Technical Abstract and Interpretive Summary: Provide electronically in Word. Sixty-three strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were recovered from farm animal feces in distinct regions in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region in Mexico for horticultural crops that...
Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (“Big Six” – O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) represent significant groups of pathogens responsible for foodborne diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a colorimetric optical sensing assay that can simultaneously detect ...
Begum, Yasmin A; Talukder, K A; Azmi, Ishrat J; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Sheikh, A; Sharmin, Salma; Svennerholm, A-M; Qadri, Firdausi
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009. PCR and Ganglioside GM1- Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for detection of Heat labile (LT) and Heat stable (ST) toxins of ETEC. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for commonly used antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were examined. DNA sequencing of representative ciprofloxacin resistant strains was performed to analyze mutations of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. PCR was used for the detection of qnr, a plasmid mediated ciprofloxacin resistance gene. Clonal variations among ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) and ciprofloxacin susceptible (CipS) strains were determined by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among 1067 (12%) ETEC isolates identified, 42% produced LT/ST, 28% ST and 30% LT alone. Forty nine percent (n = 523) of the ETEC strains expressed one or more of the 13 tested colonization factors (CFs) as determined by dot blot immunoassay. Antibiotic resistance of the ETEC strains was observed as follows: ampicillin 66%, azithromycin 27%, ciprofloxacin 27%, ceftriazone 13%, cotrimaxazole 46%, doxycycline 44%, erythromycin 96%, nalidixic acid 83%, norfloxacin 27%, streptomycin 48% and tetracycline 42%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin increased from 13% in 2005 to 34% in 2009. None of the strains was resistant to mecillinam. The MIC of the nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin of representative Cip
Begum, Yasmin A.; Talukder, K. A.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Sheikh, A.; Sharmin, Salma; Svennerholm, A.-M.; Qadri, Firdausi
Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009. PCR and Ganglioside GM1- Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for detection of Heat labile (LT) and Heat stable (ST) toxins of ETEC. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for commonly used antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were examined. DNA sequencing of representative ciprofloxacin resistant strains was performed to analyze mutations of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. PCR was used for the detection of qnr, a plasmid mediated ciprofloxacin resistance gene. Clonal variations among ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) and ciprofloxacin susceptible (CipS) strains were determined by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Among 1067 (12%) ETEC isolates identified, 42% produced LT/ST, 28% ST and 30% LT alone. Forty nine percent (n = 523) of the ETEC strains expressed one or more of the 13 tested colonization factors (CFs) as determined by dot blot immunoassay. Antibiotic resistance of the ETEC strains was observed as follows: ampicillin 66%, azithromycin 27%, ciprofloxacin 27%, ceftriazone 13%, cotrimaxazole 46%, doxycycline 44%, erythromycin 96%, nalidixic acid 83%, norfloxacin 27%, streptomycin 48% and tetracycline 42%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin increased from 13% in 2005 to 34% in 2009. None of the strains was resistant to mecillinam. The MIC of the nalidixic acid and
Zhang, Xueli; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O
The fermentative metabolism of Escherichia coli was reengineered to efficiently convert glycerol to succinate under anaerobic conditions without the use of foreign genes. Formate and ethanol were the dominant fermentation products from glycerol in wild-type Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, followed by succinate and acetate. Inactivation of pyruvate formate-lyase (pflB) in the wild-type strain eliminated the production of formate and ethanol and reduced the production of acetate. However, this deletion slowed growth and decreased cell yields due to either insufficient energy production or insufficient levels of electron acceptors. Reversing the direction of the gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reaction offered an approach to solve both problems, conserving energy as an additional ATP and increasing the pool of electron acceptors (fumarate and malate). Recruiting this enzyme through a promoter mutation (pck*) to increase expression also increased the rate of growth, cell yield, and succinate production. Presumably, the high NADH/NAD(+) ratio served to establish the direction of carbon flow. Additional mutations were also beneficial. Glycerol dehydrogenase and the phosphotransferase-dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase are regarded as the primary route for glycerol metabolism under anaerobic conditions. However, this is not true for succinate production by engineered strains. Deletion of the ptsI gene or any other gene essential for the phosphotranferase system was found to increase succinate yield. Deletion of pflB in this background provided a further increase in the succinate yield. Together, these three core mutations (pck*, ptsI, and pflB) effectively redirected carbon flow from glycerol to succinate at 80% of the maximum theoretical yield during anaerobic fermentation in mineral salts medium.
Zhang, Rong; Gu, Dan-xia; Huang, Yong-lu; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Gong-Xiang; Chen, Sheng
The origin of pathogenic Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), a major causative agent of childhood diarrhea worldwide, remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of EAEC in clinical and non-clinical sources and compare their genetic characteristics in order to identify strains that rarely and commonly cause human diarrhea. The virulence gene astA was commonly detectable in both clinical and non-clinical EAEC, while clinical isolates, but not the non-clinical strains, were consistently found to harbor other virulence factors such as aap (32%), aatA (18%) and aggR (11%). MLST analysis revealed the extremely high diversity of EAEC ST types, which can be grouped into three categories including: (i) non-clinical EAEC that rarely cause human infections; (ii) virulent strains recoverable in diarrhea patients that are also commonly found in the non-clinical sources; (iii) organisms causing human infections but rarely recoverable in the non-clinical setting. In addition, the high resistance in these EAEC isolates in particular resistance to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins raised a huge concern for clinical EAEC infection control. The data from this study suggests that EAEC strains were diversely distributed in non-clinical and clinical setting and some of the clinical isolates may originate from the non-clinical setting. PMID:27062991
Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Gordon, David M
The selective pressures that determine genotype abundance and distribution frequently vary between ecological levels. Thus, it is often unclear whether the same functional genotypes will become abundant at different levels and how selection acting at these different scales is linked. In this study, we examined whether particular functional genotypes, defined by the presence or absence of 34 genes, of commensal Escherichia coli strains were associated with within-host abundance and/or host population abundance in a wild population of 54 adult mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami). Our results revealed that there was a positive correlation between a strain's relative abundance within individuals and the strain's abundance in the host population. We also found that strain abundance at both ecological levels was predicted by the same group of functional genes (agn43, focH, micH47, iroN, ygiL, ompT, kspmT2 and K1) that had associated patterns of occurrence. We propose that direct selection on the same functional genes at both levels may in part be responsible for the observed correlation between the ecological levels. However, a potential link between abundance within the host and excretion rate may also contribute.
Goulter, Rebecca M; Taran, Elena; Gentle, Ian R; Gobius, Kari S; Dykes, Gary A
The role of Escherichia coli H antigens in hydrophobicity and attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel (SS) surfaces was investigated through construction of fliC knockout mutants in E. coli O157:H7, O1:H7 and O157:H12. Loss of FliC(H12) in E. coli O157:H12 decreased attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel surfaces (p<0.05). Complementing E. coli O157:H12 ΔfliC(H12) with cloned wildtype (wt) fliC(H12) restored attachment to wt levels. The loss of FliCH7 in E. coli O157:H7 and O1:H7 did not always alter attachment (p>0.05), but complementation with cloned fliC(H12), as opposed to cloned fliCH7, significantly increased attachment for both strains compared with wt counterparts (p<0.05). Hydrophobicity determined using bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons and contact angle measurements differed with fliC expression but was not correlated to the attachment to materials included in this study. Purified FliC was used to functionalise silicone nitride atomic force microscopy probes, which were used to measure adhesion forces between FliC and substrates. Although no significant difference in adhesion force was observed between FliC(H12) and FliCH7 probes, differences in force curves suggest different mechanism of attachment for FliC(H12) compared with FliCH7. These results indicate that E. coli strains expressing flagellar H12 antigens have an increased ability to attach to certain abiotic surfaces compared with E. coli strains expressing H7 antigens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salinger, Nina; Kokona, Bashkim; Fairman, Robert; Okeke, Iruka N
We demonstrate that enhanced lysozyme resistance of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli requires the plasmid-encoded regulator, Per, and is mediated by factors outside the locus for enterocyte effacement. EspC, a Per-activated serine protease autotransporter protein, conferred enhanced resistance on nonpathogenic E. coli, and a second Per-regulated, espC-independent lysozyme resistance mechanism was identified.
Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10**4 CFU of E. coli O157: H7/gram or greater are now referred to as su...
The putative virulence factor enterohemolysin, encoded for by the ehlyA gene, has been closely associated with the pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) group. E. coli isolates from effluents from seven geographically dispersed municipal ...
The putative virulence factor enterohemolysin, encoded for by the ehlyA gene, has been closely associated with the pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) group. E. coli isolates from effluents from seven geographically dispersed municipal ...
Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...
Gronbach, Kerstin; Eberle, Ute; Müller, Martina; Olschläger, Tobias A; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Leithäuser, Frank; Niess, Jan Hendrik; Döring, Gerd; Reimann, Jörg; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie
Probiotics are viable microorganisms that are increasingly used for treatment of a variety of diseases. Occasionally, however, probiotics may have adverse clinical effects, including septicemia. Here we examined the role of the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system in preventing translocation of probiotics (e.g., Escherichia coli Nissle). We challenged C57BL/6J mice raised under germfree conditions (GF-raised C57BL/6J mice) and Rag1(-/-) mice raised under germfree conditions (GF-raised Rag1(-/-) mice) and under specific-pathogen-free conditions (SPF-raised Rag1(-/-) mice) with probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917, strain Nissle 1917 mutants, the commensal strain E. coli mpk, or Bacteroides vulgatus mpk. Additionally, we reconstituted Rag1(-/-) mice with CD4(+) T cells. E. coli translocation and dissemination and the mortality of mice were assessed. In GF-raised Rag1(-/-) mice, but not in SPF-raised Rag1(-/-) mice or GF-raised C57BL/6J mice, oral challenge with E. coli strain Nissle 1917, but not oral challenge with E. coli mpk, resulted in translocation and dissemination. The mortality rate was significantly higher for E. coli strain Nissle 1917-challenged GF-raised Rag1(-/-) mice (100%; P < 0.001) than for E. coli strain Nissle 1917-challenged SPF-raised Rag1(-/-) mice (0%) and GF-raised C57BL/6J mice (0%). Translocation of and mortality due to strain E. coli Nissle 1917 in GF-raised Rag1(-/-) mice were prevented when mice were reconstituted with T cells prior to strain E. coli Nissle 1917 challenge, but not when mice were reconstituted with T cells after E. coli strain Nissle 1917 challenge. Cocolonization experiments revealed that E. coli mpk could not prevent translocation of strain E. coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, we demonstrated that neither lipopolysaccharide structure nor flagella play a role in E. coli strain Nissle 1917 translocation and dissemination. Our results suggest that if both the microbiota and adaptive immunity are defective
Gilligan, P H; Robertson, D C
Optimal growth conditions have been established for production of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) by both porcine and human strains of enterotoxigenic (ENT(+)) Escherichia coli. There were no unusual growth factor requirements, and some strains produced fairly high levels of LT in a basal salts medium containing 0.5% glucose if the pH was carefully controlled. Several amino acids markedly stimulated LT synthesis when added to the basal salts-glucose medium. Methionine and lysine were the most stimulatory for both human and porcine strains. Either aspartic acid or glutamic acid further enhanced LT synthesis in the presence of methionine and lysine, with aspartic acid being more stimulatory for porcine strains and glutamic acid more stimulatory for human strains. There were no apparent vitamin requirements and no unusual cations needed for toxin synthesis except that Fe(3+) was slightly stimulatory for porcine strains. The stimulation by Fe(3+) was observed only in the presence of the three amino acids, suggesting that the effect was indirect rather than on toxin synthesis. The carbon source also influenced the yield of LT. Glucose supported maximal synthesis, but other carbon sources which exhibit a high degree of catabolite repression also supported high levels of synthesis. Little or no LT was released below pH 7.0; therefore, because the pH drops during growth from 7.5 to 6.8, even in highly buffered media, it was necessary to adjust the pH to 8.0 to effect complete release of cell-associated toxin. The defined medium containing three amino acids reduced the amount of UV-absorbing material in culture supernatants about fivefold and increased LT activity for various strains from two- to fivefold over a complex Casamino Acids-yeast extract medium. Conditions found to be optimal for synthesis of LT were inhibitory for the heat-stable enterotoxin.
Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C; Shih, D J; McHugh, G L; Swartz, M N
Quinolone antimicrobial agents rapidly kill bacteria by largely unknown mechanisms. To study this phenomenon, a strain of Escherichia coli inhibited but inefficiently killed by (i.e., partially tolerant to) norfloxacin was isolated and characterized. E. coli KL16 (norfloxacin MIC, 0.10 microgram/ml; MBC, 0.20 microgram/ml) was mutagenized with nitrosoguanidine and cyclically exposed to 3 micrograms of norfloxacin per ml. After five cycles, a bacterial strain (DS1) which was killed 1,000-fold less than KL16 during 3 h of drug exposure was isolated. The MIC and MBC of norfloxacin for DS1 were 0.20 and 1.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. Over a range of norfloxacin concentrations, DS1 was killed 2 to 4 orders of magnitude less than KL16. DS1 grew more slowly than KL16 but after normalization for growth rate was killed four times less rapidly than KL16 at drug concentrations 10-fold higher than respective MICs. DS1 and KL16 cells filamented similarly upon exposure to norfloxacin. DS1 exhibited tolerance to other DNA gyrase A subunit antagonists (ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) and DNA gyrase B subunit antagonists (novobiocin and coumermycin) but not to the aminoglycoside gentamicin, suggesting involvement of DNA gyrase. DS1 also appeared to be minimally tolerant to the beta-lactam cefoxitin. DS1 exhibited increased susceptibility to the mutagen methyl methanesulfonate, implying a defect in DNA repair. This report describes the first use of quinolone enrichment for isolation of a bacterial strain partially tolerant to quinolones. The study of defects in such tolerant strains offers an approach to an increased understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial killing by quinolones. PMID:2665642
Pianciola, L; D'Astek, B A; Mazzeo, M; Chinen, I; Masana, M; Rivas, M
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens associated with human diseases. In Argentina, O157:H7 is the dominant serotype in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases. Previously, we have described the almost exclusive circulation of human E. coli O157 strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 in Neuquén Province. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a broad molecular characterization, if this particular distribution of E. coli O157 clades in Neuquén is similar to the situation in other regions of the country and if it may be originated in a similar profile in cattle, its main reservoir. Two-hundred and eighty O157 strains (54 bovine and 226 human) isolated between 2006 and 2008 in different regions of Argentina were studied. All strains harbored rfbO157, fliCH7, eae, and ehxA genes. The predominant genotype was stx2a/stx2c in human (76.1%) and bovine (55.5%) strains. All human isolates tested by Lineage-Specific Polymorphism Assay (LSPA-6), were lineage I/II; among bovine strains, 94.1% belonged to lineage I/II and 5.9% to lineage I. No LSPA-6 lineage II isolates were detected. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has revealed the existence of nine clade phylogenetic groups. In our clinical strains collection, 87.6% belonged to the hypervirulent clade 8, and 12.4% were classified as clade 4/5. In bovine isolates, 59.3% strains were clade 8, 33.3% clade 4/5 and 7.4% clade 3. More than 80% of human strains showed the presence of 6 of the 7 virulence determinants described in the TW14359 O157 strain associated with the raw spinach outbreak in the U.S. in 2006. More than 80% of bovine strains showed the presence of 3 of these factors. The q933 allele, which has been related to high toxin production, was present in 98.2% of clinical strains and 75.9% of the bovine isolates. The molecular characterization of human STEC O157 strains allows us to conclude that the particular situation previously described
Moreno, Eva; Andreu, Antonia; Pigrau, Carles; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Johnson, James R.; Prats, Guillem
Previous epidemiological assessments of the prevalence versus special-pathogenicity hypothesis for urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis in women may have been confounded by underlying host population differences between women with UTI and healthy controls and have not considered the clonal complexity of the fecal Escherichia coli population of the host. In the present study, 42 women with acute uncomplicated cystitis served as their own controls for an analysis of the causative E. coli strain and the concurrent intestinal E. coli population. Clonality among the urine isolate and 30 fecal colonies per subject was assessed by repetitive-element PCR and macrorestriction analysis. Each unique clone underwent PCR-based phylotyping and virulence genotyping. Molecular analysis resolved 109 unique clones (4 urine-only, 38 urine-fecal, and 67 fecal-only clones). Urine clones exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of group B2 than fecal-only clones (69% versus 10%; P < 0.001) and higher aggregate virulence scores (mean, 6.2 versus 2.9; P < 0.001). In multilevel regression models for predicting urine clone status, significant positive predictors included group B2, 10 individual virulence traits, the aggregate virulence score, fecal dominance, relative fecal abundance, and (unique to the present study) a pauciclonal fecal sample. In summary, within the fecal E. coli populations of women with acute cystitis, pauciclonality, clonal dominance, virulence, and group B2 status are closely intertwined. Phylogenetic group B2 status and/or associated virulence factors may promote fecal abundance and pauciclonality, thereby contributing to upstream steps in UTI pathogenesis. This relationship suggests a possible reconciliation of the prevalence and special-pathogenicity hypotheses. PMID:18495863
Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Hannemann, Frank; Ringle, Michael; Khatri, Yogan; Bernhardt, Rita
Escherichia coli has developed into an attractive organism for heterologous cytochrome P450 production, but, in some cases, was restricted as a host in view of a screening of orphan cytochromes P450 or mutant libraries in the context of molecular evolution due to the formation of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor indole by the enzyme tryptophanase (TnaA). To overcome this effect, we disrupted the tnaA gene locus of E. coli C43(DE3) and evaluated the new strain for whole-cell substrate conversions with three indole-sensitive cytochromes P450, myxobacterial CYP264A1, and CYP109D1 as well as bovine steroidogenic CYP21A2. For purified CYP264A1 and CYP21A2, the half maximal inhibitory indole concentration was determined to be 140 and 500 μM, which is within the physiological concentration range occurring during cultivation of E. coli in complex medium. Biotransformations with C43(DE3)_∆tnaA achieved a 30% higher product formation in the case of CYP21A2 and an even fourfold increase with CYP264A1 compared with C43(DE3) cells. In whole-cell conversion based on CYP109D1, which converts indole to indigo, we could successfully avoid this reaction. Results in microplate format indicate that our newly designed strain is a suitable host for a fast and efficient screening of indole-influenced cytochromes P450 in complex medium. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Vassileva-Atanassova, A; Niwa, T; Mironova, R; Ivanov, I
Recombinant human interferon-gamma and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase I were isolated from two Escherichia coli strains, E. coli LE329 and E. coli XL1-blue and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ESI-MS analysis showed higher masses in comparison with the theoretically calculated for both proteins as well as unexpected molecular heterogeneity. The ESI-MS spectral patterns of the proteins depended on the host strain used and were more heterogenous for the proteins isolated from E. coli LE392. One of the proteins (human interferon-gamma obtained from E. coli XL1-blue) was further subjected to BrCN cleavage. The ESI-MS analysis of the polypeptide mixture revealed shift in the molecular mass for two peptides including the last 26 amino acids of the human interferon-gamma molecule.
Do, T N; Wilkie, I; Driesen, S J; Fahy, V A; Trott, D J
Preweaning colibacillosis is a major cause of economic loss to the swine industry in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to examine the enteropathogenicity of representative enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains obtained during an earlier epidemiologic survey conducted in five provinces in North Vietnam. This included isolates belonging to serotype O8 that produced heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins but did not produce any of the recognized fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18). In vitro hemagglutination (unique mannose-resistant hemagglutination activity with guinea pig, sheep, human, and chicken red blood cells at 37 degrees C, but not at 18 degrees C) and enterocyte brush border attachment assays suggested that the F- ETEC strains produced an unidentified colonization factor that promoted adherence to the intestinal epithelium. Colostrum-deprived 1-day-old piglets challenged with an F- strain (1-2 x 10(9) bacteria) developed acute watery diarrhea within 4 hours of inoculation and suffered up to 20% weight loss, with comparable severity to piglets challenged with conventional F4 and F5 strains. At necropsy, viable counts and histopathologic examination of intestinal sections demonstrated colonization of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum by F4-positive strains. In comparison, the F- and F5-positive strains attached exclusively to the ileum. Transmission electron micrographs of negatively stained F- cells grown at 37 degrees C demonstrated the presence of fimbriae. These results confirm the presence of a potentially new pathogenic ETEC fimbrial type in piggeries in Vietnam, with a unique hemagglutination property and attachment characteristics similar to ETEC bearing F5 fimbriae.
Porcheron, Gaëlle; Chanteloup, Nathalie Katy; Trotereau, Angélina; Brée, Annie; Schouler, Catherine
Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains cause many diseases in humans and animals. While remaining asymptomatic, they can colonize the intestine for subsequent extra-intestinal infection and dissemination in the environment. We have previously identified the fos locus, a gene cluster within a pathogenicity island of the avian ExPEC strain BEN2908, involved in the metabolism of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS). It is assumed that these sugars are metabolized by the probiotic bacteria of the microbiota present in the intestine, leading to a decrease in the pathogenic bacterial population. However, we have previously shown that scFOS metabolism helps BEN2908 to colonize the intestine, its reservoir. As the fos locus is located on a pathogenicity island, one aim of this study was to investigate a possible role of this locus in the virulence of the strain for chicken. We thus analysed fos gene expression in extracts of target organs of avian colibacillosis and performed a virulence assay in chickens. Moreover, in order to understand the involvement of the fos locus in intestinal colonization, we monitored the expression of fos genes and their implication in the growth ability of the strain in intestinal extracts of chicken. We also performed intestinal colonization assays in axenic and Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) chickens. We demonstrated that the fos locus is not involved in the virulence of BEN2908 for chickens and is strongly involved in axenic chicken cecal colonization both in vitro and in vivo. However, even if the presence of a microbiota does not inhibit the growth advantage of BEN2908 in ceca in vitro, overall, growth of the strain is not favoured in the ceca of SPF chickens. These findings indicate that scFOS metabolism by an ExPEC strain can contribute to its fitness in ceca but this benefit is fully dependent on the bacteria present in the microbiota. PMID:22514747
Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Kirsch, Franziska; Eitinger, Thomas
Biotin is an essential cofactor of carboxylase enzymes in all kingdoms of life. The vitamin is produced by many prokaryotes, certain fungi, and plants. Animals depend on biotin uptake from their diet and in humans lack of the vitamin is associated with serious disorders. Many aspects of biotin metabolism, uptake, and intracellular transport remain to be elucidated. In order to characterize the activity of novel biotin transporters by a sensitive assay, an Escherichia coli strain lacking both biotin synthesis and its endogenous high-affinity biotin importer was constructed. This strain requires artificially high biotin concentrations for growth. When only trace levels of biotin are available, it is viable only if equipped with a heterologous high-affinity biotin transporter. This feature was used to ascribe transport activity to members of the BioY protein family in previous work. Here we show that this strain together with its parent is also useful as a diagnostic tool for wide-concentration-range bioassays. PMID:24256712
Hinton, M.; Rixson, P. D.; Allen, V.; Linton, A. H.
Two groups of calves, one of three and the other of two animals, were purchased in markets and reared initially on a commercial veal unit for 1 month and 4 months respectively. They were then moved to the Veterinary School, Langford, and kept for a further 6 and 4 months respectively. The animals were sampled weekly and a continual turnover in the strains forming the majority Escherichia coli faecal flora was demonstrated for all calves. Antibacterial-drug resistance, as measured by an Antibiotic Resistance Index (ARI), increased after arrival on the veal unit and persisted at high levels during the whole of their stay. After moving to Langford the ARI fell. Initially there was a reduction in the average number of resistance determinants per resistant strain and then, after a delay of up to 8 weeks, by an increase in the proportion of isolates that were fully sensitive. The source of the sensitive strains was not ascertained, although their appearance was not associated specifically with either weaning or turning out to pasture. PMID:6392420
Shivak, Dylan J.; MacKenzie, Keith D.; Watson, Nikole L.; Pasternak, J. Alex; Jones, Brian D.; Wang, Yejun; DeVinney, Rebekah; Wilson, Heather L.; Surette, Michael G.
ABSTRACT Our goal was to develop a robust tagging method that can be used to track bacterial strains in vivo. To address this challenge, we adapted two existing systems: a modular plasmid-based reporter system (pCS26) that has been used for high-throughput gene expression studies in Salmonella and Escherichia coli and Tn7 transposition. We generated kanamycin- and chloramphenicol-resistant versions of pCS26 with bacterial luciferase, green fluorescent protein (GFP), and mCherry reporters under the control of σ70-dependent promoters to provide three different levels of constitutive expression. We improved upon the existing Tn7 system by modifying the delivery vector to accept pCS26 constructs and moving the transposase genes from a nonreplicating helper plasmid into a temperature-sensitive plasmid that can be conditionally maintained. This resulted in a 10- to 30-fold boost in transposase gene expression and transposition efficiencies of 10−8 to 10−10 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and E. coli APEC O1, whereas the existing Tn7 system yielded no successful transposition events. The new reporter strains displayed reproducible signaling in microwell plate assays, confocal microscopy, and in vivo animal infections. We have combined two flexible and complementary tools that can be used for a multitude of molecular biology applications within the Enterobacteriaceae. This system can accommodate new promoter-reporter combinations as they become available and can help to bridge the gap between modern, high-throughput technologies and classical molecular genetics. IMPORTANCE This article describes a flexible and efficient system for tagging bacterial strains. Using our modular plasmid system, a researcher can easily change the reporter type or the promoter driving expression and test the parameters of these new constructs in vitro. Selected constructs can then be stably integrated into the chromosomes of desired strains in two simple steps. We demonstrate the
Gonçalves, Geisa A L; Prather, Kristala L J; Monteiro, Gabriel A; Prazeres, Duarte M F
Plasmid-based vaccines and therapeutics have been making their way into the clinic in the last years. The existence of cost-effective manufacturing processes capable of delivering high amounts of high-quality plasmid DNA (pDNA) is essential to generate enough material for trials and support future commercialization. However, the development of pDNA manufacturing processes is often hampered by difficulties in predicting process scale performance of Escherichia coli cultivation on the basis of results obtained at lab scale. This paper reports on the differences observed in pDNA production when using shake flask and bench-scale bioreactor cultivation of E. coli strains MG1655ΔendAΔrecA and DH5α in complex media with 20 g/L of glucose. MG1655ΔendAΔrecA produced 5-fold more pDNA (9.8 mg/g DCW) in bioreactor than in shake flask (1.9 mg/g DCW) and DH5α produced 4-fold more pDNA (8 mg/g DCW) in bioreactor than in shake flask (2 mg/g DCW). Accumulation of acetate was also significant in shake flasks but not in bioreactors, a fact that was attributed to a lack of control of pH.
Burchhardt, G.; Ingram, L.O. )
A two-stage process was evaluated for the fermentation of polymeric feedstocks to ethanol by a single, genetically engineered microorganism. The truncated xylanase gene (xynZ) from the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum was fused with the N terminus of lacZ to eliminate secretory signals. This hybrid gene was expressed at high levels in ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli KO11 and Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1(pLOI555). Large amounts of xylanase (25 to 93 mU/mg of cell protein) accumulated as intracellular products during ethanol production. Cells containing xylanase for saccharification. After cooling, the hydrolysate was fermented to ethanol with the same organism (30C), thereby replenishing the supply of xylanase for a subsequent saccharification. Recombinant E. coli metabolized only xylose, while recombinant K. oxytoca M5A1 metabolized xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose but not xylotetrose. Derivatives of this latter organism produced large amounts of intracellular xylosidase, and the organism is presumed to transport both xylobiose and xylotriose for intracellular hydrolysis. By using recombinant M5A1, approximately 34% of the maximal theoretical yield of ethanol was obtained from xylan by this two-stage process. The yield appeared to be limited by the digestability of commercial xylan rather than by a lack of sufficient xylanase or by ethanol toxicity. In general form, this two-stage process, which uses a single, genetically engineered microorganism, should be applicable for the production of useful chemicals from a wide range of biomass polymers.
Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Wernicki, Andrzej
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress in in vitro conditions on the induction of heat-shock protein (Hsp)70 by Escherichia coli cells, and to determine the localization of Hsps in cell fractions. The material consisted of wild strains of E. coli isolated from the digestive tract of calves, suspended in an exponential-phase culture and subjected to 41.5 °C for 2 h. Individual fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Western blotting with mouse anti-Hsp70 and anti-Hsp60 mAbs was used to identify the proteins. Electrophoretic analysis of the heat-treated cells detected Hsp70 in all three fractions, cytoplasmic, periplasmic and membrane, which was confirmed by Western blotting. The proteins obtained had diverse localizations in the pH gradient in two-dimensional electrophoresis, which may indicate changes in their conformation and physical properties leading to stabilization and protection of intracellular structures in stress conditions. The presence of these Hsps in different cell fractions indicates a very strong protective adaptation in the bacteria in unfavourable conditions, which is critical for the organism infected by them.
Ranjbar, Reza; Pezeshknejad, Parichehr; Khamesipour, Faham; Amini, Kiumars; Kheiri, Roohollah
Consistent use of suitable diagnostic methods is essential to evaluate the genomic diversity of E. coli strains. Advance of efficient methods to discriminate the causes of E. coli in aquatic environments is important. This study aimed to describe the strain diversity of an E. coli population retrieved from surface water. One hundred water samples were drawn within a period of 1 year, from May 2012 to May 2013, and E. coli bacteria have been isolated from water samples. The genomic diversity analysis of 100 isolates of E. coli (one isolate per sample) has been carried out with the use of the ERIC-PCR fingerprinting method. Overall, our data indicated that complex fingerprint patterns have been obtained for totally of the isolates. Highest number of strains were in E4 (20 strains with more than 20% similarity) and lowest number of strains were in E3 (5 strains) group. In addition, there was no similarity in E1 (9 strains), E8 (10 strains) and E9 (7 strains) clusters. Therefore, the occurrence of potential pathogenic E. coli and diversity of E. coli strains in surface water in Alborz province, Iran could pose a possible risk to animal health and human if not disinfected well.
Lobos, Olga; Padilla, Carlos
Vaginal infections such as vulvovaginal candiadiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis are common worldwide. Accurate diagnosis and prescription of appropriate treatments are important since these infections are linked to adverse outcomes for women during pregnancy and for newborns. Several aetiological agents are responsible for these infectious diseases; however, the presence of Escherichia coli in these infections is controversial. Thus, it is important to identify some phenotypic and genotypic properties of E. coli strains isolated from vaginal infections. Forty-six E. coli strains isolated from vaginal fluid as the sole micro-organism, and 20 other E. coli strains isolated from other samples (urinary tract infections, otitis and septicaemia) were analysed by several phenotypic tests. In addition, genotypic features were studied by RAPD-PCR techniques. Biochemical tests showed that the E. coli strains isolated from vaginal fluid could be grouped into a single cluster which is subdivided into two phenogroups. Analysis of the dendrogram based on fragment length polymorphisms of genomic DNA indicated that E. coli isolates from vaginal infections form a single cluster with two subdivisions. Further studies are needed to analyse the molecular structure and virulence characteristics of these E. coli strains in order to determine their potential role in vaginal infections.
Uchida, Yujiro; Mochimaru, Tomomi; Morokuma, Yuiko; Kiyosuke, Makiko; Fujise, Masako; Eto, Fujiko; Eriguchi, Yoshihiro; Nagasaki, Yoji; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Kang, Dongchon
A significant problem in the field of infectious diseases is the increase in fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli. Although mutation of strains and clonal dissemination are supposed to be the cause of this increase, little is known about the prevalence of this organism. We investigated 219 FQ-resistant E. coli strains in Japan and nine Asian countries by serotyping and genotyping. Seventy-one strains (32.4%) were serogroup O25, which was prevalent in South Korea, China and Japan, especially in the southwest part of Japan. Aerobactin, a virulence factor in uropathogenic and avian pathogenic E. coli, was associated with the presence of FQ-resistant O25 strains of E. coli. Seven of the seventy-one FQ-resistant E. coli O25 had extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes (six CTX-M-14 and one SHV-12), however, we were unable to find any E. coli O25-ST131 clone that produced CTX-M-15, which was previously reported to have emerged across continents. These data demonstrate that a clonal group of FQ-resistant and virulent E. coli recently became prevalent at least in East Asia and suggest that this might become a public health problem because the strains may acquire resistance to other antimicrobial agents.
Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto
The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples. PMID:20153069
Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related serotype strains have previously been shown to vary in acid resistance, however, little is known about strain specific mechanisms of acid resistance. We examined sensitive and resistant E. coli strains to determine the effects of growth in minimal and...
Paniagua-Contreras, Gloria Luz; Hernández-Jaimes, Tania; Monroy-Pérez, Eric; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara; Uribe-García, Alina; Vaca, Sergio
In this study, we investigated distinct expression patterns of genes encoding iron-acquisition systems, adhesins, protectins, and toxins in human uroepithelial cells infected with 194 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains in vitro. We assessed the association of these genes with antibiotic resistance genes in this group of UPEC strains, previously characterised by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Strains were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from Unidad Médica Familiar de Salud Pública, located in Estado de México, México. Antibiotic resistance genes were identified by PCR, and the expression of virulence genes was detected by reverse-transcriptase-PCR after in vitro infection of cultured A431 human keratinocytes derived from a vulvar epidermoid carcinoma. The most frequently expressed virulence genotypes among the investigated UPEC strains included usp (68%), iha (64.9%), kpsMT (61.3%), fim (58.2%), irp2 (48.4), papC (33.5%), set (31.4%) and astA (30.9%), whereas the most frequently detected antibiotic resistance genes were tet(A) (34%), sul1 (31.4%) and TEM (26.3%). Furthermore, the most abundant pattern of gene expression (irp2/fim/iha/kpsMT/usp), associated with 8 different combinations of antibiotic resistance genotypes, was exhibited by 28 strains (14.4%). Taken together, these results indicate collective participation of distinct virulence UPEC genotypes during in vitro infection of cultured human epithelial cells, suggesting their potential involvement in UTI pathogenesis.
Förster, Andreas H; Beblawy, Sebastian; Golitsch, Frederik; Gescher, Johannes
This paper describes the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the anaerobic fermentation of glucose to acetoin. Acetoin has well-established applications in industrial food production and was suggested to be a platform chemical for a bio-based economy. However, the biotechnological production is often hampered by the simultaneous formation of several end products in the absence of an electron acceptor. Moreover, typical production strains are often potentially pathogenic. The goal of this study was to overcome these limitations by establishing an electrode-assisted fermentation process in E. coli. Here, the surplus of electrons released in the production process is transferred to an electrode as anoxic and non-depletable electron acceptor. In a first step, the central metabolism was steered towards the production of pyruvate from glucose by deletion of genes encoding for enzymes of central reactions of the anaerobic carbon metabolism (ΔfrdA-D ΔadhE ΔldhA Δpta-ack). Thereafter, the genes for the acetolactate synthase (alsS) and the acetolactate decarboxylase (alsD) were expressed in this strain from a plasmid. Addition of nitrate as electron acceptor led to an anaerobic acetoin production with a yield of up to 0.9 mol acetoin per mol of glucose consumed (90% of the theoretical maximum). In a second step, the electron acceptor nitrate was replaced by a carbon electrode. This interaction necessitated the further expression of c-type cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis and the addition of the soluble redox shuttle methylene blue. The interaction with the non-depletable electron acceptor led to an acetoin formation with a yield of 79% of the theoretical maximum (0.79 mol acetoin per mol glucose). Electrode-assisted fermentations are a new strategy to produce substances of biotechnological value that are more oxidized than the substrates. Here, we show for the first time a process in which the commonly used chassis strain E. coli was tailored for an
Abreu, Rossana; Castro, Beatriz; Espigares, Elena; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Cristobalina; Lecuona, María; Moreno, Elena; Espigares, Miguel; Arias, Angeles
The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in Escherichia coli strains isolated in healthy chickens at poultry farms in Tenerife, Spain. From November 2012 to February 2013, 260 live chickens were screened. Samples were cultured in chromogenic media. Suspect strains were identified by Vitek 2 system and ESBL production was confirmed by the double-disk synergy test. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed with XbaI (Promega, Madison, WI) to ESBL-E. coli isolates. The presence of CTX-M-type was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of 260 rectal swabs, 237 (91.1%) were ESBL-E. coli, 196 (75.38%) strains were characterized by PFGE, and CTX-M-type was detected in 116 (59.1%) of these strains. With respect to the susceptibility patterns of E. coli blaCTX-M strains, 7.8% showed resistance to more than two non-β-lactam antibiotics. In our area, the prevalence of CTX-M-type in E. coli isolated in chicken was even higher than those found in other countries. The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for ESBL-E. coli, especially CTX-M-type ESBL, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed.
Vading, M; Kabir, M H; Kalin, M; Iversen, A; Wiklund, S; Nauclér, P; Giske, C G
International travel is a risk factor for intestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE). This prospective cohort study focuses on molecular features of and risk factors for travel-acquired EPE. Rectal swabs and survey data were collected from 188 Swedes travelling to four regions of high EPE prevalence. Samples were plated onto selective agars. ESBL producers were determined using phenotypic methods. Molecular characterization regarding virulence factors and phylogenetic grouping of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was done using PCR. Isolates were also screened for the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1. Among 175 pre-travel EPE-negative participants, 32% were positive upon return. No carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found, but one CTX-M-producing E. coli harboured mcr-1 (travel to Thailand). Most E. coli strains (43.1%) belonged to phylogroup A and were rarely associated with extraintestinal infections and a few (9.2%) expressed uropathogenicity pap genes. During 10-26 months of follow-up, no clinical infections were observed. Colonization rates varied by visited region: the Indian subcontinent, 49.2%; northern Africa, 44.0%; South-East Asia, 19.1%; and Turkey, 9.5%. Travellers' diarrhoea (OR 2.5, P = 0.04) or antimicrobial treatment during the trip (OR 5.9, P = 0.02) were both independent risk factors for EPE colonization. EPE acquired during travel have seemingly low pathogenicity, possibly indicating a low risk of clinical infection. Pre-travel advice should emphasize avoiding unnecessary antibiotic treatment during travel. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Nagaraj, Sushma; Okeke, Iruka N; Rasko, David A
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid, pB171_90, has a completed sequence length of 90,229 bp, a GC content of 54.55%, and carries protein-encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer, resistance to tetracycline (tetA), sulfonamides (sulI), and mercury, as well as several virulence-associated genes, including the transcriptional regulator hha and the putative calcium sequestration inhibitor (csi). In silico detection of the pB171_90 genes among 4,798 publicly available E. coli genome assemblies indicates that the unique genes of pB171_90 (csi and traI) are primarily restricted to genomes identified as EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli However, conserved regions of the pB171_90 plasmid containing genes involved in replication, stability, and antibiotic resistance were identified among diverse E. coli pathotypes. Interestingly, pB171_90 also exhibited significant similarity with a sequenced plasmid from Shigella dysenteriae type I. Our findings demonstrate the mosaic nature of EPEC antibiotic resistance plasmids and highlight the need for additional sequence-based characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids harbored by pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Sienkiewicz, Monika; Kalemba, Danuta; Wasiela, Małgorzata
Strong antiseptic activity of plant essential oils and extracts has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils were tested against 30 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the both oils, from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia were active against all of the clinical strains, but thyme oil demonstrated the highest activity. Thyme and lavender essential oils were active against multi drug resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli genera. The results of experiments justify a study related to activity other essential oils against different genus of bacteria.
HOANG, Phuong Hoai; AWASTHI, Sharda Prasad; DO NGUYEN, Phuc; NGUYEN, Ngan Ly Hoang; NGUYEN, Dao Thi Anh; LE, Ninh Hoang; VAN DANG, Chinh; HINENOYA, Atsushi; YAMASAKI, Shinji
In this study, we attempted to isolate Escherichia coli from healthy adults in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and characterized its antimicrobial resistance profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, phylogenetic grouping and virulence gene profile. A total of 103 E. coli isolates were obtained, and most of them were antimicrobial resistant such to streptomycin (80.6%), tetracycline (67.0%), ampicillin (65.0%), sulfamethoxsazole/trimethoprim (48.5%), nalidixic acid (43.7%), chloramphenicol (34.0%), cefotaxime (15.5%), ciprofloxacin (15.5%), kanamycin (12.6%), ceftazidime (10.7%), fosfomycin (4.9%) and gentamicin (2.9%). However, all these E. coli strains were susceptible to imipenem. Surprisingly, of 103 strains, 74 (71.8%) and 43 (41.7%) strains showed resistance to more than 3 and 5 classes of antimicrobials, respectively. Furthermore, 10 E. coli strains were ESBL-producers and positive for blaCTX-M genes (7 for blaCTX-M-9 and 3 for blaCTX-M-1), while five were additionally positive for blaTEM genes. S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 7 and 3 strains of E. coli carry blaCTX-M genes on their large plasmid and chromosome, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis exhibited that majority of the E. coli strains was grouped into A (44.7%), followed by B1 (23.3%), B2 (18.4%) and D (13.6%). Virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli, such as astA, EAF, eaeA, elt and eagg were also detected in ESBL-producing E. coli as well as antimicrobial resistant strains. These data suggest that commensal E. coli of healthy human could be a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance determinants and some of them might be harmful to human. PMID:28123141
Hoang, Phuong Hoai; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; DO Nguyen, Phuc; Nguyen, Ngan Ly Hoang; Nguyen, Dao Thi Anh; LE, Ninh Hoang; VAN Dang, Chinh; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji
In this study, we attempted to isolate Escherichia coli from healthy adults in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and characterized its antimicrobial resistance profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, phylogenetic grouping and virulence gene profile. A total of 103 E. coli isolates were obtained, and most of them were antimicrobial resistant such to streptomycin (80.6%), tetracycline (67.0%), ampicillin (65.0%), sulfamethoxsazole/trimethoprim (48.5%), nalidixic acid (43.7%), chloramphenicol (34.0%), cefotaxime (15.5%), ciprofloxacin (15.5%), kanamycin (12.6%), ceftazidime (10.7%), fosfomycin (4.9%) and gentamicin (2.9%). However, all these E. coli strains were susceptible to imipenem. Surprisingly, of 103 strains, 74 (71.8%) and 43 (41.7%) strains showed resistance to more than 3 and 5 classes of antimicrobials, respectively. Furthermore, 10 E. coli strains were ESBL-producers and positive for blaCTX-M genes (7 for blaCTX-M-9 and 3 for blaCTX-M-1), while five were additionally positive for blaTEM genes. S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 7 and 3 strains of E. coli carry blaCTX-M genes on their large plasmid and chromosome, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis exhibited that majority of the E. coli strains was grouped into A (44.7%), followed by B1 (23.3%), B2 (18.4%) and D (13.6%). Virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli, such as astA, EAF, eaeA, elt and eagg were also detected in ESBL-producing E. coli as well as antimicrobial resistant strains. These data suggest that commensal E. coli of healthy human could be a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance determinants and some of them might be harmful to human.
Maria-Neto, Simone; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Rodrigues, Diana Ribas; de Sousa, Daniel Amaro; da Silva, Ezequiel Marcelino; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo de Jesus; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Dias, Simoni Campos
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective antibiotic agents commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms, and they have been suggested as the future of antimicrobial chemotherapies. It is vital to understand the molecular details that define the mechanism of action of resistance to AMPs for a rational planning of the next antibiotic generation and also to shed some light on the complex AMP mechanism of action. Here, the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 to magainin I was evaluated in the cytosolic subproteome. Magainin-resistant strains were selected after 10 subsequent spreads at subinhibitory concentrations of magainin I (37.5 mg · liter−1), and their cytosolic proteomes were further compared to those of magainin-susceptible strains through two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis. As a result, 41 differentially expressed proteins were detected by in silico analysis and further identified by tandem mass spectrometry de novo sequencing. Functional categorization indicated an intense metabolic response mainly in energy and nitrogen uptake, stress response, amino acid conversion, and cell wall thickness. Indeed, data reported here show that resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides possesses a greater molecular complexity than previously supposed, resulting in cell commitment to several metabolic pathways. PMID:22290970
Yamamura, E; Nunoshiba, T; Kawata, M; Yamamoto, K
Escherichia coli K-12 strain EY5, deficient in oxyR, was constructed to assess the role of oxyR and oxyR-regulated regulon in spontaneous mutagenesis. Mutagenesis was monitored by selecting two forward mutations of colicin B-sensitive to resistance and valine-sensitive to resistance, one base substitution mutation of rifampicin-sensitive to resistance and one reversion of argE3 his-4 to Arg(+) His(+). Deficiency of oxyR did not lead to the enhancement of spontaneous mutation frequencies of the four markers tested. By DNA sequence analysis, we determined 49 colicin B-resistant mutants derived from EY5 and found that 37% were base substitutions, 29% IS element insertions, 20% deletions, and 14% single base frameshifts. Among the base substitutions, G:C-->T:A transversions predominated followed by G:C-->A:T transitions and A:T-->T:A transversions. These spectra were essentially the same as those from oxyR(+) strains. The results indicate that oxyR and oxyR-regulated genes do not play a significant role in the defense against spontaneous mutagenesis.
Wang, Rong; Kalchayanand, Norasak; King, David A; Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Arthur, Terrance M
In the meat industry, a "high event period" (HEP) is defined as a time period during which commercial meat plants experience a higher than usual rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination. Genetic analysis indicated that within a HEP, most of the E. coli O157:H7 strains belong to a singular dominant strain type. This was in disagreement with the current beef contamination model stating that contamination occurs when incoming pathogen load on animal hides, which consists of diverse strain types of E. coli O157:H7, exceeds the intervention capacity. Thus, we hypothesize that the HEP contamination may be due to certain in-plant colonized E. coli O157:H7 strains that are better able to survive sanitization through biofilm formation. To test our hypothesis, a collection of 45 E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from HEP beef contamination incidents and a panel of 47 E. coli O157:H7 strains of diverse genetic backgrounds were compared for biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance. Biofilm formation was tested on 96-well polystyrene plates for 1 to 6 days. Biofilm cell survival and recovery growth after sanitization were compared between the two strain collections using common sanitizers, including quaternary ammonium chloride, chlorine, and sodium chlorite. No difference in "early stage" biofilms was observed between the two strain collections after incubation at 22 to 25°C for 1 or 2 days. However, the HEP strains demonstrated significantly higher potency of "mature" biofilm formation after incubation for 4 to 6 days. Biofilms of the HEP strains also exhibited significantly stronger resistance to sanitization. These data suggest that biofilm formation and sanitization resistance could have a role in HEP beef contamination by E. coli O157:H7, which highlights the importance of proper and complete sanitization of food contact surfaces and food processing equipment in commercial meat plants.
Enow, Constance Oben Ayuk; Oscarsson, Jan; Zlatkov, Nikola; Westermark, Marie; Duperthuy, Marylise; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric
Analysis of the Escherichia coli collection of reference strains (ECOR) for the presence of the gene locus clyA, which encodes the pore-forming protein ClyA (cytolysin A), revealed that a non-functional clyA locus is common among certain extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). In fact, all 15 ECOR group B2 strains and several additionally examined extraintestinal pathogenic (uropathogenic (UPEC) and neonatal meningitis (NBM)) E. coli strains contained various ΔclyA alleles. There are at least four different variants of ΔclyA, suggesting that such deletions in clyA have arisen at more than one occasion. On the basis of this occurrence of the truncated clyA genes, we considered that there may be a patho-adaptive selection for deletions in clyA in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In E. coli K-12 the clyA gene has been viewed as "cryptic" since it is tightly silenced by the nucleoid structuring protein H-NS. We constructed a restored clyA+ locus in derivatives of the UPEC strain 536 for further investigation of this hypothesis and, in particular, how the gene would be expressed. Our results show that the level of clyA+ expression is highly increased in the UPEC derivatives in comparison with the non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. Transcription of the clyA+ gene was induced to even higher levels when the SfaX regulatory protein was overproduced. The derivative with a restored clyA+ locus displayed a somewhat slower growth than the parental UPEC strain 536 when a sub-inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial peptide Polymyxin B was added to the growth medium. Taken together, our findings show that the clyA+ locus is expressed at an elevated level in the UPEC strain and we conclude that this is at least in part due to the effect of the SfaX/PapX transcriptional regulators.
Background Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in developing areas of Brazil. The importance of Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in these areas was unknown. This study determined the prevalence of different E. coli categories in symptomatic and asymptomatic children from low socioeconomic level rural communities in southeastern Brazil. Methods A total of 560 stool samples were collected from 141 children with diarrhea (< 10 years) and 419 apparently healthy controls who resided in 23 communities. E. coli isolates (n = 1943) were subjected to two multiplex PCRs developed for the detection of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Strains were also examined for the presence of EPEC, EAEC, and DAEC by assays of adhesion to HEp-2 cells and by hybridization with specific DNA probes. Results Diarrheagenic E. coli strains were isolated from 253 (45.2%) children, and were associated with diarrhea in children aged < 5 years (p < 0.001). EAEC (20.9%), DAEC (11.6%), EPEC (9.3%) were the most frequent pathotypes, followed by ETEC (2.7%), EIEC (0.5%), and STEC (0.2%). Depending of the assay, EPEC, EAEC, and DAEC (collectively termed enteroadherent E. coli) strains were isolated in 45% to 56% of diarrhea cases, a significantly higher incidence than in controls (P < 0.05). Individually, only DAEC showed significant association with diarrhea (p < 0.05), particularly in children aged 2–5 years. Conclusion This study indicates that enteroadherent E. coli is an important cause of diarrhea in children living in low socioeconomic level communities in southeastern Brazil. Our results reveal that the PCR1 assay is an excellent tool for the identification of EAEC and DAEC. PMID:24010735
Crichton, Pamela B.; Ip, S. M.; Old, D. C.
Tests for the presence of mannose-sensitive and mannose-resistant, eluting hemagglutinins and fimbriae were helpful in indicating whether biochemically atypical strains of the tribe Escherichieae might be escherichiae or shigellae. PMID:7334072
Chalopin, T; Brissonnet, Y; Sivignon, A; Deniaud, D; Cremet, L; Barnich, N; Bouckaert, J; Gouin, S G
Mono- and polyvalent ligands with strong affinities for the mannose-binding adhesin FimH were synthesised, and their anti-adhesive properties against ten E. coli strains were compared in two cell-based assays. The compounds were assessed against the non-pathogenic E. coli K12 and nine strains isolated by coproculture or from patients with osteoarticular infections (OIs), Crohn's disease (CD) and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The results showed that the compounds could inhibit the whole set of bacterial strains but with marked differences in terms of effective concentrations. The relative inhibitory potency of the monovalent compounds was also conserved for the ten strains and in the two assays. These results clearly suggest that a potent monovalent anti-adhesive assessed on a single E. coli strain will probably be effective on a broad range of strains and may treat diverse E. coli infections (OIs, CD and UTIs). In contrast, the polyvalent compounds showed a significant strain-dependancy in preventing E. coli attachment to intestinal cells. The multivalent antiadhesive effect may therefore vary depending on the E. coli strain tested.
Sengupta, Chirantana; Ekka, Manjula; Arora, Saurabh; Dhaware, Prashant D; Chowdhury, Rukhsana; Raychaudhuri, Saumya
Vibrio cholerae converts glucose into either acid or the neutral end product acetoin and its survival in carbohydrate enriched media is linked to the nature of the byproducts produced. It has been demonstrated in this study that Escherichia coli strain isolated from the gut of healthy human volunteers and the commonly used probiotic E. coli Nissle strain that metabolize glucose to acidic byproducts drastically reduce the survival of V. cholerae strains irrespective of their glucose sensitivity and acetoin production status. Accordingly, E. coli glucose transport mutants that produce lower amounts of acidic metabolites had little effect on the survival of V. cholerae in cocultures. Thus, cross feeding of byproducts of glucose metabolism by heterologous bacteria modulates the survival of V. cholerae in glucose rich medium suggesting that composition of the gut microbiota could influence the outcome of V. cholerae infection especially when glucose based ORS is administered.
da Silva, Ketrin Cristina; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Cerdeira, Louise; de Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Xavier; de Oliveira, Mirela Caroline Vilela; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Lincopan, Nilton; Knöbl, Terezinha; Moreno, Andrea Micke
This study reports the high-virulence phylogenetic backgrounds of CMY-2- and CTX-M-2-producing avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from turkeys sent to slaughter and condemned by airsacculitis in Brazil. Among 300 air sac samples, seven E. coli strains produced plasmid-mediated CMY-2-type AmpC, of which three carried also the blaCTX-M-2 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase encoding gene. Interestingly, the transfer of the blaCMY-2 gene was positive for three E. coli strains, being associated with the presence of IncI1 plasmids. The complete sequence of the representative pJB10 plasmid revealed that the blaCMY-2 gene was within a transposon-like element in the classical genetic environment consisting of tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE structure. This plasmid with 94-kb belonged to the sequence type (ST) 12 among IncI1 plasmids, which has been associated with the worldwide spread of blaCMY-2 among Salmonella enterica and E. coli. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequence of a CMY-2-encoding plasmid derived from an Escherichia coli isolated from food-producing animals in Latin America.
Széliová, Diana; Krahulec, Ján; Šafránek, Martin; Lišková, Veronika; Turňa, Ján
Promoter PBAD is frequently used for heterologous gene expression due to several advantages, such as moderately high expression levels, induction by an inexpensive and non-toxic monosaccharide L-arabinose and tight regulation of transcription, which is particularly important for expression of toxic proteins. A drawback of this promoter is all-or-none induction that occurs at subsaturating inducer concentrations. Although the overall expression level of the cell culture seems to correlate with increasing arabinose concentrations, the population is a mixture of induced and uninduced cells and with increasing arabinose concentrations, only the fraction of induced cells increases. This phenomenon is caused by autocatalytic gene expression - the expression of the arabinose transporter AraE is induced by the transported molecule. In this work the promoter PE, controlling the expression of araE, was exchanged for the stronger PBAD promoter in two Escherichia coli strains commonly used for heterologous protein production. This modification should increase a basal number of arabinose transporters in the cell wall and reduce the threshold concentration required for induction and thus reduce heterogeneity of cell population. Heterogeneity and level of expression in individual cells were analysed by flow cytometry using gfp as a reporter gene. In the strain BL21ai, the promoter exchange increased the number of induced cells at subsaturating arabinose concentrations as well as a yield of protein at saturating inducer concentration. In contrast, the modification did not improve these characteristics in RV308ai. In both strains it was possible to modulate the expression level in induced cells 3-6-fold even at subsaturating arabinose concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne; Répérant, Maryline; Laurent, Sylvie; Brée, Annie; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Germon, Pierre; Rasschaert, Denis; Schouler, Catherine
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of human and avian origin show similarities that suggest that the avian strains potentially have zoonotic properties. However, the phylogenetic relationships between avian and human ExPEC strains are poorly documented, so this possibility is difficult to assess. We used PCR-based phylotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the phylogenetic relationships between 39 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains of serogroups O1, O2, O18, and O78 and 51 human ExPEC strains. We also compared the virulence genotype and pathogenicity for chickens of APEC strains and human ExPEC strains. Twenty-eight of the 30 APEC strains of serogroups O1, O2, and O18 were classified by MLST into the same subcluster (B2-1) of phylogenetic group B2, whereas the 9 APEC strains of serogroup O78 were in phylogenetic groups D (3 strains) and B1 (6 strains). Human ExPEC strains were closely related to APEC strains in each of these three subclusters. The 28 avian and 25 human strains belonging to phylogenetic subcluster B2-1 all expressed the K1 antigen and presented no significant differences concerning the presence of other virulence factors. Moreover, human strains of this phylogenetic subcluster were highly virulent for chicks, so no host specificity was identified. Thus, APEC strains of serotypes O1:K1, O2:K1, and O18:K1 belong to the same highly pathogenic clonal group as human E. coli strains of the same serotypes isolated from cases of neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, and septicemia. These APEC strains constitute a potential zoonotic risk. PMID:17652485
Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Calo-Mata, P; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M
The presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 55 samples of organic poultry meat and in 61 samples of conventional poultry meat. A total of 220 E. coli, 192 S. aureus, and 71 L. monocytogenes strains were analyzed by an agar disk diffusion assay for their resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole (E. coli); chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, oxacillin, and sulfisoxazole (S. aureus); and chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin (L. monocytogenes). The results indicated a significantly higher (P < 0.0001) prevalence of E. coli but not of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes in organic poultry meat as compared with conventional poultry meat. E. coli isolated from organic poultry meat exhibited lower levels of antimicrobial resistance against 7 of the 10 antimicrobials tested as compared with isolates recovered from conventional meat. In the case of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes isolated from conventional poultry, antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher only for doxycycline as compared with strains isolated from organic poultry. In the case of E. coli, the presence of multiresistant strains was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in conventional poultry meat as compared with organic poultry meat. Organically farmed poultry samples showed significantly lower development of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal bacteria such as E. coli.
Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem
The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments.
Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem
The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments. PMID:24977173
Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Milk is the environment in which bacteria must grow to establish an infection of the mammary gland. However, milk is not a rich growth media for bacteria. In fact, milk naturally contains many mechanisms to inhibit bacterial ...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen of major public health concern that results in considerable intestinal and extra-intestinal illness in humans. Asymptomatic cattle are the primary reservoir of O157 and harbor the pathogen at the terminal recto-an...
Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 PA20 is a Pennsylvania Department of Health clinical isolate. It has been used to study biofilm formation in O157:H7 clinical isolates where the high incidence of prophage insertions in the mlrA transcription factor disrupts traditional csgD biofilm regulation. Here...
Lignocellulosic biomass, upon pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, generates a mixture of hexose and pentose sugars such as glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. Escherichia coli utilizes all these sugars well but it lacks the ability to produce ethanol from them. Recombinant ethanologenic E...
Botkin, Douglas J.; Galli, Lucía; Sankarapani, Vinoth; Soler, Michael; Rivas, Marta; Torres, Alfredo G.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains are enteric pathogens associated with food safety threats and which remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current study, we investigated whether enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains can be rapidly and specifically differentiated with multiplex PCR (mPCR) utilizing selected biomarkers associated with each strain’s respective virulence genotype. Primers were designed to amplify multiple intimin (eae) and long polar fimbriae (lpfA) variants, the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA, and the Shiga toxin-encoding genes stx1 and stx2. We demonstrated consistent amplification of genes specific to the prototype EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 (lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, stx1, stx2, and eae-γ) and EPEC O127:H6 E2348/69 (eae-α, lpfA1-1, and bfpA) strains using the optimized mPCR protocol with purified genomic DNA (gDNA). A screen of gDNA from isolates in a diarrheagenic E. coli collection revealed that the mPCR assay was successful in predicting the correct pathotype of EPEC and EHEC clones grouped in the distinctive phylogenetic disease clusters EPEC1 and EHEC1, and was able to differentiate EHEC1 from EHEC2 clusters. The assay detection threshold was 2 × 104 CFU per PCR reaction for EHEC and EPEC. mPCR was also used to screen Argentinean clinical samples from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrheal patients, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity when compared to established molecular diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, our mPCR methodology permitted differentiation of EPEC, STEC and EHEC strains from other pathogenic E. coli; therefore, the assay becomes an additional tool for rapid diagnosis of these organisms. PMID:22919600
Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam
Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) blaTEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the blaTEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran. PMID:26664394
Waldhuber, Anna; Puthia, Manoj; Wieser, Andreas; Cirl, Christine; Dürr, Susanne; Neumann-Pfeifer, Silke; Albrecht, Simone; Römmler, Franziska; Müller, Tina; Zheng, Yunji; Schubert, Sören; Groß, Olaf; Svanborg, Catharina
Successful bacterial pathogens produce an array of virulence factors that allow subversion of the immune system and persistence within the host. For example, uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, such as CFT073, express Toll/IL-1 receptor–containing (TIR-containing) protein C (TcpC), which impairs TLR signaling, thereby suppressing innate immunity in the urinary tract and enhancing persistence in the kidneys. Here, we have reported that TcpC also reduces secretion of IL-1β by directly interacting with the NACHT leucin-rich repeat PYD protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is crucial for recognition of pathogens within the cytosol. At a low MOI, IL-1β secretion was minimal in CFT073-infected macrophages; however, IL-1β release was markedly increased in macrophages infected with CFT073 lacking tcpC. Induction of IL-1β secretion by CFT073 and tcpC–deficient CFT073 required the NLRP3 inflammasome. TcpC attenuated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by binding both NLRP3 and caspase-1 and thereby preventing processing and activation of caspase-1. Moreover, in a murine urinary tract infection model, CFT073 infection rapidly induced expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the bladder mucosa; however, the presence of TcpC in WT CFT073 reduced IL-1β levels in the urine of infected mice. Together, these findings illustrate how uropathogenic E. coli use the multifunctional virulence factor TcpC to attenuate innate immune responses in the urinary tract. PMID:27214553
Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz
This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638
Lara, Valéria Maria; Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz
This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1)), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2909 μg mL(-1)), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 4800 μg mL(-1)) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL(-1). Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.
Frey, Kay M.; Oppermann-Sanio, Fred B.; Schmidt, Holger; Steinbüchel, Alexander
By the use of Escherichia coli DH1 harboring cphA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803, large-scale production of cyanophycin at 30- and 500-liter culture volumes was established. Transcription of cphA was controlled by the thermosensitive cI857 repressor, which enabled induction of cphA by a simple temperature shift in the culture fluid. Maximum cyanophycin cell content of up to 24% (wt/wt) of cellular dry matter was obtained by induction in the early exponential growth phase and cultivation of the cells in terrific broth complex medium. Synthesis of cyanophycin was found to be strongly dependent on the presence of complex components, and in mineral salts medium the cells synthesized and accumulated cyanophycin only if Casamino Acids were added. Cultivations were done at the 500-liter scale, allowing the provision of cell mass for the preparation of cyanophycin at the kilogram scale. Isolation of cyanophycin was achieved by a new acid extraction procedure which allowed large-scale purification of the polyamide from whole cells. PMID:12089018
Holah, J T; Taylor, J H; Dawson, D J; Hall, K E
The aims of the project were threefold: to survey the use of disinfectants in the UK food industry; to assess the product and environmental microflora of selected food factories for the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli; and to determine the disinfectant resistance of any persistent strains. A survey of the use of disinfectants in the UK food industry was undertaken in which a total of 40 sites were visited and a further 77 postal questionnaires were returned from farms, food manufacture, food transport and food retail sites. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were predominantly used, applied in small volumes as a mist. Approximately 30,000 samples from the product and environment of five chilled food factories were examined for L. monocytogenes and E. coli over a 3 year period. A total of 181 L. monocytogenes and 176 E. coli isolates were ribotyped to yield 19 and 34 ribogroups, respectively. Some strains were isolated only from the product, a number only from the environment and others from both niches. Some strains were seen to be persistent for the duration of the sampling exercise (2-3 years). The most common L. monocytogenes and E. coli strains, together with two environmental L. monocytogenes strains, were assessed for any resistance to commercial disinfectants as compared with a laboratory L. monocytogenes disinfectant testing strain. The resistance of the L. monocytogenes and E. coli strains isolated from the factory were not significantly different from the laboratory control strain. Persistent strains of L. monocytogenes and E. coli are found in the UK food industry, though this persistence is not related to their increased susceptibility to the most commonly used disinfectants. The concept of a persistent microflora in food factories will have an impact on the future selection of suitable control options, including the use of biocides.
Bidet, Philippe; Metais, Arnaud; Mahjoub-Messai, Farah; Durand, Lionel; Dehem, Marie; Aujard, Yannick; Bingen, Edouard; Nassif, Xavier; Bonacorsi, Stéphane
Closely related Escherichia coli B2 strains O1:K1, O2:K1, O18:K1, and O45:K1 constitute a major subgroup causing extraintestinal infections. A DNA pathoarray analysis was used to develop a PCR specific for this subgroup that was included in the multiplex phylogenetic-grouping PCR method. Our PCR may serve to identify this virulent subgroup among different ecological niches.
Schamber, Jason L.
In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.
Rosano, C L; Bunce, S C; Hurwitz, C
At 5 mM Mg2+, spermidine stimulation of polyphenylalanine synthesis by cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli was found to be about 30 times greater than that by extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim, a unique organism which lacks detectable levels of spermidine. By means of reconstitution experiments, the target of spermidine stimulation was localized to the protein fraction of the highspeed supernatant component (S-100) of E. coli and was absent from, or deficient in, the S-100 fraction of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim. The spermidine stimulation did not appear to be due to the presence in the E. coli S-100 fraction of ribosomal protein S1, elongation factors, or E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The failure to observe spermidine stimulation by the Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim S-100 fraction was also not due to a spermidine-enhanced polyuridylic acid degradation. The synthesis of polyphenylalanine by Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was stimulated by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine to a greater degree than was synthesis by E. coli extracts. The enhancement by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine with Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was found to be due to effects on its ribosomes. PMID:6336736
Kashiwagi, Akiko; Kitamura, Hikari; Sano Tsushima, Fumie
Bacteria and virulent bacteriophages are in a prey-predator relationship. Experimental models under simplified conditions with the presence of bacteria and bacteriophages have been used to elucidate the mechanisms that have enabled both prey and predator to coexist over long periods. In experimental coevolution conducted with Escherichia coli and the virulent RNA bacteriophage Qβ in serial transfer, both coexisted for at least for 54 days, during which time they continued to change genetically and phenotypically. By day 16, an E. coli strain partially resistant to Qβ appeared and caused an approximately 10(4)-fold decrease in Qβ amplification. Whole-genome analysis of this strain suggested that a single mutation in TraQ was responsible for the partially resistant phenotype. TraQ interacts with propilin, encoded by the traA gene and a precursor of pilin, which is a component of the F pilus. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the coexistence of E. coli and Qβ by investigating how a mutation in TraQ altered the physiological state of E. coli, and thus the amplification of Qβ. Overexpression of wild-type TraQ in the partially resistant E. coli strain resulted in recovery of both TraA protein content, including propilin and pilin, and Qβ amplification to levels comparable to those observed in the susceptible strain. Intriguingly, overexpression of the mutant TraQ in the partially resistant strains also increased the levels of TraA protein and Qβ amplification, but these increases were smaller than those observed in the wild-type strain or the partially resistant strain expressing wild-type TraQ. The results of this study represent an example of how E. coli can become partially resistant to RNA bacteriophage infection via changes in a protein involved in maturation of a receptor rather than in the receptor itself and of how E. coli can stably coexist with virulent RNA bacteriophages.
Wohlgemuth, Steffen; Haller, Dirk; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar
Commensal bacteria play a role in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). High intestinal numbers of Escherichia coli in IBD patients suggest a role of this organism in the initiation or progression of chronic gut inflammation. In addition, some E. coli genotypes are more frequently detected in IBD patients than others. We aimed to find out whether gut inflammation in an IBD mouse model is associated with a particular E. coli strain. Intestinal contents and tissue material were taken from 1-, 8-, 16- and 24-week-old interleukin 10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice and the respective wild-type animals. Caecal and colonic inflammation was observed in IL-10(-/-) animals from the 8 weeks of life on accompanied by a lower intestinal microbial diversity than in the respective wild-type animals. Culture- based and molecular approaches revealed that animals with gut inflammation harboured significantly higher numbers of E. coli than healthy controls. Phylogenetic grouping according to the E. coli Reference Collection (ECOR) system and strain typing by random-amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that all mice were colonized by one single E. coli strain. The strain was shown to have the O7:H7:K1 serotype and to belong to the virulence-associated phylogenetic group B2. In a co-association experiment with gnotobiotic mice, the strain outnumbered E. coli ECOR strains belonging to the phylogenetic group A and B2 respectively. A high number of virulence- and fitness-associated genes were detected in the strain's genome possibly involved in the bacterial adaptation to the murine intestine.
Jeon, Soo Jin; Cunha, Federico; Ginn, Amber; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli is involved in the pathogenicity of metritis in cows. We report here the genome sequences of E. coli strains isolated at calving from the uterus, vagina, vulva, and rectoanal junction of a dairy cow that later developed metritis. The genomic similarities will give an insight into phylogenetic relationships among strains. PMID:28302783
Horcajo, Pilar; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Carrión, Javier; De La Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A.; Orden, José A.
Differences in the pathogenicity of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains may be due, at least partially, to different expression patterns of some virulence genes. To investigate this hypothesis, the virulence gene expression patterns of 6 atypical EPEC strains isolated from healthy and diarrheic ruminants were compared using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after growing the bacteria in culture medium alone or after binding it to HeLa epithelial cells. Some virulence genes in strains from diarrheic animals were upregulated relative to their expression in strains from healthy animals. When bacteria were cultured in the presence of HeLa cells, the ehxA and efa1/lifA genes, previously associated with the production of diarrhea, were expressed at higher levels in strains from diarrheic animals than in strains from healthy animals. Thus, the expression levels of some virulence genes may help determine which atypical EPEC strains cause diarrhea in ruminants. PMID:24082409
Horcajo, Pilar; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Carrión, Javier; De La Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Orden, José A
Differences in the pathogenicity of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains may be due, at least partially, to different expression patterns of some virulence genes. To investigate this hypothesis, the virulence gene expression patterns of 6 atypical EPEC strains isolated from healthy and diarrheic ruminants were compared using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after growing the bacteria in culture medium alone or after binding it to HeLa epithelial cells. Some virulence genes in strains from diarrheic animals were upregulated relative to their expression in strains from healthy animals. When bacteria were cultured in the presence of HeLa cells, the ehxA and efa1/lifA genes, previously associated with the production of diarrhea, were expressed at higher levels in strains from diarrheic animals than in strains from healthy animals. Thus, the expression levels of some virulence genes may help determine which atypical EPEC strains cause diarrhea in ruminants.
Transcription of the Escherichia coli biotin (bio) operon is directly regulated by the biotin protein ligase BirA, the enzyme that covalently attaches biotin to its cognate acceptor proteins. Binding of BirA to the bio operator requires dimerization of the protein, which is triggered by BirA-catalyzed synthesis of biotinoyl-adenylate (biotinoyl-5′-AMP), the obligatory intermediate of the ligation reaction. Although several aspects of this regulatory system are well understood, no BirA superrepressor mutant strains had been isolated. Such superrepressor BirA proteins would repress the biotin operon transcription in vivo at biotin concentrations well below those needed for repression by wild-type BirA. We isolated mutant strains having this phenotype by a combined selection-screening approach and resolved multiple mutations to give several birA superrepressor alleles, each having a single mutation, all of which showed repression dominant over that of the wild-type allele. All of these mutant strains repressed bio operon transcription in vivo at biotin concentrations that gave derepression of the wild-type strain and retained sufficient ligation activity for growth when overexpressed. All of the strains except that encoding G154D BirA showed derepression of bio operon transcription upon overproduction of a biotin-accepting protein. In BirA, G154D was a lethal mutation in single copy, and the purified protein was unable to transfer biotin from enzyme-bound biotinoyl-adenylate either to the natural acceptor protein or to a biotin-accepting peptide sequence. Consistent with the transcriptional repression data, each of the purified mutant proteins showed increased affinity for the biotin operator DNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Surprisingly, although most of the mutations were located in the catalytic domain, all of those tested, except G154D BirA, had normal ligase activity. Most of the mutations that gave superrepressor phenotypes altered residues
Koch, Doreen; Chan, Anson C. K.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Lilie, Hauke; Grass, Gregor; Nies, Dietrich H.
In the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11, in silico genome analysis revealed the dicistronic iron uptake operon fetMP, which is under iron-regulated control mediated by the Fur regulator. The expression of fetMP in a mutant strain lacking known iron uptake systems improved growth under iron depletion and increased cellular iron accumulation. FetM is a member of the iron/lead transporter superfamily and is essential for iron uptake by the Fet system. FetP is a periplasmic protein that enhanced iron uptake by FetM. Recombinant FetP bound Cu(II) and the iron analog Mn(II) at distinct sites. The crystal structure of the FetP dimer reveals a copper site in each FetP subunit that adopts two conformations: CuA with a tetrahedral geometry composed of His44, Met90, His97, and His127, and CuB, a second degenerate octahedral geometry with the addition of Glu46. The copper ions of each site occupy distinct positions and are separated by ∼1.3 Å. Nearby, a putative additional Cu(I) binding site is proposed as an electron source that may function with CuA/CuB displacement to reduce Fe(III) for transport by FetM. Together, these data indicate that FetMP is an additional iron uptake system composed of a putative iron permease and an iron-scavenging and potentially iron-reducing periplasmic protein. PMID:21596746
Wang, Gui-Qin; Wu, Cong-Ming; Du, Xiang-Dang; Shen, Zhang-Qi; Song, Li-Hua; Chen, Xia; Shen, Jian-Zhong
To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons in Escherichia coli strains (n=58) isolated from bovine mastitis in Inner Mongolia, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of various types of integrons were characterized. Most isolates were susceptible to amikacin, colistin, ceftazidime, gentamicin and kanamycin, while those also exhibited high resistant incidence rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin, sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxydiazine. The integrase gene of integrons was amplified by PCR using degenerate primers. The integrons were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of positive PCR products. Neither class II nor class III integron was detected, while 56.90% (n=33) of the isolates were positive for the presence of intI1 gene. Sequencing analysis of gene cassettes revealed that seven gene cassettes were found, which encoded resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1 and dfrA17), aminoglycosides (aacA4, aadA1 and aadA5) and chloramphenicol (catB3), respectively. Of them, the gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 was found most prevalent (62.96%). The percentage of positive-integron among the isolates whose resistant profile was relatively broad (n> or =7) is 100.00%, while the one in narrow-profile isolates (n=2-6) is 30.56%. The correlation analysis revealed the incidence of integrons among the isolates were highly related to the resistant profile, indicating integrons play an important role in the dissemination and spread of the antimicrobial resistant strains.
Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; McMullen, Lynn; Gänzle, Michael G
Many strains of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are highly resistant to pressure. To facilitate future studies to improve the elimination of VTEC by pressure processing of food, this study developed and validated a cocktail of non-pathogenic strains of E. coli with equal or higher resistance to pressure when compared to pressure resistant strains of VTEC. Strains of E. coli obtained from a beef processing plant were screened for their resistance to heat and pressure. Treatments were carried out in LB broth. Cell counts of 3 out of 16 strains were reduced by 5-6 log (cfu/mL) after 30 min at 60 °C, and cell counts of 10 out of 16 strains were reduced by 5-6 log (cfu/mL) after 30 min at 40 °C and 400 MPa. All highly heat resistant strains were also pressure resistant but not all pressure resistant strains were also heat resistant. Pressure resistant and -sensitive strains of E. coli were treated in presence of 0 or 2% NaCl and at 3, 20, or 40 °C. The effect of these parameters on the lethality of pressure treatments was comparable for all strains. The addition of 2% NaCl did not increase pressure resistance. The bactericidal effect of treatments at 3 and 20 °C and 600 MPa was comparable but inactivation of E. coli was faster at 40 °C and 600 MPa. The resistance to treatment with 600 MPa at 20 °C of a cocktail of 5 non-pathogenic strains of E. coli was compared to a 5 strain cocktail of pressure resistant VTEC. Treatments were performed in ground beef containing 15% fat. Survival and sublethal injury of the two cocktails was comparable; cell counts of beef inoculated with either cocktail were reduced by about 4 log (cfu/mL) after 30 min of treatment. In conclusion, this study validated a cocktail of non-pathogenic strains of E. coli for use as surrogate organisms in studies on the elimination of E. coli by pressure.
Yamamoto, T; Nakazawa, M
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhea were tested for the presence of the enteroaggregative E. coli enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene sequences by PCR and colony hybridization. The EAST1 gene was found in most porcine ETEC strains with adherence factor K88, especially in those elaborating heat-labile enterotoxin. One porcine ETEC strain with adherence factor K99 was also positive for the EAST1 gene. In contrast, 987P-positive (987P+) ETEC strains from piglets, K99+ ETEC strains from calves, and K99+ F41+ or F41+ ETEC strains from piglets and calves were negative for the EAST1 gene. The K88ab+ or K88ac+ ETEC strains tested possessed the EAST1 gene on a plasmid that was distinct from a K88-encoding plasmid. The EAST1 gene sequences of the K88+ ETEC strains were identical to each other and 99.1 and 98.3% homologous to the previously reported sequences of ETEC strains colonizing humans and enteroaggregative E. coli strains, respectively. The data indicate that the EAST1 gene is distributed among porcine ETEC strains in association with the adherence factor type.
Maltby, Rosalie; Leatham-Jensen, Mary P; Gibson, Terri; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell
Escherichia coli is a single species consisting of many biotypes, some of which are commensal colonizers of mammals and others that cause disease. Humans are colonized on average with five commensal biotypes, and it is widely thought that the commensals serve as a barrier to infection by pathogens. Previous studies showed that a combination of three pre-colonized commensal E. coli strains prevents colonization of E. coli O157:H7 in a mouse model (Leatham, et al., 2010, Infect Immun 77: 2876-7886). The commensal biotypes included E. coli HS, which is known to successfully colonize humans at high doses with no adverse effects, and E. coli Nissle 1917, a human commensal strain that is used in Europe as a preventative of traveler's diarrhea. We hypothesized that commensal biotypes could exert colonization resistance by consuming nutrients needed by E. coli O157:H7 to colonize, thus preventing this first step in infection. Here we report that to colonize streptomycin-treated mice E. coli HS consumes six of the twelve sugars tested and E. coli Nissle 1917 uses a complementary yet divergent set of seven sugars to colonize, thus establishing a nutritional basis for the ability of E. coli HS and Nissle 1917 to occupy distinct niches in the mouse intestine. Together these two commensals use the five sugars previously determined to be most important for colonization of E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. As predicted, the two commensals prevented E. coli EDL933 colonization. The results support a model in which invading pathogenic E. coli must compete with the gut microbiota to obtain the nutrients needed to colonize and establish infection; accordingly, the outcome of the challenge is determined by the aggregate capacity of the native microbiota to consume the nutrients required by the pathogen.
DebRoy, Chitrita; Roberts, Elisabeth; Davis, Michael; Bumbaugh, Alyssa
Nonserotypable Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (n = 72) from the collection of the E. coli Reference Center were O typed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, and those that exhibited similar profiles (n = 17) were chosen for the study. These isolates, derived from pigs, carried genes for Shiga toxin variant 2e (100%), heat stable enterotoxins STa and STb (70% and 76%, respectively), and F107 (F18) fimbriae (82%). DNA sequencing and analysis of the O-antigen gene cluster of one of the nonserotypable strains exhibited 100% homology with O-antigen cluster of E. coli O147 although the lipopolysaccharide profiles differed significantly between the nonserotypable strains and O147 reference control strain normally used for antibody production. Scanning electron micrographs of the nonserotypable strains showed altered morphology as compared to E. coli O147. Therefore, nonserotypable strains may share 100% homology with O-antigen gene cluster of a certain serogroup but may not express that specific O-antigen. Highly specific multiplex PCR for detecting the nonserotypable STEC of serogroup O147 was developed targeting virulence genes stx2, stb, and fedA encoding for F107 fimbriae, and wzx and wzy of the O147 O-antigen cluster genes. The multiplex PCR method will allow identifying potentially pathogenic subgroup of STEC important in porcine and human health.
Escherichia coli, one of the well-characterized prokaryotes, has been the most widely used bacterial host in scientific studies and industrial applications. Many different strains have been developed for the widespread use of E. coli in biotechnology, and selecting an ideal host to produce a specific protein of interest is a critical step in developing a production process. The E. coli B and K-12 strains are among the most frequently used bacterial hosts for the production of recombinant proteins as well as small-molecule metabolites such as amino acids, biofuels, carboxylic acids, diamines, and others. However, both strains have distinctive differences in genotypic and phenotypic attributes, and their behaviors can still be unpredictable at times, especially while expressing a recombinant protein. Therefore, in this review, an in-depth analysis of the physiological behavior on the proteomic level was performed, wherein the particularly distinct proteomic differences between the E. coli B and K-12 strains were investigated in the four distinctive cellular compartments. Interesting differences in the proteins associated with key cellular properties including cell growth, protein production and quality, cellular tolerance, and motility were observed between the two representative strains. The resulting enhancement of knowledge regarding host physiology that is summarized herein is expected to contribute to the acceleration of strain improvements and optimization for biotechnology-related processes.
Uysal, Ahmet; Durak, Yusuf
Bacterial contamination in foods and antimicrobial resistance levels of common pathogenic strains causing food-borne disease are important in human health. Thus, typing technologies are important tools to determine primary sources of bacterial contamination. In this study, 40 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 85 food samples were evaluated in terms of genetic diversity, susceptibility to certain antibiotics, and plasmid profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to identify the genetic relations of E. coli isolates. It was determined that the 40 E. coli strains revealed 32 different pulsotypes represented by 6 subtypes. Antibiotic susceptibility tests conducted by using a disc diffusion method against 15 antibiotics showed that although the isolates revealed 14 different types of resistance profiles, the strains showed the greatest resistance to ampicillin (77.5%), followed by ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (30%), tetracycline (22.5%), and cephalothin (14.5%). Plasmid isolations studies of the strains conducted by the method of alkaline lysis revealed that 18 (45%) of 40 E. coli strains contain 31 different plasmid bands ranging between 64.4 and 1 kb. The results showed that PFGE was a powerful method in tracking sources of food contamination and that the antibiotic resistance levels of food isolates were high and should be monitored.
Martín-Sosa, Samuel; Martín, María-Jesús; Hueso, Pablo
Milk oligosaccharides can act as soluble receptors that block bacterial adhesion to the different epithelia. Colonization factor antigens (CFA)/I- and CFA/II-expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains constitute one of the main causes of diarrhea in infants. Here, the inhibition of hemagglutination mediated by these strains by milk oligosaccharides was tested. Human milk oligosaccharides showed a strong inhibitory capacity, which decreased when the oligosaccharides were desialylated. Because milk oligosaccharides also are present in the urine of neonates receiving mothers' milk, their ability to bind two uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains was also examined. UPEC strains expressing P (Pap) and P-like (Prs) fimbriae are responsible for infections of the urinary tract such as pyelonephritis and cystitis. The hemagglutination mediated by these strains was inhibited by human milk oligosaccharides. The sialylated fraction was partially responsible for this inhibition in the case of the UPEC expressing the P-like fimbria because differences were found after desialylation. Although bovine milk oligosaccharides were less efficient at inhibiting the hemagglutination of ETEC strains, they were still quite good inhibitors of UPEC strains.
Fernandes, M C; Takai, S; Leite, D S; Pinto, J P A N; Brandão, P E; Santarém, V A; Listoni, F J P; Da Silva, A V; Ribeiro, M G
The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places.
Fernandes, M.C.; Takai, S.; Leite, D.S.; Pinto, J.P.A.N.; Brandão, P.E.; Santarém, V.A.; Listoni, F.J.P.; Da Silva, A.V.; Ribeiro, M.G.
The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places. PMID:24294244
Ojima, Yoshihiro; Kawata, Teruyoshi; Matsuo, Nahoko; Nishinoue, Yosuke; Taya, Masahito
Recombinant Escherichia coli cells were applied for the recovery of electric energy from formate. Initially, the fdh gene, which encodes formate dehydrogenase (FDH) of Mycobacterium vaccae, was introduced into E. coli cells to allow efficient degradation of formate. The constructed microbial fuel cell (MFC) with E. coli BW25113 cells carrying fdh gene showed appreciable generation of current density in the presence of formate as a substrate. Current density and polarization curves revealed that the performance of MFC under examined conditions was limited by the electron transfer from bulk liquid to the electrode surface; accordingly, agitation resulted in an increase in the current density and achieved a coulombic efficiency of 21.7 % on the basis of formate consumed. Thus, gene recombination enables E. coli cells to utilize formate as a fuel for MFC.
Franke, S; Harmsen, D; Caprioli, A; Pierard, D; Wieler, L H; Karch, H
Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli (SLTEC) O101 has recently been associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. In this study, SLTEC O101 strains from humans and pigs were characterized for clonal relatedness by nucleotide sequence analysis of their slt genes, DNA finger-printing of genomic DNA, and determination of virulence factors. The slt genes of five E. coli O101 strains were cloned and sequenced. For all strains, the deduced amino acid sequences of the B subunits were identical to those of the SLT-IIe present in the classical SLTEC O139 strains that cause edema disease in pigs. The A subunit revealed more than 99% homology to that of SLT-IIe. DNA fingerprinting revealed a high degree of genetic relatedness between the human and porcine O101 isolates. None of the O101 strains investigated had virulence factors frequently found in porcine (F107 fimbriae or heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxins) or human SLTEC strains (eaeA or enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin). The absence of virulence factors typical of SLT-I- and SLT-II-producing E. Coli together with the presence of SLT-IIe, a toxin previously seen only in porcine E. coli, suggests a new pathogenic mechanism for E. coli O101 infection of humans. For diagnostic purposes, we recommend the use of PCR primers and DNA probes complementary to slt-IIe to correctly identify such strains and to further evaluate their role in human diseases. PMID:8586696
Franke, S; Harmsen, D; Caprioli, A; Pierard, D; Wieler, L H; Karch, H
Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli (SLTEC) O101 has recently been associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. In this study, SLTEC O101 strains from humans and pigs were characterized for clonal relatedness by nucleotide sequence analysis of their slt genes, DNA finger-printing of genomic DNA, and determination of virulence factors. The slt genes of five E. coli O101 strains were cloned and sequenced. For all strains, the deduced amino acid sequences of the B subunits were identical to those of the SLT-IIe present in the classical SLTEC O139 strains that cause edema disease in pigs. The A subunit revealed more than 99% homology to that of SLT-IIe. DNA fingerprinting revealed a high degree of genetic relatedness between the human and porcine O101 isolates. None of the O101 strains investigated had virulence factors frequently found in porcine (F107 fimbriae or heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxins) or human SLTEC strains (eaeA or enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin). The absence of virulence factors typical of SLT-I- and SLT-II-producing E. Coli together with the presence of SLT-IIe, a toxin previously seen only in porcine E. coli, suggests a new pathogenic mechanism for E. coli O101 infection of humans. For diagnostic purposes, we recommend the use of PCR primers and DNA probes complementary to slt-IIe to correctly identify such strains and to further evaluate their role in human diseases.
Liu, Bao-Tao; Song, Feng-Jing; Zou, Ming; Zhang, Qi-Di; Shan, Hu
This study investigated the characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates carrying mcr-1-blaNDM from a chicken farm in China. Of the 78 E. coli isolates, 21 clonally unrelated isolates carried mcr-1-blaNDM Diverse IncI2 plasmids disseminated mcr-1, while the dissemination of blaNDM was mediated by diverse IncB/O plasmids. More striking was the colocalization of resistance genes mcr-1 and blaNDM-4 in an IncHI2/ST3 plasmid, which might pose a great challenge for public health. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Beutin, L; Geier, D; Zimmermann, S; Karch, H
Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin)-producing strains of Escherichia coli (SLTEC) originating from healthy cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, cats, and dogs were investigated for properties which are related to virulence of E. coli for humans. The slt-II (Shiga-like toxin II) and slt-IIc genes were frequent in SLTEC from healthy cattle and dogs but were rarely found in SLTEC from other animals. The slt-IIe gene was detected only in porcine SLTEC. SLTEC from goats and SLTEC from sheep were found to carry different SLT-II determinants which were not further characterized genetically. Sixty (28.8%) of 208 SLTEC from healthy animals showed diffuse adherence to HEp-2 cells. However, none of the strains was positive for genes specific for the local adherence (eaf), diffuse adherence (daa), or enteroaggregative (EAggEC) E. coli type. Only 3 (1.4%) of the 208 SLTEC were positive for attaching and effacing E. coli (eae) sequences. The enterohemolytic phenotype was present in 128 of the 208 SLTEC. Almost all enterohemolytic animal SLTEC were found to carry DNA sequences specific for the plasmid-encoded enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin of E. coli O157. Bacteriophage-associated enterohemolysin (Ehly1 and Ehly2)-specific sequences were detected only in 14.4% of the 208 SLTEC and were linked with certain serotypes. The SLTEC from healthy animals constitute a very heterogeneous group of E. coli, and many of these strains appeared to be specific for their hosts. The absence of eae sequences in most animal SLTEC could indicate that these strains are less virulent for humans than the classical eae-positive enterohemorrhagic E. coli types. PMID:7538509
Grande Burgos, María José; Fernández Márquez, Maria Luisa; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario
Eggs may contain extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) and diarrheogenic (DEC) Escherichia coli which in addition may carry antibiotic resistance. The wide use of biocides and disinfectants in the food industry may induce biocide tolerance in bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance in E. coli from hen egg shells. A total of 27 isolates obtained from a screening of 180 eggs were studied. Seven isolates carried both eae and bfpA genes of typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains, while 14 isolates only carried eae associated with atypical EPEC strains. Shiga toxin genes stx and stx2 were detected in four isolates. Heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin genes as well as aggR were also detected. Several isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) that were higher than the wild-type for the biocide hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP, 18.52%) or the commercial disinfectant P3 oxonia (OX, 14.81%). Antibiotic resistance was detected for ampicillin (37.03%), streptomycin (37.03%), tetracycline (37.03%), chloramphenicol (11.11%), nalidixic acid (18.51%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14.81%). Eight isolates (29.63%) were biocide tolerant and antibiotic resistant. Efflux pump genes detected included acrB (96.29%), mdfA (85.18%) and oxqA (37.03%), in addition to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) resistance genes qacA/B (11.11%) and qacE (7.40%). Antibiotic resistance genes detected included blaCTX-M-2 (22.22%), blaTEM (3.70%), blaPSE (3.70%), tet(A) (29.63%), tet(B) (29.63%), tet(C) (7.40%), tet(E) (11.11%), aac(6')-Ib (3.70%), sul1 (14.81%), dfrA12 (3.70%) and dfrA15 (3.70%). Most isolates (96.30%) carried more than one genetic determinant of resistance. The most frequent combinations were efflux pump components acrB and mdfA with tetracycline resistance genes (33.33% of isolates). Isolates carrying QAC resistance genes also carried between 4 and 8 of the additional antimicrobial resistance genes
Singer, M; Baker, T A; Schnitzler, G; Deischel, S M; Goel, M; Dove, W; Jaacks, K J; Grossman, A D; Erickson, J W; Gross, C A
We present a collection of 182 isogenic strains containing genetically linked antibiotic resistance elements located at approximately 1-min intervals around the Escherichia coli chromosome. At most positions both Tn10 (Tetr) and TN10kan (Kanr) elements are available, so that the collection contains a linked set of alternating antibiotic resistance markers. The map position of each insertion has been aligned to the E. coli genetic map as well as to the Kohara ordered clone bank. These strains are designed to be used in a rapid two-step mapping system in E. coli. In the first step, the mutation is localized to a 5- to 15-min region of the chromosome by Hfr mapping with a set of Hfr strains containing either Tn10 or Tn10kan elements located 20 min from their respective origins of transfer. In the second step, the mutation is localized to a 1-min region by P1 transduction, with a collection of isogenic insertion strains as donors. We discuss the uses of this collection of strains to map and eventually to clone a variety of mutations in E. coli. PMID:2540407
Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...
Tobias, Joshua; Lebens, Michael; Bölin, Ingrid; Wiklund, Gudrun; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari
To express high quantities of colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) derived from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) for use in ETEC vaccines, the entire CFA/I operon consisting of four genes (cfa-A, -B, -C, -E) was cloned into plasmid expression vectors that could be maintained either with or without antibiotic selection. Expression from the powerful tac promoter was under the control of the lacIq repressor present on the plasmids. Fimbriae were expressed on the surface of both a non-toxigenic E. coli K12 strain and a non-toxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae following induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). It was found that the recombinant E. coli strains expressed up to 16-fold higher levels of CFA/I fimbriae compared to a reference strain which had previously been shown to be among the highest natural producers of the CFA/I fimbriae among tested wild type ETEC strains. Oral immunization with formalin-killed recombinant E. coli bacteria over-expressing CFA/I induced significantly higher serum IgA and IgG+M antibodies responses compared to the reference strain. Oral immunization with formalin-killed recombinant V. cholerae bacteria also induce strong CFA/I-specific serum IgA and IgG+M responses. We conclude that our constructs may be useful as candidate strains in an oral killed CF-ETEC vaccine.
The diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway provides the cell with lysine and with DAP, a vital cell wall constituent. Mutations in the DAP pathway of lysine biosynthesis are lethal for cells exposed to lysine in the absence of DAP. In this paper, the substitution of the dapD gene of Escherichia coli with the kanamycin resistance gene from Tn903 is described and its possible uses are discussed.
potential coverage of children in Peru by investigational vaccines . Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the main causes of diarrhea in...important target for vaccine development (11). Diarrhea due to ETEC develops between 8 and 72 h after initial infection, usually due to the ingestion of...products in clinical specimens. Currently, derivatives of LT and the CFs are targets for the development of vaccines against ETEC. However, the great
Ewers, Christa; Antão, Esther-Maria; Diehl, Ines; Philipp, Hans-C; Wieler, Lothar H
Although research has increasingly focused on the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections and the "APEC pathotype" itself, little is known about the reservoirs of these bacteria. We therefore compared outbreak strains isolated from diseased chickens (n = 121) with nonoutbreak strains, including fecal E. coli strains from clinically healthy chickens (n = 211) and strains from their environment (n = 35) by determining their virulence gene profiles, phylogenetic backgrounds, responses to chicken serum, and in vivo pathogenicities in a chicken infection model. In general, by examining 46 different virulence-associated genes we were able to distinguish the three groups of avian strains, but some specific fecal and environmental isolates had a virulence gene profile that was indistinguishable from that determined for outbreak strains. In addition, a substantial number of phylogenetic EcoR group B2 strains, which are known to include potent human and animal extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains, were identified among the APEC strains (44.5%) as well as among the fecal E. coli strains from clinically healthy chickens (23.2%). Comparably high percentages (79.2 to 89.3%) of serum-resistant strains were identified for all three groups of strains tested, bringing into question the usefulness of this phenotype as a principal marker for extraintestinal virulence. Intratracheal infection of 5-week-old chickens corroborated the pathogenicity of a number of nonoutbreak strains. Multilocus sequence typing data revealed that most strains that were virulent in chicken infection experiments belonged to sequence types that are almost exclusively associated with extraintestinal diseases not only in birds but also in humans, like septicemia, urinary tract infection, and newborn meningitis, supporting the hypothesis that not the ecohabitat but the phylogeny of E. coli strains determines virulence. These data provide strong evidence for an avian
Ewers, Christa; Antão, Esther-Maria; Diehl, Ines; Philipp, Hans-C.; Wieler, Lothar H.
Although research has increasingly focused on the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections and the “APEC pathotype” itself, little is known about the reservoirs of these bacteria. We therefore compared outbreak strains isolated from diseased chickens (n = 121) with nonoutbreak strains, including fecal E. coli strains from clinically healthy chickens (n = 211) and strains from their environment (n = 35) by determining their virulence gene profiles, phylogenetic backgrounds, responses to chicken serum, and in vivo pathogenicities in a chicken infection model. In general, by examining 46 different virulence-associated genes we were able to distinguish the three groups of avian strains, but some specific fecal and environmental isolates had a virulence gene profile that was indistinguishable from that determined for outbreak strains. In addition, a substantial number of phylogenetic EcoR group B2 strains, which are known to include potent human and animal extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains, were identified among the APEC strains (44.5%) as well as among the fecal E. coli strains from clinically healthy chickens (23.2%). Comparably high percentages (79.2 to 89.3%) of serum-resistant strains were identified for all three groups of strains tested, bringing into question the usefulness of this phenotype as a principal marker for extraintestinal virulence. Intratracheal infection of 5-week-old chickens corroborated the pathogenicity of a number of nonoutbreak strains. Multilocus sequence typing data revealed that most strains that were virulent in chicken infection experiments belonged to sequence types that are almost exclusively associated with extraintestinal diseases not only in birds but also in humans, like septicemia, urinary tract infection, and newborn meningitis, supporting the hypothesis that not the ecohabitat but the phylogeny of E. coli strains determines virulence. These data provide strong evidence for an avian
Jordan, S L; Pascual, C; Bracey, E; Mackey, B M
To investigate methods for inactivating a pressure-resistant strain of Escherichia coli O157 in fruit juices. Cells of a pressure-resistant strain of E. coli O157 (C9490) were exposed to pressures of between, 0.1 and 500 MPa for 5 min in orange, apple or tomato juice. Treatment at 500 MPa achieved an immediate reduction of 5 log units in apple juice (pH 3.5) and tomato juice (pH 4.1), but only about a 1-2 log10 reduction in orange juice (pH 3.8). The greater level of inactivation in tomato juice than in orange juice of lower pH was due to the presence of low levels (0.7%) of salt in the tomato juice. With the type-strain of E. coli (ATCC 11775) and Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994, similar levels of inactivation were achieved at pressures 200 MPa lower. Following storage of pressure-treated orange juice at 4 degrees C for 24 h or 25 degrees C for 3 h, the level of inactivation of E. coli O157 strain C9490 increased to 4.4 or > 7 log10 units, respectively. Treatment at 500 MPa may be insufficient to achieve a '5D' reduction in counts of pressure-resistant strains of E. coli, but subsequent death during storage substantially increases process lethality. Commercially-practicable pressure processes can be used to inactivate even the most pressure-and acid-resistant strains of E. coli O157, provided that processing and subsequent storage conditions are carefully optimized.
Bosák, Juraj; Micenková, Lenka; Doležalová, Magda; Šmajs, David
Interactions of colicins U and Y with the OmpA (Outer membrane protein A) receptor molecule were studied using site-directed mutagenesis and colicin binding assay. A systematic mutagenesis of the colicin-susceptible OmpA sequence from Escherichia coli (OmpAEC) to the colicin-resistant OmpA sequence from Serratia marcescens (OmpASM) was performed in regions corresponding to extracellular OmpA loops 1-4. Susceptibility to colicins U and Y was significantly affected by the OmpA mutation in loop 1. As with functional analysis, a decrease in binding capacity of His-tagged colicin U was found for recombinant OmpA with a mutated segment in loop 1 compared to control OmpAEC. To verify the importance of the identified amino acid residues in OmpA loop 1, we introduced loop 1 from OmpAEC into OmpASM, which resulted in the substantial increase of susceptibility to colicins U and Y. In addition, colicins U and Y were tested against a panel of 118 bacteriocin non-producing strains of four Escherichia species, including E. coli (39 strains), E. fergusonii (10 strains), E. hermannii (42 strains), and E. vulneris (27 strains). A majority (82%) of E. coli strains was susceptible to colicins U and Y. Interestingly, colicins U and Y also inhibited all of the 30 tested multidrug-resistant E. coli O25b-ST131 isolates. These findings, together with the fact that OmpA loop 1 is important for bacterial virulence and is evolutionary conserved, offer the potential of using colicins U and Y as specific anti-OmpA loop 1 directed antibacterial proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Stannarius, C; Bürgi, E; Regula, G; Zychowska, M A; Zweifel, C; Stephan, R
Based on Directive (EC) No 99/2003, monitoring programs on the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from livestock are implemented in many European countries. The aim of the present study was (i) to establish comprehensive baseline data on the antimicrobial resistance situation in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy pigs (pooled fecal samples) originating from 60 Swiss pig-breeding farms, and (ii) to analyze differences in the resistance frequency between Escherichia coli isolates from weaned pigs and sows. Susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method) was performed on 429 isolates from weaned pigs and 431 isolates from sows. Overall, 17.7% of the isolates from weaned pigs and 22.5% of the Escherichia coli isolates from sows were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Low resistance prevalence was found for amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefquinome, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, and gentamicin. The most frequently found resistances were against streptomycin (60.6% of the isolates from weaners and 64.3% of the isolates from sows), sulfonamide (51.5% and 26.9%), tetracycline (35.2% and 22.0%), and trimethoprim (27.5% and 11.1%). With exception of colistin, most resistances were found for those antibiotics commonly used on the farms. Except for ciprofloxacin and streptomycin, isolates from weaned pigs showed higher resistance prevalence than those from sows. This difference was significant for cefquinome, florfenicol, sulfonamide, tetracycline, and trimethoprim (p<0.05).
Yu, Wang; Bing, Liu; Zhenhua, Li
To investigate the correlation between mutations in promoter, attenuator, and the AmpC enzyme overproduction in Escherichia coli. ampC Promoters from 4 Escherichia coli clinical isolates were cloned upstream to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene in pCAT3 reporter plasmid. Promoter strengths were measured by chloramphenicol MIC and gene sequencing was done on the cloned ampC promoter and attenuator. The strength of promoters from AmpC hyperproducers were 8- to 64-fold higher than those from a low-level AmpC producers. In one of the high-strength promoters, the mutations were located at positions -32, +22, +26, +32 (attenuator), -76, and +79. In another promoter, the mutations were located at positions -88, -82, -18, -1, and +58. In the third promoter, mutations were found at positions -1, +58, -80, -73, -28, and +82. Mutations in Escherichia coli promoter and attenuator sequences promoted Chloramphenicol MICs, which may be the primary causal mechanism for resistance to beta-lactams antibiotics.
Vincent, André; Lin, Alex; Harel, Josée; Côté, Jean-Charles; Tremblay, Cécile
Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious disease characterized by the necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues and fascia. E. coli as the etiologic agent of necrotizing fasciitis is a rare occurrence. A 66-year-old woman underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She rapidly developed necrotizing fasciitis which led to her death 68 hours following surgery. An E. coli strain was isolated from blood and fascia cultures. DNA microarray revealed the presence of 20 virulence genes. PMID:27366162
Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils; Matthews, Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Olsen, John Elmerdahl
This study evaluated how dosing regimen for intramuscularly-administered ampicillin, composition of Escherichia coli strains with regard to ampicillin susceptibility, and excretion of bacteria from the intestine affected the level of resistance among Escherichia coli strains in the intestine of nursery pigs. It also examined the dynamics of the composition of bacterial strains during and after the treatment. The growth responses of strains to ampicillin concentrations were determined using in vitro growth curves. Using these results as input data, growth predictions were generated using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most susceptible strains were more affected by increasing concentrations of antibiotics that the rest of the strains. The modeling revealed that short treatment duration resulted in lower levels of resistance and that dosing frequency did not substantially influence the growth of resistant strains. Resistance levels were found to be sensitive to the number of competing strains, and this effect was enhanced by longer duration of treatment. High excretion of bacteria from the intestine favored resistant strains over sensitive strains, but at the same time it resulted in a faster return to pre-treatment levels after the treatment ended. When the duration of high excretion was set to be limited to the treatment time (i.e. the treatment was assumed to result in a cure of diarrhea) resistant strains required longer time to reach the previous level. No fitness cost was found to be associated with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in
Taylor, P W; Kroll, H P
Changes in cell viability and in factors affecting metabolic integrity were examined after exposure of Escherichia coli LP1092 to human serum. Antibody-dependent classical pathway activity accounted for the rapid killing of strain LP1092 by complement. Removal of serum lysozyme by bentonite absorption or by neutralization with anti-human lysozyme immunoglobulin G resulted in a reduction in the rate of killing; optimal activity could be restored by the addition of physiological amounts of egg-white lysozyme. The pattern of 86Rb+ and alkaline phosphatase release obtained after serum treatment did not support the view that complement simultaneously disrupts cytoplasmic and outer membrane integrity. Macromolecular synthesis was affected late in the reaction sequence; complete inhibition of precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA, and protein occurred only after almost total loss of bacterial colony-forming ability. Addition of chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, to the bactericidal system resulted in a marked reduction in the rate of serum killing. Killing was completely inhibited by an inhibitor (KCN) and an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol) of oxidative phosphorylation. Exposure of LP1092 cells to serum was followed by a rapid and large increase in intracellular ATP levels; ATP synthesis did not occur when bacteria were exposed to dialyzed serum, which killed LP1092 cells at a much reduced rate. Addition of glucose or serum ultrafiltrate to dialyzed serum restored optimal bactericidal activity. We suggest that optimal killing of gram-negative bacteria is an energy-dependent process requiring an input of bacterially generated ATP. PMID:6185430
Miller, Elliot N.; Jarboe, Laura R.; Turner, Peter C.; Pharkya, Priti; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Nunn, David; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.
A wide variety of commercial products can be potentially made from monomeric sugars produced by the dilute acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. However, this process is accompanied by side products such as furfural that hinder microbial growth and fermentation. To investigate the mechanism of furfural inhibition, mRNA microarrays of an ethanologenic strain of Escherichia coli (LY180) were compared immediately prior to and 15 min after a moderate furfural challenge. Expression of genes and regulators associated with the biosynthesis of cysteine and methionine was increased by furfural, consistent with a limitation of these critical metabolites. This was in contrast to a general stringent response and decreased expression of many other biosynthetic genes. Of the 20 amino acids individually tested as supplements (100 μM each), cysteine and methionine were the most effective in increasing furfural tolerance with serine (precursor of cysteine), histidine, and arginine of lesser benefit. Supplementation with other reduced sulfur sources such as d-cysteine and thiosulfate also increased furfural tolerance. In contrast, supplementation with taurine, a sulfur source that requires 3 molecules of NADPH for sulfur assimilation, was of no benefit. Furfural tolerance was also increased by inserting a plasmid encoding pntAB, a cytoplasmic NADH/NADPH transhydrogenase. Based on these results, a model is proposed for the inhibition of growth in which the reduction of furfural by YqhD, an enzyme with a low Km for NADPH, depletes NADPH sufficiently to limit the assimilation of sulfur into amino acids (cysteine and methionine) by CysIJ (sulfite reductase). PMID:19684179
Alem, Nabil; Frikh, Mohammed; Srifi, Abdellatif; Maleb, Adil; Chadli, Mariama; Sekhsokh, Yassine; Louzi, Lhoucin; Ibrahimi, Azzedine; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Elouennass, Mostafa
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most commonly isolated bacteria in human pathology. In Morocco the data concerning the nature and the rates of antibiotic resistance of E. coli in both hospitals and city environment remains relatively poor and needs further investigations. During a 16 months period, E. coli isolates were collected from different culture specimens received in the Bacteriology Department of the Military teaching Hospital Mohammed-V-Rabat for routine diagnostic purposes. E. coli isolates were identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. A total of 1369 E. coli isolates comprising 33% (1369/4110) of culture-positive samples were consecutively collected. Isolates of E. coli were, in 40.5% (554/1369) of cases from hospitalized patients and in 59.5% (815/1369) of cases from outpatients. Urine isolates represented 82% (1123/1369) of the cases. High rates of resistance were found for amoxicillin (42.5%), cefalotin (30.4%), norfoloxacin (29.9%) and sulfamethoxazole (37.7%). The detection rate of ESBL was 6.1% (85/1369). In hospitalized patients 11.9% of the isolates of E. coli (66/554) had an ESBL phenotype while in outpatients cases only 2.3% of isolates of E. coli (19/815) had this phenotype. Our findings suggest that more judicious use of antibiotics is needed especially in probabilistic treatment. The emergence of ESBL in the Moroccan cities is an indicator of the severity of this problem that is not limited to health care facilities.
Feng, Peter C H; Keys, Christine; Lacher, David W; Beutin, Lothar; Bentancor, Adriana; Heuvelink, Annet; Afset, Jan E; Rumi, Valeria; Monday, Steven
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is comprised of a large heterogeneous group of strains and serotypes that carry the intimin gene (eae) but no other EPEC virulence factors. In a previous study, we examined a few aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype from the U.S. and France and found these to be nearly homologous, and speculated that the same strain had been disseminated or perhaps they are part of a large clonal group that exists worldwide. To test that hypothesis, we examined additional 45 strains isolated from various sources from 4 other countries and determined that although there are a few eae-negative O157:H16 strains, most are aEPEC that carried eae and specifically, the ε-eae allele. Analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing showed that as a whole, O157:H16 strains are phylogenetically diverse and have different sequence types and PFGE profiles. But the aEPEC strains within the O157:H16 serotype, regardless of the eae allele carried, are a highly conserved and homologous group of sequence type (ST)-171 strains that shared similar PFGE profiles. These aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype are not closely related to any of the major EPEC and enterohemorrhagic E. coli clonal lineages and appear to be part of a large clonal group that are prevalent worldwide.
Lobstein, Julie; Emrich, Charlie A; Jeans, Chris; Faulkner, Melinda; Riggs, Paul; Berkmen, Mehmet
Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using SHuffle strains.
Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using SHuffle strains. PMID:22569138
Hamilton, Matthew J.; Hadi, Asbah Z.; Griffith, John F.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.
Contamination of recreational waters with E. coli and Enterococcus sp. is a widespread problem resulting in beach closures and loss of recreational activity. While E. coli is frequently used as an indicator of fecal contamination, and has been extensively measured in waterways, few studies have examined the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in beach waters. In this study, a combination of high-throughput, robot-assisted colony hybridization and PCR-based analyses were used to determine the genomic composition and frequency of virulence genes present in E. coli isolated from beach water in Avalon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, CA. A total of 24,493 E. coli isolates were collected from two sites at a popular swimming beach between August through September 2007 and from July through August 2008. All isolates were examined for the presence of shiga-like toxins (stx1/stx2), intimin (eaeA), and enterotoxins (ST/LT). Of the 24,493 isolates examined, 3.6% contained the eaeA gene, indicating that these isolates were potential EPEC strains. On five dates, however, greater than 10% of the strains were potential EPEC, suggesting that incidence of virulence genes at this beach has a strong temporal component. No STEC or ETEC isolates were detected, and only eight (<1.0%) of the potential EPEC isolates were found to carry the EAF plasmid. The potential EPEC isolates mainly belonged to E. coli phylogenetic groups B1 or B2, and carried the beta intimin subtype. DNA fingerprint analyses of the potential EPEC strains indicated that the isolates belonged to several genetically diverse groups, although clonal isolates were frequently detected. While the presence of virulence genes alone cannot be used to determine the pathogenicity of strains, results from this study show that potential EPEC strains can be found in marine beach water and their presence needs to be considered as one of the factors used in decisions concerning beach closures. PMID:20643468
Hamm, K.; Barth, S. A.; Stalb, S.; Geue, L.; Liebler-Tenorio, E.; Teifke, J. P.; Lange, E.; Tauscher, K.; Kotterba, G.; Bielaszewska, M.; Karch, H.; Menge, C.
In 2011, a severe outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome was caused by an unusual, highly virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O104:H4 strain, which possessed EHEC virulence traits in the genetic background of human-adapted enteroaggregative E. coli. To determine magnitude of fecal shedding and site of colonization of EHEC O104:H4 in a livestock host, 30 (ten/strain) weaned calves were inoculated with 1010 CFU of EHEC O104:H4, EHEC O157:H7 (positive control) or E. coli strain 123 (negative control) and necropsied (4 or 28 d.p.i.). E. coli O157:H7 was recovered until 28 d.p.i. and O104:H4 until 24 d.p.i. At 4 d.p.i., EHEC O104:H4 was isolated from intestinal content and detected associated with the intestinal mucosa. These results are the first evidence that cattle, the most important EHEC reservoir, can also carry unusual EHEC strains at least transiently, questioning our current understanding of the molecular basis of host adaptation of this important E. coli pathovar. PMID:27600997
Saeed, A M; Magnuson, N S; Gay, C C; Greenberg, R N
An enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain isolated from a calf with clinical scours was found to produce over 17- to 60-fold more heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) than four laboratory-adapted bovine ETEC strains. The purified STa of this strain was identical to those produced by other ETEC strains. A severe form of scours was induced in 5- to 15-day-old colostrum-fed calves and in 1- to 2-week-old piglets by oral administration of the purified STa. This study demonstrates that STa is a mediator of diarrhea in newborn calves and piglets and that under identical growth conditions diverse strains of bovine ETEC may produce variable amounts of homologous STa's. PMID:3525417
Swift, Jacob M; Foster, Derek M; Rogers, Anna T; Sylvester, Hannah J; Griffith, Emily H; Jacob, Megan E
Small ruminants have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at livestock exhibitions throughout the United States. Additionally, goat meat or milk may serve as a reservoir for foodborne transmission of the organism. These associations highlight the public health importance of an effective strategy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in goats. We examined the efficacy of the SRP(®) vaccine in goats orally challenged with E. coli O157:H7. Mixed-breed goats (n = 14) were randomly allocated into vaccinated and unvaccinated treatments (n = 7 per treatment). Goats were housed with a vaccinated and unvaccinated animal in each pen. Feces were collected for 3 weeks, then at necropsy, gastrointestinal contents were collected to determine the concentration of E. coli O157:H7. Three isolates per positive sample were saved and evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess strain persistence over time. The mean concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces of goats was numerically reduced in the vaccinated treatment; however, it was not statistically significant. In addition, the total number of days goats were fecal positive for E. coli O157:H7 were not different between vaccinated and unvaccinated treatments. Pulsotypes of isolates revealed that goats initially shed two of the four challenge strains of E. coli O157:H7, after which there was a distinct shift to two different strains. Further work is needed to evaluate cost-effective intervention strategies that reliably reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in goats, particularly those that may reduce the risk of transmission at public events, including petting zoos and fairs.
Moritz, Rebecca L.; Welch, Rodney A.
The genome sequences of Escherichia coli pathotypes reveal extensive genetic variability in the argW-dsdCXA island. Interestingly, the archetype E. coli K1 neonatal meningitis strain, strain RS218, has two copies of the dsdCXA genes for d-serine utilization at the argW and leuX islands. Because the human brain contains d-serine, an epidemiological study emphasizing K1 isolates surveyed the dsdCXA copy number and function. Forty of 41 (97.5%) independent E. coli K1 isolates could utilize d-serine. Southern blot hybridization revealed physical variability within the argW-dsdC region, even among 22 E. coli O18:K1:H7 isolates. In addition, 30 of 41 K1 strains, including 21 of 22 O18:K1:H7 isolates, had two dsdCXA loci. Mutational analysis indicated that each of the dsdA genes is functional in a rifampin-resistant mutant of RS218, mutant E44. The high percentage of K1 strains that can use d-serine is in striking contrast to our previous observation that only 4 of 74 (5%) isolates in the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) collection have this activity. The genome sequence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates indicates that the csrRAKB genes for sucrose utilization are often substituted for dsdC and a portion of dsdX present at the argW-dsdCXA island of extraintestinal isolates. Among DEC isolates there is a reciprocal pattern of sucrose fermentation versus d-serine utilization. The ability to use d-serine is a trait strongly selected for among E. coli K1 strains, which have the ability to infect a wide range of extraintestinal sites. Conversely, diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes appear to have substituted sucrose for d-serine as a potential nutrient. PMID:17088369
Moritz, Rebecca L; Welch, Rodney A
The genome sequences of Escherichia coli pathotypes reveal extensive genetic variability in the argW-dsdCXA island. Interestingly, the archetype E. coli K1 neonatal meningitis strain, strain RS218, has two copies of the dsdCXA genes for d-serine utilization at the argW and leuX islands. Because the human brain contains d-serine, an epidemiological study emphasizing K1 isolates surveyed the dsdCXA copy number and function. Forty of 41 (97.5%) independent E. coli K1 isolates could utilize d-serine. Southern blot hybridization revealed physical variability within the argW-dsdC region, even among 22 E. coli O18:K1:H7 isolates. In addition, 30 of 41 K1 strains, including 21 of 22 O18:K1:H7 isolates, had two dsdCXA loci. Mutational analysis indicated that each of the dsdA genes is functional in a rifampin-resistant mutant of RS218, mutant E44. The high percentage of K1 strains that can use d-serine is in striking contrast to our previous observation that only 4 of 74 (5%) isolates in the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) collection have this activity. The genome sequence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates indicates that the csrRAKB genes for sucrose utilization are often substituted for dsdC and a portion of dsdX present at the argW-dsdCXA island of extraintestinal isolates. Among DEC isolates there is a reciprocal pattern of sucrose fermentation versus d-serine utilization. The ability to use d-serine is a trait strongly selected for among E. coli K1 strains, which have the ability to infect a wide range of extraintestinal sites. Conversely, diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes appear to have substituted sucrose for d-serine as a potential nutrient.
Korhonen, Timo K.; Leffler, Hakon; Edén, Catharina Svanborg
The binding to mammalian cells of piliated enteric bacteria and the inhibition of the binding by antibodies to purified pili were studied. The target cells were epithelial cells from human bucca and human and rat urinary tracts, erythrocytes from various species, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The strains were selected to represent the two main agglutination patterns of enteric bacteria: mannose-resistant agglutination of human and other erythrocytes and mannose-sensitive agglutination of guinea pig and other erythrocytes. Escherichia coli 3669 caused only mannose-resistant agglutination, E. coli 6013 caused only mannose-sensitive agglutination, and E. coli 3048 caused both types of agglutination simultaneously. Salmonella typhimurium SH6749 exhibited only mannose-sensitive hemagglutination and was included to allow comparison of its pili with those of E. coli strains. The range of epithelial cells to which the bacteria adhered was related to their agglutination patterns. All four strains attached to human buccal cells. Only E. coli strains 3669 and 3048, which caused mannose-resistant agglutination, adhered to human urinary tract epithelial cells, and only those strains that caused mannose-sensitive agglutination adhered to rat urinary tract epithelial cells. The binding of S. typhimurium SH6749, but not of the other strains with mannose-sensitive agglutination, was significantly inhibited by d-mannose. Globotetraosylceramide, a glycolipid present in the human urinary tract epithelium, inhibited attachment to human uroepithelial cells of the two strains with mannose-resistant hemagglutination. As tested by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cross-reactions between type 1 pili of the E. coli strains were strong, but those between S. typhimurium and E. coli mannose-sensitive pili were weak. The two pili that induced mannose-resistant hemagglutination on E. coli did not cross-react. Significant inhibition of adhesion of all four strains was obtained with the
Mourand, G.; Paboeuf, F.; Fleury, M. A.; Jouy, E.; Bougeard, S.; Denamur, E.
ABSTRACT Four trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli probiotic strain ED1a administration to pigs on the gut carriage or survival in manure of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing E. coli. Groups of pigs were orally inoculated with strain E. coli M63 carrying the blaCTX-M-1 gene (n = 84) or used as a control (n = 26). In the first two trials, 24 of 40 E. coli M63-inoculated pigs were given E. coli ED1a orally for 6 days starting 8 days after oral inoculation. In the third trial, 10 E. coli M63-inoculated pigs were given either E. coli ED1a or probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 for 5 days. In the fourth trial, E. coli ED1a was given to a sow and its 12 piglets, and these 12 piglets plus 12 piglets that had not received E. coli ED1a were then inoculated with E. coli M63. Fecal shedding of cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CTX-RE) was studied by culture, and blaCTX-M-1 genes were quantified by PCR. The persistence of CTX-RE in manure samples from inoculated pigs or manure samples inoculated in vitro with E. coli M63 with or without probiotics was studied. The results showed that E. coli M63 and ED1a were good gut colonizers. The reduction in the level of fecal excretion of CTX-RE in E. coli ED1a-treated pigs compared to that in nontreated pigs was usually less than 1 log10 CFU and was mainly observed during the probiotic administration period. The results obtained with E. coli Nissle 1917 did not differ significantly from those obtained with E. coli ED1a. CTX-RE survival did not differ significantly in manure samples with or without probiotic treatment. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, E. coli ED1a and E. coli Nissle 1917 could not durably prevent CTX-RE colonization of the pig gut. PMID:27795372
Mourand, G; Paboeuf, F; Fleury, M A; Jouy, E; Bougeard, S; Denamur, E; Kempf, I
Four trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli probiotic strain ED1a administration to pigs on the gut carriage or survival in manure of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing E. coli Groups of pigs were orally inoculated with strain E. coli M63 carrying the blaCTX-M-1 gene (n = 84) or used as a control (n = 26). In the first two trials, 24 of 40 E. coli M63-inoculated pigs were given E. coli ED1a orally for 6 days starting 8 days after oral inoculation. In the third trial, 10 E. coli M63-inoculated pigs were given either E. coli ED1a or probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 for 5 days. In the fourth trial, E. coli ED1a was given to a sow and its 12 piglets, and these 12 piglets plus 12 piglets that had not received E. coli ED1a were then inoculated with E. coli M63. Fecal shedding of cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CTX-RE) was studied by culture, and blaCTX-M-1 genes were quantified by PCR. The persistence of CTX-RE in manure samples from inoculated pigs or manure samples inoculated in vitro with E. coli M63 with or without probiotics was studied. The results showed that E. coli M63 and ED1a were good gut colonizers. The reduction in the level of fecal excretion of CTX-RE in E. coli ED1a-treated pigs compared to that in nontreated pigs was usually less than 1 log10 CFU and was mainly observed during the probiotic administration period. The results obtained with E. coli Nissle 1917 did not differ significantly from those obtained with E. coli ED1a. CTX-RE survival did not differ significantly in manure samples with or without probiotic treatment. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, E. coli ED1a and E. coli Nissle 1917 could not durably prevent CTX-RE colonization of the pig gut. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.
Bono, James L.; Kalchayanand, Norasak
The development and implementation of effective antimicrobial interventions by the beef processing industry in the United States have dramatically reduced the incidence of beef trim contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, individual processing plants still experience sporadic peaks in contamination rates where multiple E. coli O157:H7-positive lots are clustered in a short time frame. These peaks have been referred to as “high event periods” (HEP) of contamination. The results reported here detail the characterization of E. coli O157:H7 isolates from 21 HEP across multiple companies and processing plants to gain insight regarding the mechanisms causing these incidents. Strain genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and isolates were investigated for characteristics linking them to human illness. Through these analyses, it was determined that individual HEP show little to no diversity in strain genotypes. Hence, each HEP has one strain type that makes up most, if not all, of the contamination. This is shown to differ from the genotypic diversity of E. coli O157:H7 found on the hides of cattle entering processing plants. In addition, it was found that a large proportion (81%) of HEP are caused by strain types associated with human illness. These results pose a potential challenge to the current model for finished product contamination during beef processing. PMID:24212567
Rhoades, J; Manderson, K; Wells, A; Hotchkiss, A T; Gibson, G R; Formentin, K; Beer, M; Rastall, R A
The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) to inhibit adhesion of three strains of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, three strains of enteropathogenic E. coli, and one nonclinical strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans to human intestinal epithelial cell cultures. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus gasseri were included for comparison. Attachment was determined in the human HT29 cell line by viable count of adherent bacteria. POS in buffer at pH 7.2 were antiadhesive at a dose of 2.5 mg ml(-1), reducing adhesion of enteropathogenic E. coil and verotoxigenic E. coli strains to less than 30% of control values. Concentrations resulting in 50% inhibition ranged from 0.15 to 0.46 mg ml(-1). L. acidophilus was not significantly affected, but adhesion of L. gasseri was reduced to 29% of the control value. POS reduced the adhesion of D. desulfuricans to 0.33% of the control value. POS also had a protective effect against E. coli verocytotoxins VT1 and VT2 at concentrations of 0.01 and 1 microg ml(-1), respectively.
Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee
The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections. PMID:24523478
Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee; Reis, Joice N
The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections.
Miko, Angelika; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Strockbine, Nancy A; Lindstedt, Björn Arne; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Reetz, Jochen; Beutin, Lothar
Sixty-two Escherichia coli strains carrying the wzxO104-gene from different sources, origins and time periods were analyzed for their serotypes, virulence genes and compared for genomic similarity by pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE). The O104 antigen was present in 55 strains and the structurally and genetically related capsular antigen K9 in five strains. The presence of 49 genes associated with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) was investigated. Fifty-four strains of serotypes O104:H2 (n=1), O104:H4 (n=37), O104:H7 (n=5) and O104:H21 (n=11) produced Shiga-toxins (Stx). Among STEC O104, a close association between serotype, virulence gene profile and genomic similarity was found. EAEC virulence genes were only present in STEC O104:H4 strains. EHEC-O157 plasmid-encoded genes were only found in STEC O104:H2, O104:H7 and O104:H21 strains. None of the 62 O104 or K9 strains carried an eae-gene involved in the attaching and effacing phenotype. The 38 O104:H4 strains formed a single PFGE-cluster (>83.7% similarity). Thirty-one of these strains were from the European O104:H4 outbreak in 2011. The outbreak strains and older O104:H4 strains from Germany (2001), Georgia and France (2009) clustered together at>86.2% similarity. O104:H4 strains isolated between 2001 and 2009 differed for some plasmid-encoded virulence genes compared to the outbreak strains from 2011. STEC O104:H21 and STEC O104:H7 strains isolated in the U.S. and in Europe showed characteristic differences in their Stx-types, virulence gene and PFGE profiles indicating that these have evolved separately. E. coli K9 strains were not associated with virulence and were heterogeneous for their serotypes and PFGE profiles.
ABSTRACT The presence of emerging biological pollutants in treated wastewater effluents has gained attention due to increased interest in water reuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of the removal of such contaminants by the conventional wastewater treatment process, the fate and decay kinetics of NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strain PI7 and its plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were assessed in microcosms of anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Results showed that E. coli PI7 decayed at a significantly lower rate under anaerobic conditions. Approximate half-lives were 32.4 ± 1.4 h and 5.9 ± 0.9 h in the anaerobic and aerobic microcosms, respectively. In the aerobic microcosms, after 72 h of operation, E. coli PI7 remained detectable, but no further decay was observed. Instead, 1 in every 10,000 E. coli cells was identified to be recalcitrant to decay and persist indefinitely in the sludge. ARGs associated with the E. coli PI7 strain were detected to have transferred to other native microorganisms in the sludge or were released to the liquid fraction upon host decay. Extracellular DNA quickly degraded in the liquid fraction of the aerobic sludge. In contrast, no DNA decay was detected in the anaerobic sludge water matrix throughout the 24-h sampling period. This study suggests an increased likelihood of environmental dispersion of ARGs associated with anaerobically treated wastewater effluents and highlights the potential importance of persister cells in the dissemination of E. coli in the environment during reuse events of treated wastewater. IMPORTANCE This study examines the decay kinetics of a pathogenic and antibiotic resistant strain of Escherichia coli in microcosms simulating biological treatment units of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. The results of this study point at a significantly prolonged persistence of the E. coli and the associated antibiotic resistance gene in the anaerobic sludge. However, horizontal transfer of the plasmid encoding
Mantilla-Calderon, David; Hong, Pei-Ying
The presence of emerging biological pollutants in treated wastewater effluents has gained attention due to increased interest in water reuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of the removal of such contaminants by the conventional wastewater treatment process, the fate and decay kinetics of NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strain PI7 and its plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were assessed in microcosms of anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Results showed that E. coli PI7 decayed at a significantly lower rate under anaerobic conditions. Approximate half-lives were 32.4 ± 1.4 h and 5.9 ± 0.9 h in the anaerobic and aerobic microcosms, respectively. In the aerobic microcosms, after 72 h of operation, E. coli PI7 remained detectable, but no further decay was observed. Instead, 1 in every 10,000 E. coli cells was identified to be recalcitrant to decay and persist indefinitely in the sludge. ARGs associated with the E. coli PI7 strain were detected to have transferred to other native microorganisms in the sludge or were released to the liquid fraction upon host decay. Extracellular DNA quickly degraded in the liquid fraction of the aerobic sludge. In contrast, no DNA decay was detected in the anaerobic sludge water matrix throughout the 24-h sampling period. This study suggests an increased likelihood of environmental dispersion of ARGs associated with anaerobically treated wastewater effluents and highlights the potential importance of persister cells in the dissemination of E. coli in the environment during reuse events of treated wastewater.IMPORTANCE This study examines the decay kinetics of a pathogenic and antibiotic resistant strain of Escherichia coli in microcosms simulating biological treatment units of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. The results of this study point at a significantly prolonged persistence of the E. coli and the associated antibiotic resistance gene in the anaerobic sludge. However, horizontal transfer of the plasmid encoding the
Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Gonzalez-Nuñez, Edgar; Vidal, Jorge E; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; León-Sicairos, Nidia
Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains are an important cause of intestinal syndromes in the developing world mainly affecting children. DEC strains often infect tourists from developed countries traveling to Mexico, causing so-called "traveler diarrhea". DEC strains are typically transmitted by contaminated food and water; however, the prevalence of these strains in food items that are produced, consumed and sometimes exported in northwestern Mexico has not been evaluated. In this study, we conducted a large microbiological survey of DEC strains in 5162 food items and beverages consumed throughout Sinaloa state during 2008 and 2009. We developed a panel of eight sequential PCR reactions that detected the presence of all DEC categories, including typical or atypical variants. Thermotolerant coliforms (also known as fecal coliforms) and E. coli were detected by conventional bacteriology in 13.4% (692/5162) and 7.92% (409/5162) of food items, respectively. Among 409 E. coli isolates, 13.6% (56/409) belonged to DEC strains. Dairy products (2.8%) were the most contaminated with DEC, while DEC strains were not detected in beverages and ice samples. The pathogenic type that was most commonly isolated was EPEC (78.5%), followed by EAEC (10.7%), STEC (8.9%) and ETEC (1.7%). EHEC, DAEC and EIEC strains were not detected. Approximately 80% of EPEC and EAEC strains were classified as atypical variants; they did not adhere to a culture of HEp-2 cell. Of the isolated DEC strains, 66% showed resistance to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic. In conclusion, the presence of DEC strains in food items and beverages available in northwestern Mexico is low and may not represent a threat for the general population or those traveling to tourist areas.
In Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895, a guanine to thymine transversion in the csgD promoter created strain 43895OR. Strain 43895OR produces an abundant extracellular matrix rich in curli fibers, forms biofilm on solid surfaces, invades cultured epithelial cells, and is more virulent in mic...
In Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895, a guanine to thymine transversion in the csgD promoter created strain 43895OR. Strain 43895OR produces an abundant extracellular matrix rich in curli fibers, forms biofilm on solid surfaces, invades cultured epithelial cells, and is more virulent in a m...
Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Lehner, A
Between March 2011 and February 2012 83 E. coli strains were isolated from mastitis milk samples from 83 different animals (67 farms) and tested for their sensitivity to various antibiotics by means of disk diffusion method and genotyped by determination of the phylogenetic groups as well as by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The antibiotics were chosen on the basis of their licenses for intramammary application in Switzerland. As many as 16.9 % of the isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin and third generation cephalosporins proved effective against the majority of these strains. Nevertheless, one blaCTX-M-14 harbouring extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producing strain was found. Genetic analysis grouped most of the strains (87 %) into phylogenetic groups A and B1. PFGE genotyping demonstrated that E. coli from cows with mastitis even from the same farm were genotypically very diverse.
Jabbour, Rabih E.; Wright, James D.; Deshpande, Samir V.; Wade, Mary; McCubbin, Patrick; Bevilacqua, Vicky
The secreted proteins of the enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic E. coli (EHEC and EPEC) are the most common cause of hemorrhagic colitis, a bloody diarrhea with EHEC infection, which often can lead to life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS).We are employing a metaproteomic approach as an effective and complimentary technique to the current genomic based approaches. This metaproteomic approach will evaluate the secreted proteins associated with pathogenicity and utilize their signatures as differentiation biomarkers between EHEC and EPEC strains. The result showed that the identified tryptic peptides of the secreted proteins extracted from different EHEC and EPEC growths have difference in their amino acids sequences and could potentially utilized as biomarkers for the studied E. coli strains. Analysis of extract from EHEC O104:H4 resulted in identification of a multidrug efflux protein, which belongs to the family of fusion proteins that are responsible of cell transportation. Experimental peptides identified lies in the region of the HlyD haemolysin secretion protein-D that is responsible for transporting the haemolysin A toxin. Moreover, the taxonomic classification of EHEC O104:H4 showed closest match with E. coli E55989, which is in agreement with genomic sequencing studies that were done extensively on the mentioned strain. The taxonomic results showed strain level classification for the studied strains and distinctive separation among the strains. Comparative proteomic calculations showed separation between EHEC O157:H7 and O104:H4 in replicate samples using cluster analysis. There are no reported studies addressing the characterization of secreted proteins in various enhanced growth media and utilizing them as biomarkers for strain differentiation. The results of FY-2012 are promising to pursue further experimentation to statistically validate the results and to further explore the impact of environmental conditions on the nature of the secreted
Bogosian, G; Morris, P J; Hale, M D; Kane, J F
The fate in water of Escherichia coli K-12 strain LBB269, both plasmid-free and carrying the recombinant plasmid pBGH1, was studied. E. coli K-12 strain LBB269 (pBGH1) is a nalidixic acid resistant derivative of W3110G (pBGH1), the microorganism used by Monsanto Company for the commercial production of bovine somatotropin. Water samples were obtained from the Missouri River and from the Monsanto Life Sciences Research Center aqueous waste basin. Strains LBB269 and LBB269 (pBGH1) were grown in fermentation vessel under bovine somatotropin (BST) production conditions, and inoculated into the water samples. The inoculated water samples were incubated at 26 degrees C, and the number of viable E. coli cells was determined as a function of time. In sterile water from both sources, the two strains remained at a constant level for at least 28 days; LBB269 (pBGH1) remained at a constant level in sterile water for at least 300 days. In non-sterile water from both sources, the two strains declined from an initial concentration of about 3.0 x 10(6) cells per ml to less than 10 cells per ml in 147 h. The study conditions did not adversely affect the populations of indigenous microorganisms. The selective loss of strains LBB269 and LBB269 (pBGH1) demonstrates that these E. coli strains do not survive in environmental sources of water. In addition, it was observed that the presence of pBGH1 had essentially no effect on the disappearance of strain LBB269 from either source of water.
Bertschinger, Hans U.; Moon, Harley W.; Whipp, Shannon C.
Two enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EEC) differed from a nonenteropathogenic strain of E. coli (NEEC) in their association with porcine small intestinal epithelium. The EEC characteristically were found along villi from tip to base and contiguous to the brush border. They were not in crypts. In contrast, the NEEC characteristically remained in the central lumen near the tips of villi and was only occasionally contiguous to the brush border. No organisms were detected within epithelial cells. The difference in distribution between EEC and NEEC was apparent in ligated jejunal loops 45 min postexposure. The association between host and bacterial cells was most consistently demonstrated on frozen sections of intestine, as other histological techniques removed many bacteria. However, cellular details of the association were best demonstrated in chemically fixed tissues. Images PMID:4564680
Bertschinger, H U; Moon, H W; Whipp, S C
Two enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EEC) differed from a nonenteropathogenic strain of E. coli (NEEC) in their association with porcine small intestinal epithelium. The EEC characteristically were found along villi from tip to base and contiguous to the brush border. They were not in crypts. In contrast, the NEEC characteristically remained in the central lumen near the tips of villi and was only occasionally contiguous to the brush border. No organisms were detected within epithelial cells. The difference in distribution between EEC and NEEC was apparent in ligated jejunal loops 45 min postexposure. The association between host and bacterial cells was most consistently demonstrated on frozen sections of intestine, as other histological techniques removed many bacteria. However, cellular details of the association were best demonstrated in chemically fixed tissues.
Bakhshi, Fatemah; Pilehchian Langroudi, Reza; Eimani, Bahram Golestani
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is only produced by types B and C and plays an important role in many human and animal diseases, causing fatal conditions that originate in the intestines. We compared the expression of C. perfringens type B vaccine strain recombinant beta toxin gene in the Escherichia coli strains Rosetta(DE3) and BL21(DE3). The beta toxin gene was extracted from pJETβ and ligated with pET22b(+). pET22β was transformed into E. coli strains BL21(DE3) and Rosetta(DE3). Recombinant protein was expressed as a soluble protein after isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction in strain Rosetta(DE3) but not in BL21(DE3). Expression was optimised by growing recombinant cells at 37 °C and at an induction of 0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM IPTG. Expression was evaluated using sodium dodecyl sulfate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The recombinant protein was purified via Ni-NTA and was analysed using western blot. We concluded that E. coli strain RosettaTM(DE3) can enhance the expression of C. perfringens recombinant beta toxin.
Beloin, Christophe; Roux, Agnès; Ghigo, Jean-Marc
Escherichia coli is a predominant species among facultative anaerobic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Both its frequent community lifestyle and the availability of a wide array of genetic tools contributed to establish E. coli as a relevant model organism for the study of surface colonization. Several key factors, including different extracellular appendages, are implicated in E. coli surface colonization and their expression and activity are finely regulated, both in space and time, to ensure productive events leading to mature biofilm formation. This chapter will present known molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm development in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli. PMID:18453280
Li, Xi; Mu, Xinli; Yang, Yunxing; Hua, Xiaoting; Yang, Qing; Wang, Nanfei; Du, Xiaoxing; Ruan, Zhi; Shen, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Yunsong
Tigecycline (TIG) resistance is a growing concern because this antibiotic is regarded as one of the last resorts to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria. Information regarding TIG-resistant Escherichia coli isolates is scarce. In this study, we report the emergence of high-level TIG resistance in a longitudinal series of XDR E. coli isolates collected during TIG treatment. Whole-genome sequencing was performed for six E. coli strains harbouring bla(NDM-5) and genomic comparison revealed two amino acid substitutions. Mutation in rpsJ could be a significant factor conferring TIG resistance in these isolates. The fitness cost of TIG resistance in resistant strains was evaluated by determining the relative growth rate, indicating that TIG resistance reduced fitness by ca. 7%. This study is the first report to demonstrate high-level TIG resistance in E. coli in vivo. In addition, we report the first treatment-emergent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) development of TIG from 1mg/L to 64 mg/L in E. coli. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of an increase in the MIC of TIG under therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Camguilhem, R; Milon, A
A total of 575 Escherichia coli strains isolated from weaned rabbits experiencing diarrhea in 119 French commercial farms were tested for O serogroups. The results showed a strong predominance of serogroup O103 strains. A sample of 126 strains were further checked for simplified biotypes by using five carbohydrate fermentation reactions. Of 72 O103 strains, 70 were shown to belong to biotypes characterized by a rhamnose-negative reaction. Four of nine serogroup O68 strains also showed this type of reaction. Thirty-nine strains, representative of the serotypes and biotypes found, were further tested for experimental pathogenicity in weaned rabbits and for antibiotic susceptibility. All the rhamnose-negative strains produced life-threatening watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea, whereas rhamnose-positive strains induced only mild diarrheic syndrome without any mortality or no clinical signs at all. Rhamnose-negative, highly pathogenic strains did not belong to related antibiotypes. We think that O serogrouping together with biotyping, or even rhamnose fermentation testing, may be an important clue in the diagnosis of enteropathogenic strains from rabbits in France, permitting rapid identification of highly pathogenic strains and leading to improved prognosis and treatment. PMID:2656746
Herold, Sylvia; Siebert, Jutta; Huber, Andrea; Schmidt, Herbert
We investigated the influence of a low concentration of the gyrase inhibitor norfloxacin on the transcriptome of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. For this purpose, we used a commercial DNA microarray containing oligonucleotides specific for E. coli O157:H7 strains EDL933 and RIMD0509952 and E. coli K-12 strain MG1655. Under the conditions applied, 5,963 spots (94% of all spots) could be analyzed. Among these, 118 spots (P < 0.05) indicated transcriptional upregulation and 122 spots (P < 0.05) indicated transcriptional downregulation of the E. coli genes present on the array. Eighty-five upregulated EDL933 genes were phage borne. Fifty-two of them could be ascribed to the Shiga toxin-encoding phages (Stx phages) BP-933W and CP-933V; the other 33 genes belonged to non-Stx prophage elements in the EDL933 genome. Genes present in the BP-933W prophage genome were induced most strongly up to 158-fold in the case of stxA2 upon induction with norfloxacin. Twenty-two additional upregulated genes appeared to be E. coli O157:H7 strain RIMD0509952-specific phage elements, and the remaining 11 genes were related mainly to recombination and stress functions. Downregulation was indicated predominantly for genes responsible for bacterial primary metabolism, such as energy production, cell division, and amino acid biosynthesis. Interestingly, some genes present in the locus of enterocyte effacement appeared to be downregulated. The results of the study have shown that a low concentration of norfloxacin has profound effects on the transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:15728886
Rosocha, J; Wray, C; Mikula, I
Escherichia coli isolated from experimentally induced oedema disease in pigs was used for the isolation and purification of F107 fimbriae. The reference strain was probed using membrane DNA hybridisation for the presence of fed A gene. F107 fimbriae were purified on FPLC and purity was checked on HPLC and SDS PAGE. A protein with major subunit of 18.9 kDa was used for Mabs preparation. Mabs reacted with 18.9 kDa protein previously classified as a major fimbrial subunit and were able to detect F107 fimbriae in immunoelectron microscopy on the surface of the strains 107/86 and 8872. Other strains used in this study did not express any fimbriae. Western blot analysis and F107 ELISA confirmed, that Mabs react with 18.9 kDa subunit whereas strains passaged many times in laboratory did not express F107 fimbriae.
Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kawabata, Hitomi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko
We demonstrated direct assimilation of cellooligosaccharide using Escherichia coli displaying beta-glucosidase (BGL). BGL from Thermobifida fusca YX (Tfu0937) was displayed on the E. coli cell surface using a novel anchor protein named Blc. This strain was grown successfully on 0.2% cellobiose, and the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was 1.05 after 20 h. PMID:21742905
Schwarzhans, Jan-Philipp; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Kalinowski, Jörn; Friehs, Karl
Escherichia coli KRX is a strain offering both a high transformation efficiency and the possibility to produce the target protein to high yields in one host, avoiding additional cloning steps. Here, the draft genome sequence of E. coli KRX is presented and provides the genetic basis for additional biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Schwarzhans et al.
Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Skrzypek, Kinga; Siwiec, Radosław; Wrobel, Andrzej; Malm, Anna
Fluorochinolones are a class of broad-spectrum antimicrobials in the treatment of several infections, including those caused by Escherichia coli. Due to the increasing resistance of bacteria to antimicrobials, an understanding of fluoroquinolone resistance is important for infection control. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility of clinical E. coli strains to fluoroquinolones and characterize their mechanisms of quinolone resistance. Totally, 79 non-duplicate clinical E. coli isolates included in this study were mainly from skin lesion -36 (45.6%) isolates; 54 (68.4%) isolates were assigned to phylogenetic B2 group. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was found in 20 isolates. In the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) region of gyrA and parC, 4 types of point mutations were detected. Mutations in parC gene were found in all strains with gyrA mutations. Predominance of double mutation in codon 83 and 87 of gyrA (90%) and in codon 80 of parC (90%) was found. Moreover, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMRQ) determinants (qnrA or qnrB and/or aac(6')-Ib-cr) were present in 5 (25%) out of 20 fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Resistance to fluoroquinolones in all of the tested clinical E. coli isolates correlated with point mutations in both gyrA and parC. The majority of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains belonged to D and B2 phylogenetic groups.
Christner, Martin; Trusch, Maria; Rohde, Holger; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut; Wolters, Manuel; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Hentschke, Moritz
Background In 2011 northern Germany experienced a large outbreak of Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4. The large amount of samples sent to microbiology laboratories for epidemiological assessment highlighted the importance of fast and inexpensive typing procedures. We have therefore evaluated the applicability of a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry based strategy for outbreak strain identification. Methods Specific peaks in the outbreak strain’s spectrum were identified by comparative analysis of archived pre-outbreak spectra that had been acquired for routine species-level identification. Proteins underlying these discriminatory peaks were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and validated against publicly available databases. The resulting typing scheme was evaluated against PCR genotyping with 294 E. coli isolates from clinical samples collected during the outbreak. Results Comparative spectrum analysis revealed two characteristic peaks at m/z 6711 and m/z 10883. The underlying proteins were found to be of low prevalence among genome sequenced E. coli strains. Marker peak detection correctly classified 292 of 293 study isolates, including all 104 outbreak isolates. Conclusions MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allowed for reliable outbreak strain identification during a large outbreak of Shiga-Toxigenic E. coli. The applied typing strategy could probably be adapted to other typing tasks and might facilitate epidemiological surveys as part of the routine pathogen identification workflow. PMID:25003758
Ryu, Seung-Hee; Lee, Jip-Ho; Park, Sang-Hoon; Song, Mi-Ok; Park, Sun-Hee; Jung, Hyo-Won; Park, Geon-Yong; Choi, Sung-Min; Kim, Moo-Sang; Chae, Young-Zoo; Park, Seog-Gee; Lee, Young-Ki
A total of 4330 food samples of which microbiological standard for Escherichia coli is negative in Korea were determined for the frequency of E. coli. Ninety six samples (2.2%) were positive for E. coli. Detection rate of E. coli varied significantly by food type and ranged from 0.3% to 10.9%. Seasoned raw meat (yukhoe) and cold bean-soup had the highest prevalence for E. coli (10.9%) followed by gimbap (5.2%), meat broth for cold noodle (2.9%) and sprout (2.1%). E. coli isolates (n=96) were investigated for their phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns. Seventeen E. coli isolates (17.7%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents tested. High rates of resistance to the following drugs were observed: tetracycline (15.6%), streptomycin (12.5%), ampicillin (10.4%), nalidixic acid (9.4%) and ticarcillin (9.4%). All ampicillin resistant isolates were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production by the combination disk test. None of the E. coli isolates produced ESBLs. Seventeen out of 96 E. coli isolates which were resistant to at least one antibiotic were investigated by PCR for the presence of 3 classes of antimicrobial resistance genes (tetracycline, aminoglycosides and beta-lactams). The tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB were found in 7 and 5 isolates, respectively. The aminoglycoside resistance genes, strA/B, aphA1, aadA and aac(3)-IV were found in 9, 5, 2 and 2 isolates, respectively. The beta-lactam resistance gene, bla(TEM) was found in 7 isolates. Results of this study show that 13 E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant (to three or more antibiotics) and 12 isolates carried at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. These isolates can act as the reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes and facilitate the dissemination of these genes to other pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Adequate intervention to reduce microbial contamination of these foods is strongly recommended.
Cristea, Violeta Corina; Oprea, Mihaela; Neacşu, Gabriela; Gîlcă, Ramona; Popa, Mircea Ioan; Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa
Urinary tract infections (UTI) with Escherichia coli are among the most common infections presenting in general practice. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are relied on for their empirical therapy but recent reports indicate a concerning increase in the percentage of FQ-resistant E. coli isolates in many countries, including Romania. Sixty E. coli strains with ciprofloxacin resistance and cephalosporin susceptibility isolated from urine specimens of non-hospitalized patients during a five-month period (October 2014 - February 2015) were further analyzed to determine the molecular basis of FQ resistance (i.e. mutations in chromosomal gyrA, gyrB, parC genes and presence of plasmid-borne qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6'-Ib-cr genes), the phylogenetic background (i.e. phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, C, D, E, F or clade I), O25b/ST131 status, and genetic relatedness inferred from the XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles as a measure of isolate-specific genetic composition. The PCR-based phylotyping showed that most strains were assigned to non-B2 phylogenetic groups (i.e. group A/21 strains, group B1/14 strains, group B2/10 strains, group C/8 strains, group D/3 strains, group F/4 strains). Already described chromosomal mutations associated to FQ resistance were found, the strains being double gyrA mutants (i.e. Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn) with one or two parC mutations (e.g. Ala56Thr, Ser80Ile, Glu84Gly). Seven percent of the strains harboured plasmid-borne genes qnrS1 (2 strains) and aac(6'-Ib-cr (2 strains). Based on the PCR results, 15% of the strains were members of the O25b/ST131 clone and possessed the gyrA/parC allele combination which is considered as hallmark of H30 subclone. PFGE genotyping revealed a genetically diverse population of FQ-resistant E. coli. ST131 strains displayed more homogeneous PFGE profiles than non-ST131. The ST131 cluster extended to 77.74% similarity versus 60% overall. These findings underscore the need for ongoing surveillance to capture the
Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Vázquez-Barrios, Ma Estela; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier
The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fukushima, Masao; Kakinuma, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Ryuji
Phylogenetic analysis of about 200 strains of Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli was carried out using the nucleotide sequence of the gene for DNA gyrase B (gyrB), which was determined by directly sequencing PCR fragments. The results establish a new phylogenetic tree for the classification of Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli in which Salmonella forms a cluster separate from but closely related to Shigella and E. coli. In comparison with 16S rRNA analysis, the gyrB sequences indicated a greater evolutionary divergence for the bacteria. Thus, in screening for the presence of bacteria, the gyrB gene might be a useful tool for differentiating between closely related species of bacteria such as Shigella spp. and E. coli. At present, 16S rRNA sequence analysis is an accurate and rapid method for identifying most unknown bacteria to the genus level because the highly conserved 16S rRNA region is easy to amplify; however, analysis of the more variable gyrB sequence region can identify unknown bacteria to the species level. In summary, we have shown that gyrB sequence analysis is a useful alternative to 16S rRNA analysis for constructing the phylogenetic relationships of bacteria, in particular for the classification of closely related bacterial species.
Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H.; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689
Robichon, Carine; Luo, Jianying; Causey, Thomas B.; Benner, Jack S.; Samuelson, James C.
Recombinant His-tagged proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) are commonly coeluted with native E. coli proteins, especially if the recombinant protein is expressed at a low level. The E. coli contaminants display high affinity to divalent nickel or cobalt ions, mainly due to the presence of clustered histidine residues or biologically relevant metal binding sites. To improve the final purity of expressed His-tagged protein, we engineered E. coli BL21(DE3) expression strains in which the most recurring contaminants are either expressed with an alternative tag or mutated to decrease their affinity to divalent cations. The current study presents the design, engineering, and characterization of two E. coli BL21(DE3) derivatives, NiCo21(DE3) and NiCo22(DE3), which express the endogenous proteins SlyD, Can, ArnA, and (optionally) AceE fused at their C terminus to a chitin binding domain (CBD) and the protein GlmS, with six surface histidines replaced by alanines. We show that each E. coli CBD-tagged protein remains active and can be efficiently eliminated from an IMAC elution fraction using a chitin column flowthrough step, while the modification of GlmS results in loss of affinity for nickel-containing resin. The “NiCo” strains uniquely complement existing methods for improving the purity of recombinant His-tagged protein. PMID:21602383
Robichon, Carine; Luo, Jianying; Causey, Thomas B; Benner, Jack S; Samuelson, James C
Recombinant His-tagged proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) are commonly coeluted with native E. coli proteins, especially if the recombinant protein is expressed at a low level. The E. coli contaminants display high affinity to divalent nickel or cobalt ions, mainly due to the presence of clustered histidine residues or biologically relevant metal binding sites. To improve the final purity of expressed His-tagged protein, we engineered E. coli BL21(DE3) expression strains in which the most recurring contaminants are either expressed with an alternative tag or mutated to decrease their affinity to divalent cations. The current study presents the design, engineering, and characterization of two E. coli BL21(DE3) derivatives, NiCo21(DE3) and NiCo22(DE3), which express the endogenous proteins SlyD, Can, ArnA, and (optionally) AceE fused at their C terminus to a chitin binding domain (CBD) and the protein GlmS, with six surface histidines replaced by alanines. We show that each E. coli CBD-tagged protein remains active and can be efficiently eliminated from an IMAC elution fraction using a chitin column flowthrough step, while the modification of GlmS results in loss of affinity for nickel-containing resin. The "NiCo" strains uniquely complement existing methods for improving the purity of recombinant His-tagged protein.
Pritchard, Leighton; Holden, Nicola J; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge; Toth, Ian K
An Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany in summer 2011 caused 53 deaths, over 4000 individual infections across Europe, and considerable economic, social and political impact. This outbreak was the first in a position to exploit rapid, benchtop high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and crowdsourced data analysis early in its investigation, establishing a new paradigm for rapid response to disease threats. We describe a novel strategy for design of diagnostic PCR primers that exploited this rapid draft bacterial genome sequencing to distinguish between E. coli O104:H4 outbreak isolates and other pathogenic E. coli isolates, including the historical hæmolytic uræmic syndrome (HUSEC) E. coli HUSEC041 O104:H4 strain, which possesses the same serotype as the outbreak isolates. Primers were designed using a novel alignment-free strategy against eleven draft whole genome assemblies of E. coli O104:H4 German outbreak isolates from the E. coli O104:H4 Genome Analysis Crowd-Sourcing Consortium website, and a negative sequence set containing 69 E. coli chromosome and plasmid sequences from public databases. Validation in vitro against 21 'positive' E. coli O104:H4 outbreak and 32 'negative' non-outbreak EHEC isolates indicated that individual primer sets exhibited 100% sensitivity for outbreak isolates, with false positive rates of between 9% and 22%. A minimal combination of two primers discriminated between outbreak and non-outbreak E. coli isolates with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Draft genomes of isolates of disease outbreak bacteria enable high throughput primer design and enhanced diagnostic performance in comparison to traditional molecular assays. Future outbreak investigations will be able to harness HTS rapidly to generate draft genome sequences and diagnostic primer sets, greatly facilitating epidemiology and clinical diagnostics. We expect that high throughput primer design strategies will enable faster, more precise responses to
Fukao, T; Sawada, H; Ohta, Y
The combined antimicrobial effects of hop resins with sodium hexametaphosphate, glycerol monocaprate, and lysozyme were investigated aiming to make an effective agent against Escherichia coli. When they are used separately, the antimicrobial activity against E. coli was minimal. However, the combination of hop resins with sodium hexametaphosphate exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, but no effect was found in combinations of hop resins with the other agents. The activity was strongest when the combination was added at the beginning of growth of the bacteria, resulting in a prolonged lag phase. However, when the antimicrobials were added during the log phase, growth was depressed considerably. By addition of these materials, cell components with absorbance near 260 nm were leaked out. This possibly may have resulted from damage to the cell membranes of the bacteria. The combined effect was also detected in model food systems such as mashed potatos. The use of hop resins and sodium hexametaphosphate in combination may thus be useful for controlling E. coli.
Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.
The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods. PMID:25883829
Background In the biopharmaceutical industry, Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains are among the most frequently used bacterial hosts for producing recombinant proteins because they allow a simple process set-up and they are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for human applications. Widespread use of E. coli in biotechnology has led to the development of many different strains, and selecting an ideal host to produce a specific protein of interest is an important step in developing a production process. E. coli B and K–12 strains are frequently employed in large-scale production processes, and therefore are of particular interest. We previously evaluated the individual cultivation characteristics of E. coli BL21 and the K–12 hosts RV308 and HMS174. To our knowledge, there has not yet been a detailed comparison of the individual performances of these production strains in terms of recombinant protein production and system stability. The present study directly compared the T7-based expression hosts E. coli BL21(DE3), RV308(DE3), and HMS174(DE3), focusing on evaluating the specific attributes of these strains in relation to high-level protein production of the model protein recombinant human superoxide dismutase (SOD). The experimental setup was an exponential carbon-limited fed-batch cultivation with minimal media and single-pulse induction. Results The host strain BL21(DE3) produced the highest amounts of specific protein, followed by HMS174(DE3) and RV308(DE3). The expression system HMS174(DE3) exhibited system stability by retaining the expression vector over the entire process time; however, it entirely stopped growing shortly after induction. In contrast, BL21(DE3) and RV308(DE3) encountered plasmid loss but maintained growth. RV308(DE3) exhibited the lowest ppGpp concentration, which is correlated with the metabolic stress level and lowest degradation of soluble protein fraction compared to both other strains. Conclusions Overall, this study provides
Bassett, C L; Kushner, S R
Colicin E1 synthesis is spontaneously induced in pRSF2124-carrying strains of Escherichia coli deficient in exonucleases I (sbcB) and V (recB recC). In contrast, the specific activity of beta-lactamase, which is also encoded by pRSF2124, is not affected by the absence of these enzymes. These results suggest that colicin E1 induction is specific and does not result either from a significant change in overall plasmid transcription or copy number. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous induction was similar to that obtained with mitomycin C. PMID:3934144
Verissimo-Villela, Erika; Kitahara-Oliveira, Milene Yoko; dos Reis, Ana Beatriz de Bragança; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro
During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins. PMID:27223868
Morales, Adriano Savoia; Fragoso de Araújo, Juliana; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Túlio; Reis Costa, Adrienny Trindade; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; de Lima Filsner, Pedro Henrique Nogueira; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Micke Moreno, Andrea
Reports about acquired resistance to colistin in different bacteria species are increasing, including E. coli of animal origin, but reports of resistance in wild S. enterica of different serotypes from swine are not found in the literature. Results obtained with one hundred and twenty-six E. coli strains from diseased swine and one hundred and twenty-four S. enterica strains from diseased and carrier swine showed a frequency of 6.3% and 21% of colistin-resistant strains, respectively. When comparing the disk diffusion test with the agar dilution test to evaluate the strains, it was confirmed that the disk diffusion test is not recommended to evaluate colistin resistance as described previously. The colistin MIC 90 and MIC 50 values obtained to E. coli were 0.25 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, the MIC 90 and MIC 50 to S. enterica were 1 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL. Considering the importance of colistin in control of nosocomial human infections with Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, and the large use of this drug in animal production, the colistin resistance prevalence in enterobacteriaceae of animal origin must be monitored more closely.
Morales, Adriano Savoia; Fragoso de Araújo, Juliana; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Túlio; Reis Costa, Adrienny Trindade; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; de Lima Filsner, Pedro Henrique Nogueira; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Micke Moreno, Andrea
Reports about acquired resistance to colistin in different bacteria species are increasing, including E. coli of animal origin, but reports of resistance in wild S. enterica of different serotypes from swine are not found in the literature. Results obtained with one hundred and twenty-six E. coli strains from diseased swine and one hundred and twenty-four S. enterica strains from diseased and carrier swine showed a frequency of 6.3% and 21% of colistin-resistant strains, respectively. When comparing the disk diffusion test with the agar dilution test to evaluate the strains, it was confirmed that the disk diffusion test is not recommended to evaluate colistin resistance as described previously. The colistin MIC 90 and MIC 50 values obtained to E. coli were 0.25 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, the MIC 90 and MIC 50 to S. enterica were 1 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL. Considering the importance of colistin in control of nosocomial human infections with Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, and the large use of this drug in animal production, the colistin resistance prevalence in enterobacteriaceae of animal origin must be monitored more closely. PMID:22973166
Beutin, L; Montenegro, M A; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Prada, J; Zimmermann, S; Stephan, R
Sixty-four verotoxin-producing (VT+) Escherichia coli strains were analyzed for VT1- and VT2-specific DNA sequences and for production of hemolysin. Strains of human origin were of the following serotypes: O157:H7 or H-, O111:H8 or H-, O26:H11, O114:H4, and rough:H7. Strains of serotypes O157:H7, O113:H21, O116:H21, and rough:H- were from cattle, while those of serotype O139:K12:H1 were from pigs. All 64 isolates carried either VT1 or VT2 or both genes. Sixty of the strains (93.8%) were hemolytic (Hly+). The three O139:K12:H1 strains examined produced alpha-hemolysin, as shown by their reaction with the alpha-hemolysin-specific monoclonal antibody h2A and by DNA hybridization with an alpha-hly gene probe. The remaining 57 Hly+ strains (95%) produced a different type of hemolysin (enterohemolysin), which is genetically and serologically unrelated to alpha-hemolysin. The two types of hemolysin are further distinguished by the appearance of the lysis zone on blood agar and by the time interval for the detection of hemolysis. In contrast to alpha-hemolysin, enterohemolysin can be detected only on blood plates containing washed erythrocytes. The frequent association of enterohemolysin with verotoxin production (89%) makes it useful as an epidemiological marker for rapid and simple detection of potential VT+ E. coli. Images PMID:2681256
Mueller, J. ); Janz, S. )
The SOS chromotest is a simple short-term genotoxicity assay measuring the induction of gene sfiA in Escherichia coli K-12. The recent availability of SOS tester strains with additional mutations in DNA repair or protection systems allows testing of DNA damaging compounds for genotoxic specificity. E. coli PQ300 differs from the standard SOS tester strain PQ37 in that it contains an additional mutation in gene oxyR that renders it more sensitive to oxidative genotoxins. The generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by hydroperoxides (H[sub 2]O[sub 2], t-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide), [gamma]-radiation, glucose oxidase, and xanthine oxidase resulted in a more vigorous SOS response in strain PQ300 compared to strain PQ37. PQ300 was also more sensitive than PQ37 for the detection of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, cysteine, and glutathione, which also alter the redox status of the bacterial cells. However, intercalating agents (adriamycin, bleomycin, and mitomycin C) and the UV- and radiomimetic compound 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide whose DNA damaging potential are known also to involve ROI did not show significant differences between strains PQ37 and PQ300. It is concluded that the oxyR-deficient strain PQ300 is useful for detecting certain classes of genotoxins that change the oxidative/antioxidative balance of tester bacteria in the SOS chromotest. 70 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Sherchan, Jatan Bahadur; Doi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Maki; Sherchand, Jeevan B.; Tandukar, Sarmila; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohara, Hiroshi
ABSTRACT The global spread of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli) has largely been driven by the pandemic sequence type 131 (ST131). This study aimed to determine the molecular epidemiology of their spread in two Asian countries with contrasting prevalence. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of ESBL-E. coli ST131 strains collected prospectively from Nepal and Japan, two countries in Asia with a high and low prevalence of ESBL-E. coli, respectively. We also systematically compared these genomes with those reported from other regions using publicly available WGS data for E. coli ST131 strains. Further, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of these isolates and all genome sequence data for ST131 strains to determine sequence diversity. One hundred five unique ESBL-E. coli isolates from Nepal (February 2013 to July 2013) and 76 isolates from Japan (October 2013 to September 2014) were included. Of these isolates, 54 (51%) isolates from Nepal and 11 (14%) isolates from Japan were identified as ST131 by WGS. Phylogenetic analysis based on WGS suggested that the majority of ESBL-E. coli ST131 isolates from Nepal clustered together, whereas those from Japan were more diverse. Half of the ESBL-E. coli ST131 isolates from Japan belonged to virotype C, whereas half of the isolates from Nepal belonged to a virotype other than virotype A, B, C, D, or E (A/B/C/D/E). The dominant sublineage of E. coli ST131 was H30Rx, which was most prominent in ESBL-E. coli ST131 isolates from Nepal. Our results revealed distinct phylogenetic characteristics of ESBL-E. coli ST131 spread in the two geographical areas of Asia, indicating the involvement of multiple factors in its local spread in each region. IMPORTANCE The global spread of ESBL-E. coli has been driven in large part by pandemic sequence type 131 (ST131). A recent study suggested that, within E. coli ST131, certain sublineages have disseminated worldwide with little association
Englert, Markus; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Reynolds, Noah M; Wang, Yane-Shih; Söll, Dieter; Umehara, Takuya
Development of new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)•tRNA pairs is central for incorporation of novel non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion (GCE). The Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus histidyl-tRNA synthetases (HisRS) evolved divergent mechanisms of tRNA(His) recognition that prevent their cross-reactivity. Although the E. coli HisRS•tRNA(His) pair is a good candidate for GCE, its use in C. crescentus is limited by the lack of established genetic selection methods and by the low transformation efficiency of C. crescentus. E. coli was genetically engineered to use a C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA(His) pair. Super-folder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were used as reporters for read-through assays. A library of 313 ncAAs coupled with the sfGFP reporter system was employed to investigate the specificity of E. coli HisRS in vivo. A genomically modified E. coli strain (named MEOV1) was created. MEVO1 requires an active C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA(His) pair for growth, and displays a similar doubling time as the parental E. coli strain. sfGFP- and CAT-based assays showed that the E. coli HisRS•tRNA(His) pair is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. A mutation in the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNA(His)CUA elevated its suppression efficiency by 2-fold. The C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA(His) pair functionally complements an E. coli ΔhisS strain. The E. coli HisRS•tRNA(His) is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. E. coli tRNA(His)CUA is an efficient amber suppressor in MEOV1. We developed a platform that allows protein engineering of E. coli HisRS that should facilitate GCE in E. coli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Delannoy, Sabine; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Webb, Hattie E; Bonacorsi, Stephane; Fach, Patrick
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2-positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2-positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2-positive and stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 genomes obtained from Genbank indicates the existence of four clonal complexes (SNP-CCs) separated in two distinct lineages, one of which comprises the "new French clone" (SNP-CC1) that appears genetically closely related to stx-negative attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) strains. Interestingly, the whole genome SNP (wgSNP) phylogeny is summarized in the cas gene phylogeny, and a simple qPCR assay targeting the CRISPR array specific to SNP-CC1 (SP_O26-E) can distinguish between the two main lineages. The PacBio sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of the strains. Numerous MGEs were identified in each strain, including a large number of prophages and up to four large plasmids, representing overall 8.7-19.8% of the total genome size. Analysis of the prophage pool of the strains shows a considerable diversity with a complex history of recombination. Each clonal complex (SNP-CC) is characterized by a unique set of plasmids and phages, including stx-prophages, suggesting evolution through separate acquisition events. Overall, the MGEs appear to play a major role in O26:H11 intra-serotype clonal diversification.
Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Jacoby, Shamay; Krifucks, Oleg; Leitner, Gabriel
We studied the mammary immune response to different mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli (MPEC) strains in cows, hypothesising that the dynamics of response would differ. E. coli is a major aetiologic agent of acute clinical bovine mastitis of various degrees of severity with specific strains being associated with persistent infections. We compared challenge with three distinct pathogenic MPEC strains (VL2874, VL2732 and P4), isolated from different forms of mastitis (per-acute, persistent and acute, respectively). A secondary objective was to verify the lack of mammary pathogenicity of an environmental isolate (K71) that is used for comparison against MPEC in genomic and phenotypic studies. Twelve cows were challenged by intra-mammary infusion with one of the strains. Cellular and chemokine responses and bacterial culture follow-up were performed for 35 d. All cows challenged by any of the MPEC strains developed clinical mastitis. Differences were found in the intensity and duration of response, in somatic cell count, secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17) and levels of milk leucocyte membrane Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). A sharp decrease of TLR4 on leucocytes was observed concomitantly to peak bacterial counts in milk. Intra-mammary infusion of strain K71 did not elicit inflammation and bacteria were not recovered from milk. Results suggest some differences in the mammary immune response to distinct MPEC strains that could be correlated to their previously observed pathogenic traits. This is also the first report of an E. coli strain that is non-pathogenic to the bovine mammary gland.
Delannoy, Sabine; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Webb, Hattie E.; Bonacorsi, Stephane; Fach, Patrick
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2-positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2-positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2-positive and stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 genomes obtained from Genbank indicates the existence of four clonal complexes (SNP-CCs) separated in two distinct lineages, one of which comprises the “new French clone” (SNP-CC1) that appears genetically closely related to stx-negative attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) strains. Interestingly, the whole genome SNP (wgSNP) phylogeny is summarized in the cas gene phylogeny, and a simple qPCR assay targeting the CRISPR array specific to SNP-CC1 (SP_O26-E) can distinguish between the two main lineages. The PacBio sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of the strains. Numerous MGEs were identified in each strain, including a large number of prophages and up to four large plasmids, representing overall 8.7–19.8% of the total genome size. Analysis of the prophage pool of the strains shows a considerable diversity with a complex history of recombination. Each clonal complex (SNP-CC) is characterized by a unique set of plasmids and phages, including stx-prophages, suggesting evolution through separate acquisition events. Overall, the MGEs appear to play a major role in O26:H11 intra-serotype clonal diversification. PMID:28932209
Ranjan, Amit; Shaik, Sabiha; Mondal, Agnismita; Nandanwar, Nishant; Hussain, Arif; Semmler, Torsten; Kumar, Narender; Tiwari, Sumeet K.; Jadhav, Savita; Wieler, Lothar H.
The global dissemination and increasing incidence of carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative organisms have resulted in acute public health concerns. Here, we present a retrospective multicenter study on molecular characterization of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing clinical Escherichia coli isolates recovered from extraintestinal infections in two hospitals in Pune, India. We screened a large sample size of 510 E. coli isolates for MBL production wherein we profiled their molecular determinants, antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, functional virulence properties, genomic features, and transmission dynamics. Approximately 8% of these isolates were MBL producers, the majority of which were of the NDM-1 (69%) type, followed by NDM-5 (19%), NDM-4 (5.5%), and NDM-7 (5.5%). MBL producers were resistant to all antibiotics tested except for colistin, fosfomycin, and chloramphenicol, which were effective to various extents. Plasmids were found to be an effective means of dissemination of NDM genes and other resistance traits. All MBL producers adhered to and invaded bladder epithelial (T24) cells and demonstrated significant serum resistance. Genomic analysis of MBL-producing E. coli isolates revealed higher resistance but a moderate virulence gene repertoire. A subset of NDM-1-positive E. coli isolates was identified as dominant sequence type 101 (ST101) while two strains belonging to ST167 and ST405 harbored NDM-5. A majority of MBL-producing E. coli strains revealed unique genotypes, suggesting that they were clonally unrelated. Overall, the coexistence of virulence and carbapenem resistance in clinical E. coli isolates is of serious concern. Moreover, the emergence of NDM-1 among the globally dominant E. coli ST101 isolates warrants stringent surveillance and control measures. PMID:27600040
Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimabukuro, Hirofumi; Shimamoto, Tadashi
Sixty-nine Escherichia coli and 10 Salmonella isolates, recovered from retail chicken meat in Hiroshima prefecture, Japan, were assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes. Twenty-eight out of 69 (40.6%) of E. coli and all 10 Salmonella isolates were exhibited multidrug resistance phenotypes. The most commonly reported resistance phenotypes were against ampicillin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PCR screening for integrons showed that 8 (11.6%) of the E. coli isolates were positive for the class 1 integrons and 1 isolate (1.4%) was positive for the class 2 integrons. Among the 10 Salmonella isolates, 9 were positive for class 1 integrons and none was positive for class 2 integrons. The identified antibiotic resistance gene cassettes within the class 1 integrons were dfrA1, dfrA7, aadA1, aadB, and catB3, while dfrA1, sat2, and aadA1 were identified within class 2 integron. The beta-lactamase resistance gene bla(TEM-1) was identified in 12 (17.3%) of E. coli isolates and in only one of the Salmonella isolates. The bla(CMY-2) gene, encoding AmpC beta-lactamase, was detected in 16 (23.2%) of the E. coli isolates only. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that there was plasmid-mediated transfer of bla(CMY-2) and bla(TEM-1). These results highlighted the role of retail chicken meat as a potential source for multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli and Salmonella. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 1st report of isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli from retail chicken meat in Japan.
Lee, Soojin; Oh, Younghoon; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Doyeon; Lee, Choulgyun; Lee, Jinwon
Marine algae, which make up about 80% of the world's living organisms, contain many energy sources, such as sugars and lipids. Therefore, the possibility of utilizing structural carbohydrates from marine algae for bioethanol production has been studied. In order to obtain monosaccharides, Undaria pinnatifida, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were used for the saccharification experiments. The pretreatment was carried out by dilute acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment. To find the optimal conditions, experiments were performed at several temperatures, acid concentrations, pH conditions and durations. To test bioethanol production, several ethanolic E. coli W3110 strains, which were developed previously, were used. The maximum yield of bioethanol, 0.4 g ethanol/g biomass, was achieved with pretreated C. vulgaris and E. coli SJL2526, derived from wild-type E. coli W3110 and which includes the adhB, pdc, galP, and glk genes.
Li, Bin; Sun, Jing-Yong; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Han, Li-Zhong; Huang, Xin-Hong; Ni, Yu-Xing
The community could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic environments of bla(CTX-M) among faecal Escherichia coli obtained from healthy persons in a region of China. Bacteria in stool specimens were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production on 2 MacConkey agars, one with cefotaxime and one with ceftazidime. bla(CTX-M) and their genetic environments, as well as phylogenetic analysis and detection of the O25b-ST131 clone of E. coli, were characterized by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and conjugation assays were performed by standard procedures. A surprisingly high number (50.5%, 55/109) of faecal samples showed the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli. bla(CTX-M) genes were detected in all of these strains. The CTX-M-9 group (41/55, 74.5%) was found most frequently, followed by the CTX-M-1 group (16/55, 29.1%). CTX-M-14 (n = 39) was the predominant CTX-M enzyme in this study. However, the genes for the CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-8 groups were not observed. ISEcp1 was detected in 90.9% of the strains, while IS26 was observed upstream from bla(CTX-M) in only 1 strain. Phylogenetic groups A and D were found to predominate in commensal E. coli. High clonal diversity was observed and most bla(CTX-M) genes were transferable. The O25b-ST131 clone was found in 4 strains. This study reveals the wide dissemination of CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli in the gut flora of healthy individuals in China.
Orencio-Trejo, Montserrat; Flores, Noemí; Escalante, Adelfo; Hernández-Chávez, Georgina; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo; Martinez, Alfredo
Background A metabolic regulation study was performed, based upon measurements of enzymatic activities, fermentation performance, and RT-PCR analysis of pathways related to central carbon metabolism, in an ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain (CCE14) derived from lineage C. In comparison with previous engineered strains, this E coli derivative has a higher ethanol production rate in mineral medium, as a result of the elevated heterologous expression of the chromosomally integrated genes encoding PDCZm and ADHZm (pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis). It is suggested that this behavior might be due to lineage differences between E. coli W and C. Results This study demonstrated that the glycolytic flux is controlled, in this case, by reactions outside glycolysis, i.e., the fermentative pathways. Changes in ethanol production rate in this ethanologenic strain result in low organic acid production rates, and high glycolytic and ethanologenic fluxes, that correlate with enhanced transcription and enzymatic activity levels of PDCZm and ADHZm. Furthermore, a higher ethanol yield (90% of the theoretical) in glucose-mineral media was obtained with CCE14 in comparison with previous engineered E. coli strains, such as KO11, that produces a 70% yield under the same conditions. Conclusion Results suggest that a higher ethanol formation rate, caused by ahigher PDCZm and ADHZm activities induces a metabolic state that cells compensate through enhanced glucose transport, ATP synthesis, and NAD-NADH+H turnover rates. These results show that glycolytic enzymatic activities, present in E. coli W and C under fermentative conditions, are sufficient to contend with increases in glucose consumption and product formation rates. PMID:18471274
Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Parveen, Rozina; Islam, Atiqul; Sadique, Abdus; Rahim, Md Niaz; Monira, Shirajum; Khan, Anisur R.; Ahsan, Sunjukta; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Chakraborty, Subhra; George, Christine M.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Navarro, Armando; Hasan, Badrul; Alam, Munirul
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are important causes of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Although ruminant animals are the main source of STEC, diarrhea due to this pathotype is very low in Bangladesh where ETEC remains the predominant group associated with childhood diarrhea. In the present study, E. coli strains (n = 35) isolated from Bangladesh livestock (goats, sheep, and cattle) and poultry (chicken and ducks) were analyzed for the presence of major virulence factors, such as Shiga toxins (STX-1 and STX-2), heat-labile toxin, and heat-stable toxins (STa and STb). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction results revealed 23 (66%) E. coli strains to be virulent possessing either sta (n = 5), stx (stx1, n = 8; stx2, n = 2), or both (n = 8) genes in varying combinations. Thirty-four percent (8/23) of strains from livestock were hybrid type that carried both stx (either stx1 or stx2) and ETEC-specific enterotoxin gene sta. Serotyping results revealed that the ETEC strains belonged to five serotypes, namely O36:H5, O174:H−, O152:H8, O109:H51, and O8:H21, while the STEC-producing strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16 (n = 2), OR:H2 (n = 1), O110:H16 (n = 1), and O152:H8 (n = 1). The STEC–ETEC hybrid strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16, OR:H2, and O152:H8. Forty percent (2/5) of the ETEC and 20% (2/10) of the STEC strains were multidrug resistant with the highest drug resistance (50%) being found in the hybrid strains. Molecular fingerprinting determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cluster analyses by dendrogram revealed that, genetically, STEC–ETEC hybrid strains were highly heterogeneous. Multidrug-resistant E. coli STEC–ETEC hybrid strains in domesticated animals pose a public health threat for humans in Bangladesh. PMID:28119905
Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Parveen, Rozina; Islam, Atiqul; Sadique, Abdus; Rahim, Md Niaz; Monira, Shirajum; Khan, Anisur R; Ahsan, Sunjukta; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Chakraborty, Subhra; George, Christine M; Cravioto, Alejandro; Navarro, Armando; Hasan, Badrul; Alam, Munirul
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are important causes of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Although ruminant animals are the main source of STEC, diarrhea due to this pathotype is very low in Bangladesh where ETEC remains the predominant group associated with childhood diarrhea. In the present study, E. coli strains (n = 35) isolated from Bangladesh livestock (goats, sheep, and cattle) and poultry (chicken and ducks) were analyzed for the presence of major virulence factors, such as Shiga toxins (STX-1 and STX-2), heat-labile toxin, and heat-stable toxins (STa and STb). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction results revealed 23 (66%) E. coli strains to be virulent possessing either sta (n = 5), stx (stx1, n = 8; stx2, n = 2), or both (n = 8) genes in varying combinations. Thirty-four percent (8/23) of strains from livestock were hybrid type that carried both stx (either stx1 or stx2) and ETEC-specific enterotoxin gene sta. Serotyping results revealed that the ETEC strains belonged to five serotypes, namely O36:H5, O174:H-, O152:H8, O109:H51, and O8:H21, while the STEC-producing strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16 (n = 2), OR:H2 (n = 1), O110:H16 (n = 1), and O152:H8 (n = 1). The STEC-ETEC hybrid strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16, OR:H2, and O152:H8. Forty percent (2/5) of the ETEC and 20% (2/10) of the STEC strains were multidrug resistant with the highest drug resistance (50%) being found in the hybrid strains. Molecular fingerprinting determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cluster analyses by dendrogram revealed that, genetically, STEC-ETEC hybrid strains were highly heterogeneous. Multidrug-resistant E. coli STEC-ETEC hybrid strains in domesticated animals pose a public health threat for humans in Bangladesh.
Rode, Tone Mari; Holck, Askild; Axelsson, Lars; Høy, Martin; Heir, Even
Dry-fermented sausages (DFS) are considered possible risk products regarding Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). We have compared the reduction of 11 E. coli isolates of various serogroups in salami during the sausage production process and during post-process measures including storage, heating and freezing. The 11 E. coli isolates, mainly STEC, included enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak strains linked to DFS along with apathogenic E. coli. During sausage production, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction between the E. coli strains ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 log₁₀ (p<0.001). When sausages were subjected to post-process heat treatment of 43 °C for 24 h, a total reduction of more than 5 log₁₀ was obtained for all E. coli isolates. Freezing and thawing of DFS with subsequent storage for 1 month at 16 or 20 °C generally contributed to large E. coli reductions with the latter conditions giving an average additional 3.9 log₁₀ reduction, with a range from 3.4 to 4.4 log₁₀. The combination of freezing and 1 month of storage gave higher reductions compared with storage for 2 months for all examined temperatures. No systematic differences in survival of E. coli of different serogroups were detected for the different post-process measures. The reductions were also similar to those of apathogenic control isolates. Isolates showing higher survival during the ripening process did not have a lower reduction when exposed to post-process stress like storage, heating and freezing. The ability of the isolates to survive in salami was also compared with their survival at equivalent conditions in a tryptic soy broth (TSB) model. There was a low and not significant correlation (p>0.1) between the reductions of E. coli in salami and in the TSB broth model. Results based on broth models and/or single or surrogate strains must therefore be interpreted with caution. The EHEC reducing post-processing measures tested can easily be
Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor M.; Gonzalez-Nuñez, Edgar; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Vidal, Jorge E.; Muro-Amador, Secundino; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; Díaz-Quiñonez, J. Alberto; León-Sicairos, Nidia
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains are a main cause of gastrointestinal disease in developing countries. In this study we report the epidemiologic surveillance in a 4-year period (January 2011 to December 2014) of DEC strains causing acute diarrhea throughout the Sinaloa State, Mexico. DEC strains were isolated from outpatients of all ages with acute diarrhea (N = 1,037). Specific DEC pathotypes were identified by PCR-amplification of genes encoding virulence factors. The adhesion phenotype and antibiotic resistance were also investigated. DEC strains were detected in 23.3% (242/1037) of cases. The most frequently DEC strain isolated was EAEC [(12.2%), 126/242] followed by EPEC [(5.1%), 53/242], ETEC [(4.3%), 43/242] DAEC [(1.4%), 15/242], STEC [(0.3%), 3/242], and EIEC [(0.2%), 2/242]. EHEC strains were not detected. Overall DEC strains were more prevalent in children ≤2 years of age with EPEC strains the most common of DEC pathotypes. While ∼65% of EAEC strains were classified as typical variant based on the aggregative adherence to in vitro cultures of HEp-2 cells, a high proportion of EPEC strains was classified as atypical strains. EAEC, EPEC, ETEC, and DAEC strains were distributed in the north, central and south regions of Sinaloa state. Among all DEC strains, >90% were resistant to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic. Strains were commonly resistant to first-line antibiotics such as tetracycline, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Furthermore, more than 80% of DEC isolates were multi-drug resistant and EPEC and DAEC were the categories with major proportion of this feature. In conclusion, in nearly one out of four cases of acute diarrhea in Northwestern Mexico a multi-drug resistant DEC strain was isolated, in these cases EAEC was the most prevalent (52%) pathotype. PMID:27965648
Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor M; Gonzalez-Nuñez, Edgar; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Vidal, Jorge E; Muro-Amador, Secundino; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; Díaz-Quiñonez, J Alberto; León-Sicairos, Nidia
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains are a main cause of gastrointestinal disease in developing countries. In this study we report the epidemiologic surveillance in a 4-year period (January 2011 to December 2014) of DEC strains causing acute diarrhea throughout the Sinaloa State, Mexico. DEC strains were isolated from outpatients of all ages with acute diarrhea (N = 1,037). Specific DEC pathotypes were identified by PCR-amplification of genes encoding virulence factors. The adhesion phenotype and antibiotic resistance were also investigated. DEC strains were detected in 23.3% (242/1037) of cases. The most frequently DEC strain isolated was EAEC [(12.2%), 126/242] followed by EPEC [(5.1%), 53/242], ETEC [(4.3%), 43/242] DAEC [(1.4%), 15/242], STEC [(0.3%), 3/242], and EIEC [(0.2%), 2/242]. EHEC strains were not detected. Overall DEC strains were more prevalent in children ≤2 years of age with EPEC strains the most common of DEC pathotypes. While ∼65% of EAEC strains were classified as typical variant based on the aggregative adherence to in vitro cultures of HEp-2 cells, a high proportion of EPEC strains was classified as atypical strains. EAEC, EPEC, ETEC, and DAEC strains were distributed in the north, central and south regions of Sinaloa state. Among all DEC strains, >90% were resistant to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic. Strains were commonly resistant to first-line antibiotics such as tetracycline, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Furthermore, more than 80% of DEC isolates were multi-drug resistant and EPEC and DAEC were the categories with major proportion of this feature. In conclusion, in nearly one out of four cases of acute diarrhea in Northwestern Mexico a multi-drug resistant DEC strain was isolated, in these cases EAEC was the most prevalent (52%) pathotype.
Ding, Juanjuan; Ma, Xitao; Chen, Zhuochang; Feng, Keqing
A total of 52 strains were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate by disk diffusion method in a Chinese tertiary hospital from July 2011 to December 2011. Among these isolates, 2 isolates possessed a phenotype consistent with production of inhibitor-resistant temoniera (TEM) (IRT) β-lactamase, and the TEM-type gene was cloned into strains of Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Both had no blaTEM mutations and were identified as TEM-1 β-lactamase producers. As a result, no IRT β-lactamase was detected. Multiplex PCR detected most of these strains produced TEM-1 enzymes, and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and oxacillinase-1 β-lactamases are important mechanisms of resistance as well.
Shapyrina, E V; Shadrin, A M; Solonin, A S
Recombinant E. coli strains expressing the Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579T resD and resEgenes fused with the ubiquitin gene were constructed, and purification of the ResD and ResE proteins was performed. The approach used in the study allowed us to increase the protein yield of the electrophoretic homogeneous ResD andResE proteins without denaturation steps up to 150 mg per gram of wet cell weight.
Lavakhamseh, Hamid; Mohajeri, Parviz; Rouhi, Samaneh; Shakib, Pegah; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Rasani, Afshin; Mansouri, Majid
Escherichia coli isolates displaying multidrug-resistance (MDR) are a major health care problem that results in mortality and morbidity. Integrons are DNA elements in E.coli that are related to antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine class 1 and 2 integrons and MDR in E. coli isolates obtained from patients in two Sanandaj hospitals, located in Iran. 120 isolates of E. coli were obtained from clinical specimens (from November 2013 to April 2014), and the susceptibility of E. coli antimicrobial agents was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the CLSI. PCR were applied for detection of class 1 and 2 integrons in E. coli isolates. SPSS software v16 and the x03C7;2 test were used for statistical analysis in order to calculate the association between antibiotic resistance and the presence of integrons (p < 0.05). In a total of 120 E. coli isolates, 42.5% had MDR. Integrons were found in 50.9% of the MDR isolates, and included 47.05% class 1 and 3.92% class 2 integrons. The strains did not have both classes of integrons simultaneously. An association between resistance to antibiotics and integrons was found. Our results showed that int1 and int2 genes present in E. coli isolates obtained from patients cause MDR in this isolates. Since such bacteria are a reservoir for the transmission of MDR bacteria, appropriate programs are necessary to reduce this problem. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Licznar, P; Eychenne, I; Azéma, C; Decramer, S; Bouissou, F; Fayet, O; Prère, M-F
Two hundred E. coli strains isolated from children with pyelonephritis were investigated for the presence of six virulence factors. The used primers amplified adhesin pap and sfa, toxin haemolysin (hly) and cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1) and aerobactin (aer). For afimbrial adhesin, the previously used set of primers could not allow to detect the newly reported afa operons (Le Bouguenec et al., 2001). With a new set of primers specific for the afa operon family the prevalence of afa+ strains increased from 3.5% to 13.5%. Combinations of three or more factors in a same strain were found in 48.5%. Thirty two different urovirulent genotypes were observed; two strains contained the six studied factors.
Avirulent K88 (F4)+ Escherichia coli strains constructed to express modified enterotoxins protect young piglets from challenge with a virulent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain that expresses the same adhesion and enterotoxins.
Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Zhao, Mojun; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H
Virulence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is associated with fimbrial adhesins and enterotoxins such as heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Previous studies using a cell culture model suggest that exclusion of ETEC from attachment to epithelial cells requires expression of both an adhesin such as K88 (F4) fimbriae, and LT. To test the ability of non-pathogenic E. coli constructs to exclude virulent ETEC sufficiently to prevent clinical disease, we utilized a piglet ETEC challenge model. Thirty-nine 5-day-old piglets were inoculated with a placebo (control), or with either of the three K88(+)E. coli strains isogenic with regard to modified LT expression: 8017 (pBR322 plasmid vector control), non-toxigenic mutant 8221 (LT(R192G)) in pBR322, or 8488, with the LT gene fused to the STb gene in pBR322 (LT(R192G)-STb). Piglets were challenged with virulent ETEC Strain 3030-2 (K88(+)/LT/STb) 24h post-inoculation. K88ac receptor-positive piglets in the control group developed diarrhea and became dehydrated 12-24h post-challenge. Piglets inoculated with 8221 or 8488 did not exhibit clinical signs of ETEC disease; most piglets inoculated with 8017 showed diarrhea. Control pigs exhibited significant weight loss, increased blood total protein, and higher numbers of colony-forming units of 3030-2 E. coli in washed ileum and jejunum than treated pigs. This study shows for the first time that pre-inoculation with an avirulent strain expressing adhesive fimbriae and a non-toxic form of LT provides significant short term protection from challenge with a virulent ETEC strain that expresses the same fimbrial adhesion and enterotoxin.
Peeters, J E; Geeroms, R; Orskov, F
A total of 568 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy and diarrheic rabbits were separated into 11 different biotypes according to the fermentation patterns of four carbohydrates. Strains belonging to biotypes 1 to 3, 6, and 8 induced lesions characteristic for attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC). They attached to the intestinal epithelium of the terminal small intestine and the large intestine of 5-week-old rabbits after experimental infection and caused effacement of the microvillous brush border. However, pathogenicity for weaned rabbits, as judged by diarrhea score, anorexia, and reduced weight gain, varied according to the biotypes of the strains. Strains belonging to biotypes 1 and 6 produced only discrete clinical signs, strains belonging to biotypes 2 and 3+ (motile) induced diarrhea and growth depression, whereas strains belonging to biotypes 3- (immotile) and 8 caused severe clinical signs and high mortality. This confirms evidence from the field. Biotypes 3- and 8, accounting for 35.5 and 7.1% of AEEC strains in weaned diarrheic rabbits, respectively, were not detected in weaned healthy rabbits, while biotype 2 was the predominant strain in weaned healthy rabbits (62.3%). Finally, serotyping showed a close relationship between biotype and serotype of the AEEC examined. Most strains of biotypes 1+ and 2+ tested were O109:K-:H2 and O132:K-:H2, respectively, whereas all strains tested of biotype 3- were O15:K-:H- and those of biotype 8 were O103:K-:H2. These data indicate that specific clones of AEEC might be involved in juvenile rabbit enteritis. It was concluded that determination of biotypes allows the screening of highly pathogenic AEEC in weaned rabbits (biotypes 3- and 8). PMID:3286497
Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Bidet, Philippe; Mahjoub, Farah; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Ait-Ifrane, Shadia; Courroux, Céline; Bingen, Edouard
DiversiLab, a semi-automated repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) device, is a highly integrated platform designed for rapid bacterial genotyping. Here, we evaluated the capacity of the DiversiLab system to determine the genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli neonatal meningitis (ECNM) strains and to identify clonal groups. We analyzed 80 isolates representative of the diversity of ECNM strains in Europe and North America and 52 E. coli reference (ECOR) strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A, D, and B2. All the strains had previously been characterized by means of multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The DiversiLab dendrogram clustered all but 8 of the strains according to their phylogenetic groups. After defining a rep-PCR type complex (RPTc) based on an average similarity threshold of 95% between rep-PCR types, we observed excellent agreement between RPTc and sequence type complexes (STc) in groups D and B2. In group A, rep-PCR typing was more discriminative than MLST, dividing the 25 ECOR group A strains into 19 RPTc, compared to only 10 STc. In the highly virulent clonal group B2(1), mainly composed of O1, O2, O18, and O45:K1 strains, the DiversiLab system individualized a particular subgroup of O2:K1 strains. In addition, among O18:K1 strains the system identified a particular genetic background associated with pathogenicity island II(J96)-like domains. Thus, the DiversiLab system is a rapid and powerful tool for identifying and discriminating clonal groups among ECNM strains.
Rzewuska, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Chrobak, Dorota; Błaszczak, Borys; Binek, Marian
The antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates associated with various types of infections in dogs and cats was determined. The studied isolates were most frequently susceptible to fluoroquinolones and the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), antimicrobials commonly used in treatment of infections in companion animals. However, an increase in the percentage of strains resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including ESCs was noted between January 2007 and December 2013. The frequency of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli isolation (66.8% of isolates) is alarming. Moreover, the statistically significant increase of the percentage of MDR isolates was observed during the study period. No difference in the prevalence of multidrug resistance was found between bacteria causing intestinal and extraintestinal infections and between canine and feline isolates. Nonhemolytic E. coli isolates were MDR more often than hemolytic ones. Our study showed the companion animals in Poland as an important reservoir of MDR bacteria. These results indicate that continuous monitoring of canine and feline E. coli antimicrobial susceptibility is required. Furthermore, introduction and application of recommendations for appropriate use of antimicrobials in small animal practice should be essential to minimize the emergence of multidrug resistance among E. coli in companion animals. PMID:25667937
Rzewuska, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Chrobak, Dorota; Błaszczak, Borys; Binek, Marian
The antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates associated with various types of infections in dogs and cats was determined. The studied isolates were most frequently susceptible to fluoroquinolones and the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), antimicrobials commonly used in treatment of infections in companion animals. However, an increase in the percentage of strains resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including ESCs was noted between January 2007 and December 2013. The frequency of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli isolation (66.8% of isolates) is alarming. Moreover, the statistically significant increase of the percentage of MDR isolates was observed during the study period. No difference in the prevalence of multidrug resistance was found between bacteria causing intestinal and extraintestinal infections and between canine and feline isolates. Nonhemolytic E. coli isolates were MDR more often than hemolytic ones. Our study showed the companion animals in Poland as an important reservoir of MDR bacteria. These results indicate that continuous monitoring of canine and feline E. coli antimicrobial susceptibility is required. Furthermore, introduction and application of recommendations for appropriate use of antimicrobials in small animal practice should be essential to minimize the emergence of multidrug resistance among E. coli in companion animals.
Meyer, Daniel; Witholt, Bernard; Schmid, Andreas
Escherichia coli JM101(pSPZ3), containing xylene monooxygenase (XMO) from Pseudomonas putida mt-2, catalyzes specific oxidations and reductions of m-nitrotoluene and derivatives thereof. In addition to reactions catalyzed by XMO, we focused on biotransformations by native enzymes of the E. coli host and their effect on overall biocatalyst performance. While m-nitrotoluene was consecutively oxygenated to m-nitrobenzyl alcohol, m-nitrobenzaldehyde, and m-nitrobenzoic acid by XMO, the oxidation was counteracted by an alcohol dehydrogenase(s) from the E. coli host, which reduced m-nitrobenzaldehyde to m-nitrobenzyl alcohol. Furthermore, the enzymatic background of the host reduced the nitro groups of the reactants resulting in the formation of aromatic amines, which were shown to effectively inhibit XMO in a reversible fashion. Host-intrinsic oxidoreductases and their reaction products had a major effect on the activity of XMO during biocatalysis of m-nitrotoluene. P. putida DOT-T1E and P. putida PpS81 were compared to E. coli JM101 as alternative hosts for XMO. These promising strains contained an additional dehydrogenase that oxidized m-nitrobenzaldehyde to the corresponding acid but catalyzed the formation of XMO-inhibiting aromatic amines at a significantly lower level than E. coli JM101.
Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Wang, Yi; Dykes, Gary A
Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are one of the most common forms of human disease. In this study, the effect of the presence of newly acquired antibiotic resistance genes on biofilm formation of UTI-associated E. coli strains was examined. Two clinical UTI-associated E. coli strains (SMC18 and SMC20) carrying different combinations of virulence genes were transformed with pGEM-T, pGEM-T::KmΔAmp, or pGEM-T::Km to construct ampicillin-resistant (Km(S)Amp(R)), kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(S)), or ampicillin- and kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(R)) strains. Transformed and wild-type strains were characterized for biofilm formation, bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, morphology, and attachment to abiotic surfaces. Transformation with a plasmid carrying an ampicillin resistance gene alone decreased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC18 (8 virulence marker genes) but increased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC20 (5 virulence marker genes). On the other hand, transformation with a plasmid carrying a kanamycin resistance gene alone or both ampicillin and kanamycin resistance genes resulted in a decrease (p < 0.05) in biofilm formation by SMC18 but did not affect (p > 0.05) the biofilm formation by SMC20. Our results suggest that transformation of UTI-associated E. coli with plasmids carrying different antibiotic resistance gene(s) had a significant impact on biofilm formation and that these effects were both strain dependent and varied between different antibiotics.
Muniesa, Maite; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan
The behavior outside the gut of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7, naturally occurring E. coli, somatic coliphages, bacteriophages infecting O157:H7, and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophages was studied to determine whether the last persist in the environment more successfully than their host bacteria. The ratios between the numbers of E. coli and those of the different bacteriophages were clearly lower in river water than in sewage of the area, whereas the ratios between the numbers of the different phages were similar. In addition, the numbers of bacteria decreased between 2 and 3 log units in in situ survival experiments performed in river water, whereas the numbers of phages decreased between 1 and 2 log units. Chlorination and pasteurization treatments that reduced by approximately 4 log units the numbers of bacteria reduced by less than 1 log unit the numbers of bacteriophages. Thus, it can be concluded that Stx2-encoding phages persist longer than their host bacteria in the water environment and are more resistant than their host bacteria to chlorination and heat treatment. PMID:10584029
Yamamoto, K; Satake, M; Shinagawa, H
It has been previously reported that the ultraviolet sensitivity of recA strains of Escherichia coli in the dark is suppressed by a plasmid pKY1 which carries the phr gene, suggesting that this is due to a novel effect of photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) of E. coli in the dark (Yamamoto et al., 1983a). In this work, we observed that an increase of UV-resistance by pKY1 in the dark is not apparent in strains with a mutation in either uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, lexA, recBC or recF. The sensitivity of recA lexA and recA recBC multiple mutants to UV is suppressed by the plasmid but that of recA uvrA, recA uvrB and recA uvrC is not. Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated lambda phage is slightly more efficient in the recA/pKY1 strain compared with the parental recA strain. On the other hand, the recA and recA/pKY1 strains do not differ significantly in the following properties: Hfr recombination, induction of lambda by UV, and mutagenesis. We suggest that dark repair of PRE is correlated with its capacity of excision repair.
Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Servin, Alain L
Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are currently considered to constitute a putative sixth group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, on the basis of their diffuse adherence to HEp-2 and HeLa cells, the detection of afa/dra/daa-related operons encoding this adherence phenotype, and the mobilization of decay-accelerating factor, both commensal and pathogenic strains can be classified as Afa/Dr DAEC isolates. Furthermore, strains associated with diarrheal diseases and strains causing extra-intestinal infections can also be identified as Afa/Dr DAEC strains. Although several cell signaling events that occur after epithelial cells have been infected by Afa/Dr DAEC have been reported, the pathophysiological processes that allow intestinal and extra-intestinal infections to develop are not fully understood. This review focuses on the genetic organization of the afa/dra/daa-related operons and on the virulence factors that trigger cellular responses, some of which are deleterious for the host cells. Finally, this review suggests future lines of research that could help to elucidate these questions.
Utrilla, José; Vargas-Tah, Alejandra; Trujillo-Martínez, Berenice; Gosset, Guillermo; Martinez, Alfredo
In this study, the lactogenic Escherichia coli strain JU15 was used and modified to produce d-lactate (d-LA) from plant hydrolysates with a minimal nutrient addition in pH controlled fermenters. Results showed that strain JU15 produces d-LA with high yield and productivity in laboratory simulated hydrolysate media and actual sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. Strain JU15 showed sequential carbon source utilization and acetic acid production. The l-lactic and acetic acid production pathways were deleted in JU15, resulting strain AV03 (JU15 ΔpoxB, ΔackA-pta, ΔmgsA), which showed simultaneous consumption of glucose and xylose and no acetic acid production in the simulated hydrolysate. The d-LA yield from hydrolysate sugars was close to 0.95gD-LA/gsugars in all cases. Our results show that d-LA can be produced from plant hydrolysates in simple batch fermentation processes with a high productivity using engineered E. coli strains at fermenter scales from 0.2 up to 10L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anton, Brian P.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Agrawal, Sonia; Fomenkov, Alexey; Byrd, Devon R.; Roberts, Richard J.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.
We report the complete sequence of ER2796, a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli K-12 that is completely defective in DNA methylation. Because of its lack of any native methylation, it is extremely useful as a host into which heterologous DNA methyltransferase genes can be cloned and the recognition sequences of their products deduced by Pacific Biosciences Single-Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The genome was itself sequenced from a long-insert library using the SMRT platform, resulting in a single closed contig devoid of methylated bases. Comparison with K-12 MG1655, the first E. coli K-12 strain to be sequenced, shows an essentially co-linear relationship with no major rearrangements despite many generations of laboratory manipulation. The comparison revealed a total of 41 insertions and deletions, and 228 single base pair substitutions. In addition, the long-read approach facilitated the surprising discovery of four gene conversion events, three involving rRNA operons and one between two cryptic prophages. Such events thus contribute both to genomic homogenization and to bacteriophage diversification. As one of relatively few laboratory strains of E. coli to be sequenced, the genome also reveals the sequence changes underlying a number of classical mutant alleles including those affecting the various native DNA methylation systems. PMID:26010885
Kunsmann, Lisa; Rüter, Christian; Bauwens, Andreas; Greune, Lilo; Glüder, Malte; Kemper, Björn; Fruth, Angelika; Wai, Sun Nyunt; He, Xiaohua; Lloubes, Roland; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge; Bielaszewska, Martina
The highly virulent Escherichia coli O104:H4 that caused the large 2011 outbreak of diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secretes blended virulence factors of enterohaemorrhagic and enteroaggregative E. coli, but their secretion pathways are unknown. We demonstrate that the outbreak strain releases a cocktail of virulence factors via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) shed during growth. The OMVs contain Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a, the major virulence factor of the strain, Shigella enterotoxin 1, H4 flagellin, and O104 lipopolysaccharide. The OMVs bind to and are internalised by human intestinal epithelial cells via dynamin-dependent and Stx2a-independent endocytosis, deliver the OMV-associated virulence factors intracellularly and induce caspase-9-mediated apoptosis and interleukin-8 secretion. Stx2a is the key OMV component responsible for the cytotoxicity, whereas flagellin and lipopolysaccharide are the major interleukin-8 inducers. The OMVs represent novel ways for the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain to deliver pathogenic cargoes and injure host cells. PMID:26283502
Birgy, André; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Bidet, Philippe; Doit, Catherine; Genel, Nathalie; Courroux, Céline; Arlet, Guillaume; Bingen, Edouard
Maternal-fetal Escherichia coli infections, such as neonatal bacteremia and meningitis, are important causes of morbidity and mortality. From 2006 to 2010, we studied newborns and their mothers who were colonized with E. coli in a French hospital in order to document (i) the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains, (ii) the prevalence of associated virulence genes, (iii) the prevalence of clone sequence type 131 (ST131), and (iv) the genetic relationship among ESBL-producing strains. Among the 2,755 E. coli cultures recovered from vaginal or neonatal samples, 68 were ESBL producers (2.46%). We found a wide diversity of ESBL genes, with the majority being bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-1), and bla(CTX-M-15), distributed among the 4 main phylogenetic groups. Genes encoding virulence factors were found in 90.7% of the isolates, with ≥ 2 virulence genes present in 76% of cases. The prevalence of ST131 among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was 9.4% (6/64). Five of these 6 ST131 isolates possessed bla(CTX-M-15) enzymes (and also were resistant to quinolones), and one possessed bla(CTX-M-2) enzymes. Two possessed virulence genes, suggesting the presence of pathogenicity island IIJ96 (PAI IIJ96)-like domains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a high level of genomic diversity overall, except for 3 closely related isolates belonging to clonal group ST131. Repetitive PCR showed that the six ST131 isolates were closely related to ST131 control strains (>95% similarity). This study shows a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli strains and clonal group ST131 in the French maternal-fetal population. These results suggest a widespread distribution of ESBL enzymes in the community and highlight the early transmission between mothers and neonates. These findings are worrisome, especially for this particularly vulnerable population.
Povolotsky, Tatyana L.
ABSTRACT The ubiquitous bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has recently become prominent as a trigger for biofilm formation in many bacteria. It is generated by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs; with GGDEF domains) and degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs; containing either EAL or HD-GYP domains). Most bacterial species contain multiples of these proteins with some having specific functions that are based on direct molecular interactions in addition to their enzymatic activities. Escherichia coli K-12 laboratory strains feature 29 genes encoding GGDEF and/or EAL domains, resulting in a set of 12 DGCs, 13 PDEs, and four enzymatically inactive “degenerate” proteins that act by direct macromolecular interactions. We present here a comparative analysis of GGDEF/EAL domain-encoding genes in 61 genomes of pathogenic, commensal, and probiotic E. coli strains (including enteric pathogens such as enteroaggregative, enterohemorrhagic, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, and adherent and invasive Escherichia coli and the 2011 German outbreak O104:H4 strain, as well as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, such as uropathogenic and meningitis-associated E. coli). We describe additional genes for two membrane-associated DGCs (DgcX and DgcY) and four PDEs (the membrane-associated PdeT, as well as the EAL domain-only proteins PdeW, PdeX, and PdeY), thus showing the pangenome of E. coli to contain at least 35 GGDEF/EAL domain proteins. A core set of only eight proteins is absolutely conserved in all 61 strains: DgcC (YaiC), DgcI (YliF), PdeB (YlaB), PdeH (YhjH), PdeK (YhjK), PdeN (Rtn), and the degenerate proteins CsrD and CdgI (YeaI). In all other GGDEF/EAL domain genes, diverse point and frameshift mutations, as well as small or large deletions, were discovered in various strains. IMPORTANCE Our analysis reveals interesting trends in pathogenic Escherichia coli that could reflect different host cell adherence mechanisms. These may either benefit from or be
Deryabin, D G; Karimov, I F; Manukhov, I V; Tolmacheva, N A; Balabanov, V P
Luminescence intensity of recombinant Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains with cloned luxCD(AB)E genes of the natural luminescent microorganism Photobacterium leiognathi was studied under the influence of 30 individual samples of human blood serum of different component composition. A relationship was found between the level of residual bioluminescence and degree of the bactericidal effect. Moreover, the inhibition of E. coli lux+ luminescence was shown to be related to activity of the complement-lysozyme system. The reaction of B. subtilis lux+ primarily depended on the presence of β-lysin in the blood serum. These data provide an experimental substantiation of a new method of differential analysis of humoral factors of nonspecific innate immunity with recombinant luminescent bacteria.
Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Hiki, Osamu; Kang, Min Young; Park, Dongjin; Kaspar, Charles W
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a human pathogen capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and in some cases hemolytic uremic syndrome. Cattle are an asymptomatic carrier and a major reservoir of this pathogen that can be transmitted by contaminated foods like beef products and vegetables. To further understand persistence in cattle and on farms, a total of 1716 samples over a two-year period were collected from a Wisconsin dairy farm (Farm R) and 91 were positive for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. Seventy-six of 1373 (4.8%) fecal samples and 10/190 (5.3%) water samples were positive. Genotyping of the 341 E. coli O157 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed nine different restriction enzyme digestion profile (REDP) types, seven of which were 93-98% similar (comprised of serotype O157:H7 isolates) and two that were dissimilar (serotype O157:H-isolates). The REDP 31 strain dominated and was isolated from 59 fecal and 9 water samples; 75% of the positive samples (68/91) contained this strain. Growth studies of representative strains from each the REDP groups in Luria broth at 25 and 39 °C found no significant differences between the strains. In LB supplemented with bile salts (3, 6, and 9%; 39 °C, 48 h), the REDP 30 strain had a longer lag phase and achieved a lower maximum density than the other strains in the presence of 6 and 9% bile salts. Likewise, the survival of the strains in low-pH conditions (HCl, pH 2.0 and acetic acid, pH 3.0) were similar except for the REDP 30 strain which was significantly less acid tolerant at pH 2.0. A screening for differences in carbohydrate utilization found that the dominant strain (REDP 31) utilized the most carbon sources and was the only strain that oxidized amygdalin, citraconic acid, α-ketoglutarate, and γ-cyclodextrin. The inoculation of Holstein calves with a three-strain mixture (REDP 30, 31, and 36 strains) found the REDP 31 strain (FRIK 2455) dominated in fecal and rectal swab samples throughout the durations
The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 144 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. An overall moderate prevalence of 38.9% antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed in these strains. Animal strains had a lower p...
Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 86-24 does not produce curli fimbriae, but can give rise to curli-positive isolates at a variable frequency. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of curli-negative and curli-positive isolates of strain 86-24....
Piazza, Roxane M. F.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Saridakis, Halha O.; Pedroso, Margareth Z.; Rocha, Letícia B.; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Beutin, Lothar
Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O26 comprise two distinct groups of pathogens, characterized as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the several genes related to type III secretion system-secreted effector proteins, espK was found to be highly specific for EHEC O26:H11 and its stx-negative derivative strains isolated in European countries. E. coli O26 strains isolated in Brazil from infant diarrhea, foods, and the environment have consistently been shown to lack stx genes and are thus considered atypical EPEC. However, no further information related to their genetic background is known. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to discriminate and characterize these Brazilian O26 stx-negative strains by phenotypic, genetic, and biochemical approaches. Among 44 isolates confirmed to be O26 isolates, most displayed flagellar antigen H11 or H32. Out of the 13 nonmotile isolates, 2 tested positive for fliCH11, and 11 were fliCH8 positive. The identification of genetic markers showed that several O26:H11 and all O26:H8 strains tested positive for espK and could therefore be discriminated as EHEC derivatives. The presence of H8 among EHEC O26 and its stx-negative derivative isolates is described for the first time. The interaction of three isolates with polarized Caco-2 cells and with intestinal biopsy specimen fragments ex vivo confirmed the ability of the O26 strains analyzed to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions. The O26:H32 strains, isolated mostly from meat, were considered nonvirulent. Knowledge of the virulence content of stx-negative O26 isolates within the same serotype helped to avoid misclassification of isolates, which certainly has important implications for public health surveillance. PMID:23974139
Piazza, Roxane M F; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Saridakis, Halha O; Pedroso, Margareth Z; Rocha, Letícia B; Gomes, Tânia A T; Vieira, Mônica A M; Beutin, Lothar; Guth, Beatriz E C
Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O26 comprise two distinct groups of pathogens, characterized as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the several genes related to type III secretion system-secreted effector proteins, espK was found to be highly specific for EHEC O26:H11 and its stx-negative derivative strains isolated in European countries. E. coli O26 strains isolated in Brazil from infant diarrhea, foods, and the environment have consistently been shown to lack stx genes and are thus considered atypical EPEC. However, no further information related to their genetic background is known. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to discriminate and characterize these Brazilian O26 stx-negative strains by phenotypic, genetic, and biochemical approaches. Among 44 isolates confirmed to be O26 isolates, most displayed flagellar antigen H11 or H32. Out of the 13 nonmotile isolates, 2 tested positive for fliCH11, and 11 were fliCH8 positive. The identification of genetic markers showed that several O26:H11 and all O26:H8 strains tested positive for espK and could therefore be discriminated as EHEC derivatives. The presence of H8 among EHEC O26 and its stx-negative derivative isolates is described for the first time. The interaction of three isolates with polarized Caco-2 cells and with intestinal biopsy specimen fragments ex vivo confirmed the ability of the O26 strains analyzed to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions. The O26:H32 strains, isolated mostly from meat, were considered nonvirulent. Knowledge of the virulence content of stx-negative O26 isolates within the same serotype helped to avoid misclassification of isolates, which certainly has important implications for public health surveillance.
Rakotovao-Ravahatra, Zafindrasoa Domoina; Randriatsarafara, Fidiniaina Mamy; Rasoanandrasana, Saïda; Raverohanta, Léa; Rakotovao, Andriamiadana Luc
Urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli frequently occurs in the hospital environment. This study aims to describe resistant phenotypes of Escherichia coli strains to monitor their occurrence. We conducted a descriptive retrospective study of 102 Escherchia coli strains responsible for urinary tract infection in the laboratory of the University Hospital Joseph Raseta Befelatanana, Antananarivo from January 2014 to October 2016. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance screening identified high-level penicillinases 50% (n=51), Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) 22.5% (n=23), high-level cephalosporinases 14.7% (n=15), penicillinases low level 5.9% (n=6), wild type strains 5.9% (n=6) and a strain ofEscherichia coli emerging strain high-level resistance. Aminoglycosides resistance was identified in 58 (56.9%) wild type phenotype, 29 (28.4%) strains sensitive to amikacin and 15 (14.7%) resistant to all aminoglycosides. Fluoroquinolones resistance was identified in 52 (51%) wild type strains, 9 (8.8%) strains sensitive to ciprofloxacin and 41 (40.2%) resistant to all fluoroquinolones. Women (25, 7%) (p= 0.25, NS), patients more than 60 years (38.7%) (p=0.02), patients hospitalized in the Department of Nephrology (53.8%) (p=0.04), with urinary disorder and kidney disease (29, 7%) (p= 0.2, NS) were the most affected by E-ESBL. Based on high multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli strains guidelines for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections need to be revised.
Marialouis, Xavier Alexander
Introduction Global spreading of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli is responsible for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) which is a major health problem in of concern. Among the gram negative bacteria, the major contributors for UTI belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes E. coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Proteus. However, E. coli accounts for the major cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and accounts for 75% to 90% of UTI isolates. Aim The main aim of this study is to analyse the phylogenetic grouping of clinical isolates of UTI E. coli. Materials and Methods In this study nearly 58 E. coli strains were isolated and confirmed through microbiological, biochemical characterization. The urine samples were collected from outpatients having symptoms of UTI, irrespective of age and sex in Tamil Nadu, India. The isolates were subjected to analyse for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase production. To understand its genetic correlation, molecular typing was carried out using RAPD-PCR method. Results Here we noted phenotypically twenty seven isolates were positive for ESBL and seven for AmpC β-lactamase production. However, among the ESBL isolates higher sensitivity was noted for Nitrofurantoin and Cefoxitin. It is worth to note that the prevalence of UTIs was more common among female and elderly male. Phylogenetic grouping revealed the presence of 24 isolates belonged to B2 group followed by 19 isolates to group A, eight isolates to group B1 and Seven isolates to group D. Conclusion Phenotypically most of the strains were positive for ESBL and showed high sensitivity for Nitrofurantoin and cefoxitin. PMID:27134870
Marialouis, Xavier Alexander; Santhanam, Amutha
Global spreading of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli is responsible for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) which is a major health problem in of concern. Among the gram negative bacteria, the major contributors for UTI belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes E. coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Proteus. However, E. coli accounts for the major cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and accounts for 75% to 90% of UTI isolates. The main aim of this study is to analyse the phylogenetic grouping of clinical isolates of UTI E. coli. In this study nearly 58 E. coli strains were isolated and confirmed through microbiological, biochemical characterization. The urine samples were collected from outpatients having symptoms of UTI, irrespective of age and sex in Tamil Nadu, India. The isolates were subjected to analyse for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase production. To understand its genetic correlation, molecular typing was carried out using RAPD-PCR method. Here we noted phenotypically twenty seven isolates were positive for ESBL and seven for AmpC β-lactamase production. However, among the ESBL isolates higher sensitivity was noted for Nitrofurantoin and Cefoxitin. It is worth to note that the prevalence of UTIs was more common among female and elderly male. Phylogenetic grouping revealed the presence of 24 isolates belonged to B2 group followed by 19 isolates to group A, eight isolates to group B1 and Seven isolates to group D. Phenotypically most of the strains were positive for ESBL and showed high sensitivity for Nitrofurantoin and cefoxitin.
Cid, D.; Sanz, R.; Marín, I.; de Greve, H.; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J. A.; Amils, R.; de la Fuente, R.
Forty-five ovine and caprine nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17-related fimbriae were characterized with respect to the fimbrial structural subunit and adhesin subtypes produced. In addition, several characteristics related to the virulence of strains producing F17 fimbriae were studied. Most of the strains (73%) possessed the f17cA structural subunit gene, whereas the f17aA and f17dA genes were detected only on three (6%) and two (4%) strains, respectively. The f17bA gene was not detected. All but one of these strains possessed the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. The only strain having the f17G gene of subfamily I possessed the structural subunit gene f17dA. Sequencing of the f17A and f17G genes of four selected strains confirmed the association of f17cA and f17dA structural subunit genes with the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. These results indicated that adhesins of the subfamily II are prominent among ovine and caprine isolates and that they are indistinctly associated with the F17 structural subunit subtypes on these field strains. CS31A- and CNF2-related genes were not detected. Most of the strains adhered in vitro to ovine intestinal brush borders (36 of 45) and agglutinated the erythrocytes of different species in the presence of d-mannose (39 of 45). F17-positive strains produced colicin V (57%) and were resistant to the bactericidal effect of serum (91%) in significantly higher percentages than F17-negative strains (34% produced colicin V, and 66% were serum resistant). Thus, most of the studied ovine and caprine strains showed phenotypic characteristics of septicemic strains. PMID:10203489
de Toro, María; Scharringa, Jelle; Dohmen, Wietske; Du, Yu; Hu, Juan; Lei, Ying; Li, Ning; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Fluit, Ad C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; de la Cruz, Fernando; van Schaik, Willem
Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type) that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of cephalosporin-resistant E
Luo, Hui; Zhou, Dafeng; Liu, Xiaohui; Nie, Zhihua; Quiroga-Sánchez, Diego Leandro; Chang, Yanhong
Our study aimed to produce the commercially promising platform chemical 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) via the propionyl-CoA pathway in genetically engineered Escherichia coli. Recombinant E. coli Ec-P overexpressing propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase (PACD, encoded by the pacd gene from Candida rugosa) under the T7 promoter produced 1.33 mM of 3-HP in a shake flask culture supplemented with 0.5% propionate. When propionate CoA-transferase (PCT, encoded by the pct gene from Megasphaera elsdenii) and 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydratase (HPCD, encoded by the hpcd gene from Chloroflexus aurantiacus) were expressed along with PACD, the 3-HP titer of the resulting E. coli Ec-PPH strain was improved by 6-fold. The effect of the cultivation conditions on the 3-HP yield from propionate in the Ec-PPH strain was also investigated. When cultured at 30°C with 1% glucose in addition to propionate, 3-HP production by Ec-PPH increased 2-fold and 12-fold compared to the cultivation at 37°C (4.23 mM) or without glucose (0.68 mM). Deletion of the ygfH gene encoding propionyl-CoA: succinate CoA-transferase from Ec-PPH (resulting in the strain Ec-△Y-PPH) led to increase of 3-HP production in shake flask experiments (15.04 mM), whereas the strain Ec-△Y-PPH with deletion of the prpC gene (encoding methylcitrate synthase in the methylcitrate cycle) produced 17.76 mM of 3-HP. The strain Ec-△Y-△P-PPH with both ygfH and prpC genes deleted produced 24.14 mM of 3-HP, thus showing an 18-fold increase in the 3-HP titer in compare to the strain Ec-P. PMID:27227837
Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, María Concepción; Domínguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen
Genes encoding CTX-M-14, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-32, SHV-12, TEM-52, or CMY-2 beta-lactamases were detected in 21 Escherichia coli strains recovered during 2003 from sick animals (11 of 459 [2.4%] strains) and healthy animals (10 of 158 [6.3%] strains) in Spain. Twelve of these strains harbored bla(CTX-M) genes and showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.
Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, María Concepción; Domínguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen
Genes encoding CTX-M-14, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-32, SHV-12, TEM-52, or CMY-2 β-lactamases were detected in 21 Escherichia coli strains recovered during 2003 from sick animals (11 of 459 [2.4%] strains) and healthy animals (10 of 158 [6.3%] strains) in Spain. Twelve of these strains harbored blaCTX-M genes and showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. PMID:15728945
Janes, M E; Cobbs, T; Kooshesh, S; Johnson, M G
Differences in survival and growth among five different Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in three apple varieties were determined at various temperatures. Jonathan, Golden Delicious, and Red Delicious apples were wounded and inoculated with E coli O157:H7 strains C7929 (apple cider isolate), 301C (chicken isolate), 204P (pork isolate), 933 (beef isolate), and 43890 (human isolate) at an initial level of 6 to 7 log CFU/g. The inoculated apples were stored at a constant temperature of 37, 25, 8, or 4 degrees C or at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then at 4 degrees C, and bacterial counts were determined every week for 28 days. By day 28, for Jonathan apples at 25 degrees C, the apple isolate counts were significantly higher than the chicken and human isolate counts. At 4 degrees C for 28 days, the human isolate inoculated into Jonathan, Golden Delicious, and Red Delicious apples was present in significantly smaller numbers than the other strains. The apple isolate survived significantly better at 4 degrees C, yielding the highest number of viable cells. By days 21 and 28, for apples stored at 37 degrees C for the first 24 h and then at 4 degrees C, the counts of viable E. coli O157:H7 apple and human isolates were 6.8 and 5.8 log CFU/g at the site of the wound, whereas for apples kept at 4 degrees C for the duration of storage, the respective counts were 5.6 and 1.5 log CFU/g. Our study shows that E. coli O157:H7 strains responded differentially to their ability to survive in these three apple varieties at 25 or 4 degrees C and produced higher viable counts when apples were temperature abused at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then stored at 4 degrees C for 27 days.
Sim, Martin; Koirala, Santosh; Picton, David; Strahl, Henrik; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Rao, Christopher V.; Gillespie, Colin S.; Aldridge, Phillip D.
The flagellum is a rotary motor that enables bacteria to swim in liquids and swarm over surfaces. Numerous global regulators control flagellar assembly in response to cellular and environmental factors. Previous studies have also shown that flagellar assembly is affected by the growth-rate of the cell. However, a systematic study has not yet been described under controlled growth conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of growth rate on flagellar assembly in Escherichia coli using steady-state chemostat cultures where we could precisely control the cell growth-rate. Our results demonstrate that flagellar abundance correlates with growth rate, where faster growing cells produce more flagella. They also demonstrate that this growth-rate dependent control occurs through the expression of the flagellar master regulator, FlhD4C2. Collectively, our results demonstrate that motility is intimately coupled to the growth-rate of the cell. PMID:28117390
Culler, Hebert F.; Mota, Cristiane M.; Abe, Cecilia M.; Elias, Waldir P.; Sircili, Marcelo P.; Franzolin, Marcia R.
The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of biofilm formation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Ninety-one aEPEC strains, isolated from feces of children with diarrhea, were analyzed by the crystal violet (CV) assay on an abiotic surface after 24 h of incubation. aEPEC strains representing each HEp-2 cell type of adherence were analyzed after 24 h and 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation at 37°C on abiotic and cell surfaces by CFU/cm2 counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces occurred in 55 (60.4%) of the aEPEC strains. There was no significant difference in biofilm biomass formation on an abiotic versus prefixed cell surface. The biofilms could be visualized by CLSM at various developmental stages. aEPEC strains are able to form biofilm on an abiotic surface with no association with their adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells with the exception of the strains expressing UND (undetermined adherence). This study revealed the capacity of adhesion and biofilm formation by aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces, possibly playing a role in pathogenesis, mainly in cases of persistent diarrhea. PMID:24883330
Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Su-Mi; Cho, Seung-Hak
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea in developing countries. In order to characterize the molecular features of human ETEC isolates from Korea, we investigated the profiles of enterotoxin and colonization factor (CF) genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) with a total of 291 ETEC strains. The specimens comprised 258 domestic strains isolated from patients who had diarrhea and were from widely separated geographic regions in Korea and 33 inflow strains isolated from travelers visiting other Asian countries. Heat-stable toxin (STh)-possessing ETEC strains were more frequent than heat-labile toxin (LT)-possessing ETEC strains in the domestic isolates, while the detection rates of both enterotoxin genes were similar in the inflow isolates. The profile of CF genes of domestic isolates was similar to that of inflow isolates and the major CF types of the strains were CS3-CS21-CS1/PCF071 and CS2-CS3-CS21. Most of these 2 CF types were detected in ETEC strains that possess both lt and sth genes. The major MLSTST types of domestic isolates were ST171 and ST955. Moreover, the 2 major CF types were usually found concomitantly with the 2 major MLST STs, ST171 and ST955. In conclusion, our genotyping results may provide useful information for guiding the development of geographically specific vaccines against human ETEC isolates. PMID:24841334