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Sample records for esculenta crantz flours

  1. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  2. Household utilization of Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Northern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Muoki, Penina N; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie

    2010-01-01

    Mozambique is ranked ninth of top manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) producing countries in the world. Manioc roots are a staple to people living in the northern part of the country. Despite this, information on production, utilization, postharvest handling, and marketing is scarce. The purpose of this baseline study was to document selected information on manioc, from the production to marketing stage. To gather this information, 70 focus groups consisting of 1,724 participants purposely sampled from 10 districts were engaged in discussions using a questionnaire. The results show that manioc is the most important crop in terms of contribution to household food security and income in the region. Both men and women participate in the delivery of manioc production chain. Typically, 5 to 15 varieties identified by local language can be found on most farms in the study area. Manioc leaves and roots are the parts of the plant used as human food. Sun dried manioc roots are principally marketed within the locality of production by individual farmers. This baseline study suggests the need for location-targeted interventions as the farmers reported varied challenges along the manioc production chain.

  3. Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.

    PubMed

    Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

    2007-08-01

    The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids.

  4. Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

  5. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  6. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21–24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  7. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop.

  8. Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal so...

  9. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant.

  10. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  12. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S.; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties. PMID:27795688

  13. Some Nutritional Characteristics of Enzymatically Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch.

    PubMed

    Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-01-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) native starch was treated with pyroconversion and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce a pyrodextrin and an enzyme-resistant maltodextrin. Some nutritional characteristics were quantified for both compounds. Pyroconversion was done using a 160:1 (p/v) starch:HCl ratio, 90 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. The resulting pyrodextrin contained 46.21% indigestible starch and 78.86% dietary fiber. Thermostable α-amylase (0.01%) was used to hydrolyze the pyrodextrin at 95 °C for 5 min. The resulting resistant maltodextrin contained 24.45% dextrose equivalents, 56.06% indigestible starch and 86.62% dietary fiber. Compared to the cassava native starch, the pyrodextrin exhibited 56% solubility at room temperature and the resistant maltodextrin 100%. The glycemic index value for the resistant maltodextrin was 59% in healthy persons. Its high indigestible starch and dietary fiber contents, as well as its complete solubility, make the resistant maltodextrin a promising ingredient for raising dietary fiber content in a wide range of foods, especially in drinks, dairy products, creams and soups.

  14. Neurotoxic effect of linamarin in rats associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) consumption.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a plant widely used for food consumption in different processed products in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Cassava is a good source of carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, if it is not adequately processed or the consumer has nutritional deficiencies, then its cyanogenic glycoside (i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin) content makes it potentially neurotoxic. In the present study, the neurotoxic effects of different concentrations of linamarin (0.075, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mg/kg) contained in cassava juice were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor alterations in adult male Wistar rats. The linamarin concentration in cassava juice was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the juice was administered intraesophageally for 28 days. The results suggested that the consumption of linamarin in cassava juice increased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field test and caused behavioral deficiency, reflected by lateral swimming, in the swim test on days 21 and 28 of treatment. These alterations are possibly related to neuronal damage caused by linamarin in cassava juice in structures of the central nervous system involved in motor processing.

  15. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-07-14

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system.

  16. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-09-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties.

  17. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop.

  18. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    PubMed

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly.

  19. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide.

  20. An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

    2012-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics.

  1. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations

    DOE PAGES

    Lyons, Jessica

    2014-12-11

    Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400–500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculent Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480more » meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. Here, we used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selectionenhanced breeding of this important crop.« less

  2. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X.; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena. PMID:27023871

  3. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  4. Studies on physicochemical and pasting properties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour in comparison with a cereal, tuber and legume flour.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh

    2013-02-01

    The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P < 0.05) different from other flours in exhibiting highest carbohydrate, water absorption, and lower protein, foaming capacity and setback viscosity. Peak viscosity of taro flour was lower in comparison to potato flour but higher than that of soya and corn flours. Several significant correlations between functional and pasting properties were revealed both by PCA and Pearson correlation. PCA showed that taro and potato flours were located at the left of the score plot with a negative score, while soybean and corn flours had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  5. In vitro assessment of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of boiled juice (tucupi) from Manihot esculenta Crantz roots.

    PubMed

    Cunha, L A; Mota, T C; Cardoso, P C S; Alcântara, D D F Á; Burbano, R M R; Guimarães, A C; Khayat, A S; Rocha, C A M; Bahia, M O

    2016-10-05

    The population of Pará (a state in Brazil) has a very characteristic food culture, as a majority of the carbohydrates consumed are obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) derivatives. Tucupi is the boiled juice of cassava roots that plays a major role in the culinary footprint of Pará. Before boiling, this juice is known as manipueira and contains linamarin, a toxic glycoside that can decompose to hydrogen cyanide. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tucupi on cultured human lymphocytes were assessed using the comet assay and detection of apoptosis and necrosis by differential fluorescent staining with acridine orange-ethidium bromide. Tucupi concentrations (v/v) were determined using the methylthiazole tetrazolium biochemical test. Concentrations of tucupi that presented no genotoxic effects (2, 4, 8, and 16%) were used in our experiments. The results showed that under our study conditions, tucupi exerted no genotoxic effects; however, cytotoxic effects were observed with cell death mainly induced by necrosis. These effects may be related to the presence of hydrogen cyanide in the juice.

  6. Large-Scale SNP Discovery through RNA Sequencing and SNP Genotyping by Targeted Enrichment Sequencing in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R.; Ruang-areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10. PMID:25551642

  7. Leaf proteomic analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) during plant development, from planting of stem cutting to storage root formation.

    PubMed

    Mitprasat, Mashamon; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiemsup, Surasak; Boonseng, Opas; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2011-06-01

    Tuberization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) occurs simultaneously with plant development, suggesting competition of photoassimilate partitioning between the shoot and the root organs. In potato, which is the most widely studied tuber crop, there is ample evidence suggesting that metabolism and regulatory processes in leaf may have an impact on tuber formation. To search for leaf proteins putatively involved in regulating tuber generation and/or development in cassava, comparative proteomic approaches have been applied to monitor differentially expressed leaf proteins during root transition from fibrous to tuberous. Stringent cross comparison and statistical analysis between two groups with different plant ages using Student's t test with 95% significance level revealed a number of protein spots whose abundance were significantly altered (P < 0.05) during week 4 to week 8 of growth. Of these, 39 spots were successfully identified by ion trap LC-MS/MS. The proteins span various functional categories from antioxidant and defense, carbohydrate metabolism, cyanogenesis, energy metabolism, miscellaneous and unknown proteins. Results suggested possible metabolic switches in the leaf that may trigger/regulate storage root initiation and growth. This study provides a basis for further functional characterization of differentially expressed leaf proteins, which can help understand how biochemical processes in cassava leaves may be involved in storage root development.

  8. Large-scale SNP discovery through RNA sequencing and SNP genotyping by targeted enrichment sequencing in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10.

  9. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-09

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff.

  10. Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with starch pasting viscosity characteristics in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Thanyasiriwat, T; Sraphet, S; Whankaew, S; Boonseng, O; Bao, J; Lightfoot, D A; Tangphatsornruang, S; Triwitayakorn, K

    2014-01-01

    Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits.

  11. Diversity of LTR-retrotransposons and Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator-like transposons in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Wills, Matthew A; Beeching, John R

    2008-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), though a major world crop with enormous potential, is very under studied. Little is known about its genome structure and organisation. Transposable elements have a key role in the evolution of genome structure, and can be used as important tools in applied genetics. This paper sets out to survey the diversity of members of three major classes of transposable element within the cassava genome and in relation to similar elements in other plants. Members of two classes of LTR-retrotransposons, Ty1/copia-like and Ty3/gypsy-like, and of Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator (En/Spm)-like transposons were isolated and characterised. Analyses revealed 59 families of Ty1/copia, 26 families of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, and 40 families of En/Spm in the cassava genome. In the comparative analyses, the predicted amino acid sequences for these transposon classes were compared with those of related elements from other plant species. These revealed that there were multiple lineages of Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava and suggested that vertical and horizontal transmission as the source of cassava Mecops may not be mutually exclusive. For the Ty3/gypsy elements network, two groups of cassava Megyps were evident including the Arabidopsis Athila lineage. However, cassava En/Spm-like elements (Meens) constituted a single group within a network of plant En/Spm-like elements. Hybridisation analysis supported the presence of transposons in the genome of cassava in medium (Ty3/gypsy and En/Spm) to high (Ty1/copia) copy numbers. Thus the cassava genome was shown to contain diverse members of three major classes of transposable element; however, the different classes exhibited contrasting evolutionary histories.

  12. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  13. Evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after recent introduction into a South Pacific Island system: the contribution of sex to the diversification of a clonally propagated crop.

    PubMed

    Sardos, J; McKey, D; Duval, M F; Malapa, R; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2008-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated crop that was introduced into the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu in the 1850s. Based on a survey conducted in 10 different villages throughout the archipelago, we present here a study of its diversity. Farmers' knowledge about cultivation cycle and sexual reproduction of cassava was recorded during group interviews in each village. Using a set of 11 SSR markers, we genotyped the 104 landraces collected and 60 supplementary accessions from a within-landrace study (12 landraces x 5 plants). Out of the 104 landraces collected, we discovered 77 different multilocus genotypes and the within-landrace study identified several polyclonal landraces. Our data suggest a number of hypotheses about the dynamics of diversity of cassava in Vanuatu.

  14. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Jessica

    2014-12-11

    Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400–500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculent Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. Here, we used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selectionenhanced breeding of this important crop.

  15. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

  16. Transgenic rice expressing a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plasma membrane gene MePMP3-2 exhibits enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Cui, Y C; Ren, C; Rocha, P S C F; Peng, M; Xu, G Y; Wang, M L; Xia, X J

    2016-02-05

    Plasma membrane proteolipid 3 (PMP3) is a class of small hydrophobic proteins found in many organisms including higher plants. Some plant PMP3 genes have been shown to respond to abiotic stresses and to participate in the processes of plant stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MePMP3-2 gene and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by expressing it in rice (Oryza sativa L.). MePMP3-2 encodes a 77-amino acid protein belonging to a subgroup of plant PMP3s that have long hydrophylic C-terminal tails of unknown function. In silico analysis and co-localization studies indicated that MePMP3-2 is a plasma membrane protein with two transmembrane domains, similar to other PMP3s. In cassava leaves, MePMP3-2 expression was up-regulated by salt and drought stresses. Heterologous constitutive expression of MePMP3-2 in rice did not alter plant growth and development but increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. In addition, under stress conditions MePMP3-2 transgenic plants accumulated less malondialdehyde, had increased levels of proline, and exhibited greater up-regulation of the stress-related genes OsProT and OsP5CS, but led to only minor changes in OsDREB2A and OsLEA3 expression. These findings indicate that MePMP3-2 may play an important role in salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic rice.

  17. RNAi inhibition of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase reduces scopoletin biosynthesis and post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Zainuddin, Ima M; Vanderschuren, Herve; Doughty, James; Beeching, John R

    2017-03-18

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers. The inevitable wounding of the roots caused by harvesting triggers an oxidative burst that spreads throughout the cassava root, together with the accumulation of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, of which the coumarin scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is the most abundant. Scopoletin oxidation yields a blue-black colour, which suggests its involvement in the discoloration observed during PPD. Feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase is a controlling enzyme in the biosynthesis of scopoletin. The cassava genome contains a seven membered family of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase genes, four of which are expressed in the storage root and, of these, three were capable of functionally complementing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants in this gene. A RNA interference construct, designed to a highly conserved region of these genes, was used to transform cassava, where it significantly reduced feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase gene expression, scopoletin accumulation and PPD symptom development. Collectively, our results provide evidence that scopoletin plays a major functional role in the development of PPD symptoms, rather than merely paralleling symptom development in the cassava storage root.

  18. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  19. Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

    2014-02-28

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples.

  20. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes. PMID:27242878

  1. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis-β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (red-fleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition.

  2. Molecular cloning, subcellular localization and characterization of two adenylate kinases from cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. KU50.

    PubMed

    Boonrueng, Channarong; Tangpranomkorn, Surachat; Yazhisai, Uthaman; Sirikantaramas, Supaart

    2016-10-01

    Adenylate kinase (ADK) is a phosphotransferase that plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Many isozymes located in different subcellular compartments have been reported. In this study, we focus on the characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ADKs. We found 15 ADKs that are publicly available in the African cassava genome database. We cloned two ADKs, namely MeADK1 and MeADK2, which are phylogenetically grouped together with the plastidial ADK in potato. Both MeADK1 and MeADK2 showed 66% identity in the amino acid sequences with plastidial ADK in potato. However, we demonstrated that they are localized to mitochondria using GFP fusions of MeADK1 and MeADK2. The Escherichia coli-produced recombinant MeADK1 and MeADK2 preferred forward reactions that produce ATP. They exhibited similar specific activities. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MeADK1 and MeADK2 in 2-month-old leaves have similar expression patterns under a diurnal light-dark cycle. However, MeADK2 transcripts were expressed at much higher levels than MeADK1 in 5-month-old leaves and roots. Thus, we conclude that MeADK2 might play a vital role in energy homeostasis in cassava mitochondria.

  3. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  4. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  5. Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by primed in situ labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, J F; Yin, H; Gao, H Q; Zhuang, N S; Liu, J P

    2015-07-28

    Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were achieved using primed in situ labeling. Amplified signals for both the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were consistently observed in different stages of cell division. A comparison of the length, arm ratio, and other morphological characteristics of somatic metaphase chromosomes in karyotype analysis indicated that the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were localized on the short and long arm of cassava chromosome 11 with the relative map positions of 41.67 and 23.07, respectively. The physical localization of the 2 markers on chromosome 11 of the karyotype corresponds to their positions on the 15th linkage group in cassava.

  6. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone.

  7. A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.

    PubMed

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava.

  8. Diversity of begomoviruses associated with mosaic disease of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relative (Manihot glaziovii Mull. Arg.) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sserubombwe, W S; Briddon, R W; Baguma, Y K; Ssemakula, G N; Bull, S E; Bua, A; Alicai, T; Omongo, C; Otim-Nape, G W; Stanley, J

    2008-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) growing in Uganda during 2001-2002 has been screened for the presence of begomoviruses using PCR-RFLP, cloning full-length genomic components and nucleotide sequence analysis. In contrast with a recent survey in neighbouring Kenya, which identified three distinct strains of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, EACMV-UG and EACMV-KE2) as well as East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus and the new species East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, only EACMV-UG and, to a lesser extent, African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) were found associated with cassava in Uganda. The integrity of the cloned genomic components of representative virus isolates was confirmed by demonstrating their infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana and cassava using biolistic inoculation, providing a convenient means to screen cassava varieties for disease resistance. Both EACMV-UG and ACMV were also associated with Manihot glaziovii. Infectivity studies using cloned components confirmed that viruses from one host could infect the other, suggesting that this wild relative of cassava might be a reservoir host for the disease. The relatively low level of diversity of begomoviruses associated with cassava mosaic disease in Uganda is consistent with reports that EACMV-UG has displaced other begomovirus species and strains during the recent epidemic that swept through the country.

  9. [Production of cassava whole meal (N. esculenta Crantz) to prepare a feed for growing chicks. I. Chemical and nutritive characterization of leaves, roots and cassava whole meal].

    PubMed

    Ballinas Díaz, J; Cruz Mondragón, C; Castellanos Molina, R; Larios Saldaña, A

    1997-12-01

    Cassava roots are frequently used as a energy source in feeds. The leaves due to their high fiber content, are not used in animal feeds despite they have a good content of protein and a balanced level of essential amino acids. The purpose of this research was to produce a cassava whole meal (CWF) with low content of fiber for using in chick feed. Leaves and roots of cassava by separated, were dried at 60 degrees C for 20 h, ground in a hammermill and passed through a 60 mesh sieve. By this procedure a root flour (CRF) and a leaves flour were obtained (CLF). The fiber content in CLF was reduced 25.8% and the protein content was increased 8.2%. The CWF was made with 61.2% of CRF and 38.8% of CLF, having a protein and fiber content of 9.15% and 9.73%, respectively. The True Metabolizable Energy of CWF was 2,454 kcal/kg with an average true bioavailability of amino acids of 68.8%.

  10. [Production of cassava whole meal (N. esculenta Crantz) to prepare a feed for growing chicks. II. Evaluation of cassava whole meal in growing chicks].

    PubMed

    Ballinas Díaz, J; Larios Saldaña, A; Cruz Mondragón, C; Castellanos Molina, R; Avila González, E

    1997-12-01

    About 50% of the raw materials used for poultry feeds are constituted of sorghum as a energy source. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional quality of a cassava whole meal (CWF: 61.2% and 38.8% of root and leaf flours, respectively) for growing chicks. The sorghum was partially substituted from a basal diet by 15, 30 and 45% of CWF. Four diets based of sorghum, soybean meal and CWF were formulated. Levels of 0.0, 8.6, 16.4 and 23.7% of CWF were included in the diets. White Vantress chicks (96) were used in the nutritional experiment during 28 days. Each treatment was assayed with 24 chicks. The diet containing 23.7% of CWF showed the lower weight gain and feed efficiency (p < 0.05) as compared with the other diets, and the liver/ bird weight relation increased directly with the increment of CWF.

  11. Physical, functional, and pasting properties of flours from corms of two Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Okafor, Chidinma A

    2015-06-01

    Physical, functional and physicochemical properties of flours of five cocoyam (Colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp) cultivars were evaluated. Colour (L*a*b*) parameters of corms and flours, pasting and functional properties of the flours were determined. Xanthosoma spp showed significantly higher length (95.16-151.46), width (75.29-78.03) and weight (179.20-605.94) than the Colocasia spp., but the parameters did not vary significantly within either Xanthosoma and Colocasia spp. Generally, colour of peeled corms [L* (72.08-78.93); a* (+1.06 - +3.5); b* (+17.65 - +35.80)] was lighter than the flours [L* (69.35-84.97); a* (+0.30 - + 4.76); b* (+4.44 - +23.48)]. The NXs001 showed significantly higher peak (201.71RVU), trough (186.75 RVU), final (289.75 RVU) and setback (103 RVU) viscosities that the other cultivars. Pasting profiles of the cocoyam flours showed similar trend with the NXs001 showing a steeper curve. Pasting temperature and peak time ranged from 87.33 to 92.53 °C and 5.17-6.34 min, respectively. Water absorption capacity, gelling point, pH, foam capacity, bulk density and swelling power varied from 32-69 %, 6.56-7.59, 58.5-72.5 °C, 7.19-14.72 %, 0.94-1.01 g/mL and 3.18-7.36, respectively.

  12. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  13. Case of escape in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    PubMed

    Nassar, N M A; Mendonza, M

    2017-02-08

    Two cassava escapes where collected from cultivated fields near natural habitat in Bolivia. They are described morphologically and analyzed cytogenetically in this study. It is suggested that they are the product of backcrosses of cassava interspecific hybrids with the cultigen itself, and that selective conditions have developed in which certain forms of cassava segregates have adapted to grow wildly in natural habitats near cassava fields. These segregates may hybridize with cultivated cassava upon coming in contact with such varieties. Because these escapes have incorporated useful genes from the wild into their genetic structure, they could be used for cassava improvement since their genetic barriers with other forms of cassava are very weak.

  14. Nutritional composition of "gari" analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-11-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist.

  15. Nutritional composition of “gari” analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber

    PubMed Central

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

  16. A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

  17. A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus' native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  18. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Soluble Starch Synthase Genes in Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Shuhui; Xu, Chenwu; Yan, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encoded by these genes contain both Glyco_transf_5 and Glycos_transf_1 domains, and a correlation analysis showed evidence of coevolution between these 2 domains in cassava SS genes. The SS genes in land plants can be divided into 6 subfamilies that were formed before the origin of seed plants, and species-specific expansion has contributed to the evolution of this family in cassava. A functional divergence analysis for this family provided statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rates between the subfamilies of land plant soluble starch synthases. Although the main selective pressure acting on land plant SS genes was purifying selection, our results also revealed that point mutation with positive selection contributed to the evolution of 2 SS genes in cassava. The remarkable cassava starch characteristics might be the result of both the duplication and adaptive selection of SS genes. PMID:23888108

  19. Enrichment of nutrient quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with microbial proteins.

    PubMed

    Antai, S P

    1990-10-01

    The effect of fermentation on the nutrient quality of cassava was investigated. Chemical analysis revealed a general increase in ash, fibre and crude protein content of the fermented cassava mash, while the carbohydrate content showed a substantial decrease. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation resulted in a slight protein enrichment of the fermentated cassava mash. When active yeast cells were inoculated into the cassava mash before fermentation, the yeast cells grew and generated additional cell mass which was reflected in a higher content of crude protein in the fermented cassava mash. Results obtained also revealed that 3.3% concentration of yeast cell inoculum added to cassava mash before commencement of fermentation was optimum for maximal crude protein formation.

  20. Performances and haematological profile of broilers fed fermented dried cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-10-01

    The effect of feeding fermented dried cassava (gathot) on the performances and haematological profile of broilers was investigated. There were four dietary treatments arranged in a completely randomized design, i.e. control diet and diets containing 25, 50 or 100 g/kg gathot. The birds were provided with the treatment diets ad libitum from 8 to 35 days of age. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly. At day 32, the birds were blood sampled, sacrificed and immediately the internal organs and abdominal fat were removed and weighed. Feeding gathot at various levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the growth and FCR, but tended (P = 0.09) to reduce the feed cost per kilogramme live weight gain of broilers. The dietary treatments did not cause toxicological effect on broilers, indicated by the values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that were not different from those in the control diet. Dietary inclusion of gathot lowered heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L ratio) (P < 0.05) and albumin to globulin ratio (A/G ratio) (P = 0.14) of broilers as compared to the control diet. Total triglyceride was lower (P < 0.05) in the serum of broilers fed diets containing 5 and 10 % of gathot, when compared with that in the control diet. The treatments resulted in reduced abdominal fat deposition in broilers. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of gathot at up to 10 % had no negative impact on the growth performance of broilers. Feeding gathot has potential to improve the health and physiological stress responses as well as reduce body fat deposition in broilers.

  1. Thermomechanical characterization of an amylose-free starch extracted from cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    PubMed

    Pulido Díaz, Adriana; Lourdin, Denis; Della Valle, Guy; Fernández Quintero, Alejandro; Ceballos, Hernán; Tran, Thierry; Dufour, Dominique

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the melting (Tm), glass transition (Tg) and mechanical relaxation (Tα) temperatures of a new waxy cassava starch. Thermal transitions measurements were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamical Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The experimental data showed a high correlation between water volume fraction and melting temperature (Tm) indicating that the Flory-Huggins theory can be used to describe the thermal behavior of this starch. The Tm of waxy cassava starch-water mixes were lower than a waxy corn starch-water reference system, but differences were not statistically significant. The mechanical relaxation temperatures taken at tan δ peaks were found 29-38°C larger than Tg. The Tα and Tg measured for waxy cassava starch exhibited similar properties to the ones of waxy corn starch, implying that waxy cassava starch can be used in food and materials industry.

  2. Comparison of Leaf Proteomes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivar NZ199 Diploid and Autotetraploid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X.; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

  3. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under postharvest physiological deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuling; Djabou, Astride Stéphanie Mouafi; An, Feifei; Li, Kaimian; Li, Zhaogui; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9) and PPD-tolerant (QZ1) genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots. PMID:28339481

  4. Molecular and supra-molecular structure of waxy starches developed from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Sanchez, Teresa; Buléon, Alain; Colonna, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Peng; Dufour, Dominique

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the amylopectin of low amylose content cassava starches obtained from transgenesis comparatively with a natural waxy cassava starch (WXN) discovered recently in CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). Macromolecular features, starch granule morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of these starches were determined. M¯(w) of amylopectin from the transgenic varieties are lower than WXN. Branched and debranched chain distributions analyses revealed slight differences in the branching degree and structure of these amylopectins, principally on DP 6-9 and DP>37. For the first time, a deep structural characterization of a series of transgenic lines of waxy cassava was carried out and the link between structural features and the mutated gene expression approached. The transgenesis allows to silenced partially or totally the GBSSI, without changing deeply the starch granule ultrastructure and allows to produce clones with similar amylopectin as parental cassava clone.

  5. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuling; Djabou, Astride Stéphanie Mouafi; An, Feifei; Li, Kaimian; Li, Zhaogui; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Songbi

    2017-01-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9) and PPD-tolerant (QZ1) genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots.

  6. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    PubMed

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  7. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s.

  8. SSR and EST-SSR-based genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Sraphet, Supajit; Boonchanawiwat, Athipong; Thanyasiriwat, Thanwanit; Boonseng, Opas; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Lightfoot, David A; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn

    2011-04-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers provide a powerful tool for genetic linkage map construction that can be applied for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, a total of 640 new SSR markers were developed from an enriched genomic DNA library of the cassava variety 'Huay Bong 60' and 1,500 novel expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) loci were developed from the Genbank database. To construct a genetic linkage map of cassava, a 100 F(1) line mapping population was developed from the cross Huay Bong 60 by 'Hanatee'. Polymorphism screening between the parental lines revealed that 199 SSRs and 168 EST-SSRs were identified as novel polymorphic markers. Combining with previously developed SSRs, we report a linkage map consisted of 510 markers encompassing 1,420.3 cM, distributed on 23 linkage groups with a mean distance between markers of 4.54 cM. Comparison analysis of the SSR order on the cassava linkage map and the cassava genome sequences allowed us to locate 284 scaffolds on the genetic map. Although the number of linkage groups reported here revealed that this F(1) genetic linkage map is not yet a saturated map, it encompassed around 88% of the cassava genome indicating that the map was almost complete. Therefore, sufficient markers now exist to encompass most of the genomes and efficiently map traits in cassava.

  9. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  10. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  11. Molecular assessment of the bacterial community associated with Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Begoude, Aime Didier Boyogueno; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Araki, Shigeru; Nawata, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient cycles and plant development. Their distribution and activity may depend on location and environmental heterogeneity. This study characterized soil bacterial communities in cassava fields of Eastern (Andom) and Southern (Bityili) Cameroon using molecular tools. In both sites, two improved varieties (TMS-96/1414; TMS-92/0326) and a local variety (Local) were grown in a randomized block design. Composite bulk soils were collected at 10months after planting from cassava plots. The 16S rDNA region was amplified, MiSeq was performed and sequence data analyzed. The same 17 bacterial phyla were present in both Andom and Bityili, while Chlorobi and Deinococcus-Thermus were only specific to Andom. The phyla Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were dominant. Although both sites shared similar phyla, the principal coordinate analysis revealed significant variations in their composition, suggesting that the functions of the bacteria in nutrients cycling are likely to differ between Andom and Bityili. Cassava yields were generally higher in Andom which also displayed a higher diversity of bacterial communities. This study provides useful information on the composition of bacterial communities in cassava fields in two agro-ecologies of Cameroon. It constitutes to our knowledge the first report describing soil bacterial communities in association with cassava growth in the country, using molecular tools.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-12-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava.

  13. Biosafety considerations for selectable and scorable markers used in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Petersen, William; Umbeck, Paul; Hokanson, Karen; Halsey, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Cassava is an important subsistence crop grown only in the tropics, and represents a major source of calories for many people in developing countries. Improvements in the areas of resistance to insects and viral diseases, enhanced nutritional qualities, reduced cyanogenic content and modified starch characteristics are urgently needed. Traditional breeding is hampered by the nature of the crop, which has a high degree of heterozygosity, irregular flowering, and poor seed set. Biotechnology has the potential to enhance crop improvement efforts, and genetic engineering techniques for cassava have thus been developed over the past decade. Selectable and scorable markers are critical to efficient transformation technology, and must be evaluated for biosafety, as well as efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In order to facilitate research planning and regulatory submission, the literature on biosafety aspects of the selectable and scorable markers currently used in cassava biotechnology is surveyed. The source, mode of action and current use of each marker gene is described. The potential for toxicity, allergenicity, pleiotropic effects, horizontal gene transfer, and the impact of these on food or feed safety and environmental safety is evaluated. Based on extensive information, the selectable marker genes nptII, hpt, bar/pat, and manA, and the scorable marker gene uidA, all have little risk in terms of biosafety. These appear to represent the safest options for use in cassava biotechnology available at this time.

  14. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide.

  15. Mapping EST-derived SSRs and ESTs involved in resistance to bacterial blight in Manihot esculenta.

    PubMed

    López, Camilo E; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M; Bohórquez, Adriana; Duque, Myriam Cristina; Vargas, Jaime; Tohme, Joe; Verdier, Valérie

    2007-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major root crop widely grown in the tropics. Cassava bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), is an important disease in Latin America and Africa resulting in significant losses. The preferred control method is the use of resistant genotypes. Mapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and determining their co-localization with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) may give additional evidence of the role of the corresponding genes in resistance or defense. Twenty-one EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were mapped in 16 linkage groups. ESTs showing similarities with candidate resistance genes or defense genes were also mapped using strategies such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences, and allele-specific primers. In total, 10 defense-related genes and 2 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing resistance gene candidates (RGCs) were mapped in 11 linkage groups. Two new QTLs associated with resistance to Xam strains CIO121 and CIO151 were detected in linkage groups A and U, respectively. The QTL in linkage group U explained 61.6% of the phenotypic variance and was associated with an RGC-containing BAC. No correlation was found between the new EST-derived SSRs or other mapped ESTs and the new or previously reported QTLs.

  16. Development of retrotransposon-based markers IRAP and REMAP for cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Kuhn, B C; Mangolin, C A; Souto, E R; Vicient, C M; Machado, M F P S

    2016-04-07

    Retrotransposons are abundant in the genomes of plants. In the present study, inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers were developed for the cassava genome (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Four cassava cultivars (Fécula Branca, IPR-União, Olho Junto, and Tamboara, two samples per cultivar) were used to obtain IRAP and REMAP fingerprints. Twelve designed primers were amplified alone and in combinations. The 42 IRAP/REMAP primer combinations amplified 431 DNA segments (bands; markers) of which 36 (8.36%) were polymorphic. The largest number of informative markers (16) was detected using the primers AYF2 and AYF2xAYF4. The number of bands for each primer varied from 3 to 16, with an average of 10.26 amplified segments per primer. The size of the amplified products ranged between 100 and 7000 bp. The AYF2 primer generated the highest number of amplified segments and showed the highest number of polymorphic bands (68.75%). Two samples of each cassava cultivar were used to illustrate the usefulness and the polymorphism of IRAP/REMAP markers. IRAP and REMAP markers produced a high number of reproducible bands, and might be informative and reliable for investigation of genetic diversity and relationships among cassava cultivars.

  17. Transgenic biofortification of the starchy staple cassava (Manihot esculenta) generates a novel sink for protein.

    PubMed

    Abhary, Mohammad; Siritunga, Dimuth; Stevens, Gene; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-01-25

    Although calorie dense, the starchy, tuberous roots of cassava provide the lowest sources of dietary protein within the major staple food crops (Manihot esculenta Crantz). (Montagnac JA, Davis CR, Tanumihardjo SA. (2009) Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:181-194). Cassava was genetically modified to express zeolin, a nutritionally balanced storage protein under control of the patatin promoter. Transgenic plants accumulated zeolin within de novo protein bodies localized within the root storage tissues, resulting in total protein levels of 12.5% dry weight within this tissue, a fourfold increase compared to non-transgenic controls. No significant differences were seen for morphological or agronomic characteristics of transgenic and wild type plants in the greenhouse and field trials, but relative to controls, levels of cyanogenic compounds were reduced by up to 55% in both leaf and root tissues of transgenic plants. Data described here represent a proof of concept towards the potential transformation of cassava from a starchy staple, devoid of storage protein, to one capable of supplying inexpensive, plant-based proteins for food, feed and industrial applications.

  18. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  19. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  20. Digestibility of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P

    1991-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the digestibility of a cassava (gari) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs. Three groups of dogs were fed on diets with rice (control), cassava (gari), and rice + cyanide respectively as the carbohydrate source. Each diet contained 130 g crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25)/kg, was supplemented with vitamins and minerals, and was fed for 14 weeks. Variables measured were body-weight gain, bone growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) activity, total serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and some plasma free amino acids. The apparent digestibilities of dry matter, protein and fat were not significantly different in the three groups, but the digestibility of gari fibre was significantly lower than the digestibility of rice fibre when fed to dogs (P less than 0.05). Proximate analysis of the faeces showed that the group of dogs fed on the gari diet had faeces which had a significantly higher moisture content than the faeces of the other groups (P less than 0.05), and also a significantly higher fibre content (P less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in body-weight gain and bone growth between the control and gari-fed groups of dogs, but these variables were significantly lower in the dogs fed on the rice + cyanide diet (P less than 0.05). At the end of the 14-week experimental period total serum T3 and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity were not significantly different between the control group of dogs and the gari-fed group, but were significantly lower in the rice + cyanide group. Plasma free methionine, leucine, isoleucine and valine concentrations were higher in the rice + cyanide group of dogs than in the control group and the gari group, indicating that these amino acids were accumulating and not being utilized for protein synthesis and growth to the same extent in the rice + cyanide group of dogs as in the other groups. It was concluded that the digestibilities of cassava starch and rice starch were the same in the dog but that rice fibre was more digestible in the dog than cassava fibre. It was also concluded that growth proceeded normally when a balanced gari diet or a balanced rice diet containing 130 g crude protein/kg was fed to dogs, but growth was retarded when a balanced rice + cyanide diet containing 130 g crude protein/kg was fed to dogs because total serum T3 concentration became greatly depressed.

  1. Resilience of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to salinity: implications for food security in low-lying regions.

    PubMed

    Gleadow, Ros; Pegg, Amelia; Blomstedt, Cecilia K

    2016-10-01

    Rising sea levels are threatening agricultural production in coastal regions due to inundation and contamination of groundwater. The development of more salt-tolerant crops is essential. Cassava is an important staple, particularly among poor subsistence farmers. Its tolerance to drought and elevated temperatures make it highly suitable for meeting global food demands in the face of climate change, but its ability to tolerate salt is unknown. Cassava stores nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides and can cause cyanide poisoning unless correctly processed. Previous research demonstrated that cyanide levels are higher in droughted plants, possibly as a mechanism for increasing resilience to oxidative stress. We determined the tolerance of cassava to salt at two different stages of development, and tested the hypothesis that cyanide toxicity would be higher in salt-stressed plants. Cassava was grown at a range of concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) at two growth stages: tuber initiation and tuber expansion. Established plants were able to tolerate 100mM NaCl but in younger plants 40mM was sufficient to retard plant growth severely. Nutrient analysis showed that plants were only able to exclude sodium at low concentrations. The foliar cyanogenic glucoside concentration in young plants increased under moderate salinity stress but was lower in plants grown at high salt. Importantly, there was no significant change in the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the tubers. We propose that the mechanisms for salinity tolerance are age dependent, and that this can be traced to the relative cost of leaves in young and old plants.

  2. Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites.

  3. Resilience of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to salinity: implications for food security in low-lying regions

    PubMed Central

    Gleadow, Ros; Pegg, Amelia; Blomstedt, Cecilia K.

    2016-01-01

    Rising sea levels are threatening agricultural production in coastal regions due to inundation and contamination of groundwater. The development of more salt-tolerant crops is essential. Cassava is an important staple, particularly among poor subsistence farmers. Its tolerance to drought and elevated temperatures make it highly suitable for meeting global food demands in the face of climate change, but its ability to tolerate salt is unknown. Cassava stores nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides and can cause cyanide poisoning unless correctly processed. Previous research demonstrated that cyanide levels are higher in droughted plants, possibly as a mechanism for increasing resilience to oxidative stress. We determined the tolerance of cassava to salt at two different stages of development, and tested the hypothesis that cyanide toxicity would be higher in salt-stressed plants. Cassava was grown at a range of concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) at two growth stages: tuber initiation and tuber expansion. Established plants were able to tolerate 100mM NaCl but in younger plants 40mM was sufficient to retard plant growth severely. Nutrient analysis showed that plants were only able to exclude sodium at low concentrations. The foliar cyanogenic glucoside concentration in young plants increased under moderate salinity stress but was lower in plants grown at high salt. Importantly, there was no significant change in the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the tubers. We propose that the mechanisms for salinity tolerance are age dependent, and that this can be traced to the relative cost of leaves in young and old plants. PMID:27506218

  4. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD.

  5. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum thiocyanate concentration. Although inclusion of 100 g/kg PCRM showed some economic sense, dietary inclusion of either peeled or unpeeled cassava root poses a threat on growth and health status of broiler chicks.

  6. Isolation and partial characterization of a root-specific promoter for stacking multiple traits into cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ).

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, M A; Beeching, J R

    2011-06-07

    Cassava can be cultivated on impoverished soils with minimum inputs, and its storage roots are a staple food for millions in Africa. However, these roots are low in bioavailable nutrients and in protein content, contain cyanogenic glycosides, and suffer from a very short post-harvest shelf-life, and the plant is susceptible to viral and bacterial diseases prevalent in Africa. The demand for improvement of cassava with respect to these traits comes from both farmers and national agricultural institutions. Genetic improvement of cassava cultivars by molecular biology techniques requires the availability of appropriate genes, a system to introduce these genes into cassava, and the use of suitable gene promoters. Cassava root-specific promoter for auxin-repressed protein was isolated using the gene walking approach, starting with a cDNA sequence. In silico analysis of promoter sequences revealed putative cis-acting regulatory elements, including root-specific elements, which may be required for gene expression in vascular tissues. Research on the activities of this promoter is continuing, with the development of plant expression cassettes for transformation into major African elite lines and farmers' preferred cassava cultivars to enable testing of tissue-specific expression patterns in the field.

  7. Cloning, 3D modeling and expression analysis of three vacuolar invertase genes from cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-05-15

    Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (β-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed β-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a β-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the β-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, α and β groups, in which α group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while β group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development.

  8. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments.

  9. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

  10. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD.

  11. The Metabolic Effects of Consumption of Yellow Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Experimental Rats.

    PubMed

    Udeme, Nelson; Okafor, Polycarp; Eleazu, Chinedum

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of yellow cassava (variety TMS 01/1368) was investigated in male albino rats fed a diet containing yellow cassava for 7 to 28 days. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in total and free cyanide and thiocyanate in the sera and urine samples of the experimental rats compared with the control, significant increases (P < 0.05) in serum glucose, alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alkaline phosphatase levels of the experimental rats compared with the control, significant decreases (P < 0.05) in serum albumin of the experimental rats compared with the control, but no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the serum total proteins of the experimental rats compared with the control. The experimental rats treated for 7, 14, 21, or 28 days exhibited body weight decreases of 5.11%, 11.10%, 19.16%, and 24.18%, respectively, whereas the control group showed 9.17% gain in body weight. Total and free cyanide concentrations were detected in the liver, kidney, and heart of most of the rats in both the experimental and control groups, except for free cyanide in the control group that was not detected. Metabolism of the yellow cassava variety in experimental rats was capable of exposing the animals to cyanide, underscoring the need for its proper processing before consumption by humans.

  12. Variations in the chemical composition of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves and roots as affected by genotypic and environmental variation.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anna Elizabeth; Gleadow, Roslyn Margaret; Zacarias, Anabela M; Cuambe, Constantino Estevão; Miller, Rebecca Elizabeth; Cavagnaro, Timothy Richard

    2012-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of cassava cultivars, in terms of cyanogenic potential and composition of macro- and micronutrients, sampled from different locations in rural Mozambique. Total cyanide concentrations in fresh cassava tissues were measured using portable cyanide testing kits, and elemental nutrients were later analyzed from dried plant tissue. Variation in cyanogenic potential and nutrient composition occurred both among cultivars and across locations. The majority of cultivars contained >100 ppm total cyanide, fresh weight, and are therefore considered to be dangerously poisonous unless adequately processed before consumption. Leaf cyanogenic and nutrient content varied with plant water status, estimated using carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C). The colonization of roots of all cultivars by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also quantified and found to be high, indicating that mycorrhizas could play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition in these low-input farming systems.

  13. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14.

    PubMed

    Nyaboga, Evans N; Njiru, Joshua M; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1-2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70-80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava.

  14. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans N.; Njiru, Joshua M.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1–2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70–80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava. PMID:26113851

  15. Retention of total carotenoid and β-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after domestic cooking

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Oliveira, Alcides R. G.; Godoy, Ronoel L. O.; Pacheco, Sidney; Nutti, Marília R.; de Carvalho, José L. V.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Fukuda, Wânia G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design The total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total β-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The β-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Híbrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest β-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 – Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-β-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 – Vermelhinha and that of β-carotene for the Híbrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR%) in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or β-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or β-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or β-carotene retention were observed and can minimize vitamin A deficiency in low-income populations. PMID:22468142

  16. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  17. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  18. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  19. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  20. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  1. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.170 Instantized flours. (a) Instantized flours, instant blending...

  2. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.155 Bromated flour. Bromated flour conforms to the definition and standard...

  3. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.170 Instantized flours. (a) Instantized flours, instant blending...

  4. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  5. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  6. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  7. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.155 Bromated flour. Bromated flour conforms to the definition and standard...

  8. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.155 Bromated flour. Bromated flour conforms to the definition and standard...

  9. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.170 Instantized flours. (a) Instantized flours, instant blending...

  10. Analysis of Azodicarbonamide in Wheat Flour and Prepared Flour Mixes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Akiko; Oishi, Mitsuo; Hayafuji, Chieko; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Shindo, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Hideki; Nakazato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is used in some countries as a flour bleaching agent and a dough conditioner. However, ADA is prohibited for use as a food additive in Japan. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an efficient and sensitive method to determine ADA in wheat flour. A simple and practical procedure to analyze ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes was developed. ADA was extracted from samples by ultrasonication with acetone. ADA in the solution was derivatized with triphenylphosphine (TPP). The ADA-TPP derivative was concentrated and cleaned up using a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction cartridge, and the ADA-TPP derivative was analyzed using HPLC for determination and LC-MS/MS for identification. Good linearity was achieved over the concentration range of 0.25-100 ppm ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes. The mean recoveries from wheat flour and prepared flour mixes fortified at the levels of 1 and 10 ppm ranged from 86.9 to 101.0%, and the coefficients of variation ranged from 1.9 to 3.4%.

  11. Exposure to inhalable flour dust in Canadian flour mills.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Eva A

    2003-12-01

    In 1999, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) proposed a Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) of 0.5 mg/m(3) for flour dust with a sensitization notation. The Labour Program of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), following notice of the intention to set a TLV, conducted a study of the levels of exposure to flour dust in flour mills across Canada to verify existing conditions, as well as to decide whether to adopt the proposed TLV or reference some other value. As part of the study, a relationship between flour dust concentrations obtained by using Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers and closed-face 37-mm cassettes was examined and the literature on the health effects of exposure to flour dust was reviewed. A total of 104 millers, packers, sweepers, bakery mix operators, and others (mixed tasks) from 14 flour mills were sampled over an 8-hour work shift using IOM samplers. The results indicate that 101 employees (97.1%) were exposed to levels exceeding 0.5 mg/m(3), 66 employees (67.3%) to levels exceeding 5 mg/m(3), and 44 employees (42.3%) to levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3). For comparison purposes, flour dust measurements were also taken in a highly automated flour mill using state-of-the-art technology. The results suggest that even with the most up-to-date technology and proper cleaning operations in place, the flour milling industry may not be able to reduce the flour dust levels to below the TLV of 0.5 mg/m(3). According to the measurements of inhalable and total dust concentrations, the IOM sampler appears to be a more efficient collector of inhalable airborne particles up to 100 microm than the closed-face 37-mm cassette.

  12. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  13. The effects of short-term feeding of fresh cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections in goats in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Sokerya; Waller, Peter J; Ledin, Inger; Höglund, Johan

    2007-06-01

    The antiparasitic effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was tested in goats artificially infected with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes. Each experimental group consisted of 6 pen-fed goats kept on a slatted floor. The treatments compared were: 1) controls fed grass only, 2) cassava replaced grass for 3 weeks from the commencement of larval dosing period, and 3) cassava replaced grass for 3 weeks after the worm infection was patent. A total of 2000 mixed-species infective nematode larvae (L3) were administered to each goat in four doses of 500 L3/day, commencing 5 weeks after removal of previously acquired infections with ivermectin. The faecal egg counts (FEC) reduced in both cassava fed groups during the time of feeding, compared to the controls. Although, FEC increased differently with time (P < 0.05), total adult worm burdens at slaughter (week 15) were not different between the treatment groups. No differences in live weight gain, or packed cell volume, between treatments were found. Whilst these results show limited evidence of an anthelmintic effect of cassava in the diet, they do suggest that feeding, or supplementation, of cassava over an extended period may prove beneficial.

  14. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives.

  15. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    PubMed

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis.

  16. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  17. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  18. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  19. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  20. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  1. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  2. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    PubMed

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  3. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  4. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  5. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  6. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  8. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  9. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  10. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  11. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  12. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to...

  13. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to...

  14. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  15. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to...

  16. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  17. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  18. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  19. Characterization of Carotenoid-protein Complexes and Gene Expression Analysis Associated with Carotenoid Sequestration in Pigmented Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Storage Root

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luiz Joaquim Castelo Branco; Lippolis, John; Chen, Songbi; Batista de Souza, Claudia Regina; Vieira, Eduardo A; Anderson, James V

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid-protein complex (CPC) was isolated from chromoplast-enriched suspensions of cassava storage root (CSR) using size exclusion chromatography and characterized. Peptide sequences (LC_MS/MS spectrum) obtained from CPC and their corresponding proteins were obtained using publically available databases. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) were the most abundant proteins identified in the CPC. Western blot analysis showed that Fribrillin and Or-protein were present in chromoplast-enriched suspensions of yellow root but not in the complex or white root. Results from qRT-PCR helped identify an isoform of HSP21 possessing four single point mutations in the intense yellow CSR that may be responsible for increased sequestration of b-carotene. PMID:23230451

  20. Genome-Wide Identification, 3D Modeling, Expression and Enzymatic Activity Analysis of Cell Wall Invertase Gene Family from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a β-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a β-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker. PMID:24786092

  1. Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

  2. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  3. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic.

  4. Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

    2010-05-01

    A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava.

  5. Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2014-10-15

    Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions.

  6. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals.

  7. Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of β-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2014-07-16

    Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with β-carotene (βC), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher βC than white cassava, and the additional complement of βC was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of βC per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of βC during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-βC from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with βC has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking.

  8. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin.

    PubMed

    Sanoussi, Abadjayé Faouziath; Loko, Laura Yéyinou; Ahissou, Hyacinthe; Adjahi, Adidjath Koubourath; Orobiyi, Azize; Agré, Angelot Paterne; Azokpota, Paulin; Dansi, Alexandre; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers' and processors' perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50 mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers' perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  9. Genome-wide identification, 3D modeling, expression and enzymatic activity analysis of cell wall invertase gene family from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-04-28

    The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a β-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a β-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker.

  10. Marker-Based Estimates Reveal Significant Non-additive Effects in Clonally Propagated Cassava (Manihot esculenta): Implications for the Prediction of Total Genetic Value and the Selection of Varieties.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marnin D; Kulakow, Peter; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-31

    In clonally propagated crops, non-additive genetic effects can be effectively exploited by the identification of superior genetic individuals as varieties. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop that feeds hundreds of millions. We quantified the amount and nature of non-additive genetic variation for three key traits in a breeding population of cassava from sub-Saharan Africa using additive and non-additive genome-wide marker-based relationship matrices. We then assessed the accuracy of genomic prediction for total (additive plus non-additive) genetic value. We confirmed previous findings based on diallel populations, that non-additive genetic variation is significant for key cassava traits. Specifically, we found that dominance is particularly important for root yield and epistasis contributes strongly to variation in CMD resistance. Further, we showed that total genetic value predicted observed phenotypes more accurately than additive only models for root yield but not for dry matter content, which is mostly additive or for CMD resistance, which has high narrow-sense heritability. We address the implication of these results for cassava breeding and put our work in the context of previous results in cassava, and other plant and animal species.

  11. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta using soybean residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta are active ingredients in a number of medicines that play important roles in immunity improvement and tumor growth inhibition. So far, the production of polysaccharides from M. esculenta mycelia has not been commercialized. The aims of this wor...

  12. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  13. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  14. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    PubMed

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  15. Radiation disinfestation of wheat flour leaving the mill: Flour quality and economic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedláčková, J.; Zuska, J.; Příhoda, J.

    Wheat flour irradiated by 0.25 or 0.5 kGy of gamma rays retained its sensoric quality. Its baking properties improved after the doses of 0.25 to 1.5 kGy. Flour irradiation in a flour mill is less expensive if an electron accelerator is used instead of a 60Co source.

  16. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  17. Nutritional and functional evaluation of wheat flour cookies supplemented with gram flour.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Ali A; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Hameed, Tabassum; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Hayat, Imran; Khalid, Nauman

    2013-02-01

    Protein-enriched cookies were prepared by supplementing gram flour into wheat flour at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and analysed for physicochemical properties. The protein quality of the cookies was assessed by feeding gram flour-supplemented cookies to albino rats for 10 days. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the cookies. The thickness and spread factor of cookies differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the cookies. The protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, biological value and true digestibility differed significantly among diets containing cookies with gram flour fed to rats. Cookies with 30% substitution of straight grade flour and gram flour produced acceptable cookies as compared to control. The cookies containing 40-50% gram flour were best regarded as protein bioavailability for rats.

  18. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  19. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    PubMed

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  20. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological behaviors of aqueous peanut flour dispersions were characterized across a range of conditions, including controlled heating and cooling rates under both large and small-strain deformations. Fat content of the dry flours influenced rheological changes, as dispersions of higher fat fl...

  1. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.165 Enriched flour. Enriched flour conforms to the definition and standard of... vitamins and minerals are maintained throughout the expected shelf life of the food under...

  2. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  3. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  4. Characterization of 11 new microsatellite loci in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kan; Huang, Xing Fang; Ke, Wei Dong; Ding, Yi

    2009-03-01

    Eleven new microsatellite markers were isolated from taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, a root crop widely distributed all over the world. Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library, of which 11 primer pairs have polymorphisms in 30 individuals tested from a population in China, which revealed two to six alleles per locus with the observed and expected heterozygosity levels ranging from 0 to 0.733 and from 0.381 to 0.731, respectively. These new genetic markers will be useful for the study of taro germplasm management and population evolution in the future.

  5. Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species.

    PubMed

    Kurien, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2006-07-01

    The bioconversion potential of two epigeic species (Eisenia foetida Sav. and Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (Linn) Schott in Schott and Endl). In different vermireactors, each run in triplicates with one of the two species of earthworms, and 60 g of 6:1 Colocasia:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was found to be more efficient producer of vermicasts than E. foetida. In all reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights and number.

  6. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  7. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  8. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  9. Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of Morel mushroom, Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Nitha, B; Fijesh, P V; Janardhanan, K K

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of morel mushroom Morchella esculenta against CCl(4) and ethanol induced chronic hepatotoxicity was investigated. Hepatotoxicity was induced by challenging the animals with CCl(4) (1:5, v/v, 3.75 ml/kg body weight, i.p., 30 doses) and ethanol (36%, v/v, 6 ml/animal, p.o., 35 doses) and the extract was administered at two concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Hepatoprotection was evaluated by determining the activities of liver function marker enzymes and antioxidant status of liver and also by histopathological observations of liver tissue. Administration of both ethanol and CCl(4) elevated the levels of liver function enzymes, GOT, GPT and ALP in serum drastically. The treatment with the extract decreased the elevated serum GOT, GPT and ALP activities in a dose dependent manner. The extract also restored the depleted levels of antioxidants in liver consequent to CCl(4) and ethanol challenge. The results indicated that aqueous-ethanolic extract of M. esculenta mycelium possessed significant hepatoprotective activity. The conclusion is also supported by the biochemical determinations and histopathological observations. The findings thus suggest the potential therapeutic use of morel mushroom mycelium as a novel hepatoprotective agent.

  11. Isolation of cis-3-Amino-l-Proline from Cultured Mycelia of Morchella esculenta Fr.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, M; Sada, S; Hatanaka, S

    1979-11-01

    cis-3-Amino-l-proline, identified once as a nonprotein amino acid from the fruiting bodies of Morchella esculenta Fr., was isolated also from the growth medium and cultured mycelia of the same fungus.

  12. Incorporation of carrot pomace powder in wheat flour: effect on flour, dough and cookie characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Adil

    2016-10-01

    Carrot pomace powder (CPP) of 72 and 120 mesh sizes was incorporated in wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 % level and its impact on flour, dough and cookie characteristics was evaluated. Protein content of the flour blends (8.84-7.88 %) decreased and fibre content (4.63-6.68 %) increased upon blending of CPP in wheat flour. Wheat flour containing 120 mesh CPP showed better functional properties [water absorption (1.16-1.47 %), oil absorption (1.11-1.39 %), solubility index (41-50 %) and swelling power (1.34-1.39)] than those containing 72 mesh. Water solvent retention capacity and sucrose solvent retention capacity increased while lactic acid solvent retention capacity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity decreased with blending of CPP. Water absorption, dough development time and degree of softening increased whereas, dough stability and mixing tolerance decreased with increasing CPP. The highest decrease in pasting was observed flour containing 72 mesh CPP. Rheology of dough containing 120 mesh CPP closely resembled the control. Color of flour and cookies increased with blending of CPP irrespective of mesh size. Antioxidant activity of cookies was higher than the flour blends. The cookies containing CPP of 72 mesh showed the lowest hardness. However, cookies containing CPP of 120 mesh showed the best sensory properties. Incorporation of 120 mesh CPP produced low gluten cookies with manageable flour and dough characteristics and better antioxidant and sensory properties.

  13. Cloning, expression, and characterization of soluble starch synthase I cDNA from taro (Colocasia esculenta Var. esculenta).

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-Gin; Jeang, Chii-Ling

    2005-10-05

    Soluble starch synthase I (SSSI) cDNA was isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends reaction. The transcript of this single-copy gene is 2340 bp and encodes 642 amino acids protein containing a putative transit peptide of 54 residues. Recombinant SSSI protein displayed both primer-dependent and primer-independent activities of starch synthase. More SSSI transcript was expressed in taro leaves than in tubers, with no evident expression in petioles; and more transcript and protein were found in tubers of 597 +/- 37 g of fresh weight than in smaller or larger ones. Two forms of SSSI, i.e., 72 and 66 kDa, exist in leaves, and only the 66 kDa form was found in tubers. The taro SSSI, proposed as a novel member, was located only in the soluble fraction of tuber extract, while SSSI from other sources exist in both soluble and granule-bound forms.

  14. Ultrasonic study of wheat flour properties.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, J; Salazar, J; Rosell, C M

    2011-02-01

    In this work, the wheat flour properties are investigated using ultrasound techniques. Moreover, the flour samples were also characterized by means of well established techniques such as protein content, Alveograph and Mixolab®. A set of 35 dough samples, made of wheat flours with diverse physical and quality properties, were studied. The obtained results shown that ultrasound measurements can detect changes in the dough consistency induced by proteins and also by gelatinization of the starch. Furthermore, ultrasound measurements can be related to parameters indicative of the proteolytic degradation or softening of the dough due to protease activity. Thus, ultrasound can be considered a low cost and rapid tool, complementary to conventional test, for wheat flour characterization.

  15. Chemical, nutritional and technological characteristics of buckwheat and non-prolamine buckwheat flours in comparison of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    de Francischi, M L; Salgado, J M; Leitão, R F

    1994-12-01

    Chemical, nutritional, and technological characteristics of buckwheat and non-prolamine buckwheat flours in comparison to wheat for celiac patients use have been studied. The results suggested the following conclusions: the 56.5% extraction value for flour obtention is considered good; the buckwheat flour presents methionine and cystine as first limiting amino acids followed by threonine as the second limiting amino acid; the buckwheat flour presents higher content of lysine amino acids than the wheat flour; the buckwheat flour is superior to the wheat flour regarding iron, copper, and magnesium minerals; the buckwheat flour does not present haemagglutinin activity and the tannin content is negligible. Rheological assays indicate that the buckwheat flour does not contain gluten.

  16. Effect of beet flour on films made from biological macromolecules: Native and modified plantain flour.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Guzmán, Romel; Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Famá, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Biological macromolecules such as starches of different amylaceous sources have been used in the formulation of edible films. However, there are few studies aimed at evaluating edible and intelligent films with response to pH changes from natural pigments, this despite the importance of these materials. In this context, films from native and modified plantain flour, plasticized with glycerol, with or without the addition of beet flour were developed. The chemical and structural composition of the flours, and its incidence on thickness, water solubility, contact angle, and mechanical and microstructural properties were evaluated, thus as its response to pH changes of the developed films. The observations showed that the incorporation of beet flour allowed to obtain intelligent films front to pH changes alkaline. Likewise, the betalains that were found in beet flour interacted more efficiently with the phosphated plantain flour, limiting well its immediate response to pH changes. In the same way, proteins and sugars of beet flour allowed to obtain more flexible films, due to the hydrogen bond interactions between these constituents and the plantain flours. This latter could justify the decrease of contact angle, and the increase on thickness and solubility of these films.

  17. Physical characteristics of extrudates from corn flour and dehulled carioca bean flour blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded products were prepared from a corn flour and dehulled carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) flour blend using a single-screw extruder. A central composite rotate design was used to evaluate the effects of extrusion process variables: screw speed (318.9-392.9 rpm), feed moisture (10.9-21.0 g...

  18. Fat body of the frog Rana esculenta: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Zancanaro, C; Merigo, F; Digito, M; Pelosi, G

    1996-03-01

    In the frog, the fat body is the largest body lipid deposit and is associated with the gonad. The aim of the present work was to investigate the fine structure of the fat body at different periods of the annual cycle and during prolonged starvation. Results indicate that fat body cells of Rana esculenta caught in autumn and after winter hibernation resemble mammalian adipocytes of white adipose tissue and contain markers of adipose tissue, such as S-100 protein and lipoproteinlipase. However, unlike mammalian adipocytes, fat body adipocytes consistently show small lipid droplets associated with their single, large lipid deposits, a lack of a definite external lamina, and the presence of cellular prolongations and spicula at their surfaces. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy in association with lanthanum tracer experiments suggest that in fat body adipocytes a vesicular-tubular system connects the cytoplasm and the interstitial space. In June (i.e., during the reproductive period), fat body adipocytes appear to have lost much of their lipid deposit and adjacent adipocytes show interdigitation of their plasma membranes and prominent Golgi complexes. In starved frogs, fat body cells can be almost devoid of lipid and in regression to a near-mesenchymal state. Nevertheless, these fat bodies still contain lipoproteinlipase activity (approximately 45% of that found in lipid-filled ones), indicating persistent adipose differentiation of the cells therein. Results presented here show that the R. esculenta fat body is an adipose organ undergoing reversible extreme changes in adipocyte fat content, which are associated with definite ultrastructural features. The fat body represents a suitable model for studying adipose tissue under different and extreme physiological conditions.

  19. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  20. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  1. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot-tips of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sant, Rajnesh; Taylor, Mary; Tyagi, Anand

    2006-01-01

    In vitro shoot-tips of three cultivars of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Different conditioning treatments were required for each of the cultivars, while the vitrification protocol was constant for all. For the cultivars E399 and CPUK, shoot-tips from three-month-old in vitro plants grown on solidified MS were preconditioned on MS with 0.3 M sucrose in the dark for 16 h at 25 degree C. For the cultivar TNS, donor plants were preconditioned on solid MS with 90 g per liter sucrose for seven weeks before cryopreservation. For vitrification, the shoot-tips were loaded with a solution of 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degree C, dehydrated with PVS2 for 12 min at 25 degree C and plunged in liquid nitrogen. Vials were warmed by rapid shaking in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min 30. Shoot-tips were rehydrated in liquid MS with 1.2 M sucrose for 15 min at 25 degree C then plated on recovery medium. Shoot-tips resumed growth within a week and developed into plantlets six to eight weeks later without any callus formation. The best mean recoveries for the three cultivars were 21, 29 and 30 percent for E399, CPUK and TNS, respectively. This protocol was evaluated with five other taro cultivars with no success. However, this study has shown that vitrification has potential for cryopreserving tropical taro.

  2. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  3. Anti-staling effects of β-glucan and barley flour in wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Paras; Gujral, Hardeep Singh

    2014-02-15

    Chapatti making behaviour of wheat flour containing barley flour (28%, 56% and 84%) or β-glucan (1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%) and their effect on staling of chapatti was studied. The dough water absorption increased significantly up to 76.7% and 78.3% upon incorporation of barley flour and β-glucan, respectively. Bake loss significantly increased (up to 20%) upon incorporation of barley flour but was not significantly affected by β-glucan. The peak (PV) and final viscosity (FV) significantly increased upon incorporation of barley flour (up to 105% and 65%), whereas incorporating β-glucan decreased the PV and FV by 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. The stored chapatties exhibited higher pasting viscosities compared to the fresh chapatties. Incorporation of barley flour exhibited a gradual increase in the enthalpy of gelatinisation (ΔHgel), similarly β-glucan at 1.5% increased the ΔHgel. Retrogradation was lowered by 23.7%, 41.5% and 63.5% by barley flour and by 19.9%, 27.4% and 44.8% by β-glucan.

  4. Extraction of starch from wheat flour by alkaline solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of starch from wheat flour with high purity is very important for the analysis of starch such as amylose and amylopectin determination by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC). A procedure that extracts starch from flour by ethanol precipitation after dissolving flour in KOH and urea solution wa...

  5. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  6. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  7. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  8. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  9. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  10. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracellular polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lihong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jinju; Yang, Yanrui; Hao, Limin

    2013-06-01

    Morchella esculenta, an edible medicinal mushroom native to China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. This study firstly investigated the antioxidant activity of Morchella esculenta extracellular polysaccharides (MEEP). An in vitro antioxidant assay showed that MEEP exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reductive power. For antioxidant testing in vivo, MEEP were orally administered over a period of 60 days in a d-galactose induced aged mice model. Administration of the polysaccharides inhibited significantly the formation of malondialdehyde livers and serums, and raised the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we also observed that MEEPs markedly enhanced the body's immune system by measuring macrophage phagocytosis and splenocyte proliferation in d-galactose induced mice. These findings suggest that EPs from Morchella esculenta are a promising source of natural antioxidants and immunoenhancing drugs.

  11. Study of mechanical and thermal properties of soy flour elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kendra Alicia

    Bio-based plastics are becoming viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics because they decrease dependence on petroleum derivatives and are more environmentally friendly. Raw materials such as soy flour are widely available, low cost, lightweight, stiffness and have high strength characteristics, but weak interfacial adhesion between the soy flour and the polymer poses a challenge. In this study, soy flour was utilized as a filler in thermoplastic elastomer composites. A surface modification called acetylation was investigated at soy flour concentrations of 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were then compared to that of elastomers without a filler. Chemical characterization of the acetylated soy flour was attempted in order to understand what occurs during the reaction and after completion. In the range of tests, soy flour loadings were observed to be inversely proportional to tensile strength for both the untreated and treated soy flour. However, the acetylated soy flour at 10 wt% concentration performed comparable to that of the neat rubber and resulted in an increase in tensile strength. Unexpectedly, the acetylation reaction increased elongation, which reduced stress within the composite and is believed to increase the adhesion of the soy flour to that of the elastomer. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR), the intensity for the treated soy flour was larger than that of the untreated soy flour for the acetyl groups that were attached to the soy flour, particularly, the carbonyl function group next to the deprotonated oxygen and the methyl group next to the carbonyl. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the acetylated soy flour is slightly more thermally stable than the untreated soy flour. The treated soy flour also increased the decomposition temperature of the composite.

  12. Studies on the baking properties of wheat: pigeonpea flour blends.

    PubMed

    Harinder, K; Kaur, B; Sharma, S

    1999-01-01

    Pigeonpea flour was substituted at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25% to wheat flour and whole wheat meal for bread and Chapatti making, respectively. Blends were prepared up to 50% for cookie making. Increasing levels of pigeonpeas in the blends significantly increased the protein and mineral content of the baked products. The bread from 10% pigeonpea flour blend with 2-3% vital gluten and 0.5% SSL had high loaf volume and loaf quality. Blends containing 15% pigeonpea flour were acceptable for Chapatti and 30% pigeonpea flour with 0.25% SSL were acceptable for cookie making.

  13. Detection and Identification of Dasheen mosaic virus Infecting Colocasia esculenta in India.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Hegde, Vinayaka; Makeshkumar, T; Jeeva, M L

    2011-06-01

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the infected leaf samples of Colocasia esculenta plants showing severe whitish feathery symptoms were carried out using Potyvirus group specific primers, resulting in an amplicon of 327 bp, encoding the core region of the coat protein gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis showed that the virus is distinct, closely related to Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV). Sequence analysis revealed 86 and 96% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level respectively with the DsMV isolate SY1(accession Number AJ628756). This is the first molecular level characterisation of the DsMV infecting C. esculenta in India.

  14. Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    Chaïr, H; Traore, R E; Duval, M F; Rivallan, R; Mukherjee, A; Aboagye, L M; Van Rensburg, W J; Andrianavalona, V; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A; Saborio, F; Sri Prana, M; Komolong, B; Lawac, F; Lebot, V

    2016-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. However, its origin, diversification and dispersal remain unclear. While taro genetic diversity has been documented at the country and regional levels in Asia and the Pacific, few reports are available from Americas and Africa where it has been introduced through human migrations. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate the diversity and diversification of taro accessions from nineteen countries in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and America. The highest genetic diversity and number of private alleles were observed in Asian accessions, mainly from India. While taro has been diversified in Asia and the Pacific mostly via sexual reproduction, clonal reproduction with mutation appeared predominant in African and American countries investigated. Bayesian clustering revealed a first genetic group of diploids from the Asia-Pacific region and to a second diploid-triploid group mainly from India. Admixed cultivars between the two genetic pools were also found. In West Africa, most cultivars were found to have originated from India. Only one multi-locus lineage was assigned to the Asian pool, while cultivars in Madagascar originated from India and Indonesia. The South African cultivars shared lineages with Japan. The Caribbean Islands cultivars were found to have originated from the Pacific, while in Costa Rica they were from India or admixed between Indian and Asian groups. Taro dispersal in the different areas of Africa and America is thus discussed in the light of available records of voyages and settlements.

  15. Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott)

    PubMed Central

    Chaïr, H.; Traore, R. E.; Duval, M. F.; Rivallan, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Aboagye, L. M.; Van Rensburg, W. J.; Andrianavalona, V.; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M. A. A.; Saborio, F.; Sri Prana, M.; Komolong, B.; Lawac, F.; Lebot, V.

    2016-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. However, its origin, diversification and dispersal remain unclear. While taro genetic diversity has been documented at the country and regional levels in Asia and the Pacific, few reports are available from Americas and Africa where it has been introduced through human migrations. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate the diversity and diversification of taro accessions from nineteen countries in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and America. The highest genetic diversity and number of private alleles were observed in Asian accessions, mainly from India. While taro has been diversified in Asia and the Pacific mostly via sexual reproduction, clonal reproduction with mutation appeared predominant in African and American countries investigated. Bayesian clustering revealed a first genetic group of diploids from the Asia-Pacific region and to a second diploid-triploid group mainly from India. Admixed cultivars between the two genetic pools were also found. In West Africa, most cultivars were found to have originated from India. Only one multi-locus lineage was assigned to the Asian pool, while cultivars in Madagascar originated from India and Indonesia. The South African cultivars shared lineages with Japan. The Caribbean Islands cultivars were found to have originated from the Pacific, while in Costa Rica they were from India or admixed between Indian and Asian groups. Taro dispersal in the different areas of Africa and America is thus discussed in the light of available records of voyages and settlements. PMID:27314588

  16. Preparation and application of carboxymethyl yam (Dioscorea esculenta) starch.

    PubMed

    Nattapulwat, Nattawat; Purkkao, Narumol; Suwithayapan, Ornamphai

    2009-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea esculenta) starch was modified by carboxymethylation. The effect of reaction parameters, amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), amount of sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA), and reaction time on the degree of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl yam starch (CMS), was studied using the Box-Behnken experimental design. Physicochemical and potency to be a tablet disintegrant of CMS were evaluated. CMS with DS in the range of 0.08-0.19 were obtained. The results from regression analysis indicated that the most important factor in controlling DS was the amount of NaOH followed by SMCA content and reaction time. However, high concentration of NaOH and SMCA lowered the DS. The optimal conditions to achieve the highest DS (0.19) were found to be at molar ratios of NaOH and SMCA to anhydroglucose unit of 1.80 and 2.35, respectively, and with the reaction time of 4.8 h. The swelling power and viscosity of CMS increased with an increase in the degree of modification. CMS showed satisfying tablet disintegrant properties. The tablets containing 1.0-4.0 % CMS disintegrated faster than 5 min. Hence carboxymethyl yam starch can be used as an excellent tablet disintegrant in low concentration.

  17. Fungi species and red flour beetle in stored wheat flour under Jazan region conditions.

    PubMed

    Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel

    2014-05-01

    Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.

  18. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  19. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  20. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, p<0.01) and negatively correlated to the lipid content (r=-0.951, p<0.01). Understanding the roles of starch and other components in physicochemical properties of quinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  1. Genome Sequence of Phytomonas françai, a Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Latex Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Claire E.; Jaskowska, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the genome sequence of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) latex parasite Phytomonas françai. P. françai infection is linked with the yield-loss disease “chochamento de raizes” (empty roots) in the Unha variety of cassava, a disease characterized by poor root development and chlorosis of the leaves. PMID:28082482

  2. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals.

  3. Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rui F; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Ana Margarida; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly known as taro, is an essential food for millions of people. The leaves are consumed in sauces, purees, stews, and soups, being also used in wound healing treatment. Nowadays, the consumers' demand for bioactive compounds from the diet led to the development of new agricultural strategies for the production of health-promoting constituents in vegetables. In this work, two strategies (variety choice and irrigation conditions) were considered in the cultivation of C. esculenta. The effect on the phenolic composition of the leaves was evaluated. Furthermore, a correlation between the biological activity of the different varieties and their chemical composition was established. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic composition were observed between varieties; furthermore, the irrigation conditions also influenced the composition. C. esculenta varieties were able to scavenge several oxidant species and to inhibit hyaluronidase, but data suggest that metabolites other than phenolics are involved. The results show that cultivation strategies can effectively modulate the accumulation of these types of bioactive compounds. Furthermore C. esculenta wound healing potential can be attributed, at least in part, to the protection of the wound site against oxidative/nitrosative damage and prevention of hyaluronic acid degradation.

  4. Cerebellar effects after consumption of edible morels (Morchella conica, Morchella esculenta).

    PubMed

    Pfab, R; Haberl, B; Kleber, J; Zilker, T

    2008-03-01

    Morchella esculenta and Morchella conica are well known edible morels, which seldom induce clinical symptoms. We report six persons who developed cerebellar effects 6-12 hours after consumption of these mushrooms. The symptoms were self-limited and disappeared after one day.

  5. The Effect of Sunlight in Parenchyma Pith Cells Diameter of Manihot esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, D.; Aziz, D. N.; Astuti, W.; Nuraeni, E.

    2017-03-01

    Sunlight is one of the factors that effect on the grow of a plant. Manihot esculenta is one of the plants that easily found in Indonesia because its role as staple food. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between sunlight the grow of parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Independent variable in this research is sunlight, and dependent variable is the parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Data was collected is in qualitative and quantitative form. Qualitative data gotten gained by morphology observation. The parenchyma pith cells of Manihot esculenta that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux, morphologically has hexagon, cell walls thick, solid state, and regular composition. Meanwhile, the parenchyma pith cells that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) has a hexagon shape, thin cell walls thin, soft state, and irregular composition. Qualitative data suported by quantitative data. The size of parenchyma pith cells diameter that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux 96,4 µm. While, the stem parenchyma pith cells diameter empulur that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) is 129,8 µm.

  6. High-resolution crystal structures of Colocasia esculenta tarin lectin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patricia R; Meagher, Jennifer L; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Paschoalin, Vânia M F; Silva, Joab T; Stuckey, Jeanne A

    2017-01-01

    Tarin, the Colocasia esculenta lectin from the superfamily of α-d-mannose-specific plant bulb lectins, is a tetramer of 47 kDa composed of two heterodimers. Each heterodimer possesses homologous monomers of ~11.9 (A chain) and ~12.7 (B chain) kDa. The structures of apo and carbohydrate-bound tarin were solved to 1.7 Å and 1.91 Å, respectively. Each tarin monomer forms a canonical β-prism II fold, common to all members of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) family, which is partially stabilized by a disulfide bond and a conserved hydrophobic core. The heterodimer is formed through domain swapping involving the C-terminal β-strand and the β-sheet on face I of the prism. The tetramer is assembled through the dimerization of the B chains from heterodimers involving face II of each prism. The 1.91 Å crystal structure of tarin bound to Manα(1,3)Manα(1,6)Man reveals an expanded carbohydrate-binding sequence (QxDxNxVxYx4/6WX) on face III of the β-prism. Both monomers possess a similar fold, except for the length of the loop, which begins after the conserved tyrosine and creates the binding pocket for the α(1,6)-terminal mannose. This loop differs in size and amino-acid composition from 10 other β-prism II domain proteins, and may confer carbohydrate-binding specificity among members of the GNA-related lectin family.

  7. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.

    PubMed

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

    2014-05-21

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  8. The genetic differentiation of Colocasia esculenta growing in gold mining areas with arsenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Boonmee, Sirilak; Neeratanaphan, Lamyai; Tanee, Tawatchai; Khamon, Prodpran

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic is a heavy metal found in contaminated gold mining areas and which can affect plant and animal species. This study aims to determine the concentration of As in the aquatic plant Colocasia esculenta as well as this plant's genetic variability. Sediment and C. esculenta samples were collected from three studied sites at the edge of a stream around a gold mine. The arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples were analyzed using induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Genetic differentiations were studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with dendrogram construction and analysis of genetic similarity (S). The results showed that the arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples ranged from 4.547 ± 0.318 to 229.964 ± 0.978 and 0.108 ± 0.046 to 0.406 ± 0.174 mg kg(-1), respectively. To compare the samples studied to the reference site, RAPD fingerprints from 26 primers successfully produced 2301 total bands used for dendrogram construction and S value analysis. The dendrogram construction separates C. esculenta into four clusters corresponding to their sampling sites. The S values of the studied sample sites compared to the reference site are 0.676-0.779, 0.739-0.791, and 0.743-0.783 for sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas the values of the individuals within each site are as high as 0.980. These results suggest that As accumulation in aquatic plant species should be of concern because of the potential effects of As on aquatic plants as well as humans.

  9. Arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) in Tarkwa a mining community.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Yaney, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) have gained increased importance in the diets of majority of people in developing countries such as Ghana. The concentration levels of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in Cocoyam (X. sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (C. esculenta) in Tarkwa and its surrounding villages a mining community in Ghana were measured in this study. From the results of the study, the levels of arsenic, cadmium and mercury in X. sagititolium and C. esculenta were higher than the WHO recommended levels. These root tubers absorb or uptake toxic chemicals from the soil as a result of the mining operations. This means that, the consumption of X. sagititolium and C. esculenta by humans from such environments may pose a serious health risk. There is therefore the need for a concerted effort by all to minimize the negative impact of gold mining in the study area.

  10. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qianwen; Pu, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-03-13

    This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na₂CO₃ SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl₂ SRC (CCSRC), FeCl₃ SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na₂CO₃ (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na₂CO₃, CaCl₂, FeCl₃, NaOH and pH 10 Na₂CO₃), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl₂ and FeCl₃) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl₂ could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  11. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qianwen; Pu, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC), FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na2CO3 (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay. PMID:28335393

  12. Yacon flour and Bifidobacterium longum modulate bone health in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fabiana Carvalho; Castro, Adriano Simões Barbosa; Rodrigues, Vívian Carolina; Fernandes, Sérgio Antônio; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; de Oliveira, Tânia Toledo; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2012-07-01

    Yacon flour has been considered a food with prebiotic potential because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides, which allows for its use in formulating synbiotic foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour and probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) on the modulation of variables related to bone health. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, yacon flour, diet+B. longum, and yacon flour+B. longum. After euthanasia, the bones were removed for analysis of biomechanical properties (thickness, length, and strength of fracture) and mineral content (Ca, Mg, and P); the cecum was removed for analysis of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids. Tibia Ca, P, and Mg content was significantly (P<.05) higher in groups fed diet+B. longum, yacon flour+B. longum than in the control group. An increase in fracture strength was observed in the yacon flour (8.1%), diet+B. longum (8.6%), and yacon flour+B. longum (14.6%) in comparison to the control group. Total anaerobe and weight of the cecum were higher (P<.05) in rats consuming the yacon flour diet compared with the other groups. Cecal concentration of propionate was higher in all experimental groups compared with the control (P<.05). Yacon flour in combination with B. longum helped increase the concentration of minerals in bones, an important factor in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis.

  13. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  14. Impact of food source on survival of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F H

    2000-08-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of a flour food source on survival of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), exposed to the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2) of Protect-It, a marine formulation of diatomaceous earth. Beetles were exposed at 27 degrees C, and 40, 57, and 75% RH in 62-cm2 petri dishes. When beetles were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2, or 31 mg per dish) of diatomaceous earth or in dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg mixed with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth, survival of both species increased as the amount of flour increased, and quickly plateaued at levels approaching 100%. In a second set of experiments, beetles were transferred to dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg after they were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone. There were no significant differences in beetle survival among the levels of flour, however, survival in dishes with flour was usually greater than survival in dishes with diatomaceous earth alone. In a third test, beetles were exposed for 1, 2, and 3 d in dishes with either the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone (clean dishes), dishes with diatomaceous earth and empty straws, or dishes with diatomaceous earth and approximately 300 mg of flour packed in the straws. Survival was not significantly different between clean dishes or dishes with straws, but survival in dishes containing the straws with flour was usually 100%, regardless of exposure interval. In all experiments, confused flour beetles were less susceptible to diatomaceous earth than red flour beetles. In addition, survival was negatively related to exposure interval and positively related to relative humidity.

  15. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development

    PubMed Central

    Perera, P. I. P.; Ordoñez, C. A.; Dedicova, B.; Ortega, P. E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu2+ and Fe2+) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  16. Physicochemical and functional properties of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin flour.

    PubMed

    Noor Aziah, A A; Komathi, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P flour, PPPF and UPPF were superior in term of nutrients as indicated by the significantly higher (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P flour, indicating the potential of PPPF and UPPF as emulsifying agents. Moisture content and water activity values in PPPF and UPPF were significantly lower (P flour, suggesting that PPPF and UPPF have a better keeping quality and longer shelf life.

  17. Use of sodium stearoyl lactylate and azodicarbonamide in wheat flour breads with added pea flour.

    PubMed

    Alasino, Maria C; Osella, Carlos A; De La Torre, Maria A; Sanchez, Hugo D

    2011-06-01

    Different amounts of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) (X(1)) and azodicarbonamide (ADA) (X(2)) were analyzed to measure their effect on breadmaking using wheat flour with incorporation of pea flour (Pisum sativum) to the dough. The objective of the present work was to optimize the physical properties of dough (Y(1)Y(2)Y(3)Y(4)), the dough consistency during mixing (Y(5)Y(6)) and the baking performance (Y(7)Y(8)Y(9)). A central composite design and second-order models for Y(i) were employed. For dough physical properties and dough consistency during mixing, the best response was found when SSL varied between 0.5 and 1.5% and ADA between 110 and 170 ppm. For responses concerning the baking performance, better values for specific volume, crumb texture scores and bread score were obtained using SSL between 0.9 and 1.4% and ADA between 50 and 80 ppm. It is concluded that for baking with wheat flour replaced at about 10% with inactivated pea flour it should be advised to use SSL at levels close to 1% with ADA between 50 and 80 ppm.

  18. Substituting normal and waxy-type whole wheat flour on dough and baking properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

  19. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  20. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  1. Nutritional profile of whole grain soft wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain wheat flour is used in baking products to increase fiber content and to provide vitamins from the bran layers of the kernel. We surveyed whole grain soft flour samples from North America to determine the nutritional profile using recently revised fiber quantification protocols, CODEX 20...

  2. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of the... by means of the leveling bulb E bring the displacement solution to the 25 cc. graduation above the... burette into the air, keep the displacement solution in the leveling bulb at all times during...

  3. Allergenic Properties of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Peanut Flour Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour is a high protein, low oil, powdered material prepared from roasted 21 peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the 22 active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a 23 processing strategy ...

  4. Fractionation of cottonseed flour for improving its adhesive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As early as the 1950's, cottonseed flour (i. e. meal) was tested for use as wood adhesives. Recently, renewed interest exists in the use of plant proteins as wood adhesives, as these materials are renewable and biodegradable. In this research, we separated cottonseed flour into several fractions wit...

  5. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    PubMed

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  6. Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...

  7. Reinforcement Effect of Corn Flour in Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn flour is an economical renewable material and investigated in this study as filler for rubber composites. The composites were prepared by mixing an aqueous dispersion of corn flour with rubber latex, followed by freeze-drying and compression molding. The small strain elastic modulus and the str...

  8. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  9. 1. VIEW SHOWING FLOUR MILL (TWOSTORY BUILDING WITH GABLE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING FLOUR MILL (TWO-STORY BUILDING WITH GABLE ROOF JUST RIGHT OF CENTER), IN CONTEXT OF ROCKY BOY'S AGENCY, WITH MAIN AGENCY OFFICES IN FOREGROUND AND AGENCY HOUSING IN THE BACKGROUND TO LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Rocky Boy's Agency Flour Mill, Rocky Boy, Hill County, MT

  10. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Terminal Flour Mill.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Terminal Flour Mill in Portland, Oregon. Terminal Flour Mill is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

  11. 49. Archer Daniels Midland Flour Mill. It was the world's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Archer Daniels Midland Flour Mill. It was the world's largest flour mill when constructed by Pillsbury in 1922. The left side was built in 1977 to replace a unit destroyed by an explosion. Jet Lowe, photographer, Summer 1994. - Great Northern Elevator, 250 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  13. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  14. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  15. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  16. Poisoning by Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Bezerra, Cícero W; Medeiros, Marcia A; da Silva, Tatiane R; Neto, Eldinê G Miranda; Medeiros, Rosane M T

    2014-05-01

    Talisia esculenta is a tree that produces pitomba, a fruit consumed by human beings in several regions of Brazil. The current study reports 3 outbreaks of poisoning by leaves and fruits of T. esculenta affecting sheep and cattle and the experimental reproduction of the disease in sheep. In the first investigated outbreak, sheep ingested the leaves of the plant; another outbreak affected cattle and sheep that ingested leaves and fruits; and in a third outbreak, sheep ingested only the fruits. The animals developed severe nervous signs, but most recovered. Poisoning was reproduced experimentally in 5 sheep by the administration of 30-60 g of leaves/kg body weight and in 2 sheep with doses of 5 and 10 g of seeds/kg body weight, respectively. No significant necropsy or histologic lesions were found.

  17. UBPy/MSJ-1 system during male germ cell progression in the frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Scarpa, Donatella; Berruti, Giovanna; Cobellis, Gilda; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Fasano, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    mUBPy (mouse ubiquitin specific processing protease) is a de-ubiquitinating enzyme expressed in mouse testis and brain. In testis, it interacts with the DnaJ protein MSJ-1 (mouse sperm cell specific DnaJ first homologue), a molecular chaperone expressed in spermatids and spermatozoa. Since MSJ-1 is conserved among vertebrates, to demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved function of UBPy/MSJ-1 system, we assayed mUBPy presence in the anuran amphibian, the frog, Rana esculenta, during the annual sexual cycle. By Western blot we have detected a specific signal of 126kDa in testis and isolated spermatozoa. During the annual sexual cycle, the signal gradually increases as soon as spermatogenesis resumes after the winter stasis. Using immunocytochemistry, we have localized the protein in spermatids and spermatozoa. In conclusion, UBPy/MSJ-1 system is available in R. esculenta testis suggesting a conserved fundamental function in spermatogenesis and sperm formation.

  18. Isolation of a galactomannan that enhances macrophage activation from the edible fungus Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christine J G; Pugh, Nirmal; Pasco, David S; Ross, Samir A

    2002-09-25

    The edible mushroom Morchella esculenta is among the most highly prized and morphologically recognizable fungi in the world. We describe the isolation from a polar extract of M. esculenta carpophores of a high-molecular-weight galactomannan, about 1.0 million Da, that exhibits immunostimulatory activity. At 3.0 microg/mL the galactomannan polysaccharide increased NF-kappa B directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal activating concentration (10 microg/mL) of lipopolysaccharide. This galactomannan comprises about 2.0% of the dry fungal material weight, and its glycosyl components include mannose (62.9%) and galactose (20.0%).

  19. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  20. Effect of Wheat Flour Pre-cooking on the Composite Modulus of Wheat Flour and Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial wheat flours with two different concentrations of insoluble protein were used as fillers to reinforce styrene-butadiene latex composites and their viscoelastic properties were examined. Both wheat flours were also cooked at 55, 70, or 95 deg C for one hour in an aqueous dispersion prior ...

  1. Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  2. Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

    2014-08-27

    The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 μM, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 μM). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.

  3. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  4. Further knowledge on the phenolic profile of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Gonçalves, Rui F; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-18

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly called taro, is an ancient species selected for its edible tuber. Its huge "elephant ear" like leaves are also consumed in sauces and stews or as soups. Forty-one phenolic metabolites (11 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and 30 glycosylated flavonoids) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) in the leaves of two C. esculenta varieties cultivated in Azores Islands. To our knowledge, 34 of the 41 phenolic compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Phenolics quantification was achieved by an HPLC-DAD accurate and sensitive validated method. Although the qualitative profile of the two varieties is quite similar, quantitative differences were observed between them. "Giant white" and "red" varieties (local denomination) contain, respectively, ca. 14 and 21% of phenolic acids, 37 and 28% of flavones mono-C-glycosides, 42 and 43% of flavones di-C-glycosides, 3 and 4% of flavones mono-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides, and both of them ca. 2% of flavones di-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides and 2% of flavones-O-glycosides. Luteolin-6-C-hexoside was the compound present in higher amounts in both varieties. The established phenolic profile is an added value for the authenticity and quality control of C. esculenta and may be useful in the discrimination of its varieties.

  5. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Sun, Yonghai; Mao, Qian; Guo, Xiaolei; Li, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Na

    2016-06-22

    Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP) extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF) in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and ¹H and (13)C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  6. Nutrient composition of the leaves and flowers of Colocasia esculenta and the fruits of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Ejoh, A R; Mbiapo, F T; Fokou, E

    1996-02-01

    The nutrient composition, of Colocasia esculenta flowers (CF) and leaves (CL), and the green fruits of Solanum melongena (SM) were carried out as a means to determine their nutritional potential. Results showed that these food materials had high moisture and fiber levels which ranged between 888 and 906 g.kg-1; and 204 and 303 g.kg-1 dry weight (dw) for moisture and fiber respectively. The calorific values were between 3889 and 4001 kcals.kg-1 dw, while the total lipids ranged from 53 in CF to 71 g.kg-1 dw in SM. The leaves of Colocasia esculenta had the highest crude protein value of 307 g.kg-1 dw. The flowers had 149 g.kg-1 dw while SM had 138 g.kg-1 dw. The amino acid profile in the flowers and leaves of Colocasia esculenta in contrast to SM were balanced comparable to the reference FAO pattern. Ash values were high (ranging from 76 in SM to 98 g.kg-1 in CL) with potassium being the principal element. Iron and Zinc levels were also high especially in CF (with 303 and 82 mg.kg-1 dw respectively). These foods also contained moderate quantities of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium but were poor in manganese and copper.

  7. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Sun, Yonghai; Mao, Qian; Guo, Xiaolei; Li, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Na

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP) extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF) in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta. PMID:27338370

  8. The Effect of Spring Wheat Starch Properties on Flour Tortilla Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The largest component of wheat flour is starch. Starch properties affect the end use quality of products made from wheat flour. Seven genotypes of wheat flour, having various amounts of amylose, were grown at three locations in North Dakota. Flour from these genotypes was tested for starch propertie...

  9. Evaluation of four sorghum varieties in the utilization of sorghum flour tortillas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free flour tortillas were made with five different sorghum flours to evaluate flour quality. Four sorghum varieties were used along with a commercial sorghum flour. The four varieties were: Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907(NE#20), and 5040C. The tortilla wei...

  10. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  11. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  12. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  13. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  14. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  15. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  16. Quality Evaluation of Biscuits Supplemented with Alfalfa Seed Flour

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Fahim; Ahmad, Sajjad; Wahab, Said; Zeb, Alam; Khan Khattak, Mansoor; Khan, Saleem; Kang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alfalfa seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of refined wheat flour-based biscuits was studied. The proximate composition of refined wheat flour and alfalfa seed flour was determined. Refined wheat flour contained 12.43% moisture, 11.52% crude protein, 1.61% crude fat, 0.71% crude fiber, 1.43% ash and 70.83% nitrogen free extract, while alfalfa seed flour contained 5.79%, 29.49%, 12.71%, 5.53%, 4.80% and 41.73% moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract correspondingly. Alfalfa seed flour at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% supplementation levels was incorporated in refined wheat flour to produce composite flour. The biscuits prepared were subjected to quality evaluation. Physical analysis of biscuits disclosed that supplementation of alfalfa seed flour decreased the width from 47.25 to 42 mm and the spread factor from 62.7 to 53.12, while it increased the thickness from 7.53 to 8.10 mm. Supplementation of refined wheat flour–based biscuits with alfalfa seed flour at different inclusion levels significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crude protein content from 10.19% to 15.30%, the crude fiber content from 0.73% to 1.62%, the crude fat content from 17.46% to 21.59% and the ash content from 1.37% to 1.92%, whereas it decreased the moisture content from 3.57% to 3.26% and the nitrogen free extract from 66.90% to 59.32%. The effect of supplementation on the mineral contents of biscuits was also significant (p < 0.05). Potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc contents increased from 105.30, 14.65, 43.91, 3.74 and 0.94 to 145.00, 26.64, 79.60, 7.93 and 1.60 mg/100 g, respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed that the quality score of biscuits in terms of color, taste, texture and overall acceptability decreased with increased supplementation. The present research work confirmed that a maximum of 10% alfalfa seed flour supplementation in refined wheat flour could produce acceptable biscuits with an

  17. Physicochemical modification of native and extruded wheat flours by enzymatic amylolysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Mario M; Pico, Joana; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    Enzymatic hydrolysis could be an alternative way to modify flour functionality. The effect of two different enzymes, α-amylase and amyloglucosidase, and their combination on microstructure, oligosaccharide content, crystalline order, pasting, gel hydration, and colour properties of native and extruded wheat flours was investigated. Micrographs showed different mechanisms of actuation of the different enzymes on native and extruded flours, achieving greater than 300% and 500% increases of glucose and maltose contents, respectively, in extruded flours compared with their native counterparts. Native flours displayed higher values of water absorption capacity and swelling power than extruded flours. Flours treated by a combination of amylase and amyloglucosidase showed low swelling power. Regarding colour, native flours were darker and more reddish than extruded flours, whereas flours treated by amyloglucosidase, and therefore had a higher glucose content, were darker and more reddish.

  18. [Microbiological quality of wheat flour consumed in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Ennadir, Jihane; Hassikou, Rachida; Ohmani, Farida; Hammamouchi, Jamila; Bouazza, Fatima; Qasmaoui, Aicha; Mennane, Zakaria; Touhami, Amina Ouazzani; Charof, Reda; Khedid, Khadija

    2012-02-01

    Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  19. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  20. Iron bioavailability and utilization in rats are lower from lime-treated corn flour than from wheat flour when they are fortified with different sources of iron.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Miguel; Sousa, Virginia; Moreno, Ambar; Villapando, Salvador; López-Alarcón, Mardya

    2003-01-01

    Although iron bioavailability from wheat flour fortified with iron has been widely studied, the bioavailability of lime-treated corn flour has not been evaluated sufficiently. We compared iron bioavailability and utilization of lime-treated corn flour and wheat flour supplemented with various iron sources. Bioavailability and utilization were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats using the iron balance and hemoglobin depletion-repletion methods. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them a low iron, casein diet for 10 d. During the repletion period, the rats were fed diets based on lime-treated corn flour or wheat flour, both supplemented with ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and reduced iron for 14 d. Hemoglobin was determined at the end of depletion and repletion periods. The phytate concentration was lower in wheat flour (114 mg/100g) than in lime-treated corn flour (501 mg/100g). Iron bioavailability and utilization by rats were higher from fortified and unfortified wheat flour than from the lime-treated corn flour counterparts. Iron utilization was greater in rats fed wheat flour supplemented with ferrous sulfate, followed by fumarate and citrate than in rats fed reduced iron. In lime-treated corn flour, iron utilization by rats fed unfortified flour and flour fortified with reduced iron did not differ, but utilization was higher in rats fed corn flour fortified with iron sulfate, fumarate and citrate than with reduced iron. We conclude that fortification of lime-treated corn flour with reduced iron has no effect on iron bioavailability or utilization, probably due to the high phytate content. Other iron compounds must be selected to fortify lime-treated corn flour when intended for public nutrition programs.

  1. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-01-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00–668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. PMID:27965751

  2. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-11-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.

  3. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  4. [Gluten-free cookies prepared with sorghum flour].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Ferreira, Sila Mary; Luparelli, Paola Cordeiro; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Vilela, Regina Maria

    2009-12-01

    Considering that sorghum is a gluten free flour, it could be proposed as an ingredient to produce alternative bakery products for the subjects with Celiac Disease, since they do not have many food options available in the market. For this reason, the main goal of this study is to develop chocolate cookies with sorghum flour (Sorghum vulgare). The experimental design used was the simplex-lattice factor to compare the following variables: sorghum flour (50-100%), rice flour (0-50%) and corn starch (0-50%), totaling up to ten experiments. The formulations IX and X were selected as the ones with the highest sensorial scores The sorghum flour, regular chocolate cookies and gluten free cookies were submitted to physicochemical analysis. Physical and sensorial analysis using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) and hedonic analysis were performed for the two cookies preparation. Sorghum flour presented characteristics compared with the described by the food regulation laws. The preparations that presented satisfactory sensorial characteristics were the ones that had 58 and 67% of sorghum flour, 8 and 17% of rice flour, 33 and 17% of corn starch, respectively. The performance for both IX and X formulations was 0,92 and the specific volume was 1,54 and 1.46 cm3/g, respectively. When compared with regular cookies, the differences on most of the sensorial attributes evaluated on sorghum cookies were not statistically significant (P < 0.05), except for the color and the odour. All the sensorial scores reached values equal or higher than 7 for both samples and most of them scored 8. The results showed the feasibility of including sorghum flour on the manufacture of gluten free cookies.

  5. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  6. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-08-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma.

  7. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  8. Solar drying of yam-flour pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Oladiran, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat/mass transfer characteristics of a turbulent impinging jet in cross flow in a model of a chamber used for solar drying of yam flour pellets is presented. The variables studied were the nozzle inclination, ..cap alpha.. and the jet-to-cross flow velocity ratio, M. These parameters were varied from 30/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and from 5.0 to 20.9 respectively. Superimposing a cross flow onto the jet reduced the heat transfer coefficients. At low cross flows, inclining the nozzle further reduced the heat transfer coefficients. However, at higher cross flows, inclining the nozzle could be beneficial. The thin film napthalene sublimation technique was employed for the mass transfer measurements.

  9. Short synthesis of 3-(hydroxymethyl)xylitol and structure revision of the anti-diabetic natural product from Casearia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruomeng; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Sherburn, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    3-(Hydroxymethyl)xylitol, a compound reportedly isolated from the root of Casearia esculenta (Roxb.), along with its three possible stereoisomers, has been synthesized for the first time by way of a triple dihydroxylation reaction performed upon the simplest cross-conjugated hydrocarbon, [3]dendralene. The data for the natural product do not match any of the isomeric 3-(hydroxymethyl)pentitols. The structure of the natural product from the root of Casearia esculenta (Roxb.) has been corrected by reanalysis of the published data.

  10. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  11. Metals in wheat flour; comparative study and safety control.

    PubMed

    Tejera, Raquel L; Luis, G; González-Weller, Dailos; Caballero, José M; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Rubio, Carmen; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Cereal industry and its derived products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. Therefore, as wheat flour is a commodity for all bread and bakery industry, it is safety is of high nutrition and toxicological interest. In this investigation we intend to study and determine the content of twelve metals in 50 samples of wheat flour coming from a wheat flour industry. Macro elements sodium, potassium magnesium and calcium, micro elements manganese, iron, copper, zinc, chrome and nickel as well as toxic trace elements cadmium and lead have been analysed. The estimated diary intake of each metal and their contribution in percentage terms to the RDI (macro and micro elements) and to the PTWI (toxic elements) has been determined. Contribution of Cd and Pb to the PTWI was very low, a fact that shows safety in this wheat flour concerning toxic metals.

  12. Use of ultrasound for the determination of flour quality.

    PubMed

    Alava, J M; Sahi, S S; García-Alvarez, J; Turó, A; Chávez, J A; García, M J; Salazar, J

    2007-06-01

    Within the baking industry, the control of dough properties is required to achieve final product quality and consistency. Traditional methods for dough testing are slow and off-line and do not provide fundamental rheological information. There is therefore a need for the development of fast and on-line instruments capable of providing relevant data for baking. Ultrasonics provide a non-destructive, rapid and low cost technique for the measurement of physical food characteristics. In this work, the water content of dough is investigated using ultrasonic techniques. The capability of ultrasound measurements for discriminating flours for different purposes is also studied. Doughs from more than 30 flours were characterised rheologically using a Chopin Alveograph and a Brabender Extensograph. Ultrasound measurements on the doughs prepared from these flours were also performed. The measurements were correlated, showing that ultrasound was an alternative measurement method to discriminate types of flours for different purposes.

  13. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment

    PubMed Central

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680

  14. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment.

    PubMed

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers' family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper.

  15. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  16. 9. FLOOR 1: FLOUR BOLTER, REEL IN PLACE BUT CLOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLOOR 1: FLOUR BOLTER, REEL IN PLACE BUT CLOTH MISSING: LAYSHAFT WHICH FORMERLY DROVE BOLTER IS STORED AGAINST WALL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  17. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  18. Rigid polyvinyl chloride/wood-flour composites and their foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengeloglu, Fatih

    The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked vs. uncrosslinked) and addition levels on the mechanical properties of rigid PVC/wood-fiber composites were examined. With the proper choice of modifier type and concentration, the impact strength of rigid PVC/wood-fiber composites can be significantly improved without degrading the tensile properties. Foaming is an effective method for reducing the density and brittleness of polymers. The experimental results indicated that impact modification (crosslinked and uncrosslinked modifiers) accelerated the rate of gas loss during foaming process, which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. Consequently, impact modifiers are an unnecessary ingredient in the formulation of foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites. Since the batch foaming process used to generate cellular foamed structures in the composites is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective, the manufacture of PVC/wood-flour composite foams in an extrusion process needs to be investigated. The foamability of rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using moisture present in the wood flour as the foaming agent was investigated using a central composite design (CCD) experiment. It was determined that wood flour moisture could be used effectively as the foaming agent in the production of rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams. Finally, mechanical property characterizations of extrusion-foamed rigid PVC/wood-flour composites were done. Extrusion foaming reduced the density and the brittleness of the composites, but also caused a reduction in the tensile strength and modulus of the rigid PVC/wood-flour composites. This study suggested that depending on the application, the problems associated with the rigid PVC/wood-flour composite products; high density, brittleness and low impact resistance can be overcome by adopting impact modification and/or extrusion foaming. Since impact modification improves the

  19. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.

  20. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  1. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries.

  2. ESR detection of wheat flour before and after irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Nakamura, Hideo

    2006-03-01

    We revealed free radicals in wheat flour before and after γ-ray irradiation and their thermal behavior during heat-treatment using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR spectrum of wheat flour before irradiation consists of a sextet centered at g = 2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn 2+ ion (hf constant: 7.4 mT). The second is originated from carbon-centered radical. Upon γ-ray irradiation, however, a new signal with two triplet lines at the low and high field ends was detected in wheat flour on top of the Mn 2+ sextet lines. We analyzed the triplet ESR lines as powder spectra (rhombic g-tensor symmetry) with nitrogen ( 14N) hyperfine interactions. This indicates that a new organic radical was induced in the conjugated protein portion of wheat flour by the γ-ray irradiation. Intensity of the organic free radical at g = 2.0 detected in irradiated wheat flour increased monotonically by the thermal treatment. The analysis of the time-dependent evolution and decay process based on the theory of transient phenomena as well as the nonlinear least-squares numerical method provided a unique time constant for the radical evolution and decay in wheat flour during the heat-treatment.

  3. Rye flour enriched with arabinoxylans in rye bread making.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał; Gambuś, Halina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate physical and chemical properties of preparations of water soluble arabinoxylans (arabinoxylan-enriched flour) obtained by industrial method and their derivatives (obtained by hydrolysis and cross-linking of aranbinoxylans), as well as their impact on baking properties of rye flours. Additionally, these results were compared with highly purified arabinoxylans prepared by laboratory method and well characterized in the literature. Flour enriched with arabinoxylans was obtained by industrial method involving air separation of flour particles. It was characterized by 8.6% arabinoxylan content, lack of insoluble material and substantial residue (67%) of starch and dextrins. The addition of all industrial method preparations in amount of 10% (i.e. approx. 1% water soluble arabinoxylans), to rye flours resulted in an increase in water absorption, bread volume and decrease in hardness of the bread crumb and the effect was especially strong in the case of flour type 720. Due to the easiness of isolation procedure, industrial method preparation could be advised as an improver for rye bread making.

  4. Pollen flow in the wildservice tree, Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. I. Evaluating the paternity analysis procedure in continuous populations.

    PubMed

    Oddou-Muratorio, S; Houot, M-L; Demesure-Musch, B; Austerlitz, F

    2003-12-01

    The joint development of polymorphic molecular markers and paternity analysis methods provides new approaches to investigate ongoing patterns of pollen flow in natural plant populations. However, paternity studies are hindered by false paternity assignment and the nondetection of true fathers. To gauge the risk of these two types of errors, we performed a simulation study to investigate the impact on paternity analysis of: (i) the assumed values for the size of the breeding male population (NBMP), and (ii) the rate of scoring error in genotype assessment. Our simulations were based on microsatellite data obtained from a natural population of the entomophilous wild service tree, Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. We show that an accurate estimate of NBMP is required to minimize both types of errors, and we assess the reliability of a technique used to estimate NBMP based on parent-offspring genetic data. We then show that scoring errors in genotype assessment only slightly affect the assessment of paternity relationships, and conclude that it is generally better to neglect the scoring error rate in paternity analyses within a nonisolated population.

  5. Topological analysis of the brain stem of the frogs Rana esculenta and Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Opdam, R; Kemali, M; Nieuwenhuys, R

    1976-02-01

    The ventricular sulcal pattern and the cytoarchitectonic organization of the brain stem of the frogs Rana esculenta and Rana catesbeiana have been studied in transversely cut, Nissl stained serial sections. Four longitudinal sulci, the sulcus medianus inferior, the sulcus intermedius ventralis, the sulcus limitans and the sulcus medianus superior could be distinguished in both species. A fifth longitudinal groove, the sulcus intermedius dorsalis, was found only in Rana esculenta. With the aid of the usual cytoarchitectonic criteria 25 cell masses have been delineated in Rana esculenta and 27 in Rana catesbeiana. These cell masses can be distributed over the following categories (numbers added in brackets for Rana catesbeiana, if different from those in Rana esculenta): primary efferent or motor, 8; primary afferent or sensory, 4(6); "relay" centers, 7. Contrary to statements in the literature the reticular formation can be divided into six separate cell groups. The majority of the nuclei form part of the central gray, which constitutes a rather wide zone in anurans; three reticular nuclei lie partly within the stratum griseum and partly within the stratum album; six nuclei are entirely embedded in the stratum album. The morphological pattern of the cell masses and their relationship to the ventricular sulci were studied with the aid of a graphical reconstruction procedure termed topological analysis (cf. Nieuwenhuys, '74 and figs. 15, 16). This analysis yielded the following results: The sulcus limitans extends throughout the rhombencephalon, dividing this brain part into a basal plate and an alar plate. The cell masses in the basal plate fit into two longitudinal zones, a medial area ventralis and a lateral area intermedioventralis. The area ventralis contains three somatic motor nuclei (IV, VI and XII) and the rhombencephalic medial reticular zone. The latter may be primarily considered as a somatic motor coordinating center. The area intermedioventralis contains

  6. Evaluation of dough rheological properties and bread texture of pearl millet-wheat flour mix.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Moulis, Claire; Hajji, Hejer; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of formulating composite bread using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours . Rheological and bread making properties of composite flours were evaluated. Mixolab results revealed torque increased and dough stability time decreased upon incorporation of pearl millet flour in wheat flour. The incorporation of millet flour at optimum level (5 %) led to an increase of the dough strength (W) and the elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L) by 31 % and 65 % respectively. The bread texture and volume were also improved. These findings indicated the potentiality of using millet flour in bread making.

  7. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety. PMID:28231092

  8. Effect of incorporation of soy flour to wheat flour on nutritional and sensory quality of biscuits fortified with mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Farzana, Tasnim; Mohajan, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The research study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of soy-mushroom-enriched biscuits which could be used as a protein supplemented cereal snack food. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with soy flour at different levels that is 20% (T3), 15% (T2), and 10% (T1) and without soy flour was kept as control (To). Mushroom was added in both biscuits. Biscuits were analyzed for chemical and sensory parameters. Protein content of soy flour-supplemented biscuits increased from 11.07% to 17.86% as compared to control along with a significant increased in fat (17.36–20.89%), fiber (0.48–0.92%), iron (1.56–1.99 mg/100 g), and energy value (463–485 Kcal/g). Ash content also increased but not significantly. Results from chemical analyses and organoleptic evaluation indicate that good quality biscuits can be prepared by substituting wheat flour with 15% soy flour and addition of mushroom powders may affect the backing quality. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) of the Bangladeshi population can be reduced through the development of biscuits in this way. PMID:26405522

  9. Distribution of wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) in subtropical Texas, growth of young colonies, and tolerance to simulated herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-native wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an ornamental plant that is an emerging invasive weed in moist riparian areas in subtropical and warm temperate river systems in Texas, with potential impacts on native plant species, habitat quality and water use in the Lower Rio Grande Basin. Observati...

  10. First report of taro vein chlorosis virus infecting taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2013, taro plants [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott cv. ‘iliuaua’] with leaves displaying veinal chlorosis and necrosis were observed at a germplasm collection on the island of Molokai. These symptoms were similar to those of taro vein chlorosis, an important disease of taro found in severa...

  11. In vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flour: effect of processing and incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour.

    PubMed

    Njintang, N Y; Mbofung, C M; Waldron, K W

    2001-05-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of germination and drying temperature on the in vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean flours. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment with two treatments (germination and nongermination) and three drying temperatures was used for this purpose. The effect of particle size on water absorption capacity of bean flour was investigated. In addition, the effect of incorporating soybean and cowpea into the red bean flour on functional properties was equally investigated. Results reveal that protein digestibility increased with germination and also with drying temperature. Drying at 60 degrees C produced flours of optimum functional characteristics, although the hydrophilic/lipophilic index was high and the solubility index reduced. Germination and particle size as well as drying temperature all affected the water uptake properties of bean flours. Incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour into germinated bean flour at levels of 10 and 30%, respectively, produced a composite with higher functional properties.

  12. Nutritional evaluation and shelf life studies of papads prepared from wheat-legume composite flours.

    PubMed

    Garg, R; Dahiya, S

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to develop papads from wheat and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic acceptability, nutritional quality, and keeping quality. Papad is a dehydrated product prepared from dhals or rice. A firm but pliable dough is made from the flours of dhals or rice with addition of suitable seasoning. It is shaped into balls, rolled out thin, dried and toasted over open fire so as to give a light, crisp product. Mung flour papads were kept as control and wheat flour, chickpea flour, and pea flour were used to supplement mung flour papads. Three different proportions (10, 20, 30%) of each flour were used to supplement Mung flour. Papads with wheat flour (10%), chickpea flour (20%), and pea flour (10%) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these papads were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Protein content significantly increased on supplementation with legume flours at all levels. Fat content was significantly higher in chickpea flour supplemented papads. Ash content varied significantly from 10.17 to 10.78% in papads. Total carbohydrates decreased significantly on supplementation with chickpea flour. Copper content increased significantly on supplementation. A significant decrease in phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor of supplemented papads was found. In vitro protein digestibility significantly increased on supplementation but a significant decrease in in vitro starch digestibility was found in supplemented papads. Storage studies showed that chickpea flour and pea flour supplemented papads can be stored safely for 60 days and wheat flour supplemented papads for 30 days both at room and refrigeration temperatures.

  13. Use of peanut and cowpea in wheat-based products containing composite flours.

    PubMed

    McWatters, K H; Resurreccion, A V; Beuchat, L R; Phillips, R D

    1995-01-01

    Cowpeas and peanuts are legumes of major dietary and economic importance. They are favored worldwide because of their palatability, contribution to nutritional status, and low cost as a protein source compared to animal protein. Flours processed from cowpeas and peanuts have unique physico-chemical and sensory properties when used in composite flour mixtures. Appropriate blends of cowpea and peanut flours to replace wheat flour in Chinese-type noodles, muffins, and tortillas were determined using modelling and optimization procedures. For noodles, 15% peanut flour and 8% cowpea flour supplementation produced an acceptable product with high protein content (21%). For wheat flour replacement in muffins, up to 43% cowpea and up to 44% peanut flours may be used. However, when wheat flour replacement is 50% or greater, cassava flour should comprise 56 to 72% of the blend with a few exceptions. In tortillas, 24% cowpea and 46% peanut flours produced products similar in quality characteristics to those made from 100% wheat flour. The systematic approach used in these studies is more efficient than the traditional substitution method to optimize sensory qualities of wheat-based products containing composite flours.

  14. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  15. Hydrophobicity of stored (15, 35 °C), or dry-heated (120 °C) rice flour and deteriorated breadmaking properties baked with these treated rice flour/fresh gluten flour.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mariko; Tabara, Aya; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    Rice flour was stored at 15 °C/9 months, at 35 °C/14 days, or dry-heated at 120 °C/20 min. The breadmaking properties baked with this rice flour/fresh gluten flour deteriorated. In addition, the rice flour was mixed with oil in water vigorously, and oil-binding ability was measured. Every rice flour subjected to storage or dry-heated at 120 °C showed higher hydrophobicity, owing to changes in proteins. Then, proteins in the stored rice flour were excluded with NaOH solution, and bread baked with the deproteinized rice flour showed the same breadmaking properties as unstored rice flour/fresh gluten flour. The viscoelasticity of wheat glutenin fraction decreased after the addition of dry-heated rice flour in a mixograph profile. DDD staining increased Lab in color meter, which suggested an increase in SH groups in rice protein. The increase in SH groups caused a reduction in wheat gluten protein resulting in a deterioration of rice bread quality. .

  16. Proteomic analysis of wheat flour allergens.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Handoyo, Tri; Ishii, Takeshi; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Morita, Naofumi; Suyama, Kyozo

    2007-08-22

    Wheat can cause severe IgE-mediated systematic reactions, but knowledge on relevant wheat allergens at the molecular level is scanty. The aim of the present study was to achieve a more detailed and comprehensive characterization of the wheat allergens involved in food allergy to wheat using proteomic strategies, referred to as "allergenomics". Whole flour proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with isoelectric focusing and lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting with sera of patients with a food allergy to wheat. After tryptic digestion, the peptides of IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In this study, we identified four previously reported wheat allergens or their sequentially homologous proteins [serpin, alpha-amylase inhibitor, gamma-gliadin, and low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin] by a database search. As a result of the high resolution of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, nine subunits of LMW glutenins were identified as the most predominant IgE-binding antigens. The two-dimensional allergen map can be beneficial in many ways. It could be used, for example, for precise diagnosis of wheat-allergic patients and assessment of wheat allergens in food. Additionally, we compared allergenomics to conventional biochemical methods and evaluated the usefulness of a proteomic strategy for identifying putative allergens to wheat allergy.

  17. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    PubMed Central

    Nochera, Carmen L.; Ragone, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit. PMID:28231132

  18. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    PubMed

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  19. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  20. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively).

  1. Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel powder prepared from Colocasia esculenta leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakkeeran, E; Saranya, N; Giri Nandagopal, M S; Santhiagu, A; Selvaraju, N

    2016-08-02

    In this study, batch removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by powdered Colocasia esculenta leaves was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of adsorption of Cr(VI) at different pH values, initial concentrations, agitation speeds, temperatures, and contact times. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis. The biosorptive capacity of the adsorbent was dependent on the pH of the chromium solution in which maximum removal was observed at pH 2. The adsorption equilibrium data were evaluated for various adsorption isotherm models, kinetic models, and thermodynamics. The equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich and Halsey models. The adsorption capacity calculated was 47.62 mg/g at pH 2. The adsorption kinetic data were best described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, Colocasia esculenta leaves can be considered as one of the efficient and cheap biosorbents for hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions.

  2. [Impacts of digging Phascolosoma esculenta on the growth of mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    He, Qin-Fei; Fan, Hang-Qing; Mo, Zhu-Cheng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Digging Phascolosoma esculenta to increase income is one of the main causes leading to the degradation of China mangroves. In order to understand the impact mechanisms of digging P. esculenta on the mangrove growth and to select indicators to evaluate the mangrove health, a simulative study was conducted to clarify the impacts of digging depth, radian, and frequency on the growth of 1-year old Avicennia marina seedlings, with the indices seedling height, basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, total biomass, and dead root dry mass measured. The results showed that digging activities decreased the increment of seedling height and basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, and total biomass significantly, and increased the dead root dry mass markedly. Digging depth and radian had obvious effects on the growth of A. marina seedlings, but digging frequency had minor effects. When the digging depth was < 5 cm, digging radian was < 240 degrees, and digging frequency was < 2 times per month, the damage to the seedlings was slighter; but when the digging depth was > 5 cm, the damage was quite serious.

  3. A first assessment of genetic variation among Morchella esculenta (morel) populations.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, H J; Jacobson, K M

    2005-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation have serious consequences for species diversity as well as genetic diversity within a species. As the most sought-after culinary fungus in the Midwest United States, morels (Morchella esculenta and related species) demand the attention of conservationists interested in preserving biological and genetic diversity. Little is known about the natural history of M. esculenta, which is critical information for understanding population dynamics as well as the impacts of habitat fragmentation and harvesting. We report initial results from our long-term studies of genetic variability among fruiting bodies at the Conard Environmental Research Area at Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), a technique that has been successfully used to examine intrapopulation structure and detect clonal populations in numerous fungi, we found substantially higher levels of genetic polymorphism among 57 fruiting bodies than has been previously reported. Though laboratory studies indicate that the inbreeding potential for this fungus is high, we found little evidence for inbreeding, with only two pairs of the randomly chosen isolates having identical genotypes at the 34 loci examined. This work highlights the importance of further attempts to resolve important aspects of the morel life cycle regarding heterokaryosis and inbreeding potential.

  4. Extraction optimization and in vivo antioxidant activities of exopolysaccharide by Morchella esculenta SO-01.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanyun; Zhou, Bo; Lin, Rongshan; Jia, Le; Liu, Xiaonan; Deng, Peng; Fan, Keming; Wang, Guoyi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jianjun

    2010-06-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction parameters for Morchella esculenta SO-01 exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced during submerged culture. The optimum conditions for EPS extraction were predicted to be, concentration at 84.07 degrees C, precipitation for 22.19 h and pH 8.44, and EPS production was estimated at 5.45 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 5.32 g/L. The antioxidant capacity of the EPS was measured in vivo after filling the stomach with different doses of EPS and results showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of blood, spleen, liver, heart, and kidney were increased by 125%, 46.11%, 23.33%, 12.19%, 41.29%, and 63.24%, 63.12%, 166.54%, 98.01%, 57.68%, respectively, and that malonaldehyde (MDA) of blood, spleen, liver, heart, and kidney were decreased by 21.80%, 67.84%, 28.48%, 56.15%, 41.62%. The results provide a reference for large-scale extraction of EPS by M. esculenta SO-01 in industrial fermentation.

  5. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Krantz) genome harbors KNOX genes differentially expressed during storage root development.

    PubMed

    Guo, D; Li, H L; Tang, X; Peng, S Q

    2014-12-18

    In plants, homeodomain proteins play a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. KNOX proteins are members of the homeodomain protein family. The KNOX transcription factors have been reported from Arabidopsis, rice, and other higher plants. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of cassava (Manihot esculenta Krantz) has allowed a genome-wide search for M. esculenta KNOX (MeKNOX) transcription factors and the comparison of these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. In the present study, we identified 12 MeKNOX genes in the cassava genome and grouped them into two distinct subfamilies based on their domain composition and phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to elucidate the expression profiles of these genes in different tissues and during various stages of root development. The analysis of MeKNOX expression profiles of indicated that 12 MeKNOX genes display differential expressions either in their transcript abundance or expression patterns.

  6. Quality characteristics of bread produced from wheat, rice and maize flours.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S

    2012-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample.

  7. The study of functional properties of Nypa fruticans flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyarti, Nazarudin, Sari, Dian Wulan

    2017-03-01

    Nypafruticans or known as nypa produces considerable amount of fruit with high content of carbohydrate. The mesocarp of the mature fruit is a potential source of energy but underutilised. This research was conducted to study the production of flour from mesocarp of mature nypa fruit and to determine the functional properties of nypa flour. This research used the fruit from mangrove area in Jambi Province. The highest rendemenof flour in ratio to mesocarp weight was 20.00±5.24%. Mesocarp processing produced flour with low fat content (1.45%) and high crude fibre content (17.68%), color parameter L* 83.13±4.04, a* -0.67±0.90, and b* 4.80±0.80. OAC nypa flour was 1.20±0.20 and its WAC was 2.84±0.24. Nypaflour exhibited low swelling power and solubility. The highest swelling power and solubility were achieved at 85oC with value of 4.5g/g and 10.56% respectively.

  8. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future. PMID:22410213

  9. Optimization of hard red spring wheat milling for whole wheat flour production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed moisture content (10 to 16%) and rotor speed (6,000 to 15,000 rpm) of a centrifugal mill on quality of whole wheat flour (WWF) and subsequent baking quality. Particle size distribution, flour temperature, flour moisture, and starch dam...

  10. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, w...

  11. Comparison Between Potassium Bromate and Ozone as Flour Oxidants in Breadmaking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of potassium bromate with that of ozone treatment in wheat flour oxidation for breadmaking. In the first experiment, flour was treated with ozone at 1,500 ppm for 2, 4.5, 9, and 18 min. In the second experiment, flour was fully treated with ...

  12. The case for water activity as a specification for wheat tempering and flour production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture plays an important role in processing wheat grain into flour, from proper grain tempering to the stability of the flour. Moisture properties of dry grain, tempered grain, and finished flour are currently tracked using moisture content. However, stability factors such as microbial growth and...

  13. Development, relative retention, and productivity of red flour beetle on resistant starches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development, relative retention, and fecundity of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), on six different types of starches, flour, and flour plus yeast was investigated in the laboratory. The viability of T. castaneum eggs was checked initially by placin...

  14. NOTE: Measuring oxidative gelation of aqueous flour suspensions using the Rapid Visco Analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) was investigated as a tool to measure oxidative gelation capacity (OGC) of aqueous wheat-flour suspensions. One, club-wheat patent flour was used to determine optimal hydration time and 33 straight-grade flours (representing 12 hard and 31 soft varieties) were used to ...

  15. Physicochemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. Textural properties of the cooked pancakes, such as hardness and chewiness generally increased with time after cooking, whereas they decreased with increased sw...

  16. Evaluation of sorghum flour as extender in plywood adhesives for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate sorghum flour as protein extender in plywood adhesive for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion. Defatted sorghum flour, containing 0.2% (dry basis, db) residual oil and 12.0% (db) crude protein, was analyzed for solubility and foaming properties. Sorghum flour pr...

  17. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  18. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  19. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  20. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  1. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  2. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour... defatted cooked cottonseed flour. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour is a product prepared as follows: Food quality cottonseed is delinted and decorticated;...

  3. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  4. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  5. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  6. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  7. Patch Exploitation by female Red Flour Beetles, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. F.; Runnion, C.

    2003-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the ‘Lack’ clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes. PMID:15841236

  8. Wheat flour based propionic acid fermentation: an economic approach.

    PubMed

    Kagliwal, Lalit D; Survase, Shrikant A; Singhal, Rekha S; Granström, Tom

    2013-02-01

    A process for the fermentative production of propionic acid from whole wheat flour using starch and gluten as nutrients is presented. Hydrolysis of wheat flour starch using amylases was optimized. A batch fermentation of hydrolysate supplemented with various nitrogen sources using Propionibacterium acidipropionici NRRL B 3569 was performed. The maximum production of 48.61, 9.40, and 11.06 g of propionic acid, acetic acid and succinic acid, respectively, was found with wheat flour hydrolysate equivalent to 90 g/l glucose and supplemented with 15 g/l yeast extract. Further, replacement of yeast extract with wheat gluten hydrolysate showed utilization of gluten hydrolysate without compromising the yields and also improving the economics of the process. The process so developed could be useful for production of animal feed from whole wheat with in situ production of preservatives, and also suggest utilization of sprouted or germinated wheat for the production of organic acids.

  9. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15V and 20V) for 60 or 120s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality.

  10. Patch exploitation by female red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J F; Runnion, C

    2003-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the 'Lack' clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes.

  11. The Presence of Flour Affects the Efficacy of Aerosolized Insecticides used to Treat the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Toews, Michael D.; Campbell, James F.; Arthur, Franklin H.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, 1, or 2 g of flour were prepared with 25 eggs, 3rd instars, pupae, or adults and then immediately treated with aerosolized solvent, Pyrethrins, or esfenvalerate. Twenty-four h after insecticide exposure, the dishes were brought to the laboratory and placed in a growth chamber and held for a 3 day moribund (knockdown) assessment and a 21 day mortality assessment. Mortality in untreated controls was generally less than 10%, with the exception of the 21 day counts of adults and eggs. Solvent-treated replications followed similar trends, except that additional mortality was observed in exposed larvae and pupae. In the insecticide-treated dishes, mortality of T. castaneum provisioned with flour generally showed a linear decrease with increasing flour deposits. Regardless of life stage, mortality did not exceed 60% when individuals were exposed in petri dishes containing 2 g of flour. Exposure location also made a significant difference in observed mortality. While mortality never exceeded 75% in dishes positioned under pallets, there was never less than 80% mortality in dishes exposed in the open. Although there was a perceptible increase in mortality with esfenvalerate compared to Pyrethrins, these differences were considerably less than the variation observed among flour deposits. The study suggests that sanitation and preparation prior to aerosol insecticide treatments were more important than choice of a particular insecticide. PMID:21268701

  12. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  13. Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B.

    2010-06-01

    The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane—treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

  14. Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B.

    2010-06-02

    The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

  15. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R.

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  16. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-02-03

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant.

  17. Fat body involvement in vitellogenin fate in the green frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Varriale, B; Di Matteo, L; Minucci, S; Pierantoni, R; Chieffi, G

    1988-01-01

    1. Since, in Rana esculenta, fat bodies contain vitellogenin, the present study was performed in order to determine whether or not fat bodies are involved in the fate of vitellogenin. 2. The experiment of November shows that fat body excision provokes plasma vitellogenin increase even in animals treated with estradion-17 beta + pituitary crude homogenate (as compared with relative control). The same picture has been shown in the April experiment. 3. The result on protein-bound phosphate in ovaries from the April experiment has shown that fat body extirpation causes a decrease of protein-bound phosphate in the ovary. 4. This results indicates that fat bodies play an important role in sequestrating circulating vitellogenin by the ovary.

  18. Inhibition of human lanosterol synthase by the constituents of Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    PubMed

    Sakano, Yuichi; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanaka, Rie; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Toyoda, Masatake; Goda, Yukihiro; Shibuya, Masaaki; Ebizuka, Yutaka

    2005-02-01

    Ethanol extracts of lyophilized vegetables were tested for inhibition of human lanosterol synthase (hOSC) in order to find the compounds to suppress cholesterol biosynthesis. Of 130 samples tested, twelve samples showed significant inhibition. Among them, Colocasia esculenta (taro) showed the highest inhibition (55% inhibition at 300 microg/ml). Examination of activity variation among eight taro cultivars indicated that "Aichi-wase" and "Yatsugashira" had the most potent activity for hOSC inhibition. In order to identify the active constituent of taro, ethanol extracts of "Aichi-wase" were partitioned with hexane and aqueous methanol, and fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. Inhibitory activity was concentrated in two major active fractions. Further purification of these fractions by preparative HPLC gave three monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and five digalactosyldiacylglycerols as active compounds that showed 28 to 67% inhibitory activities at the concentration 300 microg/ml.

  19. Identification and some properties of anthocyanin isolated from Zuiki, stalk of Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Naoko; Saotome, Ayako; Tachimura, Yuki; Mochizuki, Ayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murata, Masatsune

    2007-05-16

    Zuiki, a stalk of taro (Colocasia esculenta), is a traditional vegetable in Japan. Raw zuiki is often boiled and vinegared to eat. The surface color of zuiki is reddish. Here, we isolated a red pigment from zuiki and identified it as cyanidin 3-rutinoside using instrumental analyses. The color of zuiki disappeared by boiling, but the zuiki turned red again in an acetic acid solution. It seems that the cyanidin 3-rutinoside that exists on the surface of zuiki elutes in boiling water and then, the pigment that seeps out from the inside of the zuiki is exposed to an acid solution, and its surface turns red again. The radical scavenging activity of purified zuiki anthocyanin was 114 mg equivalent to BHT/g. About half of the anthocyanin in fresh zuiki was washed out by boiling, and the radical scavenging activity of zuiki was definitely reduced.

  20. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    PubMed

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn).

  1. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Mace, Emma S; Godwin, Ian D

    2002-10-01

    Microsatellite-containing sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott). The sequencing of 269 clones yielded 77 inserts containing repeat motifs. The majority of these (81.7%) were dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats. The GT/CA repeat motif was the most common, accounting for 42% of all repeat types. From a total of 43 primer pairs designed, 41 produced markers within the expected size range. Sixteen (39%) were polymorphic when screened against a restricted set of taro genotypes from Southeast Asia and Oceania, with an average of 3.2 alleles detected on each locus. These markers represent a useful resource for taro germplasm management, genome mapping, and marker-assisted selection.

  2. The isolated and perfused working heart of the frog, Rana esculenta: an improved preparation.

    PubMed

    Acierno, R; Gattuso, A; Cerra, M C; Pellegrino, D; Agnisola, C; Tota, B

    1994-05-01

    1. An in vitro preparation of the intact heart of the frog Rana esculenta was set up. 2. The isolated heart, perfused at constant pressure, was spontaneously beating and able to generate physiological values of output pressure, cardiac output, ventricle work and power. It showed the typical phenomenon of the "hypodynamic state" after a relatively constant time from the onset of the perfusion. 3. Perfusion with air-saturated saline and 99.5% oxygen-saturated saline did not show significant differences in the recorded parameters. 4. This experimental model represents a useful tool for physiological and pharmacological studies, especially when the direct analysis of the effects of hormones, mediators or drugs requires an intact heart preparation.

  3. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-γ plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

  4. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  5. Partial purification and properties of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase from mycelia of Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, M; Yamada, M; Suenaga, S; Tanaka, H; Wakasugi, A; Hatanaka, S

    1986-02-01

    Three gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (enzymes I, II and III) were partially purified from the cell free extracts of the cultured mycelia of Morchella esculenta Fr. The molecular masses of enzymes were 155,000 (I), 219,000 (II) and 102,000 (III). All of them catalyzed both hydrolysis and transpeptidation of various gamma-glutamyl compounds. gamma-L-Glutamyl-cis-3-amino-L-proline occurring in the cultured mycelia of this fungus was a good substrate for both reactions. Km values for hydrolysis were in the order of 10(-4) to 10(-5) M, and those for transpeptidation were in the order of 10(-2) to 10(-4) M. The enzymes were inhibited by a gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase inhibitor, L-serine plus borate.

  6. Influence of the carbon source on the growth and lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Morchella esculenta strains.

    PubMed

    Papinutti, Leandro; Lechner, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    Growth and lignocellulolytic enzymes production by two Morchella esculenta strains (BAFC 1728 and BEL 124) growing in solid state fermentation using different lignocellulosic materials along 58 days was characterized. Both strains were able to grow on the three substrates: wheat bran, wheat bran plus corn starch, and rolled oat. The growth was characterized by measuring chitin content, reducing sugars, pH, dry weight loss, and extractable proteins, such parameters varied substantially with substrate and strain used. The maximum rate of growth in both strains was observed between 5 and 28 days. Regarding enzyme production, as a general trend strain BAFC 1728 produced the highest titres. The most evident difference was observed in laccase production by this strain on wheat bran, which exceeded that observed in strain BEL 124 by tenfold (7.45 U g(-1)).

  7. Antioxidant and NF-κB inhibitory constituents isolated from Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lau, Edward; Tay, David; De Blanco, Esperanza J Carcache

    2011-09-01

    Morchella esculenta Pers. (Morchellaceae) was investigated for its antioxidant activity by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species in HT-29 colon cancer cells. The methylene chloride extract, which showed the highest antioxidant activity, led to the isolation of four fungal sterols, 1-4, and trilinolein (5), in addition to methyl myristate (6), 1-linoleoylglycerol (7), and ceramide (8). The isolated compounds were identified through the analysis of various spectroscopic methods. In the hydroxyl radical assay, 5-dihydroergosterol exhibited significant antioxidant activity. All compounds isolated were also tested using an enzyme-based Elisa NF-κB assay. Fungal sterols and trilinolein showed significant inhibition of NF-κB activation in the NF-κB assay.

  8. Mechanisms of the insecticidal action of TEL (Talisia esculenta lectin) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Castro, Márcia Mota; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado

    2004-06-01

    Plant lectins have insecticidal activity that is probably mediated through their ability to bind carbohydrates. To examine the influence of sugars on the insecticidal activity of a lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL), the lectin was mixed with mannose, glucose, or mannose plus glucose. Mannose abolished the insecticidal activity. Affinity chromatography showed that TEL bound to midgut proteins of the insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Immunoblotting showed that TEL recognized some proteins, probably glycoproteins, present in the midgut membrane of this insect. The principal proteases responsible for digestive proteolysis in fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose. These purified proteases were unable to digest TEL after a 15-h incubation. These results suggest that the insecticidal activity of TEL involves a specific carbohydrate-lectin interaction with glycoconjugates on the surface of digestive tract epithelial cells, as well as binding to assimilatory glycoproteins present in midgut extracts and resistance to enzymatic digestion by cysteine proteinases.

  9. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, Sharad; Ali, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodistilled oil obtained from the stem bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don (yield 0.3%) was analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil consisted mainly of n-hexadecanol (25.2%), eudesmol acetate (21.9%), palmitic acid (11.6%), cis-β-caryophyllene (8.7%), n-pentadecanol (7.7%) and n-octadecanol (7.6%). The oil was found to be a potential antimicrobial agent against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The essential oil exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug in Swiss albino mice ear.

  10. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    PubMed

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour.

  11. Occupational asthma from exposure to rye flour in a Japanese baker

    PubMed Central

    Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Saito, Akemi; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Three years after beginning employment at a bakery, a 32-year-old Japanese man began experiencing acute asthma exacerbations after exposure to rye flour. Antigen-specific serum IgE antibodies were detected to the albumin and globulin, gliadin, prolamin, and glutenin protein fractions of rye flour purified from the crude antigen, but only to the albumin and globulin fraction of wheat flour. The histamine concentration producing one-half maximal effect was lower for all four rye flour fractions than for the wheat flour fractions. After inhalation of the albumin and globulin fraction of rye flour, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec decreased to 77.7% of that pre-provocation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of baker’s asthma due to rye flour in Japan. PMID:25473582

  12. Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

    2012-07-01

    The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

  13. Structure Elucidation of a Polysaccharide from Umbilicaria esculenta and Its Immunostimulatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bi-Wei; Xu, Jin-Long; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Jie; Wang, Jun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Umbilicaria esculenta has been used as a tonic food in China for several centuries owing to its pleasant flavor and health benefits. In this study, a water soluble polysaccharide, which we designated as UP2, with an average molecular weight of 3.33 × 105 Da, was isolated from U. esculenta cultivated in the Huangshan Mountain, by consecutive hot water extraction and anion-exchange chromatography. Gas chromatography analysis indicated that UP2 contained three kinds of monosaccharides, including mannose, glucose, and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.7:1.0:1.2. Linkage analysis of UP2 revealed the presence of (1 → 6)-linked glucosyl, (1 → 3,6)-linked glucosyl, t-linked galactosyl, (1 → 6)-linked galactosyl and (1 → 6)-linked mannosyl at a molar ratio of 0.7:4.6:4.1:2.2:9.1. Structural analysis determined that UP2 possessed a backbone consisting of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl and (1 → 6)-linked α-D-mannopyranosyl residues, which substituted at the O-3 position of (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl residues by branches of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl and 1-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl residues. Immunostimulatory activity analysis showed that UP2 could stimulate the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and all the samples (20–500 μg/mL) were found to enhance nitric oxide production. The highest phagocytic activity of UP2 was observed at 200 μg/mL. Thus, UP2 may be a potential source of biological and pharmacological agents. PMID:27997616

  14. Thermal characteristics of ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours.

    PubMed

    An, H J; King, J M

    2007-01-01

    Thermal properties of conventionally and ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours at various frequencies and voltages were studied. There was an increase in gelatinization temperature for conventionally heated rice starches since they were pregelatinized and became more rigid due to starch-chain interactions. In addition, there was a decrease in enthalpy (energy needed) for conventionally and ohmically heated starches during gelatinization; thus, the samples required less energy for gelatinization during DSC analysis. Ohmically heated commercial starch showed the greatest decrease in enthalpy probably because of the greatest extent of pregelatinization through ohmic heating. Brown rice flour showed the greatest gelatinization temperature resulting from the delay of starch granule swelling by lipid and protein. Enthalpy of ohmically heated starches at 20 V/cm was the lowest, which was most likely due to the lower voltage resulting in a more complete pregelatinization from a longer heating time required to reach 100 degrees C. Ohmic treatment at 70 V/cm decreased onset gelatinization temperature of white flour; therefore, it produced rice flour that swelled faster, whereas the conventionally heated sample showed a better thermal resistance.

  15. Properties of amaranth flour with functional oat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was composited with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The pasting and rheological properties of amaranth-oat composites were evaluated. The amaranth-Nutrim composites showe...

  16. Grain and Flour Characterization of Four Different Sorghum Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increasing number of people with celiac disease, the need for gluten-free products is on the rise. Sorghum is a grain tolerated by celiac patients which can be used in gluten-free foods. The grain and flour of four sorghum varieties were characterized through physical and chemical means. ...

  17. Functionality of Gliadin Proteins in Wheat Flour Tortillas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the locus Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homeologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The mai...

  18. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  19. Dough rheology and wet milling of hard waxy wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lan; Seib, Paul A; Graybosch, Robert A; Bean, Scott; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2009-08-12

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the wet milling properties of waxy wheat flours including their dough-mixing properties were investigated. Flours of six waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat ('Karl 92'), and one partial waxy hard wheat ('Trego') were fractionated by the dough-washing (Martin) process, and the yields and recoveries of starch and gluten were compared. When waxy and normal wheat starches each were blended with a wheat gluten to give a mixture containing 14.5% protein, they gave very different mixograms even though the protein was the same in those blends. Waxy wheat starch absorbed more water than normal wheat starch, which apparently retarded hydration of gluten and dough development. Higher water content had to be used for some waxy wheat flours to develop optimum dough. Washing waxy wheat flour dough under a stream of water caused dough to become slack, spread out more on the sieve, and break apart into several pieces, which when thoroughly washed, coalesced into an elastic dough like the controls. By mixing a weak dough with 2% NaCl solution or by adding hemicellulase, stickiness of the dough subsided during the washing step and thereby improved the recovery of the gluten and starch fractions.

  20. LC-MS characterization of constituents of mesquite flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...

  1. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  2. Evaluation of factors impacting trap captures of red flour beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective monitoring program is the foundation of good Integrated Pest Management programs for food facilities such as mills, processing plants, warehouses, and retail stores. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major stored-product pest of food facilities, especially mills, and a nu...

  3. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized... conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label...

  4. Movement of Tribolium castaneum within a flour mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of food processing plants by stored-product pests and their distribution within a facility depend, in part, on their dispersal ability. In this case study, we relied on self-mark recapture to evaluate the ability of Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, to move among floors wit...

  5. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Oakley, Godfrey P; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2010-03-01

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, including the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in the elderly in wealthier countries, and the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin B12 status. From a global perspective, the main cause of inadequate intake and status is a low intake of animal-source foods; even lacto-ovo vegetarians have lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations than omnivores, and for various reasons many populations have limited consumption of animal-source foods. Infants are vitamin B12-depleted from early infancy if their mothers' vitamin B12 status and intake are poor during pregnancy and lactation. Even in the United States, more than 20% of the elderly have serum vitamin B12 concentrations that indicate depletion, and an additional 6% have deficiency, primarily due to gastric atrophy, which impairs the absorption of the vitamin from food but usually not from supplements or fortified foods. Although the evidence is limited, it shows that fortified flour, consumed as bread, can improve vitamin B12 status. Where vitamin B12 fortification is implemented, the recommendation is to add 20 microg/kg flour, assuming consumption of 75 to 100 g flour per day, to provide 75% to 100% of the Estimated Average Requirement; the amount of the vitamin that can be added is limited by its cost. The effectiveness of this level of addition for improving vitamin B12 status in programs needs to be determined and monitored. In addition, further research should evaluate the bioavailability of the vitamin from fortified flour by elderly people with food cobalamin malabsorption and gastric atrophy.

  6. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Monika A

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of 70% methanolic extracts from the inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz was evaluated using three in vitro test systems: the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) and the ABTS [2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] free radical scavenging assays, and the AAPH [2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride]-induced [corrected] linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation test. The results were compared with the activity of the extracts obtained from the model antioxidant Sorbus species (Sorbus aucuparia L.), and also with the activity of phenolic standards such as quercetin, Trolox [(+/-)-6-hydroxy-2,2,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid], BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and TBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone). The radical scavenging capacities of the S. torminalis extracts towards the DPPH radical were in the range of 62.0-244.1 micromolar Trolox equivalents/g d.w. of plant material. They were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the results of the ABTS test (r = 0.8535), and with the chain-breaking activities determined in the LA-peroxidation test (r = 0.9831). In comparison with the synthetic standards, the free radical scavenging capacity of the Sorbus extracts was remarkably higher than their chain-breaking activity. Both kinds of antioxidant effects of the extracts were significantly (R2 > 0.8097, p < 0.05) influenced by the total phenolic content (TPC) as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The plant tissues derived from S. torminalis exhibited lower antioxidant potentials than those of S. aucuparia by a factor of 1.5-3.2, partially due to the lower TPC levels (multiplicity factors of 1.2-1.9). After the original antioxidant capacities of the extracts were recalculated according to the TPC levels, the resulting antioxidant capacities of the phenolic fractions in the S. torminalis extracts were lower than those from S. aucuparia by a factor of 1

  8. The presence of flour affects the efficacy of aerosolized insecticides used to treat the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot-scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, ...

  9. Aqueous-ethanolic extract of morel mushroom mycelium Morchella esculenta, protects cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Nitha, B; Janardhanan, K K

    2008-09-01

    Morchella esculenta (L) Pers. is an excellently edible and delicious morel mushroom found growing in the temperate forests. The mycelium of this mushroom is widely used as a flavouring agent. The current investigation was undertaken to explore the protective effect of the aqueous-ethanol extract of cultured mycelium of M. esculenta against cisplatin and gentamicin induced acute renal toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Cisplatin and gentamicin when administered induced a marked renal failure, characterized by a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine concentrations. Treatment with the extract at 250 and 500mg/kg body weight decreased the cisplatin and gentamicin induced increase in serum creatinine and urea levels. Treatment with the extract also restored the depleted antioxidant defense system. The decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidneys consequent to cisplatin and gentamicin administration was significantly elevated. The enhanced renal antioxidant defense system also prevented the tissue lipid peroxidation. The experimental results suggest that aqueous-ethanol extract of morel mushroom, M. esculenta mycelium protected cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity possibly by enhancing renal antioxidant system. The findings thus suggest the potential therapeutic use of morel mushroom mycelium as a novel nephroprotective agent.

  10. Effect of Cephalaria syriaca addition on rheological properties of composite flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoðlu, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour on the rheological properties of composite flours that used in bran bread production. Cephalaria syriaca products were used to replace 0.25, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25% of wheat-wheat bran composite flour, and its rheological and fermentative properties were measured by farinograph, extensograph and rheofermentometre. The data showed that the rheological parameters of flours were greatly modified by addition of Cephalaria syriaca. The rheological properties of wheatwheat bran composite flour added with whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour were considerably improved with regard to especially extensograph characteristics such as dough resistance, area (energy), ratio number and rheofermentometer parameters such as Hm, T1, Tx, volume loss and gas retention, as compared to control. However addition of Cephalaria syriaca products adversely affected the farinograph characteristics. Generally, these effects of both whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour increased, as the addition level increased. Maximum Tx, gas retention and area (energy) of dough were obtained from wheat-wheat bran composite flour added with 1.75% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour, while the highest dough stability was at addition level of 0.25% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour.

  11. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  12. Chemical, rheological and bread making characteristics of bran duster flours from roller flourmills.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Indrani, D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Gaikwad, Shwetha B; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2014-10-01

    Bran dusters are used in the wheat flour milling process to increase flour extraction rate. Chemical, rheological and bread characteristics of bran duster flours (BDR1, BDR2, BDR3) and straight run flour (SRF) obtained from two commercial roller flour mills were analyzed. Important chemical characteristics such as ash, dry gluten content, sedimentation value, damaged starch and falling number of bran duster flours were determined. Rheological behavior was tested using farinograph and alveograph equipments. The results showed an increase in ash, dry gluten content and Zeleny's sedimentation value for bran duster flours compared to SRF. Rheological characteristics indicated higher farinograph dough development time and stability values for bran duster flours. Alveograph characteristics indicated higher extensibility and lower elasticity values for bran duster flours. Over all quality score of bread for BDR1 from A and B roller flour mills ranged from 73.4 to 74.7, BDR2 (79-81.8), BDR3 (69-70.4) as against SRF (85.4-86.3).

  13. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi

    2017-02-01

    Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours). The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU). Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU), trough (442 RVU), breakdown viscosity (20 RVU), final viscosity (975 RVU), setback (533 RVU), peak time (5.47 min) and pasting temperature (89.60 °C). These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab) showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  14. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  15. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste.

  16. Effect of sorghum flour composition and particle size on quality properties of gluten-free bread.

    PubMed

    Trappey, Emily Frederick; Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi; Herald, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    White, food-grade sorghum was milled to flour of varying extraction rates (60%, 80%, and 100%) and pin-milled at different speeds (no pin-milling, low-speed, and high-speed) to create flours of both variable composition and particle size. Flours were characterized for flour composition, total starch content, particle size distribution, color, damaged starch, and water absorption. Bread was characterized for specific volume, crumb structure properties, and crumb firmness. Significant differences were found (P < 0.05) in the composition of sorghum flours of varying extraction rate, most notably for fiber and total starch contents. Flour particle size and starch damage were significantly impacted by extraction rate and speed of pin-milling. Water absorption increased significantly with increasing extraction rate and pin-milling speed. Breads produced from 60% extraction flour had significantly higher specific volumes, better crumb properties, and lower crumb firmness when compared with all other extractions and flour types. The specific volume of bread slices ranged from 2.01 mL/g (100% extraction, no pin-milling) to 2.54 mL/g (60% extraction, low-speed pin-milling), whereas the firmness ranged from 553.28 g (60% extraction, high-speed pin-milling) to 1096.26 g (commercial flour, no pin-milling). The bread characteristics were significantly impacted by flour properties, specifically particle size, starch damage, and fiber content (P < 0.05).

  17. [Physicochemical and sensory properties of flours ready to prepare an amaranth "atole"].

    PubMed

    Contreras López, Elizabeth; Jaimez Ordaz, Judith; Porras Martínez, Griselda; Juárez Santillán, Luis Felipe; Villanueva Rodríguez, Javier Añorve Morga y Socorro

    2010-06-01

    Atole is a Mexican pre-hispanic drink prepared traditionally with corn; however, cereals as wheat, rice and amaranth have also been used. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of an amaranth flour to prepare a drink (atole) mentioned above, in order to determine its nutritive value. Proximate analysis of the amaranth, corn and rice drink flours was determined by means of official techniques of AOAC. Mineral content was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. Viscosity was measured in a reometer from 25 to 90 degrees C. The quantitative descriptive profile (QDA) of the amaranth drink was studied by a trained panel of 10 judges. Results showed that the amaranth drink flour presented the highest protein and fat content compared to corn and rice drink flours. Sodium and potassium were the most abundant minerals in all flours studied. Corn and rice drink flours showed a constant viscosity from 20 to 84 degrees C, to 85 degrees C an important increase in this parameter was observed. This increase was detected in the amaranth drink flour to 75 degrees C. Descriptors defined by trained judges for the QDA of the amaranth drink flours were: starch, almond/cherry, caramel, vanilla, strawberry, walnut and chocolate. The amaranth drink flour, compared to corn and rice drink flours, presented the best nutritional profile; it is important to emphasize its protein content.

  18. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Flours and starches isolated from traditional tubers and roots grown in Indonesia have physical and chemical properties suitable for certain food applications. Compared to other flour samples, cassava and canna flours contained the highest amount of total starch (TS) (77.4 and 77.1 %, respectively). Taro starch had the lowest amount of TS among other starch samples with 75.4 %. The highest amount of amylose was observed from yam and canna flours (25.2 and 23.2 %, respectively). Among starch samples, canna starch contained the highest amylose content (30.4 %), while taro had the lowest (7.6 %). In terms of protein content, arrowroot flour had the highest amount (7.7 %), in contrast to cassava flour which had the lowest (1.5 %). Compared to other flours, canna and konjac flour were the most slowly digested which indicated by their high amount of resistant starch (RS). Canna starch had the highest swelling power and viscosity than other starches and flours. The clearest paste was observed from cassava flour and starch as opposed to konjac starch which was the most opaque paste.

  19. Effects of Amendments on Growth and Uptake of Cd and Zn by Wetland Plants, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta from Contaminated Sediments.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-01-01

    A pot study was conducted to compare the effects of amendments (CaHPO4 and cow manure) on growth and uptake of Cd and Zn from contaminated sediments by two wetland plant species, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta. Contaminated sediments (Cd 33.2 mg kg(-1) and Zn 363 mg kg(-1)) were collected from Mae Tao basin, Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments: control (uncontaminated sediment), Cd/Zn, Cd/Zn + 5% CaHPO4, and Cd/Zn + 10% cow manure. Plants were grown for 3 months in the greenhouse. The addition of CaHPO4 resulted in the highest relative growth rate (RGR) and highest Cd accumulation in both T. angustifolia and C. esculenta while the lowest RGR was found in C. esculenta grown in the cow manure treatment. Both plant species had higher concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn) in their belowground parts. None of the amendments affected Zn accumulation. C. esculenta exhibited the highest uptake of both Cd and Zn. The results clearly demonstrated the phytoremediation potential of C. esculenta and the enhancement of this potential by CaHPO4 amendment.

  20. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  1. Effect of accessions of Colocasia esculenta-based diets on the hepatic and renal functional indices of weanling Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Musa T; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-10-01

    The liver and kidney functional indices of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphological characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days were investigated. All the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets did not significantly (P > .05) alter the serum levels of albumin, globulin, inorganic phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and uric acid of the animals.The total protein and total bilirubin levels decreased only in the UFCe3- and UFCe4-fed animals, respectively. Whereas UFCe1 and UFCe2 significantly decreased the conjugated bilirubin levels, UFCe3 and UFCe6 increased it. While all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diet decreased the serum alkaline phosphatase activity, γ-glutamyl transferase activity was increased. UFCe1 and UFCe5 increased the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, whereas UFCe4 decreased the activity of the enzyme. Again, UFCe3 and UFCe1 increased the serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase activity of the animals. Furthermore, the computed blood urea nitrogen:creatinine ratio was higher in animals maintained on UFCe1-, UFCe3-, UFCe4-, and UFCe5-based diets. Whereas UFCe6 and UFCe7 increased the level of sodium in the serum of the animals, UFCe4 and UFCe5 decreased the chloride level. The serum urea level was decreased by UFCe1, UFCe3, UFCe4, and UFCe5, whereas the potassium level increased in the UFCe4-, UFCe6-, and UFCe7-fed animals. Overall, the results revealed that all the accessions of C. esculenta produced selective effects on the hepatic and renal functional indices of the weanling rats. The highest alterations were produced by UFCe4, whereas the least was from UFCe2. These alterations may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. UFCe2 exhibited the least toxicity risk among the

  2. Structural characterization of proteins in wheat flour doughs enriched with intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour.

    PubMed

    Marti, Alessandra; Bock, Jayne E; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Ismail, Baraem; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2016-03-01

    The high protein and fiber content of intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) - together with its interesting agronomic traits and environment-related benefits - make this perennial crop attractive also for human consumption. Structural characteristics of the proteins in IWG/hard wheat flour (HWF) doughs (at IWG:HWF ratios of 0:100, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0) - including aggregate formation, thiols availability, and secondary structure changes during dough mixing - were investigated. Proteins in IWG-doughs had higher solubility and thiol content - as function of IWG content - suggesting that protein network was mostly based on non-covalent interactions. While 50% IWG-enrichment gave an increase in random structures, enrichment at ⩾75% resulted in a decrease in β-sheets with an increase in random structures, indicating a decrease in structural order. The observed differences in protein molecular configuration and interactions in HWF compared to IWG doughs necessitate further investigation to establish their impact on the quality of IWG-enriched bread.

  3. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  4. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    PubMed

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  5. Food safety and amino acid balance in processed cassava "Cossettes".

    PubMed

    Diasolua Ngudi, Delphin; Kuo, Yu Haey; Lambein, Fernand

    2002-05-08

    Processed cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots provide more than 60% of the daily energy intake for the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Insufficiently processed cassava roots in a diet deficient in sulfur amino acid have been reported to cause the irreversible paralytic disease konzo, afflicting thousands of women and children in the remote rural areas of Bandundu Province. "Cossettes" (processed cassava roots) purchased in several markets of Kinshasa were analyzed for their content of cyanogens, free amino acids, and total protein amino acids. Residual cyanogen levels were below the safe limit recommended by the codex FAO/WHO for cassava flour (10 mg kg(-1)). The amino acid score was evaluated. Lysine and leucine were the limiting amino acids. Methionine content was very low and contributed about 13% of the total sulfur amino acids. Dietary requirements for sulfur amino acids need to be adjusted for the loss caused by cyanogen detoxification.

  6. Rice starch vs. rice flour: differences in their properties when modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Puncha-arnon, Santhanee; Uttapap, Dudsadee

    2013-01-02

    Starch and flour from the same rice grain source (with 20, 25 and 30% moisture content) were exposed to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at 100 °C for 16 h in order to investigate whether there were differences in their susceptibility to modification by HMT and, if any, to determine the main causes of the differences. HMT had a far greater effect on paste viscosity of flour than of starch. A significant increase in paste viscosity after removal of proteins from HMT flour - as well as images of fast green-stained HMT flour gels - indicated that an important role was played by proteins in affecting properties of the modified samples. Greater effects of HMT on thermal parameters of gelatinization and gel hardness values of flours were observed - more so than those for starches. Following this observation, it was ascertained that components in rice flour other than rice starch granules also underwent alterations during HMT.

  7. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  8. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  9. Combination of extrusion and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase treatment to modify wheat flours functionality.

    PubMed

    Román, Laura; Dura, Ángela; Martínez, Mario M; Rosell, Cristina M; Gómez, Manuel

    2016-05-15

    This research aims to vary functional properties of native and extruded wheat flours combining cyclodextrin glucanotransferase and extrusion treatments. The level of released cyclodextrins (CD) was assessed, besides the microstructure, crystallinity, pasting properties and starch hydrolysis of the flours. Photomicrographs of enzymatically treated flours suggested the production of fragile structures that broke easily. Enzymatic hydrolysis was significantly higher in extruded flours, as confirmed the CD levels, being predominant the γ-CD followed by α-CD, whereas very low β-CD values were obtained probably due to the formation of CD-lipid complexes, as suggested X-ray diffractometry results. Both extruded and native samples showed very low viscosity and flat pasting profile consequence of the enzyme hydrolytic activity on the starch chains. Enzymatically treated flours (native and extruded) showed higher hydrolysis rates at the early hydrolysis stage, and extruded flours exhibited higher fractal exponent h in agreement with the extended crystalline structures resulting from enzymatic treatment.

  10. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  11. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effect of Composite Rice Flour in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhigang; Gao, Hongmei; Du, Chuanlai; Zheng, Yimei; Guo, Yuanxin; Pan, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To study the hypoglycemic effect of composite rice flour, the diabetic mouse model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan saline (twice, 200 mg/kg bw). The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: negative control, positive control, metformin medication group, and composite rice flour feed group. After 21 days, the fasting blood glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase method and followed with a glucose tolerance test. The results show that the body weight growth rate of mice in the rice flour group was significantly higher than that of the medication group (P < 0.01). Comparing with the positive control group, the fasting blood glucose levels of medication group and rice flour group were significantly lower, and the glucose tolerance was significantly increased in rice flour group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the composite rice flour has obvious hypoglycemic and protective effect for diabetic mouse model.

  12. Forensic DNA Analysis of Wheat Flour as Commonly Used in White Powder Cases.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tahara, Makoto; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2015-09-01

    In the wake of terrorist attacks using anthrax and ricin, white powder is often encountered in cases of malicious mischief and terrorist threats. Wheat flour is a common white powder encountered in such criminal investigations. We used DNA analysis to investigate wheat flour samples for identification and discrimination as trace evidence. Species identification of commercially available wheat flour was carried out by sequencing a partial region of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene (rbcL). Samples were discriminated using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The rbcL sequences of all wheat flour samples were identical and showed a high level of similarity to known wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sequences. Furthermore, flours had characteristic patterns in STR analyses, with specific cultivars showing distinctive patterns. These results suggested that the identification of wheat flour species is possible using rbcL sequencing, and that STR analysis is useful for discriminating between samples.

  13. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  14. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  15. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  16. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  17. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  18. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  19. Fluorometric Method for Determination of Uric Acid in Flour

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    of the excreta of adult Tribolium used in this study for natural infestation, accumulates in infested products providing a quantitative measure of past...by Adult Tribolium 8 4 FLUOROMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF URIC ACID IN FLOUR Introduction Chemical and microanalytical techniques have been...determining uric acid content.’ Approximately 18% of the total excreta from Tribolium confusum is uric acid.2 Various investigators have established

  20. Modeling Foliar Uptake in Colocasia Esculenta Using High Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkler, C. J.; Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of carbon dioxide by vegetation is a major sink of CO2 and a factor that will determine future climate. Some studies predict a decrease in CO2 uptake from vegetation because of a general drying of the Amazon Basin. Because of the tight linkage between water availability and plant carbon uptake, a comprehensive model of plant water use at the individual scale is necessary to build a complete carbon budget at the global scale. Foliar uptake of non-meteoric water is a common process used by plants to alleviate water stress. However the occurrence of this process in tropical ecosystems, as well as its interaction with other physiological parameters, is not well understood. We present a model of leaf water balance that includes foliar uptake. The isotopic composition of the different sources as well as the leaf water are also included. The model is tested against a series of experiments on Colocasia esculenta, under two different water availability conditions: drought and artificial dew. The artificial dew is spiked with stable isotopes of water (δ18O = 8.56 permil, δ2H = 709.7 permil) that allow us to trace the partition of dew uptake within a leaf. We create high-resolution maps of the distribution of isotopes in one half of each leaf using a Picarro IM-CRDS. The maps show a clear enrichment due to foliar uptake for the artificial dew treatment. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and IRMS for quality control of the IM-CRDS data. Soil water is collected for isotope analysis and water content measurement. Finally, stomatal conductance data collected every two days shows no significant decrease due to either treatment over the course of the experiment. We conclude that foliar uptake of dew water is an important water acquisition mechanism for C. esculenta, even under high soil water content conditions, and we propose guidelines for further improvement of models of leaf-scale water

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel arabinoxylanase from wheat flour.

    PubMed Central

    Cleemput, G; Van Laere, K; Hessing, M; Van Leuven, F; Torrekens, S; Delcour, J A

    1997-01-01

    An endogenous wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour endoxylanase was purified to homogeneity from a crude wheat flour extract by ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography. The 30-kD protein had an isoelectric point of 9.3 or higher. A sequence of 19 amino acids at the NH2 terminus showed 84.2% identity with an internal sequence of 15-kD grain-softness protein, friabilin. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated the preferential hydrolysis of highly branched structures by the enzyme; wheat arabinoxylan and rye (Secale cereale) arabinoxylan (high arabinose to xylose ratios) were hydrolyzed more efficiently by this enzyme than oat (Avena sativa) spelt xylan (low arabinose to xylose ratios). The release of the hydrolysis products as a function of time suggested that the endoxylanolytic activity was associated with the release of arabinose units from the polysaccharides, suggesting that the enzyme action is similar to that by endoxylanases from Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, and Neurospora crassa. Although the enzyme released arabinose from arabinoxylan, it did not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside. From the above, it follows that the enzyme, called arabinoxylanase, differs from most microbial endoxylanases and from an endoxylanase purified earlier from wheat flour. PMID:9414565

  2. [Chemical composition and biological quality of defatted hazelnut flour].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Schneeberger, R; Ballester, D; Santibáñez, S

    1989-06-01

    The results of the chemical composition and biological quality of deffated hazel nut flour are shown. The samples analyzed contained significant amounts of proteins (19%) comparable to legume flour, higher than cereals and lower than deffated oleaginous flours. The oil extracted from the seed was analyzed and the average results obtained were the following: Refraction index, 1.47; saponification No. 184.8; iodine No. 85.0. The average composition of the fatty acids obtained by gas liquid chromatography was: Palmitic acid 2.3% Palmitoleic acid 37.0% Stearic acid 0.5% Oleic acid 39.5% Linoleic acid 6.9% Linolenic acid 1.1% Eicosanoic acid 2.3% Eicosaenoic acid 4.6% Docosenoic acid 3.4% Tetraeicosanoic acid 0.3% These results indicate a good-quality oil due to the low content of linolenic acid. The nutritive value of the deffated meal measured in the rats gave a net protein ratio (NPR) of 3.58, lower than the corresponding casein value (4.10). The true protein digestibility measured in the rat gave a value of 7.3%, compared to 95% for casein. The amounts of iron and phosphorous are comparatively lower than those reported for rape-seed meal and sunflower meal.

  3. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

  4. Iron fortification of flour with a complex ferric orthophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.; Rossander-Hulthen, L.; Gramatkovski, E.

    1989-07-01

    The unexpectedly low bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powder prompted us to search for other Fe compounds suitable for Fe fortification of flour that fulfill the two requirements of insolubility in water (due to high water content of flour) and good bioavailability in humans. Systematic studies of compatibility, solubility, and bioavailability led to this study of a microcrystalline complex ferric orthophosphate (CFOP), Fe/sub 3/H/sub 8/(NH/sub 4/)-(PO/sub 4/)6.6H/sub 2/O, a well-defined compound. This compound was labeled with /sup 59/Fe, and the native Fe in meals was labeled with /sup 55/FeCl3. The ratio of absorbed /sup 59/Fe to absorbed /sup 55/Fe is a direct measure of the fraction of CFOP that joins the nonheme Fe pool and that is made potentially available for absorption. The relative bioavailability of CFOP varied from 30% to 60% when labeled wheat rolls were served with different meals. The CFOP meets practical requirements of an Fe fortificant for flour well, with regard to both compatibility and bioavailability in humans.

  5. Respirable quartz exposure at silica flour producers, 1975-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    A study was conducted on respirable quartz exposures at silica flour producers for the period 1975-1986. In 1979, evaluations were performed at two silica-flour facilities in Illinois for the purpose of determining worker exposure to respirable quartz. It was evident that workers at both sites had a high incidence of silicosis. Continuing with the effort, visits were made to 28 silica-flour producers between 1975 and 1986. A total of 2,175 respirable quartz samples were examined and 52% of these exceeded the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA) Permissible Exposure Level (PEL). In 1984, 1985, and 1986, the percentages of samples taken which exceeded the PEL were 44, 46, and 34, respectively. The Recommended Exposure Level (REL) as established in NIOSH for pure respirable quartz limits exposure to a 10-hour time-weighted average level of 0.05mg/m{sup 3}. The percentage of samples of respirable quartz which exceeded this REL for the same time period were 74, 76, and 69, respectively. According to the authors, while the figures since 1979 do show the exposures to be dropping, there were still far more overexposures in this industry than in most other metal and nonmetal commodities. Without greater efforts to meet the levels required, the new cases of silicosis will continue to occur among workers in this industry.

  6. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15 V and 20 V) for 60 or 120 s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality. PMID:26920291

  7. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  8. Milling of rice grains: effects of starch/flour structures on gelatinization and pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Hasjim, Jovin; Li, Enpeng; Dhital, Sushil

    2013-01-30

    Starch gelatinization and flour pasting properties were determined and correlated with four different levels of starch structures in rice flour, i.e. flour particle size, degree of damaged starch granules, whole molecular size, and molecular branching structure. Onset starch-gelatinization temperatures were not significantly different among all flour samples, but peak and conclusion starch-gelatinization temperatures were significantly different and were strongly correlated with the flour particle size, indicating that rice flour with larger particle size has a greater barrier for heat transfer. There were slight differences in the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, which are likely associated with the disruption of crystalline structure in starch granules by the milling processes. Flours with volume-median diameter ≥56 μm did not show a defined peak viscosity in the RVA viscogram, possibly due to the presence of native protein and/or cell-wall structure stabilizing the swollen starch granules against the rupture caused by shear during heating. Furthermore, RVA final viscosity of flour was strongly correlated with the degree of damage to starch granules, suggesting the contribution of granular structure, possibly in swollen form. The results from this study allow the improvement in the manufacture and the selection criteria of rice flour with desirable gelatinization and pasting properties.

  9. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  10. Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Yu, Lu; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Liu, Linwei; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-11-15

    Ten soft wheat varieties grown in Maryland were compared for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities. Free radical scavenging capacities were examined against DPPH(·), oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS(·+) radicals. Significant radical scavenging capacities were detected in all wheat flour extracts. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.66 to 2.01 mg of GAE/g wheat flour. The wheat flours contained 172.91-297.55 μg/g insoluble bound ferulic acid, contributing 89.74-94.29% of total ferulic acid on a per weight basis. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were 0.27-0.46 and 0.08-0.13 μg/g, respectively. In addition, the wheat flours had 0.30-0.59 and 0.07-0.29 μg/g α- and δ-tocopherols, respectively. Four wheat flour extracts were further examined for their antiproliferative activities. The Jamestown wheat flour showed significant antiproliferative activity against both HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells at the initial treatment concentration of 50 mg flour equivalents/ml, while USG3555 flour showed inhibitive effect only in HT-29 cancer cells, suggesting the different and possible selective antiproliferative property of the wheat flours. These results may be used to direct the breeding effects to produce soft winter wheat varieties with improved health properties.

  11. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F

    2012-12-01

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, which is a repellent produced by the beetles. We determined the effect of five different levels of flour conditioning on cannibalism of red flour beetle eggs and pupae by adult and larval stages. Larvae had the highest rates of egg cannibalism (12 eggs eaten over the 4-d period) followed by female adults (seven eggs consumed). Adult males had the lowest rates of cannibalism with only two eggs consumed. Cannibalism of eggs by females was correlated negatively with the level of flour conditioning. There was no effect of flour conditioning on egg or pupal cannibalism by larvae or adult males. Cannibalism by adult females may decrease as the level of flour conditioning increases because females may spend less time tunneling in highly conditioned flour and more time trying to disperse to other areas that are better for oviposition.

  12. Influence of added bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on some physical and nutritional properties of wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Anton, Alex A; Ross, Kelly A; Lukow, Odean M; Fulcher, R Gary; Arntfield, Susan D

    2008-07-01

    Composite flours containing 15%, 25%, or 35% of small red, black, pinto, or navy bean flours (BF) and wheat were made into tortillas. Dough rheology, firmness, cohesiveness, rollability, and some physical properties of tortillas were negatively affected as BF concentration increased regardless of bean cultivar. Nutritionally, all bean tortillas had significantly higher levels of crude protein, total phenols, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)) in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) and antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and trypsin inhibitors (TI) than the wheat control. Tortillas to which 35% of small red, pinto and black BF was added had the highest levels of phenols, which were significantly correlated with both DPPH (r=0.99) and ABTS(+) (r=0.99) AA. Compared to raw flours, PA and TI were reduced from 37.37% to 43.78% and from 50% to 66%, respectively, in the tortillas. Overall analysis indicated that tortillas with acceptable texture and improved nutritional profile were produced at 25% substitution.

  13. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Entomotoxic Effect of Colocasia esculenta Tuber Agglutinin against Dysdercus cingulatus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amit; Das, Sampa

    2015-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a mannose binding lectin, exhibits insecticidal efficacy against different hemipteran pests. Dysdercus cingulatus, red cotton bug (RCB), has also shown significant susceptibility to CEA intoxication. However, the molecular basis behind such entomotoxicity of CEA has not been addressed adequately. The present study elucidates the mechanism of insecticidal efficacy of CEA against RCB. Confocal and scanning electron microscopic analyses documented CEA binding to insect midgut tissue, resulting in an alteration of perimicrovillar membrane (PMM) morphology. Internalization of CEA into insect haemolymph and ovary was documented by western blotting analyses. Ligand blot followed by mass spectrometric identification revealed the cognate binding partners of CEA as actin, ATPase and cytochrome P450. Deglycosylation and mannose inhibition assays indicated the interaction to probably be mannose mediated. Bioinformatic identification of putative glycosylation or mannosylation sites in the binding partners further supports the sugar mediated interaction. Correlating entomotoxicity of CEA with immune histological and binding assays to the insect gut contributes to a better understanding of the insecticidal potential of CEA and endorses its future biotechnological application.

  14. Physiological evidence for β3-adrenoceptor in frog (Rana esculenta) heart.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Rosa; Angelone, Tommaso; Pasqua, Teresa; Gattuso, Alfonsina

    2010-11-01

    β3-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) have been recently identified in mammalian hearts where, unlike β1- and β2-ARs, induce cardio-suppressive effects. The aim of this study was to describe β3-AR role in the frog (Rana esculenta) heart and to examine its signal transduction pathway. The presence of β3-AR, by using Western blotting analysis, has been also identified. BRL(37344), a selective β3-AR agonist, induced a dose-dependent negative inotropic effect at concentrations from 10(-12) to 10(-6)M. This effect was not modified by nadolol (β1/β2-AR antagonist) and by phentolamine (α-AR antagonist), but it was suppressed by the β3-AR-specific antagonist SR(59230) and by exposure to the Gi/o proteins inhibitor Pertussis Toxin. In addition, the involvement of EE-NOS-cGMP-PKG/PDE2 pathway in the negative inotropism of BRL(37344) has been assessed. BRL(37344) treatment induced eNOS and Akt phosphorylation as well as an increase of cGMP levels. β3-ARs activation induce a non-competitive antagonism against ISO stimulation which disappeared in presence of PKG and PDE2 inhibition. Taken together our findings provide, for the first time in the frog, a role for β3-ARs in the cardiac performance modulation which involves Gi/o protein and occurs via an EE-NO-cGMP-PKG/PDE2 cascade.

  15. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changlin; Zhao, Fazhen; Yan, Jingping; Liu, Chunsheng; Liu, Siwei; Chen, Siqing

    2016-10-22

    Golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle is an economically important cephalopod species. However, artificial hatching is currently challenged by low survival rate of larvae due to abnormal embryonic development. Dissecting the genetic foundation and regulatory mechanisms in embryonic development requires genomic background knowledge. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome sequencing on Sepia embryos and larvae via mRNA-Seq. 32,597,241 raw reads were filtered and assembled into 98,615 unigenes (N50 length at 911 bp) which were annotated in NR database, GO and KEGG databases respectively. Digital gene expression analysis was carried out on cleavage stage embryos, healthy larvae and malformed larvae. Unigenes functioning in cell proliferation exhibited higher transcriptional levels at cleavage stage while those related to animal disease and organ development showed increased transcription in malformed larvae. Homologs of key genes in regulatory pathways related to early development of animals were identified in Sepia. Most of them exhibit higher transcriptional levels in cleavage stage than larvae, suggesting their potential roles in embryonic development of Sepia. The de novo assembly of Sepia transcriptome is fundamental genetic background for further exploration in Sepia research. Our demonstration on the transcriptional variations of genes in three developmental stages will provide new perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms in early embryonic development of cuttlefish.

  16. Zn tolerance of novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein and its domains in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Patel, Darshan H; Kim, Ho Myeong; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to extensive researches on the roles of metallothioneins (MTs) in metal tolerance of animals, the roles of plant MTs in metal tolerance are largely under investigation. In this study, we evaluated the functional role of type 2 MT from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. Under Zn-stress conditions, transgenic tobacco overexpressing CeMT2b displayed much better seedling growth, a significant decrease in the levels of H(2)O(2) and an increase in Zn accumulation compared with the wild type. Overexpression of CeMT2b in E. coli greatly enhanced Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation under Zn stresses compared with control cells. CeMT2b bound 5.38 ± 0.29 atoms of Zn per protein. To identify a structural domain of CeMT2b for Zn binding, we investigated the growth of E. coli expressing each of the N-terminal, C-terminal, and central linker domains or a CNC motif deletion from the C-terminus of full-length CeMT2b. The results showed that the CNC motif is required for Zn tolerance, and the N-terminal domain is more effective in Zn tolerance than the C-terminal domain. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence for functional contributions of CeMT2b in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells.

  17. Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate with Colocasia esculenta, Gynerum sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorum in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Salamanca, E J; Peña, M R; Rousseau, D P L; Lens, P N L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulation of Cd (II), Hg (II), Cr (VI) and Pb (II) in Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) planted in constructed wetlands treating synthetic landfill leachate. Sixteen bioreactors were operated in two experimental blocks. Metal concentrations in the influent and effluent; root, stem, branch and leaves of plants were analysed, as well as COD, N-NH4+, TKN, T, pH, ORP, DO, and EC. Average removal efficiencies of COD, TKN and NH4+-N were 66, 67 and 72%, respectively and heavy metal removal ranged from 92 to 98% in all units. Cr (VI) was not detected in any effluent sample. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 10(0) -10(2). The BCF of Cr (VI) was the lowest: 0.59 and 2.5 (L kg(-1)) for Gs and He respectively; whilst Cd (II) had the highest (130-135 L kg(-1)) for Gs. Roots showed a higher metal content than shoots. Translocation factors (TF) were lower, He was the plant exhibiting TFs>1 for Pb (II), Cr (T) and Hg (II) and 0.4-0.9 for Cd (II) and Cr (VI). The evaluated plants demonstrate their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate and all of them can be categorized as metals accumulators.

  18. Recovery of energy from Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs).

    PubMed

    Bindu, T; Ramasamy, E V

    2008-01-01

    We present studies on solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs) in which chopped Colocasia esculenta was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop an efficient means of utilizing the semi-aquatic weed that is otherwise an environmental nuisance. Two types of SOFADs were studied. The first type had a single vessel with two compartments. The lower portion of the digester, 25% of the total volume, was separated from the upper by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cow dung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the digester led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The bioleachate, rich in the VFAs, passed through the perforated PVC disk and was collected in the lower compartment of the digester. The other type of digesters, referred to as anaerobic multi-phase high-solids digesters (AMHDs), had the same type of compartmentalized digester unit as the first type and an additional methaniser unit. Up-flow anaerobic filters (UAFs) were used as methaniser units, which converted the bioleachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 60% methane. All SOFADs developed a consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 20 weeks from the start. Among the two types of digesters studied, the AMHDs were found to perform better with a twofold increase in biogas yield compared to the first type of digesters.

  19. Studies on the use of Colocasia esculenta (taro cocoyam) in the diets of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Agwunobi, L N; Angwukam, P O; Cora, O O; Isika, M A

    2002-05-01

    Sixty weanling Large White x Duroc pigs were allocated to five groups of 12 pigs per group and fed on one of five diets. The five diets comprised 0, 50% and 100% unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels (Colocasia esculenta) and 50% and 100% boiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels as replacements for maize. The levels of some antinutritional factors were also determined in both boiled and unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam. Boiling reduced (p < 0.05) the amounts of the antinutritional factors in the taro cocoyam cormels. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in feed intake, weight gain or feed efficiency between the diets containing boiled taro cocoyam cormels. However, for unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain and feed efficiency, these being depressed at more than 50% replacement of maize. This may be due to the relatively high amounts of antinutritional factors in the unboiled, sun-dried taro cormels. Boiled taro cocoyam cormels were comparable to maize as an energy source in the diets of weanling pigs.

  20. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  1. Rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion

    2011-09-14

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence.

  2. Structural analysis of β-prism lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) S chott.

    PubMed

    Vajravijayan, S; Pletnev, S; Pletnev, V Z; Nandhagopal, N; Gunasekaran, K

    2016-10-01

    The Mannose-binding β-Prism Colocasia esculenta lectin (β-PCL) was purified from tubers using ion exchange chromatography. The purified β-PCL appeared as a single band of ∼12kDa on SDS-PAGE. β-PCL crystallizes in trigonal space group P3121 and diffracted to a resolution of 2.1Å. The structure was solved using Molecular replacement using Crocus vernus lectin (PDB: 3MEZ) as a model. From the final refined model to an R-factor of 16.5% and an Rfree of 20.4%, it has been observed that the biological unit consists of two β-Prism domains augmented through C-terminals swap over to form one of faces for each domain. Cα superposition of individual domains of β-PCL with individual domains of other related structures and superposition of whole protein structures were carried out. The higher RMS deviation for the superposition of whole structures suggest that β-prism domains assume different orientation in each structure.

  3. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kitimu, Shedrack R.; Taylor, Julian; March, Timothy J.; Tairo, Fred; Wilkinson, Mike J.; Rodríguez López, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype by sequencing identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologs have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops. PMID:26322052

  4. Pre-exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf volatiles enhance the reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Bai, Jiaxiu; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Daogen; Lin, Huiyue

    2017-03-20

    Plant volatiles serve as sensory cues for insects to find food and habitats. They are also reported to affect many insect behaviors. In the current study, we determined how exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) for 24h affect reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura. Further, we investigated the mechanisms that regulate taro volatiles-induced reproductive behavior in S. litura by recording peripheral, behavioral, and neuronal responses of male moths to sex pheromone components (Z9,E11-14:OAc and Z9,E12-14:OAc) and their mixtures in different ratios, as well as gene expression levels of sex pheromone receptors. The results showed that the exposure to taro volatiles significantly enhanced male mating rate, mating duration, and egg hatching rates, but not mating times and the number of oviposition per female. Consistently, the peripheral and behavioral responses of pre-exposed males to sex pheromone components and their mixtures wherein Z9,E11-14:OAc owned higher proportions, as well as neuronal responses to those at low dosages were significantly increased compared to non-exposed males. The expression levels of sex pheromone receptor genes were also significantly increased in pre-exposed males compared to non-exposed ones. These results suggest that taro volatile pre-exposures could promote the reproductive performance of S. litura by enhancing the competitiveness of male mating and communications between male and females. These findings provide new insights for the management of this insect pest as well as other moths.

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changlin; Zhao, Fazhen; Yan, Jingping; Liu, Chunsheng; Liu, Siwei; Chen, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    Golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle is an economically important cephalopod species. However, artificial hatching is currently challenged by low survival rate of larvae due to abnormal embryonic development. Dissecting the genetic foundation and regulatory mechanisms in embryonic development requires genomic background knowledge. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome sequencing on Sepia embryos and larvae via mRNA-Seq. 32,597,241 raw reads were filtered and assembled into 98,615 unigenes (N50 length at 911 bp) which were annotated in NR database, GO and KEGG databases respectively. Digital gene expression analysis was carried out on cleavage stage embryos, healthy larvae and malformed larvae. Unigenes functioning in cell proliferation exhibited higher transcriptional levels at cleavage stage while those related to animal disease and organ development showed increased transcription in malformed larvae. Homologs of key genes in regulatory pathways related to early development of animals were identified in Sepia. Most of them exhibit higher transcriptional levels in cleavage stage than larvae, suggesting their potential roles in embryonic development of Sepia. The de novo assembly of Sepia transcriptome is fundamental genetic background for further exploration in Sepia research. Our demonstration on the transcriptional variations of genes in three developmental stages will provide new perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms in early embryonic development of cuttlefish. PMID:27782082

  6. Purification, antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from soybean residue fermented with Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuhong; Gao, Ang; Dong, Shuang; Chen, Ye; Sun, Shuang; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2017-03-01

    Crude polysaccharides (MPS) from soybean residue fermented with Morchella esculenta were extracted and purified by DEAE Sephadex A-50 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography in sequence. Three main fractions MP-1, MP-3 and MP-4 were obtained during the purification steps. The recovery rates based on MPS used were 26.2%, 29.1% and 18.7% for MP-1, MP-3 and MP-4 respectively. The monosaccharide composition, ultraviolet spectrum, infrared spectrum and NMR of the three fractions were analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of polysaccharides fractions upon activation of macrophage cells (RAW 264.7), antitumor activities of the human hepatocellular cell line (HepG-2) and human cervical carcinoma cells (Hela) in vitro were evaluated. The results indicated that the proliferation of MP-3 on RAW 264.7 was 313.57% at 25μg/mL, which is high while MP-1 had a higher growth inhibition effect on HepG-2 cells of 68.01% at concentration of 50μg/mL. The fractions of MP-1, MP-3 and MP-4 induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells and Hela cells by arresting cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase. These findings suggest that the purified polysaccharides fractions may be a potent candidate for human hepatocellular and cervical carcinoma treatment and prevention in functional foods and pharmacological fields.

  7. [Nutritional evaluation of protein concentrates of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentils (Lens esculenta)].

    PubMed

    Kaba, H; Sanahuja, J C

    1978-06-01

    The composition and nutritive value were determined in navy bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil meal (Lens esculenta), and in their respective protein concentrates obtained through extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation. Sulfur amino acids per gram of nitrogen were lower in the concentrates than in the meals, while there was no difference for lysine and threonine. The white bean protein concentrate had a lower biological value than the meal but better digestibility, although trypsin inhibitor concentration was unchanged. Digestibility greatly improved with heating but it did not increase beyond 81% even after autoclaving. Autoclaved samples supplemented with methionine reached a biological value of 83. The lentil protein concentrate also had a lower biological value than the meal but digestibility was high for both samples (91%) and remained unchanged after heating. Trypsin inhibitors were absent. After supplementing with methionine, a biological value of only 63 was obtained, due to the low level of tryptophan, the second limiting amino acid. In spite of the concentrates' lower biological value, it was proved that they equalled the meals' potential for complementing cereal, as their content in lysine and threonine is high. The concentrates have the additional advantage of allowing effective supplementation without increasing the legume-cereal ratio.

  8. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  9. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  10. Trends in wheat-flour fortification with folic acid and iron--worldwide, 2004 and 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Consumption of adequate amounts of folic acid by women before pregnancy and during early pregnancy decreases their risk for having a pregnancy affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), the most common preventable type of birth defects worldwide. Consumption of iron ameliorates iron deficiency, the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, affecting approximately 2 billion persons. Although certain populations consume substantial amounts of rice and corn, worldwide, the consumption of wheat flour is greater than that of any other cereal grain. Fortification of wheat flour is an effective, simple, and inexpensive strategy for supplying folic acid, iron, and other vitamins and minerals to large segments of the world population. To assess the global change from 2004 to 2007 in 1) the percentage of wheat flour being fortified with folic acid and iron; 2) the total number of persons overall and women in particular with access to fortified wheat flour; and 3) the total number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy, CDC analyzed data from the Flour Fortification Initiative (FFI). This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated that the worldwide percentage of wheat-flour fortification increased from 18% in 2004 to 27% in 2007. The estimated number of persons with access to fortified wheat flour increased by approximately 540 million, and the annual number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy increased by approximately 14 million. Nonetheless, approximately two thirds of the world population lacks access to fortified wheat flour. Programs should continue to expand coverage of wheat-flour fortification as a strategy to increase folic acid and iron consumption.

  11. Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy bread made with germinated, steamed, and roasted soy flour.

    PubMed

    Shin, Doo-Jee; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yookyung

    2013-11-01

    For the development of healthful gluten-free soy bread acceptable to consumers, we evaluated the effects of various processing procedures for soy flour on bread quality, in terms of beany flavour and texture. We pretreated soy flour by both non-heating (raw:NS and germinated:GS) and heating (steamed:SS and roasted:RS) methods. In addition, to improve the loaf volume, we added 1% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) to RS flour. Lipoxygenase activity was retained in the non-heat-treated flours (279 U/g for NS and 255 U/g for GS), but was significantly reduced in the heat-treated flours (106U/g for SS and 69 U/g for RS). Moreover, heat-treated flour had higher isoflavone and ferric reducing antioxidant power than had non-heat-treated flour. However, RS flour had the lowest moisture content and lowest L value. The GS bread had the highest specific loaf volume (3.53 cm(3)/g), followed by NS (2.96 cm(3)/g), RS (2.25c m(3)/g), and SS (1.81 cm(3)/g) bread. GS bread had the lowest hardness (1.53N), followed by NS (1.65 N), RS (2.00 N), and SS (3.75 N) bread. The addition of 1% HPMC to RS increased the loaf volume (2.44 cm(3)/g), but decreased the bread's hardness (1.80N). As to the sensory properties, the bread with heat-treated flour was perceived to have a less beany odour and taste than was the bread with non-heat-treated flour. However, the latter had a better appearance than the former. These results indicated that soy flour pretreatment could enhance the loaf volume and reduce the beany flavour of whole soy bread.

  12. Successive Reduction Dry Milling of Normal and Waxy Corn: Grain, Grit, and Flour Properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh

    2015-06-01

    Dry milling of different corn types resulted in varied proportions of germ, pericarp, grit and flour. Grit and flour produced during different reduction stages varied in particle size and chemical constituents, hence applications in food industry. In this study, recovery of different fractions and variation in physicochemical and pasting properties of grit and flour fractions obtained during 3 successive reduction dry millings of 2 normal (African tall, HQPM1) and 1 waxy corn (IC 550353) were evaluated. Waxy corn grains had the highest L*, a*, b*, ash, fat, and protein content and the lowest weight. Waxy and African tall gave the highest recovery of germ and pericarp, respectively. Waxy corn showed lower grit and flour recovery as compared to normal corn. Flour fractions showed higher L* and lower a* and b* values than grit fractions. Particle size of grit and flour fractions ranged from 840 to 982 μm and 330 to 409 μm, respectively. Fractions with larger particle size showed lower L* value. The b* value showed positive correlation with yellow pigment content. Grit and flour from the 1st reduction stage showed higher ash and fat content. Protein content was correlated positively with ash content and negatively with L* value. Grit and flour fractions with higher protein content had lower pasting viscosities. Pasting viscosities were higher for flours than their corresponding grits. Protein profiling of grit and flour fractions from different stages showed quantitative and qualitative differences in medium (22, 28, and 35 kDa) and low molecular weight (16, 17, and 19 kDa) polypeptides and were related to grit and flour yield.

  13. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  14. Characterization of yellow rice and development of instant flours by hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bustos, F; Delgado, L L; Victorio, M G; Morales, S E

    1997-03-01

    Commercial brown and yellow milled rice submitted to inappropriate storage conditions were characterized and utilized to develop instant flours that were used in the preparation of atoles. The grains were classified as long-thin; the average size was 2.13 x 6.79 mm. The milling yields obtained in laboratory with paddy rice were 70% brown rice and 60% milled rice. Brown rice and yellow milled rice had similar amylose contents, 22.5 and 25.6% respectively. Gel consistency was soft with low gelatinization temperature (63-68 degrees C) for both samples. Field fungi, such as Helminthosporium oryzae, and storage fungi, such as Aspergillus spp, were present in paddy, yellow milled and commercial rice. The fungus Helminthosporium oryzae, Aspergillus spp, and Penicillum spp were not present in instant flours. Instant flours were prepared by soaking the grain in water, and then steaming, drying and milling it. The highest values for water absorption index were obtained from yellow milled instant rice flour. The color of yellow milled instant rice flour varied from white ("L") to pale yellow (lesser values of "b"). The lower viscosity of the instant flours indicates the breakdown of polymers and reveals that unintact starch granules were not present in instant flours. Protein and ash contents of brown and milled rice were unaffected by hydrothermal process, and the lipid content showed only little changes. Sensory analyses carried out on the atoles prepared with instant flours considered them acceptable, specially for products made from milled yellow rice.

  15. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  16. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  17. Characterization of sorghum grain and evaluation of sorghum flour in a Chinese egg noodle system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a gluten free grain that has potential to be used as an alternative to wheat flour for the Celiac Sprue market. There are thousands of sorghum lines that have not been characterized for grain, flour or end product quality. The objective of the research was to gain an understanding among g...

  18. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  19. Antioxidant activity of commercial buckwheat flours and their free and bound phenolic compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buckwheat flours (Whole, Farinetta, Supreme, and Fancy) were investigated for their compositions, free and bound phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and flavonoid contents using spectrophotometer and LC-ESI-IT- MS (LC-MS). Farinetta flour contained the highest oil, protein, and free and boun...

  20. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  1. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  2. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat...

  3. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...

  4. Hydrophilic Lipophilic Antioxidant Activities of Commercially Available Peanut Flours and Peanut Seed Roasted to Differing Intensities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flours are commercially available, high protein ingredients prepared from partially defatted roasted peanut seed. Peanut flours have differing roast intensities and residual fat contents, which allows for these ingredients to be utilized in a variety of food formulations. Antioxidant proper...

  5. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  6. Oxidative Gelation of Solvent-Accessible Arabinoxylans occurs during Chlorination of Soft Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to mixing and baking performance and baked goods quality. Fo...

  7. Porous rice powder from the precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder). ...

  8. Porous rice powder from precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry, was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder)....

  9. Precooked Bran-Enriched Wheat Flour Using Extrusion: Dietary Fiber Profile and Sensory Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%,10%,20%,and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran,total dietary fiber(TDF)and soluble dietary fiber(SDF)in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5%...

  10. Flow properties of natural rubber composites filled with defatted soy flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties of natural rubber composites reinforced with defatted soy flour were studied. Defatted soy flour is an abundant, renewable commodity, and its rigid nature makes it suitable as a reinforcement phase in rubber composites. At small strain, the elastic ...

  11. Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...

  12. Preparation and characterization of sorghum flour with increased resistant starch content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this research was to develop an effective process to increase the resistant starch content of sorghum flour. A secondary objective was to investigate the role of the sorghum proteins on starch digestibility. Samples of white sorghum flour (28.9% amylose content) with differe...

  13. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  14. Comparative study on properties of edible films based on pinhao (Araucaria angustifolia) starch and flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to develop and compare the properties of edible films based on pinhao starch and pinhao flour. Seven formulations were developed by casting methodology: 5% pinhao starch with 0, 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol, and 5% pinhao flour with 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol. The films were evalua...

  15. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

  16. The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour.

    PubMed

    Turan, Deniz; Altay, Filiz; Capanoğlu Güven, Esra

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the influences of roasting and the amount of hazelnut flour on the formation and stabilization of emulsions containing different amounts of oil were investigated. After hazelnuts were roasted in an oven at 140°C for 40 min, the oil content was removed. The emulsions with defatted hazelnut flour containing corn oil at 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared. Roasting process significantly decreased the interfacial tension values of samples down to 1.9 mN/m due to protein denaturation. There was no significant difference between the particle sizes of oil droplets in emulsions with roasted and raw hazelnut flour at the same concentration. However, diffusion coefficients of oil droplets increased for emulsions containing roasted defatted flour samples. The zeta (ζ) potential values of all emulsions increased when roasted hazelnut flour was used, indicating the stabilization of suspensions and the solution resistance against aggregation. Storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η(∗)) of emulsions were measured. G' value was found to be greater than the G″ value, which fits into weak gel model. The roasting process resulted with lower transition temperatures but with increased transition enthalpies of the flour samples based on differential scanning (DSC) measurements. Lower transition temperatures may be attributed to the partial gelatinization of starch in the flour and partial denaturation of proteins. These results may help to tailor the properties of defatted hazelnut flour when it is used in food products containing emulsions such as sauces, dressings and creams for stabilizing purposes.

  17. Studies on the rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition, rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour were investigated. Compared with wheat flour, waxy wheat flour has lower protein (9.52%), amylase (1.02%) and higher crude starch (73.19%) contents. Because of its different chemical composition, waxy wheat flour exhibited some better processing characteristics (water-holding capacity, dough development time, extensibility, swelling power and setback) than normal wheat flour. It also exhibited some defects in rheological characteristics, including a higher degree of softening, a lower Farinograph quality number and smaller resistance to extensibility ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that waxy wheat flour gelatinized at higher onset (To=60.9 °C), peak (Tp=64.9 °C), conclusion (Tc=73.6 °C) temperatures and required more energy (ΔH=7.6J/g) to melt gelatinized starch gels. The results of this investigation indicated that blending waxy wheat flour with normal flour is a promising way to improve product quality in baked foods and to prolong the shelf-life of these products.

  18. Analytical, nutritional and biological evaluation of various brands of fortified and non-fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Sohail; Hussain, Khalid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Latif, Abida; Islam, Muhammad; Karim, Sabiha; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Hussain, Amjad; Danish, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-05-01

    In Pakistan, a funded flour fortification program was launched for malnourished population, residing mainly in rural low income areas, but the urban population having comparatively better nutritional as well as economic status was focused wherein excessive intake of fortificants might cause complications. Therefore, the present study describes the physicochemical properties, elemental composition, nutritional components and hemoglobin/ferritin increasing potential of fortified and non-fortified flour. Domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), either sex, age one month, weight 380 ± 18.28 g, were randomly segregated into 4 groups (n=6). The group I, II and III were fed on fortified flour, whereas group IV was fed on non-fortified flour for 30 days. The birds were weighed and blood samples of each of the birds were analyzed for determination of markers of iron status, hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF). Moisture, ash and iron contents were found to be lower in non-fortified flour than that of the fortified samples. Hb and SF levels in groups fed on fortified flour were significantly higher than the one received non-fortified flour (P < 0.05). The consumption of iron-fortified flour increases iron stores in the body without any further complication but long-term usage needs to be monitored.

  19. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam.

  20. Effect of ball milling energy on rheological and thermal properties of amaranth flour.

    PubMed

    Roa, Diego F; Baeza, Rosa I; Tolaba, Marcela P

    2015-12-01

    Pearled amaranth grains obtained by abrasive milling were processed by planetary ball milling to produce amaranth flours. The influence of milling energy on rheological and thermal behavior of amaranth flour dispersions and stability during 24 h storage at 4 °C were investigated based on a factorial design. The rheological behavior of flour dispersions (4 % and 8 % w/v) was determined using a rotational viscometer, while gelatinization degree was determined by differential scanning calorimetry as a measure of structural changes.The power law model was found to be suitable in expressing the relationship between shear stress and shear rate. Flour dispersions showed a pseudoplastic behavior. However this character decreased with the storage being dependent on flour concentration and milling energy. A decrease of the consistency index and an increase of the flow behavior index were observed as a result of the increasing milling energy. Gelatinization enthalpy decrease showed the loss of crystalline structure due to ball milling. Amaranth flour dispersions presented increasing stability during storage. It was observed, that the stability changed with the concentration of amaranth flours.Thus, more stable dispersions were obtained as the flour concentration increased. The highly milled sample was the most stable sample during the storage.

  1. Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...

  2. Molecular techniques for detection of confused flour beetle infestations in stored products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle) is a stored-product pest which contaminates a wide range of food products, from flour and cereals to spices. The insect reduces food quality and is responsible for large economic losses every year. Although a number of methods for detection of stored-produc...

  3. Deciphering the complexities of the wheat flour proteome using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis, three proteases and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, but it is difficult to distinguish and identify the many proteins in a flour sample. The abundant glutamine and proline rich gluten proteins are responsible for many of the unique end-use qualities of wheat flour but it is challenging to dis...

  4. Residual efficacy of pyrethrin+methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in a commercial flour mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concrete arenas with and without flour were placed in open, obstructed, and hidden positions inside a commercial flour mill and exposed to a combination treatment of pyrethrin + methoprene. Bioassays were conducted 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the arenas were treated by adding flour to those arenas th...

  5. Effect of strain rate on mechanical properties of melt-processed soy flour composite filler and styrene-butadiene blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dispersion of soy flour with styrene-butadiene rubber latex, dried, and cryogenically ground into powders. Upon crosslinking, th...

  6. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  7. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  8. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  9. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  10. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  11. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  12. Susceptibility of different life stages of Tribolium confusum to pyrethrin aerosol: effects of a flour food source on insecticidal efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulated grain dust and flour residues in flour mills can potentially decrease the efficacy of contact insecticides used for control of adult and immature stages of stored product insects. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flour residues on the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin aero...

  13. Structural heat treatments against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): effect of flour depth, life stage and floor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high temperatures (50-60°C) and two levels of sanitation (~0.5 and 43 g of flour), on mortality of eggs, young larvae, old larvae, pupae, and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were evaluated during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill at Kansas State University. The ...

  14. Genome-wide association and prediction analysis in African cassava (Manihot esculenta) reveals the genetic architecture of resistance to cassava mosaic disease and prospects for rapid genetic improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a crucial, under-researched crop feeding millions worldwide, especially in Africa. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) has plagued production in Africa for over a century. Bi-parental mapping studies suggest primarily a single major gene mediates resistance. To be certain and...

  15. DNA polymorphism in morels: complete sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of genes coding for rRNA in Morchella esculenta (yellow morel) and Morchella conica (black morel).

    PubMed

    Wipf, D; Munch, J C; Botton, B; Buscot, F

    1996-09-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the gene coding for rRNA was sequenced in both directions with the gene walking technique in a black morel (Morchella conica) and a yellow morel (M. esculenta) to elucidate the ITS length discrepancy between the two species groups (750-bp ITS in black morels and 1,150-bp ITS in yellow morels.

  16. [Preparation of flour processed with pigeon pea seed].

    PubMed

    Mueses, C; de León, L; Matute, J; Bressani, R

    1993-03-01

    Pigeon pea is a legume grain of good production capacity and of a relatively high nutritive value, which has not been used in Latin America on the basis of the potential it offers. In this study experiments were conducted to learn about the possibility of processing pigeon pea to yield an intermediate flour with good functional characteristics for food product development. The intermediate pigeon pea flour was produced through a selection of a process to efficiently dehull the grain followed by a thermic process to improve its functional properties and nutritive value. The best dehulling process was subjecting the grain to a vapor treatment for five minutes, followed by a 2-hour dehydration of surface moisture with air at 60 degrees and dehulling with an 8-disc dehuller for 10 minutes. Yield was 84% with 70.7% dehulling efficiency. Pigeon pea flours were prepared by three thermic processes: pressure cooking at 15 lb (121 degrees C) for 5 and 10 minutes as a reference product; cooking and drying with a drum dryer at 120 degrees C and 4 rpm and by extrusion-cooking with the material with 18 and 21% moisture at 270 and 300 degrees F, respectively. Process selection was based on the functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, soluble nitrogen and viscosity, through chemical analysis of protein, available lysine and methionine and residual trypsin inhibitors, and through a biological evaluation of protein digestibility and quality. Both pressure cooking products had similar functional and chemical characteristics, however, the 5-minute cooked product has higher protein quality than the 10-minute product.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P < 0.05). Among the samples, potassium, phosphorus and calcium had the highest values in carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  18. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    PubMed

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour.

  19. Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi roots and flour: Biochemical and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Doporto, María C; Mugridge, Alicia; García, María A; Viña, Sonia Z

    2011-06-15

    Ahipa roots' chemical composition and physiological parameters were characterised; ahipa flour preparation procedures were selected and the chemical composition and functional properties of these products were studied. Ahipa roots and flour can be considered alternative food sources of gluten-free starch, with a considerable contribution of protein, fibre and minerals, such as potassium, calcium and iron. The grating process for ahipa flour production required a pressing step (AFGP) and the recovery of the starch leached. The slicing procedure (AFS) was simpler and the resulting product showed higher contents of potassium, magnesium, calcium and protein than did AFGP, which showed lower sodium and higher acid detergent fibre contents, together with lower gelatinisation temperature. Both flours differed in terms of α-amylase activity and swelling power, characteristics that may condition their specific applications, such as the incorporation of these flours as gluten-free functional food ingredients.

  20. Content of free amino groups during postharvest wheat and flour maturation in relation to gluten quality.

    PubMed

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra; Rakita, Slađana; Pojić, Milica; Zivančev, Dragan; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in the content of free amino groups during postharvest wheat and flour maturation. The content of free amino groups of wheat flour was analysed immediately after wheat harvest, after 50 days of wheat storage and after 14 days of flour storage varying by wet gluten samples incubation temperatures and incubation times (0, 90 or 135 min at 30°C and after that 180 min at 37°C). The results were observed in relation to wheat-bug damaged kernels content, gluten index values, proteolytic activity and electrophoretic properties of gliadins and glutenins. The content of free amino groups increased during postharvest wheat and flour maturation periods. Proteolytic activity values were the highest 50 days after the wheat storage. The electrophoretic determination indicated a macromolecular redistribution of the gluten proteins from the moment of the wheat harvest until the moment of flour stabilisation.

  1. Effects of enzymatic treatment using Response Surface Methodology on the quality of bread flour.

    PubMed

    Shafisoltani, Mahsa; Salehifar, Mania; Hashemi, Maryam

    2014-04-01

    Flour with low α-amylase activity needs to be supplemented with additional α-amylase, but α-amylase added to weak flour can lead to decreased quality of the dough. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the effects of glucose oxidase (1-5/100 g flour) and xylanase (1-3/100 g flour) on the quality of bread flour after optimisation by additions of α-amylase. The effects of enzyme additions on dough properties and bread quality parameters such as specific volume, shape, texture and sensory attributes were determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using a central composite design. Results of RSM modelling showed that glucose oxidase and xylanase improved the quality of bread and dough but effects were dose dependent. In this work, the optimal dose of glucose oxidase and xylanase were (30 and 20) ppm, respectively.

  2. Functionality of gliadin proteins in wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suchismita; Hays, Dirk B; Alviola, Noviola J; Mason, Richard E; Tilley, Michael; Waniska, Ralph D; Bean, Scott R; Glover, Karl D

    2009-02-25

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the loci Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The main objective of this study was to understand the functionality of gliadins with respect to tortilla quality. The important tortilla quality attributes are diameter, opacity, and shelf stability, designated here as rollability or the ability to roll or fold the tortilla without cracking. In this study gliadin functionality in tortilla quality was studied using near-isogenic wheat lines that have deletions in either Gli A1, Gli D1, Gli A2, or Gli D2 gliadin loci. The deletion lines are designated by the same abbreviations. Dough and tortillas were prepared from the parent line used to derive these deletion lines, each individual deletion line, and a control commercial tortilla flour. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were performed on the dough and tortillas derived from the flour from each of these lines. None of the deletions in the gliadin loci altered the shelf stability versus that found for the parent to the deletion lines or control tortilla flour. However, deletions in the Gli 2 loci, in particular Gli A2 reduced the relative proportion of alpha- and beta-gliadins with a greater cysteine amino acid content and gluten cross-link function versus the chain-terminating omega-gliadins in Gli 1, which were still present. As such, the dough and gluten matrix appeared to have greater extensibility, which improved the diameter and overall quality of the tortillas while not altering the rollability. Deletions in the Gli 1 loci had the opposite result with increased cross-linking of alpha- and beta-gliadins, polymeric protein content, and a stronger dough that decreased the diameter and overall quality of the tortillas. The data suggest that altering certain Gli 2 loci

  3. Modeling the continuous lactic acid production process from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Karen; Tebbani, Sihem; Lopes, Filipa; Thorigné, Aurore; Givry, Sébastien; Dumur, Didier; Pareau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A kinetic model of the simultaneous saccharification, protein hydrolysis, and fermentation (SSPHF) process for lactic acid production from wheat flour has been developed. The model describes the bacterial growth, substrate consumption, lactic acid production, and maltose hydrolysis. The model was fitted and validated with data from SSPHF experiments obtained under different dilution rates. The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Steady state concentrations of biomass, lactic acid, glucose, and maltose as function of the dilution rate were predicted by the model. This steady state analysis is further useful to determine the operating conditions that maximize lactic acid productivity.

  4. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. PMID:26904642

  5. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p < 0.05), Regarding dough stability, it appears that 10 % chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  6. Comparison of the chemical composition and nutritional value of Amaranthus cruentus flour and its protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Escudero, N L; de Arellano, M L; Luco, J M; Giménez, M S; Mucciarelli, S I

    2004-01-01

    Plants constitute an alternative source of proteins in the human diet, with advantages over animal proteins because of their low content of saturated fats and absence of cholesterol. Within the framework of a wider research project on the role of Amaranthus cruentus (Ac) in lipid metabolism, in this work the chemical composition and biological value of the Ac flour and its protein concentrate were compared. Proximate chemical composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, some antinutrient factors, and biological values were determined for Ac seed flour and its protein concentrate obtained by extraction at pH 11 and precipitation at pH 4.5. The flour protein content was 16.6 g% while that of the concentrate was 52.56 g%. The content of the soluble dietary fiber with a hypolipemic function was notably higher in the protein concentrate (12.90 g%) than in the seed flour (4.29 g%). The protein concentrate also exhibited a higher content of insoluble dietary fiber. The Ac flour and the concentrate contain 75.44 and 56.95% unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Squalene, which affects the biosynthesis of cholesterol, was detected both in the flour and the concentrate oils, with a higher content in the concentrate (9.53%) as compared to the flour (6.23%). Comparison of the amino acid composition with the FAO pattern protein indicated that the concentrate does not have limiting amino acids, while the flour has leucine, threonine, and valine. The content of lysine was high in both the flour and the concentrate, making these products particularly useful as a complement for cereal flour, which is deficient in this amino acid. The biological quality analysis demonstrated an improvement in the quality of the concentrate. The presence of saponins, phytic acid, and trypsin inhibitors in the concentrate, which favor the metabolism of lipids, suggests that consumption of the concentrate might reduce the risk of heart disease.

  7. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4˚C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector‑to‑target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I.

  8. Changes in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase under anaerobiosis in cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Chibueze, Nwose

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in the cormels of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum) immediately after harvest and in storage under anaerobiosis for one and three weeks, respectively. During stress condition in plants, hydrogen peroxide is released and mechanisms to detoxify it must be maintained. The cocoyam tubers that were neither damaged nor affected by disease were harvested from a local farm in Ugbogui, Ovia North Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. The selected cocoyam tubers were peeled manually, washed with ice cold water and cut into pieces. The root tissues (50 g) were homogenised with 100 mL of ice cold 0.05 M phosphate buffer. The extract obtained was clarified by centrifugation for 15 min at 8000 g at 4 degrees C. Ascorbate-peroxidising activity was assayed using the initial rate of decrease in ascorbate concentration as measured by its absorbance at 290 nm using Milton Roy Spectron 21D. Results showed the weight of the cormels decreased all through during storage. Immediately after harvest the activity of ascorbate peroxidase was 15.49 unit mL(-1) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) after one week to 73.05 U mL(-1). Thereafter there was a significant decrease in activity of the enzyme after three weeks of storage to 33.33 U mL(-1). This increase in activity of ascorbate peroxidase after three weeks of storage may be related to increase in response to various biotic stresses. Therefore, manipulation of the capacity of cocoyam to tolerate anaerobiosis is a function of its ability to modulate the antioxidant enzymes' armory in case of need.

  9. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    PubMed

    Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be

  10. Genetic diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kreike, C M; Van Eck, H J; Lebot, V

    2004-08-01

    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were grouped according to their country of origin, to their ploidy level (diploid or triploid) and to their habitat--cultivated or wild. Gene diversity within these groups and the genetic distance between these groups were computed. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA cluster analysis. In each country, the gene diversity within the groups of wild genotypes was the highest compared to the diploid and triploid cultivars groups. The highest gene diversity was observed for the wild group from Thailand (0.19), the lowest for the diploid cultivars group from Thailand(0.007). In Malaysia there was hardly any difference between the gene diversity of the cultivars and wild groups, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively. The genetic distances between the diploid cultivars groups ranges from 0.02 to 0.10, with the distance between the diploid accessions from Thailand and Malaysia being the highest. The genetic distances between the wild groups range from 0.05 to 0.07. First, a dendrogram was constructed with only the diploids cultivars from all countries. The accessions formed clusters largely according to the country from which they originated. Two major groups of clusters were revealed, one group assembling accessions from Asian countries and the other assembling accessions from the Pacific. Surprisingly, the group of diploid cultivars from Thailand clustered among the Pacific countries. Secondly,a dendrogram was constructed with diploid cultivated,triploid cultivated and wild accessions. Again the division of the accessions into an Asian and a Pacific gene pool is obvious. The presence of two gene pools for cultivated diploid taro has major implications for the breeding and conservation of

  11. The impact of cyanoglycoside rich fraction isolated from Cassava (Manihot esculenta) on alcohol induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Boby, R G; Indira, M

    2003-09-15

    The effects of feeding a cassava (Manihot esculenta) rich diet on alcohol induced peroxidative damages were investigated in male albino rats. Rats were divided into four groups and maintained for 60 days as follows. (1) CONTROL GROUP: cassava free diet, (2) alcohol group: cassava free diet+ethanol (4 g/kg body wt/day), (3) cassava group: cassava diet and (4) alcohol+cassava group: cassava diet+ethanol (4 g/kg body wt/day). Results revealed that alcohol induced significant lipid peroxidation, since the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were elevated in the liver. The activities of free radical scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reductase were reduced and glutathione content was decreased in the liver. But the co-administration of a cassava rich diet increased the activity of free radical scavenging enzymes and glutathione content. The level of lipid peroxides in the liver was also decreased on co-administration of cassava. But the oxidative damage caused by cassava was potentiated by alcohol administration. These studies suggested that consumption of alcohol along with cassava offered some protection against the alcohol induced oxidative stress. So we isolated the cyanoglycoside rich fraction from cassava and its impact on rats administered alcohol was also investigated. The results revealed that alcohol induced oxidative stress was potentiated by the co-administration of cyanoglycoside rich fraction. These studies suggested that the fiber and antioxidant vitamins present in the cassava may be playing a protective role against the alcohol induced oxidative stress.

  12. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  13. D-Asp: a new player in reproductive endocrinology of the amphibian Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Raucci, Franca; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the involvement of D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on ovarian and testicular morphology of the green frog, Rana esculenta, and its effect on the testosterone production. The study has been performed throughout the reproductive cycle. In both ovary and testis a substantial amount of D-Asp is endogenously present and its concentration varies as function of reproduction. In the frog, D-Asp content is differently correlated with gonadal and plasmatic levels of testosterone, depending on the sex. In fact, the amount of the D-Asp is inversely linked with that of the testosterone in the ovary, while this correlation directly matched in the testis. In vivo short-term experiments, consisting of a single intra-peritoneal injection of D-Asp (2.0 μmol/g body weight), demonstrated that the enantiomer is significantly accumulated by both the ovary and testis, reaching after 3 h the highest uptake and thereafter decreasing to baseline values within 24 h. Furthermore, D-Asp influences the synthesis and/or the release of testosterone, causing a decrease of its level in the female, and an increase in the male, respectively. In vivo long-term experiments, D-Asp, chronically administered to the frogs of both sexes, enhances the maturation of both gonads, determining in the oocytes an higher accumulation of carbohydrate yolk plates in the ooplasm, and stimulating the spermatogenesis in the testis. Taken altogether, our results show that D-Asp operates differently in female and male frog gonads, indicating that it has different targets in the reproductive machinery depending on the sex.

  14. Growth and nutritive value of cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz.) are reduced when grown in elevated CO.

    PubMed

    Gleadow, Roslyn M; Evans, John R; McCaffery, Stephanie; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2009-11-01

    Global food security in a changing climate depends on both the nutritive value of staple crops as well as their yields. Here, we examined the direct effect of atmospheric CO(2) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz., manioc), a staple for 750 million people worldwide. Cassava is poor in nutrients and contains high levels of cyanogenic glycosides that break down to release toxic hydrogen cyanide when damaged. We grew cassava at three concentrations of CO(2) (C(a): 360, 550 and 710 ppm) supplied together with nutrient solution containing either 1 mM or 12 mM nitrogen. We found that total plant biomass and tuber yield (number and mass) decreased linearly with increasing C(a). In the worst-case scenario, tuber mass was reduced by an order of magnitude in plants grown at 710 ppm compared with 360 ppm CO(2). Photosynthetic parameters were consistent with the whole plant biomass data. It is proposed that since cassava stomata are highly sensitive to other environmental variables, the decrease in assimilation observed here might, in part, be a direct effect of CO(2) on stomata. Total N (used here as a proxy for protein content) and cyanogenic glycoside concentrations of the tubers were not significantly different in the plants grown at elevated CO(2). By contrast, the concentration of cyanogenic glycosides in the edible leaves nearly doubled in the highest C(a). If leaves continue to be used as a protein supplement, they will need to be more thoroughly processed in the future. With increasing population density, declining soil fertility, expansion into marginal farmland, together with the predicted increase in extreme climatic events, reliance on robust crops such as cassava will increase. The responses to CO(2) shown here point to the possibility that there could be severe food shortages in the coming decades unless CO(2) emissions are dramatically reduced, or alternative cultivars or crops are developed.

  15. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of morel mushroom, Morchella esculenta mycelia: a potential source of therapeutically useful antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Nitha, B; De, Strayo; Adhikari, S K; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2010-04-01

    Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases and antioxidants are known to protect the body from this damage. Antioxidants thus, have gained significant importance in human health. The search for effective, non-toxic natural compounds with antioxidant activity has intensified in recent years. Mycelia of a number mushrooms have recently been successfully used for the development of novel pharmaceutical products. We examined the aqueous-ethanol extract of cultured mycelia of the morel mushroom, Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. (Morchellaceae) for its ability to scavenge super oxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals as well as for inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The extract efficiently scavenged all these radicals and also inhibited lipid peroxidation. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay indicated the hydrogen donating capacity of the extract. The pulse radiolysis studies using ABTS and carbonate radical (CO(3)(*-)) showed that the extract significantly carried out the decay of these radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the investigation showed that the morel mushroom mycelium is an excellent source of antioxidants which are capable of imparting protection at different levels. The findings suggest the potential therapeutic use of morel mushroom, M. esculenta mycelia as an efficient antioxidant.

  16. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties in Fruits of Myrica esculenta: A Popular Wild Edible Species in Indian Himalayan Region.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Sandeep; Jugran, Arun; Giri, Lalit; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S

    2011-01-01

    Crude extract of Myrica esculenta fruits, a wild edible species of Indian Himalayan Region, was evaluated for phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Results revealed significant variation in total phenolic and flavonoid contents across populations. Among populations, total phenolic content varied between 1.78 and 2.51 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight (fw) of fruits and total flavonoids ranged between 1.31 and 1.59 mg quercetin equivalent/g fw. Antioxidant activity determined by 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) exhibited considerable antioxidant potential and showed significant positive correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoids content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed significant variation (P <  .01) in phenolic compounds (i.e., gallic acid, catechin, hydroxybenzioc acid and ρ-coumaric acid) across populations. This study provides evidences to establish that consumption of M. esculenta fruits while providing relished taste would also help in reduction of free radicals. Therefore, this wild edible species deserves promotion in the region through horticulture and forestry interventions.

  17. Nutrient-enhanced production of remarkably high concentrations of ethanol by Saccharomyces bayanus through soy flour supplementation

    SciTech Connect

    Viegas, C.A.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    The supplementation of a simple medium with soy flour led to an increase in the specific growth rate and viable cell concentration of saccharomyces bayanus during fermentation. Increasing the amount of soy flour led to an increase in the maximum number of viable yeast cells and the percentage of glucose fermented. It was possible in 64 h to reach 12.8% (wt/vol) ethanol by adding 4% soy flour (wt/vol) to a simple medium with 300 g of glucose per liter. The aqueous extract from soy flour was nearly as effective as whole-soy flour, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect.

  18. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  19. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-09-03

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  20. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840