Science.gov

Sample records for escolares del valle

  1. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  2. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Del Valle Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Roselin; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Del Valle Bilingual Education Program of Del Valle, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  3. Shed Some Light on the Subject: Teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's "Luces de bohemia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jason Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This essay seeks to provide parallel and interchangeable approaches to teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's challenging play "Luces de bohemia". A greater understanding of the cultural and mental frameworks of the early twentieth-century Spanish spectator will permit students to penetrate the dense intertextuality that characterizes Valle's…

  4. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  5. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-04-14

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV).

  6. Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-06-25

    Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses.

  7. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. ); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  8. Mössbauer study of archaeological ceramics from Valle del Alto Sinu (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Useche, L. A.; Gaviria, S.; Alabart, J. R.; Fontcuberta, J.

    1990-07-01

    A physico-chemical characterization of ceramic samples from the arachaeological sites of El Cabrero, El Gallo, and El Frasquillo (Valle del Alto Sinú) is presented. Extensive use of Mössbauer spectroscopy data reveals that the currently used typological classification scheme of Dolmatoff is related to the production technology of the different artifacts. In addition, a model for firing conditions for “Rojo Sencillo”, “Tierra Impresa”, “Tierra Incisa”, and “Blanco” types of ceramics is proposed.

  9. Seven new species of Loneura Navás (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2017-02-06

    Seven species of Loneura from natural areas of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are described and illustrated. The female of L. andina is described for the first time. Two additional species, known only from the National Natural Park Gorgona (Cauca), are also recorded in Valle del Cauca. The new species are assigned to the infrageneric groups known in the genus. An identification key to males of Loneura is included.

  10. Descriptions and records of Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and National Natural Park Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Martínez, Nadia R; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-11-28

    The results of a survey on the species diversity of the families Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) in Valle del Cauca and in the National Natural Park (NNP) Gorgona, Colombia, are presented. The specimens studied were collected in the context of two scientific projects, in which 12 species in the two families were identified, five in Cladiopsocidae and seven in Dolabellopsocidae. In the first family, Cladiopsocus presented a new record in the country and four new species; in the latter, two genera were identified, Dolabellopsocus, with three new species and two new records, and Isthmopsocus, with two new species. This study presents the description of the nine new species from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, the new records for Colombia and identification keys to the neotropical species of both families.

  11. Measureaments of CO2 levels in a transect from Cerdanyola del Vallès to Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Nuria; Guerola, Fran

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of CO2 levels in a transect from Barcelona to Cerdanyola del Vallès Science activity developed along the 2008-2009 school term within the Carboschools+ project, in collaboration whit The Climate Research group of Barcelona Park Science (LRC- PCB) The students take CO2 concentration measures from Barcelona to Cerdanyola del Vallès, two cities separated by a mountain in order to find out how is the atmosphere CO2 concentration distributed in the territory. They interchanged their data, worked out their own conclusions and prepared their own presentations. The students finally communicate their own results to the other schools involved in the project in the first Workshop Carboschools+ Catalunya hosted by the LRC-PCB at the Faculty of Biology from the University of Barcelona.

  12. Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily)

    PubMed Central

    Interdonato, Monica; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

  13. Late Tertiary northwestward-vergent thrusting in Valle del Cauca, Colombian Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, C.A.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr.; Cordoba, F.

    1989-03-01

    The Valle del Cauca is a topographic basin situated between the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Occidental in the Colombian Andes. The basement is Mesozoic mafic igneous rock of the Volcanic and Amaime Formations and clastic sediments and chert of the Espinal and Cisneros Formations. The basement was intruded by middle Cretaceous granodiorites (including the Batolito de Buga) and was deformed and metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The Mesozoic rocks originated in an oceanic setting and were accreted to northwestern South America during the Cretaceous or early Tertiary. Unconformably overlying the Mesozoic basement are the Eocene and Oligocene Vijes (marine limestone) and Guachinte and Cinta de Piedra (fluvial and deltaic sandstone and mudstone). In the Cordillera Central, the Cinta de Piedra is unconformably overlain by fanglomerate of the Miocene La Paila Formation. These clastics coarsen and thicken eastward. Geologic mapping and structural analyses show that the Mesozoic basement and its Tertiary cover are faulted and folded. Folds are asymmetric and overturned westward. Faults dip at shallow to moderate angles to the east and carry older sedimentary or basement rocks westward over younger rocks.

  14. Afebrile pneumonia (whooping cough) syndrome in infants at Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, 2001-2007

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Dolly; Echandía-Villegas, Connie Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Afebrile pneumonia syndrome in infants, also called infant pneumonitis, pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens or whooping cough syndrome is a major cause of severe lower respiratory infection in young infants, both in developing countries and in developed countries. Objective: To describe children with afebrile pneumonia syndrome. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, we reviewed the medical records of children diagnosed with afebrile pneumonia treated at Hospital Universitario del Valle, a reference center in southwestern Colombia, between June 2001 and December 2007. We obtained data on maternal age and origin, prenatal care, the childs birth, breastfeeding, vaccination status, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and complications. Results: We evaluated 101 children with this entity, noting a stationary presentation: June-August and November- December. A total of 73% of the children were under 4 months of age; the most common symptoms were: cyanotic and spasmodic cough (100%), respiratory distress (70%), and unquantified fever (68%). The most common findings: rales (crackles) (50%), wheezing and expiratory stridor (37%); 66% were classified as mild and of the remaining 33%, half of them required attention in the intensive care unit. In all, there was clinical diagnosis of afebrile pneumonia syndrome in infants, but no etiologic diagnosis was made and despite this, 94% of the children received macrolides. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that most of these patients acquired the disease by airway, possibly caused by viral infection and did not require the indiscriminate use of macrolides. PMID:24893051

  15. Microbiological water quality in a large irrigation system: El Valle del Yaqui, Sonora México.

    PubMed

    Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Castro-Espinoza, L; Naranjo, Jaime E; Karpiscak, Martin M; Freitas, Robert J; Gerba, Charles P

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbial water quality of a large irrigation system and how this quality varies with respect to canal size, impact of near-by communities, and the travel distance from the source in the El Valle del Yaqui, Sonora, México. In this arid region, 220,000 hectares are irrigated with 80% of the irrigation water being supplied from an extensive irrigation system including three dams on the Yaqui River watershed. The stored water flows to the irrigated fields through two main canal systems (severing the upper and lower Yaqui Valley) and then through smaller lateral canals that deliver the water to the fields. A total of 146 irrigation water samples were collected from 52 sample sites during three sampling events. Not all sites could be accessed on each occasion. All of the samples contained coliform bacteria ranging from 1,140 to 68,670 MPN/100 mL with an arithmetic mean of 11,416. Ninety-eight percent of the samples contained less than 1,000 MPN/100 mL Escherichia coli, with an arithmetic mean of 291 MPN/100 mL. Coliphage were detected in less than 30% of the samples with an arithmetic average equal to 141 PFU/100 mL. Enteroviruses, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Giardia cysts were also detected in the canal systems. No significant difference was found in the water quality due to canal system (upper or lower Yaqui Valley), canal-size (main vs. lateral), distance from source, and the vicinity of human habitation (presence of various villages and towns along the length of the canals). There was a significant decrease in coliforms (p < 0.011) and E. coli (< 0.022) concentrations as travel distance increased from the City of Obregón.

  16. A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Nieto, Julián A Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2012-01-01

    Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura.

  17. Effect of somatic cell count level on functional longevity in Valle del Belice dairy sheep assessed using survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, V; Maizon, D O; Portolano, B; Bovenhuis, H; van Arendonk, J A M

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) on functional longevity and to estimate the heritability of functional longevity using survival analysis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. A total of 4,880 lactations of 2,190 ewes from 11 flocks were used. In this study, SCC was considered as an indication of subclinical mastitis. In case of clinical cases, identified by the technicians at milking time, test-day weights and milk samples of those ewes were not considered. Somatic cells were analyzed as counts, without any transformation, and were grouped in 3 classes based on the observed SCC maximum (mxSCC). The mxSCC classes, expressed as 10(3) cells/mL, were classified as 1 if mxSCC or= 1,000. An increase in SCC was associated with an increased hazard of being culled. Ewes in the highest class of SCC on a test-day had a 20% higher hazard of being culled than those in the lowest class. Therefore, SCC played a role in culling decisions of Valle del Belice dairy sheep farmers. The heritability estimate for functional longevity was 7% on the logarithmic scale and 11% on the real scale, indicating that selection for this trait is possible in sheep. The flock-year-season effect explained 19% of the variation on the logarithmic scale and 27% of the variation on the real scale.

  18. Paleogene and Neogene magmatism in the Valle del Cura region: New perspective on the evolution of the Pampean flat slab, San Juan province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

    2007-09-01

    The Valle del Cura region is characterized by a thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence that records the Tertiary arc and backarc magmatic evolution of the Argentine Main Cordillera over the modern Pampean flatslab at 29.5-30°S. During the Eocene, a retroarc basin developed, represented by the Valle del Cura Formation synorogenic volcanosedimentary sequence, which includes rhyolites and dacitic tuffs. These silicic volcanic rocks have weak arc chemical signatures and high lithophile element concentrations and are isotopically enriched relative to the late Oligocene-early Miocene volcanic rocks that followed them. Their chemical characteristics fit with eruption through a thin crust. The Valle de Cura Formation was followed by the Oligocene-early Miocene Doña Ana Group volcanic sequence, which erupted at and near the arc front west of the border with Chile. The Doña Ana Group volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline chemical characteristics consistent with parental magmas forming in a mantle wedge and erupting through a normal thickness crust (35 km). Subsequent shallowing of the downgoing Nazca plate caused the volcanic front to migrate eastward. The volcanic sequences of the middle Miocene Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation erupted at this new arc front, essentially at the Argentine border. Two stages are recognized: an older one (16-14 Ma) in which magmas appear to have erupted through a normal thickness crust (30-35 km) and a younger one (13-10 Ma) in which the steeper REE pattern suggests the magmas last equilibrated with higher pressure residual mineral assemblages in a thicker crust. Isotopic ratios in the younger group are consistent with an increase in original crustal components and crust introduced into the mantle source by forearc subduction erosion. A peak in forearc subduction erosion near 12-10 Ma is consistent with when the main part of the Juan Fernandez Ridge began to subduct beneath the region. In addition to late Miocene Tambo Formation dacitic

  19. [Widows and neighbors, cornfields and magueys. The impact of population increase in the Toluca Valley: the case of Tenango del Valle during the eighteenth century].

    PubMed

    Kanter, D E

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the effect of rapid population growth due to migration on the parish of Tenango del Valle, Mexico, during the eighteenth century. She gives special consideration to the impact on quality of life in indigenous villages, especially for widows and female heads of households who were impoverished as a result of discriminatory land transactions. Data are mainly from the parish register for 1770.

  20. Genetic population analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three states (Valle del Cauca, Cauca and Nariño) from Southwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Julieta Avila, Sandra; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal (DYS19, DYS389 I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic systems were typed in three South West Colombian populations: Valle (short term for Valle del Cauca), Cauca and Nariño. DYS385a/b showed the highest gene diversity in the three populations. A total of 287 different Y-chromosome haplotypes were observed in the 308 males analyzed, and the haplotype diversity among populations was 0.9977. The most frequent haplotype was observed only three times and only nineteen others were observed two times. The highest gene diversity was found in Valle and the lowest in Cauca. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that variation is mainly within populations (99.1%) in agreement with previous results in European populations. In conclusion, these populations could be pooled together in order to create one "Colombian-Mestizo" database for forensic use.

  1. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter.

  2. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of swine manure as alternative feedstock for the Del Valle Hog Farm fuel alcohol facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.; Vinson, J.K.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this proejct was to investigate the use of swine manure as a feedstock for fuel alcohol plants. The project was conducted on the Del Valle Hog Farm and made use of the 24 gal/day fuel alcohol plant in operation there. The project involved the determination of the starch content of various samples of hog manure, and if an adequate source of starch was found, to use that manure as feedstock in full scale tests that would lead to a determination of the economic feasibility of such use. A full scale test consists of the conversion and fermentation of about 250 gallon batches of test feedstock. The production yield was determined by measurement of evolved gas during fermentation. The analysis of raw hog manure samples indicate that a good portion, about 19% by weight, of the dry matter is starch. The plant modifications required to operate with hog manure as feedstock appear to be reasonable and inexpensive. Full efficiency of conversion and fermentation was achieved with mash of about 4% solids concentration. However, with solids concentrations of 10% to 15%, the yeast died within a short time. A theory for the yeast deaths is that some yeast poison is present in the manure, and that it can be mitigated by dilution with water. Lab scale experiments confirm the dilution dependent behavior, however, no determination of the nature of the poison has been made. The study concludes that hog manure would be a viable feedstock if the yeast deaths can be prevented. The mash concentration could then be raised to 25% solids, and with screened manure of say 40% starch, the alcohol plant would work at 137% capacity with the same operating costs (acid, lime, yeast, but not heat) as with a batch of milo.

  4. Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Valles Marineris, the great canyon of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the entire canyon system, over 3,000 km long and averaging 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color; Mercator projection. The image extends from latitude 0 degrees to 20 degrees S. and from longitude 45 degrees to 102.5 degrees. The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Layers of material in the eastern canyons might consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes. Huge ancient river channels began from Valles Marineris and from adjacent canyons and ran north. Many of the channels flowed north into Chryse Basin, which contains the site of the Viking 1 Lander and the future site of the Mars Pathfinder Lander.

  5. Stratigraphy and composition of volcanic rocks cropping out along the northern walls of the Valle del Bove, Mount Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, R.; de Rosa, R.; Ferlito, C.; Niceforo, G. A. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Valle del Bove cuts the eastern sector of Mount Etna and represents a key area for understanding of the most recent history of this complex volcano. Lava flows and tuffs related to the volcanic activity preceding the building of the most recent center (Recent Mongibello) outcrop along its sheer slopes. In this work 14 stratigraphic sections, comprising products of the Ellittico center at elevations between 1300 and 2400 m a.s.l., have been examined. In each section lava flows alternate with volcaniclastic deposits, with their thickness varying from less than 1 to 30 m. The matrix ash in thin tephra levels is commonly deeply weathered. Some of these layers show graded bedding and some others plane-parallel and cross-laminated structures, whereas thicker deposits do not show any clear internal structures and are poorly sorted.. The lithic component is always igneous in origin and is represented by dark or reddish, massive lava fragments either rounded or angular in shape, with their size attaining up to 1 m across in the massive beds. The juvenile fraction is represented by dark, vesiculated scoria. Isolated crystals of pyroxene are also present. The limited lateral distribution of the thick massive beds and their textural and compositional characters suggests their emplacement as Lahar-type highly concentrated flows, probably of secondary origin. A primary fall-out pyroclastic origin is inferred for the thin laminated and graded beds . Lavas, light to dark grey in colour, are commonly massive, and only rarely slightly vesicular; their massive portion is 0.5 to 5 m. thick. Plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts may be recognised by naked eye; smaller crystals of olivine are present too. Whole rock compositions, obtained by XRF analysis, vary from hawaiites to mugeariites, and. are consistent with those of the Ellittico products. Lateral and vertical variations of some chemical characters of lavas in different stratigraphic sections suggest slight changes of the

  6. Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Epipsocidae), from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and description of the female E.chiquibulensis García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; González Obando, Ranulfo; García Aldrete, Alfonso Neri

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and the female of Edmockfordiachiquibulensis García Aldrete, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Edmockfordia is included; the genus was previously known only from Belize. The genus is re-diagnosed to include female characters. The distribution of the genus is considerably widened, from Belize to northeastern South America.

  7. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Luca, Filippo De; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Background The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. Objective To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. Methods The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Results Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.3–0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.2–0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.19–1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.05–1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), and with the combined exposure index (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). Moreover, cadmium levels showed a robust correlation with OGG1 and MT1A gene expression levels (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001; r = 0.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Finally, OGG1 and MT1A were over-expressed in adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela area compared with controls (p = 0.0004; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents. PMID:24936443

  8. Geochemistry of mafic Paleocene volcanic rocks in the Valle del Cura region: Implications for the petrogenesis of primary mantle-derived melts over the Pampean flat-slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella

    2010-04-01

    Mafic volcanism of Paleocene age was recently reported in the Valle del Cura region and the El Indio Belt in the aphanitic and very homogenous well-preserved lavas flows of the Río Frío Basalts unit. These are high-K basalts, with high Fe 2O 3 and TiO 2 contents that imply an alkaline tendency and show typical intraplate-type patterns on a MORB normalized trace elements plot. Sr and Nd isotopic ratios evidence a mantle affinity. The chemistry indicates that these rocks are high temperature melts that result from a low degree of melting of an enriched portion of lithospheric mantle, with no contamination from crustal derived components. The alkaline back-arc Las Máquinas Basalts of Lower Miocene age are derived from more primitive magmas closer to the original source. Mantle composition was relatively constant from Paleocene to Lower Miocene in the studied latitudes over the Pampean flat-slab. Both mafic units share the isotopic trend of pre-Miocene mafic lavas from the Central Andes that were not affected by crustal contamination. Post-Miocene mafic lavas show a strong influence from crust-related processes.

  9. Auqakuh Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 7 June 2002) The Science This ancient sinuous river channel, located near 30o N, 299o W (61o E), was likely carved by water early in Mars history. Auqakuh Valles cuts through a remarkable series of rock layers that were deposited and then subsequently eroded. This change from conditions favoring deposition to those favoring erosion indicates that the environment of this region has changed significantly over time. In addition, the different rock layers seen in this image vary in hardness, with some being relatively soft and easily eroded, whereas others are harder and resistant. These differences imply that these layers vary in their composition, physical properties, and/or degree of cementation, and again suggest that major changes have occurred during the history of this region. Similar differences occur throughout the southwest U.S., where hard rock layers, such as the limestones and sandstones in the Grand Canyon, form resistant cliffs, whereas softer mudstones are easily eroded to form broad slopes. The Martian layers, such as the smooth, dark-toned mesas visible in numerous places to the right (east) of the channel, were once continuous across the region. As these layers have eroded, they have produced a wide array of textures, from smooth surfaces, to knobby terrains, to the unusual lobate patterns seen in the upper right of the image. The most recent activity in the region appears to be the formation of mega-ripples by the wind. These ripples, spaced approximately 75 m apart, form perpendicular to the wind direction, and can be seen following the pattern of the channel floor as it curves through this region. This pattern shows that even this relatively small channel, which varies in width from about 500 to 750 m throughout this image, acts to funnel the wind down the channel. The Story Auqakuh Vallis, an ancient river channel that winds its way down the center of this image, is the 'fossil' remains of an earlier, probably more watery time in

  10. Auqakuh Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 7 June 2002) The Science This ancient sinuous river channel, located near 30o N, 299o W (61o E), was likely carved by water early in Mars history. Auqakuh Valles cuts through a remarkable series of rock layers that were deposited and then subsequently eroded. This change from conditions favoring deposition to those favoring erosion indicates that the environment of this region has changed significantly over time. In addition, the different rock layers seen in this image vary in hardness, with some being relatively soft and easily eroded, whereas others are harder and resistant. These differences imply that these layers vary in their composition, physical properties, and/or degree of cementation, and again suggest that major changes have occurred during the history of this region. Similar differences occur throughout the southwest U.S., where hard rock layers, such as the limestones and sandstones in the Grand Canyon, form resistant cliffs, whereas softer mudstones are easily eroded to form broad slopes. The Martian layers, such as the smooth, dark-toned mesas visible in numerous places to the right (east) of the channel, were once continuous across the region. As these layers have eroded, they have produced a wide array of textures, from smooth surfaces, to knobby terrains, to the unusual lobate patterns seen in the upper right of the image. The most recent activity in the region appears to be the formation of mega-ripples by the wind. These ripples, spaced approximately 75 m apart, form perpendicular to the wind direction, and can be seen following the pattern of the channel floor as it curves through this region. This pattern shows that even this relatively small channel, which varies in width from about 500 to 750 m throughout this image, acts to funnel the wind down the channel. The Story Auqakuh Vallis, an ancient river channel that winds its way down the center of this image, is the 'fossil' remains of an earlier, probably more watery time in

  11. Genomic differentiation between Asturiana de los Valles, Avileña-Negra Ibérica, Bruna dels Pirineus, Morucha, Pirenaica, Retinta and Rubia Gallega cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A; Munilla, S; Mouresan, E F; Cañas-Álvarez, J J; Baro, J A; Molina, A; Díaz, C; Altarriba, J; Piedrafita, J; Varona, L

    2017-03-08

    The Spanish local beef cattle breeds have most likely common origin followed by a process of differentiation. This particular historical evolution has most probably left detectable signatures in the genome. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with differentiation processes in seven Spanish autochthonous populations (Asturiana de los Valles (AV), Avileña-Negra Ibérica (ANI), Bruna dels Pirineus (BP), Morucha (Mo), Pirenaica (Pi), Retinta (Re) and Rubia Gallega (RG)). The BovineHD 777K BeadChip was used on 342 individuals (AV, n=50; ANI, n=48; BP, n=50; Mo, n=50; Pi, n=48; Re, n=48; RG, n=48) chosen to be as unrelated as possible. We calculated the fixation index (F ST ) and performed a Bayesian analysis named SelEstim. The output of both procedures was very similar, although the Bayesian analysis provided a richer inference and allowed us to calculate significance thresholds by generating a pseudo-observed data set from the estimated posterior distributions. We identified a very large number of genomic regions, but when a very restrictive significance threshold was applied these regions were reduced to only 10. Among them, four regions can be highlighted because they comprised a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms and showed extremely high signals (Kullback-Leiber divergence (KLD)>6). They are located in BTA 2 (5 575 950 to 10 152 228 base pairs (bp)), BTA 5 (17 596 734 to 18 850 702 bp), BTA 6 (37 853 912 to 39 441 548 bp) and BTA 18 (13 345 515 to 15 243 838 bp) and harbor, among others, the MSTN (Myostatin), KIT-LG (KIT Ligand), LAP3 (leucine aminopeptidase 3), NAPCG (non-SMC condensing I complex, subunit G), LCORL (ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like) and MC1R (Melanocortin 1 receptor) genes. Knowledge on these genomic regions allows to identify potential targets of recent selection and helps to define potential candidate genes associated with traits of interest, such as coat color, muscle

  12. Valles Galdera research opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    Potential opportunities for research will be available after the completion this summer of a 650-m, 7.6-cm-diameter scientific core taken from the southern ring-fracture zone of Valles Caldera, New Mexico. (See Figure 1.)The Valles Caldera coring effort stems from three primary objectives: to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow; to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations under the southern ring-fracture zone; and to obtain continuous core (6.25 cm) samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito obsidian (approximately 0.1 to 0.05 million years).

  13. Vengo del Valle: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casavantes, Edward

    1972-01-01

    The second of two articles concerning a program designed to train migrant, semi-skilled, and unskilled Mexican American workers for stable, well-paying jobs. The first article appeared in the Summer 1971 issue of Civil Rights Digest," volume 4, number 3. (RJ)

  14. Valles Marineris Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mosaic composed of 102 Viking Orbiter images of Mars, covering nearly a full hemisphere of the planet (approximate latitude -55 to 60 degrees, longitude 30 to 130 degrees). The mosaic is in a point-perspective projection with a scale of about 1 km/pixel. The color variations have been enhanced by a factor of about two, and the large-scale brightness variations (mostly due to sun-angle variations) have been normalized by large-scale filtering. The center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and up to 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east. Bright white layers of material in the eastern canyons may consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes. Huge ancient river channels begin from the chaotic terrain and from north-central canyons and run north. Many of the channels flowed into a basin called Acidalia Planitia, which is the dark area in the extreme north of this picture. The Viking 1 landing site (Mutch Memorial Station) is located in Chryse Planitia, south of Acidalia Planitia. The three Tharsis volcanoes (dark red spots), each about 25 km high, are visible to the west. The large crater with two prominent rings located at the bottom of this image is named Lowell, after the Flagstaff astronomer. The images were acquired by Viking Orbiter 1 in 1980 during early northern summer on Mars (Ls = 70 degrees); the atmosphere was relatively dust-free. A variety of clouds appear as bright blue streaks and hazes, and probably consist of water ice. Long, linear clouds north of central Valles Marineris appear to emanate from impact craters.

  15. Landslide in Kasei Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) continues in 2003 to return excellent, high resolution images of the red planet's surface. This nearly 1.5 meters (5 ft.) per pixel view of a landslide on a 200 meter-high (219 yards-high) slope in Kasei Valles was specifically targeted for scientific investigation by rotating the MGS spacecraft about 7.8o off-nadir in January 2003. The scar left by the landslide reveals layers in the bedrock at the top the slope and shows a plethora of dark-toned, house-sized boulders that rolled down the slope and collected at the base of the landslide scar. A few meteor impact craters have formed on the landslide deposit and within the scar, indicating that this landslide occurred a very long time ago. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/lower left; the landslide is located near 28.3oN, 71.9oW.

  16. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2009-01-01

    We are approaching the end of the third year of mapping the Athabasca Valles region of Mars. The linework has been adjusted in response to new CTX images and we are on schedule to submit the 4 MTM quads (05202, 05207, 10202, 10207) and ac-companying paper by the end of this fiscal year.

  17. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2008-01-01

    Two factors drive us to map the Athabasca Valles area in unusual detail: (1) the extremely well-preserved and exposed surface morphologies and (2) the extensive high resolution imaging. In particular, the near-complete CTX coverage of Athabasca Valles proper and the extensive coverage of its surroundings have been invaluable. The mapping has been done exclusively in ArcGIS, using individual CTX, THEMIS VIS, and MOC frames overlying the THEMIS IR daytime basemap. MOLA shot points and gridded DTMs are also included. It was found that CTX images processed through ISIS are almost always within 300 m of the MOLA derived locations, and usually within tens of meters, with no adjustments to camera pointing. THEMIS VIS images appear to be systematically shifted to the southwest of their correct positions and MOC images are often kilometers off. The good SNR and minimal artifacts make the CTX images vastly more useful than the THEMIS VIS or MOC images. The bulk of the mapping was done at 1:50,000 scale on CTX images. In more complex areas, mapping at 1:24,000 proved necessary. The CTX images were usually simultaneously viewed on a second monitor using the ISIS3 qview program to display the full dynamic range of the CTX data. Where CTX data was not available, mapping was often done at 1:100,000 and most contacts are mapped as approximate.

  18. Valles Marineris and Chryse Outflow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Valles Marineris, the great canyon and the south Chryse basin-Valles Marineris outflow channels of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and averaging 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east and related outflow canyons that drain toward the Chryse basin. Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north) are two canyons connected to Valles Marineris. Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southeast part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color; Mercator projection. The image roughly extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 102.5 degrees.

    The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Layers of material in the eastern canyons might consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes, eolian deposits, or volcanic materials. Huge ancient river channels began from Valles Marineris and from adjacent canyons and ran north. Many of the channels flowed north into Chryse Basin.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a

  19. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  20. Stratigraphy of the Kasei Valles region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Mark S.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1987-01-01

    The thicknesses and geomorphology of the two principal stratigraphic units exposed in Kasei Valles to aid in interpreting the nature of crustal materials and the history of the channeling events in the area are identified and described. Previous studies of Kasei Valles have related the channel landforms to glacial flow, catastrophic flooding, and large-scale eolian erosion. The two units (an upper and a lower unit) form thick sheets, each having distinct geomorphologic features. Thicknesses of the unit were determined through preliminary stereogrammetric profiles taken across many sections of western Kasei Valles and shadow measurements taken of scarp heights from calibrated Viking images having sun angles less than 25 degrees; DN values were examined to confirm that true shadows were observed.

  1. Detections of carbonates in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultel, B.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Flahaut, J.; Andréani, M.; Lozac'h, L.

    2015-10-01

    Valles Marineris is a unique place on Mars where deep crust is exposed at its original place [1]. The primitive crust is observed at the base of Coprates Chasma as well as in the eastern parts of Valles Marineris [1].Else where on Mars, several authors [2and references therein] reported key observation of the martian primitive crust being altered thanks to CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) data. Coprates Chasma is a proposed landing site for Mars 2020 mission and is so intensely covered by CRISM data. It allows us to investigate the alteration signs of the primitive crust. We describe here the study of 3 CRISM FRT observations on the wall of Valles Marineris in Coprates Chasma and on a remnant horst in middle of the canyon seeking for alteration minerals.

  2. Mars Airplane Valles Marineris Terrain Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a computer simulation showing a proposed configuration of the Langley Mars Airplane on a flyover of the Valles Marineris system on the planet Mars. The actual flight is scheduled for Dec. 17, 2003, timed to mark the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers' historic powered flight at Kitty Hawk, N.C.

  3. Ares Valles: Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 15 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Ares Valles region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 339.9 East (20.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  4. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2013-07-01

    que enfrentan dificultades en la escuela. La inclusión debe estar en todas las instituciones educacionales (formales o no). Nuestro objetivo en el trabajo de final de curso de licenciatura, fue el de presentar un relato de la experiencia de mediación a los alumnos con deficiencias visuales del Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) en el Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST) y las modificaciones y nuevas propuestas para el Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) a través de un aparato especialmente construido con el cual se puede percibir el cielo en una latitud próxima a la de Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  6. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  7. Third hole planned at Valles Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jamie

    Valles caldera, N. Mex., is the culmination of more than 13 million years of volcanism in the Jemez volcanic field and is an excellent model for resurgent calderas and for the high-temperature geothermal systems found with them. This month one of the biggest diamond drills in the world will start the third research core hole in the caldera. Valles Caldera 2B will be the tenth core hole in the Department of Energy's Continental Scientific Drilling Program.CSDP drilling in the 1.1-million-year-old caldera began in 1984 in the southwest moat zone when the research hole Valles Caldera 1 was continuously cored to 856 m. VC-1 intersected a hydrothermal outflow plume from the deep geothermal system. Data indicate multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity in the volcanic field's history, as well as multiple episodes of rhyolite magma generation during evolution of the caldera. The June 10, 1988 (vol. 63), issue of Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth and Planets carried a special section on results from VC-1.

  8. Interrupting the Discourse: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    Reid and Valle (in this issue) illustrate how discourse within the field of learning disabilities (LD) determines what can and cannot be said and shapes what counts as knowledge or truth. Because basic assumptions about disability often remain unquestioned, Reid and Valle ask us to focus on the epistemological foundations of the field of LD. They…

  9. AmeriFlux US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine site is located in the 1200km2 Jemez River basin of the Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico at the southern margin of the Rocky Mountain ecoregion. The Ponderosa Pine forest is the warmest and lowest (below 2700m) zone of the forests in the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Its vegetation is composed of a Ponderosa Pine (Pinus Ponderosa) overstory and a Gambel Oak (Quercus gambelii) understory.

  10. Year 3 Geologic Mapping in Central Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Gullickson, A. L.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Platz, T.; Kumar, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In year 3 we mapped the west side of central Valles Marineris, Mars. We split landslide orientations into typical terrestrial categories including flows, slides, spreads, and falls. We continued work on the ILD using bedding orientations and CRISM.

  11. Water and ice on Mars: Evidence from Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    An important contribution to the volatile history of Mars comes from a detailed study of Valles Marineris, where excellent stereoimages and a three-dimensional view of the upper Martian crust permit unusual insights. The evidence that ground water and ice existed until relatively recently or still exist in the equatorial area comes from observations of landslides, wall rock, and dark volcanic vents. Valles Marineris landslides are different in efficiency from large catastrophic landslides on Earth. One explanation for the difference might be that the Martian slides are lubricated by water. A comparison of landslide speeds also suggests that the Martian slides contain water. That Valles Marineris wall rock contained water or ice is further suggested by its difference from the interior layered deposits. Faults and fault zones in Valles Marineris also shed light on the problem of water content in the walls. Because the main evidence for water and ice in the wall rock comes from landslides, their time of emplacement is important. The landslides in Valles Marineris date from the time of late eruptions of the Tharsis volcanoes and thus were emplaced after the major activity of Martian outflow channels. None of the observations conclusively demonstrate that water or ice existed in the wall rock of Valles Marineris, but altogether the evidence is highly suggestive.

  12. Water and ice on Mars: Evidence from Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    An important contribution to the volatile history of Mars comes from a study of Valles Marineris, where stereoimages and a 3-D view of the upper Martian crust permit unusual insights. The evidence that ground water and ice existed until relatively recently or still exist in the equatorial area comes from observations of landslides, wall rock, and dark volcanic vents. Valles Marineris landslides are different in efficiency from large catastrophic landslides on Earth. One explanation for the difference might be that the Martian slides are lubricated by water. A comparison of landslide speeds also suggests that the Martian slides contain water. That Valles Marineris wall rock contained water or ice is further suggested by its difference from the interior layered deposits. Faults and fault zones in Valles Marineris also shed light on the problem of water content in the walls. Because the main evidence for water and ice in the wall rock comes from slides, their time of emplacement is important. The slides in Valles Marineris date from the time of late eruptions of the Tharsis volcanoes and thus were emplaced after the major activity of Martian outflow channels.

  13. Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W L; Keszthelyi, L P; McEwen, A S; Dundas, C M; Russell, P S

    2007-09-21

    Athabasca Valles is a young outflow channel system on Mars that may have been carved by catastrophic water floods. However, images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft reveal that Athabasca Valles is now entirely draped by a thin layer of solidified lava-the remnant of a once-swollen river of molten rock. The lava erupted from a fissure, inundated the channels, and drained downstream in geologically recent times. Purported ice features in Athabasca Valles and its distal basin, Cerberus Palus, are actually composed of this lava. Similar volcanic processes may have operated in other ostensibly fluvial channels, which could explain in part why the landers sent to investigate sites of ancient flooding on Mars have predominantly found lava at the surface instead.

  14. Melas Chasma: A Mars Pathfinder view of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Murchie, Scott

    1994-01-01

    A Mars Pathfinder landing site in Melas Chasma (Valles Marineris) would yield significant science return, but is outside present mission constraints. In Melas Chasma, Mars Pathfinder could investigate minimally altered basaltic material, sedimentary deposits, chemical weathering, tectonic features, the highland crust, equatorial weather, and Valles mists. Critical issues include the following: (1) nature and the origin of the Valles interior layered deposits, important for understanding water as a sedimentary and chemical agent, and for the past existence of of environments favorable for life; (2) compositions of little-altered basaltic sands, important for understanding magma genesis and weathering on Mars, and the martian meteorites; and (3) structure and composition of the highland crust, important for understanding Mars' early history .

  15. Light-toned Layered Outcrops in Valles Marineris Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Valles Marineris a system of troughs, chasms, and pit chains that stretches more than 4,000 km (2,500 miles) across the martian western hemisphere. Outcrops of layered material found in mounds and mesas within the chasms of the Valles Marineris were known from the pictures taken by Mariner 9 in 1972 and the Viking orbiters of 1976-1980. One example of the those known previously is the mesa labeled 'Candor Mensa' in the context image (above); another example is the mound in the center of Ganges Chasma. For several decades, it has been widely speculated among Mars scientists that the light- and dark-toned layered materials in the Valles Marineris might have formed in lakes that had once filled the chasms during the most recent epoch of martian history; others thought they might result from volcanic ash deposited in the chasms. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have confirmed the presence of light- and dark-toned layered sedimentary rock outcrops in the Valles Marineris, but they have also revealed many more than were previously known and they have shown several good examples that these materials are coming out of the walls of the Valles Marineris chasms. The fact that these materials come out of the chasm walls means that the layers do not represent lakes (or volcanic debris) that formed in the Valles Marineris. Instead, they represent materials deposited and buried long before there ever was a Valles Marineris. They are seen now because of the faulting and erosion that opened up and widened the Valles Marineris troughs. The context image is a mosaic of Viking 1 orbiter images taken in 1976 showing a portion of the wall that separates western Ophir Chasma from western Candor Chasma in the Valles Marineris. This area is located around 5oS, 74oW. The white box labeled 'M17-00467' shows the location of a subframe of MOC image M17-00467 that was acquired in July 2000 to allow scientists to

  16. Workshop on recent research in the Valles caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.

    1985-02-01

    Over the last 5 years, there has been increased interest in the geology of the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico. Of special interest is the Toledo-Valles caldera complex, which is targeted for research coring as part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The general topics covered in this workshop were (1) hydrothermal systems and rock-water interactions, (2) volcanology and structural framework of the Jemez volcanic field, (3) determining the presence or absence of melt below the Valles caldera, and (4) deep coring and drilling technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for each presentation.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer site is located in the 1200 km2 Jemez River basin in north-central New Mexico. Common to elevations ranging from 3040 to 2740 m in the region, the mixed conifer stand, within the entirety of the tower footprint in all directions, provides an excellent setting for studying the seasonal interaction between snow and vegetation.

  18. History of the youngest members of the Valles Rhyolite, Valles caldera, New Mexico using ESR dating method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogoh, K; Toyoda, S; Ikeda, S; Ikeya, M; Goff, F

    1991-01-01

    The cooling history of the Valles caldera was studied by the electron spin resonance (ESR) dating method using Al and Ti centers in quartz grains which were separated from the youngest units of the Valles Rhyolite. The ESR apparent ages are much younger than fission track ages and {sup 39}Ar- {sup 40}Ar ages. Three possibilities are suggested, the first is that the ESR ages are real, the second is that ESR method did not work for these samples, and the third is that about 10--40 ka, the signal intensity was partially reduced by a thermal event such as proposed by Harrison et al. (1986). Research on the first and second possibilities is continuing. The third possibility might explain the difference between ESR ages and those by other methods (fission track and {sup 39}Ar- {sup 40}Ar). ESR dating has produced new insights regarding the history of the Valles caldera.

  19. Valles Marineris dune sediment provenance and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Burr, Devon M.; Moersch, Jeffrey E.; Wray, James J.

    2014-04-01

    Although low-albedo sand is a prevalent component of the martian surface, sources and pathways of the sands are uncertain. As one of the principal present-day martian sediment sinks, the Valles Marineris (VM) rift system hosts a diversity of dune field populations associated with a variety of landforms that serve as potential sediment sources, including spur-and-gully walls, interior layered deposits (ILDs), and landslides. Here, we test the hypothesis that VM dune fields are largely derived from a variety of local and regional (intra-rift) sediment sources. Results show several dune fields are superposed on ancient wall massifs and ILDs that are topographically isolated from extra-rift sand sources. Spectral analysis of dune sand reveals compositional heterogeneity at the basinal-, dune field-, and dune-scales, arguing for discrete, relatively unmixed sediment sources. In Coprates and Melas chasmata, mapping is consistent with the principle sand source for dunes being Noachian-aged upper and lower wall materials composed of primary (igneous) minerals and glasses, some of which show evidence for alteration. In contrast, dune fields in Capri, Juventae, and Ganges chasmata show evidence for partial sediment derivation from adjacent Early Hesperian-aged hydrated sulfate-bearing ILD units. This finding indicates that these ILDs act as secondary sand sources. Dunes containing “soft” secondary minerals (e.g., monohydrated sulfate) are unlikely to have been derived from distant sources due to the physical weathering of sand grains during transport. Isolated extra-rift dune fields, sand sheets, and sand patches are located on the plateaus surrounding VM and the adjoining areas, but do not form interconnected networks of sand pathways into the rift. If past wind regimes (with respect to directionality and seasonality) were consistent with more recent regimes inferred from morphological analysis (i.e., dune slip faces, wind streaks), and were sufficient in strength and

  20. Automated detection of Martian water ice clouds: the Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogohara, Kazunori; Munetomo, Takafumi; Hatanaka, Yuji; Okumura, Susumu

    2016-10-01

    We need to extract water ice clouds from the large number of Mars images in order to reveal spatial and temporal variations of water ice cloud occurrence and to meteorologically understand climatology of water ice clouds. However, visible images observed by Mars orbiters for several years are too many to visually inspect each of them even though the inspection was limited to one region. Therefore, an automated detection algorithm of Martian water ice clouds is necessary for collecting ice cloud images efficiently. In addition, it may visualize new aspects of spatial and temporal variations of water ice clouds that we have never been aware. We present a method for automatically evaluating the presence of Martian water ice clouds using difference images and cross-correlation distributions calculated from blue band images of the Valles Marineris obtained by the Mars Orbiter Camera onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS/MOC). We derived one subtracted image and one cross-correlation distribution from two reflectance images. The difference between the maximum and the average, variance, kurtosis, and skewness of the subtracted image were calculated. Those of the cross-correlation distribution were also calculated. These eight statistics were used as feature vectors for training Support Vector Machine, and its generalization ability was tested using 10-fold cross-validation. F-measure and accuracy tended to be approximately 0.8 if the maximum in the normalized reflectance and the difference of the maximum and the average in the cross-correlation were chosen as features. In the process of the development of the detection algorithm, we found many cases where the Valles Marineris became clearly brighter than adjacent areas in the blue band. It is at present unclear whether the bright Valles Marineris means the occurrence of water ice clouds inside the Valles Marineris or not. Therefore, subtracted images showing the bright Valles Marineris were excluded from the detection of

  1. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  2. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  3. Noctis Labyrinthus/Valles Marineris transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 27 May 2002) The Science The transition zone between maze-like troughs of Noctis Labyrinthus and the main Valles Marineris canyon system are shown in this THEMIS visible camera image. This huge system of troughs near the equator of Mars was most likely created by tectonic forces which pulled apart the crust. In the top third of the image, on the western side of the northernmost trough, a buildup of relatively bright material on the plateau has led to an overflow into the trough. Most of the bottom of this trough is covered by sediment deposited from the plateau above. On the right-hand side of this same trough, on the southern wall, there is a thin streak of darker material that also seems to originate from the plateau above. This is most likely a gully formation. This feature could also be a dust avalanche, but because no other similar features are seen, this is unlikely. Other dark material deposited by some unknown process can also be seen all around the easternmost ridge in the trough. Near the bottom of the canyon, layers from the center ridges and the canyon wall can be matched, indicating that the ridges are made of the same material as the wall. Near the bottom of the image, there is yet another depression. This trough is filled with sediment deposited from erosion of the trough wall and possibly from the plateau above. All around the walls of this trough a layer of rocky material can be also be seen. It appears that the areas directly below the rocky ledges are 'shielded' from landslide material from above. Finally, in the northwestern wall of this trough, there is an irregular pattern of very bright material not seen anywhere else in the image. Identifying similar formations in other THEMIS visible camera images could provide some context for its occurrence and help us understand how it was formed. The Story Tectonic forces wrenched apart the crust on Mars long ago, forming deep troughs at the Martian equator like the ones seen here. They occur

  4. Bioethics and Climate Change: A Response to Macpherson and Valles.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2016-10-01

    Two articles published in Bioethics recently have explored the ways that bioethics can contribute to the climate change debate. Cheryl Cox Macpherson argues that bioethicists can play an important role in the climate change debate by helping the public to better understand the values at stake and the trade-offs that must be made in individual and social choices, and Sean Valles claims that bioethicists can contribute to the debate by framing the issues in terms of the public health impacts of climate change. While Macpherson and Valles make valid points concerning a potential role for bioethics in the climate change debate, it is important to recognize that much more than ethical analysis and reflection will be needed to significantly impact public attitudes and government policies.

  5. Core log: Valles caldera No. 2A, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Starguist, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific core hole VC-2A was drilled into the western ring-fracture zone at Sulphur Springs in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. VC-2A, the second scientific core hole in the caldera, was cored through a faulted and brecciated sequence of intracauldron tuffs and volcaniclastic rocks to a depth of 528 m. As of November 1, 1986, the unequilibrated bottom-hole temperature was 212/degree/C. The rocks penetrated are intensely altered and host sub-ore grade stockwork molybdenite mineralization between 25 and 125 m. This report contains a detailed core log to aid researchers in their studies of the Valles caldera magma hydrothermal system. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Formation of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, Susan S.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Thick sequences of layered deposits are found in the Valles Marineris, which exhibit fine, nearly horizontal layering, and are present as isolated plateaus of what were once more extensive deposits. It was argued that the morphology of the deposits is most consistent with origin in standing bodies of water. The conditions necessary for the existence of ice-covered Martian paleolakes are examined in detail and mechanisms for sediment deposition in them are considered. It was concluded that there are several geologically feasible mechanisms that could have led to the formation of thick deposits in ice-covered paleolakes in the Valles Marineris. Present data are insufficient to choose conclusively among the various possibilities. Several types of data from the Mars Observer mission will be useful in further characterizing the deposits and clarifying the process of their origin. The deposits should be considered important targets for a future Mars sample return mission.

  7. Interrupting the discourse: a response to Reid and Valle.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Beth A

    2004-01-01

    Reid and Valle (in this issue) illustrate how discourse within the field of learning disabilities (LD) determines what can and cannot be said and shapes what counts as knowledge or truth. Because basic assumptions about disability often remain unquestioned, Reid and Valle ask us to focus on the epistemological foundations of the field of LD. They demonstrate how discourse, far from being simply an academic or abstract theoretical pursuit, has direct material consequences for people labeled as having LD. In this response, I highlight some of the ways that the discourse in the LD field is getting in the way of truly transforming education for all learners and impeding our ability to ask the hard questions about our own complicity in issues such as the overrepresentation of students of color and the inaccessibility of general education learning environments.

  8. Land- and resource-use issues at the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Intemann, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Valles Caldera possesses a wealth of resources from which various private parties as well as the public at large can benefit. Among the most significant of these are the geothermal energy resource and the natural resource. Wildlife, scenic, and recreational resources can be considered components of the natural resource. In addition, Native Americans in the area value the Valles Caldera as part of their religion. The use of land in the caldera to achieve the full benefits of one resource may adversely affect the value of other resources. Measures can be taken to minimize adverse affects and to maximize the benefits of all the varied resources within the caldera as equitably as possible. An understanding of present and potential land and resource uses in the Caldera, and who will benefit from these uses, can lead to the formulation of such measures.

  9. Young volcanic deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the interior deposits of the central Valles Marineris has led to the discovery of a sequence of deposits that cover the chasma floors and range in thickness from that of thin dust to several kilometers. The emplacement of the deposits was the last major event in the history of the Valles Marineris, following deposition of older layered interior beds, warping, faulting, erosion, and landslide emplacement. The young deposits are of three major types: (1) dark patches typically occurring along faults; (2) light-colored deposits locally associated with craters; and (3) rugged, mottled deposits with, in places, light-colored lobate fronts. These young materials may be of volcanic origin, as suggested by the low albedo and spectrally gray colors of some, their association with faults and possible volcanic craters and calderas, and their embayment relations and lobate margins. No other mechanism explains all the observed features and relations as well as volcanism. If these deposits are volcanic, implications are that (1) volcanism was associated with rifting in the Valles Marineris, (2) the volcanism was explosive in places, and (3) the volcanism may be as young as the late Tharsis volcanism and, locally, may well be recent. ?? 1990.

  10. Continental Scientific Drilling Program: Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program attempts to develop a better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic mechanisms within the continental crust, under the auspices of an interagency group comprising the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Ten years of research and drilling in the Valles caldera of northern New Mexico has provided a new understanding of volcanism and geothermal systems within a large caldera. Situated at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and the Jemez volcanic lineament, the Valles caldera and Toledo calderas were formed during two massive eruptions 1.1 and 1.5 M a that vented approximately 300 to 400 km{sup 3} of high-silica rhyolitic tephra. The research at the Valles/Toledo caldera has provided more than 3000 m of corehole samples, which are stored in a repository in Grand Junction, Colorado, and are accessible to the public. This research has also helped support theories of mineral deposition within hydrothermal systems-hot water circulating through breccias, leaching elements from the rocks, and later depositing veins of economically valuable materials.

  11. Interpretation of a Magnetic Map of the Valles Marineris Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purucker, M. E.; Langlais, B.; Mandea, M.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic map of Valles Marineris is interpreted in terms of left-lateral faulting, the first evidence for substantial strike-slip faulting here. Surface exposures of highly magnetic material may exist in the walls of Valles Marineris. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Are there carbonate deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, Susan S.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    The precipitation of 30 mbar of Martian atmosphere CO2 as carbonates in lakes is suggested to be the source of thick sequences of layered deposits found in the Valles Marineris. Support is adduced for this scenario from processes occurring in the perennially frozen dry valley lakes of Antarctica, where the lake water is supersaturated with atmospheric gases. Atmospheric CO2 would have accumulated in such Martian lakes as temperature fell, and the presence of an insulating ice cover would have allowed liquid water to exist.

  13. Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, fire incidence in Colombian wild areas has increased, damaging pristine forests into savannas and sterile lands. Fire poses a significant threat to biodiversity, rural communities and established infrastructure. These events issue an urgent need to address this problem. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) can play a significant role in the monitoring fires and natural disasters. SERVIR, the Regional Visualization and Monitoring Network, constitutes a platform for the observation, forecasting and modeling of environmental processes in Central America. A project called "The GIS for fire management in Guatemala (SIGMA-I)" has been already conducted to address the same problem in another Latin American country, Guatemala. SIGMA-I was developed by the Inter-agency work among the National protected areas council (CONAP), National Forestry Institution (INAB), the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction / National Forest Fire Prevention and Control System (CONRED/SIPECIF), and the Ministry of the Environment and National Resources (MARN) in Guatemala under the guidance and assistance of SERVIR. With SIGMA-I as an example, we proposed to conduct a similar project for the country of Colombia. First, a pilot study in the area of the watershed of the Cali River, Colombia was conducted to ensure that the data was available and that the maps and models were accurate. The proposed study will investigate the technical resources required: 1.) A fire map with a compilation of ignition data (hot spots) utilizing Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products MOD14 and MYD14 2.) A map of fire scars derived from medium resolution satellite data (ASTER) during the period 2003-2011 for the entire country, and a map of fire scar recurrence and statistics derived from the datasets produced. 3.) A pattern analysis and ignition cause model derived from a matrix of variables statistically exploring the demographic and environmental factors of fire risk, such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and NDVI .4.) A dynamic fire risk evaluation able to generate a dynamic map of ignition risk based on statistical analysis factors. This study aims to research integrating MODIS, Landsat and ASTER data along with in-situ data on environmental parameters from the Corporation of the Cauca Valley River (CVC) along with other data on social, economical and cultural variables obtained by researchers of the Wild Fire Observatory (OCIF) from the "Universidad Autónoma de Occidente" in order to create an ignition cause model, dynamic fire risk evaluation system and compile any and all geospatial data generated for the region. In this way the research will help predict and forecast fire vulnerabilities in the region. The team undertook this project through SERVIR with the guidance of the scientist, Victor Hugo Ramos, who was the leader and principal investigator on the SIGMA-I.

  14. Stratigraphy of the layered terrain in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, G.; Strom, Roger G.

    1991-01-01

    The layered terrain in Valles Marineris provides information about its origin and the geologic history of this canyon system. Whether the terrain is sedimentary material deposited in a dry or lacustrine environment, or volcanic material related to the tectonics of the canyon is still controversial. However, recent studies of Gangis Layered Terrain suggests a cyclic sequence of deposition and erosion under episodic lacustrine conditions. The stratigraphic studies are extended to four other occurrences of layered terrains in Valles Marineris in an attempt to correlate and distinguish between depositional environments. The Juvantae Chasma, Hebes Chasma, Ophir and Candor Chasmata, Melas Chasma, and Gangis Layered Terrain were examined. Although there are broad similarities among the layered terrains, no two deposits are exactly alike. This suggests that there was no synchronized regional depositional processes to form all the layered deposits. However, the similar erosional style of the lower massive weakly bedded unit in Hebes, Gangis, and Ophir-Candor suggests it may have been deposited under similar circumstances.

  15. Is the Valles caldera entering a new cycle of activity?

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, J.A.; Gardner, J.N.

    1995-05-01

    The Valles caldera formed during two major rhyolitic ignimbrite eruptive episodes (the Bandelier Tuff) at 1.61 and 1.22 Ma, after some 12 m.y. of activity in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico. Several subsequent eruptions between 1.22 and 0.52 Ma produced dominantly high-silica rhyolite lava domes and tephras within the caldera. These were followed by a dormancy of 0.46 m.y. prior to the most recent intracaldera activity, the longest hiatus since the inception of the Bandelier magma system at approximately 1.8 Ma. The youngest volcanic activity at approximately 60 ka produced the SW moat rhyolites, a series of lavas and tuffs that display abundant petrologic evidence of being newly generated melts. Petrographic textures conform closely to published predictions for silicic magmas generated by intrusion of basaltic magma into continental crust. The Valles caldera may currently be the site of renewed silicic magma generation, induced by intrusion of mafic magma at depth. Recent seismic investigations revealed the presence of a large low-velocity anomaly in the lower crust beneath the caldera. The generally aseismic character of the caldera, despite abundant regional seismicity, may be attributed to a heated crustal column, the local effect of 13 m.y. of magmatism and emplacement of mid-crustal plutons. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Small valleys and hydrologic history of the lower Mangala Valles region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. G.; Tanaka, K. L.

    Three diverse types of small valleys in the lower Mangala Valles region of Mars indicate a complex hydrologic history involving two main episodes of valley and channel formation: degraded valleys west of Mangala Valles; theater-headed valleys on either side of Mangala; and ribbon valleys, that cut across older plateau materials and into theater-headed valleys. This paper investigates the precise ages of the small valleys, relative to regional climatic, volcanic, and outflow-channel activity, together with the origins of the small valleys and the hydrologic history of the lower Mangala Valles region.

  17. Ice Caves in Hebrus Valles: A Target Location for the First Human Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davila, A.; Fairen, A. G.; Rodriguez, A. P.; Rask, J.; Zavaleta, J.

    2016-09-01

    Caves at Hebrus Valles are an ideal exploration target on Mars as they provide shelter, water ice, more benign temperatures, and are interesting sites for astrobiology, ensuring critical resources for the establishment of a long-term human base.

  18. Mobility of large rock avalanches: evidence from Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of H/L (height of drop/length of runout) vs. volume for landslides in Valles Marineris on Mars show a trend of decreasing H/L with increasing volume. This trend, which is linear on a log-log plot, is parallel to but lies above the trend for terrestrial dry rock avalanches. This result and estimates of 104 to 105 Pa yield strength suggest that the landslides were not water saturated, as suggested by previous workers. The offset between the H/L vs. volume trends shows that a typical Martian avalanche must be nearly two orders of magnitude more voluminous than a typical terrestrial avalance in order to achieve the same mobility. This offset might be explained by the effects of gravity on flows with high yield strengths. These results should prove useful to future efforts to resolve the controversy over the mechanics of long-runout avalanches. -Author

  19. A tectonic geomorphological classification of the walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Viking 1 imagery of the Coprates NW quadrangle was used in an attempt to develop a geomorphic classification scheme for the canyon walls of Valles Marineris analogous to that devised to evaluate the relative tectonic activity of terrestrial mountain fronts. The four classes of walls established are described and mapped. Regions where a class cannot be assigned owing to the presence of intra canyon sediments, landslides, or landslide debris; and apparent fault scarps that occur on the canyon floor rather than at the wall base are also shown. The most striking feature is the concentration of active tectonic features within lus Chasma, and to a lesser extent in Tithonium Chasma, as well as along the north walls of Coprates and East Candor.

  20. Impact craters and landslide volume distribution in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Blasio, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The landslides in the wide gorge system of Valles Marineris (Mars) exhibit volumes of the or-der of several hundred 1,000 km3 and runouts often in the excess of 80 km. Most landslides have occurred at the borders of the valleys, where the unbalanced weight of the 5-8 km high headwalls has been evidently sufficient to cause instability. Previous analysis has shown that the mechanical conditions of instability would not have been reached without external triggering fac-tors, if the wallslope consisted of intact rock. Among the factors that have likely promoted instability, we are currently analyzing: i) the possibility of rock weakening due to weathering; ii) the alternation of weak layers within more massive rock; weak layers might for example due to evaporites, the possible presence of ice table at some depth, or water; iii) weakening due to impact damage prior to the formation of Valles Marineris; studies of impact craters on Earth show that the volumes of damaged rock extends much deeper than the crater itself; iv) direct triggering of a landslide due to the seismic waves generated by a large meteoroid impact in the vicinity, and v) direct triggering of a landslide con-sequent to impact at the headwall, with impulsive release of momentum and short but intense increase of the triggering force. We gathered a large database for about 3000 Martian landslides that allow us to infer some of their statistical properties supporting our analyses, and especially to discriminate among some of the above listed predisposing and triggering factors. In particular, we analyse in this contribution the frequency distribution of landslide volumes starting from the assumption that these events are controlled by the extent of the shock damage zones. Relative position of the impact point and damage zones with respect to the Valles Marineris slopes could in fact control the released volumes. We perform 3D slope stability analy-sis under different geometrical constraints (e.g. crater

  1. Hydrated mineral stratigraphy of Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, L.H.; Mustard, J.F.; Swayze, G.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; Murchie, S.L.; Lichtenberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    New high-resolution spectral and morphologic imaging of deposits on walls and floor of Ius Chasma extend previous geomorphic mapping, and permit a new interpretation of aqueous processes that occurred during the development of Valles Marineris. We identify hydrated mineralogy based on visible-near infrared (VNIR) absorptions. We map the extents of these units with CRISM spectral data as well as morphologies in CTX and HiRISE imagery. Three cross-sections across Ius Chasma illustrate the interpreted mineral stratigraphy. Multiple episodes formed and transported hydrated minerals within Ius Chasma. Polyhydrated sulfate and kieserite are found within a closed basin at the lowest elevations in the chasma. They may have been precipitates in a closed basin or diagenetically altered after deposition. Fluvial or aeolian processes then deposited layered Fe/Mg smectite and hydrated silicate on the chasma floor, postdating the sulfates. The smectite apparently was weathered out of Noachian-age wallrock and transported to the depositional sites. The overlying hydrated silicate is interpreted to be an acid-leached phyllosilicate transformed from the underlying smectite unit, or a smectite/jarosite mixture. The finely layered smectite and massive hydrated silicate units have an erosional unconformity between them, that marks a change in surface water chemistry. Landslides transported large blocks of wallrock, some altered to contain Fe/Mg smectite, to the chasma floor. After the last episode of normal faulting and subsequent landslides, opal was transported short distances into the chasma from a few m-thick light-toned layer near the top of the wallrock, by sapping channels in Louros Valles. Alternatively, the material was transported into the chasma and then altered to opal. The superposition of different types of hydrated minerals and the different fluvial morphologies of the units containing them indicate sequential, distinct aqueous environments, characterized by alkaline

  2. The El Cajete Series, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Kircher, D. E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1988-06-01

    Three rhyolite eruptive units totaling 3 km3 dense rock equivalent volume are the youngest products from the Valles caldera, New Mexico. These pyroclastic and effusive units, herein called the El Cajete Series, were erupted over an appreciable time period with Plinian and ignimbrite-forming activity preceding an effusive phase by a lengthy but indeterminable interval. New U-Th disequilibrium and published fission track dates support an age for the event between 170 and 130 ka. The explosive phases formed the El Cajete Plinian deposit (about 1.3 km3), minor dry pyroclastic surges, and the Battleship Rock tuff (about 1.0 km3), a valley-confined welded ignimbrite. The Plinian eruption column is estimated to have been 28 km high during deposition of the most widely dispersed pumice fall unit. Slow effusion of the Banco Bonito obsidian lava flow (<1.0 km3) onto a dissected surface cut into the El Cajete and Battleship Rock pyroclastic deposits, accompanied by minor explosive activity, terminated the event. Twenty-four bulk-rock samples from all three eruptive stages exhibit little significant compositional variation, and the three units are petrographically identical apart from differences arising from contrasting eruption styles. Very few phenocrysts appear to have been in equilibrium with their enclosing high-silica rhyolitic liquid. Plagioclase grains are typically strongly resorbed, while biotite and hornblende frequently occur in aggregate grains in which textures characteristic of plutonic rocks can be discerned. These features result from partial melting of preexisting crustal igneous rock, probably of dioritic to granodioritic composition, and subsequent eruption of the resulting liquid plus restite crystals. Rapid generation and eruption of rhyolitic magma during this most recent phase of activity in the Jemez Mountains may imply that the Valles magma system is presently in a state where small magma bodies are transient phenomena.

  3. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.

  4. Landslide on Valles Marineris: morphology and flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Baratoux, D.; Pinet, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Valles Marineris is known as a place of numerous and well preserved landslides on Mars. In comparison with terrestrial landslides, martian landslides are distinctive in their size and morphology. As a consequence of the topography of the canyon, the averaged drop height of these landslides is about 6.5 km and the averaged volume is about 102~4 km3[1], which is 2~3 orders of magnitude larger than terrestrial ones, at the exception of marine landslides[2]. As for the morphology, clear levees with longitudinal lineations are typical features of martian landslides, whereas surfaces of the terrestrial mass movements are dominated by a rather chaotic topography with, in some cases, the occurrence of transverse ridges. The characteristics of the deposits should reflect the dynamics of the emplacement and the subsurface material properties. In particular, there is a longstanding debate about the relation between the long run-out length and the existence of subsurface volatiles (water ice, clathrates, ground water) [1,3,4,5,6,7]. The motivation of our research is the fact that material properties are expected to be deduced from the morphology of the deposits and the knowledge of the flow dynamics. Then, the characteristics of subsurface materials partially collapsed as mass movements could be documented as a function of time, considering the age of each landslide. In this study, we focus on the longitudinal grooves which are found on the surface of landslide deposits at Valles Marineris (Fig.1). This pattern is a typical feature in the martian landslides[3], and extremely rarely observed in the terrestrial mass movements. The origin is not well clarified, but it seems strong relation with the flow style or physical property of transported materials. With the objective to determine the condition of formation of the lineations, the geometric characteristics (volume, surface, thickness, run-out length) of lineated and non-lineated landslides are compared. Then

  5. Variation of Fracturing Pressures with Depth Near the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Zora; Murphy, Hugh

    1983-12-15

    Hydraulic Fracturing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal site near the Valles Caldera has yielded fracturing pressures from 14 to 81 MPa (2030 to 11,750 psi) at depths ranging from 0.7 to 4.4 km (2250 to 14,400 ft). This data can be fit to a fracture gradient of 19 MPa/km (0.84 psi/ft), except for an anomalous region between 2.6 to 3.2 km where fracturing pressures are about 20 MPa lower than estiamted using the above gradient. This anomaly coincides with a biotite granodiorite intrusive emplaced into a heterogeneous jointed metamorphic complex comprised of gneisses, schists and metavolcanic rocks. Microseismic events detected with sensitive downhole geophones suggest that shear failure is an important process during hydraulic fracturing of such jointed rock. Consequently the usual relation between minimum earth stress and fracture opening pressure, based upon classic tensile failure, cannot be used apriori; fracture opening pressure is instead a complex function of joint orientation and all three components of principal earth stress.

  6. Voluminous volcanism on early mars revealed in valles marineris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Malin, M.C.; Carr, M.H.; Hartmann, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The relative rates and importance of impact cratering, volcanism, erosion, and the deposition of sediments to the early geological history of Mars are poorly known. That history is recorded in the upper crust of the planet, which is best exposed along the 4,000km-long canyon system called Valles Marineris. Previous studies of the stratigraphy of this region have assumed that it consists of megabreccia and fractured bedrock resulting from impacts, overlain by or interbedded with relatively thin layers of lava, and with the layering restricted to the uppermost level of the crust. Here we report new high-resolution images that reveal ubiquitous horizontal layering to depths of at least 8 km in the canyons. Megabreccia should be only coarsely layered and fractured bedrock should be unlayered, so these observations indicate that volcanic or sedimentary processes were much more important in early martian history than previously believed. Morphological and compositional data suggest that the layers were formed mainly by volcanic flood lavas. Mars was therefore probably very volcanically active during at least the first billion years and after the period when the heaviest impact bombardment had ended.

  7. Valles Marineris, Mars: Wet debris flows and ground ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed study of the Valles Marineris equatorial troughs suggests that the landslides in that area contained water and probably were gigantic wet debris flows: one landslide complex generated a channel that has several bends and extends for 250 km. Further support for water or ice in debris masses includes rounded flow lobes and transport of some slide masses in the direction of the local topographic slope. Differences in speed and emplacement efficiency between Martian and terrestrial landslides can be attributed to the entrainment of volatiles on Mars, but they can also be explained by other mechanisms. Support that the wall rock contained water comes from the following observations: (1) the water within the landslide debris must have been derived from wall rock; (2) debris appears to have been transported through tributary canyons; (3) locally, channels emerged from the canyons; (4) the wall rock apprarently disintegrated and flowed easily; and (5) fault zones within the troughs are unusually resistant to erosion. The study further suggests that, in the equatorial region of Mars, material below depths of 400-800 m was not desiccated during the time of landslide activity (within the last billion years of Martian history). Therefore the Martian ground-water or groundice reservoir, if not a relic from ancient times, must have been replenished. ?? 1987.

  8. Variable features in the Valles Marineris region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, Paul E.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Transient phenomena on Mars have long been recognized in Mariner and Viking images as well as in decades of Earth based telescopic observations. These events are of interest because of the information they present on currently active meteorological and geological processes. Changes in surface albedo patterns and atmospheric conditions can also affect the analysis and interpretation of data based on spectral or morphological properties of geologic units on the surface. The mechanism responsible for albedo pattern change is currently under investigation. Generation and subsequent transportation and deposition of dark sands has been interpreted in the Valles. However, the removal of a bright dust layer is more consistent with the rapid time period of the change (about two months) and with preliminary multispectral mapping results which suggest that the dark streak south of Eos and Coprates Chasmata is spectrally distinguishable from the dark saltating materials found elsewhere in the canyon system. If a layer of bright dust was removed to affect the albedo change, questions concerning how such micron-sized particles are mobilized by the winds during a normally quiescent season (Southern Hemisphere Autumn) should be addressed.

  9. Valles Caldera geothermal systems, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Grigsby, Charles O.

    1982-03-01

    Valles Caldera is part of a Quaternary silicic volcano in northern New Mexico that possesses enormous geothermal potential. The caldera has formed at the intersection of the volcanically active Jemez lineament and the tectonically active Rio Grande rift. Volcanic rocks of the Jemez Mountains overlie Paleozoic—Mesozoic sediments, and Precambrian granitic basement. Although the regional heat flow along the Rio Grande rift is ~2.7 HFU , convective heat flow within the caldera exceeds 10 HFU. A moderately saline hotwater geothermal system ( T > 260° C, Cl ⋍ 3000 mg/ l) has been tapped in fractured caldera-fill ignimbrites at depths of 1800 m. Surface geothermal phenomena include central fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs surrounded by dilute thermal meteoric hot springs. Derivative hot springs from the deep geothermal reservoir issue along the Jemez fault zone, 10 km southwest of the caldera. Present geothermal projects are: (1) proposed construction of an initial 50-MW el power plant utilizing the known geothermal reservoir; (2) research and development of the prototype hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system that circulates surface water through deep Precambrian basement (˜5MW th); (3) exploration for deep hot fluids in adjacent basin-fill sediments of the Rio Grande rift; and (4) shallow exploration drilling for hot fluids along the Jemez fault zone. 1 HFU (heat flow unit) = 1 μcal. s -2 cm -2 = 41.67 mW m -2.

  10. Astrophysics in Schools: Playing with Observational Data. (Spanish Title: Astrofísica Escolar: Jugando con Datos Observacionales.) Astrofísica Escolar: Brincando com Dados Observacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, Hugo D.; Scancich, Miriam; Vázquez, Rubén A.

    2011-07-01

    The use of observational records in the design of teaching sequences in Astrophysics in High Schools is quite uncommon. It is also uncommon the thematic approach within the context provided by Nature of Science. Besides these shortcomings, we should also consider the lack of proposals to use the computer as a laboratory from which nature is studied. These aspects expose the existence of a disconnection between school science and scientist's science, establishing the need for simple educational projects that promote interdisciplinary dialogue between the two fields of knowledge. Based on these assumptions, this paper presents the school reformulation of the redshift-distance problem as addressed by Hubble in his diagram, and explores the main educational dimensions emerging from it. The proposal is directed not only for senior students of high school and/or early 1st year students at University level, but also for students and teachers from teacher training colleges. Practical evidence shows that this proposal is viable, mobilizes interests about issues of Astrophysics and promotes a ludic and cooperative character among students. La utilización de registros observacionales en el diseño de secuencias didácticas en Astrofísica Escolar no es algo usual en el ámbito de la escuela media. Tampoco lo es el abordaje de temáticas desde el contexto que provee Naturaleza de la Ciencia. A estas carencias se le suma la falta de propuestas que hagan intervenir a la computadora como un laboratorio desde el cual se interpela a la naturaleza. Los aspectos mencionados exponen la existencia de un desajuste entre ciencia escolar y ciencia experta estableciendo la necesidad de elaborar proyectos educativos sencillos que promuevan el diálogo interdisciplinar entre ambos campos del conocimiento. Partiendo de estos presupuestos, en este trabajo se presenta la reformulación escolar del problema abordado por Hubble -que diera lugar al diagrama que lleva su nombre- y se exploran las

  11. Basaltic Ring Structures as an Analog for Ring Features in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, W. L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.; Baker, V. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Miyamoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    Basaltic ring structures (BRSs) are enigmatic, quasi-circular landforms in eastern Washington State that were first recognized in 1965. They remained a subject of geologic scrutiny through the 1970 s and subsequently faded from the spotlight, but recent Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showing morphologically similar structures in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have sparked renewed interest in BRSs. The only known BRSs occur in the Channeled Scabland, a region where catastrophic Pleistocene floods from glacial Lake Missoula eroded into the Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The geologic setting of the martian ring structures (MRSs) is similar; Athabasca Valles is a young channel system that formed when catastrophic aqueous floods carved into a volcanic substrate. This study investigates the formation of terrestrial BRSs and examines the extent to which they are appropriate analogs for the MRSs in Athabasca Valles.

  12. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  13. Sedimentation, volcanism, and ancestral lakes in the Valles Marineris: Clues from topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Isbell, N. K.; Howington-Kraus, A.

    1993-01-01

    Compilation of a simplified geologic/geomorphic map onto a digital terrain model of Valles Marineris has permitted quantitative evaluations of topographic parameters. The study showed that, if their interior layered deposits are lacustrine, the ancestral Valles Marineris must have consisted of isolated basins. If, on the other hand, the troughs were interconnected as they are today, the deposits are most likely to volcanic origin, and the mesas in the peripheral troughs may be table mountains. The material eroded from the trough walls was probably not sufficient to form all of the interior layered deposits, but it may have contributed significantly to their formation.

  14. Volcanism inside Valles Marineris? A field of small pitted cones in Coprates Chasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, P.; Hauber, E.; Rossi, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    We present observations of a field of more than 100 pitted cones and mounds situated insight Coprates Chasma (part of Valles Marineris; Fig. 1), which bear many morphological and morphometrical similarities to terrestrial and martian scoria cones. If these cones are indeed volcanic in origin, they will significantly expand our knowledge about the morphometry of pyroclastic cones on Mars. A magmatic origin, which would necessarily post-date the opening of the main troughs, would contribute to our understanding of the volcano-tectonic evolution of Valles Marineris.

  15. Hydrology in the Durius Valles Region: Evaluation of Possible Correlation with Volcanism and Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Natalie A.; Marinangeli, Lucia; Grin, Edmond A.

    2000-01-01

    We envision the contribution of subglacial flows, hydrothermalism and sapping in the Durius Valles system and the consequences in term of climate on Mars in recent geological times. We evaluate the possible correlation of the hydrology with volcanism and magnetic anomalies.

  16. Confounding the Needs and Confronting the Norms: An Extension of Reid and Valle's Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantlinger, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article expands the ideas presented in Reid and Valle's essay by further exploring the construct of normality and its implications for children in schools. It examines the reasons for the nature of current school policy and practice by explicating who benefits and who loses from typical school structures and recent national legislation.…

  17. Learning Disabilities and the New Reductionism: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Paul; Hoskyn, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to respond to Reid and Valle's article "The Discursive Practice of LD: Implications for Instruction and Parent?School Relations" in this issue. Our response to the discursive analysis is organized around two major themes: (a) the issue of balance in the scholarship on learning disabilities (LD) and (b) the centrality…

  18. Teaching in French in the Primary Schools of the Valle D'Aosta, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Jack D.

    1992-01-01

    Recent activation of a 1940 Italian law allowing equal amounts of elementary school subject area instruction in French and Italian in the Valle D'Aosta (Italy) are described. The plan uses paired bilingual teachers who alternate both languages and grades during the school day. Extension of the program to higher grades is discussed. (six…

  19. The first report of the aphids of the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report 50 species, belonging to 26 genera of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae), collected within and near the boundary of the Valles Caldera National Preserve in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico, USA. Of these, 35 (70%) represent new distribution records for New Mexico. Plant genera/species...

  20. The Interior Layered Deposits of Valles Marineris: Layering, Erosional Processes, and Age Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Parker, T.; Anderson, F. S.; Grant, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We have used Viking and Mars Global Surveyor data to study the interior layered deposits in detail. We have identified features which may support fluvial activity within Valles Marineris. Stratigraphic relationships indicate the deposits are younger than the wallrock. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Comment on "Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system".

    PubMed

    Page, David P

    2008-06-20

    Jaeger et al. (Reports, 21 September 2007, p. 1709) presented images of the Athabasca Valles channel system on Mars and asserted that the observed deposits are composed of thin, fluid lavas. However, all the features they described are secondary and postdate the surface by many millions of years, as documented by structural relationships with small, young impact craters.

  2. MEVTV study: Early tectonic evolution of Mars: Crustal dichotomy to Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.; Schultz, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Several fundamental problems were addressed in the early impact, tectonic, and volcanic evolution of the martian lithosphere: (1) origin and evolution of the fundamental crustal dichotomy, including development of the highland/lowland transition zone; (2) growth and evolution of the Valles Marineris; and (3) nature and role of major resurfacing events in early martian history. The results in these areas are briefly summarized.

  3. Evidence of a Paleolake in the central Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, K. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Valles Marineris (VM) canyon system of Mars is closely related to large flooding channels, some of which emerge full born from chaotic terrain in canyon floors. Coprates Chasma, one of the largest VM canyons, is connected at its eastern end to chaotic terrain Capri Chasma. Despite the likely large volumes of groundwater that discharged from Capri Chasma [1], no evidence of related fluvial activity in Coprates Chasma has thus far been reported. We present an analysis of the regional topography which, together with photogeologic interpretation of available imagery, suggests that ponding due to late-stage discharge of water from Capri Chasma chaotic terrain produced a shallow lake spanning parts of Melas, Coprates, Capri and Eos Chasmata (MCCE). Overflow of this lake at its eastern end resulted in delivery of water to downstream chaos regions and outflow channels. Our ponding hypothesis is motivated primarily by the identification of scarp and terrace features which, despite a lateral spread of about 1500 km, have similar elevations. Furthermore, these elevations correspond to the maximum ponding elevation of the region (-3562 m). Mean lake depth is 842 m. Simulated ponding in the MCCE system yields an overflow point at its eastern extremity, in Eos Chasma. The neighborhood of this overflow point contains clear indicators of fluvial erosion in a consistent east-west orientation (Figure 4). Specifically, scour marks suggest an eastward convergence of flow lines. Downstream of the overflow point, the direction set by the scour marks is paved by a smooth deposit leading directly to a scoured channel entering the next major region of chaotic terrain, Aurorae Chaos. The smooth deposit is likely made up of remnants of the interior deposit breached by the MCCE paleolake overflow. The next region of chaotic terrain downstream of Aurorae Chasma is Hydraotes Chaos, which lies in a relatively deep depression and would be the next significant ponding location for flow

  4. Hydraulic characterization of the heterogeneity of the "Valle del Cauca" Aquifer (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donado, L. D.; Gomez-Español, A.

    2012-04-01

    This research consists of a regional study in which is analyzed and defined in detail the response of a large alluvial aquifer to external imposed stresses of varying magnitude at multiple points within its area. On the other hand, this work evaluates and establishes the spatial correlation structure of the transmissivity and specific capacity values and provides a spatial stochastic prediction model. The later acceptably synthesizes the field properties of each of these parameters. The prediction model was developed from the cross correlation between 852 series values of specific capacity and 316 from transmissivity. This model lead us to demonstrate from the geological perspective that exits a relation among geomorphology and recharge areas so that, higher transmissivity values are presented in the lowlands of the valley through which rivers flow localized in recharge areas generated by geological folds. Since 1950, began an intensive development of this aquifer (Colombia). Despite the country has a positive water balance (IDEAM, 2003), this aquifer is the most productive one in Colombia, has an extension of 3,300 km2. Approximately 1,500 wells supply about 92,540 L/s used for agricultural and industrial purposes. This research uses about 1,000 pumping tests carried out since 1970 by the regional environmental agency (CVC). We interpreted those pumping tests using the diagnostic plot method (Rennard, 2008) to determine aquifer transmissivity and specific capacity. The model figures out a significant geological heterogeneity in the apparently homogeneous alluvial aquifer that leads us to use several interpretation methods for different boundary and well conditions. This brings into question the validity of the regional scale research using a single method of interpretation. Similarly, the results permit us to review the current conceptual model of a three layers aquifer (unconfined - aquitard - confined aquifers) with a defined thickness to a heterogeneous model in which a middle layer of variable thickness and low permeability lay between unconfined and semiconfined aquifer. Finally, we approached from a stochastic perspective the spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic parameters using a semivariogram and showing that the spatial correlation structure of the values is closely related to the geology and geomorphology of the different areas of the valley. For transmissivity, we evaluate the uncertainty in the predicted values of a stochastic model of simple spatial correlation based on relatively short series. Having verified the existence of a strong correlation between the values of transmissivity and specific capacity, develop a second stochastic model based on spatial cross correlation of a short series of transmissivity and a much more extensive one from specific capacity. The evaluation of the uncertainty of the later predictions demonstrates its significant advisability of the second model over the initial one.

  5. La Esperanza del Valle: alcohol prevention novelas for Hispanic youth and their families.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, B; Rabinowitz, P; Shefsky, M L; Washienko, K

    1997-10-01

    With extensive Hispanic community involvement, a television, radio, and storybook novela were developed to improve Hispanic parent-youth communications and youth attitudes regarding alcohol. Focus groups with the target audiences determined the novelas' concentration on alcohol, their medium and language of choice for Hispanic youth versus parents, and the health messages and cultural values to be portrayed. Reactions to the novelas were obtained via self-report surveys, random street interviews, radio listener call-ins, and community group meetings. Favorable reactions were obtained regarding the novelas' cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, and their potential to affect future behavior change. The affect of the television novela on Hispanic youth was evaluated by a pre-post self-report survey administered to middle and high school students. Survey results indicated the television novela may have had some positive impact on Hispanic youth attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding alcohol. The evaluation time line was limiting, however, and further evaluation is required.

  6. Predictive Value of Molecular Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

  7. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Christian; Hoyos Villada, Fanny; Morales Vargas, Amalia; Rivera, Baudelino; Da Silva, Mayesse; Moreno Padilla, Pedro; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from the La Vega micro watershed in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small basin of the Aguaclara watershed network receiving different types of conservation measures. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predictions were used with one of these based on infiltration-excess and the other on saturation-excess runoff. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations between scales. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the La Vega micro watershed showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on saturation-excess, semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used infiltration excess model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  8. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, C. D.; Castro, A.; Morales, A.; Hoyos, F.; Moreno, P.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of sediment and solute transport using soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small watersheds receiving conservation measures. Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from two streams in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predicted were used with one of these being used for nutrient transport prediction. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the Aguaclara watershed of the Rio Bolo watershed network showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  9. [Seed germination of four tree species from the tropical dry forest of Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Vargas Figueroa, Jhon Alexander; Duque Palacio, Olga Lucía; Torres González, Alba Marina

    2015-03-01

    The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30*C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20 degrees C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30 degrees C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of R dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment processes, while S. saman did not germinate well in darkness. We suggest the use of seeds of P dulce, J. caucana and T rosea in ecological restoration processes, due to their tolerance and germination under a wide range of temperature and light conditions. Futhermore, seeds of S. saman might be used in open areas such as forest gaps.

  10. Hydrogeochemical data for thermal and nonthermal waters and gases of the Valles Caldera- southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Vuataz, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, W.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents field, chemical, gas, and isotopic data for thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, north of San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near-surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters at Sulphur Springs (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters in the ring fracture zone (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal waters of the Baca geothermal field and derivative waters in the Soda Dam and Jemez Springs area (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. Data in this report will help in interpreting the geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and will provide background for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  11. Francisco Vallés and the Renaissance reinterpretation of Aristotle's Meteorologica IV as a medical text.

    PubMed

    Martin, Craig

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I describe the context and goals of Francisco Vallés In IV librum Meteorologicorum commentaria (1558). Vallés' work stands as a landmark because it interprets a work of Aristotle's natural philosophy specifically for medical doctors and medical theory. Vallés' commentary is representative of new understandings of Galenic-Hippocratic medicine that emerged as a result of expanding textual knowledge. These approaches are evident in a number of sixteenth-century commentaries on Meteorologica IV; in particular the works of Pietro Pomponazzi, Lodovico Boccadiferro, Jacob Schegk, and Francesco Vimercati. Vallés' conviction that Meteorologica IV is relevant to medical knowledge depends on his understanding of Aristotle's theory of homeomerous substances and their relation to composite substances. The application of Meteorologica IV to medical topics became commonplace in the following years, and this Aristotelian book became widely known as a bridge between natural philosophy and medicine.

  12. Geothermal data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the Valles Caldera - southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1982-05-01

    Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico are presented. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, near San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal and derivative waters (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. The object of the data is to help interpret geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and to provide background data for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  13. Modeling Floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars, Using CTX Stereo Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, C. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thomas, O. H.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T. M.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.

    2012-12-01

    Among the most remarkable landforms on Mars are the outflow channels, which suggest the occurrence of catastrophic water floods in the past. Athabasca Valles has long been thought to be the youngest of these channels [1-2], although it has recently become clear that the young crater age applies to a coating lava flow [3]. Simulations with a 2.5-dimensional flood model have provided insight into the details of flood dynamics but have also demonstrated that the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records includes significant artifacts at this latitude at the scales relevant for flood modeling [4]. In order to obtain improved topography, we processed stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) using methods developed for producing topographic models of the Moon with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, a derivative of the CTX camera. Some work on flood modeling with CTX stereo has been published by [5], but we will present several advances, including corrections to the published CTX optical distortion model and improved methods to combine the stereo and MOLA data. The limitations of current methods are the accuracy of control to MOLA and the level of error introduced when the MRO spacecraft is not in a high-stability mode during stereo imaging, leading to jitter impacting the derived topography. Construction of a mosaic of multiple stereo pairs, controlled to MOLA, allows us to consider flow through the cluster of streamlined islands in the upper part of the channel [6], including what is suggested to be the best example of flood-formed subaqueous dunes on Mars [7]. We will present results from running a flood model [4, 8] through the high-resolution (100 m/post) DEM covering the streamlined islands and subaqueous dunes, using results from a lower-resolution model as a guide to the inflow. By considering a range of flow levels below estimated

  14. Clustered streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles, Mars: Evidence for sediment deposition during floodwater ponding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.

    2005-01-01

    A unique clustering of layered streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles is hypothesized to reflect a significant hydraulic event. The forms, interpreted as sedimentary, are attributed to extensive sediment deposition during ponding and then streamlining of this sediment behind flow obstacles during ponded water outflow. These streamlined forms are analogous to those found in depositional basins and other loci of ponding in terrestrial catastrophic flood landscapes. These terrestrial streamlined forms can provide the best opportunity for reconstructing the history of the terrestrial flooding. Likewise, the streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles may provide the best opportunity to reconstruct the recent geologic history of this young Martian outflow channel. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the Source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghatan, Gil J.; Head, James W.; Wilson, L.; Leask, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Mangala Valles, an approx. 900 km long north-south trending outflow channel located southwest of the Tharsis rise, extends northward from one of the Memnonia Fossae graben across the southern highlands, terminating at the dichotomy boundary. Previous Viking-based analyses suggest that the water that carved the channel was expelled from the graben, possibly during two distinct flood events, one in the Late Hesperian and one in the Latest Hesperian/Early Amazonian. The mechanism by which the water was transported to the graben, and ultimately to the surface remained ambiguous, although two general scenarios were proposed: melting of near surface ground ice via nearby Tharsis lava flows, and tapping of a near surface aquifer via faulting associated with the graben. Here we use MOLA altimetric data and MOC and THEMIS images to reexamine Mangala Valles and the surrounding region. Further, we develop a new model for the production and transport of the floodwater.

  16. Dark materials in Valles Marineris - Indications of the style of volcanism and magmatism on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, Paul E.; Singer, Robert B.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    1990-01-01

    Computer mapping of spectral reflectance in Viking Orbiter I multispectral images is combined with photogeological interpretation and used to examine the geological significance of the dark materials in Valles Marineris, a canyon system that provides a unique view of the interior of the Martian crust. Special consideration is given to the relation of the dark materials to the past episodes of tectonism, volcanic activity, and igneous intrusion. Spectral mapping suggests that the dark floor-covering materials in the lower canyon are derived from a thick deposit composed of mafic glass, possibly an ancient Martian analogue of the lunar terra mantling deposits. Application of computer mapping techniques to probable young volcanic materials in the central troughs yields an inferred distribution of volcanic activity consistent with the interpretation of extrusion along faults near the margins of the canyon floors. The results support the hypothesis that Valles Marineris originated through tectonic extension.

  17. Layering in the wall rock of Valles Marineris: intrusive and extrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.; Manning, Craig E.

    2003-06-01

    High-resolution images of the walls exposed in Valles Marineris reveal variations in appearance and degree of layering indicating various lithologies comprise the Tharsis plateau. The layered wall rock has been proposed to result from effusive flood basalt volcanism or interbedded sediments and volcanics. We present observations of unlayered rock that indicate layering extends to a greater depth in the western half of Valles Marineris and is confined to the Tharsis plateau, a region of thickened, uplifted crust resulting from prolonged intrusive activity. Consistent with this view, we propose that the observed layering may be a manifestation of intrusive rocks resulting from crystal fractionation of intruded basaltic magmas. Terrestrial layered plutons provide analogs for comparison such as those of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) a large igneous province associated with crustal rifting and exposures of thick sequences of layered flood basalts and intruded layered cumulates.

  18. Valles caldera region, New Mexico, and the emerging continental scientific drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.

    1988-06-10

    Valles caldera is best known in recent years as an excellent example of a resurgent caldera and as the site of a high-temperature geothermal system. However, Valles caldera and the surrounding Jemez Mountains volcanic field possess a rich history of geologic research that dates back to the late 1880s. Through the years, the research focus has changed as different economic and scientific factors have exerted their influence. Early work emphasized mining activity, while modern work has stressed volcanology and, later, geothermal development. Only in the last 5 years has it been possible to view the region as a dynamic, integrated magma-hydrothermal system having a complex evolution lasting more than 13 m.y.

  19. New insights on the runout of large landslides in the Valles-Marineris canyons, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, E.; Quantin, C.; Allemand, P.; Delacourt, C.

    2006-02-01

    Analogy with lab-scale dry granular flow experiments demonstrates that runouts and deposits heights of Valles-Marineris (VM) landslides can be scaled on a curve varying primarily with the initial aspect ratio of the mobilized rock mass (before slope failure). This results suggests both that any interstitial fluid played a negligible part in the VM landslides dynamics and that mobility is not an appropriate tool to characterize their dynamics.

  20. Hydrothermal outflow plume of Valles caldera, New Mexico, and a comparison with other outflow plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Gardner, J.N.; Vuataz, F.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1988-06-10

    Stratigraphic, temperature gradient, hydrogeochemical, and hydrologic data have been integrated with geologic data from previous studies to show the structural configuration of the Valles caldera hydrothermal outflow plume. Hydrologic data suggest that 25--50% of the discharge of the Valles outflow is confined to the Jemez fault zone, which predates caldera formation. Thermal gradient data from bores penetrating the plume show that shallow gradients are highest in the vicinity of the Jemez fault zone (up to 190 /sup 0/C/km). Shallow heat flow above the hydrothermal plume is as high as 500 mW m/sup -2/ near core hole VC-1 (Jemez fault zone) to 200 mW m/sup -2/ at Fenton Hill (Jemez Plateau). Chemical and isotopic data indicate that two source reservoirs within the caldera (Redondo Creek and Sulphur Springs reservoirs) are parents to mixed fluids flowing in the hydrothermal plume. However, isotopic data, borehole data, basic geology, and inverse relations between temperature and chloride content at major hot springs indicate that no single reservoir fluid and no single diluting fluid are involved in mixing. The Valles caldera hydrothermal plume is structurally dominated by lateral flow through a belt of vertical conduits (Jemez fault zone) that strike away from the source reservoir. Stratigraphically confined flow is present but dispersed over a wide area in relatively impermeable rocks. The Valles configuration is contrasted with the configuration of the hydrothermal plume at Roosevelt Hot Springs, which is dominated by lateral flow through a near-surface, widespread, permeable aquifer. Data from 12 other representative geothermal systems show that outflow plumes occur in a variety of magmatic and tectonic settings, have varying reservoir compositions, and have different flow characteristics.

  1. Evidence for ponding and catastrophic floods in central Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Keith P.; Chapman, Mary G.

    2008-12-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system of Mars is closely related to large flood channels, some of which emerge full born from chaotic terrain in canyon floors. Coprates Chasma, one of the largest Valles Marineris canyons, is connected at its west end to Melas Chasma and on its east end to chaotic terrain-filled Capri and Eos Chasmata. The area from central Melas to Eos Chasmata contains a 1500 km long and about 1 km deep depression in its floor. Despite the large volumes of groundwater that likely discharged from chaotic terrain in this depression, no evidence of related fluvial activity has thus far been reported. We present an analysis of the regional topography which, together with photogeologic interpretation of available imagery, suggests that ponding due to late Hesperian discharge of water possibly produced a lake (mean depth 842 m) spanning parts of the Valles Marineris depression (VMD). Overflow of this lake at its eastern end resulted in delivery of water to downstream chaos regions and outflow channels. Our ponding hypothesis is motivated primarily by the identification of scarp and terrace features which, despite a lateral spread of about 1500 km, have similar elevations. Furthermore, these elevations correspond to the maximum ponding elevation of the region (-3560 m). Simulated ponding in the VMD yields an overflow point at its eastern extremity, in Eos Chasma. The neighborhood of this overflow point contains clear indicators of fluvial erosion in a consistent east-west orientation.

  2. Evidence for ponding and catastrophic floods in central Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, K.P.; Chapman, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system of Mars is closely related to large flood channels, some of which emerge full born from chaotic terrain in canyon floors. Coprates Chasma, one of the largest Valles Marineris canyons, is connected at its west end to Melas Chasma and on its east end to chaotic terrain-filled Capri and Eos Chasmata. The area from central Melas to Eos Chasmata contains a 1500 km long and about 1 km deep depression in its floor. Despite the large volumes of groundwater that likely discharged from chaotic terrain in this depression, no evidence of related fluvial activity has thus far been reported. We present an analysis of the regional topography which, together with photogeologic interpretation of available imagery, suggests that ponding due to late Hesperian discharge of water possibly produced a lake (mean depth 842 m) spanning parts of the Valles Marineris depression (VMD). Overflow of this lake at its eastern end resulted in delivery of water to downstream chaos regions and outflow channels. Our ponding hypothesis is motivated primarily by the identification of scarp and terrace features which, despite a lateral spread of about 1500 km, have similar elevations. Furthermore, these elevations correspond to the maximum ponding elevation of the region (-3560 m). Simulated ponding in the VMD yields an overflow point at its eastern extremity, in Eos Chasma. The neighborhood of this overflow point contains clear indicators of fluvial erosion in a consistent east-west orientation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  3. New evidence for a magmatic influence on the origin of Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Williams, J.-P.; Anderson, R.C.; Ruiz, J.; McGuire, P.C.; Komatsu, G.; Davila, A.F.; Ferris, J.C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Fairen, A.G.; Hare, T.M.; Miyamoto, H.; Tanaka, K.L.; Wheelock, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the complex geological evolution of Valles Marineris, Mars, has been highly influenced by the manifestation of magmatism (e.g., possible plume activity). This is based on a diversity of evidence, reported here, for the central part, Melas Chasma, and nearby regions, including uplift, loss of huge volumes of material, flexure, volcanism, and possible hydrothermal and endogenic-induced outflow channel activity. Observations include: (1) the identification of a new > 50??km-diameter caldera/vent-like feature on the southwest flank of Melas, which is spatially associated with a previously identified center of tectonic activity using Viking data; (2) a prominent topographic rise at the central part of Valles Marineris, which includes Melas Chasma, interpreted to mark an uplift, consistent with faults that are radial and concentric about it; (3) HiRISE-identified landforms along the floor of the southeast part of Melas Chasma that are interpreted to reveal a volcanic field; (4) CRISM identification of sulfate-rich outcrops, which could be indicative of hydrothermal deposits; (5) GRS K/Th signature interpreted as water-magma interactions and/or variations in rock composition; and (6) geophysical evidence that may indicate partial compensation of the canyon and/or higher density intrusives beneath it. Long-term magma, tectonic, and water interactions (Late Noachian into the Amazonian), albeit intermittent, point to an elevated life potential, and thus Valles Marineris is considered a prime target for future life detection missions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fog as a Potential Indicator of a Local Water Source in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2016-10-01

    Images from Mars Express suggest that water ice fog may be present in Valles Marineris while absent from the surrounding plateau. Using a regional atmospheric model, we investigate planetary boundary layer processes and discuss the implications of these potential water ice fog. Results from our simulations show that the temperature inside Valles Marineris appears warmer relative to the plateaus outside at all times of day. From the modeled temperatures, we calculate saturation vapor pressures and saturation mixing to determine the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere for cloud formation. For a well-mixed atmosphere, saturated conditions in the canyon imply supersaturated conditions outside the canyon where it is colder. Consequently, low clouds should be everywhere. This is generally not the case. Based on potential fog observations inside the canyon, if we assume the plateau is just sub-saturated, and the canyon bottom is just saturated, the resulting difference in mixing ratios represents the minimum amount of vapor required for the atmosphere to be saturated, and for potential fog to form. Under these conditions, we determined that the air inside the canyon would require a 4-7 times enrichment in water vapor at saturation compared to outside the canyon. This suggests a local source of water vapor is required to explain water ice fog appearing within the confines of Valles Marineris on Mars.

  5. Formation of Valles Marineris and Associated Outlfow Channels by Catastrophic Dewatering of Evaporite Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Gillespie, A.

    2004-12-01

    Geological mapping based on topographic analysis of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, together with photointerpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images, and thermodynamic and heat-flow considerations lead to a new hypothesis for the formation of Valles Marineris and the associated outflow channels through catastrophic dewatering of ancient evaporite deposits. MOLA transects across Valles Marineris reveal that the valley is located at the crest of a 2-km-high topographic bulge on the flank of the much larger Tharsis Rise. The Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) within Valles Marineris unconformably underlie, and therefore would have been heated by, Hesperian age lava flows, as well as from below by insulation by the Hesperian flows and an increased geothermal gradient due to development of the Tharis Rise. The ILDs are now thought on the basis of spectroscopic data to contain hydrous sulfate salts. The estimated range of increased temperatures predicts the potential to dehydrate >km-thick sections of gypsum or epsomite in reactions that would trigger volumetric expansion sufficient to account for the topographic bulge and catastrophically release tremendous amounts of over-pressured water.

  6. Lithologic descriptions and temperature profiles of five wells in the southwestern Valles caldera region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Miles, D.; Waibel, A.; Swanberg, C.

    1988-01-01

    The subsurface stratigraphy and temperature profiles of the southern and western Valles caldera region have been well constrained with the use of data from the VC-1, AET-4, WC 23-4, PC-1 and PC-2 wells. Data from these wells indicate that thermal gradients west of the caldera margin are between 110 and 140)degrees)C/km, with a maximum gradient occurring in the bottom of PC-1 equal to 240)degrees)C/km as a result of thermal fluid flow. Gradients within the caldera reach a maximum of 350)degrees)C/km, while the maximum thermal gradient measured southwest of the caldera in the thermal outflow plume is 140)degrees)C/km. The five wells exhibit high thermal gradients (>60)deghrees)C/km) resulting from high conductive heat flow associated with the Rio Grande rift and volcanism in the Valles caldera, as well as high convective heat flow associated with circulating geothermal fluids. Gamma logs run in four of the five wells appear to be of limited use for stratigraphic correlations in the caldera region. However, stratigraphic and temperature data from the five wells provide information about the structure and thermal regime of the southern and western Valles caldera region. 29 refs., 9 figs. 2 tabs.

  7. Morphologic contrasts between Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles, Mars: Evidence of different crustal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Winchell, Philip J.

    Photoclinometric measurements were made of sidewall slopes in Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles and these results were interpreted in terms of the geologic setting and a simple geomorphic model to provide insights into the physical properties of crustal materials in these areas. Nirgal was interpreted to be a runoff channel and Auqakuh to be a fretted channel. Geomorphologic arguments for the sapping origin of Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles were presented. The morphologies of the channels, however, differ greatly: the tributaries of Nirgal end abruptly in theater-headed canyons, whereas the heads of tributaries of Auqakuh shallow gradually. The plateau surface surrounding both channels appears to be covered by smooth materials, presumably lava flows; they are continuous and uneroded in the Nirgal area, but at Auqakuh they are largely eroded and several layers are exposed that total about 200 m in thickness. For Nirgal Valles, the measurements show that sidewalls in the ralatively shallow upper reaches of the channel have average slopes near 30 degrees and, in the lower reaches, sidewall slopes exceed 50 degrees. Auqakuh, on the other hand, has maximum sidewall slopes of 14 degrees and an approximate maximum depth of 1000 m. Faint, horizontal layering in portions of the lower reaches of Nirgal may indicate inhomogeneity in either composition or topography.

  8. Subsurface structure of Valles Caldera; a resurgent cauldron in northern New Mexico. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.

    1983-03-01

    Valles Caldera is a 1.1 My old silicic cauldron lying at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and northeast-trending Jemez Lineament. Geothermal exploration in the caldera region during the last 10 years provides subsurface data which refine our knowledge of deep caldera structure, but raise some questions concerning current models of resurgent cauldrons. For example, a detailed gravity investigation using 730 stations (Segar, 1974) shows a circular negative gravity anomaly centered over the caldera (as expected) but also indicates a strong northeast-trending grain of fault blocks in pre-caldera rocks, that are generally down-faulted to the southeast toward the Rift. Gravity data do not define a diapir structure beneath the resurgent dome attributable to tumescent magma; instead of a northeast-trending horst underlies the Redondo Peak segment of the dome. Interpretation of stratigraphy from many geothermal wells suggests that the caldera and resurgent dome are floored by untilted fault blocks (Hulen and Nielson, 1982). In addition, drilling to Precambrian basement and depths of 3.2 km has not encountered a large intrusive rhyolite that might logically produce tumescence of the dome. The new data indicate that the subsurface structural configuration of Valles Caldera is controlled by pre-caldera tectonics and that a more complicated mechanism is required to explain the resurgent dome standing high inside the caldera. A refined mechanism of resurgence might be one result of CSDP drilling at Valles Caldera.

  9. Isotopic and geochemical constraints on the origin and evolution of postcollapse rhyolites in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spell, Terry L.; Kyle, Philip R.; Thirlwall, Matthew F.; Campbell, Andrew R.

    1993-11-01

    Ring-fracture rhyolites of the Valles Caldera (VC) were examined to determine the evolution of the magma system following eruption of the upper Bandelier Tuff (UBT) and subsequent caldera collapse. Volcanism began with eruption of Deer Canyon (DC), Redondo Creek, and Del Medio (DM) rhyolites during the interval 1140-1133 ka. Quartz delta O-18 for the UBT, (average +8.3 %), DC (+7.9 %), and DM (+8.7 %) rhyolites indicate no significant lowering of delta O-18 following caldera collapse. In contrast, DM rhyolites record low epsilon(sub Nd) of -3.6 to -3.8 relative to the UBT (-2.7) and variable initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70923-0.71307). Del Abrigo (DA) and Santa Rosa I rhyolites (973-915 ka) exhibit lower epsilon(Sub Nd) (-4.4 to -4.6) and initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70707-0.71009), as well as shifts in compatible and incompatible trace element ratios. Seco, San Luis, and Santa Rosa II rhyolites (800-787 ka) have epsilon(Sub Nd) (-4.0 to -4.3) similar to the 973 to 915 ka rhyolites but lower initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70616-0.70747). After a hiatus of 230 ka, San Antonio (SA), South Mountain (SM), and La Jara (LJ) rhyolites (557-521 ka) were erupted with epsilon(Sub Nd) of -3.7 to 4.3, distinctly lower initial 87-Sr/86-Sr of 0.70513-0.70553 and less evolved trace element compositions. The youngest rhyolites, the El Cajete-Banco Bonito group (EC-BB) (300-170 ka) are petrographically and geochemically distinct with the highest epsilon(Sub Nd) (-2.7 to -3.0) and the lowest initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70464-0.70478) of postcollapse rhyolites. The isotopic data indicate that Valles rhyolites are not direct melts of Proterozoic basement (epsilon(Sub Nd) of -10 to -15) and indicate a significant mantle-derived (basaltic) component. Elevated initial 87-Sr/86-Sr is restricted to rhyolites depleted in Sr (less than 10 ppm) and probably reflects minor upper crustal assimilation. Calculated magma delta 0-18 values (+6.6 to +7.0 %) indicate no substantial supracrustal sediment in the source region

  10. Slope stability analysis for Valles Marineris, Mars: a numerical analysis of controlling conditions and failure types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, G.; Castellanza, R.; De Blasio, F.; Utili, S.

    2012-04-01

    Valles Marineris (VM hereafter) in the equatorial area of Mars exhibits several gravitative failures often involving the whole 6-8 km thickness of the valley walls. The failures have resulted in a series of long-runout landslides up to several hundred cubic kilometres in volume (Quantin et al., 2004), and the formation of sub-circular alcoves perched on the top. Several questions arise as to forces at play in the stability of the walls of VM, the geometrical shape of the alcoves and the shape and long-runout of the landslides (see for example Lucas et al., 2011). In this work, we concentrate on the stability analysis of the walls of VM with two precise questions in mind starting from past studies (Bigot-Cormier and Montgomery, 2006; Neuffer and Schultz, 2006, Schultz, 2002). The first concerns the properties of the materials that give origin to instability. We performed several finite element and discrete element calculations tailored to slope stability analysis based on the genuine shape of the walls of VM taken from the MOLA topographic data. We considered stratified and differently altered/degraded materials to define the range of physical mechanical properties required for failure to occur and to explain the discrete distribution of failures along the VM valley flanks. A second question addressed in this work is the geometrical shape of the sub-circular alcoves. Normally, these shapes are commonplace for slopes made of uniform and isotropic properties, and are also observed in subaqueous environment. We performed calculations taking into consideration the progressive failure in the slope showing the final results in terms of surface failure geometry. Bigot-Cormier, F., Montgomery, D.R. (2007) Valles Marineris landslides: Evidence for a strength limit to Martian relief? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 260, 1-2, 15, 179-186 Lucas, A., Mangeney, A., Mège, D., and Bouchut, F., 2011. Influence of the scar geometry on landslide dynamics and deposits

  11. Mesoscale Modeling of Water Vapor and Dust in Valles Marineris: Atmospheric Influences on Recurring Slope Lineae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, C. W. S.; Rafkin, S. C.; McEwen, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extensive recurring slope lineae (RSL) activity has been detected in Valles Marineris on Mars and coincides with regions where water ice fogs appear [1]. The origin of the water driving RSL flow is not well understood, but observational evidence suggests atmospheric processes play a crucial role [2]. Provided the atmospheric vapor concentration is high enough, water ice fogs can form overnight if the surface temperature cools below the condensation temperature. Correlations between dust storms and flow rates suggest that atmospheric dust opacity, and its influence on air temperature, also has a significant effect on RSL activity. We investigate planetary boundary layer processes that govern the hydrological cycle and dust cycle on Mars using a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the distribution of water and dust with respect to regional atmospheric circulations. Our simulations in Valles Marineris show a curious temperature structure, where the inside of the canyon appears warmer relative to the plateaus immediately outside. For a well-mixed atmosphere, this temperature structure indicates that when the atmosphere inside the canyon is saturated and fog is present within Valles Marineris, fog and low-lying clouds should also be present on the cooler surrounding plateaus as well. However, images taken with the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) show instances where water ice fog appeared exclusively inside the canyon. These results have important implications for the origin and concentration of water vapor in Valles Marineris, with possible connections to RSL. The potential temperatures from our simulations show a high level of stability inside the canyon produced dynamically by sinking air. However, afternoon updrafts along the canyon walls indicate that over time, water vapor within the chasm would escape along the sides of the canyon. Again, this suggests a local source or mechanism to concentrate water vapor is needed to explain the fog

  12. Elastomechanical methods in the exploration of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Final report, June 8, 1981-October 8, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The Valles caldera in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico is a case of an active caldera that is an object for a comprehensive ground tilt field program to map both elastic and rheic discontinuities. Based on a rather comprehensive theoretical development that is outlined in five separate Essays, estimates of the amplitudes of some of the possible ground tilt signals were obtained. Based on the results, the strongest signals of the order of 100 to 200 nanoradians would appear to result from the purely elastic response of the caldera fill to a barometric forcing. Moreover, assuming a magmatic underplate below the Valles, barometric forcing may lead to a flexure of the upper crust that could generate tilt signals of a similar magnitude. Present data material is insufficient to allow a useful estimate to be made of the possible tilt signals due to the rheic properties of a Valles pluton that may be in the state of partial fusion.

  13. Valle Agricola lentil, an unknown lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) seed from Southern Italy as a novel antioxidant and prebiotic source.

    PubMed

    Landi, Nicola; Pacifico, Severina; Piccolella, Simona; Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Mezzacapo, Maria C; Ragucci, Sara; Iannuzzi, Federica; Zarrelli, Armando; Di Maro, Antimo

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote 'Valle Agricola' lentil, an autochthonous lentil of the Campania Region, a thorough investigation of its biochemical and nutritional properties has been carried out. The macronutrient content (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), free and total amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. The antioxidant capability of raw 'Valle Agricola' lentils, as well as of boiled ones, was estimated in terms of their total phenol content (TPC), ORAC value, and free radical scavenging capacities using DPPH and ABTS assays. The data obtained evidenced that the boiling process slightly decreased Valle Agricola lentil's antioxidant power. Furthermore, when trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities were measured, a large decrease of the levels of anti-nutritional factors was estimated. In order to have a phytochemical overview of this autochthonous lentil seed, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was applied to raw and boiled lentil extracts. Flavonol glycosides and free flavanols, as well as typical seed prebiotic saccharides, were the most representative constituents.

  14. Crust and upper mantle P wave velocity structure beneath Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from the Jemez teleseismic tomography experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, Lee K.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Fehler, Michael C.; Lutter, William J.; Roberts, Peter M.; Baldridge, W. Scott; Stafford, Darrik G.; Sessions, Robert

    1998-10-01

    New results are presented from the teleseismic component of the Jemez Tomography Experiment conducted across Valles caldera in northern New Mexico. We invert 4872 relative P wave arrival times recorded on 50 portable stations to determine velocity structure to depths of 40 km. The three principle features of our model for Valles caldera are: (1) near-surface low velocities of -17% beneath the Toledo embayment and the Valle Grande, (2) midcrustal low velocities of -23% in an ellipsoidal volume underneath the northwest quadrant of the caldera, and (3) a broad zone of low velocities (-15%) in the lower crust or upper mantle. Crust shallower than 20 km is generally fast to the northwest of the caldera and slow to the southeast. Near-surface low velocities are interpreted as thick deposits of Bandelier tuff and postcaldera volcaniclastic rocks. Lateral variation in the thickness of these deposits supports increased caldera collapse to the southeast, beneath the Valle Grande. We interpret the midcrustal low-velocity zone to contain a minimum melt fraction of 10%. While we cannot rule out the possibility that this zone is the remnant 1.2 Ma Bandelier magma chamber, the eruption history and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks erupted in Valles caldera following the Bandelier tuff make it more likely that magma results from a new pulse of intrusion, indicating that melt flux into the upper crust beneath Valles caldera continues. The low-velocity zone near the crust-mantle boundary is consistent with either partial melt in the lower crust or mafic rocks without partial melt in the upper mantle. In either case, this low-velocity anomaly indicates that underplating by mantle-derived melts has occurred.

  15. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  16. Crust and upper mantle P wave velocity structure beneath Valles caldera, New Mexico: Results from the Jemez teleseismic tomography experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, Lee K.; Fehler, Michael C.; Roberts, Peter M.; Baldridge, W. Scott; Stafford, Darrik G.; Lutter, William J.; Sessions, Robert

    1998-10-01

    New results are presented from the teleseismic component of the Jemez Tomography Experiment conducted across Valles caldera in northern New Mexico. We invert 4872 relative {ital P} wave arrival times recorded on 50 portable stations to determine velocity structure to depths of 40 km. The three principle features of our model for Valles caldera are: (1) near-surface low velocities of {minus}17{percent} beneath the Toledo embayment and the Valle Grande, (2) midcrustal low velocities of {minus}23{percent} in an ellipsoidal volume underneath the northwest quadrant of the caldera, and (3) a broad zone of low velocities ({minus}15{percent}) in the lower crust or upper mantle. Crust shallower than 20 km is generally fast to the northwest of the caldera and slow to the southeast. Near-surface low velocities are interpreted as thick deposits of Bandelier tuff and postcaldera volcaniclastic rocks. Lateral variation in the thickness of these deposits supports increased caldera collapse to the southeast, beneath the Valle Grande. We interpret the midcrustal low-velocity zone to contain a minimum melt fraction of 10{percent}. While we cannot rule out the possibility that this zone is the remnant 1.2 Ma Bandelier magma chamber, the eruption history and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks erupted in Valles caldera following the Bandelier tuff make it more likely that magma results from a new pulse of intrusion, indicating that melt flux into the upper crust beneath Valles caldera continues. The low-velocity zone near the crust-mantle boundary is consistent with either partial melt in the lower crust or mafic rocks without partial melt in the upper mantle. In either case, this low-velocity anomaly indicates that underplating by mantle-derived melts has occurred. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  17. Limited role for thermal erosion by turbulent lava in proximal Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cataldo, Vincenzo; Williams, David A.; Dundas, Colin M.; Kestay, Laszlo P.

    2015-01-01

    The Athabasca Valles flood lava is among the most recent (<50 Ma) and best preserved effusive lava flows on Mars and was probably emplaced turbulently. The Williams et al. (2005) model of thermal erosion by lava has been applied to what we term “proximal Athabasca,” the 75 km long upstream portion of Athabasca Valles. For emplacement volumes of 5000 and 7500 km3and average flow thicknesses of 20 and 30 m, the duration of the eruption varies between ~11 and ~37 days. The erosion of the lava flow substrate is investigated for three eruption temperatures (1270°C, 1260°C, and 1250°C), and volatile contents equivalent to 0–65 vol % bubbles. The largest erosion depths of ~3.8–7.5 m are at the lava source, for 20 m thick and bubble-free flows that erupted at their liquidus temperature (1270°C). A substrate containing 25 vol % ice leads to maximum erosion. A lava temperature 20°C below liquidus reduces erosion depths by a factor of ~2.2. If flow viscosity increases with increasing bubble content in the lava, the presence of 30–50 vol % bubbles leads to erosion depths lower than those relative to bubble-free lava by a factor of ~2.4. The presence of 25 vol % ice in the substrate increases erosion depths by a factor of 1.3. Nevertheless, modeled erosion depths, consistent with the emplacement volume and flow duration constraints, are far less than the depth of the channel (~35–100 m). We conclude that thermal erosion does not appear to have had a major role in excavating Athabasca Valles.

  18. Using Terrestrial Sulfate Efflorescences as an Analogue of Hydrated Sulfate Formation in Valles Marineris on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. C.; Szynkiewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrated sulfate minerals provide conclusive evidence that a hydrologic cycle was once active on the surface of Mars. Two classes of hydrated sulfate minerals have been detected by robotic instruments on Mars: monohydrated sulfate minerals comprised of kieserite and gypsum, and various polyhydrated sulfates with Fe-Ca-Na-Mg-rich compositions. These minerals are found in various locations on Mars, including large surface exposures in valley settings of Valles Marineris. However, the sulfate sources and formation mechanisms of these minerals are not yet well understood.Recently, it has been suggested that the sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris might have formed in a manner similar to sulfate efflorescences found in dry environments on Earth. In this study, we use sulfate effloresences from the Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico as a terrestrial analogue to assess major factors that might have led to deposition of sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris. In different seasons indicative of dry and wet conditions, we collected field photographs and sediment samples for chemical and stable isotopic analyses (sulfur content, δ34S) to determine major sources of sulfate ions for efflorescences and to assess how the seasonal changes in surface/groundwater activity affect their formation. Preliminary sulfur isotope results suggest that oxidation of bedrock sulfides (0.01-0.05 wt. S %) is a major source of sulfate ion for efflorescences formation because their δ34S varied in negative range (-28 to -20‰) similar to sulfides (average -32‰). Using field photographs collected in Oct 2006, Feb and Nov 2012, May 2013, Mar and Oct 2014, we infer that the highest surface accumulation of sulfate efflorescences in the studied analog site was observed after summer monsoon seasons when more water was available for surface and subsurface transport of solutes from chemical weathering. Conversely, spring snow melt led to enhanced dissolution of sulfate efflorescences.

  19. Thin-skinned deformation of sedimentary rocks in Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Joannah; Grotzinger, John; Okubo, Chris; Milliken, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Deformation of sedimentary rocks is widespread within Valles Marineris, characterized by both plastic and brittle deformation identified in Candor, Melas, and Ius Chasmata. We identified four deformation styles using HiRISE and CTX images: kilometer-scale convolute folds, detached slabs, folded strata, and pull-apart structures. Convolute folds are detached rounded slabs of material with alternating dark- and light-toned strata and a fold wavelength of about 1 km. The detached slabs are isolated rounded blocks of material, but they exhibit only highly localized evidence of stratification. Folded strata are composed of continuously folded layers that are not detached. Pull-apart structures are composed of stratified rock that has broken off into small irregularly shaped pieces showing evidence of brittle deformation. Some areas exhibit multiple styles of deformation and grade from one type of deformation into another. The deformed rocks are observed over thousands of kilometers, are limited to discrete stratigraphic intervals, and occur over a wide range in elevations. All deformation styles appear to be of likely thin-skinned origin. CRISM reflectance spectra show that some of the deformed sediments contain a component of monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates. Several mechanisms could be responsible for the deformation of sedimentary rocks in Valles Marineris, such as subaerial or subaqueous gravitational slumping or sliding and soft sediment deformation, where the latter could include impact-induced or seismically induced liquefaction. These mechanisms are evaluated based on their expected pattern, scale, and areal extent of deformation. Deformation produced from slow subaerial or subaqueous landsliding and liquefaction is consistent with the deformation observed in Valles Marineris.

  20. Estilo de Liderazgo de Maestros y Maestras de Salud Escolar del Nivel Secundario en la Implantacion del Programa de Educacion en Salud Escolar en Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario Arroyo, Luis Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Health education school programs have a planned activity structure that focus on developing awareness on the need of keeping an adequate integral health, through the teaching and learning processes within an appropriate methodological context that promotes students full development. It is expected that school health teachers are effective leaders;…

  1. A Field of Small Pitted Cones on the Floor of Coprates Chasma: Volcanism inside Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Broz, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Michael, G.

    2015-10-01

    We present observations of a field of >100 pitted cones and mounds situated on the floor of Coprates Chasma (part of Valles Marineris (VM); Fig. 1), which display similarities to terrestrial and martian scoria cones. If these cones are indeed volcanic in origin, they will significantly expand our knowledge about the morphometry of pyroclastic cones on Mars. Moreover, a magmatic origin, which would necessarily post-date the opening of the main VM troughs, would contribute to our understanding of the volcano-tectonic evolution of VM.

  2. Hydrological sulfur cycling in the volcanic complex of Valles Caldera - geochemical and astrobiological implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkiewicz, A.; Borrok, D. M.; Vaniman, D. T.; Goff, F.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfate minerals on the Martian surface provide compelling evidence of past fluid movement, chemistry, and potential habitability. However, we are uncertain about the relative influence of concurrent volcanic sulfur emissions, aqueous sulfide weathering, and climate conditions on the sulfur cycle, and we poorly understand the hydrological cycle of sulfur transport on Mars. Therefore, the goal of our research is to describe and quantify the active and historical hydrological sulfur cycle in the Valles Caldera, a ≤ 1.25 Myr giant, circular, volcanic complex located in northern New Mexico, and to compare this to available data for the sulfur cycle on Mars. The rocks of Valles Caldera (e.g., rhyolite lavas and pyroclastic deposits, intracaldera sediments and breccias, pre-caldera dacite and andesite, etc.) show wide variations in S content from 0.003 up to 3.41 wt% in fresh to hydrothermally altered units, respectively (Goff et al. 2007). Additionally, an acid-sulfate hot spring system issues from the western flank of the resurgent dome inside Valles Caldera and significantly increases the sulfate concentrations in local springs (up to 3,000 mg/L; Szynkiewicz et al. 2012). Using historical USGS stream flow measurements and sulfate concentrations (1958 to 1990), we calculated that in average ~16.4 tons of dissolved sulfate is annually removed from this volcanic system via the hydrological cycle. Initial S isotope mass balance calculations indicate that ~70 % of the dissolved sulfate (~11.5 tons/year) is likely contributed by the acid-sulfate hot springs and ~30 % (~4.9 tons/year) comes from dissolution/oxidation of S-enriched bedrock and atmospheric wet deposition. Although the acid-sulfate hot spring system is an ideal habitat for microbial S metabolism, the preservation of S isotope biosignatures is poor in geological samples because of prevailing contributions of S species from magmatic sources. In the next step of our research, we will 1) quantify the present

  3. Evidence for precipitation on Mars from dendritic valleys in the Valles Marineris area.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Nicolas; Quantin, Cathy; Ansan, Véronique; Delacourt, Christophe; Allemand, Pascal

    2004-07-02

    Dendritic valleys on the plateau and canyons of the Valles Marineris region were identified from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images taken by Mars Odyssey. The geomorphic characteristics of these valleys, especially their high degree of branching, favor formation by atmospheric precipitation. The presence of inner channels and the maturity of the branched networks indicate sustained fluid flows over geologically long periods of time. These fluvial landforms occur within the Late Hesperian units (about 2.9 to 3.4 billion years old), when Mars was thought to have been cold. Our results suggest a period of warmer conditions conducive to hydrological activity.

  4. New hydrated mineral detections in the ILDs of Valles Marineris: Insights into their aqueous history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flahaut, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Fueten, F.; Quantin, C.; Thollot, P.; van Westrenen, W.; Davies, G. R.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of the mineralogical diversity of the Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) of Valles Marineris (VM) and Margaritifer Terra (MT) as determined with the highresolution hyperspectral imager CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) onboard MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). A particular emphasis is made on localized detections of new hydrated phases within the dominantly sulfate-rich deposits. These detections are compared with other recent detections of unindentified minerals across the entire region [e.g. 10-19]. Characterizing the entire mineral assemblages at these sites is designed to provide more information on the chemistry of those complex aqueous deposits and their potential formation mechanism(s).

  5. Reservoir processes and fluid origins in the Baca geothermal system, Valles Caldera, New Mexico ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    At the Baca geothermal field in the Valles caldera, New Mexico, 19 deep wells were drilled in an attempt to develop a 50-MW (megawatts electric) power plant. The chemical and isotopic compositions of steam and water samples have been used to indicate uniquely the origin of reservoir fluids and natural reservoir processes. Two distinct reservoir fluids exist at Baca. These fluids originate from the same deep, high-temperature (335oC), saline (2500 mg/kg Cl) parent water but have had different histories during upflow which are described.-after Authors

  6. Reconstruction of the most recent volcanic eruptions from the Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Brunstad, K. A.; Gardner, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    Products of the latest eruptions from the Valles caldera, New Mexico, consist of the El Cajete Pyroclastic Beds and Battleship Rock Ignimbrite, a sequence of pyroclastic fall and density current deposits erupted at ~ 55 ka, capped by the later Banco Bonito Flow erupted at ~ 40 ka, and collectively named the East Fork Member of the Valles Rhyolite. The stratigraphy of the East Fork Member has been the subject of conflicting interpretations in the past; a long-running investigation of short-lived exposures over a period of many years enables us to present a more complete event stratigraphy for these eruptions than has hitherto been possible. The volume of rhyolitic magma erupted during the 55 ka event may have been more than 10 km 3, and for the 40 ka event can be estimated with rather more confidence at 4 km 3. During the earlier event, plinian eruptions dispersed fallout pumice over much of the Valles caldera, the southern Jemez Mountains, and the Rio Grande rift. We infer a fallout thickness of several decimeters at the site of the city of Santa Fe, and significant ash fall in eastern New Mexico. In contrast, pyroclastic density currents were channeled within the caldera moat and southwestward into the head of Cañon de San Diego, the principal drainage from the caldera. Simultaneous (or rapidly alternating) pyroclastic fallout and density current activity characterized the ~ 55 ka event, with density currents becoming more frequent as the eruption progressed through two distinct stages separated by a brief hiatus. One early pyroclastic surge razed a forest in the southern caldera moat, in a similar manner to the initial blast of the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Ignimbrite outflow from the caldera through the drainage notch may have been restricted in runout distance due to steep, rugged topography in this vicinity promoting mixing between flows and air, and the formation of phoenix clouds. Lavas erupted during both the ~ 55 and ~ 40 ka events were

  7. Constraints on the rate of discharge and duration of the Mangala Valles flood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Gorsline, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Interest in Mangala Valles remains high within the planetary science community. This is justified because the survey mission images provide us with nearly complete coverage of the system at high resolution. Upcoming high resolution topography from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter will enable the application of flood discharge models with an unprecedented level of detail. Previous work on the Mangala Valles problem has relied on the available low resolution topography. This has limited the ability of workers to constrain discharge calculations to only within several-order-of-magnitude estimates. Local determinations of channel depths via shadow length measurements and photoclinometric profiling are much more accurate, but can only be applied to steep slopes (and/or low sun elevations) in the case of shadow measurements, or across relatively short distances (to avoid changes in albedo along asymmetric photoclinometric profiles). We are taking stereo parallax measurements from medium resolution Viking Orbiter images, which provide a valuable intermediate check of the topography between those measurements made thus far and the upcoming Mars Observer data. The images used are from orbits 034A and 637A, and cover Mangala Valles from the source graben in Memnonia Fossae to the beginning of the bifurcated reach (at 9.5 deg lat., 151.5 deg lon.). These images are about 300 m/pixel and 250 m/pixel, respectively. Both sets of images were orthographically projected to 250 m/pixel. The separation angle between left-right pairs is approximately 52 degrees. This results in a vertical accuracy on the order of plus or minus 260 m. Though this is still somewhat coarse, the channel relief is clearly resolved. Preliminary profiles across Mangala Valles and the large topographic ridge to the east are shown on the following page. An east-west regional tilt that resulted from slight scaling differences in the digital data has been 'removed' by visually estimating a regional datum on the

  8. New evidence for the age of the youngest eruption in the Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Gardner, J.N.; Forman, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    New geochronologic data provide evidence for an age of about 50 to 60 ka for the youngest volcanic eruptions within the Valles caldera, New Mexico - an age that is significantly younger than most previous age determinations. Thermoluminescence age estimates for buried soils beneath the El Cajete pumice, a key stratigraphic marker in the region, range from 48 to 61 ka and {sup 14}C analyses of burnt logs within volcanic surge beds near the El Cajete vent yield similar ages of 50 to >58 ka. These data conflict with fissontrack, {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar, and K-Ar ages of 130 to >200 ka, but are supported by recent analyses by electron spin resonance. The results of this study reinforce the need to apply a variety of dating methods when evaluating the age of young volcanic events and support the hypothesis that the El Cajete eruptions were part of a new cycle of volcanic activity in the Valles caldera after an exceptionally long period of quiescence of nearly 460 ka. The new age constraints also suggest a previously unrecognized link between cycles of volcanism and pulses of hydrothermal activity in the caldera, such that hydrothermal outflow appears to decrease significantly following completion of eruptive cycles. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Part 2: Sedimentary geology of the Valles, Marineris, Mars and Antarctic dry valley lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed mapping of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars from high-resolution Viking orbiter images revealed that they from plateaus of rhythmically layered material whose bases are in the lowest elevations of the canyon floors, and whose tops are within a few hundred meters in elevation of the surrounding plateaus. Four hypotheses for the origin of the layered deposits were considered: that they are eolian deposits; that they are remnants of the same material as the canyon walls; that they are explosive volcanic deposits; or that they were deposited in standing bodies of water. There are serious morphologic objections to each of the first three. The deposition of the layered deposits in standing bodies of water best explains their lateral continuity, horizontality, great thickness, rhythmic nature, and stratigraphic relationships with other units within the canyons. The Martian climatic history indicated that any ancient lakes were ice covered. Two methods for transporting sediment through a cover of ice on a martian lake appear to be feasible. Based on the presently available data, along with the theoretical calculations presented, it appears most likely that the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris were laid down in standing bodies of water.

  10. Young (late Amazonian), near-surface, ground ice features near the equator, Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Emery, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of four feature types in a ???20 km2 area near 10?? N, 204?? W in Athabasca Valles is interpreted to have resulted from near-surface ground ice. These features include mounds, conical forms with rimmed summit depressions, flatter irregularly-shaped forms with raised rims, and polygonal terrain. Based on morphology, size, and analogy to terrestrial ground ice forms, these Athabascan features are interpreted as pingos, collapsing pingos, pingo scars, and thermal contraction polygons, respectively. Thermal Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (THEMIS) data and geological features in the area are consistent with a sedimentary substrate underlying these features. These observations lead us to favor a ground ice interpretation, although we do not rule out volcanic and especially glaciofluvial hypotheses. The hypothesized ground ice that formed the mounds and rimmed features may have been emplaced via the deposition of saturated sediment during flooding; an alternative scenario invokes magmatically cycled groundwater. The ground ice implicit in the hypothesized thermal contraction polygons may have derived either from this flooding/ground water, or from atmospheric water vapor. The lack of obvious flood modification of the mounds and rimmed features indicates that they formed after the most recent flood inundated the area. Analogy with terrestrial pingos suggests that ground ice may be still extant within the positive relief mounds. As the water that flooded down Athabasca Valles emerged via a volcanotectonic fissure from a deep aquifer, any extant pingo ice may contain evidence of a deep subsurface biosphere. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Valles Marineris, Mars: Are pit chains formed by erosion and troughs by tectonism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Balser, R. A.; Bertolini, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the Valles Marineris remains controversial. Erosional, tectonic, and hybrid processes have been proposed. To clarify these contradictions, the widths and depths of pit chains and troughs were compared and it was found that the features do not form a continuum. Rather, results are consistent with the hypothesis that pit chains formed by surficial collapse and troughs by deeper seated and coherent failure. All pit chains and linear depressions in the Valles Marineris region were classified by inspection into six morphologic categories: pit chains (linear arrays of small pits); floored chains (arrays of pit chains having flat or hummocky floors); scalloped troughs (wider linear depressions with scalloped wall segments); narrow troughs (depressions of intermediate width with straight wall segments); wide troughs (broad, linear depressions); and chaotic troughs (more irregular depressions displaying some channel morphologies). Topographic profiles were drawn across the classified depressions and the erosional width was determined between plateau margins along with the depth from the surrounding plateau level to the deepest part.

  12. Fossil apes from the Vallès-Penedès Basin.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M

    2012-11-01

    Currently restricted to Southeast Asia and Africa, extant hominoids are the remnants of a group that was much more diverse during the Miocene. Apes initially diversified in Africa during the early Miocene, but by the middle Miocene they extended their geographical range into Eurasia, where they experienced an impressive evolutionary radiation. Understanding the role of Eurasian hominoids in the origin and evolution of the great-ape-and-human clade (Hominidae) is partly hampered by phylogenetic uncertainties, the scarcity and incompleteness of fossil remains, the current restricted diversity of the group, and pervasive homoplasy. Nevertheless, scientific knowledge of the Eurasian hominoid radiation has significantly improved during the last decade. In the case of Western Europe, this has been due to the discovery of new remains from the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, Spain). Here, I review the fossil record of Vallès-Penedès apes and consider its implications. Although significant disagreements persist among scholars, some important lessons can be learned regarding the evolutionary history of the closest living relatives of humans.

  13. History and results of VC-1, the first CSDP corehole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Pisto, L.; Polk, G.

    1985-01-01

    Valles Caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) corehole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian, 0.13 Ma). VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of pre-caldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones and shales, with over 95% core recovery. Hydrothermal alterations are concentrated in sheared, brecciated and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alterations consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite has been identified as high as 518 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at various intervals from about 510 m on down. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Isotope geochemistry of thermal and nonthermal waters in the Valles caldera, Jemez Mountains, northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vuataz, F.D.; Goff, F.

    1986-02-10

    Over 100 stable isotope and 45 tritium analyses from thermal and nonthermal waters of the Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico, have been used to define the hydrodynamics of the Valles caldera (Baca) geothermal system and related geothermal fluids of the region. Evaluation of 36 cold meteoric waters yields an equation for the Jemez Mountains meteoric water line of deltaD = 8delta/sup 18/O+12, while further evaluation of nine cold meteoric waters yields an equation relating recharge elevation to deuterium content of E(meters) = -44.9 (deltaD)-1154. Based on the deuterium content of five Baca well waters (223/sup 0/--294/sup 0/C), the average recharge elevation of the Valles geothermal system ranges from 2530 to 2890 m. This range of elevations falls between the elevations of the lowest point of the caldera floor (2400 m) and the summit of the resurgent dome inside the caldera (3430 m). Thus stable isotopes indicate that the caldera depression probably serves as a recharge basin for the deep geothermal system. Although cold spring waters of the Jemez Mountains region consist of meteoric water, tritium analyses show that most of them contain water between 20 and 75 years old.

  15. Modeling of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars, and Implications for Initiation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Meaza; Ruiz, Javier; del Río, Ian A.; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system in Mars shows large landslides across its walls, which can be 40 km wide and up to 60 km long, with fall scarps height as high as 7 km. These landslides were produced through a large mass movement at high speed by gravity across the trough floor. Although the triggering factors are unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed as, among others, large amounts of subsurface water, quake produced through normal faulting close to the canyon walls, and meteoritic impacts. In this work we examine the limit equilibrium slope stability of three landslides (placed respectively at Ius, Candor, and Melas Chasmata), which can be considered representative, with the aims of constraining their formation conditions. Our results suggest that external factors (as high pore fluid pressure, seismic loading or rock mass disturbance) do not seem necessary for the failure of slopes if they are composed of unconsolidated materials, while high pore water pressure or ground acceleration are needed to trigger slides in slopes composed of strong basaltic-like materials. Moreover, the presence of sub-surface ice would contribute to slope stability. As a whole, our findings point to ground shaking due to meteorite impacts as the main triggering force for most landslides in the Valles Marineris.

  16. Impact of the Social Construction of LD on Culturally Diverse Families: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya; Harry, Beth

    2004-01-01

    This response focuses on the effects of the current construction of learning disabilities (LD) on families of children from devalued racial/ethnic groups. Agreeing with the arguments of Reid and Valle, we add that parents from such groups are further disenfranchised because they are not participants in the critical discourse surrounding LD and…

  17. Studying Disability and Disability Studies: Shifting Paradigms of LD -- A Synthesis of Responses to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the 11 diverse responses to Reid and Valle's work on the discursive practice of learning disabilities (LD), implications for instruction, and parent-school relations. I highlight key ideas from each article and then focus on three common areas of interest shared by most respondents: the unacceptable status quo of…

  18. Conductive heat flux in VC-1 and the thermal regime of Valles caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Morgan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Over 5% of heat in the western USA is lost through Quaternary silicic volcanic centers, including the Valles caldera in N central New Mexico. These centers are the sites of major hydrothermal activity and upper crustal metamorphism, metasomatism, and mineralization, producing associated geothermal resources. Presents new heat flow data from Valles caldera core hole 1 (VC-1), drilled in the SW margin of the Valles caldera. Thermal conductivities were measured on 55 segments of core from VC-1, waxed and wrapped to preserve fluids. These values were combined with temperature gradient data to calculate heat flow. Above 335 m, which is probably unsaturated, heat flow is 247 + or - 16 mW m-2. Inteprets the shallow thermal gradient data and the thermal regime at VC-1 to indicate a long-lived hydrothermal (and magmatic) system in the southwestern Valles caldera that has been maintained through the generation of shallow magma bodies during the long postcollapse history of the caldera. High heat flow at the VC-1 site is interpreted to result from hot water circulating below the base of the core hole, and we attribute the lower heat flow in the unsaturated zone is attributed to hydrologic recharge. -from Authors

  19. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  20. A Re-examination of Shallow Paleomagnetic Inclinations From the Cretaceous Valle Group Sedimentary Rocks, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Kodama, K. P.; Smith, D. P.

    2001-05-01

    A paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and sedimentological study was conducted in order to determine whether depositional/compactional processes have caused the shallow inclinations observed in the Valle Group sedimentary rocks. A total of 126 samples (14 sites) were collected from the middle Cenomanian section of the Valle along the northern coast of the Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California, approximately 20 km east of Punta Eugenia at Campito. Samples were subjected to detailed thermal and alternating field (af) demagnetization, typically in 14 steps to 610° C for thermal demagnetization and ~24 steps to 130 mT for af demagnetization. NRMs were strong for marine sedimentary rocks, typically 10 mA/m. The mean of the site means for the demagnetized data was Inc=54.2° , Dec=306° , α 95=4.8° , N=12, in geographic coordinates, and Inc=20.5° , Dec=341.3° , α 95=4° , N=12 in stratigraphic coordinates. AMS fabrics have minimum axes clustered nearly perpendicular to bedding, typical of primary depositional/compactional fabrics. Some sites exhibited minimum axes clustering about 10° from the vertical and maximum axes clustered about 10° from the horizontal suggesting that currents and/or initial bedding dip affected the magnetization of these samples at deposition. Since the stratigraphy of the Valle Group dips consistently to the NE at approximately 50° , we sampled a tight slump fold at one site in order to constrain the age of magnetization. Both the AMS fabric and the characteristic remanence (ChRM) fail the fold test at the 95% confidence level. At another site, we sampled adjacent beds each approximately 5 cm thick composed of coarse, medium, or fine-grained sandstone. The directions of these beds are within 2° of each other. These results can be interpreted to indicate either a late remagnetization of the Valle group or an acquisition of the Valle's detrital remanence after slumping, but early in the rock's post-depositional history. Smith and Busby's (1993

  1. Juventae Chasma and Maja Valles, Mars: Further Evidence for Multiple Flooding Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, C.; Wendt, L.; Dumke, A.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: In this study we investigate the age relationship of Juventae Chasma to the adjacent Maja Valles in order to gain a feasible explanation for the formation and evolution of rhythmic light-toned layered deposits (LLD). In this first step, we use impact crater size-frequency distributions for dating the planetary surface in the regions of interest. Juventae Chasma is located at the northern side of the Valles Marineris and stretches for approximately 150 km east-west and 250 km north-south. The basin floor shows a depth of 5 km and more below the surrounding surface. To the north lies the adjacent Maja Valles, a 50 km to 150 km wide channel extending for 1600 km northward and discharging into the Chryse Planitia plains. Various investigations of several authors have been carried out on this subject in the past, but the formation of the LLD in Juventae Chasma is still poorly understood. The formation theories range from a volcanic origin [1], lake deposits, delta deposits [2] to spring deposits [3]. A very different hypothesis for the formation of the sulfates is deposition from airfall. This could happen as dry deposition from the atmosphere or in co-precipitation with icy materials such as snow crystals or dust particles. This phenomenon is observed at the poles of Mars, where rhythmic layerings occur showing high similarities to the sulfate deposits in Juventae Chasma. The light-toned materials in the chasma show a spectral signature indicative of kieserite in the outcrops A, C and D and in the lower part of B, whereas the upper part of B was described as gypsum [4]. Wendt et al. [5] identified different mineral assemblages in the cap rock of mount B, using the CRISM instrument and the Multiple-Endmember Linear Spectral Unmixing Model (MELSUM). HRSC DTM: The Digital Terrain Model (DTM ) mosaic (see Fig. 1) was derived from 11 HRSC orbits at approximately -7° S to 8° N and 295° to 301° E with a ground resolution of 100 m per pixel and an ortho

  2. Spatiotemporal Effects of Climate Variability and Urban Growth on the "Valle de Toluca" Aquifer (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Esteller, M. V.; Gomez-Albores, M. A.; Becerril, R.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Toluca city is located in the "Valle de Toluca" at the upper course of the Lerma river basin, is an important economic center which contributes with 1.2% of Gross National Product (GNP) since it is an industrial city, The city has grown due to the economic development sustained by the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer which provides water for human consumption, industrial facilities and crop irrigation. Recent studies have shown that in the last 50 years the annual precipitation rate in Toluca has increased 122 mm, whereas the daily minimum temperature has increased 1.1 °C and the daily maximum temperature has also increased 0.8 °C. These results show a general overview of the change in the climate conditions of the city; however they do not show the spatial distribution of the change. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the spatiotemporal change of precipitation rates and urban growth in order to determine their effects over the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer. In order to detect the urban growth, a supervised classification technique has been used taking into account Landsat TM satellite images between 1973, 1986, 2000 and 2005. A yearly spatiotemporal raster set of rainfall rates from 1980 to 2010 were obtained interpolating data from 812 climatologic stations. To evaluate the effect in annual precipitation rates and urban growth over the aquifer, we interpolate data from 38 piezometers from 1980 to 2010 to obtain a spatiotemporal raster set. The piezometric values correspond to the aquifer's upper level. The spatiotemporal raster sets were analyzed with the non-parametric Theil-Sen test to determine trends in piezometric levels and precipitation rates. Finally the urban growth, spatial-temporal trends of precipitation rates and piezometric levels were displayed in a GIS and then subjectively analyzed to figure out coincidences. An increase in annual precipitation rates (+87 mm) over Toluca's Valley during the last three decades was observed specially

  3. Episodes of floods in Mangala Valles, Mars, from the analysis of HRSC, MOC and THEMIS images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Neukum, G.; Werner, S.C.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kneissl, T.; Zuschneid, W.; Rommel, D.; Wendt, L.; Chapman, M.; Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Mangala Valles is a 900-km long outflow channel system in the highlands adjacent to the south-eastern flank of the Tharsis bulge. This work was intended to answer the following two questions unresolved in previous studies: (1) Was there only one source of water (Mangala Fossa at the valley head which is one of the Medusae Fossae troughs or graben) or were other sources also involved in the valley-carving water supply, and (2) Was there only one episode of flooding (maybe with phases) or were there several episodes significantly separated in time. The geologic analysis of HRSC image 0286 and mapping supported by analysis of MOC and THEMIS images show that Mangala Valles was carved by water released from several sources. The major source was Mangala Fossa, which probably formed in response to magmatic dike intrusion. The graben cracked the cryosphere and permitted the release of groundwater held under hydrostatic pressure. This major source was augmented by a few smaller-scale sources at localities in (1) two mapped heads of magmatic dikes, (2) heads of two clusters of sinuous channels, and (3) probably several large knob terrain locals. The analysis of results of crater counts at more than 60 localities showed that the first episode of formation of Mangala Valles occurred ???3.5 Ga ago and was followed by three more episodes, one occurred ???1 Ga ago, another one ???0.5 Ga ago, and the last one ???0.2 Ga ago. East of the mapped area there are extended and thick lava flows whose source may be the eastern continuation of the Mangala source graben. Crater counts in 10 localities on these lava flows correlate with those taken on the Mangala valley elements supporting the idea that the valley head graben was caused by dike intrusions. Our observations suggest that the waning stage of the latest flooding episode (???0.2 Ga ago) led to the formation at the valley head of meander-like features sharing some characteristics with meanders of terrestrial rivers. If this

  4. Initial insights from 2.5D hydraulic modeling of floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.P.; Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.; Burr, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first application of a 2.5D hydraulic model to catastrophic floods on Mars. This model simulates flow over complex topography and incorporates flood dynamics that could not be modeled in the earlier 1D models. We apply this model to Athabasca Valles, the youngest outflow channel on Mars, investigating previous bank-full discharge estimates and utilizing the interpolated Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter elevation map as input. We confirm that the bank-full assumption does not fit the observed landforms. Instead, the channel appears more deeply incised near the source. Flow modeling also identifies several areas of special interest, including a dry cataract that coincides with a region of predicted high erosion. However, artifacts in the elevation data strongly impacted estimated stages and velocities in other areas. More extensive connection between the flood hydraulics and observed landforms awaits improved topographic data.

  5. Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca Valles region, Mars, as evidence for a volcanic history.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Andrew J; Christensen, Philip R

    2012-04-27

    Athabasca Valles is a near-equatorial martian outflow channel that contains many well-preserved features whose formation and composition have been a point of contention. Large plates of terrain that have clearly fractured and drifted may have once been ice rafts or the rocky solidification crust of a large lava flow. We have identified 269 spiral coils ranging from 5 to 30 meters wide on the polygonally patterned interplate terrain that are morphologically consistent with terrestrial lava coils that form in zones of flow shear. This patterned terrain also exhibits signs of fracture and drift, indicating that it is platelike as well. The coils in the Athabasca region are inconsistent with ice rheology, and the plates, spirals, and polygons are interpreted to be of volcanic origin.

  6. Robust extraction of channel parameters from HRSC data of Warrego Valles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, R.; Lindenbergh, R. C.

    2011-10-01

    Detailed and regional studies of Martian hydrolandforms and modelling of the process responsible for those landforms have been performed in the last decades, but a global understanding of the evolution of water systematics of Mars requires a global and systematic analysis and integration of the tell-tale signs of water at the surface. In the coming years HRSC will obtain high-resolution stereo-imagery with near-global coverage of Mars. This will result in an unprecedented detailed look of the morphology of the Martian surface. In anticipation of this we have developed an algorithm to systematically and quantitatively extract the relevant morphological parameters to identify the formative process classes of Martian hydro-landforms from these data. At this conference we will present our first results through a case study of the Warrego Valles system.

  7. Magnetic Properties in Volcanoclastic Deposits in the Valle de Santiago, Guanajuato, in Central Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe-Cifuentes, R.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2005-05-01

    Valle de Santiago is a volcanic province, part of the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field. The area is characterized by volcanic maars. These structures show a very well defined NW-SE direction. In this study, three sequences are described and analysed in order to determinate their magnetic properties, specially, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), and determinate different types of signatures in relation to nature of deposits. The sequences of maars contain a high percentage of reworked material (approximately 65-75) from previous rocks. This arrangement is directly related with a high kinetic energy during the eruption. All the deposits are unwelded, and principally are fine grained pyroclastic deposits of hydromagmatic origin. Volcanic and magnetic data suggest an alternation of fall and turbulent transportation and traction deposition of particles. The preliminary results indicate the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) could be related with grain size, chemical composition, and type of deposit.

  8. Stratigraphic evidence of past fluvial activity in southern Melas Chasma, Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Joel; Grindrod, Peter

    2014-05-01

    During the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods, listric faulting led to the development of a series of hanging depressions throughout the Valles Marineris canyon system [1]. One such depression, situated on the southern wall of Melas Chasma, forms an enclosed basin which has since undergone modification from the late Hesperian to Amazonian. There is a multitude of evidence suggesting that the basin (hereon in referred to as the Southern Melas Chasma Basin; SMCB) was once host to active fluvial processes, that at minimum lasted for several hundred years [2,3]. Central to this is what appears to be the remains of a palaeolake, which is approximately 80 by 40 kilometres in area. The palaeolake contains a complex sequence of sedimentary stratigraphy, which includes several structures that resemble deltas and/or submarine fans on both the east and west side of the basin [4], and appear to originate from a network of channels and valleys that terminate in the basin. Previous studies have shown that the western valley network has drainage densities similar to terrestrial values and a dendritic nature that is indicative of precipitation and surface runoff [3]. Higher resolution mapping of the SMCB is important to further understand the stratigraphic succession and geomorphology, and to quantify how long liquid water may have been present within the basin. For this study, new digital elevation models (DEMs) have been produced in SOCET SET using stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), both aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The DEMs have been produced at ~6 and ~1 m/pixel vertical resolution for CTX and HiRISE respectively. There is approximately 150-200 m of sediment within the stratigraphic succession; some individual strata are less than 10 m thick. The delta/fan structures appear to occur at different stratigraphic positions low down within the sequence. Clinoform-like and cross-bedded structures

  9. Correlations Between Textures and Infrared Spectra of the Martian Surface in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, S. J.; Wray, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    RALSTON, S. J., School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, sralston3@gatech.edu, WRAY, James, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, jwray@eas.gatech.edu In the past few decades, a wealth of information has become available on the appearance and composition of the Martian surface. While some previous research has examined possible correlations between certain surface features and mineralogy (such as the hypothesized connection between Recurring Slope Lineae and perchlorate salts), little has yet been done to determine possible correlations between mineralogy and texture in less extraordinary circumstances. In this project, one hundred images taken from across the Valles Marineris region were examined both in infrared (obtained from the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) and in visible-light images from the HiRISE camera. Spectra were obtained from regions of interest, focusing mainly on the identification of monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates. Other materials were included in the imaging, including phyllosilicate clays, gypsum, and jarosite, although those materials proved less abundant than the sulfates. The areas from which the spectra were taken were then examined in visible-light wavelengths using HiRISE images to determine textural qualities. The focus of this research was on two particular textures, a 'reticulated' texture and a 'stepped texture,' hypothesized to correlate to monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates, respectively. Results showed that over 55% of areas containing monohydrated sulfates also contained reticulate texture, whereas areas that contained other materials, such as polyhydrated sulfates and clays, had only a 2-8% correlation with reticulate texture. The stepped texture was shown to have no significant correlation to any one material, although other texture/mineral pairs did

  10. Emplacement and erosive effects of the south Kasei Valles lava on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Although it has generally been accepted that the Martian outflow channels were carved by floods of water, observations of large channels on Venus and Mercury demonstrate that lava flows can cause substantial erosion. Recent observations of large lava flows within outflow channels on Mars have revived discussion of the hypothesis that the Martian channels are also produced by lava. An excellent example is found in south Kasei Valles (SKV), where the most recent major event was emplacement of a large lava flow. Calculations using high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) demonstrate that this flow was locally turbulent, similar to a previously described flood lava flow in Athabasca Valles. The modeled peak local flux of approximately 106 m3 s−1 was approximately an order of magnitude lower than that in Athabasca, which may be due to distance from the vent. Fluxes close to 107 m3 s−1 are estimated in some reaches but these values are probably records of local surges caused by a dam-breach event within the flow. The SKV lava was locally erosive and likely caused significant (kilometer-scale) headwall retreat at several cataracts with tens to hundreds of meters of relief. However, in other places the net effect of the flow was unambiguously aggradational, and these are more representative of most of the flow. The larger outflow channels have lengths of thousands of kilometers and incision of a kilometer or more. Therefore, lava flows comparable to the SKV flow did not carve the major Martian outflow channels, although the SKV flow was among the largest and highest-flux lava flows known in the Solar System.

  11. Mechanical conditions and modes of paraglacial deep-seated gravitational spreading in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowska, Magdalena; Mège, Daniel; Gueydan, Frédéric; Chéry, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Deep-seated gravitational spreading (DSGS) affects the slopes of formerly glaciated mountain ridges. On Mars, DSGS has played a key role in shaping the landforms of the giant Valles Marineris troughs. Though less spectacular, DSGS is common in terrestrial orogens, where understanding its mechanics is critical in the light of the ongoing climate change because it is a potential source of catastrophic landslides in deglaciated valleys. We conducted parametric numerical studies in order to identify important factors responsible for DSGS initiation. DSGS models are computed using an elastoviscoplastic finite element code. Using ADELI's software, we reproduce topographic ridge spreading under the effect of valley unloading. Two types of spreading topographic ridges are investigated, homogeneous or with horizontal rheological layering. We find that gravitational instabilities are enhanced by high slopes, which increase gravitational stress, and low friction and cohesion, which decrease yield stress. In the unlayered ridge, instability is triggered by glacial unloading with plastic strain concentration inside the ridge and at the base of the high slopes. Vertical fractures develop in the upper part of the slope, potentially leading to fault scarps. Ridge homogeneity promotes a deformation mode controlled by uphill-facing normal faulting and basal bulging. In the second case, the ridge encompasses horizontal geological discontinuities that induce rock mass anisotropy. Discontinuity located at the base of the slope accumulates plastic strain, leading to the formation of a sliding plane evolving into a landslide. The presence of a weak layer at ridge base therefore promotes another slope deformation mode ending up with catastrophic failure. Mechanical conditions and slope height being equal, these conclusions can probably be extrapolated to Earth. Compared with Mars, DSGS on Earth is inhibited because terrestrial topographic gradients are lower than in Valles Marineris, an

  12. Mass transfer constraints on the chemical evolution of an active hydrothermal system, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Chuma, N.J.; Goff, F.

    1992-01-01

    Partial equilibrium conditions occur between fluids and secondary minerals in the Valles hydrothermal system, contained principally in the Tertiary rhyolitic Bandelier Tuff. The mass transfer processes are governed by reactive phase compositions, surface areas, water-rock ratios, reaction rates, and fluid residence times. Experimental dissolution of the vitric phase of the tuff was congruent with respect to Cl in the solid and produced reaction rates which obeyed a general Arrhenius release rate between 250 and 300??C. The 18O differences between reacted and unreacted rock and fluids, and mass balances calculations involving Cl in the glass phase, produced comparable water-rock ratios of unity, confirming the importance of irreversible reaction of the vitric tuff. A fluid residence time of approximately 2 ?? 103 years, determined from fluid reservoir volume and discharge rates, is less than 0.2% of the total age of the hydrothermal system and denotes a geochemically and isotopically open system. Mass transfer calculations generally replicated observed reservoir pH, Pco2, and PO2 conditions, cation concentrations, and the secondary mineral assemblage between 250 and 300??C. The only extraneous component required to maintain observed calcite saturation and high Pco2 pressures was carbon presumably derived from underlying Paleozoic limestones. Phase rule constraints indicate that Cl was the only incompatible aqueous component not controlled by mineral equilibrium. Concentrations of Cl in the reservoir directly reflect mass transport rates as evidenced by correlations between anomalously high Cl concentrations in the fluids and tuff in the Valles caldera relative to other hydrothermal systems in rhyolitic rocks. ?? 1992.

  13. Two middle Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles from the Valle Grande, Jemez Mountains, northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fawcett, Peter J.; Heikoop, Jeff; Goff, Fraser; Anderson, R. Scott; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Geissman, John William; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Johnson, Catrina M.; Smith, Susan J.; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna

    2006-01-01

    A long-lived middle Pleistocene lake formed in the Valle Grande, a large moat valley of the Valles caldera in northern New Mexico, when a post-caldera eruption (South Mountain rhyolite) dammed the drainage out of the caldera. The deposits of this lake were cored in May 2004 (GLAD5 project, hole VC-3) and 81 m of mostly lacustrine silty mud were recovered. A tentative chronology has been established for VC-3 with a basal tephra Ar-Ar date of 552 +/- 3 ka, a correlation of major climatic changes in the core with other long Pleistocene records (deep sea oxygen isotope records and long Antarctic ice core records), and the recognition of two geomagnetic field polarity events in the core which can be correlated with globally recognized events. This record spans a critical interval of the middle Pleistocene from MIS 14 (552 ka) to MIS 10 (~360 ka), at which time the lacustrine sediments filled the available accommodation space in the caldera moat. Multiple analyses, including core sedimentology and stratigraphy, sediment density and rock magnetic properties, organic carbon content and carbon isotope ratios, C/N ratios, and pollen content reveal two glacial/interglacial cycles in the core (MIS 14 to MIS 10). This record includes glacial terminations V and VI and complete sections spanning interglacials MIS 13 and MIS 11. In the VC-3 record, both of these interglacials are relatively long compared with the intervening glacials (MIS 14 and MIS 12), and interglacial MIS 13 is significantly muted in amplitude compared with MIS 11. These features are similar to several other mid-Pleistocene records. The glacial terminations are quite abrupt in this record with notable changes in sedimentation, organic carbon content, C/N ratios and watershed vegetation type. Termination V is the largest climate change evident in this part of the middle Pleistocene. The glacial inceptions tend to be more gradual, on the order of a few thousand years.

  14. Middle Pleistocene molluscan fauna from the Valle Giumentina (Abruzzo, Central Italy): Palaeoenvironmental, biostratigraphical and biogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sébastien; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Aureli, Daniele; Nicoud, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions through the Middle Pleistocene sequence in the Valle Giumentina, located in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy, are discussed. The sampled sequence is 16 m thick and includes nine levels with Lower Palaeolithic industries. The lithostratigraphy shows fluvio-glacial sediments with interbedded colluvial deposits and volcanic tephras. Fine sediments are composed of calcareous sands and silts, most of them yielding well-preserved mollusc shells. Forty-five samples, at 10 cm resolution, yielded 45 taxa, which could be assigned to four biozones. The oldest (biozone VGM1) indicate an open environment, which becomes a closed forest landscape developing under temperate conditions (VGM2). After a decline of thermophilous species (VGM3), mollusc assemblages indicate a dry open environment typical of a glacial period (VGM4). All prehistoric occupation horizons occur during stable environmental episodes but under both temperate and cold climatic conditions. The molluscan succession is allocated to the Middle Pleistocene on the basis of the occurrence of Jaminia malatestae, a well-known Italian species, now extinct, as well as the similarity of the molluscan record to that of Case Picconetto, a well-dated site nearby. This attribution is supported by three tephra layers dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 556 ± 6, 531 ± 5 and 456 ± 2 ka. The sequence is correlated with marine isotopic stages 14, 13 and 12. Four species of land snail (Azeca goodalli, Ruthenica filograna, Pagodulina pagodula, Nesovitrea hammonis) occur beyond their modern range and are therefore of biogeographical interest. These snails are western and central European in origin and their presence within the Valle Giumentina deposits highlight a north-south gradient of colonization during Pleistocene interglacial periods.

  15. Paradigm of Professional Integration for Disabled People in Fundació Integralia Vallès: Key Success Factors.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ma Emilia; De Oña, Javier; Picola, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    Fundació Integralia Vallès is a pioneer contact center in Europe that has involved the creation of a healthcare reference center managed exclusively by people with disabilities and degenerative diseases to enable their professional development and ultimately integration into the labour market. The environment created under this project enables effective training and building of skills, capacity and work experience as well as promoting social responsibility among a population group that is at risk of exclusion. The major differentiating factor in Fundació Integralia Vallés is the quality of service provided by its staff, who are particularly sensitive to the issues of health, and who provide professional and human dimension in every attention.

  16. A MIS 15-MIS 12 record of environmental changes and Lower Palaeolithic occupation from Valle Giumentina, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Chaussé, Christine; Nomade, Sébastien; Giaccio, Biagio; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Fusco, Fabio; Regattieri, Eleonora; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Robert, Vincent; Kuzucuoglu, Catherine; Boschian, Giovanni; Agostini, Silvano; Aureli, Daniele; Pagli, Marina; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Nicoud, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    An integrated geological study, including sedimentology, stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C), geochemistry, micromorphology, biomarker analysis, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and tephrochronology, was undertaken on the Quaternary infill of the Valle Giumentina basin in Central Italy, which also includes an outstanding archaeological succession, composed of nine human occupation levels ascribed to the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. 40Ar/39Ar dating, and other palaeoenvironmental and tephrochronological data, constrain the sedimentary history of the whole succession to the MIS 15-MIS 12 interval, between 618 ± 13 ka and 456 ± 2 ka. Palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest that over this time interval of about 150 ka, sedimentary and pedogenic processes were mainly influenced by climatic changes, in particular by the pulsing of local mountain glaciers of the Majella massif. Specifically, the Valle Giumentina succession records glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation during the colder glacial periods and pedogenesis and/or alluvial sedimentation during the warmer interglacial and/or interstadial periods. During this interval, tectonics played a negligible role as a driving factor of local morphogenesis and sedimentation, whereas the general regional uplift experienced in the Middle Pleistocene led to capture of the basin and its definitive extinction after MIS 12. These data substantially improve previous knowledge of the chronology and sedimentary evolution of the succession, providing for the first time, a well constrained chronological and palaeoenvironmental framework for the archaeological and human palaeoecological record of Valle Giumentina.

  17. Diagenetic Layers in the Upper Walls of Valles Marineris, Mars: Evidence for Drastic Climate Change Since the Mid-Hesperian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Fuks, Kelly H.; Murchie, Scott

    1995-01-01

    A packet of relatively resistant layers, totaling approx. 400 m thickness, is present at the tops of the chasma walls throughout Valles Marineris. The packet consists of an upper dark layer (approx. 50 m thick), a central bright layer (approx. 250 m thick), and a lower dark layer (approx. 100 m thick). The packet appears continuous and of nearly constant thickness and depth below ground surface over the whole Valles system (4000 km E-W, 800 km N-S), independent of elevation (3-10 km) and age of plateau surface (Noachian through upper Hesperian). The packet continues undisturbed beneath the boundary between surface units of Noachian and Hesperian ages, and continues undisturbed beneath impact craters transected by chasma walls. These attributes are not consistent with layer formation by volcanic or sedimentary deposition, and are consistent with layer formation in situ, i.e., by diagenesis, during or after upper Hesperian time. Diagenesis seems to require the action of aqueous solutions in the near subsurface, which are not now stable in the Valles Marineris area. To permit the stability of aqueous solutions, Mars must have had a fairly dense atmosphere, greater than or equal to 1 bar CO2, when the layers formed. Obliquity variations appear to be incapable of producing such a massive atmosphere so late in Mars' history.

  18. Geologic map of the Valle 30' x 60' quadrangle, Coconino County, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Felger, Tracey J.; Priest, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic map of the Valle 30' x 60' quadrangle is the result of a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service to provide geologic information for regional resource management and visitor information services for Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 1,960 sq.mi. within Coconino County, northern Arizona and is bounded by long 112 deg to 113 deg W. and lat 35 deg 30 min to 36 deg N. and lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The map area is locally subdivided into four physiographic parts; (1) the Grand Canyon (Cataract Canyon and extreme northeast corner of the map area), (2) the Coconino Plateau, (3) the Mount Floyd Volcanic Field, and (4) the San Francisco Volcanic Field as defined by Billingsley and others, 1997. Elevations range from 7,460 ft (2,274 m) on the Coconino Plateau along State Highway 64 northeast corner of the map area, to about 4,200 ft (1,280 m) at the bottom of Cataract Canyon. Settlements within the map area include Tusayan and Valle, Arizona. State Highway 64 and U.S. Highway 180 provide access to the Tusayan and Valle areas. Indian Route 18 is a paved highway in the northwest corner of the map area that is maintained by the Hualapai and Havasupai Indian Tribes and leads from State Route 66 about 7 mi (11 km) east of Peach Springs, Arizona to Hualapai Hilltop, a parking lot just north of the map area at the rim of Cataract Canyon where visitors begin an 8 mi (13 km) hike into Havasupai, Arizona. Other remote parts of the map are accessed by two dirt roads, which are maintained by Coconino County, and by several unmaintained local ranch roads. Weather conditions restrict travel within the area and visitors must obtain permission to access a few local ranch lands in the south-central edge of the map area. Extra water and food are highly recommended when traveling in this remote region. Access into Cataract Canyon is

  19. On the Morphology and Transition of Valles Marineris Landforms: Rock Glaciers/Protalus Lobes vs. Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, S.; Hauber, E.; Dumke, A.; Schreiner, B.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system exhibits a variety of different landforms associated with landslide mechanisms, ranging from several tens of meters to kilometers in length. They usually cover a surface of 1000 km2 and have an average volume of up to 5000 km3 [1-2]. It is assumed that they have been emplaced under wet as well as dry conditions from destabilized wall-rock and from surrounding sapping valleys [e.g., 1-3]. Absolute age determinations have furthermore shown that landslides in Valles Marineris span much of Martian history with ages as young as 50 Myr up to 3.5 Gyr [1]. Notwithstanding their individual ages and timespan during which they have been emplaced, landslides seem to have formed repetitively producing comparable morphologies and do not show substantial modifications throughout the last 3.5 Gy [1]. We here put our focus on a set of complex tongue-shaped landforms situated in the central parts of Valles Marineris at 283 °E, 8 °S which were previously identified as a single feature and for which a possible rock-glacier origin had been proposed [5]. This assumption implies environmental conditions which are not met today at such latitudes near the equator and which would contradict all observations related to the distribution of periglacial landforms on Mars, such as thermal contraction polygons, thermokarst features, and -- especially — lobate debris aprons [e.g., 6-11] which are considered to be Martian analogues for terrestrial rock glaciers. On the basis of our observations we come to the conclusion that the landforms discussed herein form a complex set of landslides derived from wall-rock sliding and/or from surrounding valleys. Consequently, different sources areas are reflected by the complexity of the landslides with several overlapping lobes and individual tongue-shaped features. Although the tongue-shaped morphology is characteristic of rock-glacier landforms, the assembly of furrows and ridges strongly suggests an origin caused by

  20. Geothermal hydrology of Valles Caldera and the southwestern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainer, Frank W.; Rogers, Robert J.; Sorey, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico are volcanic in origin and have a large central caldera known as Valles Caldera. The mountains contain the Valles geothermal system, which was investigated during 1970-82 as a source of geothermal energy. This report describes the geothermal hydrology of the Jemez Mountains and presents results of an earlier 1972-75 U.S. Geological Survey study of the area in light of more recent information. Several distinct types of thermal and nonthermal ground water are recognized in the Jemez Mountains. Two types of near-surface thermal water are in the caldera: thermal meteoric water and acid sulfate water. The principal reservoir of geothermal fluids is at depth under the central and western parts of the caldera. Nonthermal ground water in Valles Caldera occurs in diverse perched aquifers and deeper valley-fill aquifers. The geothermal reservoir is recharged by meteorically derived water that moves downward from the aquifers in the caldera fill to depths of 6,500 feet or more and at temperatures reaching about 330 degrees Celsius. The heated geothermal water rises convectively to depths of 2,000 feet or less and mixes with other ground water as it flows away from the geothermal reservoir. A vapor zone containing steam, carbon dioxide, and other gases exists above parts of the liquid-dominated geothermal zone. Two subsystems are generally recognized within the larger geothermal system: the Redondo Creek subsystem and the Sulphur Creek subsystem. The permeability in the Redondo Creek subsystem is controlled by stratigraphy and fault-related structures. Most of the permeability is in the high-angle, normal faults and associated fractures that form the Redondo Creek Graben. Faults and related fractures control the flow of thermal fluids in the subsystem, which is bounded by high-angle faults. The Redondo Creek subsystem has been more extensively studied than other parts of the system. The Sulphur Springs subsystem is not as well

  1. Fogs and Clouds are a Potential Indicator of a Local Water Source in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Stillman, David E.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2016-04-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow, low-albedo seasonal flow features on present-day Mars that extend incrementally down warm, steep slopes, fade when inactive, and reappear annually over multiple Mars years [1,2]. Hypothesis for the sources of volatile by which RSL are recharged include seeping water, melting shallow ice, aquifers, and vapor from the atmosphere [1-5]. About 50% of the 250+ candidate and confirmed RSL sites appear in and around Valles Marineris [3], and coincide with regions where putative morning water ice fogs may appear as imaged by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express [6]. The presence of fog may provide clues to the water cycle within the canyon, and could elucidate the processes related to the evolution of RSL. Using a regional atmospheric model, we investigate the atmospheric dynamics in and around Valles Marineris. Our simulation results show a curious temperature structure, where the inside of the canyon appears warmer relative to the plateaus immediately outside at all times of day. Formation of fogs requires the atmosphere to be saturated. This can happen with the appropriate combination of cooling or addition of water vapor. The modeled temperature structure suggests that if water is well mixed and fog is present within the warmer canyon bottom, fog should be present on the cooler surrounding plateaus as well. This is generally not the case. Therefore, the only way to produce fog inside the canyon is to have a local water source. RSL may contribute to this atmospheric water through evaporation, or RSL may simply be a surface marker of a larger near-surface reservoir of water that can act as a source. From the modeled temperatures, we calculated the corresponding saturation vapor pressures and saturation mixing ratios to determine the amount of water vapor in the air at saturation. The observed Martian atmospheric column abundance is ~10 precipitable microns on average [7] and presents a major challenge for an

  2. Gas geochemistry of the Valles caldera region, New Mexico and comparisons with gases at Yellowstone, Long Valley and other geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Noncondensible gases from hot springs, fumaroles, and deep wells within the Valles caldera geothermal system (210-300??C) consist of roughly 98.5 mo1% CO2, 0.5 mol% H2S, and 1 mol% other components. 3He/4He ratios indicate a deep magmatic source (R/Ra up to 6) whereas ??13C-CO2 values (-3 to -5???) do not discriminate between a mantle/magmatic source and a source from subjacent, hydrothermally altered Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Regional gases from sites within a 50-km radius beyond Valles caldera are relatively enriched in CO2 and He, but depleted in H2S compared to Valles gases. Regional gases have R/Ra values ???1.2 due to more interaction with the crust and/or less contribution from the mantle. Carbon sources for regional CO2 are varied. During 1982-1998, repeat analyses of gases from intracaldera sites at Sulphur Springs showed relatively constant CH4, H2, and H2S contents. The only exception was gas from Footbath Spring (1987-1993), which experienced increases in these three components during drilling and testing of scientific wells VC-2a and VC-2b. Present-day Valles gases contain substantially less N2 than fluid inclusion gases trapped in deep, early-stage, post-caldera vein minerals. This suggests that the long-lived Valles hydrothermal system (ca. 1 Myr) has depleted subsurface Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of nitrogen. When compared with gases from many other geothermal systems, Valles caldera gases are relatively enriched in He but depleted in CH4, N2 and Ar. In this respect, Valles gases resemble end-member hydrothermal and magmatic gases discharged at hot spots (Galapagos, Kilauea, and Yellowstone). Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Geomorphological characteristics of the interior layered deposits (ILDs) of Melas Chasma, central Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Samantha; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy

    2013-04-01

    Stretching almost 600 km in width, Melas Chasma is located in the central part of the Valles Marineris (VM) and is one of the lowest lying of the chasmata. Spectral mapping of this chasma, particularly using MEX's OMEGA instrument, has revealed a strong presence of water-altered minerals (roughly a quarter of all such detected minerals to date in the VM; Chojnacki & Hynek, 2008), in the form of monohydrated and polyhydrated sulphates. Most of the sulphate-bearing rocks in Melas are found in association with thinly layered deposits, occurring in outcrops on the chasma floor. So-called interior layered deposits (ILDs) throughout the Valles Marineris have been the subject of considerable recent research, particularly for their association with these water-altered minerals. Better understanding of the origin and evolution of these ILDs may help to shed more light on the past climatic conditions on Mars and the potentially complicated history of liquid water on the planet. Relatively little geomorphological study of the ILDs of Melas Chasma has been conducted to date with regard to the differing characteristics of the different sulphate-bearing rocks. For instance, areas corresponding to polyhydrated sulphates in the Melas ILDs show considerable different surface textures to those corresponding to monohydrated sulphates. Interestingly, the latter show some surface textures comparable to the wind eroded, yardang bearing surfaces of the Medusae Fossae Formation, located roughly 4000 km to the west on the opposite side of the Tharsis volcanic province. This aim of this work, conducted as part of the European Research Council supported eMars project, is to compile a thorough geomorphological survey of the Melas Chasma ILDs and, through this, construct workable hypotheses regarding their origin and evolution and the context of their water-altered mineral content. Furthermore, to contrast and compare the ILDs of Melas with other large-scale deposits, such as the Medusae

  4. Hydrothermal alteration in the Baca Geothermal System, Redondo Dome, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1986-02-01

    Thermal fluids circulating in the active hydrothermal system of the resurgent Redondo dome of the Valles caldera have interacted with their diverse host rocks to produce well-zoned alteration assemblages, which not only help locate permeable fluid channels but also provide insight into the system's thermal history. The alteration shows that fluid flow has been confined principally to steeply dipping normal faults and subsidiary fractures as well as thin stratigraphic aquifers. Permeability along many of these channels has been reduced or locally eliminated by hydrothermal self-sealing. Alteration from the surface through the base of the Miocene Paliza Canyon Formation is of three distinctive types: argillic, propylitic, and phyllic. Argillic alteration forms a blanket above the deep water table in formerly permeable nonwelded tuffs. Beneath the argillic zone, pervasive propylitic alteration is weakly developed in felsic host rocks but locally intense in deep intermediate composition volcanics. Strong phyllic alteration is commonly but not invariably associated with major active thermal fluid channels. Phyllic zones yielding no fluid were clearly once permeable but now are hydrothermally sealed. High-temperature alteration phases at Baca are presently found at much lower temperatures. We suggest either that isotherms have collapsed due to gradual cooling of the system, that they have retreated without overall heat loss due to uplift of the Redondo dome, that the system has shifted laterally, or that it has contracted due to a drop in the water table. The deepest Well (B-12, 3423 m) in the dome may have penetrated through the base of the active hydrothermal system. Below a depth of 2440 m in this well, hydrothermal veining largely disappears, and the rocks resemble those developed by isochemical thermal metamorphism. The transition is reflected by temperature logs, which show a conductive thermal gradient below 2440 m. This depth may mark the dome's neutral plane

  5. Landslides as Indicators of the Past Extent of Interior Layered Deposits in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, Peter; Warner, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Mounds of layered deposits, often several kilometres in height, are common in the canyons of Valles Marineris [1,2] and impact craters such as Gale Crater [3]. These interior layered deposits (ILDs) are important because they not only potentially preserve long sequences of Mars' stratigraphic record, but also because the common presence of abundant hydrous mineral phases implies aqueous activity crucial to studies of habitability. Despite their importance, no consensus exists regarding how ILDs form. Here we use landslides in Valles Marineris to gain insight into the previous extent and state of two large-scale ILDs. Using visible wavelength images and stereo digital terrain models we have identified three major occurrences of landslide deposits in Ophir Chasma, which are indicative of diversion or obstruction by material that is no longer present. The landslides in this study differ from most other landslides by increasing in height towards their front edges, showing distinctive concave scarp faces that are up to 500 m above the base level, and up to 400 m higher than the preceding part of the landslide deposit. These scarps are 1 - 2 km from, and mimic the shape of, the current extent of the ILD outer boundaries. Although not continuous throughout Ophir Chasma, the scarps extend between 20 and 50 km in length at different landslides, suggesting a common boundary at the northern edge of Ophir/Baetis Mensae. The most likely explanation for the formation of these scarps is that the leading edge of a landslide has piled up in front of an obstacle that has since been removed. Given the short timescale between landslide formation and the removal of the ILD obstacle material [4], it is likely that erosion alone is incapable of removing the material unless unrealistically high rates are assumed. Instead ice sublimation processes are likely to have been the dominant removal method, which implies that a significant amount of ice was present in the ILDs during the Amazonian

  6. Mineralogy and Organic Geochemistry of Acid Sulfate Environments from Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Habitability, Weathering and Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. B.; Des Marais, D. J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Kubo, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report on the mineralogy, organic preservation potential and habitability of sulfate deposits in acid sulfate volcanic settings at Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Fumaroles and acidic springs are potential analogs for aqueous environments on Mars and may offer insights into habitability of sulfate deposits such as those at Meridiani Planum. Sulfates recently detected on Mars are posited to have formed from fluids derived from basaltic weathering and igneous volatile input, ultimately precipitating from acidic brines subjected to desiccation and freeze-thaw cycles (McClennan and Grotzinger, 2008). Key issues concerning martian sulfate deposits are their relationship to aqueous clay deposits, and whether or not specific sulfates deposits represent former habitable environments (see Soderblum and Bell, 2008; Tosca et al., 2008). Modern terrestrial volcanic fumaroles and hot springs precipitate various Ca-, Mg- and Fe- sulfates along with clays, and can help clarify whether certain acid sulfate mineral assemblages reflect habitable environments. Valles caldera is a resurgent caldera last active in the Pleistocene (1.4 - 1.0 Ma) that hosts several active fumaroles and over 40 geothermal exploration wells (see Goff, 2009). Fumaroles and associated mudpots and springs at Valles range from pH < 1 to 3, and affect argillic alteration upon rhylolitic tuffs and sedimentary deposits (Charles et al., 1986). We identified assemblages containing gypsum, quartz, Al-sulfates, elemental sulfur, clays and other minerals using XRD and SEM-EDS. Our previous research has shown that sulfates from different marine depositional environments display textural and morphological traits that are indicative of biological influence, or specific conditions in the depositional environments (Vogel et al., 2009). Gypsum crystals that develop in the presence of microbial biofilms in marine environments may have distorted crystal morphologies, biofilm - associated dissolution features, and accessory

  7. Erosional development of bedrock spur and gully topography in the Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    Gully networks separated by resistant bedrock spurs are a common erosional feature along the escarpments that border the Valles Marineris. The resistant spur topography is best developed where the base of the slope is truncated by linear scarps interpreted as fault scarps. Regional variations in slope morphology imply that spur and gully topography undergoes a systematic progressive degradation through time associated with the erosional destruction of the basal fault scarps. The comparative morphometry of the divide networks indicates that the density of the spur networks and the number of first-order unbranched spurs decreases as the basal slope break becomes more sinuous. Abstraction of the spurs occurs through regolith storage in adjacent gullies at the slope base and the most degraded slope forms are entirely buried in talus. The basal fault scarps apparently control regolith transport by allowing debris to drain from the slope. As these basal scarps decay the slope base becomes increasingly sinuous and the slopes become transport limited. Dry mass-wasting may be the most important process acting on these slopes where a continually lowered base level is required to maintain the spur topography. In contrast to the Martian slopes, range front fault escarpments in the western U.S. show no systematic trend in spur network geometry as they are eroded. These weathering limited slopes are controlled by the more efficient removal of regolith through fluvial processes which rapidly create quasi-equilibrium drainage networks.

  8. Geology of Hebrus Valles and Hephaestus Fossae, Mars: evidence for basement control of fluvial patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Hebrus Valles (HV) and Hephaestus Fossae (HF) are valley systems located SW of Elysium Mons in the low northern plains of Mars. HV share many of their characteristics with other martian outflow channels--widely interpreted as having formed by catastrophic flooding. The NW-trending HV system is 250 km long and begins in an elongate depression. Individual channels are less than 1 km wide; a braided reach is about 10 km wide. Streamlined islands are abundant in the middle reach. HV terminate as a series of narrow distributaries. No sedimentary deposits are obviously related to the development of the channel. HV cut across a broad expanse of older plains dotted by irregular mesas and smaller knobs. HF are a connected series of linear valley segments which branch and cross downslope but have high junction angles. Locally, the channel pattern is polygonal. HF are parallel to HV but are considerably deeper and longer (600 km). HF also originate in a depression, but to the NW they terminate near the gradational boundary between the knobby plains and polygonally fractured terrain of Utopia Planitia. The valley pattern has led some to suggest that HF are tectonic features. It is suggested that like HV, HF are also of fluvial origin. Downcutting to, or subsurface flow at this pre-existing surface red to a channel pattern that was strongly controlled by the polygonal troughs buried beneath the younger knobby plains materials.

  9. Quantifying Soil Organic Carbon Redistribution after Forest Fire using Thermal Analyses, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklewicz, K. B.; Rasmussen, C.

    2014-12-01

    The frequency and severity of wildfire in western conifer forests is expected to increase with continued climate change induced warming and drying. The effects of wildfire on carbon cycle processes, and particularly surface soil organic matter composition and post fire erosive redistribution is poorly understood. The recent Thompson Ridge wildfire event in 2013 in the Valles Caldera, part of the Jemez-Catalina Critical Zone Observatory, provides the opportunity to track post-fire changes in surface soil organic matter composition over time relative to pre-fire conditions. Here we applied thermal analyses to quantify changes in surface soil organic matter composition, with a focus on charred materials, across a range of hillslope and convergent landscape positions. It was hypothesized that the fraction of charred material would increase post-burn in all surface soils, with a subsequent decline in hillslope positions and a gain in convergent positions as surface material was eroded and deposited in water gathering portions of the landscape. Our results confirmed that charcoal increased directly after the fire in all samples, but a clear signal of erosive redistribution was not observed, suggesting that the movement of charcoal throughout a landscape is more complex than the simple hypothesis put forward here. Future work will expand the spatial distribution of samples in a systematic fashion that better captures variation in topography and erosive versus depositional areas of the landscape.

  10. Chromosomenindividualität or Entmischung? The debate between Paolo Della Valle and Edmund B. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Volpone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Italian cytologist Paolo Della Valle developed a theory of instable chromosomes (teoria dei cromosomi labili). He radically criticized the so-called Sutton-Boveri hypothesis (Martins and Martins, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 22:261-271, 1999), focusing on numerical constancy in the species and individuality. On the basis of bibliographical review and personal observations, he maintained that the chromosomes were neither stable bodies, nor permanent structures, but transitory cellular materials, resulting from the periodical rearrangement of the chromatin during the cell division. German and English-speaking biologists reacted. The paper shows some content of the argumentations used by Thomas H. Montgomery and especially Edmund B. Wilson. The discussion was characterized by the same data which is interpretedby different scholars in different ways. And the point is that no one of them had the decisive test to demonstrate his own point of view. Wilson simply invoked on his behalf a certain 'common sense', defending at least a 'high degree of constancy'. The debate waned along with the reception of Morgan's chromosome theory of heredity, but only the advent of molecular biology definitively stated the nature of chromosomes as permanent structures of the cell.

  11. Scientific proposals for a continuing scientific drilling program in the Valles-Toledo Caldera Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiken, Grant

    The Valles-Toledo caldera complex is famous as the site of early research on caldera formation and for its caldera-hosted, high-temperature geothermal system. Scientific drilling in the west half of the complex, sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Services of the Department of Energy (DOE), is part of a long-term program to answer basic questions about caldera formation processes, silicic volcanism, high-temperature hydrothermal systems, and volcanogenic ore bodies.A DOE workshop to evaluate the drilling was held October 18-20, 1989, in Los Alamos, N. Mex.; about 50 scientists came. The purpose was to review the progress of research and to consider the scientific merit of continuing corehole drilling as proposed in the original scientific management plan [Goff and Nielson, 1986]. At the end of the first day, a long discussion was held to determine if results so far justified the expense of continuing the program. The answer was unequivocal: Yes. The next question was, Where should the next corehole be located?

  12. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs thermal area, Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, consists of 45 high-quality soundings acquired in continuous-profiling mode and has been funded in support of CSDP drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter bipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 KW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. These current bipoles gave source fields over the receiver sites which were substantially independent in polarization and provided well-resolved tensor elements. The surroundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. At each receiver, two orthogonal electric and three orthogonal magnetic field components were acquired in accordance with tensor principles. Derivation of model resistivity cross sections from our data and their correlation with structure and geochemistry are principal components of the OBES award. However, Sulphur Springs also can serve as a natural testbed of traditional assumptions and methods of CSAMT with quantification through rigorous model analysis. Issues here include stability and accuracy of scalar versus tensor estimates, theoretical versus observed field patterns over the survey area, and controls on near-field effects using CSAMT and natural field data both inside and outside the caldera.

  13. Low H/L of initial and secondary landslides on Mars Valles Marineris floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, H.; Fukuoka, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyer (MGS) has investigated the almost whole Martian topography with high resolution and its products are reflected in the Google Earth's martian option. This digital service provide huge opportunities to public to view the preserved landslide topography as well as to measure the parameters for landslide mobility such as average coefficient of friction (H/L), and apparent friction angle. Among those views, the Valles Marineris is the most landslide prone area and a lot of long runout gigantic landslides can be extracted along the tectonic cliff. Authors encouraged undergraduate students to measure this parameter as an exercise of introductory course of planetary science, especially of the gigantic initial landslides to compare with those of secondary landslides which looks like induced by subsequent triggers such as earthquake or metor impact. Preliminary results show that (1) The H/L values of the gigantic initial landslides are dependent on landslide volume as reported by previous studies; (2) secondary landslides of much less volumes generally have wide and thin spread features but much smaller friction like debris flows. Those characters imply that those landslides might have been induced in the landslide deposits of higher moisture content and/or runout on valley floor of highly saturated or shallow ground water table.

  14. A GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL STUDY OF THE BACA GEOTHERMAL FIELD, VALLES CALDERA, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-03-01

    The Baca location {number_sign}1 geothermal field is located in north-central New Mexico within the western half of the Plio-Pleistocene valles Caldera. Steam and hot water are produced primarily from the northeast-trending Redondo Creek graben, where downhole temperatures exceed 500 F. Stratigraphically the reservoir region can be described as a five-layer sequence that includes (1) caldera fill and the upper units of the Bandelier ash flow tuff, (2) the lower members of this tuff, which comprise the main reservoir rock at Baca, (3) the Pliocene Paliza Canyon volcanics, (4) Tertiary sands and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and (5) Precambrian granitic basement. Production is controlled by fractures and faults that are ultimately related to activity in the Rio Grande Rift system. Geophysically, the caldera is characterized by a gravity minimum and a resistivity low. A 40-mgal gravity minimum over the caldera is due mostly to the relatively low-density volcanics and sediments that fill the caldera and probably bears no relation to deep-seated magmatic sources. Two-dimensional gravity modeling indicates that the depth to Precambrian basement in Redondo Canyon is probably at least 3 km and may exceed 5 km in eastern parts of the caldera. Telluric and magnetotelluric surveys have shown that the reservoir region is associated with low resistivity and that a deep low-resistivity zone correlates well with the depth of the primary reservoir inferred from well data.

  15. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J.

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  16. Numerical slope stability simulations of chasma walls in Valles Marineris/Mars using a distinct element method (dem).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, B.

    2003-04-01

    NUMERICAL SLOPE STABILITY SIMULATIONS OF CHASMA WALLS IN VALLES MARINERIS/MARS USING A DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD (DEM). B. Imre (1) (1) German Aerospace Center, Berlin Adlershof, bernd.imre@gmx.net The 8- to 10-km depths of Valles Marineris (VM) offer excellent views into the upper Martian crust. Layering, fracturing, lithology, stratigraphy and the content of volatiles have influenced the evolution of the Valles Marineris wallslopes. But these parameters also reflect the development of VM and its wall slopes. The scope of this work is to gain understanding in these parameters by back-simulating the development of wall slopes. For that purpose, the two dimensional Particle Flow Code PFC2D has been chosen (ITASCA, version 2.00-103). PFC2D is a distinct element code for numerical modelling of movements and interactions of assemblies of arbitrarily sized circular particles. Particles may be bonded together to represent a solid material. Movements of particles are unlimited. That is of importance because results of open systems with numerous unknown variables are non-unique and therefore highly path dependent. This DEM allows the simulation of whole development paths of VM walls what makes confirmation of the model more complete (e.g. Oreskes et al., Science 263, 1994). To reduce the number of unknown variables a proper (that means as simple as possible) field-site had to be selected. The northern wall of eastern Candor Chasma has been chosen. This wall is up to 8-km high and represents a significant outcrop of the upper Martian crust. It is quite uncomplex, well-aligned and of simple morphology. Currently the work on the model is at the stage of performing the parameter study. Results will be presented via poster by the EGS-Meeting.

  17. Continental-Scale Salt Tectonics on Mars and the Origin of Valles Marineris and Associated Outflow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Som, S. M.; Schreiber, B. C.; Jackson, M. P.; Gillespie, A. R.; Adams, J. B.

    2007-12-01

    A synthesis of regional deformation patterns of the Thaumasia Plateau, Mars, leads to a new interpretation for regional deformation and the origin of Valles Marineris and associated outflow channels. The morphology of the Thaumasia Plateau is typical of thin-skinned deformation, akin to a "mega-slide," in which extensional deformation in Syria Planum and Noctis Labyrinthus connects via zones of lateral transtension - Claritas Fossae and Valles Marineris - to a broad zone of compressional uplift and shortening defined by truncated craters and thrust faults along the Coprates Rise and Thaumasia Highlands. However, the low regional slope (?1°) results in gravitational body forces that are too small to deform the basaltic lava flows conventionally thought to compose the flanks of the Tharsis volcanic province. Instead, we conclude that geothermal heating and topographic loading of extensive buried deposits of salts (or mixtures of salts, ice, and basaltic debris) would allow for weak detachments and large-scale gravity spreading. We propose that the generally linear chasmata of Valles Marineris reflect collapse and excavation along pre-existing extension fractures radial to Tharsis, reactivated as part of one lateral margin of the Thaumasia gravity spreading system. The other, dextral, lateral margin is a massive splay of extensional faults forming the Claritas Fossae, which resembles a trailing extensional imbricate fan. The compressional mountain belt defined by the Coprates Rise and Thaumasia Highlands forms the toe of the "mega-slide." Topographic observations and previous structural analyses reveal evidence for a failed volcanic plume below Syria Planum that could have provided both thermal energy and topographic potential for initiating regional deformation. Increased geothermal heating over time, or heating simply due to increasing depth in the crust due to continuing burial, would have contributed to flow of salt deposits, as well as formation of groundwater

  18. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Isotopic and trace element characteristics of rhyolites from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.; Sykes, M.L.; Wolff, J.A.; Skuba, C.E.

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of work supported by DOE grant No. DE-FGO5-87ER13795 that was completed or is still in progress. The stated purpose of this grant was to collect geochemical information (trace element, radiogenic isotope and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope) on samples from core holes VC-I and VC-2a in the Valles caldera in order to establish a consistent detailed intracaldera stratigraphy and relate this to extracaldera volcanic rock units of the Jemez Mountains. Careful stratigraphic control of the intracaldera units is necessary to evaluate models of caldera formation, ignimbrite deposition, and resurgence. Combined stable and radiogenic isotope and trace element data will also provide major insights to petrogenesis of the Bandelier magma system. The composition of non-hydrothermally altered samples from outflow units of the Bandelier Tuff and related volcanics must be known to assess isotopic variations of intracaldera ignimbrite samples. On detailed examination of the VC-2a core samples, it became apparent that hydrothermal alteration is so extensive that no geochemical information useful for stratigraphic fingerprinting or petrogenesis could be obtained, and that correlation with other intracaldera units and extracaldera units must be made on the basis of stratigraphic position and gross lithologic characteristics. Accordingly, we emphasize geochemical data from the extracaldera Bandelier Tuffs and related units which will be useful for comparison with proposed drill hole VC-4 and for any future studies of the region. The stable isotope, radiogenic isotope and trace element data obtained from this project, combined with existing major and trace element data for volcanic rocks from this area, provide an extensive data base essential to future Continental Scientific Drilling Program projects in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico.

  20. Scientific core hole Valles caldera No. 2b (VC-2b), New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, J.N.; Hulen, J.B.; Lysne, P.; Jacobson, R.; Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.; Pisto, L.; Criswell, C.W.; Gribble, R.; Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT; Tonto Drilling Services, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT; Los Alamo

    1989-01-01

    Research core hole was continuously cored to 1.762 km on the western flank of the caldera's resurgent dome in 1988. Bottom hole temperature is about 295{degree}C within Precambrian (1.5 Ga) quartz monzonite, deep within the liquid-dominated portions of the Sulphur Springs hydrothermal system. VC-2b may be the deepest, hottest, continuously cored hole in North America. Core recovery was 99.2%. The only major drilling problems encountered were when temperatures at the bit exceeded 225{degree}C below depths of about 1000 m. The result of these conditions was loss of viscosity and/or lubricity in the mud, apparently caused by breakdown of the high temperature polymers. Lithologies in caldera-fill indicate the drill site may be proximal to ignimbrite vents and that an intracaldera lake with temperatures approaching boiling formed soon after the caldera itself. Structural correlations between VC-2b and the 528-m-deep companion hole VC-2a indicate the earlier Toledo caldera (1.45 Ma; Otowi Member tuffs) and even older Lower Tuffs caldera experienced no structural resurgence similar to the 1.12 million year old Valles caldera. The hydrothermal system penetrated by these bores, consists of a shallow vapor-rich cap, which has evolved from an earlier 200{degree}C liquid-dominated system, overlying stacked, liquid-dominated zones up to about 300{degree}C. Geochemistry of mud returns collected during drilling suggests chloride-rich geothermal fluids were entering the bore and mixing with the drilling fluids in the fractured lower Paleozoic and Precambrian sections. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Constraints on tree seedling establishment in montane grasslands of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coop, Jonathan D; Givnish, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Montane and subalpine grasslands are prominent, but poorly understood, features of the Rocky Mountains. These communities frequently occur below reversed tree lines on valley floors, where nightly cold air accumulation is spatially coupled with fine soil texture. We used field experiments to assess the roles of minimum temperature, soil texture, grass competition, and ungulate browsing on the growth, photosynthetic performance, and survival of transplanted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings at 32 sites straddling such reversed tree lines in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico (USA). Seedling growth increased most strongly with increasing nighttime minimum temperatures away from the valley bottoms; seedlings experiencing the coldest temperatures on the caldera floor exhibited stunted needles and often no measurable height growth. Based on the chlorophyll fluorescence ratios PhiPSII and Fv/Fm, we found that low minimum temperatures, low soil moisture, and fine soil texture all contributed to photoinhibition. Neighboring herbs had only minor negative effects on seedlings. We found no effect of ungulates, but golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) caused substantial seedling mortality. Second-year seedling survival was highest on sandy soils, and third-year survival was highest at sites with higher minimum temperatures. We conclude that differential tree seedling establishment driven by low minimum temperatures in the valley bottoms is the primary factor maintaining montane grasslands of the VCNP, although this process probably operated historically in combination with frequent surface fire to set the position of the tree line ecotone. As at alpine tree lines, reversed tree lines bordering montane and subalpine grasslands can represent temperature-sensitive boundaries of the tree life form.

  2. A GIS-based volcanic hazard and risk assessment of eruptions sourced within Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, Rebecca; Panter, Kurt S.; Gorsevski, Pece V.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the spatial extent of a possible future eruption using a GIS-based volcanic hazard tool designed to simulate pyroclastic fallout and density currents (PDCs) as well as lava flows and to assess the social and economic vulnerabilities of the area at risk. Simulated pyroclastic fallout deposits originating from the El Cajete crater within the Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico, are calibrated to isopach and lithic isopleth maps of the Lower and Upper El Cajete as constructed by Wolff et al. (2011). The change in the axial orientation of fallout deposits between the Lower and Upper El Cajete is best matched using seasonal variations in wind speed and direction based on modern atmospheric records. The calibration of PDCs is based on the distribution and run-out of the Battleship Rock Ignimbrite. Once calibrated, hazards are simulated at a second vent location determined from probability distributions of structural features. The resulting hazard simulation maps show the potential distribution of pyroclastic fallout, PDCs and lava flows, indicating areas to the S/SE of Valles Caldera to be at greatest risk.

  3. Alteration in the Madera Limestone and Sandia Formation from core hole VC-1, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Core hole VC-1 penetrated the southwestern ring fracture zone of the 1.1 Ma Valles caldera and at a depth of 333 m intersected the top of the Paleozoic section including the Abo Formation, Madera Limestone, and Sandia Formation, reaching a total depth of 856 m. The Paleozoic rocks, which consist of thin-bedded limestone, siltstone, mudstone, sandstone, and local conglomerate, are overlain by volcanic rocks of the caldera moat that are less than 0.6 Ma. Diagenetic and at least three hydrothermal alteration stages were identified in the Madera Limestone and Sandia Formation. Diagenetic clay alteration was pervasive throughout the sedimentary rocks. Volcanic activity at 16.5 Ma and continuing through the formation of the Valles caldera resulted in high thermal gradients, which caused recrystallization of diagenetic clay minerals. Interstratified smectite-illite is the most diagnostic clay mineral throughout the section; structurally, the illite component in the ordered interstratified illite-smectite changes gradationally from 70% at the top of the Madera Limestone to 95% at the base of the section in the Sandia Formation. Pyrite that occurs as small clots and lenses as well as finely disseminated is interpreted as being of diagenetic origin, especially in organic-rich beds. Low permeability of much of the paleozoic section precluded the deposition of hydrothermal minerals except in fractures and intergranular space in some of the more permeable sandstone and brecciated horizons. Three stages of hydrothermal mineral deposition are defined. -from Author

  4. The relation of catastrophic flooding of Mangala Valles, Mars, to faulting of memnonia fossae and Tharsis volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Chapman, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic relations indicate two coeval periods of catastrophic flooding and Tharsis-centered faulting (producing Memnonia Fossae) in the Mangala Valles region of Mars. Major sequences of lava flows of the Tharsis Montes Formation and local, lobate plains flows were erupted during and between these channeling and faulting episodes. First, Late Hesperian channel development overlapped in time the Tharsis-centered faulting that trends north 75?? to 90??E. Next, Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian flooding was coeval with faulting that trends north 55?? to 70??E. In some reaches, resistant lava flows filled the early channels, resulting in inverted channel topography after the later flooding swept through. Both floods likely originated from the same graben, which probably was activated during each episode of faulting. Faulting broke through groundwater barriers and tapped confined aquifers in higher regions west and east of the point of discharge. The minimum volume of water required to erode Mangala Valles (about 5 ?? 1012 m3) may have been released through two floods that drained a few percent pore volume from a relatively permeable aquifer. The peak discharges may have been produced by hydrothermal groundwater circulation induced by Tharsis magmatism, tectonic uplift centered at Tharsis Montes, and compaction of saturated crater ejecta due to loading by lava flows. -Authors

  5. Revisions to the stratigraphy and volcanology of the post-0.5 Ma units and the volcanic section of VC-1 core hole, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Wolff, J. A.; Spell, T. L.; Skuba, C. E.; Morrissey, M. M.

    1991-03-01

    Reexamination of the Continental Scientific Drilling Project VC-1 core, new field data, and new isotopic ages necessitate revision of the previously described geology of the youngest eruptive units from the Valles caldera. The Banco Bonito rhyolite lava flow and minor attendant pyroclastic, autoclastic, and reworked deposits about 0.9 km3 dense rock equivalent volume (DRE), are recognized as the product of the youngest eruption from the caldera. The best estimate of the age of this event is 170-240 ka (1σ). A slightly earlier eruption produced the El Cajete pumice fall deposit, followed by the Battleship Rock ignimbrite and the VC-1 Rhyolite, totalling about 1.8 km3 DRE. We suggest that the VC-1 Tuffs, ignimbrites recognized only in the VC-1 core hole, are not a separate unit as previously proposed but are, in fact, the Battleship Rock ignimbrite. A complex volcaniclastic breccia dating from about the time of the South Mountain Rhyolite lava flow (529 ka) is the lowermost volcanic unit in the VC-1 core. The young, post-500 ka eruption products from the SW part of the Valles caldera are all composed of very similar low-silica rhyolite and are thus distinct from earlier, postcaldera high-silica rhyolites included in the Valles Rhyolite Formation. This distinction marks a major change in the magmatic evolution of the Valles caldera. We propose that recognition of this change necessitates revisions to the stratigraphy of the upper part of the Tewa Group.

  6. Characteristics of the numerous and widespread recurring slope lineae (RSL) in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, David E.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Grimm, Robert E.

    2017-03-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5-5 m) dark features on Mars that incrementally lengthen down steep slopes, fade in colder seasons, and recur annually. These traits suggest that liquid water is flowing in the shallow subsurface of Mars today. Here we describe High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) observations of RSL within Valles Marineris (VM). We have identified 239 candidate and confirmed RSL sites within all the major canyons of VM, with the exception of Echus Chasma. About half of all the globally known RSL locations occur within VM and the areal density of RSL on Coprates Montes appears to be the greatest on the planet. VM RSL are heterogeneously distributed, as they are primarily clustered in certain areas while being conspicuously absent in other locations that appear otherwise favorable. RSL have been found on many of the interior layered deposits (ILDs) within VM. Such ILD RSL appear to traverse bedrock, instead of regolith like all other RSL. Forty-six of the VM RSL sites show incremental lengthening and exhibit similar behavior in most of the canyons of VM, but the RSL duration at one site in Juventae Chasma is significantly reduced. Furthermore, the lengthening seasonality depends solely on slope orientation, with typical VM RSL on a given slope lengthening for ∼42-74% of a Mars year. There are always RSL lengthening within VM, regardless of the season. If RSL are caused by water, such a long active season at hundreds of VM RSL sites suggests that an appreciable source of water must be recharging these RSL. Thermophysical modeling indicates that a melting temperature range of ∼246 - 264 K is needed to reproduce the seasonal phenomenology of the VM RSL, suggesting the involvement of a brine consisting of tens of wt% salt. The mechanism(s) by which RSL are recharged annually remain uncertain. Overall, gaining a better understanding of how RSL form and recur can benefit the search for extant life on Mars and could provide

  7. Sustainable groundwater development under climate change in the Valle de Azapa, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, P. A.; Balic, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Valle de Azapa is located at the northern border of the Atacama Desert, which is considered the driest place on earth. Agriculture is the main economic activity of the valley and it is possible due to the exploitation of groundwater pumped from the aquifer of the area, which is replenished by sporadic rainfall that occurred at the Andes. The high demand on the aquifer has generated a situation that is considered as fragile or unsustainable for the future. This situation could be worsened by the forecasted climate change impact on the region, which would result in reductions in precipitation of up to 40% in the next 100 years. This was the main motivation to study the potential impact of climate change on the sustainability of the aquifer under different water demand scenarios through numerical simulations. We model the impact of climate change by generating stochastic precipitation series that consider reductions between 0 and 40% during the next 100 years. We use the precipitation series to estimate recharge rates through a previously calibrated correlation. For each recharge series we consider three different scenarios: reduction, no change and increase in the water demand. We then use a groundwater model to analyze the evolution of the storage and natural discharge of the aquifer. The main conclusion is that even though the aquifer storage is reduced at the end of the analyzed period, it is still significant in comparison to the extracted groundwater. However, the extraction of groundwater significantly reduces and, in some cases, completely eliminates natural discharge such as springs that exist in the area. This indicates that the system reaches a long-term operation state during the simulated period and that discharges from wells are mainly covered by reductions of the natural discharge of the system. We relate this last finding to the concept of the "Water Budget Myth" proposed by Bredehoeft & Papadopulus (1982). We finish by commenting on possible

  8. Role of Clay Minerals in Long-Distance Transport of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-runout (> 50 km) subaerial landslides are rare on Earth, but are common features episodically shaping Mars' Valles Marineris (VM) trough system over the past 3.5 billion years. They display two end-member morphologies: a thick-skinned inner zone, characterized by fault-bounded, rotated blocks near their source region, and a thin-skinned, exceptionally long-runout outer zone, characterized by thin sheets spreading over 10s of km across the trough floor. Four decades of studies on the latter have resulted in two main competing hypotheses to explain their long-distance transport: (1) movement of landslides over layers of trapped air or soft materials containing ice or snow, enabling basal lubrication, and (2) fluidization of landslide materials with or without the presence of water and volatiles. To address this issue, we examine the mineralogic composition of landslides across VM using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) near-infrared spectral data analysis coupled with detailed geologic mapping and morphometric analysis of satellite images. Our survey reveals a general correlation between transport distance, significant lateral spreading, and the presence of hydrated silicates among VM landslides. Given that smectite clay absorbs water into its layered crystal structure and can reduce the friction coefficient by a factor of three v. that of dry rocks, these results suggest that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating long-runout landslide transport in VM. We propose that, concurrent with downslope failure and sliding of broken trough-wall rock, frontal landslide masses overrode and entrained hydrated-silicate-bearing trough-floor deposits, lubricating the basal sliding zones and permitting the landslide outer zones to spread laterally while moving forward over the low-friction surface. The key participation of hydrated silicates in episodic, sustained landslide activity throughout the canyon implies that clay minerals

  9. Properties and Formation of Erosional Pipe-Shaped Structures in Ignimbrites Around Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J.; Self, S.

    2011-12-01

    In three separate ignimbrite deposits of the Bandelier Tuff Formation around Valles Caldera (La Cueva, Otowi, and Tshirege Members, preferential weathering has exposed columnar or pipe-shaped structures. The features result from the compositional alteration of the ignimbrite creating a hardened resistance to erosion in elongated volumes of the non-welded deposits. These features are manifested with different widths and lengths, however, it is thought that their origins can be attributed to the similar alteration processes and conditions. This alteration was previously assumed to be vapor-phase alteration (Cas and Wright, 1988), but further analysis has shown the presence of zeolites suggesting the alteration was the result of saturation of the ignimbrite by meteoric water. The structures exist as groups (1 to 30 features) and here is a strong positive correlation between the diameter and spacing of pipes that could be representative of the capture area for water draining into the deposit. If the pipes started to form immediately after deposition of the ignimbrite, in a similar way to fumarolic pipes, they would likely be a more widespread phenomenon in the deposit. Rapidly occurring welding and vapor-phase alteration of the top of the ignimbrite may have stopped water reaching the interior of the deposit, except where valleys were rapidly incised. Each area where pipes occur must therefore experience localized conditions, which control formation at the time the valley is being formed. The suggestion is that landslides on oversteepened, friable valley walls exposed fresh, still hot, unaltered ignimbrite in which pipe structures could form if the material had cooled from its depositional temperature to within a suitable, specific range. An abundant supply of water from high rainfall and/or stream activity is also implied. The presence of the pipes gives an insight into the erosional evolution of ignimbrite-filled valleys over a period of almost 2 million years. One

  10. Constraining the Carbon Cycle through Tree Rings: A Case Study of the Valles Caldera, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. R.; Babst, F.; Moore, D. J.; Trouet, V.

    2013-12-01

    and the derived biomass increments illustrate that the forests at the Valles Caldera are considerably less productive during years of extreme drought and warmer than average temperatures. With future projections calling for consecutive years of extreme conditions in the American Southwest, this could have a substantial effect on the overall productivity of these forests.

  11. Caldera resurgence during magma replenishment and rejuvenation at Valles and Lake City calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ben; Wilcock, Jack; Stix, John

    2012-10-01

    A key question in volcanology is the driving mechanisms of resurgence at active, recently active, and ancient calderas. Valles caldera in New Mexico and Lake City caldera in Colorado are well-studied resurgent structures which provide three crucial clues for understanding the resurgence process. (1) Within the limits of 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques, resurgence and hydrothermal alteration at both calderas occurred very quickly after the caldera-forming eruptions (tens of thousands of years or less). (2) Immediately before and during resurgence, dacite magma was intruded and/or erupted into each system; this magma is chemically distinct from rhyolite magma which was resident in each system. (3) At least 1 km of structural uplift occurred along regional and subsidence faults which were closely associated with shallow intrusions or lava domes of dacite magma. These observations demonstrate that resurgence at these two volcanoes is temporally linked to caldera subsidence, with the upward migration of dacite magma as the driver of resurgence. Recharge of dacite magma occurs as a response to loss of lithostatic load during the caldera-forming eruption. Flow of dacite into the shallow magmatic system is facilitated by regional fault systems which provide pathways for magma ascent. Once the dacite enters the system, it is able to heat, remobilize, and mingle with residual crystal-rich rhyolite remaining in the shallow magma chamber. Dacite and remobilized rhyolite rise buoyantly to form laccoliths by lifting the chamber roof and producing surface resurgent uplift. The resurgent deformation caused by magma ascent fractures the chamber roof, increasing its structural permeability and allowing both rhyolite and dacite magmas to intrude and/or erupt together. This sequence of events also promotes the development of magmatic-hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Injection of dacite magma into the shallow rhyolite magma chamber provides a source of heat and magmatic volatiles

  12. Lithologic Control on Secondary Clay Mineral Formation in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Dhakal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transformation of rock to soil is central to landscape evolution and ecosystem function. The objective of this study was to examine controls on secondary mineral formation in a forested catchment in the Catalina-Jemez CZO. We hypothesized landscape position controls the type of secondary minerals formed in that well-drained hillslopes favor Si-poor secondary phases such as kaolinite, whereas poorly drained portions of the landscape that collect solutes from surrounding areas favor formation of Si-rich secondary phases such as smectite. The study focused on a catchment in Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico where soils are derived from a mix of rhyolitic volcanic material, vegetation includes a mixed conifer forest, and climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of ~800 mm yr-1 and mean annual temperature of 4.5°C. Soils were collected at the soil-saprolite boundary from three landscape positions, classified as well drained hillslope, poorly drained convergent area, and poorly drained hill slope. Clay fractions were isolated and analyzed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and thermal analysis. Quantitative XRD of random powder mounts indicated the presence of both primary phases such as quartz, and alkali and plagioclase feldspars, and secondary phases that include illite, Fe-oxyhydroxides including both goethite and hematite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay fractions were dominated by smectite ranging from 36-42%, illite ranging from 21-35%, and kaolinite ranging from 1-8%. Qualitative XRD of oriented mounts confirmed the presence of smectite in all samples, with varying degrees of interlayering and interstratification. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicated that secondary mineral assemblage was not strongly controlled by landscape position, but rather varied with underlying variation in lithology. The catchment is underlain by a combination of porphorytic rhyolite and

  13. Flood-formed dunes in Athabasca Valles, Mars: Morphology, modeling, and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Carling, P.A.; Beyer, R.A.; Lancaster, N.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of discharge for martian outflow channels have spanned orders of magnitude due in part to uncertainties in floodwater height. A methodology of estimating discharge based on bedforms would reduce some of this uncertainty. Such a methodology based on the morphology and granulometry of flood-formed ('diluvial') dunes has been developed by Carling (1996b, in: Branson, J., Brown, A.G., Gregory, K.J. (Eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology. Geological Society Special Publication No. 115, London, UK, 165-179) and applied to Pleistocene flood-formed dunes in Siberia. Transverse periodic dune-like bedforms in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have previously been classified both as flood-formed dunes and as antidunes. Either interpretation is important, as they both imply substantial quantities of water, but each has different hydraulic implications. We undertook photoclinometric measurements of these forms, and compared them with data from flood-formed dunes in Siberia. Our analysis of those data shows their morphology to be more consistent with dunes than antidunes, thus providing the first documentation of flood-formed dunes on Mars. Other reasoning based on context and likely hydraulics also supports the bedforms' classification as dunes. Evidence does not support the dunes being aeolian, although a conclusive determination cannot be made with present data. Given the preponderance of evidence that the features are flood-formed instead of aeolian, we applied Carling's (1996b, in: Branson, J., Brown, A.G., Gregory, K.J. (Eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology. Geological Society Special Publication No. 115, London, UK, 165-179) dune-flow model to derive the peak discharge of the flood flow that formed them. The resultant estimate is approximately 2??106 m3/s, similar to previous estimates. The size of the Athabascan dunes' in comparison with that of terrestrial dunes suggests that these martian dunes took at least 1

  14. Possible Juventae Chasma subice volcanic eruptions and Maja Valles ice outburst floods on Mars: Implications of Mars Global surveyor crater densities, geomorphology, and topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Gudmundsson, M.T.; Russell, A.J.; Hare, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses image, topographic, and spectral data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission that provide new information concerning the surface age, geomorphology, and topography of the Juventae Chasma/Maja Valles system. Our study utilizes data from two instruments on board MGS: images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Within Maja Valles we can now observe depositional bars with megaripples that unequivocally show catastrophic floods occurred in the channel. Viking impact crater densities indicated the chasma and channel floor areas were all one age (late Hesperian to Amazonian); however, MOC data indicate a marked difference in densities of small craters between Juventae Chasma, Maja Valles, and the channel debouchment area in Chryse Planitia basin. Although other processes may contribute to crater variability, young resurfacing events in the chasma and episodes of recent erosion at Maja Valles channel head may possibly account for the disparate crater densities along the chasma/channel system. Relatively young volcanic eruptions may have contributed to resurfacing; as in Juventae Chasma, a small possible volcanic cone of young dark material is observed. MOC data also indicate previously unknown interior layered deposit mounds in the chasma that indicate at least two periods of mound formation. Finally, MOLA topography shows that the entire floor of the chasma lies at the same elevation as the channel debouchment area in Chryse basin, resulting in a 3-km-high barrier to water flow out of the chasma. Blocked ponded water would rapidly freeze in the current (and likely past) climate of Mars. For catastrophic flow to occur in Maja Valles, some process is required to melt ice and induce floods out of the chasma. We suggest subice volcanic eruption and calculate estimates of water discharges and volumes that these eruptions might have produced.

  15. Valles Marineris as a Cryokarstic Structure Formed by a Giant Dyke System: Support From New Analogue Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, M. S.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Acar, D.; Ülgen, S. C.; Onsel, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    Valles Marineris is the most significant near-linear depression on Mars. It is some 4000 km long, up to about 200 km wide and some 7 km deep. Although its margins look parallel at first sight, the entire structure has a long spindle shape with significant enlargement in its middle (Melas Chasma) caused by cuspate slope retreat mechanisms. Farther to its north is Hebes Chasma which is an entirely closed depression with a more pronounced spindle shape. Tithonium Chasma is a parallel, but much narrower depression to its northeast. All these chasmae have axes parallel with one another and such structures occur nowhere else on Mars. A scabland surface exists to the east of the Valles Marineris and the causative water mass seems to have issued from it. The great resemblance of these chasmae on mars to poljes in the karstic regions on earth have led us to assume that they owed their existence to dissolution of rock layers underlying them. We assumed that the dissolving layer consisted of water ice forming substantial layers, in fact entirely frozen seas of several km depth. We have simulated this geometry by using bentonite and flour layers (in different experiments) overlying layers of ice in which a resistant coil was used to simulate a dyke. We used different thicknesses of bentonite and flour overlying ice layers again of various thicknesses. The flour seems to simulate the Martian crust better because on Mars, g is only about 3/8ths of its value on Earth, so (for equal crustal density) the depth to which the cohesion term C remains important in the Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criterion is about 8/3 times greater. As examples we show two of those experiments in which both the rock analogue and ice layers were of 1.5 cm. thick. Perfect analogues of the Valles Marineris formed above the dyke analogue thermal source complete with the near-linear structure, overall flat spindle shape, cuspate margins, a central ridge, parallel side faults, parallel depressions resembling

  16. Recent volcanism in Ius and Tithonium Chasmata, Valles Marineris, Mars? First views from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Masson, P.; Kronberg, P.; Gwinner, K.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    The Valles Marineris in the western equatorial region of Mars are a system of ~4000 km long, up to several hundred km wide and up to 10,000 m deep linear E-W trending troughs. Two main processes have been proposed to explain their origin: Tectonism/rifting and erosion/collapse. Firm evidence of volcanic structures within the troughs would support a rifting contribution to their formation, since volcanism occurs frequently along terrestrial continental rifts. While several studies reported possible volcanic structures in the Valles Marineris (e.g., Lucchitta, 1987, 1990), no unambiguous identification has been possible yet. The first image of Valles Marineris taken through the HRSC camera on mars Express crosses Ius and Tithonium Chasmata at a longitude of about 280°E (resolution about 12 m/pixel). On the floor of Ius Chasma, several dark and circular structures with positive topographic relief can be distinguished. Some of them overlap each other. There are circular depressions on the summits of some of these cones. We tentatively interpret these features, which have not been reported before, as cinder cones. Such edifices are made up by more or less unconsolidated volcanic ash and glass particles. They can be eroded very easily, so their presence suggests a relatively recent origin. The cones are associated with a very bright material. This material is often aligned along possible faults which are strike parallel to the trend of the canyons. At least in one place it seems to be erosion-resistant. This material might be the product of (silicic) volcanism. Alternatives include, e.g., evaporitic products, since several sapping valleys debouch into the main trough very nearby. We also investigate a large mound in Tithonium Chasma. It is very bright and has a surface which is affected by eolian erosion. This mound has been suggested to be of volcanic origin before (Lucchitta, 1990). We could determine its area (270 km2), volume (200 km3), and slope angles in HRSC

  17. Iniciativas escolares y deportivas lideradas desde la Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA): revisión sistemática.

    PubMed

    Correa, Jorge E; Meneses-Echávez, José F; Barengo, Noël C; Tovar, Gustavo; Ruiz-Castellanos, Erika; Lobelo, Felipe; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: Los programas iniciados por la Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) consisten en la difusión de mensajes relacionados con el cuidado de la salud y como estrategia de prevención de lesiones deportivas entre los niños y jóvenes. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue resumir los resultados de la implementación de los programas "FIFA 11 para la salud" y "FIFA 11+". Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos electrónicos de MEDLINE, EMBASE y Scopus, identificando los estudios que evaluaran la implementación de los programas "FIFA 11 para la salud" y "FIFA 11+", durante los últimos 10 años (1 enero 2003 a 1 diciembre 2013). Resultados: Incluimos 17 estudios. Dos estudios evaluaron la implementación del programa "FIFA 11 para la salud" y encontraron un aumento significativo en el conocimiento de los mensajes de promoción de la salud; 15 estudios evaluaron los efectos del programa "FIFA 11+", reportando una reducción en el riesgo de lesiones deportivas y mejorías en el rendimiento deportivo. Discusión: Los programas "FIFA 11 para la salud" y "FIFA 11+" han demostrado resultados positivos para la salud, en el ámbito escolar y deportivo. Conclusiones: Dichos programas del FIFA representan una oportunidad para crear hábitos protectores y fomentar modos de vida saludables en niños y jóvenes.

  18. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  19. The weathering of natural and artificial stones in the baroque church of S. Pietro in Valle (Fano-Italy).

    PubMed

    Maione, Michela; Mangani, Filippo; Amadori, Maria Letizia; Campagna, Michele

    2003-04-01

    The church of San Pietro in Valle in Fano is with good reason considered one of the outstanding examples of baroque art in Central Italy. Currently the church is in a serious degradation status. For this reason, and in order to devise a correct conservative restoration project, a scientific study has been carried out, aimed at characterizing mortars used for the application of marble decorations and the different degradation products occurring in the church (i.e. pulverizations, encrustations, salt efflorescences, and condensation water). In the following, results obtained analyzing the different sample typologies by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron scanning microscopy with energy-dispersion micro-analytical system, ion chromatography, and head-space solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry will be reported.

  20. Eruption of reverse-zoned upper Tshirege Member, Bandelier Tuff from centralized vents within Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Warren, R. G.; Goff, Cathy J.; Dunbar, Nelia

    2014-04-01

    Valles caldera (New Mexico, USA) is the type example of a resurgent caldera and source of the Tshirege Member, Bandelier Tuff, which has been long recognized as a normally zoned sequence of ignimbrites. In this paper, we present geologic, stratigraphic, chemical, and mineralogical data from upper flow units of the Tshirege Member obtained at multiple sites within and east of Valles caldera showing that the upper part of the Tshirege Member is reverse-zoned in chemistry and mineralogy. The key to deciphering these compositional changes in zoning is recognition of flow unit Qbt4u, which we informally name the high Ti-Ba unit or HTBU. The HTBU is widespread within the resurgent dome area of the caldera, but is only found in a small area outside and east of the caldera. The HTBU is the most “mafic” unit in the Tshirege Member and is identified by chemical maxima in Ti, Ba, Sr, P, V, and Th, and by unusually high contents of anorthoclase, plagioclase, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, apatite and zircon with respect to other flow units. The HTBU also contains small (≤ 1 cm) enclaves of quenched andesitic magma consisting primarily of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, glass and vesicles. Later erupted Tshirege flow units Qbt5l and Qbt5u are chemically more evolved and contain less plagioclase, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, apatite and zircon than the HTBU, and they are more evolved than flow units erupted before the HTBU (approximately 90% of the Tshirege Member). The HTBU is the host ignimbrite of a complex vent breccia exposed for over 3 km along the NW faulted face of Redondo Peak, the Valles caldera resurgent dome. Breccia clasts consist of angular to subrounded fragments ≤ 1 m in diameter of Permian red beds, Miocene basin fill sediments, Miocene to Pliocene volcanics and Quaternary ignimbrite (Otowi Member, Bandelier Tuff) that underlie Valles caldera. Flow units Qbt5l and Qbt5u overlie the HTBU vent breccia but these later units do not contain unusual

  1. The Seasonal Behavior of Water Ice Clouds in the Tharsis and Valles Marineris Regions of Mars: Mars Orbiter Camera Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. L.; Bonev, B. P.; James, P. B.; Shan, K. J.; Cantor, B. A.; Caplinger, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) was used to obtain global maps of the Martian surface. The maps used were acquired between March 15, 1999 (LS = 110 ) and July 31, 2001 (L(sub s) = 110), corresponding to approximately one and a quarter martian years. In this work we focused on water ice clouds associated with the surface features of Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, Arsia Mons, Alba Patera, and the Valles Marineris canyon system. Using these data, we have made three types of quantitative measurements to characterize the cloud activity: 1) cloud area and location, 2) cloud height, and 3) cloud optical depth. We have also searched for short period variations in the cloud areas.

  2. Geometric comparison of deep-seated gravitational spereading features on Mars (Coprates Chasma, Valles Marineris) and Earth (Ornak, Tatra Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromuszczyńska, O.; Mège, D.

    2014-04-01

    Uphill-facing normal faults scarps and crestal grabens, which are characteristic of deep-seated gravitational spreading (DSGS) of topographic ridges, are described in Coprates Chasma in Valles Marineris, Mars, and Ornak ridge and compared. The vertical offset of normal faults in the Martian instances varies from 40 to 1000 meters, with an average of 300 meters. The terrestrial faults offset is between few teens of centimeters up to 34 meters with an average of 10 meters. The values of horizontal displacement in Coprates Chasma vary from 10 to 680 meters, and at Ornak are in a range between 1 and 20 meters. Such difference corresponds with the difference of ridges scale and is due to the topographic gradient which is one order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth.

  3. State of stress and relationship of mechanical properties to hydrothermal alteration at Valles Caldera core hole 1, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Thomas N.; Kranz, Robert L.

    1988-06-01

    We measured the densities, total and microcrack porosities, and ultrasonic velocities of a number of core samples from an 856-m-deep core hole near the Banco Bonito vent at Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Reductions in porosity with depth define a zone from about 600 m down where hydrothermal mineralization and recrystallization have been most active. This zone is also reflected in a large decrease in the anisotropy of acoustic velocities. Stress orientation estimates based on microcrack orientations at the 812-m depth as determined by differential strain curve analysis, as well as anelastic strain recovery measurements on a sample from 472-m depth, show a horizontal E-W minimum compression direction and a maximum compression inclined about 30° from vertical.

  4. Tectonic significance of large-scale chaotic deposits in a Cretaceous fore-arc basin: Valle Formation, Cedros Island (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Busby-Spera, C.J. )

    1990-05-01

    A mappable, deep-marine slide deposit (olistostrome) within medial-Cretaceous fore-arc basin strata (Valle Formation), located on Cedros Island, Baja California Norte, records the initiation of intrabasinal faulting. Studies of both modern and ancient olistostromes show that olistostromes can form in all physiographic provinces (including shelf and abyssal plain) and tectonic settings of the marine environment. A variety of triggering mechanisms have been suggested for olistostromes, including tectonism, sea level changes, diapirism, rapid sedimentation that overloads steep slopes, migration of gas hydrates, or combinations of the above. The olistostrome in the Valle Formation ranges in thickness from 0 to at least 180 m, and extends areally for at least 34 km{sup 2}. It can be divided into two parts. The basal 30-40 m contains large (up to 8 m) angular blocks (allolistoliths) derived from the Jurassic substrate. The allolistoliths decrease in abundance upsection, whereas internally coherent intraformational slide blocks (endolistoliths), which reach tens of meters in width, increase. Beds composing the endolistoliths are alternating mudstone and sandstone turbidites that were deposited on a tectonically stable basin plain or rise setting before catastrophic failure of the sedimentary pile produced the olistostrome. Intrabasinal faulting is invoked as a cause of the sediment failure because of the presence of allolistoliths, which must have been shed into the basin from uplifted( ) basin floor scarps. Allolistoliths occur sporadically throughout at least 400 m of coarse-clastic sediment gravity-flow deposits that cap the olistostrome, suggesting that intrabasinal faulting continued to affect the basin long after the olistrostrome formed.

  5. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  6. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Rowley, John; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hawkins, Ward; Goff, Sue; Charles, Robert; Wachs, Daniel; Maassen, Larry; Heiken, Grant

    1986-02-01

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphie information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, arid to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the Battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  7. The influence of the topography on landslide's mobility in Valles Marineris (Mars), by a numerical & remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, A.; Mangeney, A.

    Landslides play a major role in the erosion processes and transport at the surface of the Earth and Mars. Indeed, the dynamics of the landscapes is strongly tributary of these catastrophic events which also constitute important risks for the populations on Earth. It is thus advisable to study their dynamics. In addition, water often takes part in the dynamics of these events on Earth. Former work highlights a very great mobility of the gravitational flows over Mars [1] [2] [3]. The studies of martians landslides contribute to understand the dynamics of the landscapes and also teach us about climate conditions during those events occurring at Amazonian Time [4] as the potential presence of ground water. Currently, there is no unified theory for describing the landslides at the field scale. The description of granular flows is quiet well understood at the microscopic scale using various experimental and numerical experiments. But at the macroscopic scale, description remains today a largely open and wide problem. Dry granular flows experiments on an horizontal plane [5] present several differences with martians data [7]. Runout of martians landslides are twice larger than in experiments. Numerical studies in agreement with experiments scaling laws using a numerical model developped by F. Bouchut and A. Mangeney [6] based on Saint-Venant equations is proposed. Our studies focus on the influence of the topography on landslide's mobility occuring in Valles Marineris. To start with MOLA/MGS DEM data, it is also possible to rebuild the paleotopography using remote sensing methods for identification of landslide deposits. We use HRSC/MeX, THEMIS/MO and MOC/MGS images to find out correctly each area of deposits in our DEM. Afterwards, we perfom a series of numerical experiments to model landslides over a real topography rebuilt from MOLA grid. Our results show that the topography is a main parameter which contribute significantly to increase the mobility of granular flows

  8. Estimation of dust variability and scale height of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) in the Valles Marineris on Mars by Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Chauhan, Prakash; Singh, Ramdayal; Moorthi, S. M.; Sarkar, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper analyses of bright hazes observed inside Valles Marineris formed during mid-southern spring of Mars is presented. The analysis is performed by using data collected by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) onboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission on orbits 34, 49 and 52 corresponding to the observation dates of October 28, December 5 and December 13, 2014. It is found that during all these orbits the valley was hazy. On orbit 34 a thick layer of haze was observed, which became relatively thinner on orbit 49. Thick haze reappeared after eight days on orbit 52. We also measured the optical depth of martian atmosphere as a function of altitude above two opposing walls (northern and southern walls of the Valles Marineris near Coprates Chasma region) of the valley, from stereo images that were taken with MCC on December 5, 2014. The optical depth was measured from contrast comparisons of the stereo images with ;stereo method;. In the northern wall of Valles, we estimated the optical depth as a function of altitude (ranging between -6 km and 3 km) and found values between 1.7 (bottom) and 1.0 (top) in red channel and between 2.1 (bottom) and 1.2 (top) in green channel. A fit to these results yields a scale height for the optical depth of 14.08 km and 11.24 km in red and green channel, which are more or less in good agreement to the pressure scaled height of martian atmosphere at that time in the region as consulted from Global Circulation Model (GCM). We also estimated optical depth in southern wall of Valles Marineris. However, in this case optical depth remains nearly constant with decreasing altitude. We consulted GCM for wind direction in the region and found strong wind with direction from south-west to north-east intersecting the mountain like structure of the southern wall of Valles Marineris. Our optical depth results and the wind direction suggest the presence of lee-wave cloud above the southern wall of Valles Marineris.

  9. Cross faults in extensional settings: Stress triggering, displacement localization, and implications for the origin of blunt troughs at Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Scott J.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2003-06-01

    Motivated by conflicting interpretations concerning the origin of blunt terminations of troughs at Valles Marineris, Mars, we investigate the reactivation of preexisting cross faults in response to stress changes associated with slippage along a major, basin-bounding normal fault (i.e., border fault). Coulomb stress changes indicate that cross fault reactivation is possible in both the footwalls and hanging walls of border faults, although this is dependent on the distance between the border and cross faults. Cross faults accommodate dip-slip normal motion for most border fault geometries and conditions we tested, but strike-slip motions are predicted when preexisting cross faults are vertical. Furthermore, although lateral extensions of the border fault (LEBFs) may nucleate within cross fault footwalls at all stages of border fault development, they are favored to develop when border faults and cross fault tip lines are proximal. Observations from the Valles Marineris extensional province, Mars, are consistent with (1) normal displacements along cross faults, (2) numerous examples of pit-chains, interpreted to represent surface expressions of lateral extensions to the border fault (LEBF), (3) the lack of well-developed cross faults in the footwall of border faults, and (4) the inference that tapered trough ends formed in areas that lacked cross faults prior to the main phase of extension at Valles Marineris. We suggest a new sequence of deformation that accounts for the formation of blunt-trough terminations during the major phase of Valles Marineris extension: coeval and locally bidirectional extension, that results from local stress field changes associated with border fault growth in a dominantly unidirectional remote (extensional) strain field. By implication, many of the irregular closed troughs such as Hebes Chasma are better interpreted as grabens rather than collapse depressions.

  10. Pristine Noachian crust and key geologic transitions in the lower walls of Valles Marineris: Insights into early igneous processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flahaut, Jessica; Quantin, Cathy; Clenet, Harold; Allemand, Pascal; Mustard, John F.; Thomas, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Valles Marineris is a unique vertical section through the uppermost kilometers of the martian crust. Its location, east of the Tharsis bulge, and its water-related history, fuel a great diversity of rock types in this area (Carr, M.H., Head, J.W. [2010]. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 294, 185-203). HiRISE and CRISM data available over the walls of the canyon were analyzed to infer the importance of magmatic and sedimentary processes through time. This contribution provides a complete morphologic and mineralogic characterization of the cross-section of rocks exposed in the canyon walls. Low-calcium pyroxene and olivine are detected in the lower portion of the walls, in association with morphologically distinct outcrops, leading to the idea that pristine Noachian crust might be exposed. Phyllosilicates are also present within the walls, but they appear to correspond to an alteration product. No proper sedimentary layers were observed within the walls of Valles Marineris at the resolution available today. All these detections are limited to the eastern portion of Valles Marineris, especially Juventae, Coprates, Capri, and Ganges chasmata. Preserved Noachian crustal material is rare on the martian surface and is rarely exposed in its pristine geologic context. Such detections lend precious information about early igneous processes. This survey also supports observations from the nearby impact crater central peaks (Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Allemand, P. [2009]. Lunar Planet. Sci. 10; Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Clenet, H., Allemand, P., Thomas, P. [2011]. Icarus, submitted for publication) and suggests that the western part of Valles Marineris may be cut into another material, consistent with lavas or volcanic sediments.

  11. A Middle Paleozoic shear zone in the Sierra de Valle Fértil, Argentina: Records of a continent-arc collision in the Famatinian margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, E. A.; Otamendi, J. E.; Walker, B. A.; Tibaldi, A. M.; Armas, P.; Bergantz, G. W.; Martino, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geological, petrological and structural observations were obtained along a 30-km-long traverse across a segment of the Valle Fértil shear zone, central-western Argentina. On a regional scale, the shear zone appears as numerous discontinues belts over 25 km in width and is approximately 140 km in length, extended on the western section of the Sierras Valle Fértil - La Huerta mountain range. The steeply dipping shear zone with a vertical mylonitic lineation is composed of amphibolite facies ribbon mylonites and amphibolite to greenschist facies ultramylonites derived from Early Ordovician plutonic and metasedimentary parent rocks. Locally, syn-kinematic retrogression of mylonites formed greenschist facies phyllonites. During the later stages of deformation, unstrained parent rocks, mylonites, ultramylonites and phyllonites were affected by pervasive cataclasis under low greenschist facies conditions associated with localized faulting. One new 40Ar/39Ar age on biotite and published 40Ar/39Ar ages on amphibole in the shear zone yield an average cooling rate of 6.2 °C/Ma for a time period that crosses the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Since in metasedimentary rocks the youngest zircon's rims dated at 465 Ma marks the beginning of cooling, nearly continuous uplift of rocks within the shear zone occurred over a minimum time span of 55 Ma. During the period of active deformation, dip-slip movement can explain uplift of several kilometers of the Early Ordovician arc crust. The Valle Fértil shear zone, which was formed near above the inferred suture zone between the Famatinian arc and Cuyania microcontinent, is a major structural boundary nucleated within the Early Ordovician crust. The simplest geodynamic model to explain the evolution of the Valle Fértil shear zone involves the collision of the composite Cuyania/Precodillera microcontinent against the Famatinian arc.

  12. A GIS-based volcanic hazard and risk assessment of eruptions sourced within Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, R.; Panter, K. S.; Gorsevski, P.; Ye, X.

    2013-05-01

    The Jemez Volcanic field in New Mexico is best known for the two cataclysmic eruptions that formed the Valles Caldera and deposited the Bandelier tuff at 1.61 and 1.25 Ma. This was followed by a period of small-scale activity limited to within the moat until ~ 55 ka when plinian eruptions sourced from the El Cajete crater dispersed tephra well beyond the caldera wall. These deposits include the El Cajete pyroclastic beds and the Battleship Rock Ignimbrite. Following the eruption of the Banco Bonito lava flow at ~40 ka, the Valles caldera has lain dormant. However, there is potential for future activity and it is prudent to assess the risk to the surrounding area and consider possible mitigation strategies well before a disaster strikes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the spatial extent of a possible future eruption using a GIS-based volcanic hazards tool designed to simulate pyroclastic fallout and density currents (PDCs) as well as lava flows [1] and to assess the social and economic vulnerability of the area at risk. Simulated pyroclastic fall deposits originating from the El Cajete crater are calibrated to isopach and lithic isopleth maps of the Lower and Upper El Cajete as constructed by [2]. The change in the axial orientation of fall deposits between the Lower and Upper El Cajete is best matched using seasonal variations in wind speed and direction based on modern atmospheric records. The calibration of PDCs is based on the distribution and run-out of the Battleship Rock Ignimbrite. Once calibrated, hazards are simulated at two other vent locations determined from probability distributions of structural features. The resulting hazard maps show the potential distribution of pyroclastic fall, PDCs and lava flows, indicating areas to the S/SE of Valles Caldera to be at greatest risk. To assess hazard preparedness, social vulnerability is evaluated for all census-designated places (CDP) within the study site. Based on methods by [3], twenty

  13. Deep Coring in the Valles Caldera, Northern New Mexico to Obtain a Long-Term Paleoclimatic Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Goff, F.; Heikoop, J.; Allen, C. D.; Donohoo, L.; Wawrzyniec, T.; Geissman, J. W.; Johnson, C.; Fessenden-Rahn, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Schnurrenberger, D.

    2004-12-01

    The 22-km diameter Valles caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico contains a thick sequence of lacustrine sediments and hydromagmatic deposits that date from the inception of the caldera (c.a. 1.25 Myr). Geologic mapping shows that lakes formed in the caldera immediately after its formation and existed for some period of time before the caldera wall was breached and the lake drained to the SW through San Diego canyon. Another substantial lake formed during the mid-Pleistocene in the SE caldera moat (Valle Grande) when a post-caldera eruption (c.a. 520 kyr) filled the drainage to S.D. canyon. To determine their paleoclimatic significance, the deposits of this ancient lake were cored in May, 2004 (GLAD 5). Hole VC-3 achieved a total depth of 81 m recovering a complete section of ~75 m of lacustrine mud and silts and gravels. Recovery of lacustrine mud/silt was close to 100 percent while the recovery of gravels encountered at the top and bottom of the sequence was considerably less. The core is currently archived at the National Lacustrine Core Facility (LacCore) at the University of Minnesota. Preliminary analyses show considerable down-core variability in parameters including magnetic susceptibility, gamma-ray density and sedimentary facies. The base of the core consists of pumiceous-rhyolitic sands and gravels intercalated with indurated muds, which grades up into variably laminated and bioturbated lacustrine mud and silty mud. In the lower lacustrine sequence, several turbidites interrupt the laminated mud sequences and in some sections, thick diatomites (up to 5 cm) occur and are indicative of surface eutrophication in the lake. Higher in the core, thin sand lenses indicate periods of enhanced runoff into the lake, and occasional rhyolitic dropstones are observed. Much of the laminated silty clay is rich in diatoms, although both the density and diversity of diatoms are highly variable. In the middle of the core, a brecciated, diatom poor facies

  14. Approximation of functions in variable-exponent Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces by de la Vallée-Poussin means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapudinov, I. I.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the space Lp(\\cdot)2π formed by 2π-periodic real measurable functions f for which the integral \\displaystyle\\int-ππ\\vert f(x)\\vertp(x) dx exists and is finite, where p(x), 1≤ p(x), is a 2π-periodic measurable function (a variable exponent). If p(x)≤ \\overline p<∞, then the space Lp(\\cdot)2π can be endowed with the structure of Banach space with the norm \\displaystyle \\Vert f\\Vert p(\\cdot)=\\inf\\biggl\\α>0:\\int-ππ\\biggl\\vert\\frac{f(x)}{α\\biggr\\vertp(x) dx≤1\\biggr\\}. In the space Lp(\\cdot)2π we distinguish a subspace Wr,p(\\cdot)2π of Sobolev type. We investigate the approximation properties of the de la Vallée-Poussin means for trigonometric Fourier sums for functions in the space Wr,p(\\cdot)2π. In particular, we prove that if the variable exponent p=p(x) satisfies the Dini-Lipschitz condition \\vert p(x)-p(y)\\vert\\ln\\frac{2π}{\\vert x-y\\vert}≤ c and if f\\in Wr,p(\\cdot)2π, then the de la Vallée-Poussin means V_m^n(f)=V_m^n(f,x) with n≤ am satisfy \\displaystyle \\Vert f-V_m^n(f)\\Vert p(\\cdot)≤ \\frac{c_r(p,a)}{n^r}Ω\\biggl(f(r), \\frac1n\\biggr)p(\\cdot), where Ω(g,δ)p(\\cdot) is a modulus of continuity of the function g\\in Lp(\\cdot)2π defined in terms of the Steklov functions. It is proved that if 1, r≥1, f\\in Wr,p(\\cdot)2π and the Dini-Lipschitz condition holds, then \\displaystyle \\vert f(x)-V_m^n(f,x)\\vert≤\\frac{c_r(p)}{m+1}\\sumk=nn+m\\frac{E_k(f(r))p(\\cdot)}{(k+1)r-{{1/{p(x)}}}}, where E_k(g)p(\\cdot) stands for the best approximation to g\\in Lp(\\cdot)2π by trigonometric polynomials of order k. Bibliography: 19 titles.

  15. Identification and spatial distribution of light-toned deposits enriched in Al-phyllosilicates on the plateaus around Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Flahaut, J.; Quantin, C.; Allemand, P.

    2009-12-01

    The plateaus around Valles Marineris consist in series of mafic rocks suggested to be flood basalts (McEwen et al., 1998), lavas interbedded with sediments (Malin and Edgett, 2000), layered intrusive rocks (Williams et al., 2003), or lava flows dated from the Noachian to the late Hesperian epochs (Scott and Carr, 1978). Recent studies show the occurrence of light layered deposits of hundred meters thick cropping out on plateaus near Ius Chasma, Melas Chasma, Candor Chasma, Juventae Chasma and Ganges Chasma deposited during the Hesperian epoch by fluvio-lacustrine processes (Weitz et al., 2009), or by air-fall processes (Le Deit et al., 2009). These layered deposits are enriched in hydrated minerals including opaline silica (Milliken et al., 2008), hydroxylated ferric sulfates (Bishop et al., 2009), and possibly Al-rich phyllosilicates (Le Deit et al., 2009). We identified another type of formation corresponding to light-toned massive deposits cropping out around Valles Marineris. It appears that these light-toned deposits are associated to bright, rough, and highly cratered terrains, located beneath a dark and thin capping unit. Previous studies report the occurrence of phyllosilicates on few locations around Valles Marineris based on OMEGA data analyses (Gondet et al., 2007; Carter et al., 2009). The analysis of CRISM data show that the light-toned deposits are associated with spectra displaying absorption bands at 1.4 μm, 1.9 μm, and a narrow band at 2.2 μm. These spectral characteristics are consistent with the presence of Al-rich phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite, or illite in the light-toned deposits. They constitute dozens of outcrops located on the plateaus south and east of Coprates Chasma and Capri Chasma, and west of Ganges Chasma. All outcrops investigated so far are present over Noachian terrains mapped as the unit Npl2 by Scott and Tanaka (1986), and Witbeck et al. (1991). These light-toned deposits could result from in situ aqueous alteration

  16. A natural analogue for high-level waste in tuff: Chemical analysis and modeling of the Valles site

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.W.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Ho, C.K.; Kovach, L.; McConnell, V.S.

    1995-03-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a high-level waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock Tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 40}Ar isotopic composition. Overall, the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 m of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  17. Enriquecimiento del horario extra-escolar de los ninos (Enriching Children's Out-of-School Time). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltin, Lillian

    School-age children between the ages of 5 and 14 spend up to 80% of their time out of school. These hours represent an opportunity to help children grow and acquire important social, emotional, cognitive, and physical skills and to help them develop lifelong interests. This time can also be used to provide support for the academic challenges faced…

  18. Morphology, composition, age and spatial extent of a layered superficial formation covering the plains around Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Mège, D.; Sotin, C.; Massé, M.; Sarago, V.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction An extensive light-toned layered formation covers the plains surrounding Valles Marineris on Mars. It is particularly visible south of Ius Chasma and of Melas Chasma [1], southwest of Juventae Chasma [2,3], north of Tithonium Chasma and west of Ganges Chasma. Some deposits of this formation may be enriched in hydrated silicates such as hydrated glasses, chalcedony, opal or other hydrated Si-rich phases according to CRISM data [1]. From an analysis of HRSC, THEMIS, MOC, HiRISE, MOLA PEDR, OMEGA and CRISM data, we discuss the morphology, the composition, the age, the spatial extent and the emplacement processes of these layered deposits (LDs). Here we focus on two regions where the LDs are particularly spectacular: Ganges Chasma and Juventae Chasma. Regional map We have compiled a regional map of the LDs around Valles Marineris (orange in Fig. 1a). In some cases their spatial extent is unclear due to their being covered either by dark material or by dust that appears yellow on IRB color HiRISE images (Fig 1b). Dashed contours on Fig. 1a outline these poorly constrained boundaries, whereas plain contours correspond to regions where the stratigraphic contact between the LDs and the underlying basement is unambiguous. The light-toned LDs are located stratigraphically and topographically above the basaltic basement that constitutes the plains surrounding Valles Marineris. The total thickness of the LDs does not exceed a hundred meters on average. They consist of subparallel light-toned layers of various thicknesses that are apparently interbedded with darker beds (Fig. 1b). This difference in albedo can be due to variations in mineralogical composition, topographic slope, roughness, grain size or state of erosion of the different layers, or to partial covering of certain layers by a dark mantle. Ganges Chasma West of Ganges Chasma, the LDs rest topographically and stratigraphically above the Noachian plains that have been defined as the Npl2 unit [4] (Fig. 1

  19. Application of HydroGeoSphere to model the response to anthropogenic climate change of three-dimensional hydrological processes in the geologically, geothermally, and topographically complex Valles Caldera super volcano, New Mexico: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M.; Cadol, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to reduce streamflow in the southwestern USA due to reduction in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. Understanding the effects of climate change in this region is particularly important for mountainous areas since these are primary sources of recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore we undertook to model effects of climate change on the hydrological processes in Valles Caldera (448 km2), located in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. In Valles Caldera modeling the surficial, hydrogeological, and geothermal processes that influence hydrologic fluxes each present challenges. The surficial dynamics of evaporative demand and snowmelt both serve to control recharge dynamics, but are complicated by the complex topography and spatiotemporal vegetation dynamics. Complex factors affecting evaporative demand include leaf area index, temperature, albedo, and radiation affected by topographic shading; all of these factors vary in space and time. Snowmelt processes interact with evaporative demand and geology to serve as an important control on streamflow generation, but modeling the effects of spatiotemporal snow distributions on streamflow generation remains a challenge. The complexity of Valles Caldera's geology—and its associated hydraulic properties—rivals that of its surficial hydrologic forcings. Hydrologically important geologic features that have formed in the Valles Caldera are three-dimensionally intricate and include a dense system of faults, alluvium, landslides, lake deposits, and features associated with the eruption and collapse of this super volcano. Coupling geothermally-driven convection to the hydrologic cycle in this still-active geothermal system presents yet an additional challenge in modeling Valles Caldera. Preliminary results from applying the three-dimensional distributed hydrologic finite element model HydroGeoSphere to a sub-catchment of Valles Caldera will be

  20. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  1. Structural observations from the Canavese Fault west of Valle d'Ossola (Piemonte) and some time constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, Jan; Mancktelow, Neil

    2010-05-01

    The Canavese Fault (CF) is the SW part of the most important fault system in the Alps, the Periadriatic Fault. The CF has a complex kinematic history involving an older stage of NW-side-up faulting and a younger stage of SE-side-up plus dextral faulting in the area of Valle d'Ossola (Schmid et al. 1987). There, shearing occurred under greenschist-facies conditions and the fault is a c. 1 km thick mylonite zone. Toward SW, faulting took place under progressively lower temperatures and the volume of rocks affected by S-side-up plus dextral shearing becomes larger at the expense of the N-side-up mylonites. S of Valle Sesia, brittle fault rocks dominate over mylonites. Still further SW, close to the Serra d'Ivrea, the CF splits into two branches, the Internal Canavese Fault (ICF) and the External Canavese Fault (ECF). S-side-up plus dextral faulting is localised along the ICF while the observed displacement senses at the ECF are mostly, though not always, N-side-up and sinistral. Age constraints for faulting along the CF are mostly derived from absolute ages of magmatic rocks exposed alongside or within the fault. In the section around Biella, NW-side-up faulting cannot have lasted longer than until 31±2 Ma (Scheuring et al. 1974) because this is the age of andesites overlying the basement of the Penninic Sesia Zone. However, some additional uplift of the Sesia Zone with respect to the South Alpine Ivrea Zone was accommodated by down-to-the-SE tilting of the Sesia zone around a roughly NNE-SSW-trending subhorizontal axis which is evidenced by palaeomagnetic data (Lanza 1977). As a result of that, the Early Oligocene Biella Pluton (c. 31 Ma, Romer et al. 1996) today occupies a similar altitude level as the andesites of the same age. Post-31-Ma uplift of the Ivrea Zone with respect to the andesites is evidenced by the Early Oligocene (29-33 Ma, Carraro & Ferrara 1968) Miagliano Pluton which is hosted by the Ivrea Zone rocks and exposed at the present topographic surface

  2. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Fault Networks in the Northwestern Albuquerque Basin and Their Potential Role in Controlling Mantle CO2 Degassing and Fluid Migration from the Valles Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Fischer, T. P.; Lee, H.; McGibbon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande rift (RGR) has Quaternary and active volcanism and faulting that provide a field laboratory for examining links between mantle degassing and faults as fluid conduits. Diffuse and spring CO2 flux measurements were taken at 6 sites in the northwestern Albuquerque Basin (NWAB) and Valles caldera geothermal system. All sites progress to the southwest from the 1.25 Ma Valles caldera, down the rift-related Jemez fault network, to intersect with the Nacimiento fault system. Mantle CO2 and He degassing are well documented at 5 of 6 sites, with decreasing 3He/4He ratios away from the caldera. The instrument used to measure CO2 flux was an EGM-4 CO2 gas analyzer (PP systems) with an accumulation chamber. Carbonic springs at Penasco Springs (PS) and San Ysidro (SY), and the carbonate-cemented Sand Hill Fault (SHF) were targeted, all near the western border of the RGR. The SHF has no spring activity, had the smallest maximum flux of all the sites (8 g/m2d), but carbonate along the fault zone (<2 m wide) attest to past CO2 flux. The other two sites are equal distance (30-40 km) between the SHF site and Valles caldera sites. These sites have active carbonic springs that precipitate travertine mounds. Our work suggests these sites reflect intersections of the Nacimiento fault with NE trending faults that connect to the Jemez fault network. The maximum diffuse flux recorded at SY (297 g/m2d) and PS (25 g/m2d) are high, especially along the fault and near springs. At SY and PS the instruments capacity was exceeded (2,400 g/m2d) at 6 of 9 springs. Interpretations indicate a direct CO2 flux through a fault-related artesian aquifer system that is connected to magmatic gases from the caldera. Maximum diffuse flux measurements of Alamo Canyon (20,906 g/m2d), Sulphur Springs (2,400 g/m2d) and Soda Dam (1,882 g/m2d) at Valles caldera geothermal sites are comparable to Yellowstone geothermal systems. We use geospatial analysis and local geologic mapping to examine

  4. Sedimentary record of water column trophic conditions and sediment carbon fluxes in a tropical water reservoir (Valle de Bravo, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Carnero-Bravo, Vladislav; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2015-03-01

    Valle de Bravo (VB) is the main water reservoir of the Cutzamala hydraulic system, which provides 40% of the drinking water consumed in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and exhibits symptoms of eutrophication. Nutrient (C, N and P) concentrations were determined in two sediment cores to reconstruct the water column trophic evolution of the reservoir and C fluxes since its creation in 1947. Radiometric methods ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) were used to obtain sediment chronologies, using the presence of pre-reservoir soil layers in one of the cores as an independent chronological marker. Mass accumulation rates ranged from 0.12 to 0.56 g cm(-2) year(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes from 122 to 380 g m(-2) year(-1). Total N ranged 4.9-48 g m(-2) year(-1), and total P 0.6-4.2 g m(-2) year(-1). The sedimentary record shows that all three (C, N and P) fluxes increased significantly after 1991, in good agreement with the assessed trophic evolution of VB and with historic and recent real-time measurements. In the recent years (1992-2006), the TOC flux to the bottom of VB (average 250 g m(-2) year(-1), peaks 323 g m(-2) year(-1)) is similar to that found in highly eutrophic reservoirs and impoundments. Over 1/3 of the total C burial since dam construction, circa 70,000 t, has occurred in this recent period. These results highlight the usefulness of the reconstruction of carbon and nutrient fluxes from the sedimentary record to assess carbon burial and its temporal evolution in freshwater ecosystems.

  5. The dynamics of surges in the 3 February 2015 avalanches in Vallée de la Sionne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; McElwaine, J. N.; Sovilla, B.; Ash, M.; Brennan, P.

    2016-11-01

    Five avalanches were artificially released at the Vallée de la Sionne test site in the west of Switzerland on 3 February 2015 and recorded by the GEOphysical flow dynamics using pulsed Doppler radAR Mark 3 radar system. The radar beam penetrates the dilute powder cloud and measures reflections from the underlying denser avalanche features allowing the tracking of the flow at 111 Hz with 0.75 m downslope resolution. The data show that the avalanches contain many internal surges. The large or "major" surges originate from the secondary release of slabs. These slabs can each contain more mass than the initial release, and thus can greatly affect the flow dynamics, by unevenly distributing the mass. The small or "minor" surges appear to be a roll wave-like instability, and these can greatly influence the front dynamics as they can repeatedly overtake the leading edge. We analyzed the friction acting on the fronts of minor surges using a Voellmy-like, simple one-dimensional model with frictional resistance and velocity-squared drag. This model fits the data of the overall velocity, but it cannot capture the dynamics and especially the slowing of the minor surges, which requires dramatically varying effective friction. Our findings suggest that current avalanche models based on Voellmy-like friction laws do not accurately describe the physics of the intermittent frontal region of large mixed avalanches. We suggest that these data can only be explained by changes in the snow surface, such as the entrainment of the upper snow layers and the smoothing by earlier flow fronts.

  6. The predominance of post-wildfire erosion in the long-term denudation of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, Caitlin A.; Pelletier, Jon D.

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires can dramatically increase erosion rates over time scales on the order of several years, yet few data firmly constrain the relative importance of post-wildfire erosion in the long-term denudation of landscapes. We tested the hypothesis that wildfire-affected erosion is responsible for a large majority of long-term denudation in the uplands of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, by quantifying erosion rates in wildfire-affected and non-wildfire-affected watersheds over short (~100-101 years) time scales using suspended sediment loads, multitemporal terrestrial laser scanning, and airborne laser scanning and over long (~103-106 years) time scales using 10Be inventories and incision into a dated paleosurface. We found that following the Las Conchas fire in 2011, mean watershed-averaged erosion rates were more than 1000 µm yr-1, i.e., ~103-105 times higher than nearby unburned watersheds of similar area, relief, and lithology. Long-term denudation rates are on the order of 10-100 µm yr-1. Combining data for wildfire-affected and non-wildfire-affected erosion rates into a long-term denudation rate budget, we found that wildfire-affected erosion is responsible for at least 90% of denudation over geologic time scales in our study area despite the fact that such conditions occur only at a small fraction of the time. Monte Carlo analyses demonstrate that this conclusion is robust with respect to uncertainties in the rates and time scales used in the calculations.

  7. The Valle de Bravo Volcanic Field. A monogenetic field in the central front of the Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Jaimes-Viera, M. D.; Nieto-Obreg¢n, J.; Lozano-Santacruz, R.

    2003-12-01

    The Valle de Bravo volcanic field, VBVF, is located in the central-southern front of the Mexican Volcanic Belt just to the southwest of Nevado de Toluca volcano. The VBVF covers 3,703 square Km and includes at least 122 cinder cones, 1 shield volcano, several domes, and the 2 volcanic complexes of Zitacuaro and Villa de Allende. Morphometric parameters calibrated with isotopic ages of the volcanic products indicate four groups or units for the VBVF, Pliocene domes and lava flows, undifferentiated Pleistocene lava flows,> 40 Ka cones and lavas, 40 to 25 Ka cones and lavas, 25 to 10 Ka cones and lavas, and < 10 Ka cones and lavas. Whole-rock chemistry shows that all products of the VBVF range from basaltic andesites to dacites. No basalts were found, in spite of many units are olivine-rich and large some with large weight percent contents of MgO, 1 to 9. There is the possibility that some or all of the olivines in some samples could be xenocrysts. Some andesites are high in Sr, 1000 to 1800 ppm, that correlates with relatively high values of Ba, Cr, Ni, Cu, CaO and MgO. Y and Nb have the typical low values for orogenic rocks. The only shield volcano of the VBVF has a base of 9 Km, and its composition is practically the average composition of the whole field. Stratigraphycally, it is one of the earlier events of the VBVF. Compared with other volcanic fields of the Mexican Volcanic Belt, it lacks basalts and alkalic rocks. All volcanism of this field is calcalkaline

  8. Economic evaluation of three populational screening strategies for cervical cancer in the county of Valles Occidental: CRICERVA clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A high percentage of cervical cancer cases have not undergone cytological tests within 10 years prior to diagnosis. Different population interventions could improve coverage in the public system, although costs will also increase. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the costs of three types of population interventions to increase the number of female participants in the screening programmes for cancer of the cervix carried out by Primary Care in four basic health care areas. Methods/Design A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from the perspective of public health system including women from 30 to 70 years of age (n = 20,994) with incorrect screening criteria from four basic health care areas in the Valles Occidental, Barcelona, Spain. The patients will be randomly distributed into the control group and the three intervention groups (IG1: invitation letter to participate in the screening; IG2: invitation letter and informative leaflet; IG3: invitation letter, informative leaflet and a phone call reminder) and followed for three years. Clinical effectiveness will be measured by the number of HPV, epithelial lesions and cancer of cervix cases detected. The number of deaths avoided will be secondary measures of effectiveness. The temporal horizon of the analysis will be the life expectancy of the female population in the study. Costs and effectiveness will be discounted at 3%. In addition, univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis will be carried out. Discussion IG3 is expected to be more cost-effective intervention than IG1 and IG2, with greater detection of HPV infections, epithelial lesions and cancer than other strategies, albeit at a greater cost. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01373723 PMID:22011387

  9. A geostatistical methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, G. S.; Júnez-Ferreira, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This work introduces a new methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer in Mexico. The selection of the space-time monitoring points is done using a static Kalman filter combined with a sequential optimization method. The Kalman filter requires as input a space-time covariance matrix, which is derived from a geostatistical analysis. A sequential optimization method that selects the space-time point that minimizes a function of the variance, in each step, is used. We demonstrate the methodology applying it to the redesign of the hydraulic head monitoring network of the Valle de Querétaro aquifer with the objective of selecting from a set of monitoring positions and times, those that minimize the spatiotemporal redundancy. The database for the geostatistical space-time analysis corresponds to information of 273 wells located within the aquifer for the period 1970-2007. A total of 1,435 hydraulic head data were used to construct the experimental space-time variogram. The results show that from the existing monitoring program that consists of 418 space-time monitoring points, only 178 are not redundant. The implied reduction of monitoring costs was possible because the proposed method is successful in propagating information in space and time.

  10. A geostatistical methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer in Mexico. The selection of the space-time monitoring points is done using a static Kalman filter combined with a sequential optimization method. The Kalman filter requires as input a space-time covariance matrix, which is derived from a geostatistical analysis. A sequential optimization method that selects the space-time point that minimizes a function of the variance, in each step, is used. We demonstrate the methodology applying it to the redesign of the hydraulic head monitoring network of the Valle de Querétaro aquifer with the objective of selecting from a set of monitoring positions and times, those that minimize the spatiotemporal redundancy. The database for the geostatistical space-time analysis corresponds to information of 273 wells located within the aquifer for the period 1970-2007. A total of 1,435 hydraulic head data were used to construct the experimental space-time variogram. The results show that from the existing monitoring program that consists of 418 space-time monitoring points, only 178 are not redundant. The implied reduction of monitoring costs was possible because the proposed method is successful in propagating information in space and time.

  11. The central uplift of Elorza Crater: Insights into its geology and possible relationships to the Valles Marineris and Tharsis regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, R. T.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.

    2017-03-01

    The majority of hydrated silicate occurrences on Mars are associated with impact craters (Ehlmann et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2013). Three formation mechanisms have been suggested to account for this correlation: (1) aqueous alteration occurred pre-impact, and was subsequently exposed via the impact (pre-impact; Bibring et al., 2006; Ehlmann et al., 2011), (2) heat generated from the impact facilitated the formation of a hydrothermal system, leading to alteration products (syn-impact; e.g. Marzo et al., 2010; Osinski et al., 2013), and/or (3) altered materials were deposited after crater formation, or formed within the crater well after the impact had taken place (post-impact). In this study, we analyze the central uplift of Elorza Crater, a ∼40 km diameter impact crater located ∼300 km north of Valles Marineris. To determine whether hydrated minerals found within the uplift were generated pre-, syn-, or post-impact, we used a data synthesis approach, utilizing High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Context Camera (CTX), and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) imagery. Opaline silica is observed in two locations on the southwestern side of the uplift and is interpreted to have been pre-existing or formed via hydrothermal alteration due to stratigraphic relationships with the overlying impact melt unit. Both Fe/Mg smectite and low-calcium pyroxene (LCP) are found throughout the uplift. Bedrock exposures on the northern wall of Coprates Chasma containing Fe/Mg smectite and LCP suggest an uplifted origin for these units. In all cases, although a pre-existing origin is probable, it is difficult to rule out the possibility of an impact-generated hydrothermal origin. Using the observed stratigraphy exposed in Coprates Chasma and bedrock exposures analyzed in nearby craters, we were able to constrain the pre-impact stratigraphy around Elorza. The near-subsurface consists of Hesperian

  12. Modelling caldera collapse into a crystal mush, with application to the Bandelier Tuff, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, S. R.; Wolff, J. A.; Jellinek, M.; Ramos, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Valles caldera, NM, was formed in two eruptions at 1.61 Ma and 1.25 Ma that produced the Bandelier Tuff. The older Otowi Member of the Bandelier is a compositionally zoned high-silica rhyolite (>75% SiO2) with a dense rock equivalent volume of ~450 km3, and up to 5-fold variation in the incompatible element content of pumice fragments. Volume-composition relations require that 3 - 4 times the erupted volume, i.e. 1350 - 1800 km3, of leucogranitic crystal residue must complement the erupted magma. Quartz-sanidine glomerocrysts in late-erupted pumices are interpreted as fragments of the residue, but have a cumulative volume << 100 km3. Therefore, most of the residue was not erupted. The younger Tshirege member of the Bandelier Tuff, erupted from the same site 360,000 years later, is a ~250 km3 zoned high-silica rhyolitic ignimbrite similar to the Otowi, but additionally contains magmatic components of low-silica rhyolite and dacite. Also, incompatible elements in the Tshirege exhibit a much greater degree of scatter on covariation diagrams than is the case for the Otowi Member. The dacite is not closely related to the rhyolites and was introduced during a late recharge event that may have triggered the eruption. The extent and style of recycling of Otowi crystal residue into the Tshirege magma body is a long-standing question. To begin to investigate this problem, we have initiated a series of laboratory experiments designed to simulate the settling of a caldera block into a crystal mush layer underlying supernatant, eruptible, crystal-poor magma during caldera-forming super-eruptions. The extent and character of mush disruption and eruption on collapse vary with the amounts of crystal-rich and crystal-poor magma, roof block weight and thickness, melt viscosity and heterogeneity and lead to a first-order prediction that rejuvenation of the disturbed crystal mush should result in greater chemical complexity during subsequent magmatic cycles. This is consistent

  13. The eruptive and magmatic history of the youngest pulse of volcanism at the Valles caldera: Implications for successfully dating late Quaternary eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerer, Matthew J.; Lafferty, John; Coble, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar and U/Th ages provide insight into the youngest eruptions at the Valles caldera and also reveal previously unknown pulses of magmatism. The youngest eruptive units, collectively termed the East Fork Member of the Valles Rhyolite, include the El Cajete pyroclastic beds and co-erupted Battleship Rock ignimbrite, and the disconformably overlying Banco Bonito lava flow. Previous attempts to date these units using a variety of techniques yielded ages ranging from < 40 ka to > 1 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar ages were generated using the high-sensitivity, multi-collector ARGUS VI mass spectrometer, which provides more than an order of magnitude increase in precision compared to most single-detector mass spectrometers. 40Ar/39Ar dating of single crystals yields a range of ages, of which the youngest populations are interpreted to represent the eruption age. Sanidine ages indicate that the El Cajete pyroclastic beds and Battleship Rock ignimbrite erupted at 74.4 ± 1.3 ka, whereas the Banco Bonito lava erupted at 68.3 ± 1.5 ka. Populations of older crystals represent variably degassed xenocrysts, explaining why previous 40Ar/39Ar bulk step-heating analyses yielded spuriously old and irreproducible results. U/Th dating of unpolished zircon surfaces also yield multiple age populations, which range from the eruption age to > 350 ka, indicating protracted magmatism during the 453-ka-long eruptive hiatus prior to the eruption of the East Fork Member. 40Ar/39Ar and U/Th ages indicate that the East Fork Member represents a short (6.1 ± 2.8 ka) eruptive cycle, from a longer-lived magmatic system beneath the southern caldera. Equally short repose periods, similar to the interval between the El Cajete-Battleship Rock and Banco Bonito eruptions, are possible during future volcanism at the Valles caldera. Results demonstrate that detailed geochronology using single-crystal and in-situ techniques is necessary for understanding the eruptive history and magmatic evolution at some

  14. Morphology, stratigraphy, and mineralogical composition of a layered formation covering the plateaus around Valles Marineris, Mars: Implications for its geological history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Bourgeois, O.; Mège, D.; Hauber, E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Massé, M.; Jaumann, R.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2010-08-01

    An extensive layered formation covers the high plateaus around Valles Marineris. Mapping based on HiRISE, CTX and HRSC images reveals these layered deposits (LDs) crop out north of Tithonium Chasma, south of Ius Chasma, around West Candor Chasma, and southwest of Juventae Chasma and Ganges Chasma. The estimated area covered by LDs is ˜42,300 km 2. They consist of a series of alternating light and dark beds, a 100 m in total thickness that is covered by a dark unconsolidated mantle possibly resulting from their erosion. Their stratigraphic relationships with the plateaus and the Valles Marineris chasmata indicate that the LDs were deposited during the Early- to Late Hesperian, and possibly later depending on the region, before the end of the backwasting of the walls near Juventae Chasma, and probably before Louros Valles sapping near Ius Chasma. Their large spatial coverage and their location mainly on highly elevated plateaus lead us to conclude that LDs correspond to airfall dust and/or volcanic ash. The surface of LDs is characterized by various morphological features, including lobate ejecta and pedestal craters, polygonal fractures, valleys and sinuous ridges, and a pitted surface, which are all consistent with liquid water and/or water ice filling the pores of LDs. LDs were episodically eroded by fluvial processes and were possibly modified by sublimation processes. Considering that LDs correspond to dust and/or ash possibly mixed with ice particles in the past, LDs may be compared to Dissected Mantle Terrains currently observed in mid- to high latitudes on Mars, which correspond to a mantle of mixed dust and ice that is partially or totally dissected by sublimation. The analysis of CRISM and OMEGA hyperspectral data indicates that the basal layer of LDs near Ganges Chasma exhibits spectra with absorption bands at ˜1.4 μm, and ˜1.9 μm and a large deep band between ˜2.21 and ˜2.26 μm that are consistent with previous spectral analysis in other regions

  15. Stratigraphy of Lower Cambrian and unconformable Lower Carboniferous beds from the Valls unit (Catalonian Coastal Ranges)Stratigraphie des couches du Cambrien inférieur et des calcaires discordants du Carbonifère inférieur de l'unité de Valls (chaînes côtières Catalanes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-López, Javier; Melgarejo, Joan-Carles; Crimes, Thomas Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Palaeozoic rocks outcropping around Valls are divided into two stratigraphic units. The boundary between both is an unconformity. The lower unit is composed by nearshore platform sediments and a Lower Cambrian age is indicated according to ichnotaxa content. The upper unit consists of pink nodular limestones and dark limestones, and it is followed by siliciclastic Culm Facies rocks. These limestones contain conodonts of the Uppermost Tournaisian at its base ( anchoralis- latus Zone) and Lower Bashkirian (Namurian B) in the upper part. This condensed carbonate sequence was coeval with the thick siliciclastic Culm sedimentation in the surrounding areas.

  16. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  17. de la Vallée-Poussin means of Fourier series for the quadratic spectrum and for spectra with power-like density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    A new method is proposed and elaborated for investigating complex or real trigonometric series with various spectra. It is based on new multiplicative inequalities which give a lower bound for the integral norm of the de la Vallée-Poussin means and are themselves based on results establishing corresponding analogues of the Littlewood-Paley theorem in the BMO, Hardy, and Lorentz spaces. For spectra with power-like density a description of the class of absolute values of coefficients such that the corresponding complex or real trigonometric series are Fourier series is found which depends on the arithmetic characteristics of the spectrum and is sharp in limiting cases. Furthermore, for the quadratic spectrum some results of Hardy and Littlewood on elliptic theta functions are generalized and refined. For the quadratic spectrum and power-like spectra with non-integer exponents new lower bounds are found for the integral norms of exponential sums. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  18. Putative Large and Small Volcanic Edifices in Valles Marineris, Mars, and Evidence of Ground Water/Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. G.; Smellie, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    Large mounds and mesas of interior layered deposits (ILDs) in Valles Marineris Chasmata have been suggested to be sub-ice volcanoes based on MGS and Viking data [1,2,3]. Similar to terrestrial sub-ice volcanoes, spectral investigation indicates the bright mounds are hydrothermally altered, palagonitic rocks [4]. These putative edifices are associated with outcrops of dark materials that have each been interpreted previously as young, volcanic ash deposits of mafic composition [5,6]. Spectral investigation also indicates that the dark materials are less water-altered and mafic in composition [4]. TES-detected concentrations of crystalline hematite have been noted to occur in these dark materials [7]. Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images indicate that the dark materials locally blanket chasmata floors and embay ILDs and are associated with small volcanic vents. These apparent vents may have emitted some of the ash-like deposits. The vent features appear very young, lacking impact craters and having non-eroded rims. Where they embay the ILDs, the vents have low rims similar to terrrestrial maar or tuff cones, which possibly indicates interaction with groundwater or ice. In support of ground-ice within the ILDs, MOC data show (1) channels that occur on the flanks of the bright mounds, and (2) theatre-headed gullies are eroded into caprock of the ILDs and the heads of valleys, formerly interpreted by Viking data to be wind flutes on ILD flanks. Both features may be related to spring sapping. MOC images also show that dark materials on the floor of many chasmata and Aram Chaos are associated with small fissures or cone-shaped mounds with central depressions that do not appear to have interacted with ground-ice. Perhaps late-stage water/ice circulated or was stored within the interior mounds after removal of large ponds of surface ice elsewhere. Young, dark, volcanic ash in the chasmata could be a product of both "dry" volcanism and water/magma interactions, which may have

  19. One million cubic kilometers of fossil ice in Valles Marineris: relicts of a 3.5 Gy old glacial landsystem along the Martian equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, O.; Gourronc, M.; Mège, D.; Pochat, S.; Bultel, B.; Massé, M.; Le Deit, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Mercier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Self-consistent landform assemblages suggest that Valles Marineris, the giant valley system that stretches along the Martian equator, was entirely glaciated during Late Noachian to Early Hesperian times and still contains huge volumes of fossil ice. Some of these glacial landforms assemblages are illustrated here. A morphological boundary separating an upper spur-and-gully morphology from a smooth basal escarpment has been spectacularly preserved along valley walls throughout Valles Marineris. The boundary winds around topographic obstacles and displays long-wavelength variations in elevation. It is associated with lateral benches, hanging valleys and truncated spurs. Comparisons with terrestrial analogues indicate that it is most reasonably interpreted as a glacial trimline. Chasma floors are covered by various kinds of terrains, including hummocky terrains, platy terrains, lateral banks, layered benches and a draping mantle. Landforms in these terrains and their spatial relationship with the interpreted trimline suggest that they correspond to various disintegration stages of an ancient glacial fill, currently protected by a superficial cover of ablation till. Altogether, these landforms and terrains compose a full glacial landsystem with wet-based glaciers that were able to flow and slide over their beds. It was most probably fed by ice accumulating at low elevations directly from the atmosphere onto valley floors and walls, with only minor contributions from tributary glaciers flowing down from higher elevations. Similar fossil glacial landsystems dating back from the early Martian history are to be expected in many other low-latitude troughs such as chasmata, chaos, valleys, impact craters and other basins.

  20. One million cubic kilometers of fossil ice in Valles Marineris: Relicts of a 3.5 Gy old glacial landsystem along the Martian equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourronc, Marine; Bourgeois, Olivier; Mège, Daniel; Pochat, Stéphane; Bultel, Benjamin; Massé, Marion; Le Deit, Laetitia; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mercier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Self-consistent landform assemblages suggest that Valles Marineris, the giant valley system that stretches along the Martian equator, was entirely glaciated during Late Noachian to Early Hesperian times and still contains huge volumes of fossil ice. Some of these glacial landform assemblages are illustrated here, with representative examples selected in three regions: Ius Chasma, Central Candor Chasma and the junction between Coprates Chasma and Capri Chasma. A morphological boundary separating an upper spur-and-gully morphology from a smooth basal escarpment has been spectacularly preserved along valley walls throughout Valles Marineris. The boundary winds around topographic obstacles and displays long-wavelength variations in elevation. It is associated with lateral benches, hanging valleys and truncated spurs. Comparisons with terrestrial analogs indicate that it is most reasonably interpreted as a glacial trimline. Chasma floors are covered by various kinds of terrains, including hummocky terrains, platy terrains, lateral banks, layered benches and a draping mantle. Landforms in these terrains and their spatial relationship with the interpreted trimline suggest that they correspond to various disintegration stages of an ancient glacial fill, currently protected by a superficial cover of ablation till. Altogether, these landforms and terrains compose a full glacial landsystem with wet-based glaciers that were able to flow and slide over their beds. It was most probably fed by ice accumulating at low elevations directly from the atmosphere onto valley floors and walls, with only minor contributions from tributary glaciers flowing down from higher elevations. Similar fossil glacial landsystems dating back from the early Martian history are to be expected in many other low-latitude troughs such as chasmata, chaos, valleys, impact craters and other basins.

  1. Survey on gynecological cancer treatment by Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta group of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology)

    PubMed Central

    Cattari, Gabriella; Delmastro, Elena; Bresciani, Sara; Gribaudo, Sergio; Melano, Antonella; Giannelli, Flavio; Tessa, Maria; Chiarlone, Renato; Scolaro, Tindaro; Krengli, Marco; Urgesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We focused the attention on radiation therapy practices about the gynecological malignancies in Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta to know the current treatment practice and to improve the quality of care. Material and methods We proposed a cognitive survey to evaluate the standard practice patterns for gynecological cancer management, adopted from 2012 to 2014 by radiotherapy (RT) centers with a large amount of gynecological cancer cases. There were three topics: 1. Taking care and multidisciplinary approach, 2. Radiotherapy treatment and brachytherapy, 3. Follow-up. Results Nineteen centers treated gynecological malignancies and 12 of these had a multidisciplinary dedicated team. Radiotherapy option has been used in all clinical setting: definitive, adjuvant, and palliative. In general, 1978 patients were treated. There were 834 brachytherapy (BRT) treatments. The fusion between diagnostic imaging (magnetic resonance imaging – MRI, positron emission tomography – PET) and computed tomography (CT) simulation was used for contouring in all centers. Conformal RT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were the most frequent techniques. The image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was used in 10/19 centers. There were 8 active BRT centers. Brachytherapy was performed both with radical intent and as boost, mostly by HDR (6/8 centers). The doses for exclusive BRT were between 20 to 30 Gy. The doses for BRT boost were between 10 and 20 Gy. Four centers used CT-MRI compatible applicators but only one used MRI for planning. The BRT plans on vaginal cuff were still performed on traditional radiographies in 2 centers. The plan sum was evaluated in only 1 center. Only 1 center performed in vivo dosimetry. Conclusions In the last three years, multidisciplinary approach, contouring, treatment techniques, doses, and control systems were similar in Liguria-Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. However, the technology implementation didn't translate in a real treatment

  2. Tensor CSAMT survey over the Sulphur Springs thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A. Part 1: Implications for structure of the western caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1997-03-01

    An extensive tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been carried out over the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Forty-five sites were acquired using two crossed transmitter bipoles placed approximately 13 km south of the center of the survey. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. CSAMT and magnetotelluric (MT) data taken outside Valles Caldera were constrained by drill logs and imply resistive Bandelier Tuff, underlain by conductive Paleozoic sediments, and further underlain by resistive, primarily Precambrian crystalline rocks. Model cross-sections within the caldera were derived using 2-D parameterized inversion constrained by drilling, with layered-earth inversion for starting models. Southeast of the Sulphur Creek fault, the upper 200 m of the section are of relatively low resistivity and correspond to unconsolidated land-slide and debris flows. The Bandelier Tuff below exhibits higher but variable resistivities because of alteration controlled by local faulting. Beneath the Bandelier Tuff, the Paleozoic sedimentary layer is only moderately less resistive than it is outside the caldera, with the lowest values occurring northwest of Sulphur Creek. Its low resistivity per se does not necessarily represent a hydrothermal aquifer. The Sulphur Creek fault appears to be a locus of substantial change in structural relief; upthrow of stratigraphy and basement to its west appears to be about 400--500 m. A major normal fault down to the southeast is located under the topographic expression of Freelove Canyon, which is up to 1 km farther southeast than suggested by previous geologic sections. High resistivities possibly corresponding to a vapor zone in the upper 500 m near VC-2B and VC-2A are not consistent with the CSAMT data.

  3. SHARAD detections of subsurface reflectors near RSL sites on the Tharsis Plateau immediately adjacent to the canyon rim of Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. B.; Stillman, D. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Forget, F.; Mellon, M. T.; Spiga, A.; Putzig, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are very exciting features that exhibit evidence for water flow on the Martian surface. The number of RSL sites has risen to ~100 since their first detection in 2011. Those sites extend over a large portion of the Valles Marineris margin and nearby smaller canyons, but no source for this flowing water has been identified. Two possible sources exist for water near the Martian equator: the atmospheric and the subsurface. At low latitudes, atmospheric water vapor abundance is extremely low, and condensation of water from the air is unlikely. Furthermore, subsurface water ice is unlikely to remain stable in the long term, but scenarios for retaining ice on shorter timescales have not been fully tested. The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has successfully probed the subsurface of Mars to locate dielectric interfaces that delineate volcanic boundaries, layers within the polar ice caps, and ice-rock boundaries. Using the same technique of searching for dielectric contrasts at lower latitudes, we have found several detections at the highest elevations of the Tharsis Plateau, near the cliffs that form Valles Marineris at depths ranging from 30 to 80 m, depending on the dielectric properties of the overlying material. These reflectors are located near the canyon rim and slope towards the canyon, potentially crossing geologic boundaries mapped from surface data. Because of the proximity of the reflectors to RSL and the geometry of the reflections, we hypothesize that SHARAD may be detecting an ice or water reservoir that can act as a source for flowing water on the surface. We test this hypothesis by employing a one-dimensional thermal model to estimate the stability of ground ice over a wide range of durations at this latitude, including recent epochs of high obliquity, when ice would be more stable at low latitudes and for longer periods.

  4. Spatial and Temporal influence of Redondo Peak headwaters in the East Fork Jemez River using Principal Component Analysis approach, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Rodrigo; Meixner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Valles Caldera is a volcanic collapse feature located in the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico, southwestern United States. This region is characterized by a bimodal precipitation pattern, i.e. spring snowmelt and summer monsoon rains. Two main streams flow through the Valles Caldera: San Antonio and East Fork Jemez. The junction of these two rivers form the Jemez River which is an important contributor to the Rio Grande that supplies water to cities located in southwestern U.S. Redondo Peak is located in the center of the Valles Caldera that has several springs that drain around all sides of the peak with different hydrologic responses. The main catchments (headwaters) identified in Redondo Peak are: La Jara, Upper Jaramillo, History Grove and Upper Redondo. The main questions that are going to be answered in this research are: Do these head waters affect the chemistry in East Fork Jemez river? and if so, how does this influence vary in space and time? A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed using analyzed water samples for water isotopes and major anions and cations. These samples were collected from the flumes located at each catchment in Redondo Peak, and at different locations along the East Fork Jemez. Samples from the most consistent analytes from 2011 to 2013 were used in this present work. A first PCA was performed to assess how different the La Jara catchment is from Upper Redondo, Upper Jaramillo and History Grove based on the geochemistry of each basin. Prior the analysis the data needs to be normalized in order to avoid biasing towards extreme values. Since La Jara is the reference site for this analysis, its mean and standard deviation were used to normalized the data set of the other catchments. In order to simplify this analysis the two first principal components for each catchment were used to do the projections regardless how much of the variability can be explained. However future analyses are going to be performed with those

  5. Metamorphic evolution of migmatites from the deep Famatinian arc crust exposed in Sierras Valle Fértil La Huerta, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otamendi, J. E.; Tibaldi, A. M.; Vujovich, G. I.; Viñao, G. A.

    2008-05-01

    Meta-supracrustal migmatitic packages in the Sierras Valle Fértil-La Huerta of northwestern Argentina occur as wedge- or strip-shaped septa interlayered among mafic to intermediate igneous plutonic rocks. Meta-supracrustal rocks were metamorphosed under granulite-facies conditions during the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc, and are among the structurally deepest rocks exposed within the belt dominated by Ordovician plutonism. Petrographic analysis, mineral chemistry and whole rock geochemistry of granulite-facies migmatites are used to argue that the meta-supracrustal packages comprise a sequence of pelitic to quartzo-feldspathic sedimentary rocks that achieved peak metamorphic P- T conditions of 5.2-7.1 kbar and 770-840 °C. There are no resolvable differences in peak P- T conditions for migmatites separated 70 km along strike of the Sierras Valle Fértil and La Huerta, suggesting that similar levels of the Famatinian paleo-arc crust are currently exposed in these ranges. Idioblastic poikilitic garnets displaying weak to absent chemical zoning profiles developed at or close to the peak metamorphic stage are used in conjunction with petrogenetic grid constraints to interpret the prograde evolution. At the time the supracrustal rocks experienced maximum thermal conditions, they underwent dehydration partial melting. Microtextural features show that felsic melt (leucosome) back reacted with the adjacent coexisting mineral assemblage (mesosome). These observations are interpreted as evidence that the migmatites evolved through a continuous heating-cooling cycle with minor pressure change. This is consistent with the general lack of reaction textures denoting decompression at high temperatures, and with the possibility that in some migmatites retrograde reactions formed staurolite. Collectively, these features indicate that when the migmatites attained peak thermal conditions, the deepest exposed arc crust was about 20-25 km beneath the Ordovician surface

  6. Sedimentology and hydrology of a well-preserved paleoriver systems with a series of dam-breach paleolakes at Moa Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salese, Francesco; Di Achille, Gaetano; Neesemann, Adrian; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Hauber, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Moa Valles is a well-preserved paleodrainage system that is nearly 300-km-long and carved into ancient highland terrains west of Idaeus Fossae. The paleofluvial system apparently originated from fluidized ejecta blankets, and it consists of a series of dam-breach paleolakes with associated fan-shaped sedimentary deposits. This paleofluvial system shows a rich morphological record of hydrologic activity in the highlands of Mars. Based on crater counting the latter activity seems to be Amazonian in age (2.43 - 1.41 Ga). This work is based on a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Context camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) stereo images. Our goals are to (a) study the complex channel flow paths draining into Idaeus Fossae after forming a series of dam-breach paleolakes and to (b) investigate the origin and evolution of this valley system with its implications for climate and tectonic control. The first part of the system is characterized by many paleolakes, which are interconnected and drain eastward into Liberta crater, forming a complex and multilobate deltaic deposit exhibiting a well-developed channelized distributary pattern with evidence of switching on the delta plain. A breach area, consisting of three spillover channels, is present in the eastern part of the crater rim. These channels connect the Liberta crater to the eastward portion of the valley system, continuing toward Moa Valles with a complex pattern of anabranching channels that is more than 180-km-long. Our crater counting results and hydrological calculations of infilling and spillover discharges of the Liberta crater-lake suggest that the system is the result of an Early Amazonian water-rich environment that was likely sustained by relatively short fluvial events (<102 years), thereby supporting the hypotheses that water-related erosion might have been active on Mars (at least locally) during the Amazonian. The most important water source for the system could

  7. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  8. Volcanological investigation of the Banco Bonito eruption and subsurface geology of the ring fracture zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Final technical report, September 1, 1985-December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.; Wolff, J.; Kircher, D.

    1987-03-01

    A low-silica rhyolite eruptive sequence of 3 to 4 kmT (dense rock equivalent volume) forms the youngest volcanic event from the ring-fracture of the Valles caldera. STTh/STSTh - STYU/STSTh activity ratios determined for whole rock, glass, and mineral phases indicate that the magma system became closed isotopically approx.150 Ka. Other evidence from age dating supports an age for the eruption between 150 and 130 Ka. This event was of considerable duration with plinian and ignimbrite-forming activity preceding an effusive phase by a lengthy, but indeterminable, interval. The lava flow was emplaced onto a much-dissected surface cut into the E1 Cajete and Battleship Rock pyroclastic deposits. Twenty-four bulk-rock samples from all 3 eruptive stages exhibit little significant compositional variation, and the 3 units are petrographically identical (apart from differences arising from contrasting eruption styles). Nonetheless, phenocrysts and glasses exhibit substantial compositional variations and complex textural relations throughout the sequence. Very few phenocrysts appear to have been in equilibrium with the matrix rhyolitic liquid. The petrologic relationships are interpreted to result from partial melting of a pre-existing crustal igneous rock, probably of dioritic to granodioritic composition, and subsequent eruption of the resulting liquid and ''restite'' crystals. Kinetic arguments suggest a time-scale for magma production and eruption of the order of thousands of years.

  9. Fluid inclusion evidence for recent temperature increases at Fenton Hill hot dry rock test site west of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Masakatsu

    1989-02-01

    The fluid inclusions in calcite veins and those in quartz of the host Precambrian rocks from the GT-2 drill hole have been studied microthermometrically to determine the recent thermal history of the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock test site west of the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The calcite veins were collected from 1876 m and 2624 m depth. They contain primary liquid-rich inclusions and secondary liquid-rich and monophase liquid inclusions. The homogenization temperature ( T h) and final melting point of ice ( T m) of these inclusions and the secondary inclusions in quartz from the host Precambrian rocks were measured using α USGS-type gas flow heating/freezing stage. The CO 2 content was also determined semiquantitatively using a microscope crushing stage. The trapping temperature was determined on the isochore under the assumption of lithostatic pressure. NaCl eq. salinity was also determined from T m after correction for CO 2. Microthermometry of primary inclusions in calcite and secondary inclusions in quartz indicates that the calcite veins precipitated from low-salinity geothermal fluids at temperatures at least 10-15°C lower than the thermal maximum recorded in the secondary inclusions in quartz of the Precambrian rocks. The lowest temperature determined from the minimum trapping temperature of secondary inclusions in calcite is 26°C lower than the present borehole temperature of 178°C at 2624 m. After this cooling the temperature increased again up to the present geothermal profile.

  10. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez Fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) corehole VC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks intersected deep in Continental Scientific Drilling Program corehole VC-1, adjacent to the late Cenozoic Valles caldera complex, have been disrupted to form a spectacular breccia sequence. The breccias are of both tectonic and hydrothermal origin, and probably formed in the Jemez fault zone, a major regional structure with only normal displacement since mid-Miocene. Tectonic breccias are contorted, crushed, sheared, and granulated; slickensides are commmon. Hydrothermal breccias, by contrast, lack these frictional textures, but arej commonly characterized by fluidized matrix foliation and prominent clast rounding. Fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal breccias are dominantly two-phase, liquid-rich at room temperature, principally secondary, and form two distinctly different compositional groups. Older inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, are highly saline and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range 189 to 246/sup 0/C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize (also to liquid) in the range 230 to 283/sup 0/C. Vapor-rich inclusions locally trapped along with these dilute liquid-rich inclusions document periodic boiling. These fluid-inclusion data, together with alteration assemblages and textures as well as the local geologic history, have been combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site.

  11. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

  12. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  13. [Embryology and "official science": the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar to embryology during the first Francoism (1939-1959)].

    PubMed

    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar (1913-1998) to embryology during the first two decades of the Francoist dictatorship. Special attention is paid to the process by which the Spanish group, with the support of the new Superior National Research Council, made contact with the German morphology being developed by Hugo Spatz (1888-1979) at the Max Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung. Our study reveals the numerous influences that finally led to the anatomy and embryology of Escolar. In Spain, we found a direct influence of the Gegenbaurian morphology of Gumersindo Sánchez Guisande (1894-1976) and the neuroanatomy of Juan José Barcia Goyanes (1901-2003), full of references to studies by Braus. International contacts of the "Escolarian group", first with North America and then with Germany, created a homogeneous group with a single anatomy (functional and ontophylogenetic) but with so many research interests that subspecialisations had to be developed. An important embryological work resulted from an intense relationship with the German anatomical community during the 1950s. Escolar worked in this field on the development of the amygdala and allocortex, Fernando Reinoso studied the embryology of the diencephalon and Smith Victor Agreda, along with the German scientist Rudolf Diepen, made some important discoveries on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.

  14. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs Thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.; Implication for structure of the western Caldera and for CSAMT methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    We have carried Out an extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. This survey, consisting of 45 high-quality sites, has been acquired by in support of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter dipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 kW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. The electric bipoles parallel to each profile were deployed contiguously to ensure against spatial aliasing of the impedance response corresponding to current flow across structural trends. The frequency range of acquisition was 4096 Hz down to 1 Hz for the central line, but only down to 4 Hz for most sites of the other lines. Data quality is high overall and is established by repeatability of measurements. Agreement between the CSAMT and available natural field MT data is very good over almost all the period range of overlap indicating that we are free of calibration problems and that far-field results are generally being obtained. Non plane-wave effects in the CSAMT around Sulphur Springs are apparent at 1 to 2 Hz, and perhaps slightly even at 4 Hz, however, which is near the bottom of our frequency range. CSAMT and MT data taken outside the Valles Caldera to the west were modeled in an attempt to compare resistivity structure exterior to the caldera to that within. With the availability of tensor CSAMT and MT data both inside and outside Valles Caldera, assumptions and methods of CSAMT are tested. In the Sulphur Springs area, near-coincident CSAMT and MT data near well VC -2B indicate that non-lane-wave effects in the apparent resistivity and impedance phase occure at a frequency near to that predicted from the resistivity structure local to the wester caldera.

  15. Shallow geothermal investigations into the existence of the Valles Caldera outflow plume near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, north-central, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaz, Robert Ezekiel

    Geothermal research within the Jemez Mountains spans several decades and is documented in many papers. This study serves to extend the research boundary to the south and east outside of Valles caldera and Canon de San Diego, where the main occurrences of geothermal activity are located. The focus of this investigation is to test for a deep ~900 m, stratigraphically-bound thermal aquifer within the Madera Limestone along the western margin of the Santo Domingo basin transition zone near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, in north-central New Mexico. Numerous springs were sampled for aqueous geochemistry to identify leakage of a deeper geothermal aquifer into shallow aquifers. Wells were sampled for temperature anomalies. In addition, two travertine deposits were analyzed for stable isotope composition and one deposit was dated using U-Series techniques to assess the timing and origin of deposition. This study is important because researchers in other extensional basins have identified reasonably good geothermal reservoirs in deep carbonate aquifers that are similar in geologic setting to the Madera Limestone aquifer of this study. The existence of a deep geothermal aquifer near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico could prove to be another prospect for geothermal exploration in the Jemez Mountains. Aqueous geochemistry of springs are plotted on ternary Piper diagrams to help classify similar geochemical trends and group these trends into recognizable patterns. These data indicate calcium carbonate rich waters in the north that may gradationally change to alkaline type waters as they flow south through the study area. Contrasting this data, SiO2 and TDS concentrations show two separate systems that may indicate separate confined aquifers. Two distinct TDS regions are observed, one with higher concentrations (>1000 ppm) shows a decrease from N-S and one with lower concentrations (<600 ppm) shows an increase from N-S. The data indicate that the waters can be classified as

  16. Geology and petrology of a deep crustal zone from the Famatinian paleo-arc, Sierras de Valle Fértil and La Huerta, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otamendi, J. E.; Vujovich, G. I.; de la Rosa, J. D.; Tibaldi, A. M.; Castro, A.; Martino, R. D.; Pinotti, L. P.

    2009-04-01

    The ranges of the Sierras Valle Fértil-La Huerta expose natural cross sections through a paleo-arc crust that formed in the Late Cambrian - Early Ordovician Famatinian magmatic arc, northwestern Argentina. Thick mafic sequences of amphibole gabbronorites to orthopyroxene-amphibole-biotite diorites form the lower levels of the exposed paleo-arc section. This mafic unit includes lens-shaped bodies of olivine-bearing cumulate rocks and tabular-shaped sill/dike intrusions of fine-grained chilled amphibole gabbro. The mafic magmas were emplaced into regional metasedimentary sequences at lower crustal levels, corresponding to pressure from 5 to 7 kbar. Gabbronorites likely representing the parental magmas that fluxed into the exposed paleo-arc crust differ from primitive magmatic arc rocks in having somewhat lower Mg-number ( ca. 0.60) and compatible (Cr and Ni) trace element contents, and slightly higher Al 2O 3 contents. This difference is taken to indicate that a pyroxene-rich olivine-bearing assemblage with a bulk high Mg/Fe ratio and low Al 2O 3 content crystallized from mantle-derived melts before mafic magmas reached the crustal levels currently exhumed. However, some gabbronorites have incompatible trace element signatures typical of primitive mafic arc magmatism. Igneous rocks to some extent more evolved than those of the mafic unit make up a tonalite-dominated intermediate unit. The intermediate unit consists of a heterogeneous suite that ranges from orthopyroxene-bearing amphibole-rich diorites to biotite-rich amphibole-poor tonalites. Within the intermediate unit, chilled mafic rocks are found as a network of dikes, whereas metasedimentary migmatites appear interlayered as m-wide septa and km-long strips. The tonalite-dominated intermediate unit passes into a granodiorite batholith through a transitional zone that is up to 2-km wide. The boundary zone separating the tonalite-dominated and granodiorite-dominated units is characterized by mingling of tonalitic

  17. Variation of the 3-μm absorption feature on Mars: observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the mariner 6 infrared spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach for calibration of the shortest wavelength channel (1.8 to 6.0 μm) of the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer was derived. This calibration provides a new description of the instrument response function from 1.8 to 3.7 μm and accounts for the thermal contribution to the signal at longer wavelengths. This allows the two segments from 1.8 to 6 μm to be merged into a single spectrum. The broad water of hydration absorption spans these two segments and is examined in these merged spectra using a method of band integration. Unlike previous analyses which rely on ratios at two wavelengths, the integration method can assess the band strength independently from the albedo in the near infrared. Spectra taken over the eastern end of the Valles Marineris are examined for variations of the band-integrated value, and three distinct clusters are found. Within the estimated uncertainty, two clusters (both low and high albedo) have approximately the same integrated band depth. The third cluster (medium albedo) has an integrated band depth about 10% higher. This difference cannot be systematically attributed to either surface or atmospheric parameters and suggests variation in the amount of water either chemically or physically bound in surface materials. Approximately one-half of the high integrated band depth cluster is associated with chaotic terrain at the source of outflow channels, the other half occurs over lower inertia plains adjacent to chasmata. This suggests both surface physical properties and mineralogy as well as water in exchange with the atmosphere contribute to the 3-μm bound water absorption.

  18. The Simud-Tiu Valles hydrologic system: A multidisciplinary study of a possible site for future Mars on-site exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Rossato, Sandro; Baratti, Emanuele; Mangili, Clara; Mancarella, Francesca; McBride, Karen; Coradini, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    When looking for traces of past life on Mars, we have to look primarily for places where water was present, possibly for long time intervals. The Simud and Tiu Valles are two large outflow channels connected to the north with the Chryse Basin, Oxia Palus quadrangle. The area, carved by water during the Noachian/Early Hesperian is characterized by a complex geological evolution. The geomorphological analysis shows the presence of fluvial and alluvial structures, interpreted as fluvial channels and terraces, debris flow fronts and short-lasting small water flows coexisting with maar-diatremes and mud volcanoes. Several morphological features indicate a change in water flux direction after the main erosive phase. During this period water originated from the Masursky crater and flown southwards into the Hydraotes Chaos. This phenomenon caused the studied area to become a depocenter where fine-grained material deposition took place, possibly in association with ponding water. This setting is potentially quite valuable as traces of life may have been preserved. The presence of water at various times over a period of about 1 Ga in the area is corroborated by mineralogical analyses of different areas that indicate the possible presence of hydrated minerals mixtures, such as sulfate-bearing deposits. Given the uniqueness of the evolution of this region, the long term interactions between fluvial, volcanic, and tectonic processes and its extremely favorable landing parameters (elevation, slope, roughness, rock distribution, thermal inertia, albedo, etc.), we decided to propose this location as a possible landing site for the ESA ExoMars 2018, the NASA Mars 2020 and future on-site missions.

  19. Late-glacial and Holocene high-altitude environmental changes in Vallée des Merveilles (Alpes-Maritimes, France): insect evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponel, Philippe; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Parchoux, Franck; Juhasz, Imola; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis

    2001-12-01

    A series of sedimentary profiles derived from the Lac Long Inférieur peat-bog (2090 m altitude, southern Alps) enabled the tracing of the evolution of successive fossil insect assemblages (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera Formicidae, Diptera Bibionidae, Trichoptera, Megaloptera and Nevroptera) from the Würm deglaciation to the present in this part of Vallée des Merveilles. This evolution reflects the climatic changes and hence the vegetation changes, as well as the human impact on the environment since neolithic times. During deglaciation, an episode marked by very poor fossil insect assemblages was followed by one with abundant boreo-alpine Coleoptera dependent on melting snow and steppe Coleoptera. This episode corresponds to the Younger Dryas climatic deterioration (10 970 +/- 210yr BP; 10 430 +/- 210yr BP) during which a steppe vegetation prevailed. The sudden fall in the number of insects belonging to cold environments marks the beginning of the Holocene warming. During the Preboreal and the Boreal period (8801 +/- 54 yr BP; 8692 +/- 53 yr BP) these insects disappear almost totally. On the other hand, Coleoptera mostly living at the tree-line and at forest margins increase and reach a maximum at the end of the Boreal. Thereafter (Atlantic, 8087 +/- 58yr BP; 5678 +/- 50yr BP) they decrease to the benefit of forest insects. This development corresponds to an elevation of the tree-line during the Atlantic and the Sub-boreal (4770 +/- 300yr BP; 3740 +/- 160yr BP) and to a thicker forest cover. Coleoptera dependent on Abies and Larix appear at this time. The final entomological event occurs at the end of the Sub-boreal and in the Subatlantic (2660 +/- 190yr BP): it is characterised by a regular decrease of tree-dependent taxa. This development is attributed to human action.

  20. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  1. Formes hémorragiques graves de la fièvre de la vallée du Rift: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Fall-Malick, Fatimetou Zahra; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Mokhtar, Abdelwedoud

    2016-01-01

    La fièvre de la vallée du Rift (FVR) est une arbovirose due à un virus à ARN appartenant à la famille de Bunyaviridae (genre phlebovirus). C'est une zoonose touchant principalement les animaux mais pouvant aussi contaminer l'homme, soit directement par la manipulation des viandes ou avortons d'animaux malades ou indirectement par la piqure de moustiques infectées (Aèdes sp, anophèles sp, Culex sp). Dans la majorité des cas, l'infection humaine à FVR est asymptomatique, mais elle peut également se manifester par un syndrome fébrile modérée d’évolution favorable. Néanmoins, certains patients peuvent développer un syndrome hémorragique et/ou des lésions neurologiques d’évolution mortelle. Nous décrivons l’évolution de cinq cas de patients atteints de la FVR, admis dans le service de médecine interne du Centre Hospitalier National de Nouakchott (Mauritanie), le mois d'Octobre 2015 et présentant tous, un syndrome hémorragique dans un contexte fébrile. L’évolution n’était favorable que pour 2 des cinq patients. Les 3 autres sont décédés, deux dans un tableau de choc hémorragique et dans un état de choc septique. PMID:27642413

  2. Optimal design of monitoring networks for multiple groundwater quality parameters using a Kalman filter: application to the Irapuato-Valle aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S; González-Hita, L; Cardona, A; Mora-Rodríguez, J

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the optimal design of groundwater quality monitoring networks is introduced in this paper. Various indicator parameters were considered simultaneously and tested for the Irapuato-Valle aquifer in Mexico. The steps followed in the design were (1) establishment of the monitoring network objectives, (2) definition of a groundwater quality conceptual model for the study area, (3) selection of the parameters to be sampled, and (4) selection of a monitoring network by choosing the well positions that minimize the estimate error variance of the selected indicator parameters. Equal weight for each parameter was given to most of the aquifer positions and a higher weight to priority zones. The objective for the monitoring network in the specific application was to obtain a general reconnaissance of the water quality, including water types, water origin, and first indications of contamination. Water quality indicator parameters were chosen in accordance with this objective, and for the selection of the optimal monitoring sites, it was sought to obtain a low-uncertainty estimate of these parameters for the entire aquifer and with more certainty in priority zones. The optimal monitoring network was selected using a combination of geostatistical methods, a Kalman filter and a heuristic optimization method. Results show that when monitoring the 69 locations with higher priority order (the optimal monitoring network), the joint average standard error in the study area for all the groundwater quality parameters was approximately 90 % of the obtained with the 140 available sampling locations (the set of pilot wells). This demonstrates that an optimal design can help to reduce monitoring costs, by avoiding redundancy in data acquisition.

  3. Geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines, Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2017-03-09

    The Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines are located in Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri, where barite and lead ore are present together in surficial and near-surface deposits. Lead mining in the area began in the early 1700’s and extended into the early 1900’s. Hand mining of lead in the residuum resulted in widespread pits (also called shafts or diggings), and there was some underground mining of lead in bedrock. By the 1860’s barite was recovered from the residuum by hand mining, also resulting in widespread diggings, but generally not underground mines in bedrock. Mechanized open-pit mining of the residuum for barite began in the 1920’s. Barite production slowed by the 1980’s, and there has not been any barite mining since 1998. Mechanized barite mining resulted in large mined areas and tailings ponds containing waste from barite mills.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that lead is present in surface soils in Washington and Jefferson Counties at concentrations exceeding health-based screening levels. Also, elevated concentrations of barium, arsenic, and cadmium have been identified in surface soils, and lead concentrations exceeding the Federal drinking-water standard of 15 micrograms per liter have been identified in private drinking-water wells. Potential sources of these contaminants are wastes associated with barite mining, wastes associated with lead mining, or unmined natural deposits of barium, lead, and other metals. As a first step in helping EPA determine the source of soil and groundwater contamination, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, investigated the geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines.Ore minerals are barite (barium sulfate), galena (lead sulfide), cerussite (lead carbonate), anglesite (lead sulfate), sphalerite (zinc sulfide), smithsonite (zinc carbonate), and chalcopyrite (copper

  4. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  5. Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosà (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d'Aosta Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casale, Giuseppe R; Siani, Anna Maria; Diémoz, Henri; Agnesod, Giovanni; Parisi, Alfio V; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal exposures of skiers at the Alpine site of Plateau Rosà (45.9°N, 7.7°E, 3500 m a.s.l.), in the Valle d'Aosta region, Italy. The campaign was carried out on July 12th, 2011 during the summer ski season. A peak UVI value of 12.3, among the highest in Europe, was recorded on that day. Personal exposures (PE) were quantified using both polysulphone (PS) and poly-dimethyl phenylene oxide (PPO) dosimeters attached vertically to the cap because it is representative of the vertically oriented face of skiers. Exposure ratio (ER) defined as the ratio between PE and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) measured by a broad-band radiometer during the same exposure time of the subjects, was used to compare the results with previous studies. Skin color was also measured on the inner upper arm and on the cheek and differences in ITA (Individual Typology Angle) and a* (redness) values before and after exposure, were statistically analyzed. During the exposure period, the median PE (with PS) was 1.47 kJ m(-2) and that obtained by PPO was 1.15 kJ m(-2). The median of the ERs was 0.65 (min: 0.50, max: 0.83) considering the cumulative PS exposure and 0.46 (min: 0.29, max: 0.95) for PPO. An increase in ITAs on the exposed site (i.e. the skin became lighter) was observed after exposure. These results indicate that: a) for some skiers, the exposures were similar to those received on the horizontal plane; and b) the targeted population showed exposures above the occupational threshold limit value (TLV) defined by ICNIRP; c) the use of physical sunscreens which tend to leave a white cast, might have reduced skin color change. Nevertheless possible visible sun-induced skin-color changes could be observed after longer time intervals after exposure.

  6. Decoupling of the Assimilation and Fractionation Signatures in a MASH Zone: Evidence from the Sierra Valle Fértil Mafic Zone, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. A., Jr.; Bergantz, G. W.; Otamendi, J.; Ducea, M. N.; Cristofolini, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierra Valle Fértil (SVF) in northern Argentina is a tilted Ordovician fossil arc complex with continuous exposure from paleodepths of ~10 km to ~30 km. The system is layered when viewed at a large scale: shallow, granodiorite plutons give way to a heterogeneous granodiorite-tonalite zone, which in turn grades into a gabbro-tonalite zone at the base of the section. A metapelitic country rock package is interlayered throughout the magmatic complex, allowing for determination of emplacement depths within the section. Our work focuses on the lowermost domain of the SVF, as it preserves what we consider to be a frozen example of a MASH zone. Here, dominant rock types are hornblende gabbronorite and tonalitie variants, which appear to be interfingered as dm- to 10s of m-scale sheets. Mappable ultramafic pods containing dunites, websterites, troctolites, and minor anorthosites are also present. Field relations are consistent with a complex series of intrusive events. Much of the SVF mafic zone compositional array can be modeled by fractional crystallization where the mafic rocks are cumulate assemblages and the intermediate rocks are the daughter magmas. Amphibole and, perhaps more importantly, Fe-Ti oxide crystallization are likely the principal agents of silica enrichment. Metapelitic rocks exposed throughout the SVF are likely the vestiges of a country rock package that was melted (or reacted) and incorporated into SVF magmas, but field and compositional evidence for assimilation is cryptic in the mafic zone. While isotopic data (Sr, Nd, O) seem to implicate crustal contributions to the SVF mafic zone, incompatible major and trace elements typically associated with an "assimilation signature" (e.g., K, Rb, Ba) are sparse. Such elements are abundant in the metapelites and in igneous rocks farther up section. We interpret this isotopic and elemental decoupling as a byproduct of prolonged MASH processes in the lower crust. A high temperature and an increasingly

  7. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  8. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1988-06-01

    An unusual breccia sequence penetrated in the lower 30 m of Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1 (total depth 856 m) records a complex hydrothermal history culminating in hydraulic rock rupture and associated alteration at the edge of the Quaternary Valles caldera. The breccias, both tectonic and hydrothermal in origin, were formed in the Jemez fault zone, near the intersection of this major regional structure with the caldera's ring-fracture margin. Tectonic breccias in the sequence are contorted, crushed, and sheared. Coexisting hydrothermal breccias lack such frictional textures but display matrix flow foliation and prominent clast rounding, features characteristic of fluidization. These hydrothermal breccias were intensely altered, during at least five major stages, to quartz-illite-phengite-pyrite aggregates; traces of molybdenite occur locally. This assemblage indicates interaction with hydrothermal fluid at temperatures in excess of 200°C. The extrapolated present maximum temperature of 184°C in the breccia zone therefore represents considerable cooling since these phases were formed. Fluid inclusions in the breccias also preserve evidence of the prior passage of hotter fluids. The inclusions are principally two phase, liquid rich, secondary in origin, and concentrated in hydrothermal quartz. Older, high-salinity inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, homogenize in the temperature range 189°-246°C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize in the temperature range 230°-283°C; locally coexisting liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions document periodic boiling of the dilute fluids. These fluid-inclusion data, along with the probable age of the hydrothermal breccias (<1.5 Ma), the assumed depth at which they developed (about 515 m), and the contemporaneous state of stress (extensional) can be combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site. The minimum fluid pressure (Pfr) required to

  9. Genetic relationships among calving ease, gestation length, and calf survival to weaning in the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the genetic relationships among calving ease (CE), calf survival (CS), and gestation length (GL) to assess the possibility of including this information in beef cattle breeding programs. A total of 35,395 field records were available for CE, 30,684 for GL, and 36,132 for CS from the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed. The 3 traits were analyzed as traits of the calf fitting a multivariate linear mixed model. Estimates of heritability (+/-SE) for the direct genetic effects (CEd, GLd, and CSd) were 0.325 +/- 0.022, 0.331 +/- 0.026, and 0.226 +/- 0.018, respectively, whereas the estimates for maternal genetic effects (CEm, GLm, and CSm) were 0.066 +/- 0.018, 0.066 +/- 0.017, and 0.034 +/- 0.011. The estimates for the ratio of permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance were CEc 0.090 +/- 0.011, GLc 0.066 +/- 0.011, and CSc 0.024 +/- 0.007. Genetic correlations between direct, maternal genetic, or permanent environmental effects involving CE and GL were, in general, positive and moderate, whereas those involving CE and CS were high. All were significant except for the pair CEm-GLm (0.277 +/- 0.172). Correlations between GL and CS were nonsignificant. Genetic correlations for CEd-CEm, GLd-GLm, and CSd-CSm were negative and high, ranging from -0.461 +/- 0.120 for GLd-GLm to -0.821 +/- 0.145 for CSd-CSm. The genetic correlations for CEd-CSm and for CSd-CEm were negative, significant, and high, whereas that for GLd-CEm was moderate (-0.323 +/- 0.124) and that for GLd-CSm was nonsignificant. The genetic correlations for GLm with the direct effects of the other traits were non-significant. Strong selection for CE will result in a significant correlated response in CS. Therefore, CE can be considered an early indicator of CS performance. The benefit of using GL as a correlated trait in a genetic evaluation with CE and CS seems limited.

  10. Debris-flow susceptibility assessment through cellular automata modeling: an example from 15Â 16 December 1999 disaster at Cervinara and San Martino Valle Caudina (Campania, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, G.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, V.

    On 15-16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy), triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000). Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI -Hydrogeological setting plan, in press), an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones"). Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3-hex - a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966), specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002). In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices); moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3-hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial volume for these new cases

  11. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  12. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of Quaternary volcanic rocks and Late Paleozoic strata, VC-1 core hole, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, with emphasis on remagnetization of Late Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    1988-06-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data obtained from azimuthally unoriented core samples, collected at approximately 1- to 3-m intervals, of Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1 have prompted reinterpretations of the Quaternary volcanic stratigraphy intersected by the bore and have aided in evaluating the thermal regime within late Paleozoic strata attending fluid circulation and mineral deposition during and after development of the Toledo and Valles calderas. The results from Quaternary units (Banco Bonito Obsidian: I = +35.4°, a95 = 2.8° (inclination only determinations), n = 33; Battleship Rock Tuff: D = 359.6°, I = +42.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 5 site means (surface sites); VC-1 Rhyolite: I = +39.2°, a95 = 12.8°, n = 7; Upper VC-1 Tuff: I = +37.2°, a95 = 10.7°, n = 13; Middle VC-1 Tuff: I = +42.1°, a95 = 2.1°, n = 39; South Mountain Rhyolite: D = 350.9°, I = +49.9°, a95 = 3.4°, n = 10 (one surface site)) are consistent with isotopic age data, indicating that the entire moat volcanic sequence intersected is less than 650 kyr. Monitoring of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity, NRM directions, directions of magnetizations isolated during progressive demagnetization, median destructive forces, and rock magnetization parameters has identified systematic variations within the thick Banco Bonito Obsidian and VC-1 Tuff units. The Permian Abo Formation, Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian Madera Limestone, and Pennsylvanian Sandia Formation typically contain a moderate positive inclination magnetization component (Abo Formation: I = +52.2°, a95 = 7.4°, n = 16; Madera Limestone: I = +58.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 105; Sandia Formation: I = +53.9°, a95 = 4.8°, n = 21); when residing in magnetite, it is usually unblocked in the laboratory by 350°C; when carried by hematite it is unblocked by 550°C. A moderate negative inclination (e.g., Madera and Abo strata: D = 173.1°, I = -46.6°, a95 = 5.5°; n = 47 samples; assuming a north seeking

  13. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  14. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is

  15. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde

  16. Flow directions in ash-flow tuffs: a comparison of geological and magnetic susceptibility measurements, Tshirege member (upper Bandelier Tuff), Valles caldera, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonadl, W. D.; Palmer, H. C.

    1990-12-01

    This study concludes that the elongation axis ( K 1) of the ellipsoid of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is a suitable proxy for flow axis in ashflow tuffs. 153 oriented samples (176 specimens) were studied from 18 sites in the 1.1 Ma Tshirege member of the Bandelier Tuff. These sites are distributed around the Valles caldera at distances of 5 25 km outside of the rim. K 1 axes correlate well with postulated radial flow axes at 13 sites. K 1 also agrees with measured geological flow indicators, mainly imbricated larger clasts, at 7 sites. At 2 of the 5 sites where significant disagreement is seen between theoretical radial flow directions and measured K 1 axes, the K 1 axes correspond well with geological flow indicators, indicating that the divergence of flow from the predicted radial flow pattern is real. Two major topographic buttresses are suggested as the cause of flow divergence for the Tshirege ash flows: the San Pedro buttress northwest of the caldera, and the San Miguel buttress in the southeast. In situ K 1 axes plunge about 7° toward the source at two-thirds of the sites; therefore the plunge of K 1 is a plausible in situ indicator for the direction of flow. Multiple flow zones in sections of several meters thickness indicate changes of flow direction that are both rapid and large during ash-flow emplacement. These observations raisre the question of how best to represent ‘mean’ flow directions in ash-flow sheets: by eigenvector methods, by vector-sum methods, or by modes. A method for measuring imbrication of larger clasts using apparent dips in vertical joints is outlined. Imbrication, determined in this way at one-third of the sites, dips toward the source, i.e., up-flow. The minimum ( K 3) axis of the AMS ellipsoid correlates with the flow foliation rather than with the larger clast imbrication. The flow axes of ash flows correspond with the K 1 axes, not with the declination of K 3 axes as suggested by some authors. Initial dip of the

  17. Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1979-01-01

    The morphology of the landslides in the Martian equatorial troughs, the geologic structure of the troughs, the time of emplacement, the similarity to terrestrial landslides, and the origin and mechanism of transport are analyzed. About 35 large landslides well-resolved on Viking images were examined, and it is found that the major landslides cover 31,000 sq km of the trough floors, and individual slides range in area from 40 to 7000 sq km. The morphologic variations of the landslides can be attributed mainly to their degree of confinement on trough floors. Many prominent landslides appear to be of similar age and were emplaced after a major faulting that dropped the trough floors. Most sliding occurred after the created scarps were dissected into spurs, gullies, and tributary canyons. Emplacement of the landslides approximately coincided with a late episode of major eruptive activity of the Tharsis volcanoes, and it is suggested that the slides may have originated as gigantic mudflows with slump blocks at their heads. The large size of many landslides is due to the fault scarps as high as 7 km on which they formed in the absence of vigorous fluvial erosion. The landslides suggest that Mars is earthlike in some respects, which may be important for further evaluations.

  18. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  19. The Confluence of Gangis and Eos Chasmas (5-12 deg S, 31-41 deg W): Geologic, Hydrologic, and Exobiologic Considerations for Landing Site at the East End of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Clifford, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Over its 3,500 km length, Valles Marineris exhibits an enormous range of geologic and environmental diversity. At its western end, the canyon is dominated by the tectonic complex of Noctis Labyrinthus; while in the east it grades into an extensive region of chaos where scoured channels and streamlined islands provide evidence of catastrophic floods that spilled into the northern plains. In the central portion of the system, debris derived from the massive interior layered deposits of Candor and Ophir Chasmas spills into the central trough. In other areas, 6 km-deep exposures of Hesperian and Noachian-age canyon wall stratigraphy have collapsed in massive landslides that extend many tens of kilometers across the canyon floor. Ejecta from interior craters, aeolian sediments, and possible volcanics emanating from structurally controlled vents along the base of the scarps, further contribute to the canyon's geologic complexity. Following the initial rifting that gave birth to Valles Marineris, water appears to have been a principal agent in the canyon's geomorphic development an agent whose significance is given added weight by its potential role in both sustaining and preserving evidence of past life. In this regard, the interior layered deposits of Candor, Ophir, and Hebes Chasmas, have been identified as possible lucustrine sediments that may have been laid down in long-standing ice-covered lakes. The potential survival and growth of native organisms in such an environment, or in the aquifers whose disruption gave birth to the chaotic terrain and outflow channels to the north and east of the canyon, raises the possibility that fossil indicators of life may be present in the local sediment and rock. Because of the enormous distances over which these diverse environments occur, identifying a single landing site that maximizes the opportunity for scientific return is not a simple task. However, given the fluvial history and narrow geometry of the canyon, the presence

  20. Changes in Precipitation Sources over Glacial/Interglacial MIS 11 and 12 Examined by Δ17O of SiO2 Obtained from Diatoms along the Valles Caldera Lake Core, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, J.; Sharp, Z. D.; Fawcett, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of the isotopic composition of paleo-lake water have been made using 18O/16O (ẟ18O) in diatom silica (Dodd and Sharp, GCA, 2010). Post-mortem diatom silica equilibrates with ambient lake water within six months, chronicling the bulk oxygen isotope composition of the lake and resulting in silica that is near the quartz-water fractionation line (Dodd et al, GGG, 2012). The δ18O values of lacustrine diatoms from the Valles Caldera, NM, vary by ~25‰ between glacial and interglacial periods and suggest a collapse of the summer monsoon that currently provides 50% of the modern precipitation in NM. Triple oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica may serve as a proxy for the isotopic composition of the lake water and as an estimate of paleo-humidity over the precipitation source. The deuterium excess parameter (d= ẟD - 8 ẟ18O) has been used along ice cores as a source relative humidity index, but is difficult to make in lake sediments. Instead, high precision 17O-excess (∆17O) measurements (=ẟ17O - 0.528 ẟ18O) may provide paleo-humidity information. Landais et al. (GRL, 2008) found a ∆17O difference of 0.02‰ in the Vostok ice core between glacial and interglacial times, interpreted as a function of changing relative humidity of the precipitation source. A 0.03‰ change was observed in glacial (∆17O=-0.22‰) and interglacial (∆17O=-0.19‰) diatom silica along the Valles Caldera lake core. Further information regarding the δ18O value of meteoric water can be calculated from paired δ18O-δ17O measurements. The combined δ18O-δ17O values of interglacial diatoms suggest a δ18Ometeoric water value of -9‰. Modern δ18O value of monsoonal precipitation in NM is ~-10‰. The δ18O of glacial diatoms suggest a δ18Ometeoric water = -20‰. Modern δ18O value of winter precipitation in NM is ~-20‰. These results suggest that the seasonality of precipitation in New Mexico can be inferred based on changes in the relative

  1. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  2. Study of phyllosilicates and carbonates from the Capri Chasma region of Valles Marineris on Mars based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (MRO-CRISM) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nirmala; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-04-01

    Spectral reflectance data from the MRO-CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) of Capri Chasma, a large canyon within Valles Marineris on Mars, have been studied. Results of this analysis reveal the presence of minerals, such as, phyllosilicates (illite, smectite (montmorillonite)) and carbonates (ankerite and manganocalcite). These minerals hint of the aqueous history of Noachian time on Mars. Phyllosilicates are products of chemical weathering of igneous rocks, whereas carbonates could have formed from local aqueous alteration of olivine and other igneous minerals. Four different locations within the Capri Chasma region were studied for spectral reflectance based mineral detection. The study area also shows the spectral signatures of iron-bearing minerals, e.g. olivine with carbonate, indicating partial weathering of parent rocks primarily rich in ferrous mineral. The present study shows that the minerals of Capri Chasma are characterized by the presence of prominent spectral absorption features at 2.31 μm, 2.33 μm, 2.22 μm, 2.48 μm and 2.52 μm wavelength regions, indicating the existence of hydrous minerals, i.e., carbonates and phyllosilicates. The occurrence of carbonates and phyllosilicates in the study area suggests the presence of alkaline environment during the period of their formation. Results of the study are important to understand the formation processes of these mineral assemblages on Mars, which may help in understanding the evolutionary history of the planet.

  3. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  4. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  5. Interdisciplinary approach on evaluation and sustainable usage of the water resources in the semi-arid Northwest Mexico to counter the imbalance of water: Case study Valle de Guadalupe, Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Hernandez, R.; Valenzuela, C.; Cabello, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the Baja California peninsula are several watersheds present, of which the hydrogeological conditions are of great importance to communities in the area. The Valle de Guadalupe watershed, for instance has a wine industry of national importance. Irrigation of crops is carried out exclusively with water from the aquifer, which consists of Quaternary sediments filling this depression of Post-Miocene age. Apart from the use of the aquifer by the wine industry, the water utility of Ensenada operates 10 drinking water wells with a total capacity of 320 L/s or 42% of supply in the valley. In the arid northern Mexico mountain front recharge is an important recharge source to the aquifers. Other important recharge sources are related to direct infiltration of the precipitation, recharge from runoff into streams (mountain block recharge) and the provision by active faults. The knowledge of the aquifer is crucial to maintain sustainable management of water resources in the Valle de Guadalupe. This intense use of water resources is reflected in a degradation of the aquifer water quality and reduced water table. The integrated approach for a sustainable evaluation and usage of the aquifer includes besides the hydrogeological evaluation, the determination of the water stress on the vineyards as well as the usage of treated waste water as alternative resource as well the evaluation of the effects of climatic variations and measurement and modeling of the vegetation, the main interface between atmosphere and soil, affecting the hydrology in the process of interception, infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration. With these detailed ongoing studies we expect to identify and counter imbalance of water in the study area. This requires 1) modeling and hydrogeological studies for the determination of the present and future imbalance 2) estimation of the impacts of industrial activities on water resources 3) characterization of alternative water sources, 4) optimization of the water

  6. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  7. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  8. New dental remains of Hispanopithecus laietanus (Primates: Hominidae) from Can Llobateres 1 and the taxonomy of Late Miocene hominoids from the Vallès-Penedès Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Almécija, Sergio; Robles, Josep M; Arias-Martorell, Júlia; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2012-07-01

    Here we report 12 teeth of the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus (Hominidae: Dryopithecinae: Hispanopithecini), recovered in 2011 from the locality of Can Llobateres 1 (MN9, early Vallesian, Late Miocene, ca. 9.7 Ma [millions of years ago]) in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, Spain). Besides an isolated dP(3) from layer CLL1.1b in the eastern (classical) sector of the site, all of the remaining teeth come from facies CLL1.0 (roughly equivalent to CLL1.2 and CLL1.1b), located in the newly excavated western sector, and representing at least two different individuals. Based on facet congruence and degree of wear, all of the upper cheek teeth, a central incisor and a lateral incisor most likely correspond to a single young adult individual of unknown sex, whereas a very worn I(2) and a female C(1) represent one or two additional individual(s). Morphological and metrical comparisons allow us to attribute these remains to Hispanopithecus laietanus, which is the single hominoid species recognized at CLL1. The newly described teeth represent a significant addition to the hypodigm of this taxon, enabling us to more completely assess the degree of variation displayed by several teeth. In light of the new specimens, the previous tooth position assignment of several upper molars from Can Llobateres and Can Poncic is revised, and the criteria employed to distinguish Hispanopithecus crusafonti from H. laietanus are critically evaluated. On the basis of the available upper cheek teeth from these localities, a distinction at the species level between both samples is tentatively favored, mainly on the basis of P(3), M(1) and M(2) proportions as well as I(1) lingual morphology and proportions. The results of the 2011 field season unambiguously confirm that hominoid-bearing fossiliferous layers from CLL1 are not exhausted. Additional excavations at this site are promising for the discovery of additional remains of H. laietanus in the near future.

  9. Mechanics of back arc deformation in Costa Rica: Evidence from an aftershock study of the April 22, 1991, Valle de la Estrella, Costa Rica, earthquake (Mw =7.7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, Marino; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    1994-10-01

    The April 22, 1991, Mw=7.7 Valle de la Estrella, Costa Rica, earthquake represents back arc thrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath the Panama block along the North Panama Thrust Belt. Large back arc thrusting events are quite rare, occurring in only two other locations along the Sunda Arc and Japan Sea. To better understand the mechanics of back arc thrusting, we constrain the faulting geometry associated with the 1991 Costa Rica earthquake using aftershock locations and focal mechanisms obtained from a three-component portable digital network deployed in and around the aftershock area following the mainshock. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reveals a complicated faulting geometry in the rupture area. Focal mechanisms determined from inversion of P wave and tangentially and radially polarized S wave (SH and SV, respectively) amplitudes recorded by this temporary network confirm fault complexity and indicate active thrust, normal and strike-slip faults in the back arc of Costa Rica. Most of the thrust events are confined to the southern portion of the aftershock zone in the vicinity of the mainshock. Their distribution suggests the existence of a near-horizontal basal fault plane at a depth of about 15 km, with many imbricate faults having steeper dips extending from the basal plane toward the surface. Events with strike-slip mechanisms locate northwest of the thrust events and define a SW-NE trending, left-lateral strike-slip fault zone that represents the NW termination of the mainshock rupture and possibly the maximum NW extension of the Panama block. The superposition of the aftershock locations on a geologic map of the region shows that aftershocks are restricted to occur in the older, more competent rock units (volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks interbedded with carbonates) of the back arc sedimentary basin. Shallow events (depth<5 km) occur only where these oldest units are exposed at the surface. This suggests that (1) exposure of the lower units

  10. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  11. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  12. Crater in the Mangala Valles Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 26 May 2003

    Just south of the 2 km high main mass of the Medusae Fossae Formation, in a region dissected by channels, lies an unnamed crater that may have been filled by mud. A channel spills into this crater on its eastern side and may have delivered the material that now covers the floor of the crater. The subdued ridges may be wrinkle ridges in a preexisting lava flow that are now covered by a layer of sediment. The cracked surface is evidence for the subsequent deposition of mud.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 206.7 East (153.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Valles Caldera National Preserve Management Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Tom [D-NM

    2013-02-12

    09/10/2013 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 174. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Valles Caldera National Preserve Management Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2011-03-10

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  16. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  17. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  18. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements.

  19. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  20. Manual del McVCO 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  1. [Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru: 25 years].

    PubMed

    Celestino Fernández, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    In this article is described in a very summarized form the history of the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú (RGP) that dates from the same origins of the Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, when based in October 30 of 1952 already glimpse the presence of the RGP as the official organ for the publication for studies of doctors of the society or foreign guests. We spent 29 years, and this idea becomes reality; and today the RGP turns to their XXV anniversary. The RGP, to locate itself as the Peruvian medical publication best reputation.

  2. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  3. Hopeful (protein InDel) monsters?

    PubMed

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-10

    In this issue of Structure, Arpino and colleagues describe in atomic detail how a protein stomachs a deletion within a helix, an event that rarely occurs in nature or in the lab. Can insertions and deletions (InDels) trigger dramatic structural transitions?

  4. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  5. Study of Motion of the Auroral Oval During September 30 - October 4, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm. A Project of National Secondary School Competition in Scientific Research on Antarctica "Feria Antarctica Escolar 2014", organized by Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, M. V.; Cabezas-Escares, J. F.; Letelier-Ulloa, T. C.; Ortega-Letelier, P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the position of the auroral oval during the development of the September 30 - October 4, 2012 geomagnetic storm in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres were studied using the data of the Dynamics Explorer Satellite Mission (DMSP). In particular, the location of b1e, b1i, b2e, and b2i boundaries defined by Newell at al. [1996], was obtained from the electron and ion precipitating fluxes, measured by the SSJ/4 particle detectors onboard the F16, F17, and F18 satellites.According to Newell at al. [1996], these boundaries represent the zero-energy convection boundary (b1e,b1i), and the precipitating energy flux maximum (b2e,b2i). It was found that during the main phase of the strom, on average, all boundaries move towards the equator, and return to its previous location during recovery phase. Deviations from the common trend could be related to the changes in the solar wind conditions. This study was done by the Secondary school students Javiera Cabezas-Escares and Tamara Letelier Ulloa from Lyceum N°1 Javiera Carrera in frame of the National Secondary School Competition in the Scientific Research on Antarctica "Feria Antarctica Escolar" organized by Chilean Antarctic Institute. It was supervised by their Physics teacher Pablo Ortega Letelier and by Marina Stepanova, researcher from Universidad de Santiago de Chile.

  6. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  7. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  8. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  9. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  10. Kurt Gödels Brünner Verwandte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dora

    2007-11-01

    The author of this memoir Dora Müller (born 1920) belongs - as well as Kurt Gödel-to the German minority playing an important role in the past life of Brno. The marriage of his son included her among the Gödels collaterals. She was chemist, but also pianist, historician, participant of antinacist movement and iniciator of Czech-German understanding after war. Following her personal experiences, remembrances of Gödels relatives and documental materials, she evokes the atmosphere of broader family milieu of Kurt Gödel.

  11. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  12. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  13. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  14. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  15. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention.

  16. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function.

  17. Wave maps from Gödel's universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Magliaro, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Using a result by Koch (1988 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 307 827-41) we realize Gödel's universe G_{α }^{4}=({{{R}}^{4}},{{g}_{α}}) as the total space of a principal {R}-bundle over a strictly pseudo-convex CR manifold M3 and exploit the analogy between {{g}_{Yalpha;}} and Fefferman's metric {{F}_{θ}} (Fefferman 1976 Ann. Math. 103 395-416 104 393-4) to show that for any {R}-invariant wave map Φ of G_{α}^{4} into a Riemannian manifold N, the corresponding base map φ :{{M}^{3}}\\to N is subelliptic harmonic, with respect to a canonical choice of contact form θ on M3. We show that the subelliptic Jacobi operator J_{b}^{φ} of ϕ has a discrete Dirichlet spectrum on any bounded domain D\\subset {{M}^{3}} supporting the Poincaré inequality on \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN) and Kondrakov compactness, i.e. compactness of the embedding \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ }^{-1}}TN)\\hookrightarrow {{L}^{2}}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN). We exhibit an explicit solution π :G_{α}^{4}\\to {{M}^{3}} to the wave map system on G_{α}^{4}, of index in{{d}^{Ω}}(π)\\geqslant 1 for any bounded domain Ω \\subset G_{α}^{4}. Mounoud's distance (Mounoud 2001 Differ. Geom. Appl. 15 47-57) d_{{{G}_{0}}, Ω }^{∞}({{g}_{α }}, {{F}_{θ}}) is bounded below by a constant depending only on the rotation frequency of Gödel's universe, thus giving a measure of the bias of {{g}_{α}} from being Fefferman like in the region Ω \\subset {{{R}}^{4}}.

  18. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  19. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  20. On some structure results for Gödel-type spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaue, Matthias; Scherfner, Mike

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we prove structure results on Gödel-type spacetimes, which we understand as stationary charged perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with geodesic flow. Given in a standard product form, we investigate relations between the vorticity and the geometry of the fiber. For the four dimensional case in particular, we classify the Gödel-type spacetimes with constant vorticity scalar. We give a complete list of the solutions, which provides a generalization of an observation by Gödel, proved later by Ozsváth: The Gödel spacetime and Einstein's static universe are the only stationary Λ-dust solutions of Einstein's equations with positive energy density that are spatially homogeneous.

  1. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  2. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. Extreme Environments in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, C.; D'Antoni, H.; Burgess, S.; Zamora, J.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    The upper timberline of the Andes Cordillera on the island of Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America is an environment subject to extreme conditions. In order to further understand this environment, ecosystem parameters were measured within two transects of the Andes at Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco. The measurements included pH, soil temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen, sodium and potassium concentration, chlorophyll absorbance, and irradiance in the ultraviolet range (200-400 nm). These data comprise a survey that serves as a baseline for an intensive research program. Chlorophyll concentration and soil data were within the range of our observations at several other sites, from Lapataia Bay on the southwestern boundary with Chile, through the eastern end of Lake Fagnano. However, unusual levels of solar irradiance were found in the open sites of both transects while those in the forest exhibited lower UV values, suggesting strong absorption and/or reflection by the forest canopy. High levels of UV radiation damage important biomolecules and may be partially responsible for the presence of life forms such as the krummholz belt in the upper timberline. These UV values may be due to the effects of global ozone depletion and the ozone hole. The low temperatures, strong winds, snow and ice-covered soil and especially the exposure to UV radiation make this area an extreme environment for life.

  4. Confirming and Improving Ross Variable Star RV Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sanchez, Rick; Palser, Sage; Schultze, Kendra; Kenney, Jessica; Thompson, Briana; DeCoster, Richard; Mills, Frank; Osborn, Wayne; Hoette, Vivian L.; Skynet Junior Scholars; Stone Edge Observatory

    2017-01-01

    RV Del is an intrinsic pulsating variable star in the constellation Delphinus, discovered by Ross (1926). The AAVSO list RV Del as a RRAB type of variable star. RV Del has been found to have a magnitude that varies from 12.9 - 14.2 and a period of 11.9553 hours.The purpose of our research of RV Del is to confirm and improve previous results as well as explore different methods to engage middle school students in the scientific method and astronomy. The SKYNET network of telescopes allows students to request images from a group of international research class telescopes. The telescope request process allows students first-hand experience in astronomy while the data analysis allows students to understand advance software systems to produce publishable results. Data is being gathered using the SKYNET network and Stone Edge Observatory to gather photometry of RV Del and create a new light curve. Findings will be presented the January 2017 AAS.

  5. DEL-TYPE Universes in f(T) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Di; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei

    2012-09-01

    The issue of causality in f(T) gravity is investigated by examining the possibility of existence of the closed timelike curves in the Gödel-type metric. By assuming a perfect fluid as the matter source, we find that the fluid must have an equation of state parameter greater than minus one in order to allow the Gödel solutions to exist, and furthermore the critical radius rc, beyond which the causality is broken down, is finite and it depends on both matter and gravity. Remarkably, for certain f(T) models, the perfect fluid that allows the Gödel-type solutions can even be normal matter, such as pressureless matter or radiation. However, if the matter source is a special scalar field rather than a perfect fluid, then rc → ∞ and the causality violation is thus avoided.

  6. May Gödel's Ideas Be Addressed Philosophically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokulil, Miloš

    2007-11-01

    del emphasised philosophy as an important tool in science. Much less is known about his religious background. We should bear in mind that our evaluational perspective differs very much from the one in which Gödel lived. He was personally sure that there must be another existence after death-an afterlife (''of unlimited life span''). As a ''Baptized Lutheran'' he did not include ''Trinity'' in his creed. He was also certain that mind is separate from matter. This text tries to include Libet's ''readiness potential'' into the debate concerning the specificity of the mind. Neither Gödel's identification of materialism with mechanism nor his vision of the ''spirit'' are a viable solution of the problem.

  7. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  8. Core lithology, Valles caldera No. 1, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Goff, F.; Goff, S.; Maassen, L.; Mathews, K.; Wachs, D.; Wilson, D.

    1987-04-01

    Vallas caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program research core hole in the Vallas caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the region. The hole penetrated 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales with over 95% core recovery. The primary research objectives included coring through the youngest rhyolite flow within the caldera; obtaining structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone; and penetrating a high-temperature hydrothermal outflow plume near its source. This report presents a compilation of lithologic and geophysical logs and photographs of core that were collected while drilling VC-1. It is intended to be a reference tool for researchers interested in caldera processes and associated geologic phenomena.

  9. The novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation in a family with prelingual sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael B; Grigoriadou, Maria; Koutroumpe, Maria; Kokotas, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.

  10. Mejoras en la exactitud del reloj de ángulo horario del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Para aumentar la exactitud en el control del ángulo horario del telescopio, se está implementando el uso de un reloj con una precisión de 1/100 seg. En conjunto con el encoder que otorga la posición con un acierto de 0,012 seg. de arco, se podrá implementar otro dígito en el reloj de ángulo horario con la posibilidad de ver las décimas. Esto, sumado a la precisión ya lograda en declinación, permitirá realizar offsets con mayor exactitud.

  11. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  12. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  13. 77 FR 50080 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice.... The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  14. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  15. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  17. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  18. Construyendo un Puente entre la Educacion del Dotado y el Mejoramiento Escolar Integral. Resumen. La Serie de Decision Basada en la Investigacion (Building a Bridge between Gifted Education and Total School Improvement. Summary. Talent Development Research-Based Decision Making Series).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.

    This monograph addresses the role of gifted education in total school improvement by describing three service delivery components (the Total Talent Portfolio, Curriculum Modification Techniques, and Enrichment Learning and Teaching) and several organizational components of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM). The report describes how the SEM can…

  19. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  20. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  1. Insertion of Astronomy as a High School Subject. (Spanish Title: Inserción de Astronomia Como Materia del Ciclo Secundario.) Inserção da Astronomia Como Disciplina Curricular do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Claudio André C. M.; Santa Rita, Josué R.

    2008-12-01

    Astronomy is considered among the first sciences that man dominated, however, the basic skills for the construction of knowledge, relatively to the contents "Earth and the Universe" are not being developed properly for the majority of students concluding the high school level. The students are concluding this teaching cycle without proper knowledge of several subjects in the area of Astronomy, which are mandatory in the national Curricular National Parameters (PCN). Because of this discrepancy, this work stresses the need of the incorporation of a specific subject of Astronomy in the high school, in order to reduce the gap between what is taught and which should be taught. La Astronomía es considerada una de las primeras ciencias que el hombre dominó. Sin embargo, las habilidades básicas para la construcción del conocimento, relativo al eje temático "Tierra y Universo", no vienen siendo trabajadas adecuadamente con la mayoría de los alumnos que concluyen el ciclo escolar medio. Los alumnos están concluyendo este nivel de enseñanza sin conocimentos de varios temas en el área de Astronomía, que son obligatorios según los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN). En virtud de esta discrepancia, este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de incorporar una disciplina específica de Astronomía em el ciclo medio, em pro de la reducción de las distorsiones entre lo que es enseñado y lo que se debe enseñar. A Astronomia é considerada uma das primeiras ciências que o homem dominou, porém as competências básicas para a construção do conhecimento, relativo ao eixo temático "Terra e Universo", não vêm sendo trabalhadas a contento com a maioria dos alunos que concluem o ensino médio. Os alunos estão concluindo este nível de ensino sem conhecimento de vários temas na área de Astronomia, que são obrigatórios nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN). Em virtude desta discrepância, este trabalho vem evidenciar a necessidade da incorporação de uma

  2. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

  3. The first century of the "clinica del lavoro" in Milan.

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Foà, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The Clinica del Lavoro was created in Milan at the beginning of the 20th century by Luigi Devotto, who deemed it essential for physicians and health researchers to get involved in the life and health problems of working populations. The main roles of the Clinica del Lavoro were to educate medical students and train physicians; study actual workplaces, examine health and safety hazards and their noxious effects; and create initiatives and services to protect and promote workers' health. Important scientific contributions were made in several fields, including chemical carcinogenesis, effects of mineral and biologicalfibers, mechanism of action of silica dust, methods for the detection and measurements of toxic substances in both the work environment and workers' biological media.

  4. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  5. Prognostic Impact of del(17p) and del(22q) as Assessed by Interphase FISH in Sporadic Colorectal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    González-González, María; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luís; Mackintosh, Carlos; Fontanillo, Celia; Gutiérrez, M. Laura; Abad, M. Mar; Bengoechea, Oscar; Teodosio, Cristina; Fonseca, Emilio; Fuentes, Manuel; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Background Most sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) deaths are caused by metastatic dissemination of the primary tumor. New advances in genetic profiling of sCRC suggest that the primary tumor may contain a cell population with metastatic potential. Here we compare the cytogenetic profile of primary tumors from liver metastatic versus non-metastatic sCRC. Methodology/Principal Findings We prospectively analyzed the frequency of numerical/structural abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, and 22 by iFISH in 58 sCRC patients: thirty-one non-metastatic (54%) vs. 27 metastatic (46%) disease. From a total of 18 probes, significant differences emerged only for the 17p11.2 and 22q11.2 chromosomal regions. Patients with liver metastatic sCRC showed an increased frequency of del(17p11.2) (10% vs. 67%;p<.001) and del(22q11.2) (0% vs. 22%;p = .02) versusnon-metastatic cases. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) showed that the only clinical and cytogenetic parameters that had an independent adverse impact on patient outcome were the presence of del(17p) with a 17p11.2 breakpoint and del(22q11.2). Based on these two cytogenetic variables, patients were classified into three groups: low- (no adverse features), intermediate- (one adverse feature) and high-risk (two adverse features)- with significantly different OS rates at 5-years (p<.001): 92%, 53% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our results unravel the potential implication of del(17p11.2) in sCRC patients with liver metastasis as this cytogenetic alteration appears to be intrinsically related to an increased metastatic potential and a poor outcome, providing additional prognostic information to that associated with other cytogenetic alterations such as del(22q11.2). Additional prospective studies in larger series of patients would be required to confirm the clinical utility of the new prognostic markers identified. PMID:22912721

  6. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY RECENT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  9. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  10. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  11. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  12. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  13. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  14. [Validazione del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire, un questionario diagnostico autosomministrato per il gioco d'azzardo patologico basato sui criteri del DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Pascucci, Marco; de Waure, Chiara; Bellomo, Antonello; Conte, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Il DSM-5 presenta delle modifiche nei criteri diagnostici per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, rispetto alla precedente edizione del manuale; è pertanto necessario sviluppare nuovi strumenti diagnostici. Questo studio ha valutato le caratteristiche psicometriche del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire (GDSQ), un questionario sviluppato per l'autosomministrazione, basato sui criteri diagnostici del DSM-IV e del DSM-5 per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, misurandone la validità e la consistenza interna e sottoponendo il questionario all'analisi delle componenti principali. Metodi. 71 pazienti reclutati da un ambulatorio dedicato al gioco d'azzardo patologico e 70 controlli sono stati valutati con il GDSQ, con il South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) e con valutazione psichiatrica. Risultati. Il test ha mostrato una buona sensibilità, specificità, consistenza interna, correlazione con il SOGS. L'esclusione del criterio degli atti illeciti e l'abbassamento del punteggio di cut-off a quattro criteri positivi, come suggerito dal DSM-5, migliora la sensibilità e consistenza interna del test. Discussione e conclusioni. Il GDSQ può essere considerato un utile test di screening per il gioco d'azzardo patologico. Inoltre, questo studio conferma il miglioramento nell'accuratezza diagnostica dei criteri elencati nella quinta edizione del Manuale Diagnostico e Statistico dei Disturbi Mentali rispetto alla precedente edizione.

  15. Geology of the Azacualpa geothermal site, Departamento de Comayagua Honduras, Central America: Field report. Geologia del area geotermica de Azacualpa Departamento de Comayagua, Honduras, America Central: Informe de camps

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Baldridge, S.; Perry, F.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Finch, R.

    1987-03-01

    Thermal waters at the Azacualpa geothermal site are surfacing along fractures in the Atima Formation associated with the main north-south-trending Zacapa fault and the subordinate north-south-trending splays of the main fault. Permeability appears to be related to these fractures rather than to formation permeability in either the limestones of the Atima Formation or the Valle de Angeles Group red beds. Attitudes of lower Valle de Angeles Group red beds do not vary appreciably with distance away from the Zacapa fault, suggesting that the system is not behaving like a listric normal fault at depth. The ''Jaitique structure,'' as conjectured by R. Fakundiny (1985), does not appear to have any manifestation at the surface in terms of structures that can be seen or measured in the bedrock. Its existence is considered unlikely at the present time. Calorimetry calculations indicate that the thermal anomaly at the Azacualpa site is producing approx.4.4 thermal megawatts.

  16. The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma

  17. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de

  18. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  19. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  20. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  1. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ..., Colombia; c/o INDUSTRIAS DEL ESPIRITU SANTO S.A., Malambo, Atlantico, Colombia; c/o JOSAFAT S.A., Tulua..., Colombia; c/o HEBRON S.A., Tulua, Valle, Colombia; c/o INDUSTRIAS DEL ESPIRITU SANTO S.A.,...

  2. Effect of GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG genetic polymorphisms on risk of congenital deafness in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Zhong, M; Chen, J; Yan, Y L; Lin, X F; Li, X

    2017-02-08

    Congenital deafness is a serious and irreversible condition in humans. The GJB2 gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Its 235delC and 30-35delG polymorphisms are reported to be associated with risk of hereditary deafness. However, the effect of the interaction between GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG and environmental factors on congenital deafness has not been described. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on congenital deafness risk, and their interaction with maternal and other environmental factors in the development of this disease. Between March 2014 and May 2015, 118 patients with congenital deafness and 242 healthy controls were enrolled into our study. Compared with the GG genotype, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the 235delC GC and CC genotypes were 4.66 (1.77-13.07) and 8.28 (2.06-47.52), respectively. Individuals harboring the GC+CC genotypes were at a greatly increased risk of congenital deafness compared to those with the GG genotype (OR = 5.65, 95%CI = 2.54-13.18). However, no significant relationship was established between the 30-35delG variant and this disease. The 235delC polymorphism exhibited an interaction with use of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in conferring susceptibility to congenital deafness (chi-square = 8.76, P = 0.003). In conclusion, our study suggests that the GJB2 235delC polymorphism, but not the 30-35delG variant, contributes to congenital deafness susceptibility in the Chinese population examined, and demonstrates an interaction with consumption of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in exerting this effect.

  3. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  4. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  5. A novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Connexin 26 gene causes non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Rahmati, Mohammad; Fazli, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Connexin 26 (Cx26) gene are a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in different populations. In the present study, an Iranian patient with bilateral hearing loss underwent molecular analysis for the causative mutation. DNA studies were performed for the Cx26 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. We describe a novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).

  6. 62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION D, HIGHWAY 1. REDWOOD CLEARING ON EXISTING LINE, 1-DN-71-A #26, R.L.T. 11-1-34. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  7. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  8. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  9. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  10. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  11. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  12. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  13. Taphonomy of guanaco bones in Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis Alberto

    1990-11-01

    Guanaco carcasses are deposited in great quantities in Cabo San Pablo, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), as a result of winter stress. Taphonomic studies indicate that the gnawing action of foxes on guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) carcasses produces only very tenuous marks on the bones. Lack of sustained interest in the carcasses by carnivores results in slow disarticulation. The articulated and disarticulated bones are exposed to heavy trampling by guanacos, a process that produces vertical migration of small/dense bones and fracturing of the most weathered bones. An understanding of this ongoing process is important for local archaeology, since modern bones are migrating into archaeological contexts. A regional approach to taphonomy is the most appropriate instrument to solve this and other related problems.

  14. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  15. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  16. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  17. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  18. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic

  19. Volcanic hazard maps of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Eduardo; Cepeda, Hector

    1990-07-01

    Although the potential hazards associated with an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano were known to civil authorities before the catastrophic eruption there in November 1985, their low perception of risk and the long quiescent period since the last eruption (140 years), caused them to wait for stronger activity before developing an eruption alert system. Unfortunately, the eruption occurred suddenly after a period of relative quiet, and as a result more than 25,000 people were killed. Although it was accurate and reasonably comprehensive, the hazard map that existed before the eruption was poorly understood by the authorities and even less so by the general population, because the scientific terminology and probabilistic approach to natural hazards were unfamiliar to many of them. This confusion was shared by the communication media, which at critical times placed undue emphasis on the possibility of lava flows rather than on the more imminent threat from mudflows, in keeping with the popular but often inaccurate perception of volcanic eruptions. This work presents an updated hazard map of Nevado del Ruiz that combines information on various hazardous phenomena with their relative probability of occurrence in order to depict numerical "hazard levels" that are easily comprehensible to nonspecialists and therefore less susceptible to misinterpretation. The scale of relative risk is arbitrary, ranging from five to one, and is intended to provide an intuitive indication of danger to people, property and crops. The map is meant to facilitate emergency preparedness and management by political and civil authorities, to educate the public concerning volcanic hazards and to assist in land-use planning decisions.

  20. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  1. Deficiency of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) aggravates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-03-07

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease wherein lung parenchyma is gradually and irreversibly replaced with collagen. The molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood and the only effective treatment available is lung transplantation. To test if Del-1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, may be implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in wild type (WT) and Del-1(-/-) mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Del-1 expression in the lung was decreased in the WT mice treated with bleomycin compared to control mice. In addition, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis increased collagen deposition and TGF-β production in the lung of Del-1(-/-) mice. Finally, Del-1(-/-) mice treated with bleomycin displayed higher weight loss and greater mortality than did WT mice identically treated. These findings suggest that Del-1 may negatively regulate development of pulmonary fibrosis. Further delineation of a role for Del-1 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis will broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and hopefully help develop potential therapeutics.

  2. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  3. Max Brödel's contributions to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D

    1986-11-01

    Max Brödel arrived in the United States in 1894 to work as a medical illustrator at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He brought with him an extensive background in medical sciences and illustration. This allowed him to develop an advanced style and technique that would greatly influence the profession of medical illustration. Much of Brödel's work concerned the head and neck region and is of particular interest to otolaryngologists. This article reviews the historical aspects of Brödel's career and highlights his contributions to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

  4. Spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her and HR Del

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyogin, L.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper considers the formation of the spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her (1934) and HR Del (1967). It is shown that the existence of polar caps is due to the influence of the second component of the system on the angular distribution of the mass shell depth of the mainshell. The ratio of the mass shell depth in the equatorial ring and in the polar caps is 1.13 for DQ Her and 2.7 for HR Del. The ratio of the maximal densities in the equatorial ring and the polar caps is of order 3 for DQ Her and of order 70 for HR Del.

  5. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  6. A Silicate Inclusion in Puente del Zacate, a IIIA Iron Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Moore, Carleton B.; Steele, Ian M.

    1996-09-01

    The IIIA and IIIB iron meteorites are considered to have formed in the cores of asteroids. A silicate inclusion within the IIIA meteorite Puente del Zacate consisting of olivine (Fa_4), low-calcium pyroxene (Fs_6Wo_1), chromium diopside (Fs_3Wo47), plagioclase (An14Or_4), graphite, troilite, chromite, daubreelite, and iron metal resembles inclusions in IAB iron meteorites. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Puente del Zacate inclusion is like chromite and phosphate inclusions in other IIIA and IIIB irons. The Puente del Zacate inclusion may have been derived from the lower mantle of the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  7. RASTREO DEL CANCER COLORRECTAL CONOCIMIENTO Y ACTITUD DE LA POBLACION

    PubMed Central

    CASAL, ENRIQUE R.; VELAZQUEZ, ELIZABETH N.; MEJIA, RAUL M.; CUNEO, ALDO; PEREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%). Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27), sigmoideoscopía (11) y colonoscopía (20). Una mayoría afirmó que “se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara” (95%), o “no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje” (87%). Contestar afirmativamente que “los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes” se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37) p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica. PMID:19414294

  8. Fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion and the Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. Q.; de S. Oliveira, J. R.; Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze Dirac fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion. We also consider the Gödel-type space-times embedded in a topological defect background. We show that relativistic bound states solutions to the Dirac equation can be obtained by dealing with three cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion, where a cosmic string passes through these three cases of the space-time. We obtain the relativistic energy levels for all cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion with a cosmic string, where we show that there exists an analogy with the Landau levels for Dirac particles. We also show that the presence of torsion in the space-time yields new contributions to the relativistic spectrum of energies and that the presence of the topological defect modifies the degeneracy of the relativistic energy levels.

  9. Eleven new cases of del(9p) and features from 80 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Huret, J L; Leonard, C; Forestier, B; Rethoré, M O; Lejeune, J

    1988-01-01

    We report 11 cases of del(9p) and review 69 previously published ones. Of the 80 cases, 39 have a del(9p) as the sole anomaly. The symptoms are typical and diagnosis should be suspected at birth. The sex ratio does not appear to be unbalanced. A cardiac murmur is often present but surgery is rarely necessary. Mean IQ is 48. The number of reported cases with an associated trisomy has previously been underestimated. Death in infancy, owing mainly to gross visceral malformations, occurs more often in cases of del(9p) with another unbalanced chromosome segment (16/41) than in cases of del(9p) as the sole anomaly (1/39). Images PMID:3070043

  10. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  11. Energy and Momentum in Spacetime Homogeneous GÖDEL-TYPE Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.

    Using Einstein and Papapetrou energy-momentum complexes, we explicitly calculate the energy and momentum distribution associated with spacetime homogeneous Gödel-type metrics. We obtain that the two definitions of energy-momentum complexes do not provide the same result for these type of metrics. However, it is shown that the results obtained are reduced to the energy-momentum densities of Gödel metric already available in the literature.

  12. Exact Solution of the Massless Dkp Equation in a Nonstationary GÖDEL-TYPE Cosmological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havare, Ali; Aydogdu, Oktay; Yetkin, Taylan

    In this paper the massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation in a nonstationary rotating, causal Gödel-type cosmological background is studied. Exact solutions of the corresponding field equation are obtained and used to calculate the frequency spectrum of photon in nonstationary Gödel-type universe. To compare the results found with the classical field solutions, we also solved Maxwell's equations as given in the appendix.

  13. Estudio multiespectral del remanente de supernova W 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Velázquez, P.; Castelletti, G.

    Se presentan observaciones en continuo de radio con muy alta resolución angular y sensibilidad del remanente de supernova (RSN) W28. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el interferómetro Very Large Array (Estados Unidos), en las configuraciones C y D, en 1415 y 324 MHz. Por la gran extensión de este remanente (diámetro ~ 1o), las observaciones en 1415 MHz se realizaron en modo mosaico, combinando 48 apuntamientos diferentes en una única imagen. En ambas frecuencias los datos se procesaron con el agregado de observaciones de menor resolución angular, a fin de recuperar información en todas las frecuencias espaciales y obtener estimaciones precisas de densidad de flujo. Las imágenes resultantes muestran por primera vez la presencia de extensiones con forma de arco, cuya naturaleza se investiga. Las observaciones en radio se comparan con una imagen óptica de W28, y con la emisión en rayos X, observada con el satélite ROSAT. Este remanente muestra una clara morfología híbrida, tipo cáscara en frecuencias de radio y de centro lleno en las bandas óptica y de rayos X blandos.

  14. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  15. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  16. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  17. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  18. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  19. CHEK2 c.1100delC allele is rarely identified in Greek breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Paraskevi; Fostira, Florentia; Papamentzelopoulou, Myrto; Michelli, Maria; Panopoulos, Christos; Fountzilas, George; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis

    2015-04-01

    The CHEK2 gene encodes a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and the DNA repair mechanism. CHEK2 germline mutations are associated with increased risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. From a clinical perspective, the most significant mutation identified is the c.1100delC mutation, which is associated with an approximately 25% lifetime breast cancer risk. The distribution of this mutation shows wide geographical variation; it is more prevalent in the Northern European countries and less common, or even absent, in Southern Europe. In order to estimate the frequency of the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation in Greek breast cancer patients, we genotyped 2,449 patients (2,408 females and 41 males), which was the largest series ever tested for c.1100delC. The mean age of female and male breast cancer diagnosis was 49 and 59 years, respectively. All patients had previously tested negative for the Greek BRCA1 founder and recurrent mutations. The CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was detected in 0.16% (4 of 2,408) of females, all of whom were diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 50 years. Only one c.1100delC carrier was reported with breast cancer family history. The present study indicates that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation does not contribute substantially to hereditary breast cancer in patients of Greek descent.

  20. Multi-InDel Analysis for Ancestry Inference of Sub-Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kuan; Ye, Yi; Luo, Tao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM). In this study, we performed a genome-wide scan for multi-InDels as AIM. After examining the FST distributions in the 1000 Genomes Database, 12 candidates were selected and validated for eastern Asian populations. A multiplexed assay was developed as a panel to genotype 12 multi-InDel markers simultaneously. Ancestry component analysis with STRUCTURE and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to estimate its capability for ancestry inference. Furthermore, ancestry assignments of trial individuals were conducted. It proved to be very effective when 210 samples from Han and Tibetan individuals in China were tested. The panel consisting of multi-InDel markers exhibited considerable potency in ancestry inference, and was suggested to be applied in forensic practices and genetic population studies. PMID:28004788

  1. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether ‘classical’ signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10365.001 PMID:26701908

  2. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Iorio, Francesco; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-12-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether 'classical' signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect.

  3. Use of multi-InDels as novel markers to analyze 13 X-chromosome haplotype loci for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangyao; Ye, Yi; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have been proposed to identify insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphisms in humans for forensic genetic studies. However, the discriminatory power of InDels is limited by the poor polymorphisms of diallelic markers. To improve their discriminatory power, we developed multi-InDel, a novel autosomal marker comprising more than two InDel loci that are tightly linked by their physical position and combined into a specific marker by a pair of PCR primers. This strategy gives at least three haplotypes for each multi-InDel marker. Such markers can be potentially very useful in forensic applications. In this study, we focused on multi-InDel markers located on X chromosome (ChrX). A multiplex system with 13 multi-InDel markers, including 28 InDel loci in ChrX, was developed. To validate the multi-InDel panel, the haplotype distribution in a population sample and in a set of pedigrees was investigated. This study demonstrates usefulness of these markers for individual identification and relationship studies. We highlight the fact that the multi-InDel markers located on ChrX can provide new supporting information for complex kinship testing.

  4. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  5. Resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.

    2015-12-01

    In March of 2015 we mapped the resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep in the inner California borderlands using a deep towed electromagnetic (EM) source and receiver array. Located in the San Diego trough at a depth of 1km, the seep site is on the flank of a mound associated with a transpressive step in the San Diego trough fault. The seep site has previously been associated with seafloor pockmarks, acoustic wipeouts, chemosynthetic communities, and active methane bubble venting. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are performed by deep-towing an EM source that is transmitting a known signal; this signal is detected by towed receivers. This transmitted signal is altered by the electrical properties of the surrounding environment. Compared to seismic methods, EM methods are largely insensitive to free gas, making it an especially useful tool for detecting electrically resistive methane hydrate in areas of active gas venting. We used a 50m dipole transmitting 100A, with 3-axis electric field receivers spaced at 130m, 230m, 330m, and 430m behind the transmitter dipole center. The receiver data are inverted using MARE2DEM, a finite element 2D inversion routine. The inversion results show the background resistivity of the trough sediments to be about 1-2 ohmm, and are largely featureless outside of the seep site. However at the seep site we see a decanter-shaped 100 ohmm resistor whose base is 100m below the seafloor, and 1km wide at its widest. This feature narrows at the top to form a pipe structure about 200m wide that extends to the seafloor. These resistive structures are interpreted to be methane hydrate resulting from methane rich fluid flow along faults associated with the transpressional system that brackets the seep site.

  6. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  7. Telomere dynamics in patients with del (5q) MDS before and under treatment with lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Beier, Fabian; Masouleh, Behzad Kharabi; Buesche, Guntram; Ventura Ferreira, Monica S; Schneider, Rebekka K; Ziegler, Patrick; Wilop, Stefan; Vankann, Lucia; Gattermann, Norbert; Platzbecker, Uwe; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Götze, Katharina S; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Haase, Detlef; Kreipe, Hans; Panse, Jens; Blasco, Maria A; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2015-09-21

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with an acquired, isolated deletion of chromosome 5q (del (5q) MDS), represent a clonal disorder of hematopoiesis and a clinically distinct entity of MDS. Treatment of del (5q) MDS with the drug lenalidomide has significantly improved quality of life leading to transfusion independence and complete cytogenetic response rates (CCR) in the majority of patients. Telomeres are located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and are linked to replicative history/potential as well as genetic (in) stability of hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we analyzed telomere length (TL) dynamics before and under lenalidomide treatment in the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow of del (5q) patients enrolled in the LEMON-5 study (NCT01081431). Hematopoietic cells from del (5q) MDS patients were characterized by significantly shortened TL compared to age-matched healthy controls. Telomere loss was more accelerated in patients with longer disease duration (>2 years) and more pronounced cytopenias. Sequential analysis under lenalidomide treatment revealed that previously shortened TL in peripheral blood cells was significantly "elongated" towards normal levels within the first six months suggesting a shift from clonal del (5q) cells towards normal hematopoiesis in lenalidomide treated MDS patients. Taken together our findings suggest that the development of the del (5q) clone is associated with accelerated telomere shortening at diagnosis. However, upon induction of CCR and reoccurrence of normal hematopoiesis, the lack of a persistent TL deficit argues against telomere-mediated genetic instability neither as a disease-promoting event of del (5q) MDS nor for lenalidomide mediated development of secondary primary malignancies of the hematopoietic system in responding patients.

  8. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC associated breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Muranen, Taru A.; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Schoemaker, Minouk; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hillemans, Peter; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W.M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations conferring a 2–3 fold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Methods With genotype data of 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. Results The PRS conferred an odds ratio (OR) of 1.59 [95% CI 1.21–2.09] per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 [1.55–1.62] for non-carriers. No evidence for deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 [0.86–4.78] for CHEK2*1100delC carriers placing them to the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 [0.16–1.74], indicating life-time risk close to population average. Conclusion Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify the carriers at a high life-time risk for clinical actions. PMID:27711073

  9. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  10. [Guideline for the assessment of clinical research proposals. Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Cruz-López, Miguel; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio Abdiel

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la investigación médica es una herramienta fundamental para lograr el avance de la ciencia al mejorar las acciones encaminadas a proteger, promover y restaurar la salud del individuo y de la sociedad en general. Las tres características imprescindibles para que un protocolo de investigación sea autorizado son: relevancia científica, calidad técnica y el cumplimiento de los aspectos éticos. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo efectuado con base en la búsqueda específica en Pubmed, Medline, Ovid y Google Scholar con los términos: peer review, research proposals, review and protocols and reviewers. Debido a que no se identificó ningún artículo que refiriera específicamente los criterios para evaluar protocolos de investigación clínica, se hizo un consenso entre los vocales de la Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, que está integrada por investigadores titulares de la institución, todos pertenecientes al Sistema Nacional de Investigadores. Se discutieron los criterios que debieran componer una revisión adecuada y cuáles debieran ser los rubros que deben incluirse en el análisis. Resultados: se integraron los criterios específicos que le permitirán al revisor de un protocolo de investigación realizar una crítica con bases metodológicas aceptadas por un consenso de investigadores. Conclusiones: un revisor debe ser considerado como un promotor del avance del conocimiento científico que, mediante sus comentarios y su dictamen, permite que los investigadores incrementen la calidad de sus protocolos de investigación.

  11. Modelo semi-empírico de protuberancia solar a partir del diagnóstico de densidades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J. C.; Rovira, M.

    A partir de la observación del espectro del quintuplete de C III alrededor de 1175 Å, se ha realizado el diagnóstico de la densidad y presión electrónica, basado en el cálculo del cociente de las intensidades observadas. Una vez establecida la densidad electrónica, y con el cálculo de las velocidades Doppler, hemos investigado el flujo de masa en la protuberancia en función de la temperatura. Estableciendo como hipótesis la conservación del número de partículas que ingresan y salen del cuerpo de la protuberancia, se investiga la variación del área de un tubo de flujo semi-empírico en función de la temperatura. A partir de dicho diagnóstico, se examina el comportamiento del radio del tubo magnético en función de la temperatura, los que dan cuenta de la abertura de las líneas de campo magnético que confinan el plasma y de la divergencia del campo magnético en diferentes alturas de la atmósfera solar.

  12. High mountain soils and periglacial features at the Torres del Paine, National Park Torres del Paine, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senra, Eduardo; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Gjorup, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The Torres del Paine National Park (TPNP) is located on the southern limit of the Andean Southern Ice Field, part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena region, in the province of Ultima Esperanza. The TPNP has a very heterogeneous climate due to orographic influence and wet air masses from the Pacific. The geology is basically Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks and Miocene granitic plutons and batholiths. We studied the main soils and geoenvironments of Mt Ferrier mountain and its surroundings, based on soils , landforms and vegetation aspects. The geoenvironmental stratification was based on the combined variation and integration of pedo-litho-geomorphological features with the vegetation. WE used detailed geological maps, a DEM and slope maps and WorlView II satellite images. Fifteen soils profiles were sampled and classified according to Soil Taxonomy (2010) at all genovironments, ranging from 50 m a.s.l to the at high plateau just below the permanent snowline, under periglacial conditions (~1004m asl). Three soil temperature and moisture monitoring sites were set, allowing for 24 consecutive months (2011 to 2013). Seven geoenvironments were identified with distinct soil and landform characteristics, all with a similar geological substrate. The landform and vegetation have a strong connection with the landscape dynamic, controlling erosional and depositional processes, resulting from glacier advances and retreats in the Late Quaternary. Wind blown materials is widespread, in the form of loess material, accumulating in the higher parts of the landscape. On the other hand, accumulation of organic matter in the water-saturated depressions is common in all altitudes. Generally the soils are acidic and dystrophic, with little exceptions. The following geoenvironments were identified: Periglacial Tundra, Loess slopes, Talus and scarpmentd, Fluvio-glacial terraces, Fluvio-lacustrine plains, Moraines and Paleodunes. The regional pedology show the occurrence of five soil

  13. Using Del-1 to Tip the Angiogenic Balance in Endothelial Cells in Modular Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Ciucurel, Ema C.; Vlahos, Alexander E.

    2014-01-01

    Modular tissue engineering is a method of building vascularized tissue-engineered constructs. Submillimeter-sized collagen pieces (modules) coated with a layer of endothelial cells (EC; vascular component), and with embedded functional cells, are self-assembled into a larger, three-dimensional tissue. In this study, we examined the use of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), an extracellular matrix protein with proangiogenic properties, as a means of tipping the angiogenic balance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporated in modular tissue-engineered constructs. The motivation was to enhance the vascularization of these constructs upon transplantation in vivo, in this case, without the use of exogenous mesenchymal stromal cells. EC were transduced using a lentiviral construct to overexpress Del-1. The Del-1 EC formed more sprouts in a fibrin gel sprouting assay in vitro compared with eGFP (control) transduced EC, as expected. Del-1 EC had a distinct profile of gene expression (upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9], urokinase-type plasminogen activator [uPA/PLAU], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF-A], and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]; downregulation of angiopoietin-2 [Ang2]), also supporting the notion of “tipping the angiogenic balance”. On the other hand, contrary to our expectations, when Del-1 EC-coated modules were implanted subcutaneously in a severe combined immunodeficient/beige animal model, the proangiogenic effect of Del-1 was less remarkable. There was only a small increase in the number of blood vessels formed in Del-1 implants compared with the eGFP implants, and only few blood vessels formed at the implant site in both cases. This was presumed due to limited EC survival after transplantation. We speculate that if we could improve EC survival in our study (for example, by adding other prosurvival factors or supporting cells), we would see a greater Del-1-induced angiogenic benefit in vivo as a

  14. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  15. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  16. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schürpf, Thomas; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Jin-huan; Wang, Rui; Springer, Timothy A.; Wang, Jia-huai

    2012-11-13

    Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.

  17. VEGF: a modifier of the del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome?

    PubMed

    Stalmans, Ingeborg; Lambrechts, Diether; De Smet, Frederik; Jansen, Sandra; Wang, Jian; Maity, Sunit; Kneer, Paige; von der Ohe, Maren; Swillen, Ann; Maes, Christa; Gewillig, Marc; Molin, Daniel G M; Hellings, Peter; Boetel, Thurid; Haardt, Maartin; Compernolle, Veerle; Dewerchin, Mieke; Plaisance, Stephane; Vlietinck, Robert; Emanuel, Beverly; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Scambler, Peter; Morrow, Bernice; Driscol, Deborah A; Moons, Lieve; Esguerra, Camila V; Carmeliet, Geert; Behn-Krappa, Annett; Devriendt, Koen; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Simon J; Carmeliet, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11 (del22q11) causes thymic, parathyroid, craniofacial and life-threatening cardiovascular birth defects in 1 in 4,000 infants. The del22q11 syndrome is likely caused by haploinsufficiency of TBX1, but its variable expressivity indicates the involvement of additional modifiers. Here, we report that absence of the Vegf164 isoform caused birth defects in mice, reminiscent of those found in del22q11 patients. The close correlation of birth and vascular defects indicated that vascular dysgenesis may pathogenetically contribute to the birth defects. Vegf interacted with Tbx1, as Tbx1 expression was reduced in Vegf164-deficient embryos and knocked-down vegf levels enhanced the pharyngeal arch artery defects induced by tbx1 knockdown in zebrafish. Moreover, initial evidence suggested that a VEGF promoter haplotype was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular birth defects in del22q11 individuals. These genetic data in mouse, fish and human indicate that VEGF is a modifier of cardiovascular birth defects in the del22q11 syndrome.

  18. Multiplex pyrosequencing of InDel markers for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bus, Magdalena M; Karas, Ognjen; Allen, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) technology is commonly used for fragment length separation of markers in forensic DNA analysis. In this study, pyrosequencing technology was used as an alternative and rapid tool for the analysis of biallelic InDel (insertion/deletion) markers for individual identification. The DNA typing is based on a subset of the InDel markers that are included in the Investigator(®) DIPplex Kit, which are sequenced in a multiplex pyrosequencing analysis. To facilitate the analysis of degraded DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments were kept short in the primer design. Samples from individuals of Swedish origin were genotyped using the pyrosequencing strategy and analysis of the Investigator(®) DIPplex markers with CE. A comparison between the pyrosequencing and CE data revealed concordant results demonstrating a robust and correct genotyping by pyrosequencing. Using optimal marker combination and a directed dispensation strategy, five markers could be multiplexed and analyzed simultaneously. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that multiplex InDel pyrosequencing analysis is possible. However, further studies on degraded samples, lower DNA quantities, and mixtures will be required to fully optimize InDel analysis by pyrosequencing for forensic applications. Overall, although CE analysis is implemented in most forensic laboratories, multiplex InDel pyrosequencing offers a cost-effective alternative for some applications.

  19. BRCA1 4153delA founder mutation in Russian ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krylova, Nadezhda Yu; Lobeiko, Oksana S; Sokolenko, Anna P; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Rozanov, Maxim E; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Gergova, Madina M; Porhanova, Tatiana V; Urmancheyeva, Adel F; Maximov, Sergey Ya; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2006-09-15

    The BRCA1 4153delA allele is frequently referred to as the Russian founder mutation, as it was initially detected in several cancer families from Moscow. Our earlier studies have demonstrated 1% occurrence of BRCA1 4153delA heterozygosity in familial and/or early-onset and/or bilateral Russian breast cancer (BC) patients. Since literature data suggest that the 4153delA variant is more associated with ovarian cancer (OC) than with BC, we expected to reveal a highly elevated frequency of this genotype in Russian ovarian cancer series. However, real-time allele-specific PCR genotyping has detected only two BRCA1 4153delA carriers out of 177 unselected OC patients (1.1%). Both these carriers were early-onset and had serous carcinomas of grade 3. Thus, our study supports neither the Russian origin of BRCA1 4153delA mutation, nor its selectivity towards ovarian versus breast cancer predisposition.

  20. Del1 Knockout Mice Developed More Severe Osteoarthritis Associated with Increased Susceptibility of Chondrocytes to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Tran, Misha C.; Bhatia, Namrata J.; Hsing, Alexander W.; Chen, Carol; LaRussa, Marie F.; Fattakhov, Ernst; Rashidi, Vania; Jang, Kyu Yun; Choo, Kevin J.; Nie, Xingju; Mathy, Jonathan A.; Longaker, Michael T.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Helms, Jill A.; Yang, George P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identified significant expression of the matricellular protein, DEL1, in hypertrophic and mature cartilage during development. We hypothesized that this tissue-specific expression indicated a biological role for DEL1 in cartilage biology. Methods Del1 KO and WT mice had cartilage thickness evaluated by histomorphometry. Additional mice underwent medial meniscectomy to induce osteoarthritis, and were assayed at 1 week for apoptosis by TUNEL staining and at 8 weeks for histology and OA scoring. In vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed on primary chondrocytes. Results Deletion of the Del1 gene led to decreased amounts of cartilage in the ears and knee joints in mice with otherwise normal skeletal morphology. Destabilization of the knee led to more severe OA compared to controls. In vitro, DEL1 blocked apoptosis in chondrocytes. Conclusion Osteoarthritis is among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and increasing in incidence as our population ages. Initiation begins with an injury resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators. Excessive production of inflammatory mediators results in apoptosis of chondrocytes. Because of the limited ability of chondrocytes to regenerate, articular cartilage deteriorates leading to the clinical symptoms including severe pain and decreased mobility. No treatments effectively block the progression of OA. We propose that direct modulation of chondrocyte apoptosis is a key variable in the etiology of OA, and therapies aimed at preventing this important step represent a new class of regenerative medicine targets. PMID:27505251

  1. 78 FR 36635 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Lomas Altas, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico; Av. Pablo Neruda No. 4111, Casa 1, Colonia Lomas del Valle..., Av. Vallarta No. 3060, Colonia Vallarta San Jorge, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; DOB 03 Mar 1971; POB.... DE C.V.). 10. GARZA RODRIGUEZ, Beatriz (a.k.a. GARZA RODRIGUEZ DE SANCHEZ, Beatriz), Av. Vallarta...

  2. New species of Loneuroides García Aldrete (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae) from Colombia, and description of the male L. venezolanus García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Obando, Ranulfo González; Gironza, Nancy Carrejo

    2016-03-20

    Six species of Colombian Loneuroides García Aldrete are here described and illustrated; also, the male of L. venezolanus García Aldrete is described, on basis of specimens from Valle del Cauca, Colombia. An updated diagnosis of the genus is presented; two species groups, based on the structure of the hypandrium, are recognized in the genus.

  3. New species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2016-08-05

    Three new species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein are here described and illustrated; the species were found in the Colombian departments of Valle del Cauca and Risaralda, raising to five the number of species of this genus in Colombia, making it the most species rich country for Graphocaecilius in South America. A key to the species in the genus is included.

  4. Collaborative Leadership for Promoting Effective School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Bennat; And Others

    1994-01-01

    When initiating major structural change in schools, collaboration among educators, community members, and business persons is vital. This publication describes the efforts of the Ysleta (Texas) Independent School District, which successfully used collaboration to promote effective school change. Within the district, the Del Valle High School has…

  5. Revitalizing Hispanic and Native American Communities: Four Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes locally controlled economic development strategies used by Native American and Hispanic cooperatives and organizations: Ganados del Valle, Madera Forest Products Association, Seventh Generation Fund, and Ramah Navajo Weavers Association. Discusses the issues of cultural and economic survival in isolated rural communities. (SV)

  6. Caveats of an English Conversation Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, JoEllen; Ossa, Carlos E.; Rutter, Frank P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an English conversation club that was initiated at the Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia. Suggests ways in which other university communities can better serve their English-speaking populations by creating a similar English conversation club. (Author/VWL)

  7. Literature Search and Analysis for Cultural Resources in Areas 1 through 5 of the Rock River, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    34Abandonment and Post-Abandonment Behavior 1972e at a Costa Rican House-Site," American Antiquity 37:419-432. " Historia cultural en el valle del Rio...Orleans. (With Ricardo Vasquez L.) "El Futuro de los estudios interdisciplinarios entre geologia y arqueologia en Costa Rica," First National Congress of

  8. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia and Ecuador Through Molecular and Morphological Correlation with Topotypic Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    of the Entomology Museum of the Universidad del Valle, Colombia Department Municipality Locality Elevation (m) Collection date Collector Antioquia ...Gómez Plata El Brasil 244 10 May1984 SEM Puerto Nare El Pescado 270 4 Oct 1983 SEM Santafe de Antioquia Paso Real 666 17 Mar 1984 SEM Bolívar Achí

  9. Personnel for Health Care: Case Studies of Educational Programmes, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, F. M., Ed.; Fulop, T., Ed.

    A compilation of case studies of training programs for health personnel consists of nonevaluative descriptions of innovative efforts. Contents include: The University of New Castle, New South Wales, Australia: Developing a New Medical School (D. Maddison); Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia: Dental Manpower Training (R. Guerrero, C. Tasama);…

  10. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Yersinia pestis Using Amplification of Plague Diagnostic Bacteriophages Monitored by Real-Time PCR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    of Listeria monocytogenes in the peresence of Listeria innocua. In: Campbell AK, Kricka LJ, Stanley PE, eds. Bioluminescence and chemilumi- nescence...rapid and sensitive detection of viable Listeria cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 1133–1140. 37. Banaiee N, Bobadilla-Del-Valle M, Bardarov S, Jr

  11. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  12. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  13. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  14. Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects of Misiones and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López Lastra, Claudia C; Scorsetti, Ana C; Marti, Gerardo A; Coscarón, Sixto

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen species of Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects are reported from two provinces of Argentina, Misiones and Tierra del Fuego. Twelve of the species belong to the Harpellales and two are Amoebidiales. Five harpellid species are reported from Misiones in the extreme northeast of the country (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella tica, Smittium culisetae, Smittium sp., Stachylina sp.) and seven are from Tierra del Fuego, the southern tip of South America (H. meridianalis, Glotzia sp., S. culicis, S. cellaspora, S. imitatum, Stachylina minima, Penella simulii). Insect hosts all were immature stages of Culicidae, Simuliidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae (Insecta: Diptera), and Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. The lower diversity of Trichomycetes found at Misiones, which has a subtropical climate and rainforest vegetation, was due possibly to the warmer temperatures of the water (15-24 C), compared to the colder streams of Tierra del Fuego (9-15 C), with forests and steppes as typical vegetation.

  15. Mejoras en el apuntado del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Con el objeto de optimizar el funcionamiento del telescopio de 2,15 mts. de CASLEO, se están eliminando los motores de calar, de guía y mecánica asociada. Para ésto, se están diseñando dos electrónicas que gobernarán, solamente, el motor de slew y el de tracking. Con el control del motor de slew se realizarán las funciones de slew y calar, controlando desde una PC la placa que maneja las rampas de velocidad. De este modo, el movimiento será programado y por lo tanto, más suave y preciso. Con el control del motor de tracking, a través de un generador de frecuencias programable desde una PC, se proveerá los movimientos necesarios para el tracking y guía.

  16. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  17. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  18. An unexpected effect of TNF-α on F508del-CFTR maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Hollenhorst, Monika; Servel, Nathalie; Moquereau, Christelle; Tondelier, Danielle; Hatton, Aurélie; Urbach, Valérie; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Edelman, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multifactorial disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ( CFTR), which encodes a cAMP-dependent Cl (-) channel. The most frequent mutation, F508del, leads to the synthesis of a prematurely degraded, otherwise partially functional protein. CFTR is expressed in many epithelia, with major consequences in the airways of patients with CF, characterized by both fluid transport abnormalities and persistent inflammatory responses. The relationship between the acute phase of inflammation and the expression of wild type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect. The results show that 10 min exposure to TNF-alpha (0.5-50ng/ml) of F508del-CFTR-transfected HeLa cells and human bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR in primary culture (HBE) leads to the maturation of F508del-CFTR and induces CFTR chloride currents. The enhanced CFTR expression and function upon TNFα is sustained, in HBE cells, for at least 24 h. The underlying mechanism of action involves a protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway, and occurs through insertion of vesicles containing F508del-CFTR to the plasma membrane, with TNFα behaving as a corrector molecule. In conclusion, a novel and unexpected action of TNFα has been discovered and points to the importance of systematic studies on the roles of inflammatory mediators in the maturation of abnormally folded proteins in general and in the context of CF in particular.

  19. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  20. The novel complex allele [A238V;F508del] of the CFTR gene: clinical phenotype and possible implications for cystic fibrosis etiological therapies.

    PubMed

    Diana, Anna; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Santostasi, Teresa; Ratclif, Luigi; Pantaleo, Maria Giuseppina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Iusco, Danila Rosa; Gallo, Crescenzio; Conese, Massimo; Manca, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Few mutations in cis have been annotated for F508del homozygous patients. Southern Italy patients who at a first analysis appeared homozygous for the F508del mutation (n=63) or compound heterozygous for the F508del and another mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (n=155) were searched for the A238V mutation in exon 6. The allelic frequency of the complex allele [A238V;F508del] was 0.04. When the whole data set was used (comprised also of 56 F508del/F508del and 34 F508del/other mutation controls), no differences reached the statistical significance in the clinical parameters, except chloride concentrations which were lower in [A238V;F508del]/other mutation compared with F508del/other mutation (P=0.03). The two study groups presented less complications than the control groups. Within the minimal data set (34 F508del/F508del, 27 F508del/other mutation, 4 [A238V;F508del]/F508del cases and 5 [A238V;F508del]/other mutation cases); that is, presenting all the variables in each patient, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity presented a trend to lower levels in the study groups in comparison with the F508del/F508del group, and C-reactive protein approximated statistically significant higher levels in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation as compared with F508del/F508del patients (P=0.09). The analysis of statistical dependence among the variables showed a significant anticorrelation between chloride and body mass index in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation group. In conclusion, the complex allele [A238V;F508del] seems to be associated with less general complications than in the control groups, on the other hand possibly giving a worse pulmonary phenotype and higher systemic/local inflammatory response. These findings have implications for the correct recruitment and clinical response of F508del patients in the clinical trials testing the new etiological drugs for cystic fibrosis.

  1. Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome with 46,XX,del(18p)3

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, R.; Bernheim, A.

    1994-09-01

    The authors report a case of a female infant with gonadal dysgenesis, clinical features of Turner syndrome and a de novo del(18p). The factors controlling gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome are unknown to date. The genes involved could be located not only on X chromosome but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on the short arm of chromosome 18. We conclude that patients with del(18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis.

  2. Black hole remnant and quantum tunnelling in three-dimensional Gödel spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the modified Dirac equation in a three-dimensional gravity background, we investigate the quantum correction to tunnelling radiation from a Gödel black hole, and discuss the black hole remnant employing fermion's tunnelling. The corrected tunnelling probability is derived, and the modified Hawking temperature is found as well. It is worth emphasizing that, only when the condition j> αω(3 r -- r +) is satisfied, emitting both a mass particle and a massless particle, the remnant of the Gödel black hole may arise.

  3. An InDel-based linkage map of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Li, Weipeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Wu, Zhiming; Qin, Cheng; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xin; Cui, Junjie; Zhang, Li; Hu, Kailin

    Two independent pepper (Capsicum annuum) genomes were published recently, opening a new era of molecular genetics research on pepper. However, pepper molecular marker technologies are still mainly focusing on the simple sequence repeats derived from public database or genomic library. The development and application of the third generation marker system such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, structure variations as well as insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) is still in its infancy. In the present study, we developed InDel markers for pepper genetic mapping with the convenience of two whole-genome re-sequenced inbred lines BA3 (C. annuum) and B702 (C. annuum). A total of 154,519 and 149,755 InDel (1-5 bp) sites were identified for BA3 and B702, respectively, by the alignment of re-sequencing reads to Zunla-1 reference genome. Then, 14,498 InDel sites (only 4 and 5 bp) that are different between BA3 and B702 were predicted. Finally, within a random set of 1,000 primer pairs, 251 InDel markers were validated and mapped onto a linkage map using F2 population derived from the intraspecific cross BA3 × B702. The first InDel-based map, named as BB-InDel map, consisted of 12 linkage groups, covered a genetic distance of 1,178.01 cM and the average distance between bin markers was 5.01 cM. Compared to the Zunla-1 reference physical map, high consistency was observed on all 12 chromosomes, and the total length of scaffold anchored and physical distance covered by this map was 299.66 and 2,558.68 Mb, respectively, which accounted for 8.95 and 76.38 % of the Zunla-1 reference genome (3.35 Gb), respectively. Furthermore, 37 scaffolds (total length of 36.21 Mb) from the pseudo-chromosome (P0) of the current genome assembly were newly assigned to the corresponding chromosomes by 40 InDel markers. Thus, this map provided good genome coverage and would be useful for basic and applied research in pepper.

  4. A new fish, Peristedion nesium (Scorpaeniformes: Peristediidae) from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bussing, William A

    2010-12-01

    Several expeditions in recent years to Isla del Coco have increased the total number of species of fishes known from the island. Several of these species have been described as new endemics (Bussing 1983, 1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1997). During the 1972 R/V Searcher Expedition to Costa Rica several trawl collections were made around Isla del Coco. At five localities in depths between 110 and 180m, 86 specimens of a new species of Peristedion were taken and are described herein. A key to the four species of Eastern Pacific Peristedion is included.

  5. Refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia with subsequent del(5q) MDS: complete remission of both after lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Thomas Bech; Frederiksen, Henrik; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Preiss, Birgitte

    2017-01-04

    A patient with refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) characterised by severe skin and mucosal bleedings was treated with several ITP-directed therapies including cyclophosphamide. He later developed therapy-related del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome with no dysplastic morphological features in bone marrow. He remained severely thrombocytopenic, which suggests ongoing immune mediated platelet destruction. After two 3 week cycles of low-dose lenalidomide, complete cytogenetic remission and complete normalisation of platelet count were observed. This suggests that lenalidomide may be a viable treatment option for ITP in the presence of del(5q) not responding to standard treatments.

  6. Ecos del Cosmos: A radio astroexperience at the Universitat de Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Ballesteros, F. J.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2017-03-01

    During the last three years Ecos del Cosmos has been a radio program dedicated to spreading astronomical hot news to the Universitat de València community and beyond, and also topics of general astronomical interest. To do this, this program by Ràdio Universitat has conducted live interviews with researchers, explored relationships of astronomy with humanities and society, performed contests and explained in a simple way the main monthly ephemerides. A version of Ecos del Cosmos was broadcasted in the Onda Cero’s summer program ''Jelo en verano''conducted by Arturo Tellez.

  7. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  8. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity

    PubMed Central

    Chothani, Daya L.; Vaghasiya, H. U.

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae), known as ‘desert date,’ is spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m tall, widely distributed in dry land areas of Africa and South Asia. It is traditionally used in treatment of various ailments i.e. jaundice, intestinal worm infection, wounds, malaria, syphilis, epilepsy, dysentery, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, stomach aches, asthma, and fever. It contains protein, lipid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, and organic acid. Present review summarizes the traditional claims, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of B. aegyptiaca Del reported in scientific literature. PMID:22096319

  9. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Del Cogliano, D.; Dietrich, R.; Fritsche, M.

    2010-09-01

    Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  10. Manual para combatir el absentismo escolar (Manual To Combat Truancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Truancy is the first sign that a youngster is in trouble and that he or she may need the help of parents, teachers, and community members to get back on track. Research shows that students who become truant and eventually drop out of school put themselves at a long-term disadvantage in becoming productive citizens. Dropouts are more likely to be…

  11. Cultura, Identidad y Aprendizaje en la Edad Pre-escolar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Guillermina; Moyer, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that it is not the volume of information about diverse groups that will help children develop attitudes of respect and appreciation of differences; rather, it is the skill of processing such information in a positive manner. Concrete examples illustrate the different process skills which should be introduced in school. (Author/BB)

  12. Politica de las Construcciones Escolares (Policy for School Construction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storni, Adolfo Enrique, Ed.; And Others

    This document establishes the policy for school construction programs and projects to be conducted in Argentina. The first part establishes the bases for construction and defines the policy and its objectives. The second part discusses school construction in view of educational reform and planning and considers analysis of current systems,…

  13. Development of EST-based SNP and InDel markers and their utilization in tetraploid cotton genetic mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed in silico in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion polymorphisms (InDels) in cotton. A total of 1349 EST-based SNP and InDel markers were developed by comparing ESTs between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, m...

  14. 75 FR 39668 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio del Oro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... (FEIS) for the Rio del Oro Specific Plan Project, a proposed master-planned, mixed use development... a mixed- use development in the approximately 3,828-acre Rio del Oro Specific Plan Area. In response... (City). The City is the local agency responsible for preparing an Environmental Impact Report...

  15. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  16. Del(15q) is a recurrent “minor route” cytogenetic abnormality in the clonal evolution of chronic myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, C. Cameron; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Apostolidou, Effrosyni; Cortes, Jorge E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Lu, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Del(15q) is known to occur in acute leukemias, but has been described rarely in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We describe five cases of CML associated with del(15q). There were four men and one woman. Bone marrow aspirate smears demonstrated increased blasts in all cases at the time of del(15q) detection, showing accelerated phase in two and myeloid blast phase in three. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed t(9;22) and del(15q), as well as other inconsistent clonal abnormalities. All patients received imatinib mesylate, four received additional chemotherapy, and two underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). For the three patients who did not receive ASCT, one died, one was in persistent blast phase, and one was in clinical remission with molecular evidence of residual disease, 16, 6, and 34 months after identification of del(15q), respectively. For the two patients who underwent ASCT, one died and one was in clinical remission with molecular evidence of disease, 15 and 64 months after identification of del(15q), respectively. Our findings indicate that del(15q) is a recurrent cytogenetic abnormality that may be seen either at initial presentation of advanced disease or emerge during disease progression. Del(15q) appears to be associated with a poor prognosis in CML. PMID:19480932

  17. Identification and functional characterisation of a novel KCNJ2 mutation, Val302del, causing Andersen-Tawil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ördög, Balázs; Hategan, Lidia; Kovács, Mária; Seprényi, György; Kohajda, Zsófia; Nagy, István; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Környei, László; Jost, Norbert; Katona, Márta; Szekeres, Miklós; Forster, Tamás; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Sepp, Róbert

    2015-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the KCNJ2 gene encoding for the inward rectifier potassium channel subunit Kir2.1 cause Andersen-Tawil Syndrome (ATS), a rare genetic disorder characterised by periodic paralysis, ventricular arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features. Clinical manifestations of the disease appear to vary greatly with the nature of mutation, therefore, functional characterisation of ATS-causing mutations is of clinical importance. In this study, we describe the identification and functional analysis of a novel KCNJ2 mutation, Val302del, identified in a patient with ATS. Heterologously expressed wild type (WT) and Val302del mutant alleles showed similar subcellular distribution of the Kir2.1 protein with high intensity labelling from the membrane region, demonstrating normal membrane trafficking of the Val302del Kir2.1 variant. Cells transfected with the WT allele displayed a robust current with strong inward rectification, while no current above background was detected in cells expressing the Val302del Kir2.1 subunit. Co-transfection of CHO cells with the WT and the Val302del Kir2.1 revealed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the Val302del Kir2.1 mutant subunit on WT Kir2.1 currents. These observations indicate that the WT and the Val302del mutant subunits co-assemble in the cell membrane and that the mutation affects potassium conductivity and (or) gating of the WT/Val302del heteromeric Kir2.1 channels.

  18. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte... specified waters of the James River to protect mariners from the hazards associated with live fire and... conduct a live fire and explosive training event onboard the M/V Del Monte in the vicinity of the...

  19. Calumenin contributes to ER-Ca(2+) homeostasis in bronchial epithelial cells expressing WT and F508del mutated CFTR and to F508del-CFTR retention.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Réginald; Antigny, Fabrice; Buscaglia, Paul; Norez, Caroline; Huguet, Florentin; Castelbou, Cyril; Trouvé, Pascal; Becq, Frédéric; Frieden, Maud; Férec, Claude; Mignen, Olivier

    2017-02-04

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent fatal genetic disease in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the chloride channel CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for functional defects of the protein and multiple associated dysregulations. The most common mutation in patients with CF, F508del-CFTR, causes defective CFTR protein folding. Thus minimal levels of the receptor are expressed at the cell surface as the mutated CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it correlates with defective calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. In this study, we discovered that the Ca(2+) binding protein Calumenin (CALU) is a key regulator in the maintenance of ER-Ca(2+) calcium homeostasis in both wild type and F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Calumenin modulates SERCA pump activity without drastically affecting ER-Ca(2+) concentration. In addition, reducing Calumenin expression in CF cells results in a partial restoration of CFTR activity, highlighting a potential function of Calumenin in CFTR maturation. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for Calumenin in CF cells, providing insights into how modulation of Calumenin expression or activity may be used as a potential therapeutic tool to correct defects in F508del-CFTR.

  20. Causal Transformation of GÖDEL-TYPE Spacetimes in Conformal Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusin, Pawel

    The Gödel-type metrics are considered as backgrounds of the sigma-models. In the conformal field theory such backgrounds are deformed by the exactly marginal operators. We examine, how the closed timelike curves (CTCs) transform under such deformations.

  1. Exploración del Sistema Solar -- Una mirada hacia el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Piensas que ya sabemos todo acerca de nuestro sistema solar? La realidad es que apenas hemos comenzado con lo que hay para conocer. Únete a la NASA, en el envío de misiones a los confines del sist...

  2. Dolores Del Rio, the First "Latin Invasion", and Hollywood's Transition to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The career and promotion of Mexican actress Dolores Del Rio as a case study of how Hollywood's shift to sound film affected Latino and Latina actors is examined. It reveals the way in which the starring opportunities for Latinos dwindled when accent and language increasingly marked them as nonwhite in the 1930s in the talkie films.

  3. Climatic controls on debris-flow activity and sediment aggradation: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Sara; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Scherler, Dirk; Mey, Jürgen; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Central Andes, several studies on alluvial terraces and valley fills have linked sediment aggradation to periods of enhanced sediment supply. However, debate continues over whether tectonic or climatic factors are most important in triggering the enhanced supply. The Del Medio catchment in the Humahuaca Basin (Eastern Cordillera, NW Argentina) is located within a transition zone between subhumid and arid climates and hosts the only active debris-flow fan within this intermontane valley. By combining 10Be analyses of boulder and sediment samples within the Del Medio catchment, with regional morphometric measurements of nearby catchments, we identify the surface processes responsible for aggradation in the Del Medio fan and their likely triggers. We find that the fan surface has been shaped by debris flows and channel avulsions during the last 400 years. Among potential tectonic, climatic, and autogenic factors that might influence deposition, our analyses point to a combination of several favorable factors that drive aggradation. These are in particular the impact of occasional abundant rainfall on steep slopes in rock types prone to failure, located in a region characterized by relatively low rainfall amounts and limited transport capacity. These characteristics are primarily associated with the climatic transition zone between the humid foreland and the arid orogen interior, which creates an imbalance between sediment supply and sediment transfer. The conditions and processes that drive aggradation in the Del Medio catchment today may provide a modern analog for the conditions and processes that drove aggradation in other nearby tributaries in the past.

  4. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  5. CHEK2 ∗1100delC Mutation and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although the causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown, previous studies support the role of genetic factors in the development of prostate cancer. CHEK2 plays a critical role in DNA replication by responding to double-stranded breaks. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of a genetic variant, 1100delC, of CHEK2 on prostate cancer risk and discuss the implication for potential translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. Currently, twelve articles that discussed CHEK2∗1100delC and its association with prostate cancer were identified. Of the twelve prostate cancer studies, five studies had independent data to draw conclusive evidence from. The pooled results of OR and 95% CI were 1.98 (1.23–3.18) for unselected cases and 3.39 (1.78–6.47) for familial cases, indicating that CHEK2∗1100delC mutation is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Screening for CHEK2∗1100delC should be considered in men with a familial history of prostate cancer. PMID:25431674

  6. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  7. A Failed Utopia in Marcela Del Río's "Proceso a Faubritten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manickam, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In Marcela del Río's science fiction novel "Proceso a Faubritten," utopia comes in the form of eternal life for all of humanity, thanks to Dr. Alexander Faubritten's "Bomba L." This polyphonic work includes diaries by Faubritten and his Mexican lover, María Corona. In my analysis of these two diaries, I will show how…

  8. Functional Rescue of F508del-CFTR Using Small Molecule Correctors

    PubMed Central

    Molinski, Steven; Eckford, Paul D. W.; Pasyk, Stan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Chin, Stephanie; Bear, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screens for small molecules that are effective in “correcting” the functional expression of F508del-CFTR have yielded several promising hits. Two such compounds are currently in clinical trial. Despite this success, it is clear that further advances will be required in order to restore 50% or greater of wild-type CFTR function to the airways of patients harboring the F508del-CFTR protein. Progress will be enhanced by our better understanding of the molecular and cellular defects caused by the F508del mutation, present in 90% of CF patients. The goal of this chapter is to review the current understanding of defects caused by F508del in the CFTR protein and in CFTR-mediated interactions important for its biosynthesis, trafficking, channel function, and stability at the cell surface. Finally, we will discuss the gaps in our knowledge regarding the mechanism of action of existing correctors, the unmet need to discover compounds which restore proper CFTR structure and function in CF affected tissues and new strategies for therapy development. PMID:23055971

  9. Dropouts, Stopouts, Optouts at Del Mar College: Spring 1991. Report of a Joint Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Jo Ann I.; Bonham, L. Adrianne

    A research project investigated 2,313 persons who attended Del Mar College (Texas) during fall 1990 but did not enroll for spring 1991. Four sets of data were collected: (1) limited demographic information on the total student body; (2) demographic information drawn from school records to describe all nonreturnees; (3) demographic information…

  10. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  11. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  12. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  13. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  14. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  15. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  16. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  17. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  18. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-05

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p < 0.05) and species richness was higher in central Patagonia (S = 4). No differences in diversity were observed between females and males of central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 139, p < 0.05) and between females of central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  19. A realization theorem for the Gödel-Löb provability logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamkanov, D. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present a new justification logic corresponding to the Gödel-Löb provability logic GL and prove the realization theorem connecting these two systems in such a way that all the realizations provided in the theorem are normal. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  20. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...