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Sample records for esculentum ssp ancestrale

  1. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

    2008-01-01

    Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset

  2. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum).

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  3. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes—rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP—have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. PMID:25966355

  4. Functional heterostyly in Tylosema esculentum (Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Hartley, Mary Luisa; Tshamekeng, Ernest; Thomas, Sandy M

    2002-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum is a long-lived perennial species endemic to arid areas of southern Africa. Its potential as a crop species has long been recognized as a result of the high oil and protein content of its seeds. The reproductive biology and breeding systems of the species were investigated in wild and experimental populations growing in Botswana. Field observations confirmed that the species is heterostylous with the pistil and anthers exhibiting reciprocal heights in the two morphs, although pollen size and sculpturing do not vary. The wet, nonpapillate stigma characteristic of the species is the first to be reported in the Caesalpinioideae. In vivo and in vitro diallel crossing experiments demonstrated that a diallelic self-incompatability system exists in T. esculentum. The major site of pollen tube inhibition in the intramorph crosses was found to be in the style. This is the first report of functional heterostyly in the Fabaceae and of a confirmed self-incompatibility system in the Caesalpinioideae. Three separate lines of evidence, the monitoring of fruit development in open-pollinated plants, fruit set in diallel crossing experiments, and observations made in wild populations, demonstrated that fruit set and, by implication, seed set, are very low in this species. Floral abscission was a major limitation to the production of mature pods but there were also significant losses at other developmental stages of fruit production. The results suggest that low seed set may be an adaptation of the species to an environment in which rainfall is scarce.

  5. Functional Heterostyly in Tylosema esculentum (Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    HARTLEY, MARY LUISA; TSHAMEKENG, ERNEST; THOMAS, SANDY M.

    2002-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum is a long‐lived perennial species endemic to arid areas of southern Africa. Its potential as a crop species has long been recognized as a result of the high oil and protein content of its seeds. The reproductive biology and breeding systems of the species were investigated in wild and experimental populations growing in Botswana. Field observations confirmed that the species is heterostylous with the pistil and anthers exhibiting reciprocal heights in the two morphs, although pollen size and sculpturing do not vary. The wet, non‐papillate stigma characteristic of the species is the first to be reported in the Caesalpinioideae. In vivo and in vitro diallel crossing experiments demonstrated that a diallelic self‐incompatability system exists in T. esculentum. The major site of pollen tube inhibition in the intramorph crosses was found to be in the style. This is the first report of functional heterostyly in the Fabaceae and of a confirmed self‐incompatibility system in the Caesalpinioideae. Three separate lines of evidence, the monitoring of fruit development in open‐pollinated plants, fruit set in diallel crossing experiments, and observations made in wild populations, demonstrated that fruit set and, by implication, seed set, are very low in this species. Floral abscission was a major limitation to the production of mature pods but there were also significant losses at other developmental stages of fruit production. The results suggest that low seed set may be an adaptation of the species to an environment in which rainfall is scarce. PMID:12096820

  6. La membrane ancestrale : barrière asymétrique à l'origine de l'activité optique dans les milieux vivants ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spach, Gérard; Merle, Liliane

    Since the discovery of the optical activity of the biomolecules, the early origin of the biopolymer asymmetry (Nucleic acids and proteins) of the living cells is the subject of many speculations. In some simple instances, asymmetric amplification has been shown experimentally to occur at the molecular level. Following some authors, its origins can be found at the subatomatic level. In this article, the early asymmetric enclosing of prebiotic moieties is stressed, by refering especially to the presence of chiral compounds of lipidic nature in the vesicle membranes and to ancestral pores or channels able to select optically active constituents of the "primordial soup", a few billion years ago. L'origine ancestrale de l'asymétrie des biopolymères, acides nucléiques et protéines, de la cellule vivante suscite depuis la découverte de l'activité optique des biomolécules une vive discussion et la recherche d'une explication rationnelle. Dans des cas relativement simples, une amplification certaine de l'asymétrie a été montrée expérimentalement au niveau moléculaire, et selon certains, elle pourait trouver sa source au niveau subatomique. Dans cet article, le rôle précoce du confinement asymétrique de la matière prébiotique est souligné, notamment en se référant à la présence de pores ou de cannaux capables de sélectionner des constituants optiquements actifs de la "soupe primordiale", il y a quelques milliards d'années.

  7. Composition and chemical variability of Mentha suaveolens ssp. suaveolens and M. suaveolens ssp. insularis from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Sutour, Sylvain; Bradesi, Pascale; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2010-04-01

    A detailed analysis of two essential oils from individual plants of Mentha suaveolens ssp. suaveolens growing wild in Corsica was carried out by combination of GC(RI), GC/MS, and (13)C-NMR analyses. One oil sample is characterized by the pre-eminence of piperitenone oxide, and the second is dominated by piperitenone. In contrast, it was reported that the essential oil of M. suaveolens ssp. insularis, an endemic species to Corsica and Sardinia, contained pulegone and cis-cis-p-menthenolide as main components. A principal-component analysis (PCA) carried out on the composition of the essential oil of 59 individual plants of M. suaveolens sp. allowed the classification into three well-defined groups. All the oil samples from Mentha suaveolens ssp. insularis belonged to the same group, while the oils from M. suaveolens ssp. suaveolens were distributed in the two other groups. The composition of the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of M. suaveolens ssp. has been shown to be an additional tool to differentiate the botanically close subspecies suaveolens and insularis.

  8. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms.

  9. Alculation of the SSP chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berczik, P. P.; Petrov, N. I.

    2003-02-01

    We present a new public access ANSI C software for calculating the chemical evolution of a Single Stellar Population (SSP). We calculate the yields from 9 "heavy" elements: 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si, 32S, 40Ca, 56Fe, as well as the yields for 1H and 4He. The characteristic feature of the present code is a high modularity, which allows one to use it together with other programs in a user's code. As a test of our code in the distributive we present calculating the chemical evolution of a closed system in the Simple Model approximation.

  10. Role of Streptococcus gordonii Surface Proteins SspA/SspB and Hsa in Platelet Function▿

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Steven W.; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Keane, Ciara; Maguire, Patricia; Wynne, Kieran; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Cox, Dermot

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii colonization of damaged heart surfaces in infective endocarditis is dependent upon the recognition of host receptors by specific bacterial surface proteins. However, despite several attempts to identify the mechanisms involved in this interaction, the nature of the bacterial proteins required remains poorly understood. This study provides clear evidence that several S. gordonii surface proteins participate in the interaction with platelets to support platelet adhesion and induce platelet aggregation. S. gordonii strains were found to support strong (DL1-Challis, SK12, SK184, and Blackburn) or moderate (UB1545 Δhsa and CH1-Challis) adhesion or failed to support platelet adhesion (M5, M99, and Channon). In addition, under flow conditions, platelets rolled and subsequently adhered to immobilized S. gordonii at low shear (50 s−1) in an Hsa-dependent manner but did not interact with S. gordonii DL1 at any shear rate of >50 s−1. S. gordonii strains either induced (DL1-Challis, SK12, SK184, UB1545 Δhsa, and M99) or failed to induce (M5, CH1-Challis, Channon, and Blackburn) platelet aggregation. Using a proteomic approach to identify differential cell wall protein expression between aggregating (DL1) and nonaggregating (Blackburn) strains, we identified antigen I/antigen II family proteins SspA and SspB. The overexpression of SspA or SspB in platelet-nonreactive Lactococcus lactis induced GPIIb/GPIIIa-dependent platelet aggregation similar to that seen with S. gordonii DL1. However, they failed to support platelet adhesion. Thus, S. gordonii has distinct mechanisms for supporting platelet adhesion and inducing platelet aggregation. Differential protein expression between strains may be important for the pathogenesis of invasive diseases such as infective endocarditis. PMID:17893126

  11. A Case Study of SSP for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostavan, A.; Kaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    The market of the Solar Power Satellite must be worldwide, because it can be provide electricity anywhre in the world from the Earth's orbits. We have perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provide by the Space Solar Power, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of the Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the Solar Power Satellite. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia and the benefits and disadvantages of he SSP for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot SPS.

  12. Risk analysis of Safety Service Patrol (SSP) systems in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Brett D; Santos, Joost R

    2011-12-01

    The transportation infrastructure is a vital backbone of any regional economy as it supports workforce mobility, tourism, and a host of socioeconomic activities. In this article, we specifically examine the incident management function of the transportation infrastructure. In many metropolitan regions, incident management is handled primarily by safety service patrols (SSPs), which monitor and resolve roadway incidents. In Virginia, SSP allocation across highway networks is based typically on average vehicle speeds and incident volumes. This article implements a probabilistic network model that partitions "business as usual" traffic flow with extreme-event scenarios. Results of simulated network scenarios reveal that flexible SSP configurations can improve incident resolution times relative to predetermined SSP assignments.

  13. School Teams up for SSP Functional Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for

  14. The SSP4: A world of deepening inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Eom, Jiyong; Hartin, Corinne; Kim, Sonny; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Moss, Richard; McJeon, Haewon; Patel, Pralit; Smith, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Wise, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4 (SSP4), “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of the five SSPs developed to guide the creation of new scenarios for the “Parallel Process”. We describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demand for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income. These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6.4 Wm-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions. In particular, the SSP4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Finally, we compare the GCAM SSP4 results to other integrated assessment model (IAM) quantifications of the SSP4 and to other SSPs, both those generated by GCAM and those of the other IAMs.

  15. Determination of heavy metals in soil and different parts of Diplazium esculentum (medicinal fern)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasim, Hind S.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Diplazium esculentum is a widely used medicinal fern in Malaysia and other regions worldwide. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity. Hence, substantial information should be obtained from plants that grow on soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of soil and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in different parts of D. esculentum and soil, which were collected from the fern garden of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that heavy metals were highly accumulated in D. esculentum roots.

  16. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  17. Isotopomer-Flux Analysis of Bifidobacterium ssp. Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Bifidobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase...

  18. Isotopomer-flux analysis of Bifidobactrium ssp. carbohydrate metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Biofobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase ...

  19. Effects of foliar applied nickel on tomato plants. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.C.; Leone, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Shoot-applied nickel (Ni) treatments produced symptomatology, foliar Ni accumulation, and cytological changes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) similar to those caused by treatments with root-applied nickel (Ni). Leaf damage resulting from 100 ..mu..g/ml foliar Ni-treatments consisted of interveinal chlorosis and spotting necrosis which appeared histologically as tissue collapse, cell clumping, and chloroplast disintegration. Shoot-treated plants accumulated more Ni in leaves than in roots; whereas the reverse was true in root-treated plants. Interference with root-to-shoot manganese translocation was attributed to attenuated vascular tissue and phloem blockage. Evidence of reduced nutrient transport and inhibited meristem activity due to Ni toxicity presents a potential for crop damage from excessive Ni in the atmosphere as well as in the soil environment.

  20. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds: new flavonols and cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Taveira, Marcos; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-10

    In this study, seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MS(n)-ESI. Fourteen flavonoids were identified, including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin derivatives, with 13 of them being reported for the first time in tomato seeds. The major identified compounds were quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside. A significant cell proliferation inhibition (>80%), against rat basophile leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, was observed with this extract (IC(50) = 5980 microg/mL). For acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a concentration-dependent effect was verified (IC(20) = 2400 microg/mL). The same behavior was noted regarding antioxidant capacity, evaluated against DPPH (IC(10) = 284 microg/mL), nitric oxide (IC(25) = 396 microg/L), and superoxide radicals (IC(25) = 3 microg/mL).

  1. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  2. Fast determination of bioactive compounds from Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. leaves.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Marcos; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Oliveira, Luísa; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-11-15

    Lycopersicon esculentum leaves, usually considered as a by-product of tomato production, present several bioactive compounds of interest for industries like food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. Nevertheless, before industrial application, suitable methods to identify and quantify those metabolites should be developed. In this study agitation with aqueous methanol was used for phenolic compounds extraction. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as the purification step before alkaloids analysis. Among the SPE sorbents tested, sulphonic acid bonded silica with H(+) counterion (SCX) proved to be the most efficient one for removing interfering components. Fifteen phenolics and four steroidic alkaloids were identified in 35 and 20 min analysis, respectively. The optimised methods were validated, revealing to be accurate, fast, simple and sensitive. Thus, these methods represent an easy and fast analytical approach, using equipment available in almost laboratory, which render them to be appropriate for routine analysis.

  3. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  4. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Dual Docked Operations (DDO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Bruno, Erica E.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the concept definition, studies, and analysis results generated by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), International Space Station (ISS) Program (ISSP), and Mission Operations Directorate for implementing Dual Docked Operations (DDO) during mated Orbiter/ISS missions. This work was performed over a number of years. Due to the ever increasing visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS, it became apparent to both the ISSP and the SSP that there would arise occasions where conflicts between a visiting vehicle docking and/or undocking could overlap with a planned Space Shuttle launch and/or during docked operations. This potential conflict provided the genesis for evaluating risk mitigations to gain maximum flexibility for managing potential visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS and to maximize launch and landing opportunities for all visiting vehicles.

  5. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis as Potential Functional
Starter Culture

    PubMed Central

    Cvrtila, Jelena; Topić, Ivana; Delaš, Frane; Markov, Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study is to identify and characterise potential autochthonous functional starter cultures in homemade horsemeat sausage. The dominant microflora in the samples of horsemeat sausage were lactic acid bacteria (LAB), followed by micrococci. Among the LAB, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species, and since the first is not common in fermented sausages, we characterised it as a potential functional starter culture. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis produced a significant amount of lactic acid, displayed good growth capability at 12, 18 and 22 °C, growth in the presence of 5% NaCl, good viability after lyophilisation and in simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, antimicrobial activity against test pathogens, and good adhesive properties in vitro. PMID:27904322

  6. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  7. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity.

  8. Genetics of hybrid incompatibility between Lycopersicon esculentum and L. hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Leonie C; Graham, Elaine B

    2005-01-01

    We examined the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two closely related diploid hermaphroditic plant species. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing 85% of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon hirsutum (Solanum habrochaites) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato L. esculentum (S. lycopersicum), we found that hybrid pollen and seed infertility are each based on 5-11 QTL that individually reduce hybrid fitness by 36-90%. Seed infertility QTL act additively or recessively, consistent with findings in other systems where incompatibility loci have largely been recessive. Genetic lengths of introgressed chromosomal segments explain little of the variation for hybrid incompatibility among NILs, arguing against an infinitesimal model of hybrid incompatibility and reinforcing our inference of a limited number of discrete incompatibility factors between these species. In addition, male (pollen) and other (seed) incompatibility factors are roughly comparable in number. The latter two findings contrast strongly with data from Drosophila where hybrid incompatibility can be highly polygenic and complex, and male sterility evolves substantially faster than female sterility or hybrid inviability. The observed differences between Lycopersicon and Drosophila might be due to differences in sex determination system, reproductive and mating biology, and/or the prevalence of sexual interactions such as sexual selection.

  9. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  10. Lycopersicon esculentum seeds: an industrial byproduct as an antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Marcos; Silva, Luís R; Vale-Silva, Luís A; Pinto, Eugénia; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-09-08

    Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit is a widely studied matrix. However, only few works focus their attention on its seeds, which constitute a major byproduct of the tomato processing industry. In this study the antimicrobial potential of ten different tomato seed extracts from "Bull's heart" and "Cherry" varieties were analyzed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum). Regarding antibacterial capacity, the different extracts were revealed to be active only against Gram-positive bacteria, E. faecalis being the most susceptible one (MIC: 2.5-10 mg/mL). Concerning antifungal activity, "Bull's heart" extracts were the most active. In a general way C. albicans was the most susceptible species (MIC: 5-10 mg/mL). The chemical composition of the extracts was also pursued, concerning organic acids, phenolics and fatty acids, in order to establish a possible relationship with the observed antimicrobial effect.

  11. Phosphate Starvation Inducible Metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum1

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Baertlein, Dawn A.; McDaniel, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    Both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv VF 36) plants and suspension cultured cells show phosphate starvation inducible (psi) excretion of acid phosphatase (Apase). Apase excretion in vitro was proportional to the level of exogenous orthophosphate (Pi). Intracellular Apase activity remained the same in both Pi-starved and sufficient cells, while Apase excreted by the starved cells increased by as much as six times over unstressed control cells on a dry weight basis. At peak induction, 50% of total Apase was excreted. Ten day old tomato seedlings grown without Pi showed slight growth reduction versus unstressed control plants. The Pi-depleted roots showed psi enhancement of Apase activity. Severely starved seedlings (17 days) reached only one-third of the biomass of unstressed control plants but, because of a combination of psi Apase excretion by roots and a shift in biomass to this organ, they excreted 5.5 times the Apase activity of the unstressed control. Observed psi Apase excretion may be part of a phosphate starvation rescue system in plants. The utility of the visible indicator dye 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate-p-toluidine as a phenotypic marker for plant Apase excretion is demonstrated. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16666212

  12. [Process of meiosis in interspecific hybrid F1 Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. x Lycopersicon chilense Dun].

    PubMed

    Montvid, P Iu; Samovol, O P; Miroshnychenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    The investigation concerns meiosis behaviour in embryo-culture-obtained Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (mutant seedline Mo 638) x L. chilense Dun. F1 hybrid and its parental forms. It was determined that chiasma frequency decreased while univalent and meiotic disorder frequencies increased in F1 plants in comparison with parents forms. Univalent number and the percent of main disorders lowered with bud tier increasing. The conclusion was made about meiosis regularity connection with the influence of environment factors and heterozygous genotype of F1 plants Lycopersicon esculentum x L. chilense.

  13. Two new sesquiterpene lactones from Montanoa tomentosa ssp. microcephala.

    PubMed

    Braca, A; Cioffi, G; Morelli, I; Venturella, F; Pizza, C; De Tommasi, N

    2001-11-01

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones: 8alpha-(4'-acetoxymethacryloyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alpha-olide (1) and 8alpha-(2'E)-(2'-acetoxymethyl-2'-butenoyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alphaolide (2), together with the known zoapatanolide A were isolated from the aerial parts of Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. in La Llave et Lex ssp. microcephala (Sch. Bip. In K. Koch) V.A. Funk (Asteraceae). The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and EIMS analysis.

  14. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  15. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  16. Differential expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Woo, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol Ho; Park, Sang Un

    2010-12-08

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a short-season grain crop that is a source of rutin and other phenolic compounds. In this study, we isolated the cDNAs of 11 F. esculentum enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, namely, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) 1 and 2, chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonol synthase (FLS) 1 and 2, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that these genes were most highly expressed in the stems and roots. However, high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that their flavonoid products, such as rutin and catechin, accumulated in the flowers and leaves. These results suggested that flavonoids may be transported within F. esculentum. In addition, light and dark growth conditions affected the expression levels of the biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in F. esculentum sprouts.

  17. Attenuated Lead Induced Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes in the Presence of Lycopersicon Esculentum.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Khaki, Arash; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Anjarani, Soghra; Dadgarnejad, Manochehr; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud; Rastegar, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb), has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems. In the present study, the damage of Pb on the Liver tissue apoptosis was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum as an antioxidants source was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Eighteen Wistar rats, randomized into three groups (n=6), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1%Lead acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml/day of Lycopersicon esculentum. Treatments were for three months. The obtained results showed that lead acetate caused significant reductions in the liver weight, plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration but Lycopersicon esculentum have an inhibitory effect on LA liver adverse effect. So, it can be concluded that Lycopersicon esculentum have a significant protective effect on liver lead acetate adverse effects as well as, lead acetate-induced oxidative stress.

  18. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Robl, D.; Thimoteo, S.S.; de Souza, G.C.C.F.; Beux, M.R.; Dalzoto, P.R.; Pinheiro, R.L.; Pimentel, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil. PMID:24948920

  19. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses.

  20. Calcium-binding properties of SSP-5, the Streptococcus gordonii M5 receptor for salivary agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y; Fisher, E; Malamud, D; Golub, E; Demuth, D R

    1994-12-01

    Streptococcus gordonii M5 expresses a lectin on its surface (SSP-5) which binds to human salivary agglutinin (SAG). This interaction requires sialic acid residues of SAG and divalent cations and may mediate the colonization of oral tissues by this organism. In this report, we show that the binding of SAG to SSP-5 requires calcium and that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein. SAG-mediated aggregation of S. gordonii M5 was inhibited by 1 mM EDTA, and the restoration of aggregation occurred only upon the readdition of calcium. To ascertain the level at which calcium exerts its effects, the calcium-binding properties of SSP-5 were evaluated by using a 45Ca binding assay. In addition, a kinetic analysis of calcium binding was carried out by using fura2, a fluorescent calcium-binding dye. These analyses showed that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein that binds 1 mol of calcium per mol of protein and has a dissociation constant of 0.45 +/- 0.2 microM. The calcium-binding capacity of SSP-5 was also calculated independently to be 1.0 +/- 0.2 mol of Ca per mol of SSP-5 by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25 equilibrated with 10 microM 45Ca. To localize the calcium binding site of SSP-5, a series of C-terminal deletion mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for calcium-binding activity. Deletion of the 250 C-terminal residues of SSP-5 had little effect on calcium binding. However, deletion of residues 1168 to 1250 resulted in the loss of calcium-binding activity, suggesting that this region is important for calcium binding by SSP-5.

  1. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    PubMed

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μM) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 μM). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 μM) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 μM) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn

  2. Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

  3. Examination of resistance of potato genotypes to Erwinia ssp.

    PubMed

    Kállai, Mónika; Csitári, Gábor; Sipos, Elvira; Polgár, Zsolt

    2007-01-01

    Potato can be attacked by several economically important pathogens. From the various diseases, in our experiment we dealt with the bacterial soft rot of potato caused by Erwinia species. In the experiments back cross progenies (BC1, BC2, BC3 and BC4) of Solanum brevidens + Solanum tuberosum somatic hybrids produced by the Potato Research Centre, Keszthely were tested to the infection of E carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca), E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and E. chrysanthemi (Echr). All together 11 BC genotypes pre selected from several hundred breeding lines based on their preferred agronomical appearance and virus resistance characters as well as 4 Hungarian potato cultivar (Rioja, Desiree, White lady and Hópehely) as controls were involved into the experiments. Tuber slices from each genotype were artificially infected with bacteria suspension Ecc strain D3, and Echr strain CHR 1492, and Eca strain BN3) and incubated at 27 degrees C with 100% relative air humidity for 48 h before evaluation. Dry matter and starch content of tubers were determined right before the tests. Volume of rotted tuber tissue was determined in mm3 and used for comparison of the level of resistance or susceptibility of the genotypes. Relationship between the reaction to the bacteria strains and dry matter content was examined also. Tested genotypes showed the highest resistance to Eca, while the highest susceptibility to Echr. By the increase of BC level the susceptibility of the genotypes significantly increased as well regardless of the tested bacteria. No direct correlation was found between the dry matter content of tubers and their reaction to tested bacteria.

  4. Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.

    1987-04-30

    Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  5. An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono; Fraij, Fares; Roach, Steve; Beranek, Jason

    2004-08-01

    The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus, the thermotolerant producer of commercial antibiotics nemadectin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Li, Chuang; Zhang, Bo; He, Hairong; Jin, Pinjiao; Wang, Jijia; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-06-20

    Streptomyces cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus is thermotolerant bacterium producing commercially important nemadectin, a kind of macrolide antibiotics, which has been widely used as a biopesticide. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus, which consists of one chromosome (7,762,396bp) with no plasmid. Genome sequence information contributes to understanding the biosynthesis of nemadectin better and provides the basis for analysis of its thermotolerance and biosynthetical potential.

  7. Chromosome number variation in somatic hybrids between transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Solanum lycopersicoides.

    PubMed

    Kulawiec, Mariola; Tagashira, Norikazu; Plader, Wojciech; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Kuć, Dominik; Sniezko, Renata; Malepszy, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Lycopersicon esculentum were fused with suspension-culture-derived protoplasts of Solanum lycopersicoides by a PEG treatment. Both species have the same chromosome number (2n = 2x = 24). The hybrid calli were selected using the full selection method - kanamycin resistance and culture conditions critical for L. esculentum protoplast divisions. The genomic in situ hybridization analyses indicated a hypo- and hypertetraploid character of the hybrid plant with a majority of S. lycopersicoides chromosomes and a variation in chromosome number from 46 to 53. The hybrids contained a transgene derived from L. esculentum, as shown by Southern blot hybridization and PCR analyses. Their mitochondria were derived from the wild species, S. lycopersicoides. More than 60 regenerated plants were transferred into the greenhouse. They grew very slowly and were not able to flower for almost one year. The main morphological characters of the hybrids included a single shoot and small, dark-green leaves with strongly wrinkled blades. The reasons for nuclear genome asymmetry between hybrids and the possibilities of using them in a genetic and breeding programme are discussed in this paper.

  8. Snf1-like protein kinase Ssp2 regulates glucose derepression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Fujita, Yasuko; Tohda, Hideki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2012-02-01

    The function of two fission yeast genes, SPCC74.03c/ssp2(+) and SPAC23H4.02/ppk9(+), encoding an Snf1-like protein kinase were investigated. Deletion of ssp2(+) caused a partial defect in glucose derepression of inv1(+), fbp1(+), and gld1(+) and in assimilation of sucrose and glycerol, while a mutation in ppk9(+) had no apparent effect. Scr1, a transcription factor involved in glucose repression, localized to the nucleus under glucose-rich conditions and to the cytoplasm during glucose starvation in wild-type cells. In contrast, in the ssp2Δ mutant, Scr1 localized to the nucleus in cells grown in glucose-rich medium as well as in glucose-starved cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that Ssp2 is required for the phosphorylation of Scr1 upon glucose deprivation. Mutation of five putative Ssp2 recognition sites in Scr1 prevented glucose derepression of invertase in glucose-starved cells. These results indicate that Ssp2 regulates phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Scr1 in response to glucose.

  9. Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri

    PubMed Central

    Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

  10. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  11. SSP: an interval integer linear programming for de novo transcriptome assembly and isoform discovery of RNA-seq reads.

    PubMed

    Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp.

  12. A sporulation-specific, sigF-dependent protein, SspA, affects septum positioning in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Tzanis, Angelos; Dalton, Kate A; Hesketh, Andrew; den Hengst, Chris D; Buttner, Mark J; Thibessard, Annabelle; Kelemen, Gabriella H

    2014-01-01

    The RNA polymerase sigma factor SigF controls late development during sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The only known SigF-dependent gene identified so far, SCO5321, is found in the biosynthetic cluster encoding spore pigment synthesis. Here we identify the first direct target for SigF, the gene sspA, encoding a sporulation-specific protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that SspA is a secreted lipoprotein with two PepSY signature domains. The sspA deletion mutant exhibits irregular sporulation septation and altered spore shape, suggesting that SspA plays a role in septum formation and spore maturation. The fluorescent translational fusion protein SspA–mCherry localized first to septum sites, then subsequently around the surface of the spores. Both SspA protein and sspA transcription are absent from the sigF null mutant. Moreover, in vitro transcription assay confirmed that RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing SigF is sufficient for initiation of transcription from a single sspA promoter. In addition, in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that sspA is a direct target of BldD, which functions to repress sporulation genes, including whiG, ftsZ and ssgB, during vegetative growth, co-ordinating their expression during sporulation septation. PMID:24261854

  13. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence.

  14. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jin-shuang; Sun, Cheng-zhen; Zhang, Shu-ning; Hou, Xi-lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis. PMID:27507974

  15. A comparison of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin with its deglycosylated derivative.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D C; Graham, C; Urbaniak, S J; Jeffree, C E; Allen, A K

    1984-06-15

    A deglycosylated derivative of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin was prepared with the use of trifluoromethanesulphonic acid. Its properties were generally similar to those of the native lectin, but differences were evident in terms of relative agglutinating activity towards sheep, (untreated) human and trypsin-treated human erythrocytes. The two forms of tomato lectin were used in conjunction with a battery of specific antisera to investigate structural relatedness among solanaceous lectins. Immunological cross-reactivity between tomato, potato and Datura lectins depends on the integrity of the glycosylated region of those lectins; that between Datura lectin and other seed lectins, however, has a separate structural basis.

  16. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  17. Mannosyl- and Xylosyl-Containing Glycans Promote Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Priem, B; Gross, K C

    1992-01-01

    The oligosaccharide glycans mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosamine and mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)(xylosylbeta1-2) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosaminyl(fucosylalpha1-3) N-acetylglucosamine were infiltrated into mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Rutgers). Coinfiltration of 1 nanogram per gram fresh weight of the glycans with 40 micrograms per gram fresh weight galactose, a level of galactose insufficient to promote ripening, stimulated ripening as measured by red coloration and ethylene production.

  18. Ssp1 CaMKK: A Sensor of Actin Polarization That Controls Mitotic Commitment through Srk1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Zaragoza, David; López-Avilés, Sandra; Yance-Chávez, Tula; Montserrat, Marta; Pujol, M. Jesús; Bachs, Oriol; Aligue, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) is required for diverse cellular functions. Mammalian CaMKK activates CaMKs and also the evolutionarily-conserved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe CaMKK, Ssp1, is required for tolerance to limited glucose through the AMPK, Ssp2, and for the integration of cell growth and division through the SAD kinase Cdr2. Results Here we report that Ssp1 controls the G2/M transition by regulating the activity of the CaMK Srk1. We show that inhibition of Cdc25 by Srk1 is regulated by Ssp1; and also that restoring growth polarity and actin localization of ssp1-deleted cells by removing the actin-monomer-binding protein, twinfilin, is sufficient to suppress the ssp1 phenotype. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that entry into mitosis is mediated by a network of proteins, including the Ssp1 and Srk1 kinases. Ssp1 connects the network of components that ensures proper polarity and cell size with the network of proteins that regulates Cdk1-cyclin B activity, in which Srk1 plays an inhibitory role. PMID:26575035

  19. A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

  20. Phytotoxic effects of a natural bloom extract containing microcystins on Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; El Ghazali, Issam; Saqrane, Sana; Oufdou, Khalid; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2012-05-01

    The cyanobacterial toxins microcystins (MC) are known to affect many processes in plants. Their presence in the water used for irrigation may have considerable impact on the survivorship, growth and development of plants. In this study, a crude extract of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom from "Lalla Takerkoust" reservoir (Morocco) was used to study the effects of extract containing MC on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five MC variants: MC-LR, MC-FR, MC-LY, MC-(H4)-YR and DMC-LR were identified by HPLC in the cyanobacterial extract. Exposure of the seeds to the crude extract (containing 22.24 μg MC mL(-1)) caused a reduction of germination up to 85%. Experiments showed that 30 days exposure of plant to the cyanobacterial extract containing MC caused inhibition of L. esculentum growth and productivity, as well as harmful effects on photosystem II activity, measured by Fv/Fm fluorescence. An accumulation of nutrients Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) was also registered. The activity of peroxidase and phenolic content indicated that the extract caused an oxidative stress. The tissue necrosis of leaves was also a consequence of MC exposure indicating a disorder in the exposed plant metabolism.

  1. Investigation of the effects of cadmium by micro analytical methods on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. roots.

    PubMed

    Colak, G; Baykul, M C; Gürler, R; Catak, E; Caner, N

    2014-09-01

    The interactions between cadmium stress and plant nutritional elements have been investigated on complete plant or at the level of organs. This study was undertaken to contribute to the exploration of the physiological basis of cadmium phytotoxicity. We examined the changes in the nutritional element compositions of the root epidermal cells of the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. at the initial growth stages that is known as the most sensitive stage to the stress. Effects of cadmium stress on the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were examined by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis) assay performed with using low vacuum (∼ 24 Pascal) Scanning Electron Microscopy. In the analysis performed at the level of root epidermal cells, some of the macro- and micronutrient contents of the cells (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, and zinc levels) were found to change when the applying toxic concentrations of cadmium. There was no change in the manganese and sodium content of the epidermal cells. It was concluded that the changes in nutritional element composition of the cells can be considered as an effective parameter in explaining the physiological mechanisms of cadmium-induced growth inhibition.

  2. Nitrogen Requirements for Growth and Early Fruit Development of Drip-Irrigated Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of continuous application of small quantities of nitrogen (N) in irrigation water and N applied as starter on growth and development of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), from transplanting to beginning of fruit set, was studied in two experiments: a pot experiment and a f...

  3. INFLUENCE OF MOWING ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS ON WINTER HABITAT FOR WILDLIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the in...

  4. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  5. Megastigmane Glucosides and Megastigmanes from the Leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Yuka; Iwami, Mio; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata, megastigmane glucosides with spiro-structures and megastigmanes were isolated. Their structures were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses and spectroscopic investigation. The absolute structures of the megastigmanes were determined by the modified Mosher's method.

  6. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  7. Occurrence of aphidborne viruses in southernmost South American populations of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (Fcc) plants were collected at different locations in southern Chile in order to determine the current viral status of this native strawberry. The following aphidborne viruses (ABVs): Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), Strawberry mottle...

  8. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  9. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  10. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  11. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-09

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  12. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  13. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled.

  14. Green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles using Fagopyrum esculentum leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Sharma, Pragya; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the use of ethnolic extract of Fagopyrum esculentum leaves for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopy analysis indicated the successful formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and were found to be spherical, hexagonal and triangular in shape with an average size of 8.3 nm. The crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) suggested the presence of organic biomolecules on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity tests against human HeLa, MCF-7 and IMR-32 cancer cell lines revealed that the gold nanoparticles were non-toxic and thus have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  15. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  16. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  17. Effect of water treatment sludge on growth and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, H.A.; Singer, L.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The impact of a water treatment sludge on the fertility of a silt loam soil was assessed by monitoring the yield and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots in a greenhouse study. Application of sludge at rates from 2-10% (air dry weight basis) raised the soil pH from 5.3 to 8.0 which enhanced plant growth. A substantial reduction in metal (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) uptake was observed with sludge amendments, even at the highest rates. The alkaline nature of this sludge (pH=9.3, calcium carbonate equivalence=53%) suggest its potential use as a liming material for agricultural soils. Overly alkaline conditions should be avoided however, as high application rates combined with ammonia fertilization had an antagonistic effect on plant growth, possibly from P deficiency induced by struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}) formation.

  18. Bioactive exopolysaccharides from the cultured cells of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum var. San Marzano.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Manca, Maria Cristina; De Giulio, Alfonso; Strazzullo, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Salvatore; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2006-04-01

    Three exopolysaccharides, EPS(1), EPS(2), and EPS(3), were isolated from suspension-cultured cells of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, var. San Marzano). The partial primary structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. EPS(2) was a heteropolysaccharide with a tetrasaccharide repeating unit constituted by sugars having one residue in alpha-manno, one residue in beta-manno, and two different residues in beta-gluco/galacto configurations. EPS(3) was a heteropolysaccharide with a pentasaccharide repeating unit with sugars having three residues in alpha-manno, one residue in alpha-gluco/galacto, and one residue in beta-gluco/galacto configurations. The anticytotoxic activities of exopolysaccharides were tested in a brine shrimp bioassay.

  19. Amino acid sequences of heterotrophic and photosynthetic ferredoxins from the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Kamide, K; Sakai, H; Aoki, K; Sanada, Y; Wada, K; Green, L S; Yee, B C; Buchanan, B B

    1995-11-01

    Several forms (isoproteins) of ferredoxin in roots, leaves, and green and red pericarps in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were earlier identified on the basis of N-terminal amino acid sequence and chromatographic behavior (Green et al. 1991). In the present study, a large scale preparation made possible determination of the full length amino acid sequence of the two ferredoxins from leaves. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root were sequenced from the amino terminus to the 30th residue or beyond. The leaf ferredoxins were confirmed to be expressed in pericarp of both green and red fruit. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root appeared to be restricted to those tissue. The results extend earlier findings in demonstrating that ferredoxin occurs in the major organs of the tomato plant where it appears to function irrespective of photosynthetic competence.

  20. Acetylcholine causes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Shrish Chandra; Gupta, Rajendra

    2007-05-30

    The animal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) induces rooting and promotes secondary root formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby), cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog's medium. The roots originate from the midrib of leaf explants and resemble taproot. ACh at 10(-5) M was found to be the optimum over a wide range of effective concentrations between 10(-7) and 10(-3) M. The breakdown products, choline and acetate were ineffective even at 10(-3) M concentration. ACh appears to have a natural role in tomato rhizogenesis because exogenous application of neostigmine, an inhibitor of ACh hydrolysis, could mimic the effect of ACh. Neostigmine, if applied in combination with ACh, potentiated the ACh effect.

  1. Infection of Cultured Thin Cell Layer Roots of Lycopersicon esculentum by Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Radin, D N; Eisenback, J D

    1991-10-01

    A new aseptic culture system for studying interactions between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Meloidogyne incognita is described. Epidermal thin cell layer explants from peduncles of tomato produced up to 20 adventitious roots per culture in 4-9 days on Murashige &Scoog medium plus kinetin and indole acetic acid. Rooted cultures were transferred to Gamborg's B-5 medium and inoculated with infective second-stage juveniles. Gall formation was apparent 5 days after inoculation and egg production by mature females occurred within 25 days at 25 C in the susceptible genotypes Rutgers and Red Alert. Resistant genotypes LA655, LA656, and LA1022 exhibited a characteristic hypersensitive response. This system provides large numbers of cultured root tips for studies on the molecular basis of the host-parasite relationship.

  2. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) crops from organic production.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Aizpún de Moreno, Julia E; Moreno, Víctor J

    2003-02-26

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified by GC-ECD in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during a vegetation period. Plants were harvested at 15, 60, and 151 days after seed germination. Leaves, stem, roots, and fruit (peel and flesh) were analyzed separately. The results showed that tomato plants were able to accumulate OCPs from soils, and a trend to reach the equilibrium among tissues at mature stages was also observed. Endosulfans comprised the main OCP group, probably due to its spray during summer months in the surrounding areas. Banned pesticides such as DDTs, heptachlor, and dieldrin were found. OCPs levels in the fruit were below the maximum residues limits (MRL) considered by the Codex Alimentarius. DDE/DDT and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios of <1 would indicate recent inputs of DDT and lindane in the environment. The occurrence of OCPs in the study farm, where agrochemicals have never been used, is a result of atmospheric deposition of those pesticides.

  3. A major QTL introgressed from wild Lycopersicon hirsutum confers chilling tolerance to cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    John Goodstal, F; Kohler, Glenn R; Randall, Leslie B; Bloom, Arnold J; St Clair, Dina A

    2005-09-01

    Many plants of tropical or subtropical origin, such as tomato, suffer damage under chilling temperatures (under 10 degrees C but above 0 degrees C). An earlier study identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for shoot turgor maintenance (stm) under root chilling in an interspecific backcross population derived from crossing chilling-susceptible cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and chilling-tolerant wild L. hirsutum. The QTL with the greatest phenotypic effect on stm was located in a 28 cM region on chromosome 9 (designated stm 9), and enhanced chilling-tolerance was conferred by the presence of the Lycopersicon hirsutum allele at this QTL. Here, near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used to verify the effect of stm 9, and recombinant sub-NILs were used to fine map its position. Replicated experiments were performed with NILs and sub-NILs in a refrigerated hydroponic tank in the greenhouse. Sub-NIL data was analyzed using least square means separations, marker-genotype mean t-tests, and composite interval mapping. A dominant QTL controlling shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling was confirmed on chromosome 9 using both NILs and sub-NILs. Furthermore, sub-NILs permitted localization of stm 9 to a 2.7 cM interval within the original 28 cM QTL region. If the presence of the L. hirsutum allele at stm 9 also confers chilling-tolerance in L. esculentum plants grown under field conditions, it has the potential to expand the geographic areas in which cultivated tomato can be grown for commercial production.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the extracellular domain of LePRK2 from Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Anbi; Huang, Laiqiang

    2014-02-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pollen-specific receptor kinase 2 (LePRK2) is a member of the large receptor-like kinase (RLK) family and is expressed specifically in mature pollen and pollen tubes in L. esculentum. Like other RLKs, LePRK2 contains a characteristic N-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) extracellular domain, the primary function of which is in protein-protein interactions. The LePRK2 LRR is likely to bind candidate ligands from the external environment, leading to a signal transduction cascade required for successful pollination. LePRK2-LRR was purified using an insect-cell secretion expression system and was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.50 Å and belonged to space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.94, c = 134.44 Å and one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  5. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  6. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  7. BcMF21 is important for pollen development and germination in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yu, Youjian; Dong, Heng; Yao, Lina; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Brassica campestris Male Fertility 21 (BcMF21) was previously isolated from the flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and expressed specifically in tapetum and microspores during the meiosis stage and the uninucleate stage of microspore development. Here, we used antisense RNA technology to knock down the expression level of BcMF21 in B. campestris and analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic plants. Alexander staining and scanning electron microscope revealed sterility and exine deformities in the mature pollen grains of BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic plants. The germination furrow of the BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic pollen was covered by lipid like materials. The pollen tubes burst and could not grow normally in vitro. Therefore, we presented here BcMF21 might be an important gene for pollen development and germination.

  8. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  9. A DNA Vaccine Encoding for TcSSP4 Induces Protection against Acute and Chronic Infection in Experimental Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; López-Monteón, Aracely; Salgado-Jiménez, Berenice; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Immunization of mice with plasmids containing genes of Trypanosoma cruzi induces protective immunity in the murine model of Chagas disease. A cDNA clone that codes for an amastigote-specific surface protein (TcSSP4) was used as a candidate to develop a DNA vaccine. Mice were immunized with the recombinant protein rTcSSP4 and with cDNA for TcSSP4, and challenged with bloodstream trypomastigotes. Immunization with rTcSSP4 protein makes mice more susceptible to trypomastigote infection, with high mortality rates, whereas mice immunized with a eukaryotic expression plasmid containing the TcSSP4 cDNA were able to control the acute phase of infection. Heart tissue of gene-vaccinated animals did not show myocarditis and tissue damage at 365 days following infection, as compared with control animals. INF-γ was detected in sera of DNA vaccinated mice shortly after immunization, suggesting the development of a Th1 response. The TcSSP4 gene is a promising candidate for the development of an anti-T. cruzi DNA vaccine. PMID:22110377

  10. SSP1, a gene necessary for proper completion of meiotic divisions and spore formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, D K; Koonce, M P; Axelrod, J

    1997-01-01

    During meiosis, a diploid cell undergoes two rounds of nuclear division following one round of DNA replication to produce four haploid gametes. In yeast, haploid meiotic products are packaged into spores. To gain new insights into meiotic development and spore formation, we followed differential expression of genes in meiotic versus vegetatively growing cells in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that there are at least five different classes of transcripts representing genes expressed at different stages of the sporulation program. Here we describe one of these differentially expressed genes, SSP1, which plays an essential role in meiosis and spore formation. SSP1 is expressed midway through meiosis, and homozygous ssp1 diploid cells fail to sporulate. In the ssp1 mutant, meiotic recombination is normal but viability declines rapidly. Both meiotic divisions occur at the normal time; however, the fraction of cells completing meiosis is significantly reduced, and nuclei become fragmented soon after meiosis II. The ssp1 defect does not appear to be related to a microtubule-cytoskeletal-dependent event and is independent of two rounds of chromosome segregation. The data suggest that Ssp1 is likely to function in a pathway that controls meiotic nuclear divisions and coordinates meiosis and spore formation. PMID:9372934

  11. Inhibition of Cholinesterases and Some Pro-Oxidant induced Oxidative Stress in Rats Brain by Two Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, G.; Bakare, O.O.; Ademosun, A.O.; Akinyemi, A.J.; Olasehinde, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of two tomato varieties [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. esculentum (ESC) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (CER)] on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. Phenolics content, carotenoids characterisation, inhibition of Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats brain homogenate and NO* scavenging abilities were also assesed in addition to the AChE and BChE inhibition assays. There was no significant difference in the AChE inhibitory ability of the samples, while CER had significantly higher BChE inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the tomatoes inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced MDA production and further exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO* scavenging abilities. There was no significant difference in the phenolic content of the samples, while significantly high amounts of lycopene were detected in the tomatoes. The cholinesterase-inhibition and antioxidant properties of the “tomatoes” could make them good dietary means for the management of neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  13. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  14. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C.; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K.; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S.; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W.; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4+ T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria. Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD. PMID:28361039

  15. Antinociceptive effect of some extracts from Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ssp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech. f. aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Ajuga is used for the treatment of joint pain, gout, and jaundice in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella is an exclusive subspecies of Ajuga chamaecistus in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate antinociceptive properties of some extracts from aerial parts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella. Methods Antinociceptive activities of total water and 80% methanol extracts, hexane, diethyl ether and n-butanolic partition fractions of the methanolic extract were analyzed using the formalin test in mice. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results Oral administration of all extracts (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before formalin injection had no effect against the acute phase (0–5 min after formalin injection) of the formalin-induced licking time, but hexane fraction (200 mg/kg) caused a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection). Total water and diethyl ether extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed a very significant analgesic activity on the chronic phase (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the extracts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella have an analgesic property that supports traditional use of Ajuga genus for joint pain and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25022284

  16. The application of high-concentration short-time chlorine dioxide treatment for selected specialty crops including Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), cantaloupes (Cucumis melo ssp. melo var. cantaloupensis) and strawberries (Fragaria×ananassa).

    PubMed

    Trinetta, V; Linton, R H; Morgan, M T

    2013-06-01

    The effects of high-concentration short-time chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas treatment on food-borne pathogens inoculated onto the surface of tomatoes, cantaloupes, and strawberries were studied. Produce were spot-inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica (serotypes Montevideo, Javiana and Baildon), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (serotypes 204 P, EDL 933 and C792) or Listeria monocytogenes (serotypes Scott A, F 5069 and LCDC 81-861), and treated with ClO2 gas at 10 mg/l for 180 s. After ClO2 gas treatment, surviving populations were determined and shelf-life studies were conducted (microbial spoilage population, change in color and overall appearance). Significant microbial reduction (p < 0.05) was observed for all treated samples. Nearly a 5LogCFU/cm(2)Salmonella reduction was found on tomatoes, cantaloupe and strawberries, while a ~3LogCFU/cm(2) reduction was observed for E. coli and Listeria on all produce surfaces. E. coli and Listeria appeared to be more resistant to ClO2 gas as compared to Salmonella spp. Treatments significantly (p < 0.05) reduced initial microflora population, while produce color surface was not significantly influenced, as compared to the control (p > 0.05). Results obtained suggest the potential use of high-concentration short-time ClO2 gas treatment as an effective online pathogen inactivation technology for specialty crops in large-scale produce packing operations.

  17. Isolation, Characterization and Evaluation of Collagen from Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye for Use in Hemostatic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaochen; Liu, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Hemostat has been a crucial focus since human body is unable to control massive blood loss, and collagen proves to be an effective hemostat in previous studies. In this study, collagen was isolated from the mesoglea of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye and its hemostatic property was studied. The yields of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble (PSC) were 0.12% and 0.28% respectively. The SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that the collagen extracted from jellyfish mesoglea was type I collagen. The lyophilized jellyfish collagen sponges were cross-linked with EDC and interconnected networks in the sponges were revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Collagen sponges exhibited higher water absorption rates than medical gauze and EDC/NHS cross-linking method could improve the stability of the collagen sponges. Compared with medical gauze groups, the blood clotting indexes (BCIs) of collagen sponges were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and the concentration of collagen also had an influence on the hemostatic property (P < 0.05). Collagen sponges had an improved hemostatic ability compared to the gauze control in tail amputation rat models. Hemostatic mechanism studies showed that hemocytes and platelets could adhere and aggregate on the surface of collagen sponge. All properties make jellyfish collagen sponge to be a suitable candidate used as hemostatic material and for wound healing applications. PMID:28103327

  18. Isolation and properties of a metalloproteinase from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Belozersky, M A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Voskoboynikova, N E

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous preparation of metalloproteinase, purified 1000-fold, was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds. The Mr of the enzyme, determined by SDS/PAGE, was 34,000 (it was 39,000 by gel chromatography). Its pH optimum was 8.0-8.2 with 13 S globulin, from buckwheat seeds, as substrate. Atomic-absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of one Zn2+ ion per enzyme molecule. The enzyme was completely inhibited by EDTA (1 mM), zincone (1 mM) and 1, 10-phenanthroline (1 mM). The metalloproteinase performed limited proteolysis of the following seed storage proteins: 13 S globulin from buckwheat seeds and 11 S globulin from soybean (Glycine max) seeds. It hydrolysed three peptide bonds formed by the amino groups of Leu15, Tyr16 and Phe25 in the oxidized B-chain of insulin. In its main properties the enzyme is similar to metalloproteinases of animal and bacterial origin. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2268295

  19. Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Prevents Adverse Effects of Lead on Blood Constituents

    PubMed Central

    SALAWU, Emmanuel O

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lead is known for its adverse effects on various organs and systems. In this study, the ability of lead to adversely affect blood parameters was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato (a source of antioxidants), was administered orally in the form of tomato paste (TP) to reduce the adverse effects of lead. Methods: The study involved 56 Wistar rats divided equally into 4 groups of 14 rats each: Control, LAG, TPG, and LA+TPG. Control and TPG rats were given distilled water ad libitum, while LAG and LA+TPG rats were given 1% lead (II) acetate (LA) per day. TPG and LA+TPG rats were additionally treated with 1.5 ml of TP per day. All treatments lasted for 10 weeks, after which the rats were weighed and sacrificed, and haematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The independent samples t test was used to analyse the results. Results: Lead caused significant reductions in the following parameters: weight; packed cell volume; red blood cell and white blood cell counts; the percentages of lymphocytes and monocytes; total serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels; and plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, lead caused a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils and the plasma malondialdehyde concentration. TP, however, significantly prevented the adverse effects of LA. Conclusion: The oral administration of TP prevents the adverse effects of lead on blood constituents. PMID:22135544

  20. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27792185

  1. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. )

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  2. Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Martinez-Ochoa, N.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral reduced nematode egg viability in vitro. Benzaldehyde was 100% efficacious as a nematicide against juveniles, whereas citral reduced juvenile viability to less than 20% at all rates tested. Benzaldehyde increased tomato seed germination and root weight, whereas citral decreased both. High rates of pine bark or chitin reduced plant growth but not seed germination, whereas low rates of chitin increased shoot length, shoot weight, and root weight; improved root condition; and reduced galling. The combination of chitin and benzaldehyde significantly improved tomato transplant growth and reduced galling. While each of the bacterial isolates contributed to increased plant growth in combination treatments, only Brevibacterium iodinum applied alone significantly improved plant growth. PMID:19265957

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Biodegradative Form of Threonine Dehydratase in Senescing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Leaf.

    PubMed Central

    Szamosi, I.; Shaner, D. L.; Singh, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Threonine dehydratase (TD; EC.4.2.1.16) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine. Inhibition of TD by isoleucine regulates the flow of carbon to isoleucine. We have identified two different forms of TD in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves. One form, present predominantly in younger leaves, is inhibited by isoleucine. The other form of TD, present primarily in older leaves, is insensitive to inhibition by isoleucine. Expression of the latter enzyme increases as the leaf ages and the highest enzyme activity is present in the old, chlorotic leaves. The specific activity of the enzyme present in older leaves is much higher than the one present in younger leaves. Both forms can use threonine and serine as substrates. Whereas TD from the older leaves had the same Km (0.25 mM) for both substrates, the enzyme from the young leaves preferred threonine (Km = 0.25 mM) over serine (Km = 1.7 mM). The molecular masses of TD from the young and the old leaves were 370,000 and 200,000 D, respectively. High levels of the isoleucine-insensitive form of threonine dehydratase in the older leaves suggests an important role of threonine dehydratase in nitrogen remobilization in senescing leaves. PMID:12231753

  4. Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  5. Tylosema esculentum (Marama) Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chingwaru, Walter; Majinda, Runner T.; Yeboah, Sam O.; Jackson, Jose C.; Kapewangolo, Petrina T.; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Cencic, Avrelija

    2011-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV. PMID:21423688

  6. Tylosema esculentum (Marama) Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Chingwaru, Walter; Majinda, Runner T; Yeboah, Sam O; Jackson, Jose C; Kapewangolo, Petrina T; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Cencic, Avrelija

    2011-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm(2)) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.

  7. Characterisation of the arabinose-rich carbohydrate composition of immature and mature marama beans (Tylosema esculentum).

    PubMed

    Mosele, Minah M; Hansen, Ase S; Engelsen, Søren B; Diaz, Jerome; Sørensen, Iben; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G T; Blennow, Andreas; Harholt, Jesper

    2011-08-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an important component of the diet around the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa where this drought resistant plant can grow. The marama bean contains roughly 1/3 proteins, 1/3 lipids and 1/3 carbohydrates, but despite its potential as dietary supplement little is known about the carbohydrate fraction. In this study the carbohydrate fraction of "immature" and "mature" marama seeds are characterised. The study shows that the marama bean contains negligible amounts of starch and soluble sugars, both far less than 1%. The cell wall is characterised by a high arabinose content and a high resistance to extraction as even a 6M NaOH extraction was insufficient to extract considerable amounts of the arabinose. The arabinose fraction was characterised by arabinan-like linkages and recognised by the arabinan antibody LM6 and LM13 indicating that it is pectic arabinan. Two pools of pectin could be detected; a regular CDTA (1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) or enzymatically extractable pectin fraction and a recalcitrant pectin fraction containing the majority of the arabinans, of which about 40% was unextractable using 6M NaOH. Additionally, a high content of mannose was observed, possibly from mannosylated storage proteins.

  8. Environmental controls over methanol production, emission, and δ13C values from Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P.; Giebel, B. M.; Mak, J. E.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.; Lerdau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Phytogenic methanol is the dominant source of methanol to the atmosphere, where it is the second most abundant organic compound. Beyond methanol’s role in atmospheric chemistry, it is an indicator of plant function and is linked to plant wound response. Methanol emissions are considered to be a by-product of cell wall expansion and, more specifically, the demethylation of pectin by pectin methylesterase (PME) in cell walls. Production of methanol was investigated in mature and immature tomato Lycopersicon esculentum via measurement of methanol flux, foliar PME activity, and methanol extraction from leaf, root, and stem tissues. δ13C values for mature and immature methanol emissions were also measured using a GC-IRMS system. Environmental control over methanol production and emission was studied by changing temperature and light while holding stomatal conductance constant. As seen previously, mature leaf methanol emissions were significantly less than immature emissions. Surprisingly, preliminary results suggest mature leaf methanol production to be similar to immature leaves, indicating an enhanced metabolic sink for methanol in mature leaves. These data enhance our understanding of methanol production, a term which is not well constrained in current methanol flux models.

  9. NMR characterization of endogenously O-acetylated oligosaccharides isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhonghua; Cash, Michael; Darvill, Alan G; York, William S

    2005-08-15

    Eight oligosaccharide subunits, generated by endoglucanase treatment of the plant polysaccharide xyloglucan isolated from the culture filtrate of suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells, were structurally characterized by NMR spectroscopy. These oligosaccharides, which contain up to three endogenous O-acetyl substituents, consist of a cellotetraose core with alpha-D-Xylp residues at O-6 of the two beta-D-Glcp residues at the non-reducing end of the core. Some of the alpha-D-Xylp residues themselves bear either an alpha-L-Arap or a beta-D-Galp residue at O-2. O-Acetyl substituents are located at O-6 of the unbranched (internal) beta-D-Glcp residue, O-6 of the terminal beta-D-Galp residue, and/or at O-5 of the terminal alpha-L-Arap residue. Structural assignments were facilitated by long-range scalar coupling interactions observed in the high-resolution gCOSY spectra of the oligosaccharides. The presence of five-bond scalar coupling constants in the gCOSY spectra provides a direct method of assigning O-acetylation sites, which may prove generally useful in the analysis of O-acylated glycans. Spectral assignment of these endogenously O-acetylated oligosaccharides makes it possible to deduce correlations between their structural features and the chemical shifts of diagnostic resonances in their NMR spectra.

  10. Methylammonium as a Transport Analog for Ammonium in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Kosola, K. R.; Bloom, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methylammonium (CH3NH3+) has been widely used as an analog of ammonium (NH4+) for examining transport in bacteria and fungi. We compared the kinetics of root CH3NH3+ and NH4+ uptake from solution culture in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv T5) plants. Efflux of NH4+ and CH3NH3+ was negligible. The apparent maximum rate of absorption (apparent Vmax) was similar for NH4+ and CH3NH3+, but the apparent affinity (apparent Km) was about 10-fold greater for NH4+ than for CH3NH3+. In characterizing the interaction between NH4+ and CH3NH3+ transport, we used [15N]NH4+ and [14C]CH3NH3+ as well as improved methods for analysis of nonisotopic CH3NH3+ and NH4+. CH3NH3+ acted as an inhibitor of NH4+ influx. Relatively low concentrations of NH4+ strongly inhibited CH3NH3+ influx. Treatments with 1 mM methionine sulfoximine that blocked NH4+ assimilation had little influence on NH4+ inhibition of CH3NH3+ influx. These results suggest that the two ions share a common transport system in tomato, but because this transport system has a much greater affinity for NH4+, CH3NH3+ may be used as a transport analog only when ambient concentrations of NH4+ are very low. PMID:12232213

  11. Effect of salinity on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during seed germination stage.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jogendra; Sastry, E V Divakar; Singh, Vijayata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted using ten genetically diverse genotypes along with their 45F1 (generated by diallel mating) under normal and salt stress conditions. Although, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is moderately sensitive to salinity but more attention to salinity is yet to be required in the production of tomato. In present study, germination rate, speed of germination, dry weight ratio and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in root and shoot, were the parameters assayed on three salinity levels; control, 1.0 % NaCl and 3.0 % NaCl with Hoagland's solution. Increasing salt stress negatively affected growth and development of tomato. When salt concentration increased, germination of tomato seed was reduced and the time needed to complete germination lengthened, root/shoot dry weight ratio was higher and Na(+) content increased but K(+) content decreased. Among the varieties, Sel-7 followed by Arka Vikas and crosses involving them as a parent were found to be the more tolerant genotypes in the present study on the basis of studied parameters.

  12. Hygienic quality of traditional processing and stability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree in Togo.

    PubMed

    Ameyapoh, Yaovi; de Souza, Comlan; Traore, Alfred S

    2008-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical qualities of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree production line (ripe tomato, washing, cutting, pounding, bleaching, straining, bottling and pasteurization) and its preservation in Togo, West Africa, were studied using the HACCP method. Samples generated during the steps described previously were analyzed by determining sensory, chemical and microbiological characteristics. Samples were analyzed using MPN for coliform populations and plate count methodology for other bacteria. The microorganisms involved in spoilage of the opened products were moulds of genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor and gram-positive Bacillus bacteria. The preserved tomato puree exhibited a pH value of 4.3, 90% water content, 0.98 water activity (aw) and an average ascorbic acid level of 27.3mg/100g. Results showed that the critical control point (CCP) of this tomato puree processing line is the pasteurization stage. The analysis of selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the preservation of bottled tomato puree indicated that this product was stable over 22 months at 29 degrees C. But the stability of the opened product stored at 29 degrees C did not exceed two months.

  13. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants.

  14. Influence of cadmium on antioxidant capacity and four microelement concentrations in tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

    2006-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd) levels of 0-10 microM in a hydroponic system to analyze the antioxidative enzymes, Cd concentration in the plants, and the interaction between Cd and four microelements. The results showed that there was a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities in the plants subjected to 1-10 microM Cd. This indicates that Cd stress induces an oxidative stress response in tomato plants, characterized by an accumulation of MDA and increase in activities of SOD and POD. Root, stem and leaf Cd concentrations increased with its exposure Cd level, and the highest Cd concentration occurred in roots, followed by leaves and stems. A concentration- and tissue-dependent response was found in the four microelement concentrations to Cd stress in the tomato leaves, stems and roots. Regression analysis showed that there was a significantly negative correlation between Cd and Mn, implying the antagonistic effect of Cd on Mn absorption and translocation. The correlation between Cd and Zn, Cu and Fe were inconsistent among leaves, stems and roots.

  15. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    PubMed

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  16. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-10-26

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Biomarker discovery and gene expression responses in Lycopersicon esculentum root exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Bai, Lili; Xie, Yujia; Liu, Xinhui; Cui, Baoshan

    2015-12-15

    Gene expression analysis has shown particular promise for the identification of molecular biomarkers that can be used for further evaluation of potential toxicity of chemicals present in agricultural soil. In the study, we focused on the development of molecular markers to detect Pb toxicity in agricultural soil. Using the results obtained from microarray analysis, twelve Pb-responsive genes were selected and tested in different Pb concentrations to examine their concentration-response characteristics using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). All the Pb treatments set in our study could generally induce the differential expression of the 12 genes, while the lowest observable adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of Pb for seed germination, root elongation, biomass and structural modification derived from 1,297, 177, 177, and 1,297 mg Pb/kg soil, respectively, suggesting that the transcriptional approach was more sensitive than the traditional end points of death, growth, and morphology for the evaluation of Pb toxicity. The relative expression of glycoalkaloid metabolism 1 (P=-0.790), ethylene-responsive transcription factor ERF017 (P=-0.686) and CASP-like protein 4C2 (P=-0.652) demonstrates a dose-dependent response with Pb content in roots, implying that the three genes can be used as sensitive bioindicators of Pb stress in Lycopersicon esculentum.

  18. [Physiological and structural modifications induced by cadmium-calcium interaction in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)].

    PubMed

    Boulila Zoghlami, Latifa; Djebali, Wahbi; Chaïbi, Wided; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib

    2006-09-01

    Tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum), initially cultivated in a basic nutrient solution during 12 days, were treated with increasing CdCl(2) concentrations for 10 days. The results showed that cadmium inhibited the weight growth depending on the metal concentration and the plant organ. In the presence of 20 microM CdCl(2), the addition of calcium, 0.1 to 10 mM of CaCl(2) in the culture medium, improved especially the biomass production and the mineral composition of the plants in concomitance with an increase in the contents of photosynthetic pigments. Histological study at the hypocotyle level revealed that cadmium (20 microM) induced a restriction of the tissue territories as well as meristem formations differentiating in a root structure. At this concentration, the addition of CaCl(2) (5 microM) was characterized by an opposite effect with absence of meristem structures. The overall results suggest that the alteration of some plant growth process after exposure to cadmium can be attenuated by an adequate calcium contribution in culture medium.

  19. Expression of human coagulation Factor IX in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lingxia; Chen, Yuhui; Cui, Lijie; Ren, Weiwei; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, a plant binary expression vector PG-pRD12-hFIX (where PG is polygalacturonase) harbouring the hFIX (human coagulation Factor IX) gene was constructed and introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After kanamycin selection, 32 putative independent transgenic tomato plants were regenerated. PCR and Southern-blot analyses confirmed the transgenic status of some plants. RT (reverse transcription)-PCR analysis for the expression of the introduced gene (hFIX) demonstrated that the hFIX gene was expressed specifically in fruits of the tomato. Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of a 56 kDa band specific to hFIX in the transformed tomatoes. ELISA results showed that the expression of hFIX protein reached a maximum of 15.84 ng/g fresh weight in mature fruit. A blood-clotting assay demonstrated the clotting activity of the expressed hFIX protein in transgenic tomato fruits. This is the first report on the expression of hFIX in plants, and our research provides potentially valuable knowledge for further development of the plant-derived therapeutic proteins.

  20. Effect of vermicompost on growth, yield and nutrition status of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Rasool; Ziveh, Parviz Sharifi; Satari, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Super Beta) in a field condition. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The different rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha(-1)) was incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. During experiment period, fruits were harvested twice in a week and total yield were recorded for two months. At the end of experiment, growth characteristics such as leaf number, leaf area and shoot dry weights were determined. The results revealed that addition of vermicompost at rate of 15 t ha(-1) significantly (at p < 0.05) increased growth and yield compared to control. Vermicompost with rate of 15 t ha(-1) increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30 and 24%, respectively. The content of K, P, Fe and Zn in the plant tissue increased 55, 73, 32 and 36% compared to untreated plots respectively. The result of our experiment showed addition of vermicompost had significant (p < 0.05) positive effects on growth, yield and elemental content of plant as compared to control.

  1. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  2. Disposition of selected flavonoids in fruit tissues of various tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina A; Davies, Neal M; Yañez, Jaime A; Andrews, Preston K

    2005-11-30

    Flavonoids have been studied extensively because they offer great potential health benefits. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis of glycosylated quercetin, kaempferol, and naringin was used to obtain their sugar-free aglycones. The investigation also employed a validated HPLC method to obtain the chiral disposition of the aglycone naringenin enantiomers. These analyses were conducted on exocarp, mesocarp, and seed cavity tissues of field-grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutants (anthocyanin absent, atroviolacea, and high pigment-1) and their nearly isogenic parent (cv. Ailsa Craig) at immature green, "breaker", and red ripe maturity stages. Concentrations of all flavonoids using enzymatic hydrolysis were significantly higher than previously reported concentrations using acid hydrolysis. Presumably, this occurred due to a more specific and rapid hydrolysis of the glycoside moiety by the beta-glucosidase enzyme. The glycoside S-naringin was the predominant enantiomer in all fruit tissues, although the aglycones free R- and S-naringenin were detected in both exocarp and mesocarp. Whereas there was significantly more quercetin than kaempferol in exocarp tissue, they were present in about equal concentrations in the mesocarp. Quercetin concentrations were higher in the exocarp and mesocarp of immature green and breaker fruit of the high pigment-1 mutant than in the other genotypes, supporting the observed photoprotection and potential health benefits of the high pigment-1 tomato genotype.

  3. Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents and oxidase enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2009-07-01

    Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents viz. carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and pectic substances along with IAA-oxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities were estimated/assayed in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) in two developmental stages--pre-flowering (35 days after sowing) and post-flowering (75 days after sowing) in three different seasons--summer rainy and winter Carotenoid content along with pectic substances were highest in winter and declined significantly in summer followed by rainy i.e. winter > summer > rainy. Carotenoid content was significantly higher in the pre-flowering as compared to post-flowering in all three seasons while pectic substances increased in the post-flowering as compared to pre-flowering throughout the annual cycle. IAA oxidase and PPO enzyme activities were enhanced in rainy and decreased sharply in summer and winter i.e. rainy > summer > winter. Both the enzymes exhibited higher activity in the post-flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering in all three seasons. These results indicate winter to be the most favourable season for tomato plants while rainy season environmental conditions prove to be unfavourable (stressful) with diminished content of carotenoid and pectic substances and low activities of IAA oxidase and PPO, ultimately leading to poor growth and productivity.

  4. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

  5. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kirsty L; Anderson, Victoria L; Davis, Katie S; Van Den Berg, Albert H; Christie, James S; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J; Van West, Pieter

    2014-07-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments.

  6. Analysis of COPII vesicles indicates a role for the Emp47-Ssp120 complex in transport of cell surface glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Neil G.; Wilson, Joshua D.; Bentivoglio, Christine M.; Dhungel, Nripesh; Gitler, Aaron D.; Barlowe, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transports nascent secretory proteins forward to the Golgi complex. To further define the machinery that packages secretory cargo and targets vesicles to Golgi membranes, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified COPII vesicles. In addition to previously known proteins, we identified new vesicle proteins including Coy1, Sly41 and Ssp120, which were efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles for trafficking between the ER and Golgi compartments. Further characterization of the putative calcium-binding Ssp120 protein revealed a tight association with Emp47 and in emp47Δ cells Ssp120 was mislocalized and secreted. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EMP47 and SSP120 display identical synthetic positive interactions with IRE1 and synthetic negative interactions with genes involved in cell wall assembly. Our findings support a model in which the Emp47-Ssp120 complex functions in transport of plasma membrane glycoproteins through the early secretory pathway. PMID:26650540

  7. Investigation of biological activity of polar extracts isolated from Phlomis crinita Cav ssp. mauritanica Munby.

    PubMed

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sghaïer, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Chouchane, Nabil; Kilani, Soumaya; Guedon, Emmanuel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-01-01

    The lyophilized infusion, the methanol, the ethyl acetate, and the total oligomer flavonoid (TOF)-enriched extracts prepared from the dried leaves of Phlomis crinita Cav. ssp. mauritanica Munby were investigated for the contents of flavonoids, tannins, coumarines and steroids. Antibacterial activity was investigated toward five bacterial strains. An inhibitory effect was observed against Staphyllococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL of extract. The tested extracts exhibit an important free radical scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical; with IC(50) values of 30.5, 6, 32, and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively, in the presence of lyophilized infusion, the TOF, the methanol, and the ethyl acetate extracts. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of the different extracts were studied by using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The lyophilized infusion and TOF extracts obtained from P. crinita ssp. mauritanica showed no genotoxicity, whereas methanol and ethyl acetate extracts are considered as marginally genotoxic. On the other hand, we showed that each extract inhibited the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10 microg/assay) and nifuroxazide (NF) (10 microg/assay). The ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest level of protection toward the genotoxicity induced by both directly and indirectly genotoxic NF and AFB1. These tests proved that the lyophilized infusion possesses an antiradical activity likewise, it showed no genotoxic effect; that is why we choose this extract to assess its antiulcerogenic activity by using an ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in the rat. This test demonstrates that 300 mg/kg of a P. crinita ssp. mauritanica lyophilized infusion was more effective than the reference compound, cimetidine.

  8. Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E.

    2005-12-01

    In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

  9. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize. PMID:28223998

  10. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  11. Copper-induced oxidative damage, antioxidant response and genotoxicity in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    İşeri, Özlem Darcansoy; Körpe, Didem Aksoy; Yurtcu, Erkan; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Haberal, Mehmet

    2011-09-01

    Adequate copper (Cu(2+)) concentrations are required for plants; however, at higher concentrations it can also cause multiple toxic effects. In the present study, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels as well as ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1/11/1/11) and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) activities were determined in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L. seedlings after 7-day exposure to copper sulfate. In addition, DNA damage in these two crops was assessed by measuring micronucleus (MN) frequency and tail moments (TM) as determined by Comet assay. Inhibitory copper concentrations (EC(50): 30 and 5.5 ppm for L. esculentum and C. sativus, respectively) were determined according to dose-dependent root inhibition curves, and EC(50) and 2×EC(50) were applied. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) levels significantly increased in all groups studied. CAT activity increased in treatment groups of C. sativus. APX activity increased in L. esculentum seedlings due to 2×EC(50) treatment. Reductions in mitotic indices (MI) represented Cu(2+)dependent root growth inhibition in all treatment groups studied. According to TMs and MN frequencies, copper exposure induced significant DNA damage (p < 0.05) in all study groups, whereas the DNA damage induced was dose dependent in C. sativus roots. In conclusion, Cu(2+)induced oxidative damage, elevations in H(2)O(2) levels and alterations in APX and CAT activities, as well as significant DNA damage in nuclei of both study groups. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative and comprehensive study demonstrating the effects of copper on two different plant species at relevant cytotoxic concentrations at both biochemical and genotoxicity levels with multiple end points.

  12. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  13. Transcript profiling of the salt-tolerant Festuca rubra ssp. litoralis reveals a regulatory network controlling salt acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Diédhiou, Calliste J; Popova, Olga V; Golldack, Dortje

    2009-05-01

    We report an analysis of salt-stress responses in the monocotyledonous halophyte Festuca rubra ssp. litoralis. Salt-dependent expression of transcripts encoding a PIP2;1 aquaporin, V-ATPase subunit B, and the Na+/H+ antiporter NHX was characterized. Transcription of FrPIP2;1, FrVHA-B, and FrNHX1 was induced in root tissue of F. rubra ssp. litoralis by salt treatment, and during salt-stress F. rubra ssp. litoralis accumulated sodium in leaves and roots. Cell specificity of FrPIP2;1, FrVHA-B, and FrNHX1 transcription was analyzed by in situ PCR in roots of F. rubra ssp. litoralis. Expression of the genes was localized to the root epidermis, cortex cells, endodermis, and the vascular tissue. In plants treated with 500 mM NaCl, transcripts were repressed in the epidermis and the outer cortex cells, whereas endodermis and vasculature showed strong signals. These data demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of the aquaporin PIP2;1, V-ATPase, and the Na+/H+ antiporter NHX is correlated with salt tolerance in F. rubra ssp. litoralis and suggests coordinated control of ion homeostasis and water status at high salinity in plants. Salt-induced transcript accumulation in F. rubra ssp. litoralis was further monitored by cDNA-arrays with expressed sequence tags derived from a cDNA subtraction library. The salt-regulated transcripts included those involved in the control of gene expression and signal transduction elements such as a serine/threonine protein kinase, an SNF1-related protein kinase, and a WRKY-type transcription factor. Other ESTs with salt-dependent regulation included transcripts encoding proteins that function in metabolism, general stress responses, and defense and transport proteins.

  14. Extension of the Source-Sink Potential (SSP) approach for multi-channel conductance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocheleau, Philippe; Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    In molecular electronics, molecules are connected to macroscopic contacts and the current passing through is studied as a function of the applied voltage. We focus on modeling the transmission of electrons through such a molecular electronic device (MED). Based on a simple H"uckel Hamiltonian to describe the π electrons in conjugated systems, the SSP method [1,2,3] employs complex potentials to replace the wavefunction of the infinite contacts in a rigorous way. The initial SSP approach [4] was limited to two one-dimensional contacts, here we extend the approach to multiple channels, i.e., to two-dimensional contacts including transverse modes. We describe the development of the method and illustrate it with applications. References:[1] F. Goyer, M. Ernzerhof and M. Zhuang, J. Chem. Phys., 126, (2007) 144104.[2] M. Ernzerhof, J. Chem. Phys., 127, (2007) 204709.[3] B.T. Pickup and P.W. Fowler, Chem. Phys. Lett., 459, (2008) 198-202.[4] P. Rocheleau and M. Ernzerhof, J. Chem. Phys., 130 (17) (2009).

  15. DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, Anna-Lea; Schneide, Magnus; Wiedemann, Günter

    2012-09-01

    We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution échelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectroastrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Coudé spectrograph of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. The observations of Capella led to the determination of the orbital position angle. Our value of 37.2° is in agreement with the values previously found in the literature. As such we verified that both method and instrument are valid.

  16. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted.

  17. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-García, R; Ruiz-García, L; Bolling, L; Ocete, R; López, M A; Arnold, C; Ergul, A; Söylemezoğlu, G; Uzun, H I; Cabello, F; Ibáñez, J; Aradhya, M K; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I; Balint, S; Cenis, J L; Costantini, L; Goris-Lavets, S; Grando, M S; Klein, B Y; McGovern, P E; Merdinoglu, D; Pejic, I; Pelsy, F; Primikirios, N; Risovannaya, V; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K A; Snoussi, H; Sotiri, P; Tamhankar, S; This, P; Troshin, L; Malpica, J M; Lefort, F; Martinez-Zapater, J M

    2006-10-01

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or the nearby Taurus or Zagros Mountains, it is hypothesized that this wine culture spread southwards and eventually westwards around the Mediterranean basin, together with the transplantation of cultivated grape cuttings. However, the existence of morphological differentiation between cultivars from eastern and western ends of the modern distribution of the Eurasian grape suggests the existence of different genetic contribution from local sylvestris populations or multilocal selection and domestication of sylvestris genotypes. To tackle this issue, we analysed chlorotype variation and distribution in 1201 samples of sylvestris and sativa genotypes from the whole area of the species' distribution and studied their genetic relationships. The results suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region, the latter of which gave rise to many of the current Western European cultivars. Indeed, over 70% of the Iberian Peninsula cultivars display chlorotypes that are only compatible with their having derived from western sylvestris populations.

  18. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  19. Form of aluminium for uptake and translocation in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Ma, J F; Hiradate, S

    2000-08-01

    The forms of Al for uptake by the roots and translocation from the root to the shoot were investigated in a buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cv. Jianxi) that accumulates Al in its leaves. The Al concentration in the xylem sap was 15-fold higher in the plants exposed to AlCl3 than in those exposed to an Al-oxalate (1:3) complex, suggesting that the roots take up Al in the ionic form. The Al concentration in the xylem sap was 4-fold higher than that in the external solution after a 1-h exposure to AICl3 solution and 10-fold higher after a 2-h exposure. The Al concentration in the xylem sap increased with increasing Al concentration in the external solution. The Al uptake was not affected by a respiratory inhibitor, hydroxylamine, but significantly inhibited by the addition of La. These results suggest that Al uptake by the root is a passive process, and La3+ competes for the binding sites for Al3+ on the plasma membrane. The form of Al in the xylem sap was identified by 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The chemical shift of 27Al in the xylem sap was around 10.9 ppm, which is consistent with that of the Al-citrate complex. Furthermore, the dominant organic acid in the xylem sap was citric acid, indicating that Al was translocated in the form of Al-citrate complex. Because Al is present as Al-oxalate (1:3) in the root, the present data show that ligand exchange from oxalate to citrate occurs before Al is released to xylem.

  20. Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation of flavonoids in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, M; Wiczkowski, W; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Saniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    The jasmonates, which include jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (MJ), play a central role in regulating the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, and also are signaling molecules in environmental stresses. Synthesis of anthocyanins pigments is a final part of flavonoids pathway route. Accumulation of the pigments in young seedlings is stimulated by various environmental stresses, such as high-intensity light, wounding, pathogen attack, drought, sugar and nutrient deficiency. The anthocyanins take part in defense system against excess of light and UV-B light, and therefore it is probably main reason why young plant tissues accumulate enlarged levels of the pigments. The effects of exogenously applied MJ on level of anthocyanins, glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were studied. MJ decreased contents of all the found cyanidin glycosides and its aglycone in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. However contents of particular anthocyanins in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings treated with the plant hormone were not significantly different from the control. Applied doses of MJ did not affect levels of quercetin, apigenin and luteolin glycosides in the analyzed parts of buckwheat seedlings: cotyledons and hypocotyls. On the other hand, treatment of buckwheat seedlings with MJ clearly stimulated of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis in hypocotyls. We suggest that methyl jasmonate induces in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings the leucocyanidin reductase or anthocyanidin reductase, possible enzymes in proanthocyanidins synthesis, and/or inhibits anthocyanidin synthase, which transforms leucocyanidin into cyanidin. According to our knowledge this is the first report regarding the effect of methyl jasmonate on enhancing the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in cultivated plants.

  1. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) fruit soluble solids

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of ({sup 14}C)sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of ({sup 14}C)-(glycosyl)-1{prime}fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of ({sup 14}C) sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F{sub 2} population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes.

  2. In vitro and in vivo inoculation of four endophytic bacteria on Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Botta, Anna Lucia; Santacecilia, Alessandra; Ercole, Claudia; Cacchio, Paola; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2013-09-25

    Four bacteria selected on the basis of their capability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, stimulating plant-growth, and protecting the host plant from pathogens - Azospirillum brasilense, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Burkholderia ambifaria - were inoculated on tomato seeds either singularly, in couple and in a four bacteria mixer. Aim of this research was to evaluate: (1) effect of single and mixed cultures on the inoculated plant - plant growth, dry weight, root length and surface, number of leaves, among others; (2) colonization and interactions of the bacteria inside the host plant; (3) localization inside the host of single bacterial strains marked with the gusA reporter gene. The results obtained indicate that all selected microbial strains have colonized Lycopersicon esculentum but in a different way, depending on the single species. A. brasilense, G. diazotrophicus inoculated in vitro singularly and together were the best plant colonizers. In vivo essays, instead, B. ambifaria and the four-bacteria mixer gave the best results. It was possible to localize both A. brasilense and H. seropedicae inside the plant by the gusA reporter gene. The bacterial strains occur along the root axis from the apical zone until to the basal stem, on the shoot from the base up to the leaves. The four bacteria actively colonize tomato seeds and establish an endophytic community inside the plant. This review gives new information about colonization processes, in particular how bacteria interact with plants and whether they are likely to establish themselves in the plant environment after field application as biofertilizers or biocontrol agents.

  3. Lycopersicon esculentum under low temperature stress: an approach toward enhanced antioxidants and yield.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tanveer Alam; Fariduddin, Qazi; Yusuf, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been implicated to overcome various abiotic stresses, and low temperature stress poses a serious threat to productivity of various horticultural crops like tomato. Therefore, a study was conducted to unravel the possible role of BRs in conferring alleviation to low temperature stress in Lycopersicon esculentum. Twenty-day-old seedlings of tomato var. S-22 (chilling tolerant) and PKM-1 (chilling sensitive) were sown in earthen pots, and at 40 days stage of growth, plants were exposed to varied levels of low temperatures (10/3, 12/7, 20/14, or 25/18 °C) for 24 h in a growth chamber. At 50 days stage of growth, the foliage of plants were sprayed with 0 or 10(-8) M of BRs (28-homobrassinolide or 24-epibrassinolide), and 60-day-old plants were harvested to assess various physiological and biochemical parameters. Low temperatures induced a significant reduction in growth traits, chlorophyll content, and rate of photosynthesis in both the varieties differentially. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) and leaf proline content also increased substantially in both the varieties with decreasing temperature. On the other hand, treatment of BRs under stress and stress-free conditions significantly increased the aforesaid growth traits and biochemical parameters. Moreover, BRs further accelerated the antioxidative enzymes and proline content, which were already enhanced by the low temperature stress. Out of the two analogues of BRs tested, 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) was found more effective for both the varieties of tomato. EBL was found more potent stress alleviator against low temperature in both varieties of tomato.

  4. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    PubMed

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  5. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  6. Retention of Photoinduction of Cytosolic Enzymes in aurea Mutant of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Goud, K. V.; Sharma, R.

    1994-06-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) aurea (au) mutant has been characterized as a phytochrome-deficient mutant lacking spectrally detectable phytochrome A in etiolated seedlings. Seedlings of au grown under red light (RL) lack phytochrome regulation of nuclear genes encoding plastidic proteins, possess ill-developed chloroplasts, and are slow to de-etiolate. In the present study, the effect of phytochrome deficiency on photoinduction of enzymes in etiolated au seedlings was investigated. The photoinduction of the cytosolic enzymes amylase and nitrate reductase (NR) and of the plastidic enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR) in au was compared with that in the isogenic wild-type (WT) tomato and the high-pigment (hp) mutant with exaggerated phytochrome response. In WT and hp, both brief RL pulses and continuous RL induced amylase, NR, and NiR activities, whereas in au no photoinduction of enzymes was observed with brief RL pulses, and continuous RL induced only amylase and NR activities. The time courses of photoinduction of NR and amylase in au under continuous RL followed patterns qualitatively similar to hp and WT. A blue-light pretreatment prior to continuous RL exposure was ineffective in inducing NiR activity in au. Only continuous white light could elicit a photoinduction of NiR in au seedlings. The norflurazon-triggered loss of photoinduction of NiR in WT and hp indicated that NiR photoinduction depended on chloroplast biogenesis. The results indicate that observed photoinduction of NR and amylase in au may be mediated by a residual phytochrome pool.

  7. Systems Analysis of Early Host Gene Expression Provides Clues for Transient Mycobacterium avium ssp avium vs. Persistent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis Intestinal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sangeeta; Drake, Kenneth L.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Nunes, Jairo E. S.; Figueiredo, Josely F.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Gull, Tamara; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris. A.; Adams, Leslie Garry

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a quest in ruminants to understand how two very similar mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (MAA) lead to either a chronic persistent infection or a rapid-transient infection, respectively. Here, we hypothesized that when the host immune response is activated by MAP or MAA, the outcome of the infection depends on the early activation of signaling molecules and host temporal gene expression. To test our hypothesis, ligated jejuno-ileal loops including Peyer’s patches in neonatal calves were inoculated with PBS, MAP, or MAA. A temporal analysis of the host transcriptome profile was conducted at several times post-infection (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours). When comparing the transcriptional responses of calves infected with the MAA versus MAP, discordant patterns of mucosal expression were clearly evident, and the numbers of unique transcripts altered were moderately less for MAA-infected tissue than were mucosal tissues infected with the MAP. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis. Bayesian network modeling identified mechanistic genes, gene-to-gene relationships, pathways and Gene Ontologies (GO) biological processes that are involved in specific cell activation during infection. MAP and MAA had significant different pathway perturbation at 0.5 and 12 hours post inoculation. Inverse processes were observed between MAP and MAA response for epithelial cell proliferation, negative regulation of chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin and regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling. MAP inoculated tissue had significantly lower expression of phagocytosis receptors such as mannose receptor and complement receptors. This study reveals that perturbation of genes and cellular pathways during MAP infection resulted in host evasion by mucosal membrane barrier weakening to access entry in the ileum

  8. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Defatted Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Flour in Water or Ethanol Heated using Microwave Irradiation at Varying Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has potential to be a nutritionally beneficial crop due to its high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. We explored new technologies to enhance buckwheat phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Buckwheat achenes were ground and flour was extracted for 15 ...

  10. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  11. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  12. Relationships between fruit exocarp antioxidants in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) high pigment-1 mutant during development.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Preston K.; Fahy, Deirdre A.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2004-04-01

    Development-dependent changes in fruit antioxidants were examined in the exocarp (epidermal and hypodermal tissues) of the monogenic recessive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) mutant high pigment (hp-1) and its wild-type parent 'Rutgers' grown under non-stress conditions in a greenhouse. The hp-1 mutant was chosen for this study because the reportedly higher lycopene and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of the fruit may alter its tolerance to photooxidative stress. Throughout most of fruit development, reduced AsA concentrations in the exocarp of hp-1 were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than in 'Rutgers', but total glutathione concentrations were similar in both genotypes. Only in ripe red fruit were reduced AsA and total glutathione concentrations lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. The redox ratios (reduced : reduced + oxidized) of AsA in hp-1 and 'Rutgers' exocarps were similar and usually > 0.9, however, the redox ratio of glutathione was lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers' throughout development. Lycopene concentrations in ripe red fruit were about 5 times higher in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. Large increases in the specific enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) occurred during fruit development in both genotypes, with an inverse relationship between the activities of these enzymes and chlorophyll content. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and MDHAR-specific activities were higher in hp-1 than 'Rutgers' only at the later stages of fruit development. Dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) activities, however, were usually higher in 'Rugters' than in hp-1. Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activities increased with fruit development until the fruit were orange/light red, when CAT was higher in 'Rutgers' than in hp-1, but then declined in the ripe red fruit of both genotypes. These results suggest that elevated AsA in the exocarp of hp-1 fruit early in fruit development may

  13. Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2009-12-01

    The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene.

  14. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction.

  15. Variations in the mosquito larvicidal activities of toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Zaritsky, Arieh; Wirth, Margaret C; Manasherob, Robert; Khasdan, Vadim; Cahan, Rivka; Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2008-09-01

    Comparing activities of purified toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis against larvae of seven mosquito species (vectors of tropical diseases) that belong to three genera, gleaned from the literature, disclosed highly significant variations in the levels of LC(50) as well as in the hierarchy of susceptibilities. Similar toxicity comparisons were performed between nine transgenic Gram-negative species, four of which are cyanobacterial, expressing various combinations of cry genes, cyt1Aa and p20, against larvae of four mosquito species as potential agents for biological control. Reasons for inconsistencies are listed and discussed. Standard conditions for toxin isolation and presentation to larvae are sought. A set of lyophilized powders prepared identically from six Escherichia coli clones expressing combinations of four genes displayed toxicities against larvae of three mosquito species, with levels that differed between them but with identical hierarchy.

  16. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  17. Lignan formation in hairy root cultures of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter)

    PubMed Central

    Wawrosch, Christoph; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Kopp, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    A hairy root line of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter) was obtained upon transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Elicitation of this line with silver nitrate, sucrose, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract at various concentrations in most cases resulted in a stimulation of lignan biosynthesis. Through elicitation with 6% sucrose the roots accumulated the pharmacologically active lignans leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin at levels of 0.0678% and 0.0372%, respectively, without significant growth inhibition. These lignan levels were comparable to those found in intact roots of cultivated Edelweiss. The biotechnological production of leoligin could be an attractive option for the continuous, field culture-independent production of the valuable secondary metabolites leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin. PMID:24932777

  18. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  19. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents.

  20. New Benzophenones and Xanthones from Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Cheng, Ping; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-11-23

    Two new benzophenones (1 and 2) and four new xanthones (4-6 and 17) together with 24 known compounds (3, 7-16, and 18-30) were isolated from the roots and twigs of Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5 and 26 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus epidermis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 8 μg/mL, whereas compounds 7, 20, and 26 displayed selective antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (8 μg/mL), Salmonella typhimurium (4 μg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 μg/mL), respectively. The radical scavenging effects of some isolated compounds were investigated. Compounds 11 and 21 exhibited potent activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 values of 7.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar) and the Salpeter (S) IMF. General information about the models is given in table1. For further information, please refer to the paper. Each set of models and their corresponding predictions are available in the website and VIZIER. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from those pages in ascii format . The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from t hose pages in ascii format . The nomenclature of each SED is as follows: isochroneIMFsedXXXXHZX.XXXXXXXXXTgXX.XXXXXXXe+XX - where XXXX tells whether those models contain C-stars or no (COMBO or NOCS respectively) H is the spectral band in which normalization occurred Z_X.XXXXXXXXX is the metallicity in terms of Z Tg_XX.XXXXXXXe+XX is the age in years. Each set of models contains MarS - 96 SEDs GirS - 96 SEDs BaSS - 116 SEDs We have also included in the websites the Integrated colours and line-strength indices from all our models (MarS, GirS and BaSS). The SEDs were convolved to a velocity dispersion of 350km/s before calculating indices. (5 data files).

  2. The role of stigma peroxidases in flowering plants: insights from further characterization of a stigma-specific peroxidase (SSP) from Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McInnis, Stephanie M; Emery, David C; Porter, Robert; Desikan, Radhika; Hancock, John T; Hiscock, Simon J

    2006-01-01

    Angiosperm stigmas have long been known to exhibit high levels of peroxidase activity when they are mature and most receptive to pollen but the biological function of stigma peroxidases is not known. A novel stigma-specific class III peroxidase gene, SSP (stigma-specific peroxidase) expressed exclusively in the stigmas of Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) has recently been identified. Expression of SSP is confined to the specialized secretory cells (papillae) that compose the stigma epidermis. The literature on stigma peroxidases and hypotheses on their function(s) is reviewed here before further characterization of SSP and an attempt to determine its function are described. It is shown that SSP is localized to cytoplasmic regions of stigmatic papillae and also to the surface of these cells, possibly as a component of the pellicle, a thin layer of condensed protein typical of "dry" stigmas. Enzyme assays on recombinant SSP showed it to be a peroxidase with a preference for diphenolic substrates (ABTS and TMB) and a pH optimum of approximately 4.5. In such assays the peroxidase activity of SSP was low when compared with horseradish peroxidase. To explore the function of SSP and other stigmatic peroxidases, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stigmas of S. squalidus were investigated. Relatively large amounts of ROS, principally H(2)O(2), were detected in S. squalidus stigmas where most ROS/H(2)O(2) was localized to the stigmatic papillae, the location of SSP. These observations are discussed in the context of possible functions for SSP, other peroxidases, and ROS in the stigmas of angiosperms.

  3. Mycorrhizal status and diversity of fungal endophytes in roots of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum).

    PubMed

    Likar, Matevz; Bukovnik, Urska; Kreft, Ivan; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Regvar, Marjana

    2008-09-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status and to identify the fungi colonising the roots of the plants, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) were inoculated with an indigenous fungal mixture from a buckwheat field. Root colonisation was characterised by the hyphae and distinct microsclerotia of dark septate endophytes, with occasional arbuscules and vesicles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising tartary buckwheat clustered close to the Glomus species group A. Sequences with similarity to the Ceratobasidium/Rhizoctonia complex, a putative dark septate endophyte fungus, were amplified from the roots of both common and tartary buckwheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in tartary buckwheat and the first molecular characterisation of these fungi that can colonise both of these economically important plant species.

  4. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants.

  5. Lycopersicon esculentum lectin: an effective and versatile endothelial marker of normal and tumoral blood vessels in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, S; Frigerio, S; Gelati, M; Salmaggi, A; Vitellaro-Zuccarello, L

    2004-01-01

    The binding of Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEA) to the vascular endothelium was studied in the central nervous system of rat, mouse and guinea pig at different developmental ages, and in a gliosarcoma model. Our observations showed that LEA consistently stained the entire vascular tree in the spinal cord and in the brain of all animal species at all developmental ages investigated. In the tumor model, the staining of the vascular network was very reproducible, enabled an easy identification of vascular profiles and displayed a higher efficiency when compared to two other commonly used vascular marker (EHS laminin and PECAM-1). Moreover, our results showed that LEA staining was comparable in both vibratome and paraffin sections and could be easily combined with other markers in double labeling experiments. These observations indicate that LEA staining may represent an effective and versatile endothelial marker for the study of the vasculature of the central nervous system in different animal species and experimental conditions.

  6. Isolation and partial sequence of a Kunitz-type elastase specific inhibitor from marama bean (Tylosema esculentum).

    PubMed

    Nadaraja, Deepa; Weintraub, Susan T; Hakala, Kevin W; Sherman, Nicholas E; Starcher, Barry

    2010-06-01

    An isolation procedure utilizing ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity chromatography was used to purify an elastase inhibitor present in large amounts in marama beans (Tylosema esculentum). The protein appeared to be heterogeneous due to carbohydrate differences, demonstrating two bands on SDS gels with molecular weights of 17.8 kDa and 20 kDa. Partial sequence, derived from mass spectrometry, indicated that the protein is a Kunitz-type inhibitor distinct from other known plant serine protease inhibitors. The marama bean inhibitor is specific for elastase, with very low K(i) for both pancreatic and neutrophil elastase. The quantity of elastase inhibitor present in marama beans is many times greater than in soybean or any other bean or nut source reported to date. This raises the question of why a bean found in an arid corner of the Kalahari Desert would be so rich in a very potent elastase inhibitor.

  7. Modification of fatty acid composition in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by expression of a borage delta6-desaturase.

    PubMed

    Cook, David; Grierson, Don; Jones, Craigh; Wallace, Andrew; West, Gill; Tucker, Greg

    2002-06-01

    The improvement of nutritional quality is one potential application for the genetic modification of plants. One possible target for such manipulation is the modification of fatty acid metabolism. In this work, expression of a borage delta6-desaturase cDNA in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) has been shown to produce gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:83 delta6,9,12) and octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA; 18:4 delta6,9,12,15) in transgenic leaf and fruit tissue. This genetic modification has also, unexpectedly, resulted in a reduction in the percentage of linoleic acid (LA 18:2 delta9,12) and a concomitant increase in the percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 delta9,12,15) in fruit tissue. These changes in fatty acid composition are thought to be beneficial for human health.

  8. Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shrish C

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby). Nicotine at 10(-9) to 10(-3) M concentrations was added to the MS basal medium. The optimum response (three-fold increase in rooting) was obtained at 10(-7) M nicotine-enriched MS medium. At the same level i.e. 10(-7) M Nicotine induced dramatic increase (11-fold) in the number of secondary roots per root. We have shown earlier that exogenous acetylcholine induces a similar response in tomato leaves. Since nicotine is an agonist of one of the two acetylcholine receptors in animals, its ability to simulate ACh action in a plant system suggests the presence of the same molecular mechanism operative in both, animal and plant cells.

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses resulting from nitrite accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1).

    PubMed

    Ezzine, Monia; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib

    2006-10-01

    The sensitivity of hydroponically cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1) submitted to nitrite treatments (0.25-10mM KNO(2)) for 7d was studied. Increasing nitrite levels in the culture medium led to several disruptions of tomato plants, reflected by reductions of both dry matter per plant, chlorophyll concentrations and the appearance of chlorosis symptoms at the leaf surface. This behaviour was accompanied by stimulation of nitrite, nitrate and ammonia ion accumulation, mainly in roots and old leaves. Higher proteolytic and gaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC. 1.11.1.7) activities and malonyldialdehyde content were also noted. Protein content of the different plant organs was decreased by nitrite treatment. These physiological and biochemical parameters were chosen as they are stress indicators. Taken together, our data partly explain the harmful effects of nitrite ions, when excessive in the culture medium.

  10. Phytochrome-mediated induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the cotyledons of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants.

    PubMed

    Lercari, B; Sodi, F; Fastami, C

    1982-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5.) induction in cotyledons from 96-h dark-grown Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. was studied in response to continuous light and hourly light pulses (blue, red, far red). The increases of PAL promoted by blue and red pulses are reversed completely by immediately following 758 nm irradiations. The response to continuous red light could be substituted for by hourly 6-min red light pulses. The effect of continuous red treatments is mainly due to a multiple induction effect of phytochrome. In contrast to red light, hourly light pulses with far red and blue, light can only partially substitute for continuous irradiation. The continuous blue response could be due to a combination of a multiple induction response and of a high irradiance response of phytochrome. The continuous far red response, could represent a high irradiance response of phytochrome. Dichromatic irradiations indicate that phytochrome is the photoreceptor controlling the light response (PAL) in tomato seedlings.

  11. Chemical composition of the essential oils of the berries of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Hanène, Medini; Ameur, Elaissi; Larbi, Khouja Med; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Marongiu, Bruno; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    This study is outlined to probe the chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activity of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) berries, collected from four sites, according to their maturity phase. The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-eight compounds were identified, accounting for approximately 79.8-98.9% of the oil. The main constituents were α-pinene, germacrene D, myrcene, abietadiene and cis-calamenene, their mean percentage vary according to their phenological stage. The antioxidant activity of the samples was determined by the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Hawaria essential oil extracted from mature berries showed the highest antioxidant capacity.

  12. High alpha-tomatine content in ripe fruit of Andean Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme: developmental and genetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Rick, C M; Uhlig, J W; Jones, A D

    1994-01-01

    A variant of Lycopersion esculentum var. cerasiforme is described that deviates from the typical form of the entire species, including cultivated tomatoes, in possessing high levels (500-5000 micrograms/g of dry weight) of the steroidal alkaloid alpha-tomatine in its ripe fruits. This biotype is restricted to a tiny enclave in the valley of Río Mayo, Department San Martín, Peru. Among 88 accessions of var. cerasiforme from its present distribution in the Andes, a 90% association was found between high tomatine and bitter flavor; within the Mayo watershed, all samples from the upper drainage had bitterness and high tomatine; the frequency of both traits decreased to low levels toward the lower end. Tomatine therefore probably is the source of bitterness. Throughout L. esculentum tomatine is present at very high concentrations in earliest stages of fruit development, thereafter decreasing rapidly to midperiod, and finally diminishing gradually to near zero at maturity as a result of catabolism to biologically inert compounds, except in the variant described here. High tomatine content does not appear to affect adversely either the natives, among whom the bitter types are popular, or individuals who sampled them in this survey. Genetic determination of high tomatine in ripe fruits is totally recessive and appears to be monogenic with interaction with genes of minor effect. The prevailing pattern of glycoalkaloid synthesis and degradation in development of solanaceous fruits suggests a mechanism to protect against predation prior to ripening but to permit it afterward as a device to promote dispersal. In consideration of the nondegradative nature of the variant, its genetic determination, and very restricted geographic distribution, mutation to this form appears to be a random event of doubtful evolutionary significance. PMID:7809139

  13. High alpha-tomatine content in ripe fruit of Andean Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme: developmental and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rick, C M; Uhlig, J W; Jones, A D

    1994-12-20

    A variant of Lycopersion esculentum var. cerasiforme is described that deviates from the typical form of the entire species, including cultivated tomatoes, in possessing high levels (500-5000 micrograms/g of dry weight) of the steroidal alkaloid alpha-tomatine in its ripe fruits. This biotype is restricted to a tiny enclave in the valley of Río Mayo, Department San Martín, Peru. Among 88 accessions of var. cerasiforme from its present distribution in the Andes, a 90% association was found between high tomatine and bitter flavor; within the Mayo watershed, all samples from the upper drainage had bitterness and high tomatine; the frequency of both traits decreased to low levels toward the lower end. Tomatine therefore probably is the source of bitterness. Throughout L. esculentum tomatine is present at very high concentrations in earliest stages of fruit development, thereafter decreasing rapidly to midperiod, and finally diminishing gradually to near zero at maturity as a result of catabolism to biologically inert compounds, except in the variant described here. High tomatine content does not appear to affect adversely either the natives, among whom the bitter types are popular, or individuals who sampled them in this survey. Genetic determination of high tomatine in ripe fruits is totally recessive and appears to be monogenic with interaction with genes of minor effect. The prevailing pattern of glycoalkaloid synthesis and degradation in development of solanaceous fruits suggests a mechanism to protect against predation prior to ripening but to permit it afterward as a device to promote dispersal. In consideration of the nondegradative nature of the variant, its genetic determination, and very restricted geographic distribution, mutation to this form appears to be a random event of doubtful evolutionary significance.

  14. Microarray-based analysis of gene expression in lycopersicon esculentum seedling roots in response to cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Liu, Xinhui; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Shengnan; Cui, Baoshan

    2015-02-03

    The effects of heavy metals in agricultural soils have received special attention due to their potential for accumulation in crops, which can affect species at all trophic levels. Therefore, there is a critical need for reliable bioassays for assessing risk levels due to heavy metals in agricultural soil. In the present study, we used microarrays to investigate changes in gene expression of Lycopersicon esculentum in response to Cd-, Cr-, Hg-, or Pb-spiked soil. Exposure to (1)/10 median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cd, Cr, Hg, or Pb for 7 days resulted in expression changes in 29 Cd-specific, 58 Cr-specific, 192 Hg-specific and 864 Pb-specific genes as determined by microarray analysis, whereas conventional morphological and physiological bioassays did not reveal any toxicant stresses. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the characteristic gene expression profiles induced by Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb were distinct from not only the control but also one another. Furthermore, a total of three genes related to "ion transport" for Cd, 14 genes related to "external encapsulating structure organization", "reproductive developmental process", "lipid metabolic process" and "response to stimulus" for Cr, 11 genes related to "cellular metabolic process" and "cellular response to stimulus" for Hg, 78 genes related to 20 biological processes (e.g., DNA metabolic process, monosaccharide catabolic process, cell division) for Pb were identified and selected as their potential biomarkers. These findings demonstrated that microarray-based analysis of Lycopersicon esculentum was a sensitive tool for the early detection of potential toxicity of heavy metals in agricultural soil, as well as an effective tool for identifying the heavy metal-specific genes, which should be useful for assessing risk levels due to heavy metals in agricultural soil.

  15. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera

    PubMed Central

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372). PMID:27746766

  16. Analysis of essential oils from Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and S. utriculata by GC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).

  17. Characterizing the Syphilis-Causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Proteome Using Complementary Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Simon; Lithgow, Karen V.; Meehan, Conor J.; Strouhal, Michal; Šmajs, David; Cameron, Caroline E.; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Kenyon, Chris R.; Van Raemdonck, Geert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap) tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6033 peptides were detected, corresponding to 557 unique T. pallidum proteins at a high level of confidence, representing 54% of the predicted proteome. A previous gel-based T. pallidum MS proteome study detected 58 of these proteins. One hundred fourteen of the detected proteins were previously annotated as hypothetical or uncharacterized proteins; this is the first account of 106 of these proteins at the protein level. Detected proteins were characterized according to their predicted biological function and localization; half were allocated into a wide range of functional categories. Proteins annotated as potential membrane proteins and proteins with unclear functional annotations were subjected to an additional bioinformatics pipeline analysis to facilitate further characterization. A total of 116 potential membrane proteins were identified, of which 16 have evidence supporting outer membrane localization. We found 8/12 proteins related to the paralogous tpr gene family: TprB, TprC/D, TprE, TprG, TprH, TprI and TprJ. Protein abundance was semi-quantified using label-free spectral counting methods. A low correlation (r = 0.26) was found between previous microarray signal data and

  18. Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a

  19. Role of SspA in the density-dependent expression of the transcriptional activator AarP in Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed

    Ding, X; Baca-DeLancey, R R; Rather, P N

    2001-03-01

    The AarP protein in Providencia stuartii encodes a small transcriptional activator which activates the chromosomal aminoglycoside acetyltransferase aac(2')-Ia gene. In addition, AarP activates genes involved in a multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype. Expression of an aarP-lacZ fusion increased in a density-dependent manner and reached peak levels at stationary phase. The expression of an aarP-lacZ fusion could be prematurely activated in cells at early to mid-exponential phase by the addition of spent culture supernatants from stationary phase cultures or by ethyl acetate extracts of these supernatants. Nutrient starvation had a negligible effect on aarP expression. In a search for mutations that block aarP activation at stationary phase, a mini-Tn5Cm insertion has been identified within a gene whose product was 77% identical to SspA, a regulatory protein involved in stationary phase gene expression and virulence. An unmarked sspA null allele (sspA2) was created by allelic replacement to further examine the role of sspA in P. stuartii. The sspA2 allele resulted in substantial decrease in aarP mRNA accumulation at various phases of growth. Furthermore, in an sspA mutant background, the aarP-lacZ fusion was no longer activated by an extracellular signal.

  20. Characterization of a novel y-type HMW-GS with eight cysteine residues from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenglin; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Gang; Kou, Chunlan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Jiang, Qi; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan

    2015-11-15

    The composition and number of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) play important roles in determining the grain-processing quality of common wheat. The Glu-1Ay allele is silent in common wheat. In this study, an active y-type HMW-GS allele termed 1Ay8.2 (GenBank No. KP137569) was identified from Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n=2x=14), a species with a genome related to the A-genome of common wheat. Compared with previously reported active 1Ay subunits, this novel subunit contained an extra cysteine residue at position 103 of the amino acid sequence in the N-terminal region, in addition to the six cysteines in the N- and C-terminal regions found in most active 1Ay subunits and the one in the repetitive region that appears in only a few 1Ay alleles. This subunit was expressed in an amphiploid (AAAmAmBB, 2n=6x=42) between Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon and T. monococcum ssp. monococcum. This amphiploid could be used as a bridge to transfer 1Ay8.2 into common wheat cultivars. Replacing the silenced 1Ay in common wheat with the active 1Ay8.2 allele harboring an extra cysteine residue is expected to improve the quality by increasing the number of HMW-GSs and promoting the formation of covalent interactions through disulfide bonds with the extra cysteine residue.

  1. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M, anhydrolycodoline, gnidioidine, lycofoline, lannotinidine D, and acrifoline, as well as a previously unknown N-oxide of annotine. 1H and 13C NMR data of several of the alkaloids were provided for the first time. Solvent-dependent equilibrium constants between ketone and hemiketal form of acrifoline were determined. Conformation of acrifoline was characterized using NOESY spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Ligand docking studies based on mutated 3D structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase provided rationale for low inhibitory activity of the isolated alkaloids as compared to huperzine A or B, which are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors belonging to the lycodine class. Based on the modelling studies the lycopodane-type alkaloids seem to fit well into the active site gorge of the enzyme but the position of their functional groups is not compatible with establishing strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the amino acid residues that line the binding site. The docking studies indicate possibilities of additional functionalization of the lycopodane skeleton to render potentially more active analogues.

  3. Kinetin induces cell death in root cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kunikowska, Anita; Byczkowska, Anna; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    The double fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) revealed that treatment of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings with kinetin-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in root cortex cells. Kinetin-induced cell death reflected by the morphological changes of nuclei including their invagination, volume increase, chromatin condensation and degradation as well as formation of micronuclei showed by AO/EB and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining was accompanied by changes including increase in conductivity of cell electrolytes secreted to culture media, decrease in the number of the G1- and G2-phase cells and appearance of fraction of hypoploid cells as the effect of DNA degradation without ladder formation. Decrease in the number of mitochondria and in the activity of cellular dehydrogenases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), appearance of small and then large lytic vacuoles and increase in the amount of cytosolic calcium ions were also observed. The PCD was also manifested by increased width and weight of apical fragments of roots as well as decreased length of cortex cells which led to shortening of the whole roots. The kinetin-induced PCD process was almost completely inhibited by adenine, an inhibitor of phosphoribosyl transferase, and mannitol, an inhibitor of ROS production. These cell-death hallmarks and pathway of this process suggested that the induction of kinetin-specific vacuolar type of death, expressed itself with similar intensity on both morphological and metabolic levels, was a transient protecting whole roots and whole seedlings against elimination.

  4. Retrogenes in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) exhibit correlated expression with their source genes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Gaut, Brandon S

    2011-01-01

    Gene duplication occurs by either DNA- or RNA-based processes; the latter duplicates single genes via retroposition of messenger RNA. The expression of a retroposed gene copy (retrocopy) is expected to be uncorrelated with its source gene because upstream promoter regions are usually not part of the retroposition process. In contrast, DNA-based duplication often encompasses both the coding and the intergenic (promoter) regions; hence, expression is often correlated, at least initially, between DNA-based duplicates. In this study, we identified 150 retrocopies in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica), most of which represent ancient retroposition events. We measured their expression from high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data generated from seven tissues. At least 66% of the retrocopies were expressed but at lower levels than their source genes. However, the tissue specificity of retrogenes was similar to their source genes, and expression between retrocopies and source genes was correlated across tissues. The level of correlation was similar between RNA- and DNA-based duplicates, and they decreased over time at statistically indistinguishable rates. We extended these observations to previously identified retrocopies in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may be general features of the process of retention of plant retrogenes.

  5. Retrogenes in Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) Exhibit Correlated Expression with Their Source Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene duplication occurs by either DNA- or RNA-based processes; the latter duplicates single genes via retroposition of messenger RNA. The expression of a retroposed gene copy (retrocopy) is expected to be uncorrelated with its source gene because upstream promoter regions are usually not part of the retroposition process. In contrast, DNA-based duplication often encompasses both the coding and the intergenic (promoter) regions; hence, expression is often correlated, at least initially, between DNA-based duplicates. In this study, we identified 150 retrocopies in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica), most of which represent ancient retroposition events. We measured their expression from high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data generated from seven tissues. At least 66% of the retrocopies were expressed but at lower levels than their source genes. However, the tissue specificity of retrogenes was similar to their source genes, and expression between retrocopies and source genes was correlated across tissues. The level of correlation was similar between RNA- and DNA-based duplicates, and they decreased over time at statistically indistinguishable rates. We extended these observations to previously identified retrocopies in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may be general features of the process of retention of plant retrogenes. PMID:22042334

  6. Improving green roofs and rail road greening systems using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, H; Oschmann, C; Dunya, S; Ulrichs, C

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present study was the improvement of existing methods for green roof and rail road greening systems using soil borne bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp. alone and in combination with vinasse applied to different growing substrates were tested. The substrates were brick chips, textile mats, mineral wool mats, and a commercial available substrate for the Swedish company VegTech. All four substrates were tested along an artificial rail track on the experimental station at Humboldt University Berlin, and partly on an existing rail track in Munich, Germany. Plants selected for the experiments belong to the genus Sedum, which is relatively tolerant to dry conditions. Inoculation of plants with bacteria had no effect on plant growth parameters and on coverage of different mobile bedding systems with Sedum plants. There was no significant difference between the various treatments in Munich. In both experiments, the addition of vinasse alone improved plant growth. Plant growth was significantly different on all substrates, whereas brick chips and the commercial roof soil was the best substrate. Brick chips are a cheap substrate which can be used for rail track greening. The results indicate that the quality of the substrate is the most important factor for remediation and greening of rail tracks and roof tops. The rapid growth of plants can be influenced by the application of vinasse as additional nutrient solution (potash (K) source) or nutrient enriched substrate.

  7. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

  8. Variation in nectar volume and sugar concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in three habitats.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Agnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  9. Identification of novel genes expressed during host infection in Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus ATCC35246.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhe; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Tingting; Xu, Bin; Ma, Fang; Peng, Jie; Fan, Hongjie

    2015-02-01

    Infection with Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mastitis in domesticated species. Identification of this organism's virulence factors is an effective way of clarifying its pathogenic mechanism. We employed in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) to find bacterial genes that were only expressed or upregulated in an infected host (IVI genes). Convalescent-phase sera from pigs infected with SEZ were pooled, adsorbed against in vitro antigens, and used to screen SEZ genomic expression libraries. This analysis identified 43 genes as IVI genes. Six of these 43 genes were verified via real-time PCR. Following the analysis, we were able to assign a putative function to 36 of the 43 proteins. These proteins included those involved in virulence and adaptation; formation of intermediary products; gene replication, transcription and expression; energy metabolism; transport and also various proteins of unknown function. The relationship between sagD gene and bacterial virulence was confirmed. This study provides new molecular data for the study of streptococcal disease in swine and is important for identifying the pathogenic mechanisms of SEZ.

  10. Allee effects within small populations of Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, a protected subspecies in northern France.

    PubMed

    Le Cadre, Solenn; Tully, Thomas; Mazer, Susan J; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Moret, Jacques; Machon, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Plants growing at low density can suffer from Allee effects as a result of pollen limitation. Previous studies of Allee effects have focused on the effects of variation among populations in size or density on reproduction. Here, the effects of plant distribution within populations on fitness components are explored in a rare plant, Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, and ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying these effects are identified. To detect pollen limitation, seed production was compared under natural versus hand-supplemented pollinations on inflorescences of different sizes in natural patches differing both in flower density and in isolation from other patches. Germination rate and juvenile survival of seeds produced in low- and high-density patches were also compared. Pollen-supplemented flowers always produced more seeds than open-pollinated flowers, especially among small plants and plants growing at low density. Offspring produced in low-density patches exhibited lower fitness that those produced in high-density patches. This could have been caused by post-fertilization mechanisms, including inbreeding depression or differential maternal resource allocation. These results show that Allee effects on fitness components (ecological and genetic Allee effects) occur within A. napellus populations at different spatial scales. The spatial distribution of plants seems to be a crucial factor affecting reproductive output and fitness.

  11. Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances.

    PubMed

    James, S A; Bell, D T

    2000-09-01

    Light availability strongly affects leaf structure of the distinctive ontogenetic leaf forms of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus. Late-maturing plants from St. Marys, Tasmania and early maturing plants from Wilsons Promontory, Victoria (hereafter referred to as Wilsons Prom.) were grown for 9 months in 100, 50 or 10% sunlight. Growth, biomass and leaf area were significantly reduced when plants were grown in 10% sunlight. Provenance differences were minimal despite retention of the juvenile leaf form by the Tasmanian plants throughout the study. The time taken for initiation of vegetative phase change by the Wilsons Prom. saplings increased with decreasing light availability, but the nodal position of change on the main stem remained the same. Both juvenile and adult leaves remained horizontal in low light conditions, but became vertical with high irradiance. Leaf dimensions changed with ontogenetic development, but were unaffected by light availability. Juvenile leaves retained a dorsiventral anatomy and adult Wilsons Prom. leaves retained an isobilateral structure despite a tenfold difference in light availability. Stomatal density and distribution showed ontogenetic and treatment differences. At all irradiances, juvenile leaves produced the smallest stomata and adult leaves the largest stomata. Amphistomy decreased with decreasing irradiance. Detrended, correspondence analysis ordination highlighted the structural changes influenced by ontogenetic development and light availability. Adult leaves had characteristics similar to the xeromorphic, sun-leaf type found in arid, high-light conditions. Although juvenile leaves had characteristics typical of mesomorphic leaves, several structural features suggest that these leaves are more sun-adapted than adult leaves.

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  13. Disentangling the causes of heterogeneity in male fecundity in gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.

    PubMed

    De Cauwer, I; Arnaud, J-F; Klein, E K; Dufay, M

    2012-08-01

    Variation among individuals in reproductive success is advocated as a major process driving evolution of sexual polymorphisms in plants, such as gynodioecy where females and hermaphrodites coexist. In gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, sex determination involves cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers of male fertility. Both restored CMS and non-CMS hermaphrodites co-occur. Genotype-specific differences in male fitness are theoretically expected to explain the maintenance of cytonuclear polymorphism. Using genotypic information on seedlings and flowering plants within two metapopulations, we investigated whether male fecundity was influenced by ecological, phenotypic and genetic factors, while taking into account the shape and scale of pollen dispersal. Along with spatially restricted pollen flow, we showed that male fecundity was affected by flowering synchrony, investment in reproduction, pollen production and cytoplasmic identity of potential fathers. Siring success of non-CMS hermaphrodites was higher than that of restored CMS hermaphrodites. However, the magnitude of the difference in fecundity depended on the likelihood of carrying restorer alleles for non-CMS hermaphrodites. Our results suggest the occurrence of a cost of silent restorers, a condition supported by scarce empirical evidence, but theoretically required to maintain a stable sexual polymorphism in gynodioecious species.

  14. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Nepeta nuda L. ssp. nuda essential oil rich in nepetalactones from Greece.

    PubMed

    Gkinis, George; Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils from air-dried leaves and verticillasters of Nepeta nuda ssp. nuda from Greece were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominant constituent in the verticillaster oils was 4aα,7α,7aß-nepetalactone (75.7%). The main metabolites of the leaf oil were 1,8-cineole (16.7%), 4aα,7α,7aß-nepetalactone (24.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (16.3%). The oils were examined for their antioxidant activity. Neutralization of stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical ranged from 10.83% (2.50 μg/mL) to 58.64% (50.00 μg/mL) for verticillaster oil and from 6.25% (2.50 μg/mL) to 57.79% (50.00 μg/mL) for leaf oil. The essential oil from verticillasters had significant effects on lipid peroxidation (in the range of 41.18-59.23%), compared to tert-butylated hydroxytoluene (37.04%). In contrast, the essential oil from leaves exhibited pro-oxidant activity at the highest concentration applied.

  16. Fine scale genetic structure in the wild ancestor of maize (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis).

    PubMed

    Van Heerwaarden, Joost; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; González, Jose De Jesús Sánchez; Gaut, Brandon S; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of fine scale genetic structure in continuous populations of outcrossing plant species has traditionally been limited by the availability of sufficient markers. We used a set of 468 SNPs to characterize fine-scale genetic structure within and between two dense stands of the wild ancestor of maize, teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis). Our analyses confirmed that teosinte is highly outcrossing and showed little population structure over short distances. We found that the two populations were clearly genetically differentiated, although the actual level of differentiation was low. Spatial autocorrelation of relatedness was observed within both sites but was somewhat stronger in one of the populations. Using principal component analysis, we found evidence for significant local differentiation in the population with stronger spatial autocorrelation. This differentiation was associated with pronounced shifts in the first two principal components along the field. These shifts corresponded to changes in allele frequencies, potentially due to local topographical features. There was little evidence for selection at individual loci as a contributing factor to differentiation. Our results demonstrate that significant local differentiation may, but need not, co-occur with spatial autocorrelation of relatedness. The present study represents one of the most detailed analyses of local genetic structure to date and provides a benchmark for future studies dealing with fine scale patterns of genetic diversity in natural plant populations.

  17. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

    1997-09-01

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

  18. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  20. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  2. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 Protects against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Permeability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Anna; Saarinen, Markku; Putaala, Heli; Olli, Kaisa; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Madetoja, Mari; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects such as erosion and increased permeability are common during the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our objective was to assess whether Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 protects against NSAID-induced GI side effects in a rat model. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were allocated into groups designated as control, NSAID, and probiotic. The NSAID and probiotic groups were challenged with indomethacin (10 mg/kg−1; single dose). The probiotic group was also supplemented daily with 1010 CFU of B. lactis 420 for seven days prior to the indomethacin administration. The control group rats received no indomethacin or probiotic. The permeability of the rat intestine was analysed using carbohydrate probes and the visual damage of the rat stomach mucosa was graded according to severity. B. lactis 420 significantly reduced the indomethacin-induced increase in stomach permeability. However, the protective effect on the visual mucosal damage was not significant. The incidence of severe NSAID-induced lesions was, nevertheless, reduced from 50% to 33% with the probiotic treatment. To conclude, the B. lactis 420 supplementation protected the rats from an NSAID-induced increase in stomach permeability and may reduce the formation of more serious GI mucosal damage and/or enhance the recovery rate of the stomach mucosa. PMID:22848210

  3. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India.

  4. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J.; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats. PMID:27293659

  5. Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides ssp. rigida from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sonboli, Ali; Atri, Morteza; Shafiei, Sedighe

    2010-07-01

    Hydrodistillated essential oils of Ziziphora clinopodioides ssp. rigida from nine populations of the Lashgardar protected region (Hamedan Province, Iran) were analyzed by using GC and GC/MS techniques to determine the intraspecific chemical variability. Altogether, 39 compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents was found. The main constituents of the essential oils were pulegone (0.7-44.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.1-26.0%), neomenthol (2.5-22.5%), 4-terpineol (0.0-9.9%), 1-terpineol (0.0-13.2%), neomenthyl acetate (0.0-7.1%), and piperitenone (0.0-5.4%). For the determination of the chemotypes and the intraspecific chemical variability, the essential oil components were subjected to cluster analysis (CA). The five different chemotypes characterized were Chemotype I (pulegone/neomenthol), Chemotype II (pulegone), Chemotype III (pulegone/1,8-cineole), Chemotype IV (neomenthol), and Chemotype V (1,8-cineole/4-terpineol).

  6. Visualizing Adsorption of Cyanophage P-SSP7 onto Marine Prochlorococcus

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuyoshi; Zhang, Qinfen; Gerardo Galaz-Montoya, Jesús; Fu, Caroline; Coleman, Maureen L.; Osburne, Marcia S.; Schmid, Michael F.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Chiu, Wah

    2017-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria perform roughly a quarter of global carbon fixation, and cyanophages that infect them liberate some of this carbon during infection and cell lysis. Studies of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 and its associated cyanophage P-SSP7 have revealed complex gene expression dynamics once infection has begun, but the initial cyanophage-host interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we used single particle cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to investigate cyanophage-host interactions in this model system, based on 170 cyanophage-to-host adsorption events. Subtomogram classification and averaging revealed three main conformations characterized by different angles between the phage tail and the cell surface. Namely, phage tails were (i) parallel to, (ii) ~45 degrees to, or (iii) perpendicular to the cell surface. Furthermore, different conformations of phage tail fibers correlated with the aforementioned orientations of the tails. We also observed density beyond the tail tip in vertically-oriented phages that had penetrated the cell wall, capturing the final stage of adsorption. Together, our data provide a quantitative characterization of the orientation of phages as they adsorb onto cells, and suggest that cyanophages that abut their cellular targets are only transiently in the “perpendicular” orientation required for successful infection. PMID:28281671

  7. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

  8. Phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin precludes Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici infection in Lycopersicon esculentum via induction of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, S; Sarada, D V L

    2015-01-01

    Binding of phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin (PDP) modulated activity of fungal endopolygalacturonase in silico. Induced fit docking study of PDP with endopolygalacturonase (1HG8) showed a bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with the protein at Lys 244 with a docking score of -3.6 and glide energy of -37.30 kcal/mol. Docking with endopolygalacturonase II (1CZF) resulted hydrogen bond formation with Lys 258 with a docking score of -2.3 and glide energy of -30.42 kcal/mol. It was hypothesized that this modulation favors accumulation of cell wall fragments (oligogalacturonides) which act as elicitors of plant defense responses. In order to prove the same, in vivo studies were carried out using a formulation developed from PDP (PDP 5EC) on greenhouse grown Lycopersicon esculentum L. The formulation was effective at different concentrations in reduction of seed infection, improvement of vigor and control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection in L. esculentum. At a concentration of 2 %, PDP 5EC significant reduction in seed infection (95.83 %), improvement in seed vigor (64.31 %) and control of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection (96.15 %) were observed. Further application of PDP 5EC to L. esculentum challenged with F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici significantly increased the activity of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and enhanced the total phenolic content when compared to the control.

  9. Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jill L; Morris, Daniel O; Griffeth, Gregory C; Shofer, Frances S; Rankin, Shelley C

    2007-08-01

    In this study, bacterial cultures were collected from five sites on each of 50 healthy cats and 48 cats with inflammatory skin disease (ISD), to determine prevalence of carriage and relative frequency of methicillin resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi. Latex agglutination testing for penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on all methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the mecA gene was performed on MR S. intermedius and S. schleiferi isolates. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCCmec) typing was performed on all MR S. aureus isolates. Coagulase-positive staphylococci and S. schleiferi ssp. schleiferi were isolated from 24 of 48 cats with ISD: Staphylococcus aureus (14 of 24, 58%), Staphylococcus intermedius (11 of 24, 46%), Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi (1 of 24, 4%), and Staphylococcus hyicus (1 of 24, 4%). Prevalence of MR was 7% for S. aureus, 0% for S. intermedius, 100% for S. schleiferi ssp. schleiferi, and 0% for S. hyicus. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 17 of 50 healthy cats: S. aureus (10 of 17, 59%), S. intermedius (11 of 17, 65%), and S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans (1 of 17, 6%). Prevalence of MR was 20% for S. aureus, 18% for S. intermedius, and 0% for S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans. All MR isolates were positive for PBP2a via latex agglutination. Methicillin-resistant S. intermedius and S. schleiferi ssp. schleiferi isolates were also positive for the mecA gene via PCR. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were identified as SCCmec type II. Results of PFGE indicated heterogeneity among isolates. There was no significant difference in staphylococcal isolation or methicillin resistance between study groups. While present, MR coagulase-positive staphylococci are significantly less common in these study populations.

  10. Identification, quantification and antioxidant activity of acylated flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu; Xu, Xue-Min; Chen, Yang; Yu, Meng-Yao; Wen, Fei-Yan; Zhang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A novel acylated flavonol glycoside: isorhamnetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (1), together with two known acylated flavonol glycosides: quercetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (2) and kaempferol (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries for the first time by chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated using UV, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1-3 showed good scavenging activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.91, 4.26 and 30.90 μM toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; respective Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of 2.89, 4.04 and 2.44 μM μM(-1) toward 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical. The quantitative analysis of the isolated acylated flavonol glycosides was performed by HPLC-DAD method. The contents of compounds 1-3 were in the range of 12.2-31.4, 4.0-25.3, 7.5-59.7 mg/100 g dried berries and 9.1-34.5, 75.1-182.1, 29.2-113.4 mg/100 g dried leaves, respectively.

  11. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    PubMed

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species.

  12. Flowering time in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) along a latitudinal cline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Henk Van; Boudry, Pierre; McCombre, Helen; Vernet, Philippe

    The wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, a perennial species from the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts) shows marked variation in flowering time in terms of both the year of first flowering and flowering date in a given year. Much of this variability is related to latitude. Beta vulgaris plants flower either in the same year as they germinate or in their second year. This is mainly due to differences in their requirement for vernalization, which is determined by a single gene B/b and by quantitative trait loci. The more southern the origin of the plants, the less vernalization is required. Also the B allele, which cancels vernalization requirement completely, has a high frequency in the Mediterranean region, but is completely absent in the northern part of the distribution of this species. We found that flowering date variation in relation to the latitude of origin is maintained under greenhouse conditions but does not follow a simple clinal relationship. From the Mediterranean northwards to the west coast of Brittany, flowering occurs progressively earlier, but from Brittany northwards to south-east England and The Netherlands it is progressively later. A possible explanation for this difference is that in the southern part of the range sensitivity to daylength and warmth control flowering time, whereas further north vernalization requirement is also a key factor. A substantial part of all differences in flowering time was heritable: heritability within populations was measured as 0.33 under greenhouse conditions. The high heritability implies evolutionary change may occur in this character.

  13. [Effects of ruta SSP on the activity of the smooth gastrointestinal muscle isolated of rat].

    PubMed

    Grigorjev, Carlota A; Brizuela, Nilda Y

    2010-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta chalepensis L. are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive and for intestinal gases. Animals used as experimental model were rats of the Wistar line, adult females, clinically healthy and with a weight average of 250 grams. We used strips of stomach and duodenum. Each one of the segments mounted on two stirrups in a bath of organ isolated with Ringer-lactate solution, at 37° C , pH: 7.3-7.4, and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2. One of the stirrups was connected vertically to the bottom of the bath and the other to a transducer of tension connected to a Beckman polygraph. We applied 500 mgs of basal tension. After the stabilization, the ethanolic extract of Ruta ssp was added in increasing doses. At 50μl/ml the tone lower 23% in small intestine and lower 27% in stomach. However at 100 μl/ml the tone lower 32% and 35% respectively. In the other parameters the amplitude decrease 50% in the stomach at dose of 5 μl/ml while in the small intestine the amplitude lower 60%. With 10 μl/ml the amplitude change in both organs ( 96% in small intestine, and 75% in stomach). The frequency changes in both organs ( 32% in small intestine, and 50% in stomach) at 10 μl/ml Rue showed decreased effects on isolated small intestine and stomach were is dose dependent, maybe we were demonstrated the effects digestive of Ruta.

  14. Short communication: Evaluation of sampling socks for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Kanevets, U; Barkema, H W

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a production-limiting disease in cattle. Detection of infected herds is often done using environmental samples (ES) of manure, which are collected in cattle pens and manure storage areas. Disadvantages of the method are that sample accuracy is affected by cattle housing and type of manure storage area. Furthermore, some sampling locations (e.g., manure lagoons) are frequently not readily accessible. However, sampling socks (SO), as used for Salmonella spp. testing in chicken flocks, might be an easy to use and accurate alternative to ES. The objective of the study was to assess accuracy of SO for detection of MAP in dairy herds. At each of 102 participating herds, 6 ES and 2 SO were collected. In total, 45 herds had only negative samples in both methods and 29 herds had ≥1 positive ES and ≥1 positive SO. Furthermore, 27 herds with ≥1 positive ES had no positive SO, and 1 herd with no positive ES had 1 positive SO. Bayesian simulation with informative priors on sensitivity of ES and MAP herd prevalence provided a posterior sensitivity for SO of 43.5% (95% probability interval=33-58), and 78.5% (95% probability interval=62-93) for ES. Although SO were easy to use, accuracy was lower than for ES. Therefore, with improvements in the sampling protocol (e.g., more SO per farm and more frequent herd visits), as well as improvements in the laboratory protocol, perhaps SO would be a useful alternative for ES.

  15. Starch-bound 2S proteins and kernel texture in einkorn, Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Federica; Gazza, Laura; Conti, Salvatore; Muccilli, Vera; Foti, Salvatore; Pogna, Norberto Edgar

    2009-11-01

    The starch granule proteins from 113 einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum) accessions were analyzed by acidic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), and two-dimensional A-PAGE x SDS-PAGE. All accessions were confirmed to contain equal amounts of two polypeptide chains corresponding to puroindoline B (Pin-B), as well as a prominent component plus a faint band corresponding to puroindoline A (Pin-A). When compared with soft-textured common wheat, "monococcum" accessions showed an increase of 3.2- and 2.7-fold in Pin-A and Pin-B levels on the starch granules, respectively. In addition, all accessions contained a novel component of the 2S super-family of seed proteins named Einkorn Trypsin Inhibitor (ETI), which was found to be encoded as a pre-protein 148 residues long. Wild-type ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1a and "valine-type" ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1b, which occurred in 107 and six einkorn accessions, respectively, were found to accumulate on starch granules as a mature protein of 121 amino acids with a hydrophobic central domain. The einkorn accessions exhibited an average SKCS index as low as -2.05 +/- 11.4, which is typical of extra-soft kernels. The total surface area of starch granules in "monococcum" wheat, as determined by visual assessments in counting chambers, was estimated at 764 mm(2)/mg of starch, and was about 1.5 times higher than that for common wheat. The results are discussed in relation to the identification of factors that cause the extra-soft texture of einkorn kernels.

  16. Functional genomics provides insights into the role of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS in cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Teija; Laine, Pia K S; Ahlroos, Terhi; Tanskanen, Jarna; Pitkänen, Saara; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Kankainen, Matti; Tynkkynen, Soile; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri

    2017-01-16

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and determining its global transcriptional profiles during industrial cheese-making using transcriptome sequencing. The annotation of the genome identified a total of 2377 protein-coding genes and revealed the presence of enzymes and pathways for formation of several flavor compounds. Based on transcriptome profiling, the expression of 348 protein-coding genes was altered between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several propionate, acetate, and diacetyl/acetoin production related genes had higher expression levels in the warm room, whereas a general slowing down of the metabolism and an activation of mobile genetic elements was seen in the cold room. A few ripening-related and amino acid catabolism involved genes were induced or remained active in cold room, indicating that strain JS contributes to the aroma development also during cold room ripening. In addition, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain JS and 29 other Propionibacterium strains of 10 different species, including an isolate of both P. freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii and shermanii. Ortholog grouping of the predicted protein sequences revealed that close to 86% of the ortholog groups of strain JS, including a variety of ripening-related ortholog groups, were conserved across the P. freudenreichii isolates. Taken together, this study contributes to the understanding of the genomic basis of P. freudenreichii

  17. Rapid turnover of the W chromosome in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.

    PubMed

    Yoshido, Atsuo; Síchová, Jindra; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František; Sahara, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Our previous studies revealed a considerably high level of chromosomal polymorphism in wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Geographical populations of this species complex differ in chromosome numbers and show derived sex chromosome systems including Z0/ZZ in S. cynthia ricini (2n = 27/28; Vietnam), neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z in S. cynthia walkeri (2n = 26/26; Sapporo, Hokkaido) and neo-WZ1Z2/Z1Z1Z2Z2 in S. cynthia subsp. indet. (2n = 25/26; Nagano, Honshu). In this study, we collected specimens of S. cynthia pryeri in Japanese islands Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, with an ancestral-like karyotype of 2n = 28 in both sexes and a WZ/ZZ sex chromosome system, except for one population, in which females have lost the W chromosome. However, the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome showed a very unusual morphology: It was composed of a highly heterochromatic body, which remained condensed throughout the whole cell cycle and of a euchromatin-like "tail." We examined molecular composition of the W and neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia subspecies by comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with W chromosome painting probes prepared from laser-microdissected W chromatin of S. cynthia pryeri. These methods revealed that the molecular composition of highly heterochromatic part of the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome is very different and lacks homology in the genomes of other subspecies, whereas the euchromatin-like part of the W chromosome corresponds to a heterochromatic part of the neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia walkeri and S. cynthia subsp. indet. Our findings suggest that the curious WZ system of S. cynthia pryeri may represent an ancestral state of the Samia species complex but do not exclude an alternative hypothesis of its derived origin.

  18. Advanced backcross QTL analysis of a Lycopersicon esculentum x L. pennellii cross and identification of possible orthologs in the Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Frary, A; Fulton, T M; Zamir, D; Tanksley, S D

    2004-02-01

    In this study, the advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) mapping strategy was used to identify loci for yield, processing and fruit quality traits in a population derived from the interspecific cross Lycopersicon esculentum E6203 x Lycopersicon pennellii accession LA1657. A total of 175 BC(2) plants were genotyped with 150 molecular markers and BC(2)F(1) plots were grown and phenotyped for 25 traits in three locations in Israel and California, U.S.A. A total of 84 different QTLs were identified, 45% of which have been possibly identified in other wild-species-derived populations of tomato. Moreover, three fruit-weight/size and shape QTLs ( fsz2b.1, fw3.1/ fsz3.1 and fs8.1) appear to have putative orthologs in the related solanaceous species, pepper and eggplant. For the 23 traits for which allelic effects could be deemed as favorable or unfavorable, 26% of the identified loci had L. pennellii alleles that enhanced the performance of the elite parent. Alleles that could be targeted for further introgression into cultivated tomato were also identified.

  19. The growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hypocotyls in the light and in darkness differentially involves auxin.

    PubMed

    Kraepiel, Y; Agnes, C; Thiery, L; Maldiney, R; Miginiac, E; Delarue, M

    2001-11-01

    Light and auxin antagonistically regulate hypocotyl elongation. We have investigated the physiological interactions of light and auxin in the control of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hypocotyl elongation by studying the auxin-insensitive mutant diageotropica (dgt). The length of the hypocotyls of the dgt mutant is significantly reduced when compared to the wild type line Ailsa Craig (AC) in the dark and under red light, but not under the other light conditions tested, indicating that auxin sensitivity is involved in the elongation of hypocotyls only in these conditions. Similarly, the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphtylphtalamic] acid (NPA) differentially affects elongation of dark- or light-grown hypocotyls of the MoneyMaker (MM) tomato wild type. Using different photomorphogenic mutants, we demonstrate that at least phytochrome A, phytochrome B1 and, to a much lesser extent [correction of extend], cryptochrome 1, are necessary for a switch from an auxin transport-dependent elongation of hypocotyls in the dark to an auxin transport-independent elongation in the light. Interestingly, the dgt mutant and NPA-treated seedlings exhibit a looped phenotype only under red light, indicating that the negative gravitropism of hypocotyls also differentially involves auxin in the various light conditions.

  20. Evaluation of AFLPs for germplasm fingerprinting and assessment of genetic diversity in cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Young Hoon; West, Marilyn A L; St Clair, Dina A

    2004-06-01

    Cultivated tomato (L. esculentum L.) germplasm exhibits limited genetic variation compared with wild Lycopersicon species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to evaluate genetic variation among 74 cultivars, primarily from California, and to fingerprint germplasm to determine if cultivar-specific patterns could be obtained. All 74 cultivars were genotyped using 26 AFLP primer combinations; of the 1092 bands scored, 102 AFLP bands (9.3%) were polymorphic. Pair-wise genetic similarity coefficients (Jaccard and Nei-Li) were calculated. Jaccard coefficients varied from 0.16 to 0.98 among cultivar pairs, and 72% of pair-wise comparisons exceeded 0.5. UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging) clustering and principle component analysis revealed four main clusters, I-IV; most modern hybrid cultivars grouped in II, whereas most vintage cultivars grouped in I. Clusters III and IV contained three and two cultivars, respectively. Some groups of cultivars closely related by pedigree exhibited high bootstrap values, but lower values (<50%) were obtained for cluster II and its four subgroups. Unique fingerprints for all 74 cultivars were obtained by a minimum of seven AFLP primer pairs, despite inclusion of some closely related cultivars. This study demonstrated that AFLP markers are effective for obtaining unique fingerprints of, and assessing genetic diversity among, tomato cultivars.

  1. Definition of nonvolatile markers for flavor of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) as tools in selection and breeding.

    PubMed

    Bucheli, P; Voirol, E; de la Torre, R; López, J; Rytz, A; Tanksley, S D; Pétiard, V

    1999-02-01

    A methodology for flavor and composition assessment of processed tomato juice samples was developed using a wide range of commercial processing tomato varieties (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in Spain and the United States. Fruitiness intensity was found by a trained panel to best describe overall tomato flavor. For two consecutive years, fruitiness intensity was significantly dependent on growing location and variety, and it was consistently linked to increased levels of glucose and reducing sugars and decreased glutamic acid content. Using the same procedure on a population of 176 breeding lines derived from the wild species of Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium, it was shown that tomato fruitiness intensity was significantly correlated to reducing sugars/glutamic acid ratio and glucose and glutamic acid contents. The definition of markers for tomato flavor of processed juice can provide the tomato breeder and processor with reliable analytical tools that can be applied in a straightforward way for the identification of raw materials that can be processed into juice with predictably high or low fruitiness.

  2. Structural identification of anthocyanins and analysis of concentrations during growth and flowering in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) petals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mohamed, Zaidul Islam Sarker; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Saito, Tatsuya

    2007-11-14

    The anthocyanin profiles and variety/breeding-line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in petals of common buckwheat flowers have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were isolated from the petals of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), separated using high performance liquid chromatography and identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. In every variety/breeding line tested, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside was detected as the major anthocyanin and the next is cyanidin 3-O-glucoside whereas cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were trace or not detectable in white and pink flowered buckwheat. Of all the varieties/breeding lines tested, Gan-Chao, a Chinese variety, contained the highest amount of anthocyanins. The largest part of cyanidin moiety was presented as a proanthocyanidin form (PAs-Cy). Anthocyanins and PAs-Cy in petals were increased along with increase of flower development stages. Therefore, fully developed petals of red flowered buckwheat, especially Gan-Chao, are promising as a new anthocyanin-rich material for food processing.

  3. Changes of Polyphenolic Substances in the Anatomical Parts of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during Its Growth Phases.

    PubMed

    Bystricka, Judita; Musilova, Janette; Tomas, Jan; Vollmannova, Alena; Lachman, Jaromir; Kavalcova, Petra

    2014-10-17

    In this study the changes of total polyphenolics in different anatomical parts (stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during vegetation period were analysed. The content of total polyphenolics was evaluated in growth phase I (formation of buds), phase II (at the beginning of flowering), phase III (full blossoming) and phase IV (full ripeness). In all growth phases (GP) the stems and leaves were evaluated and statistically significant differences in polyphenolics content between the two parts were confirmed. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) in polyphenolics content (in GP II and III) between stems and leaves; and between stems and flowers were found. In flowers an average of 13.8 times higher and in leaves 6 times higher concentration of polyphenolics in comparison with stems was measured. In GP III the content of polyphenolics in common buckwheat was following: flowers > leaves > achene > stems. In flowers an average of 11.9 times higher, in leaves 8.3 times higher and in achenes 5.9 times higher contents of polyphenolics compared with stems were found. In GP III and IV (leaves, achenes, stems) the leaves contained in average 20 times higher and achenes 5.6 times higher polyphenolics than stems.

  4. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Yoshihisa; Usui, Shiori; Ito, Takamitsu; Kato, Akira; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2014-11-01

    C-Glycosides are characterized by their C-C bonds in which the anomeric carbon of the sugar moieties is directly bound to the carbon atom of aglycon. C-Glycosides are remarkably stable, as their C-C bonds are resistant to glycosidase or acid hydrolysis. A variety of plant species are known to accumulate C-glycosylflavonoids; however, the genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze C-glycosylation of flavonoids have been identified only from Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize), and have not been identified from dicot plants. In this study, we identified the C-glucosyltransferase gene from the dicot plant Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat). We purified two isozymes from buckwheat seedlings that catalyze C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are expressed specifically in the cotyledon during seed germination. Following purification we isolated the cDNA corresponding to each isozyme [FeCGTa (UGT708C1) and FeCGTb (UGT708C2)]. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both proteins demonstrated C-glucosylation activity towards 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, trihydroxyacetophenones and other related compounds with chemical structures similar to 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of plant glycosyltransferases shows that flavonoid C-glycosyltransferases form a different clade with other functionally analyzed plant glycosyltransferases.

  5. Metabolomic analysis and differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in white- and red-flowered buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Soo-Yun; Thwe, Aye Aye; Seo, Jeong Min; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-06

    Red-flowered buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat.

  6. Selenium and its species distribution in above-ground plant parts of selenium enriched buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Vogrincic, Maja; Cuderman, Petra; Kreft, Ivan; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2009-11-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was foliarly sprayed with a water solution containing 10 mg Se(VI) L(-1) at the beginning of flowering. The total Se content in plant parts in the untreated group was low, whereas in the Se-sprayed group it was approximately 50- to 500-fold higher, depending on the plant part (708-4231 ng Se g(-1) DM(-1) (DM: dry matter)). We observed a similar distribution of Se in plant parts in both control and treated groups, with the highest difference in Se content being in ripe seeds. Water-soluble Se compounds were extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis with protease XIV, resulting in above 63% of soluble Se from seeds, approximately 14% from stems, leaves and inflorescences and less than 1% from husks. Se-species were determined in enzymatic extracts using HPLC-UV-HG-AFS (HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry with UV treatment). The main Se species found in seeds was SeMet ( approximately 60% according to total Se content), while in stems, leaves and inflorescences the only form of soluble Se present was Se(VI) (up to 10% of total Se). In husks no Se-species were detected. We observed an instability of Se(IV) in seed extracts as a possible consequence of binding to the matrix components. Therefore, special care concerning sample extraction and the storage time of the extracts should be taken.

  7. Water-use efficiency and drought tolerance in Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii and their F sub 2 crosses

    SciTech Connect

    de Soyza, A.G.; Kay, L.E.; Gutschick, V.P.; Maxwell, C. )

    1991-05-01

    In growth chamber experiments the authors compared the water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance (DT - retention of dry mass vegetative yield when droughted) of the drought intolerant common tomato, L. esculentum and the ostensibly drought tolerant tomato, L. pennellii. Drought treatment was imposed as two severe episodes of drought, each episode lasting until all leaves on the plant were silted, with a period of recovery between treatments. They measured up to 20 performance attributes to WUE and DT, including: root:shoot ratio, leaf internal CO2/ambient CO2, {delta}{sup 13}C, leaf photosynthetic rate, specific leaf mass, leaf water potential, leaf osmotic potential, and stomatal density. Water-use efficiency is negatively correlated with drought tolerance; drought tolerance is positively correlated with plants' ability to increase WUE under stress. Few other attributes are correlated with drought tolerance, and some are conspicuous by their absence. They find evidence for substantial genetic linkage among attributes that confer drought tolerance; and interplant rankings in drought tolerance depend strongly upon the type of drought stress experienced (episodic vs. continuous).

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses of fruit exocarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutants to natural photo-oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina A; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M

    2006-01-01

    Photo-oxidative stress was imposed under natural solar radiation on exposed and shaded sections of detached fruit of immature green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller = Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants (anthocyanin absent, beta-carotene, Delta, and high pigment-1) and their nearly isogenic parents ('Ailsa Craig' and 'Rutgers'). After 5 h exposure to high solar irradiance, either with or without ultraviolet (UV) radiation, surface colour changes, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant metabolites and enzyme activities, and selected flavonoids and antioxidant proteins in exocarp tissue were evaluated. The imposed photo-oxidative stress reproduced the symptoms observed on attached fruit. Both high temperature and solar irradiance caused fruit surface discoloration with faster degradation of chlorophyll (Chl) than carotenoids (Car), leading to an increase in the Car/Chl ratio. Surface bleaching was mostly caused by visible light, whereas elevated temperatures were mostly responsible for the inactivation of photosynthesis, measured as decreased F(v)/F(m). Ascorbate, glutathione, and total soluble protein concentrations decreased in the exocarp as the duration of exposure increased. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase increased with exposure, suggesting that these proteins were conserved during the imposed stress. GR protein expression remained stable during the imposed stress, whereas, MDHAR protein expression increased. Quercetin and kaempferol concentrations increased rapidly upon exposure, but not to UV radiation, suggesting rapid photo-protection in response to visible light; however, naringenin synthesis was not induced. The apparent increased tolerance of hp-1 fruit is discussed.

  9. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  10. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

  11. Changes of Polyphenolic Substances in the Anatomical Parts of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during Its Growth Phases

    PubMed Central

    Bystricka, Judita; Musilova, Janette; Tomas, Jan; Vollmannova, Alena; Lachman, Jaromir; Kavalcova, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this study the changes of total polyphenolics in different anatomical parts (stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during vegetation period were analysed. The content of total polyphenolics was evaluated in growth phase I (formation of buds), phase II (at the beginning of flowering), phase III (full blossoming) and phase IV (full ripeness). In all growth phases (GP) the stems and leaves were evaluated and statistically significant differences in polyphenolics content between the two parts were confirmed. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) in polyphenolics content (in GP II and III) between stems and leaves; and between stems and flowers were found. In flowers an average of 13.8 times higher and in leaves 6 times higher concentration of polyphenolics in comparison with stems was measured. In GP III the content of polyphenolics in common buckwheat was following: flowers > leaves > achene > stems. In flowers an average of 11.9 times higher, in leaves 8.3 times higher and in achenes 5.9 times higher contents of polyphenolics compared with stems were found. In GP III and IV (leaves, achenes, stems) the leaves contained in average 20 times higher and achenes 5.6 times higher polyphenolics than stems. PMID:28234337

  12. Kinetic and mutagenic evidence for the role of histidine residues in the Lycopersicon esculentum 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, M A; Howe, D L; Salleh, H M; Sheflyan, G Y; Son, J K; Woodard, R W

    1999-01-01

    The ACCO gene from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) has been cloned into the expression vector PT7-7. The highly expressed protein was recovered in the form of inclusion bodies. ACCO is inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) with a second-order rate constant of 170 M(-1) min(-1). The pH-inactivation rate data imply the involvement of an amino acid residue with a pK value of 6.05. The difference UV spectrum of the the DEPC-inactivated versus native ACCO showed a single peak at 242 nm indicating the modification of histidine residues. The inactivation was reversed by the addition of hydroxylamine to the DEPC-inactivated ACCO. Substrate/cofactor protection studies indicate that both iron and ACC bind near the active site, which contains histidine residues. Four histidines of ACCO were individually mutated to alanine and glycine. H39A is catalytically active, while H177A, H177G, H211A, H211G, H234A, and H234G are basically inactive. The results indicate that histidine residues 177, 211, and 234 may serve as ligands for the active-site iron of ACCO and/or may play some important structural or catalytic role.

  13. Residue behavior and dietary intake risk assessment of three fungicides in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodan; Jia, Chunhong; Duan, Lifang; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Pingzhong; He, Min; Chen, Li; Zhao, Ercheng

    2016-11-01

    The residue behavior and dietary intake risk of three fungicides (pyrimethanil, iprodione, kresoxim-methyl) in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown in greenhouse were investigated. A simple, rapid analytical method for the quantification of fungicide residues in tomatoes was developed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrum detection (GC-MSD). The fortified recoveries were ranged from 87% to 103% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 4.7% to 12.1%. The results indicated that the dissipation rate of the studied fungicides in tomatoes followed first order kinetics with half lives in the range of 8.6-11.5 days. The final residues of all the fungicides in tomatoes were varied from 0.241 to 0.944 mg/kg. The results of dietary intake assessment indicated that the dietary intake of the three fungicides from tomatoes consumption for Chinese consumers were acceptable. This study would provide more understanding of residue behavior and dietary intake risk by these fungicides used under greenhouse conditions.

  14. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant.

  15. Induction of systemic resistance in Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) against Cucumber mosaic virus by using ozone.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, N; Nagendra-Prasad, D; Mohan, N; Murugesan, K

    2007-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate ozone (O(3)) for induction of resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants. Callus induced from tomato leaf explants on Murashige & Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with benzyladenine (8.82 microM) were treated with different concentrations of ozone T(1), T(2), T(3) and for control (C), filtered air was supplied. Regeneration of shoots was obtained by culturing ozone treated calli on MS medium containing 17.3 microM benzyladenine. The frequency of regeneration of tomato plants from the callus were T(1)=79%, T(2)=61%, T(3)=42%, but for control 90% regeneration was obtained. Regenerated plants were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 microM indole-butyric acid and successfully acclimatized. The plants regenerated from ozone treated callus are referred to as T(1), T(2) and T(3) plants, which hold remarkably increased soluble phenolic content compared to the control plants. All the plants were challenged by mechanical inoculation with Cucumber mosaic virus, shows disease incidence ranged from T(1)=32%, T(2)=56%, T(3)=78% and C=94%. Remarkable increase in activities of salicylic acid (SA), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POX) were detected after Cucumber mosaic virus inoculation, in foliar extracts of T(1) plants than T(2) and T(3), compared to the control plants.

  16. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolubilization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we have identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in Escherichia coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP.

  17. NaCl stress effects on enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation pathway in tomato "Lycopersicon esculentum" seedlings.

    PubMed

    Debouba, Mohamed; Gouia, Houda; Suzuki, Akira; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib

    2006-12-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv. Chibli F1) grown for 10 days on control medium were exposed to differing concentrations of NaCl (0, 25, 50, and 100mM). Increasing salinity led to a decrease of dry weight (DW) production and protein contents in the leaves and roots. Conversely, the root to shoot (R/S) DW ratio was increased by salinity. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation were correlated with a decline of K(+) and NO(3)(-) in the leaves and roots. Under salinity, the activities of nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) were repressed in the leaves, while they were enhanced in the roots. Nitrite reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.7.1) activity was decreased in both the leaves and roots. Deaminating activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2) was inhibited, whereas the aminating function was significantly stimulated by salinity in the leaves and roots. At a high salt concentration, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH)-GDH activity was stimulated concomitantly with the increasing NH(4)(+) contents and proteolysis activity in the leaves and roots. With respect to salt stress, the distinct sensitivity of the enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation is discussed.

  18. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  19. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  20. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    PubMed

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  1. Products Released from Enzymically Active Cell Wall Stimulate Ethylene Production and Ripening in Preclimacteric Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Brecht, J K; Huber, D J

    1988-12-01

    Enzymically active cell wall from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit pericarp release uronic acids through the action of wall-bound polygalacturonase. The potential involvement of products of wall hydrolysis in the induction of ethylene synthesis during tomato ripening was investigated by vacuum infiltrating preclimacteric (green) fruit with solutions containing pectin fragments enzymically released from cell wall from ripe fruit. Ripening initiation was accelerated in pectin-infiltrated fruit compared to control (buffer-infiltrated) fruit as measured by initiation of climacteric CO(2) and ethylene production and appearance of red color. The response to infiltration was maximum at a concentration of 25 micrograms pectin per fruit; higher concentrations (up to 125 micrograms per fruit) had no additional effect. When products released from isolated cell wall from ripe pericarp were separated on Bio-Gel P-2 and specific size classes infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit, ripening-promotive activity was found only in the larger (degree of polymerization >8) fragments. Products released from pectin derived from preclimacteric pericarp upon treatment with polygalacturonase from ripe pericarp did not stimulate ripening when infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit.

  2. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.

  3. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4+ lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4+ Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937

  4. BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2014-04-01

    The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops.

  5. Large scale profiles of galaxies at z=0-2 studied by stacking the HSC SSP survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Mariko; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi

    2017-03-01

    We are carrying out the study of the evolution of radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies from z = 0 to 2 by stacking analysis using data corrected by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). This will allow us to constrain the large scale average profiles of various galaxy populations at high redshift. From the stacking analysis of galaxies selected based on their photometric redshifts, we successfully detected the outer components of galaxies at z > 1 extending to at least ~80 kpc, which imply an early formation for the galaxy outskirts.

  6. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  7. Refractory Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin as Salvage Therapy: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Dennis; Altshuler, Jerry; Altshuler, Diana; Schwartz, David; Torregrossa, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Infections from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE) can cause a wide variety of infections, ranging from mild cellulitis to invasive disease, such as endocarditis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS). Despite prompt and appropriate antibiotics, mortality rates associated with shock have remained exceedingly high, prompting the need for adjunctive therapy. IVIG has been proposed as a possible adjunct, given its ability to neutralize a wide variety of superantigens and modulate a dysregulated inflammatory response. We present the first reported cases of successful IVIG therapy for reversing shock in the treatment of SDSE TSLS. PMID:27597908

  8. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  9. Interaction of Candida albicans cell wall Als3 protein with Streptococcus gordonii SspB adhesin promotes development of mixed-species communities.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Richard J; Nobbs, Angela H; Vickerman, M Margaret; Barbour, Michele E; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2010-11-01

    Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa and prosthetic surfaces associated with artificial joints, catheters, and dentures. In the oral cavity, C. albicans coexists with numerous bacterial species, and evidence suggests that bacteria may modulate fungal growth and biofilm formation. Streptococcus gordonii is found on most oral cavity surfaces and interacts with C. albicans to promote hyphal and biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the role of the hyphal-wall protein Als3p in interactions of C. albicans with S. gordonii. Utilizing an ALS3 deletion mutant strain, it was shown that cells were not affected in initial adherence to the salivary pellicle or in hyphal formation in the planktonic phase. However, the Als3(-) mutant was unable to form biofilms on the salivary pellicle or deposited S. gordonii DL1 wild-type cells, and after initial adherence, als3Δ/als3Δ (ΔALS3) cells became detached concomitant with hyphal formation. In coaggregation assays, S. gordonii cells attached to, and accumulated around, hyphae formed by C. albicans wild-type cells. However, streptococci failed to attach to hyphae produced by the ΔALS3 mutant. Saccharomyces cerevisiae S150-2B cells expressing Als3p, but not control cells, supported binding of S. gordonii DL1. However, S. gordonii Δ(sspA sspB) cells deficient in production of the surface protein adhesins SspA and SspB showed >50% reduced levels of binding to S. cerevisiae expressing Als3p. Lactococcus lactis cells expressing SspB bound avidly to S. cerevisiae expressing Als3p, but not to S150-2B wild-type cells. These results show that recognition of C. albicans by S. gordonii involves Als3 protein-SspB protein interaction, defining a novel mechanism in fungal-bacterial communication.

  10. Short communication: Survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in tissues of cows following low-dose exposure to electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bode, John F; Thoen, Charles O

    2016-08-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the effects of low-dose electron beam irradiation on the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples collected at necropsy from clinically affected cows. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the ileum and ileocecal valve of one cow and from the ileum of another cow irradiated at 4.0 kGy, but was not isolated from the ileum, ileocecal valve, or mesenteric lymph node of 11 other cows irradiated at 4 kGy.

  11. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum.

  12. [Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].

    PubMed

    Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate.

  13. A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C.; Yanchuk, A.D.

    1996-03-01

    We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. [Ssp DnaB intein-mediated ligation of heavy and light chains of coagulation factor VIII in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Liu, Zelong; Qu, Huige; Xin, Xiaolin; Dong, Hongxin; Liu, Xiangqin

    2009-07-01

    We studied the ligation of coagulation factor VIII heavy and light chains in Escherichia coli by utilizing the intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. A B-domain deleted factor VIII (BDD-FVIII) gene was broken into two halves of heavy and light chains before Ser1657 which meets the splicing required conserved residue and then fused to 106 and 48 amino acid-containing N-part termed Int-N and C-part termed Int-C coding sequences of split mini Ssp DnaB intein respectively. These two fusion genes were constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. Through induction for expression of recombinant protein it displayed an obvious protein band as predicted size of BDD-FVIII protein on SDS-PAGE gel. Western blotting using factor VIII specific antibodies confirmed that this protein band is BDD-FVIII produced by protein trans-splicing. It demonstrated that the heavy and light chains of BDD-FVIII can be efficiently ligated with the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. These results provided evidence for encouraging our ongoing investigation with intein as a means in dual AAV vectors carrying the factor VIII gene to overcome the packaging size limitation of a single AAV vector in hemophilia A gene therapy.

  15. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  16. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  17. Macrolide Resistance in the Syphilis Spirochete, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum: Can We Also Expect Macrolide-Resistant Yaws Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Šmajs, David; Paštěková, Lenka; Grillová, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) causes over 10 million new cases of syphilis worldwide whereas T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, affects about 2.5 million people. Although penicillin remains the drug of choice in the treatment of syphilis, in penicillin-allergic patients, macrolides have been used in this indication since the 1950s. Failures of macrolides in syphilis treatment have been well documented in the literature and since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in a number of clinical samples with macrolide-resistant TPA. Scarce data regarding the genetics of macrolide-resistant mutations in TPA suggest that although macrolide-resistance mutations have emerged independently several times, the increase in the proportion of TPA strains resistant to macrolides is mainly due to the spread of resistant strains, especially in developed countries. The emergence of macrolide resistance in TPA appears to require a two-step process including either A2058G or A2059G mutation in one copy of the 23S rRNA gene and a subsequent gene conversion unification of both rRNA genes. Given the enormous genetic similarity that was recently revealed between TPA and TPE strains, there is a low but reasonable risk of emergence and spread of macrolide-resistant yaws strains following azithromycin treatment. PMID:26217043

  18. Effect of organic matter additions on uptake of weathered DDT by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Alissa I; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the impact of organic matter additions on plant uptake of DDT [2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] from weathered soil. Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden pumpkins were grown in 100 g of DDT contaminated soil ([DDT] - 1100 ng/g) mixed with equal volumes of either clean soil, perlite, vermiculite, peat, potting soil, or granular activated carbon (GAC) to give total organic carbon contents of 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 11.5%, 12.2%, and 27.3%, respectively. As in other studies, root DDT concentrations were significantly lower in soils with high organic matter. Root bioaccumulation factors (BAF = [DDT]root/[DDT]soil) approximated this trend. Root concentrations correlated with organic matter concentrations and not with soil DDT concentrations. Conversely, shoot DDT concentrations, shoot BAFs and translocation factors (TLF = BAF(shoot)/BAF(root)) were not significantly different between treatment groups, except for plants grown in GAC/DDT soil. This suggests that amendments with a range of organic matter contents may be added to improve soil conditions at industrial sites without significant adverse effects on phytoextraction potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo.

  19. Genetic variation of toll-like receptor genes and infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Larrañaga, O; Manzano, C; Iriondo, M; Garrido, J M; Molina, E; Vazquez, P; Juste, R A; Estonba, A

    2011-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are membrane proteins that play a key role in innate immunity, by recognizing pathogens and subsequently activating appropriate responses. Mutations in TLR genes are associated with susceptibility to inflammatory and infectious diseases in humans. In cattle, 3 members of the TLR family, TLR1, TLR2, and TLR4, are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection, although the extent of this association for the TLR1 and TLR4 receptors has not yet been determined. Moreover, the causal variant in the TLR2 gene has not yet been unequivocally established. In this study, 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the bovine TLR1, TLR2, and TLR4 genes were selected from the literature, databases, and in silico searches, for a population-based genetic association study of a Spanish Holstein-Friesian sample. Whereas previous results regarding the TLR1 gene were not corroborated, a risk haplotype was detected in TLR2; however, its low frequency indicates that this detected association should be interpreted with caution. In the case of the TLR4 gene, 3 tightly linked SNP were found to be associated with susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection. Moreover, one of these SNP, the SNP c.-226G>C, which is localized in the 5'UTR region of the TLR4 gene, has been reported to be able to alter TLR4 expression, raising the possibility that this mutation may contribute to the response of the individual to infection.

  20. HvNax3--a locus controlling shoot sodium exclusion derived from wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    PubMed

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Gupta, Narendra K; Miyazaki, Junji; Baho, Manahil N; Chalmers, Kenneth J; Tester, Mark; Langridge, Peter; Collins, Nicholas C

    2010-05-01

    Previous work identified the wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) accession CPI-71284-48 as being capable of limiting sodium (Na(+)) accumulation in the shoots under saline hydroponic growth conditions. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a cross between CPI-71284-48 and a selection of the cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar Barque (Barque-73, a moderate Na(+) excluder) attributed the control of the Na(+) exclusion trait from CPI-71284-48 to a single locus on the short arm of chromosome 7H, which was named HvNax3. The locus reduced shoot Na(+) accumulation by 10-25% in plants grown in 150 mM NaCl. Markers generated using colinearity with rice and Brachypodium, together with the analysis of introgression lines and F(2) and F(3) families, enabled HvNax3 to be mapped to a 1.3-cM interval. Genes from the corresponding rice and Brachypodium intervals encode 16 different classes of proteins and include several plausible candidates for HvNax3. The potential of HvNax3 to provide a useful trait contributing to salinity tolerance in cultivated barley is discussed.

  1. Resistance in Lycopersicon esculentum Intraspecific Crosses to Race T1 Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Causing Bacterial Spot of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wencai; Sacks, Erik J; Lewis Ivey, Melanie L; Miller, Sally A; Francis, David M

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT We used molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that confer resistance in the field to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria race T1, a causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato. An F(2) population derived from a cross between Hawaii 7998 (H 7998) and an elite breeding line, Ohio 88119, was used for the initial identification of an association between molecular markers and resistance as measured by bacterial populations in individual plants in the greenhouse. Polymorphism in this cross between a Lycopersicon esculentum donor of resistance and an elite L. esculentum parent was limited. The targeted use of a core set of 148 polymerase chain reaction-based markers that were identified as polymorphic in L. esculentum x L. esculentum crosses resulted in the identification of 37 markers that were polymorphic for the cross of interest. Previous studies using an H 7998 x L. pennellii wide cross implicated three loci, Rx1, Rx2, and Rx3, in the hypersensitive response to T1 strains. Markers that we identified were linked to the Rx1 and Rx3 loci, but no markers were identified in the region of chromosome 1 where Rx2 is located. Single marker-trait analysis suggested that chromosome 5, near the Rx3 locus, contributed to reduced bacterial populations in lines carrying the locus from H 7998. The locus on chromosome 5 explained 25% of the phenotypic variation in bacterial populations developing in infected plants. An advanced backcross population and subsequent inbred backcross lines developed using Ohio 88119 as a recurrent parent were used to confirm QTL associations detected in the F(2) population. Markers on chromosome 5 explained 41% of the phenotypic variation for resistance in replicated field trials. In contrast, the Rx1 locus on chromosome 1 did not play a role in resistance to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria race T1 strains as measured by bacterial populations in the greenhouse or symptoms in the field. A locus from H 7998 on chromosome 4 was

  2. Differential binding of the lectins Griffonia simplicifolia I and Lycopersicon esculentum to microvascular endothelium: organ-specific localization and partial glycoprotein characterization.

    PubMed

    Porter, G A; Palade, G E; Milici, A J

    1990-02-01

    The lectins Griffonia simplicifolia I and Lycopersicon esculentum were used to assess the presence of endothelium-specific glycoproteins in the microvasculature of the rat myocardium, diaphragm and superficial cerebral cortex. Organs fixed by intravascular perfusion were processed to obtain semithin (0.5 micron) and thin (less than 0.1 micron) frozen sections that were reacted with biotinylated lectin followed by streptavidin conjugated to Texas Red, for semithin sections, or by streptavidin conjugated to 5-nm colloidal gold particles, for thin sections. Lycopersicon esculentum lectin exclusively labeled the endothelium of all small vessels in all three microvascular beds; it did not bind to components of either the parenchyma or the extracellular matrix. Griffonia simplicifolia I lectin exclusively labeled the endothelium of the entire microvasculature in the myocardium and diaphragm, but marked primarily pericytes in the cerebral microvasculature. It did not label any parenchymal or interstitial organ component. At the electron microscope level, the lectin Griffonia simplicifolia I labeling was associated with the plasmalemma proper and especially with plasmalemmal vesicles and their introits, and Lycopersicon esculentum lectin bound primarily to the luminal plasmalemma in the microvascular beds of the myocardium and diaphragm. In the cerebral cortex, labeling of the microvasculature was clearly different: Griffonia simplicifolia I bound primarily to pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells whereas Lycopersicon esculentum labeled only the microvascular endothelium. Lysates prepared from the myocardium, diaphragm and cerebral cortex were processed through Griffonia simplicifolia I lectin affinity separation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the fraction obtained. A number of putative endothelium-specific glycoproteins was detected and found to differ qualitatively and quantitatively from organ to organ

  3. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  4. Global transcriptome analysis of Al-induced genes in an Al-accumulating species, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-12-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a species with high aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for external and internal detoxification of Al have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-responsive genes in the roots and leaves using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. RNA-Seq generated reads ranging from 56×10(6) to 93×10(6). A total of 148,734 transcript contigs with an average length of 1,014 bp were assembled, generating 84,516 unigenes. Among them, 31,730 and 23,853 unigenes were annotated, respectively, in the NCBI plant database and TAIR database for Arabidopsis. Of the annotated genes, 4,067 genes in the roots and 2,663 genes in the leaves were up-regulated (>2-fold) by Al exposure, while 2,456 genes in the roots and 2,426 genes in the leaves were down-regulated (<2-fold) A few STOP1/ART1 (SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1/AL RESISTANCE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1)-regulated gene homologs including FeSTAR1, FeALS3 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3), FeALS1 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE1), FeMATE1 and FeMATE2 (MULTIDRUG AND TOXIC COMPOUND EXTRUSION1 and 2) were also up-regulated in buckwheat, indicating some common Al tolerance mechanism across the species, although most STOP1/ART1-regulated gene homologs were not changed. Most genes involved in citric and oxalic acid biosynthesis were not significantly altered. Some transporter genes were highly expressed in the roots and leaves and responded to Al stress, implicating their role in Al tolerance and accumulation. Overall, our data provide a platform for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in buckwheat.

  5. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    PubMed

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p < 0.05) than T. iridipennis due to their larger colony demand and low reward provide by tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p < 0.05) even though the average weight and size of tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  6. Methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses are associated with elevation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Lycopersicon esculentum fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengmeng; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Aijun; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-10-15

    It has been known that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) interacts with ethylene to elicit resistance. In green mature tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun), 0.02mM MeJA increased the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), and consequently influenced the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. Fruits treated with a combination of 0.02 MeJA and 0.02 α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB, a competitive inhibitor of ACO) exhibited a lower ethylene production comparing to that by 0.02mM MeJA alone. The increased activities of defense enzymes and subsequent control of disease incidence caused by Botrytis cinerea with 0.2mM MeJA treatment was impaired by AIB as well. A close relationship (P<0.05) was found between the activity alterations of ACO and that of chitinase (CHI) and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU). In addition, this study further detected the changes of gene expressions and enzyme kinetics of ACO to different concentrations of MeJA. LeACO1 was found the principal member from the ACO gene family to respond to MeJA. Accumulation of LeACO1/3/4 transcripts followed the concentration pattern of MeJA treatments, where the largest elevations were reached by 0.2mM. For kinetic analysis, K(m) values of ACO stepped up during the experiment and reached the maximums at 0.2mM MeJA with ascending concentrations of treatments. V(max) exhibited a gradual increase from 3h to 24h, and the largest induction appeared with 1.0mM MeJA. The results suggested that ACO is involved in MeJA-induced resistance in tomato, and the concentration influence of MeJA on ACO was attributable to the variation of gene transcripts and enzymatic properties.

  7. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene post-harvest treatment on ripening process in cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme).

    PubMed

    Opiyo, Arnold M; Ying, Tie-Jin

    2005-02-01

    The responses of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated. The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG) cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L reduced fruit C(2)H(4) production, delayed the C(2)H(4) peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 microL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening, it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production. Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time, and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 microL/L or higher concentrations, and fruit color could not reach the control level even 2 weeks after 1-MCP treatment, indicating the close association of the metabolism of these pigments with ethylene perception. Since the concentration of 0.11 microL/L of 1-MCP was so high that it did not elicit additional response very much than 0.07 microL/L, these concentrations were considered to be practically effective concentrations for cherry tomato at MG stage. The effective 1-MCP concentrations might provide a useful reference to the levels of ethylene receptors as well as ethylene sensitivity in a specific fruit at given development stage.

  8. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    PubMed

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity.

  9. Isolation of diterpenoid alkaloids from herb and flowers of aconitum napellus ssp. vulgare and electrospray ion trap multiple MS study of these alkaloids

    PubMed

    Chen; Koelliker; Oehme; Katz

    1999-05-01

    Chemical investigation of herb and flowers of Aconitum napellus L. ssp. vulgare led to the isolation of 12 diterpenoid alkaloids. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of NMR and MS and of their complete ion trap multiple fragmentation mass spectrometry study.

  10. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties

    PubMed Central

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  11. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    PubMed

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  12. A genetic map of tomato based on BC(1) Lycopersicon esculentum x Solanum lycopersicoides reveals overall synteny but suppressed recombination between these homeologous genomes.

    PubMed

    Chetelat, R T; Meglic, V; Cisneros, P

    2000-02-01

    F(1) hybrids between the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and the wild nightshade Solanum lycopersicoides are male sterile and unilaterally incompatible, breeding barriers that impede further crosses to tomato. Meiosis is disrupted in 2x hybrids, with reduced chiasma formation and frequent univalents, but is normal in allotetraploid hybrids, indicating the genomes are homeologous. In this study, a partially male-fertile F(1) was backcrossed to tomato, producing the first BC(1) population suitable for genetic mapping from this cross. BC(1) plants were genotyped at marker loci to study the transmission of wild alleles and to measure rates of homeologous recombination. The pattern of segregation distortion, in favor of homozygotes on chromosomes 2 and 5 and heterozygotes on chromosomes 6 and 9, suggested linkage to a small number of loci under selection on each chromosome. Genome ratios nonetheless fit Mendelian expectations. Resulting genetic maps were essentially colinear with existing tomato maps but showed an overall reduction in recombination of approximately 27%. Recombination suppression was observed for all chromosomes except 9 and 12, affected both proximal and distal regions, and was most severe on chromosome 10 (70% reduction). Recombination between markers on the long arm of this chromosome was completely eliminated, suggesting a lack of colinearity between S. lycopersicoides and L. esculentum homeologues in this region. Results are discussed with respect to phylogenetic relationships between the species and their potential use for studies of homeologous pairing and recombination in a diploid plant genome.

  13. Differential and specific labeling of epithelial and vascular endothelial cells of the rat lung by Lycopersicon esculentum and Griffonia simplicifolia I lectins.

    PubMed

    Bankston, P W; Porter, G A; Milici, A J; Palade, G E

    1991-04-01

    In the rat lung, we found that the Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA) lectin specifically binds to the epithelium of bronchioles and alveoli whereas Griffonia simplicifolia I (GS-I) binds to the endothelium of alveolar capillaries. The differential binding affinity of these lectins was examined on semithin (approximately 0.5 microns) and thin (less than 0.1 (microns) frozen sections of rat lung lavaged to remove alveolar macrophages. On semithin frozen sections, LEA bound to epithelial cells lining bronchioles and the alveoli (type I, but not type II epithelial cells). On thin frozen sections, biotinylated Lycopersicon esculentum (bLEA)-streptavidin-gold conjugates were confined primarily to the luminal plasmalemma of type I cells. bGS-I-streptavidin-Texas Red was detected on the endothelial cells of alveolar capillaries and postcapillary venules but not on those of larger venules, veins or arterioles. By electron microscopy, GS-I-streptavidin-gold complexes were localized primarily to the luminal plasmalemma of thick and thin regions of the capillary endothelium. Neither lectin labeled type II alveolar cells, but both lectins labeled macrophages in the interstitia and in incompletely lavaged alveoli.

  14. Molecular diversity of α-gliadin expressed genes in genetically contrasted spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) accessions and comparison with bread wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum) and related diploid Triticum and Aegilops species.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Mingeot, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The gluten proteins of cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta) are responsible for celiac disease (CD). The α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic class of gluten proteins as they include four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes that affect CD patients. Spelt has been less studied than bread wheat and could constitute a source of valuable diversity. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of spelt α-gliadin transcripts and to compare it with those of bread wheat. Genotyping data from 85 spelt accessions obtained with 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to select 11 contrasted accessions, from which 446 full open reading frame α-gliadin genes were cloned and sequenced, which revealed a high allelic diversity. High variations among the accessions were highlighted, in terms of the proportion of α-gliadin sequences from each of the three genomes (A, B and D), and their composition in the four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. An accession from Tajikistan stood out, having a particularly high proportion of α-gliadins from the B genome and a low immunogenic content. Even if no clear separation between spelt and bread wheat sequences was shown, spelt α-gliadins displayed specific features concerning e.g. the frequencies of some amino acid substitutions. Given this observation and the variations in toxicity revealed in the spelt accessions in this study, the high genetic diversity held in spelt germplasm collections could be a valuable resource in the development of safer varieties for CD patients.

  15. The isolation of bioactive flavonoids from Jacaranda obtusifolia H. B. K. ssp. rhombifolia (G. F. W. Meijer) Gentry.

    PubMed

    Khamsan, Sorachai; Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Teerawutkulrag, Aphiwat; Pyne, Stephen G; Garson, Mary J; Liawruangrath, Boonsom

    2012-06-01

    The paper describes the bioassay-guided isolation, structure elucidation and anticancer evaluation of five flavonoids (-)-liquiritigenin (1), (-)-neoliquiritin (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), isoliquiritin (4) and formononetin (5) from the twigs of Jacaranda obtusifolia H. B. K. ssp. rhombifolia (G. F. W. Meijer) Gentry. The structures were elucidated based on ¹H, ¹³C NMR, comprehensive 2D NMR, MS analyses and comparison with previously reported spectral data. Compounds 1 and 3 were demonstrated to be inhibitory in vitro against NCI-H187 (small cell lung cancer) with IC₅₀ values of 30.1 and 16.6 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. The isolates were non-cytotoxic to Vero cells (African green monkey kidney).

  16. Genetic variability of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em Thell.).

    PubMed

    Caballero, L; Martín, L M; Alvarez, J B

    2004-03-01

    The low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition of a collection of 403 accessions of spelt wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Extensive variation was found, including 46 different patterns for zone B and 16 for zone C. Patterns within zone B exhibited from two to six bands and patterns in zone C had between four and six bands in SDS-PAGE gels. A higher number of bands was observed when urea was added to the gels. Zone B exhibited between six and 11 bands, and we identified 14 new patterns in this zone. For zone C, up to ten new patterns that comprised between five and nine bands were detected. For both zones, 86 patterns were found. The variability detected in this material is greater than that detected in other hulled wheats.

  17. Metabolite profiling approach reveals the interface of primary and secondary metabolism in colored cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Yun; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Yeo, Yunsoo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2013-07-17

    In the present study, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids of cauliflowers ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis) with various colored florets (white, yellow, green, and purple) were characterized to determine their phytochemical diversity. Additionally, 48 metabolites comprising amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). Carotenoid content was considerably higher in green cauliflower; anthocyanins were detected only in purple cauliflower. Phenolic acids were higher in both green and purple cauliflower. Results of partial least-squares discriminant, Pearson correlation, and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that green cauliflower is distinct on the basis of the high levels of amino acids and clusters derived from common or closely related biochemical pathways. These results suggest that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, combined with chemometrics, is a useful tool for determining phenotypic variation and identifying metabolic networks connecting primary and secondary metabolism.

  18. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  19. Enhanced glucosinolates in root exudates of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa mediated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-02-23

    Elicitation studies with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) inducing a targeted rhizosecretion of high levels of anticarcinogenic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa plants were conducted. Elicitor applications not only led to an accumulation of individual indole glucosinolates and the aromatic 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in the turnip organs but also in turnip root exudates. This indicates an extended systemic response, which comprises the phyllosphere with all aboveground plant organs and the rhizosphere including the belowground root system and also root exudates. Both elicitor applications induced a doubling in 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in root exudates, whereas application of MJ enhanced rhizosecreted indole glucosinolates up to 4-fold. In addition, the time course study revealed that maximal elicitation was observed on the 10th day of SA and MJ treatment. This study may provide an essential contribution using these glucosinolates as bioactive additives in functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  20. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 24 h), the application of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) elevated NO and H2O2 levels, enhanced nitrite reductase (NR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like, and polyamine oxidase activities, and upregulated LeNR relative expression, but did not influence LeNOS1 expression. In contrast, putrescine (Put) treatment had no obvious impact. During the recovery period (25/15°C, 10 h), the above-mentioned parameters induced by the application of PAs were restored to their control levels. Seedlings pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) showed elevated Put and Spd levels throughout the treatment period, consistent with increased expression in leaves of genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (LeADC. LeADC1), ornithine decarboxylase (LeODC), and Spd synthase (LeSPDS) expressions in tomato leaves throughout the treatment period. Under chilling stress, the Put content increased first, followed by a rise in the Spd content. Exogenously applied SNP did not increase the expression of genes encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (LeSAMDC) and Spm synthase (LeSPMS), consistent with the observation that Spm levels remained constant under chilling stress and during the recovery period. In contrast, exogenous Put significantly increased the ABA content and the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LeNCED1) transcript level. Treatment with ABA could alleviate the electrolyte leakage (EL) induced by D-Arg (an inhibitor of Put). Taken together, it is concluded that, under chilling

  1. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    PubMed

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost

  2. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 24 h), the application of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) elevated NO and H2O2 levels, enhanced nitrite reductase (NR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like, and polyamine oxidase activities, and upregulated LeNR relative expression, but did not influence LeNOS1 expression. In contrast, putrescine (Put) treatment had no obvious impact. During the recovery period (25/15°C, 10 h), the above-mentioned parameters induced by the application of PAs were restored to their control levels. Seedlings pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) showed elevated Put and Spd levels throughout the treatment period, consistent with increased expression in leaves of genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (LeADC. LeADC1), ornithine decarboxylase (LeODC), and Spd synthase (LeSPDS) expressions in tomato leaves throughout the treatment period. Under chilling stress, the Put content increased first, followed by a rise in the Spd content. Exogenously applied SNP did not increase the expression of genes encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (LeSAMDC) and Spm synthase (LeSPMS), consistent with the observation that Spm levels remained constant under chilling stress and during the recovery period. In contrast, exogenous Put significantly increased the ABA content and the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LeNCED1) transcript level. Treatment with ABA could alleviate the electrolyte leakage (EL) induced by D-Arg (an inhibitor of Put). Taken together, it is concluded that, under chilling

  3. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  4. Evaluation of volatile metabolites as markers in Lycopersicon esculentum L. cultivars discrimination by multivariate analysis of headspace solid phase microextraction and mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Figueira, José; Câmara, Hugo; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2014-02-15

    To gain insights on the effects of cultivar on the volatile metabolomic expression of different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars--Plum, Campari, Grape, Cherry and Regional, cultivated under similar edafoclimatic conditions, and to identify the most discriminate volatile marker metabolites related to the cultivar, the chromatographic profiles resulting from headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) analysis, combined with multivariate analysis were investigated. The data set composed by the 77 volatile metabolites identified in the target tomato cultivars, 5 of which (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone, 2-methyl-6-methyleneoctan-2-ol, 4-octadecyl-morpholine, (Z)-methyl-3-hexenoate and 3-octanone) are reported for the first time in tomato volatile metabolomic composition, was evaluated by chemometrics. Firstly, principal component analysis was carried out in order to visualise data trends and clusters, and then, linear discriminant analysis in order to detect the set of volatile metabolites able to differentiate groups according to tomato cultivars. The results obtained revealed a perfect discrimination between the different Lycopersicon esculentum L. cultivars considered. The assignment success rate was 100% in classification and 80% in prediction ability by using "leave-one-out" cross-validation procedure. The volatile profile was able to differentiate all five cultivars and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. The volatile metabolomic platform for tomato samples obtained by HS-SPME/GC-qMS here described, and the interrelationship detected among the volatile metabolites can be used as a roadmap for biotechnological applications, namely to improve tomato aroma and their acceptance in the final consumer, and for traceability studies.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprint characterization of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus garvieae isolated from bovine intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; Barberio, A; Franklin-Guild, R; Werner, B; McDonough, P; Bennett, J; Gioia, G; Rota, N; Welcome, F; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2015-09-01

    In total, 181 streptococci-like bacteria isolated from intramammary infections (IMI) were submitted by a veterinary clinic to Quality Milk Production Services (QMPS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). The isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, and 46 Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and 47 Lactococcus garvieae were tested for susceptibility to 17 antibiotics. No resistant strains were found for β-lactam antibiotics widely used in clinical practice (penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), and all minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were far from the resistance breakpoints. Eight strains had MIC intermediate to cefazolin. The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprint patterns showed a slightly higher heterogeneity for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis isolates than for Lc. garvieae isolates.

  6. Response of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) during thermo-acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Camejo, Daymi; Martí, María del C; Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan J; Jiménez, Ana; Sevilla, Francisca

    2007-11-01

    Seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Amalia were grown in a growth chamber under a photoperiod of 16 h light at 25 degrees C and 8 h dark at 20 degrees C. Five different treatments were applied to 30-day-old plants: Control treatment (plants maintained in the normal growth conditions throughout the experimental time), heat acclimation (plants exposed to 35 degrees C for 4 h in dark for 3 days), dark treatment (plants exposed to 25 degrees C for 4 h in dark for 3 days), heat acclimation plus heat shock (plants that previously received the heat acclimation treatment were exposed to 45 degrees C air temperature for 3 h in the light) and dark treatment plus heat shock (plants that previously received the dark treatment were exposed to 45 degrees C air temperature for 3 h in the light). Only the heat acclimation treatment increased the thermotolerance of the photosynthesis apparatus when the heat shock (45 degrees C) was imposed. In these plants, the CO(2) assimilation rate was not affected by heat shock and there was a slight and non-significant reduction in maximum carboxylation velocity of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and maximum electron transport rate contributing to Rubisco regeneration (J(max)). However, the plants exposed to dark treatment plus heat shock showed a significant reduction in the CO(2) assimilation rate and also in the values of V(cmax) and J(max). Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed increased thermotolerance in heat-acclimated plants. The values of maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F(m)) were not modified by heat shock in these plants, while in the dark-treated plants that received the heat shock, the F(m) values were reduced, which provoked a significant reduction in the efficiency of photosystem II. A slight rise in the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found in the plants that had been subjected to both heat acclimation and heat shock, and this SOD activity was significantly higher than that found in the plants subjected to

  7. Comparison of transcriptional profiles of flavonoid genes and anthocyanin contents during fruit development of two botanical forms of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Ariel; Pimentel, Paula; Moya-Leon, Maria Alejandra; Caligari, Peter D S; Herrera, Raul

    2010-11-01

    Difference in fruit pigmentation observed between two botanical forms of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (form chiloensis and form patagonica) was studied through transcriptional and chemical approaches. The proportion of different anthocyanins was demonstrated to be characteristic of each botanical form, with pelargonidin 3-glucoside being the most abundant in f. patagonica fruit and cyaniding 3-glucoside as the major one in f. chiloensis fruit. Partial gene sequences of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were isolated from the native Chilean strawberry fruits, and used to design gene-specific primers in order to perform transcriptional analyses by qRT-PCR. These genes showed spatial, developmental, and genotypic associated patterns. The red fruit of f. patagonica exhibited higher transcript levels of anthocyanin-related genes and higher levels of anthocyanins compared to the barely pigmented fruit of f. chiloensis. The anthocyanin accumulation in F. chiloensis ssp. chiloensis fruits was concomitant with the particular progress of the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoid pigments. The differences in anthocyanin contents, both in terms of type and quantity, between the two botanical forms of F. chiloensis ssp. chiloensis were coincident with the differential transcriptional patterns found in the anthocyanin-related genes.

  8. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time.

  9. The extracellular phage-host interactions involved in the bacteriophage LL-H infection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808.

    PubMed

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani

    2013-12-24

    The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bacteriophage LL-H was determined in 1996. Accordingly, LL-H has been used as a model phage for the infection of dairy Lactobacillus, specifically for thermophilic Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains, such as ATCC 15808. One of the major goals of phage LL-H research consisted of the characterization of the first phage-host interactions at the level of phage adsorption and phage DNA injection steps to determine effective and practical methods to minimize the risks associated with the appearance and attack of phages in the manufacture of yogurt, and Swiss or Italian hard type cheeses, which typically use thermophilic lactic acid bacteria starter cultures containing L. delbrueckii strains among others. This mini review article summarizes the present data concerning (i) the special features, particle structure, and components of phage LL-H and (ii) the structure and properties of lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), which are the phage LL-H receptor components of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains. Moreover, a model of the first, extracellular, phage-host interactions for the infection of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808 by phage LL-H is presented and further discussed.

  10. Foraging leaf-cutting ants learn to reject Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera plants that emit herbivore-induced volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Theresa; Kost, Christian; Roces, Flavio; Wirth, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are dominant herbivores of the Neotropics, as well as economically important pests. Their foraging ecology and patterns/mechanisms of food selection have received considerable attention. Recently, it has been documented that LCAs exhibit a delayed rejection of previously accepted food plants following treatment with a fungicide that makes the plants unsuitable as substrate for their symbiotic fungus. Here, we investigated whether LCAs similarly reject plants with induced chemical defenses, by combining analysis of volatile emissions with dual-choice bioassays that used LCA subcolonies (Atta sexdens L.). On seven consecutive days, foraging ants were given the choice between leaf disks from untreated control plants and test plants of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L. treated with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) to mimic herbivore attack. Chemical analysis revealed the emission of a characteristic set of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC) from JA-induced plants. Dual-choice experiments indicated that workers did not show any preference initially, but that they avoided JA-treated plants from day five onwards. Our finding that A. sexdens foragers learn to avoid VOC-emitting plants, which are likely detrimental to their symbiotic fungus, represents the first evidence for avoidance learning in attine ants toward plants with induced defenses.

  11. Effects of Moquiniastrum polymorphum ssp floccosum ethnolic extract on colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Limeiras, S M A; Oliveira, B C; Pessatto, L R; Pesarini, J R; Kassuya, C A L; Monreal, A C D; Cantero, W B; Antoniolli-Silva, R; Antoniolli-Silva, A C M B; Stefanello, M E A; Oliveira, R J

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moquiniastrum polymorphum ssp floccosum ethanolic extract (MPEE) on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Forty-two male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) were subdivided into six groups (N = 7/group): negative control, DMH, MPEE, pre-treatment, simultaneous, and post-treatment. Results showed that MPEE has antigenotoxic potential on the tested protocols pre- and silmultaneous treatment, and the percent damage reductions (%DRs) were 81.88 and 93.12%, respectively. The micronucleus test demonstrated that MPEE has great antimutagenic activity, with %DRs higher than 77.09 in the associated groups. The aberrant crypt focus assay demonstrated anticarcinogenic potential of MPEE as the associated groups showed %DRs that ranged from 62.13 to 95.14%. The study shows that MPEE is nontoxic and has chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic activity, thus it may prove to be a promising medicinal plant in view of its demonstrated properties.

  12. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) Berries in Nordic Environment: Compositional Response to Latitude and Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-22

    Flavonol glycosides (FGs) in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) berries of varieties 'Tytti' and 'Terhi', cultivated in northern Finland (68°02' N) for six years and southern Finland (60°23' N) for seven years, were investigated and compared by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The average total content of 23 identified glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin was 103 ± 23 and 110 ± 21 mg/100 g fresh berries in 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', respectively. The total contents of FGs, flavonol diglycosides, and triglycosides in both varieties were higher in the north than in the south, whereas total flavonol monoglycoside content behaved vice versa (p < 0.05). Among the 89 weather variables studied, the sum of the daily mean temperatures that are 5 °C or higher from the start of growth season until the day of harvest was the most important variable which associated negatively with the accumulation of FGs in berries. Such influence was much stronger in berries from the north than from the south.

  13. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression.

  14. A Suite of Genetic Markers Useful in Assessing Wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.)— Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining “units of conservation” within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization. PMID:21846752

  15. Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 on visceral fat accumulation in healthy Japanese adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Shota; ANZAWA, Daisuke; TAKAMI, Kazuyo; ISHIZUKA, Akihiro; MAWATARI, Takashi; KAMIKADO, Kohei; SUGIMURA, Haruhi; NISHIJIMA, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (B. lactis GCL2505) is able to survive passage through the intestine and then proliferate, leading to an increase in the amount of gut bifidobacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of B. lactis GCL2505 on abdominal visceral fat storage in overweight and mildly obese Japanese adults. This clinical study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative trial performed for 12 weeks. Healthy Japanese subjects (N=137) with body mass indices ranging from 23 to 30 kg/m2 consumed either fermented milk containing B. lactis GCL2505 or a placebo every day, and then visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat areas were measured by computed tomography as the primary endpoints. The number of fecal bifidobacteria was also measured. Visceral fat area, but not subcutaneous fat area, was significantly reduced from baseline at 8 and 12 weeks in the GCL2505 group, compared with the placebo group. The total number of fecal bifidobacteria was significantly increased in the GCL2505 group. These results indicate that B. lactis GCL2505 reduces abdominal visceral fat, a key factor associated with metabolic disorders. This finding suggests that this probiotic strain can potentially serve as a specific functional food to achieve visceral fat reduction in overweight or mildly obese individuals. PMID:27867803

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of the salt stress response in excised leaves of the halophyte Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.

    PubMed

    Skorupa, Monika; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Domagalski, Krzysztof; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Abu Nahia, Karim; Złoch, Michał; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2016-02-01

    Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima is a halophytic relative of cultivated beets. In the present work a transcriptome response to acute salt stress imposed to excised leaves of sea beet was investigated. Salt treatments consisted of adding NaCl directly to the transpiration stream by immersing the petioles of excised leaves into the salt solutions. Sequencing libraries were generated from leaves subjected to either moderate or strong salt stress. Control libraries were constructed from untreated leaves. Sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We obtained 32970 unigenes by assembling the pooled reads from all the libraries with Trinity software. Screening the nr database returned 18,362 sequences with functional annotation. Using the reference transcriptome we identified 1,246 genes that were differentially expressed after 48 h of NaCl stress. Genes related to several cellular functions such as membrane transport, osmoprotection, molecular chaperoning, redox metabolism or protein synthesis were differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The response of sea beet leaves to salt treatments was marked out by transcriptomic up-regulation of genes related to photosynthetic carbon fixation, ribosome biogenesis, cell wall-building and cell wall expansion. Furthermore, several novel and undescribed transcripts were responsive to salinity in leaves of sea beet.

  17. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  18. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  19. A suite of genetic markers useful in assessing wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.)-domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) admixture.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'Brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2011-01-01

    The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining "units of conservation" within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization.

  20. Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus immunogenic GroEL protein involved in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Wang, Yang; Ma, Zhe; Lin, Hui-Xing; Xu, Bin; Grenier, Daniel; Fan, Hong-Jie; Lu, Cheng-Ping

    2016-04-18

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. equi spp. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major economic losses in the swine industry in China and is also a threat for human health. Biofilm formation by this bacterium has been previously reported. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to search for immunogenic proteins expressed by biofilm-grown S. equi spp. zooepidemicus. Seventeen immunoreactive proteins were found, of which nine common immunoreactive proteins were identified in planktonic and biofilm-grown bacteria. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the S. equi spp. zooepidemicus immunoreactive GroEL chaperone protein was further investigated in mice. The protein was expressed in vivo and elicited high antibody titers following S. equi spp. zooepidemicus infections of mice. An animal challenge experiment with S. equi spp. zooepidemicus showed that 75% of mice immunized with the GroEL protein were protected. Using in vitro biofilm inhibition assays, evidence was obtained that the chaperonin GroEL may represent a promising target for the prevention and treatment of persistent S. equi spp. zooepidemicus biofilm infections. In summary, our results suggest that the recombinant GroEL protein, which is involved in biofilm formation, may efficiently stimulate an immune response, which protects against S. equi spp. zooepidemicus infections. It may therefore be a candidate of interest to be included in vaccines against S. equi spp. zooepidemicus infections.

  1. The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analyses of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEWEN, S A

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review-meta-analysis appraises and summarizes all the available research (128 papers) on the zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. The latter has been debated for a century due to pathogenic and clinical similarities between Johne's disease in ruminants and Crohn's disease (108 studies) in humans and recently for involvement in other human diseases; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (2), sarcoidosis (3), diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) (7) and type 2 (3), multiple sclerosis (5) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (2). Meta-analytical results indicated a significant positive association, consistently across different laboratory methods for Crohn's disease [odds ratio (OR) range 4·26-8·44], T1DM (OR range 2·91-9·95) and multiple sclerosis (OR range 6·5-7·99). The latter two and the thyroiditis hypothesis require further investigation to confirm the association. Meta-regression of Crohn's disease studies using DNA detection methods indicated that choice of primers and sampling frame (e.g. general population vs. hospital-based sample) explained a significant proportion of heterogeneity. Other epidemiological studies demonstrated a lack of association between high-risk occupations and development of Crohn's disease. Due to knowledge gaps in understanding the role of M. paratuberculosis in the development or progression of human disease, the evidence at present is not strong enough to inform the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis exposure.

  2. Characteristic of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) beverage by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.

  3. Overcoming the production limitations of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticides in low-cost medium.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Wafa; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2011-10-01

    For low-cost production of Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata strain K122 bioinsecticide, a cheap complex medium was optimized. Diluted seawater was used as the source of micronutrients, especially sodium chloride, involved in the improvement of cell density, culturability and oral toxicity of the bacterium P. temperata against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Thus, the new formulated medium was composed only of 10 g/l of soya bean meal, used as the carbon and nitrogen main source, mixed in sevenfold diluted seawater. At such conditions, several limitations of P. temperata bioinsecticide productions were shown to be overcome. The appearance of variants small colony polymorphism was completely avoided. Thus, the strain K122 was maintained at the primary form even after prolonged incubation. Moreover, the viable but nonculturable state was partially overcome, since the ability of P. temperata cells to form colonies on the solid medium was prolonged until 78 h of incubation. In addition, when cultured in the complex medium, P. temperata cells were produced at high cell density of 12 × 10(8) cells/ml and exhibited 81.48% improvement of oral toxicity compared to those produced in the optimized medium. With such medium, the large-scale bioinsecticides production into 3-l fully controlled fermenter improved the total cell counts, CFU counts and oral toxicity by 20, 5.81 and 16.73%, respectively. This should contribute to a significant reduction of production cost of highly potent P. temperata strain K122 cells, useful as a bioinsecticide.

  4. The modified ABC model explains the development of the petaloid perianth of Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Agapanthaceae) flowers.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Nakano, Masaru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira

    2005-06-01

    The class B genes, which belong to the MADS-box gene family, play important roles in regulating the development of petals and stamens in flowering plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of floral development in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Agapanthaceae), we isolated and characterized the homologs of the Antirrhinum majus genes GLOBOSA and DEFICIENS in this plant. These were designated as ApGLO and ApDEF, respectively. ApGLO and ApDEF contain open reading frames that encode deduced protein with 210 and 214 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ApGLO and ApDEF belong to the monocot class B gene family. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that hybridization signals of ApGLO and ApDEF were observed in whorl 1 as well as in whorls 2 and 3. Moreover, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants that ectopically expressed ApGLO formed petal-like organs in whorl 1. These observations indicate that the flower developmental mechanism of Agapanthus follows the modified ABC model.

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin genes (AQPs) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tao, Peng; Zhong, Xinmin; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Guo, Weiling; Huang, Xiaoyun

    2014-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are members of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins and play a significant role in the transportation of small molecules across membranes. However, currently little is known about the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage. In total, 53 non-redundant AQP genes were identified that were located on all of the 10 chromosomes. The number of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was greater than in Arabidopsis. They were classified into four subfamilies, including PIP, TIP, NIP, and SIP. Thirty-three groups of AQP orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, but orthologs corresponding to AtNIP1;1 and AtPIP2;8 were not detected. Seventeen groups of paralogous genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. Three-dimensional models of the AQPs of Chinese cabbage were constructed using Phyre2, and ar/R selectivity filters were analyzed comparatively between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Generally, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily, especially in the SIP subfamily. Intron loss events have occurred during the evolution of the PIP, TIP, and NIP subfamilies. The expression of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed in different organs. Most AQP genes were downregulated in response to salt stress. This work shows that the AQP genes of Chinese cabbage have undergone triplication and subsequent biased gene loss.

  6. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the PUB family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinesis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Duan, Weike; Riquicho, Ali RamuliMaquina; Jing, Zange; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-12-01

    U-box proteins are widely distributed among eukaryotic organisms and show a higher prevalence in plants than in other organisms. Plant U-box (PUB) proteins play crucial regulatory roles in various developmental and physiological processes. Previously, 64 and 77 PUB genes have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. In this study, 101 putative PUB genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis line Chiifu-401-42) genome and compared with other 15 representative plants. By specific protein domains and a phylogenetic analysis, the B. rapa PUB (BrPUB) gene family was subdivided into 10 groups. Localization of BrPUB genes showed an uneven distribution on the ten chromosomes of B. rapa. The orthologous and co-orthologous PUB gene pairs were identified between B. rapa and A. thaliana. RNA-seq transcriptome data of different tissues revealed tissue-specific and differential expression profiles of the BrPUBs, and quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed inverse gene expression patterns of the BrPUB-ARMs in response to cold and heat stresses. Altogether, the identification, classification, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, and expression patterns of BrPUBs were predicted and analysed. Importantly, this study of BrPUBs provides a rich resource that will aid in the determination of PUB functions in plant development.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Yeşilada, Erdem; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL.

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

    2011-06-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69 μmol/μL of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P < .05). The difference between percentage inhibition and TEAC values most probably is due to the fact that undiluted and diluted samples are used in the percentage inhibition assay and the TEAC assay, respectively. TEAC values of oregano essential oils obtained by SFME at different microwave power levels were found to be similar and ranged from 0.72 to 0.84 μmol/μL of oil. Essential oils obtained by CH and SFME at different microwave powers inhibited the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, whereas survival of Staphylococcus aureus was not influenced. In addition, oregano oil obtained by SFME at 40% power level did not show any inhibitory effect on E. coli O157:H7.

  9. Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri requires the outer membrane porin OprB for maximal virulence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ficarra, Florencia A; Grandellis, Carolina; Galván, Estela M; Ielpi, Luis; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Gottig, Natalia; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2016-05-25

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) causes canker disease in citrus, and biofilm formation is critical for the disease cycle. OprB (Outer membrane protein B) has been shown previously to be more abundant in Xcc biofilms compared with the planktonic state. In this work, we showed that the loss of OprB in an oprB mutant abolishes bacterial biofilm formation and adherence to the host, and also compromises virulence and efficient epiphytic survival of the bacteria. Moreover, the oprB mutant is impaired in bacterial stress resistance. OprB belongs to a family of carbohydrate transport proteins, and the uptake of glucose is decreased in the mutant strain, indicating that OprB transports glucose. Loss of OprB leads to increased production of xanthan exopolysaccharide, and the carbohydrate intermediates of xanthan biosynthesis are also elevated in the mutant. The xanthan produced by the mutant has a higher viscosity and, unlike wild-type xanthan, completely lacks pyruvylation. Overall, these results suggest that Xcc reprogrammes its carbon metabolism when it senses a shortage of glucose input. The participation of OprB in the process of biofilm formation and virulence, as well as in metabolic changes to redirect the carbon flux, is discussed. Our results demonstrate the importance of environmental nutrient supply and glucose uptake via OprB for Xcc virulence.

  10. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  11. Oligochaeta (Annelida) of the profundal of Lake Hazar (Turkey), with description of Potamothrix alatus hazaricus n. ssp..

    PubMed

    Timm, Tarmo; Arslan, Naime; Rüzgar, Melih; Martinsson, Svante; Erséus, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Lake Hazar is an alkaline oligotrophic lake of tectonic origin, located in the Eastern Anatolia region in Turkey, 1248 a a.s.l. Its surface area is 80 km2, the average depth 93 m and maximum depth 205 m. The lake and its surroundings an under protection as a region of historical value. During the present study (2007-2012), samples were taken from 15 stations located at a depth of 2-200 m. Oligochaeta comprised 69% of the total invertebrate abundance. The profundal olgochaete fauna was found to consist of only three tubificid taxa, all of the subfamily Tubificinae. Potamothrix alatus hazaricus Timm & Arslan, n. ssp. was dominating anywhere down to maximum depths while Psammoryctides barbatus (Grube) and Ilyodrilus(?) sp. occurred seldom. All three are new records for Lake Hazar. Potamothrix alatus hazaricus shares the "winged" body shape in its genital region with the nominal, brackish-water subspecies P. a. alatus Finogenova, 1972, and the lateral position of the spermathecal pores and the shape of the ventral chaetae with the freshwater subspecies P. a. paravanicus Poddubnaja & Pataridze, 1989 known from Transcaucasian lakes. The mitochondrial COI barcoding gene suggests long separation between the two taxa, but the nuclear ITS region shows no variation. The generic position of Ilyodrilus (?) sp. remains obscure since its internal genitalia could not be studied.

  12. Using Small-Scale Studies to Prioritize Threats and Guide Recovery of a Rare Hemiparasitic Plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sean M.; Uhl, Melissa M.; Maurano, Stephen P.; Nuccio, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of

  13. The upward shift in altitude of pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) in Switzerland—the result of climate warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Hilker, Nadine; Rebetez, Martine; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Rigling, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) is common in natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the alpine Rhone Valley, Switzerland. This semi-parasite, which is regarded as an indicator species for temperature, increases the drought stress on trees and may contribute to the observed pine decline in the region. We recorded mistletoes on representative plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory ranging from 450 to 1,550 m a.s.l. We found mistletoe on 37% of the trees and on 56% of all plots. Trees infested with mistletoe had a significantly higher mortality rate than non-infested trees. We compared the current mistletoe occurrence with records from a survey in 1910. The current upper limit, 1,250 m, is roughly 200 m above the limit of 1,000-1,100 m found in the earlier survey 100 years ago. Applying a spatial model to meteorological data we obtained monthly mean temperatures for all sites. In a logistic regression mean winter temperature, pine proportion and geographic exposition significantly explained mistletoe occurrence. Using mean monthly January and July temperatures for 1961-1990, we calculated Skre's plant respiration equivalent (RE) and regressed it against elevation to obtain the RE value at the current mistletoe elevation limit. We used this RE value and temperature from 1870-1899 in the regression and found the past elevation limit to be at 1,060 m, agreeing with the 1910 survey. For the predicted temperature rise by 2030, the limit for mistletoe would increase above 1,600 m altitude.

  14. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to develop a method to determine the viability of cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 (L. bulgaricus) that may have entered into a viable but nonculturable state. This can happen due to its susceptibility to cold shock during lyophilization and storage. Propidium monoazide concentration, PMA incubation time, and light exposure time were optimized to fully exploit the PMA-qPCR approach to accurately assess the total number of living L. bulgaricus ND02. Although PMA has little influence on living cells, when concentrations of PMA were higher than 30μg/mL the number of PCR-positive living bacteria decreased from 10(6) to 10(5) cfu/mL in comparison with qPCR enumeration. Mixtures of living and dead cells were used as method verification samples for enumeration by PMA-qPCR, demonstrating that this method was feasible and effective for distinguishing living cells of L. bulgaricus when mixed with a known number of dead cells. We suggest that several conditions need to be studied further before PMA-qPCR methods can be accurately used to distinguish living from dead cells for enumeration under more realistic sampling situations. However, this research provides a rapid way to enumerate living cells of L. bulgaricus and could be used to optimize selection of cryoprotectants in the lyophilization process and develop technologies for high cell density cultivation and optimal freeze-drying processes.

  15. Impact of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles on the growth and physiological responses in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Venkatesh, Jelli; Park, Se Won

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were extensively used in various fields, particularly in medicine as an antimicrobial agent. The unavoidable and extensive usage of AgNPs in turn accumulates in the environment. Plants are the essential base of ecosystem and are ready to disturb by environmental pollutants. Therefore, in the present study, we have planned to evaluate the impact of biologically synthesized AgNPs on the essential food crop Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). The effects of AgNP-induced plant morphological and physiological changes were investigated in different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The results of morphological features showed that AgNPs at lower concentrations (100 mg/L) exhibit growth-stimulating activity, whereas at higher concentrations (250 and 500 mg/L), particularly, 500 mg/L exhibited growth-suppressing activities which are in terms of reduced root, shoot growth, and fresh biomass. The increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde production, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and decreased chlorophyll content were also more obviously present at higher concentrations of AgNPs. The concentration-dependent DNA damage was observed in the AgNP-treated plants. The molecular responses of AgNPs indicate that most of the genes related to secondary metabolism (glucosinolates, anthocyanin) and antioxidant activities were induced at higher concentrations of AgNP treatment. The dose-dependent phytotoxicity effects of AgNPs were also observed. Taken together, the highest concentration of AgNPs (500 mg/L) could induce growth-suppressing activities via the induction of ROS generation and other molecular changes in B. rapa seedlings.

  16. Regulation of bolting and identification of the α-tubulin gene family in Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y W; Jin, D; Xu, C; Zhang, L; Guo, M H; Fang, Z Y

    2016-01-29

    Microtubules are important components of eukaryotic cells, and they play vital roles in cell morphogenesis, carrying of signaling molecules, transport of materials, and establishing the cell polarity. During bolting of biennial plants, cell division and elongation are involved, and cell elongation inevitably involves the microtubules arrangement and expression of related genes. So we deduce that it is of great significance to figure out the mechanism of bolting and flowering in which TUA genes are involved. In the present study, bioinformatic methods were used to predict and identify the α-tubulin gene family (BrTUAs) in Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) through the alignment of AtTUA gene sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana with the B. rapa genome database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/) using the basic local alignment search tool. The change in the structure and functions of BrTUAs during the process of evolution, cis-acting elements in the promoter sequences of BrTUAs, and the expression of the identified genes was also analyzed. Twelve members of the α-tubulin gene family were identified from Chinese cabbage. The gene length, intron, exon, and promoter regions were determined to have changed significantly during the genome evolution. Only five of the 12 members were encoded completely and were observed to differ in their spatial and temporal expression. The five BrTUA promoter sequences contained different numbers of cis-elements responsive to light and low-temperature response, cis-elements responsive among which hormonal responses were significantly different. We also report that the BrTUAs were involved in the regulation of the bolting in Chinese cabbage, and propose that this process could be controlled by regulating the expression of BrTUAs.

  17. The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Ruth E.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission) occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS) data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79) and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221). There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates). Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations. PMID:24765574

  18. A multiparental cross population for mapping QTL for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Milner, Sara Giulia; Maccaferri, Marco; Huang, Bevan Emma; Mantovani, Paola; Massi, Andrea; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Tuberosa, Roberto; Salvi, Silvio

    2016-02-01

    Multiparental cross designs for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) provide an efficient alternative to biparental populations because of their broader genetic basis and potentially higher mapping resolution. We describe the development and deployment of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) obtained by crossing four elite cultivars. A linkage map spanning 2664 cM and including 7594 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was produced by genotyping 338 RILs. QTL analysis was carried out by both interval mapping on founder haplotype probabilities and SNP bi-allelic tests for heading date and maturity date, plant height and grain yield from four field experiments. Sixteen QTL were identified across environments and detection methods, including two yield QTL on chromosomes 2BL and 7AS, with the former mapped independently from the photoperiod response gene Ppd-B1, while the latter overlapped with the vernalization locus VRN-A3. Additionally, 21 QTL with environment-specific effects were found. Our results indicated a prevalence of environment-specific QTL with relatively small effect on the control of grain yield. For all traits, functionally different QTL alleles in terms of direction and size of genetic effect were distributed among parents. We showed that QTL results based on founder haplotypes closely matched functional alleles at known heading date loci. Despite the four founders, only 2.1 different functional haplotypes were estimated per QTL, on average. This durum wheat population provides a mapping resource for detailed genetic dissection of agronomic traits in an elite background typical of breeding programmes.

  19. The effects of progressing and nonprogressing Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Gröhn, Y T; Pradhan, A K; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Wolfgang, D R; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test results, was determined through quarterly ELISA serum testing, biannual fecal culture, and culture of tissues and feces at slaughter. Milk production data were collected from the Dairy Herd Information Association. Animals with positive MAP test results were categorized, based on test results over the full course of the study, as high path (at least one high-positive culture) or low path (at least one positive culture or ELISA). The cumulative numbers of positive ELISA and culture results were recorded. The effects of both MAP infection path, status, and number of positive tests on milk production were analyzed using a mixed linear model with an autocorrelation random effect structure. Low- and high-path animals produced more milk before their first positive test than always-negative animals, especially high-path animals. Although mean production decreased after a first positive test, low-path animals were shown to recover some productivity. High-path animals continued to exhibit a decrease in milk production, especially after their first high-positive fecal culture. These results show that not all animals that test positive for MAP will have long-term production losses. Milk production decreased significantly with each additional positive test. Ultimately, production loss appeared to be a function of MAP infection progression.

  20. The influence of collection zone on glucosinolates, polyphenols and flavonoids contents and biological profiles of Capparis sicula ssp. sicula.

    PubMed

    Conforti, F; Marcotullio, M C; Menichini, F; Statti, G A; Vannutelli, L; Burini, G; Menichini, F; Curini, M

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of collection zone on total phenol, flavonoid and glucosinolate contents and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of caper (Capparis sicula ssp. sicula). This species has been characterized through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates). The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the two collection zones. While the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids of the two samples were quite the same, their high-performance liquid chromatography profiles were very different. In both samples, the most abundant aglycone was quercetin which accounted for 60% of total flavonoids. Nuclear magnetic resonance data analysis allowed the identification of two compounds: 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids which represented 6.67% and 15.94%, respectively, of the total amount of flavonoids in sample 1. In sample 2, these two acids were still present, but their percentages were much less (2.20% and 1.71%, respectively). As far as we know, this is the first report about the presence of dicaffeoylquinic acids in Capparis. With regard to glucosinolate content, sample 1 showed a higher content of glucosinolates. In both samples, glucocapparin was the most abundant compound. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic C. sicula extracts using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene bleaching test and oxygen radical absorbance capacity showed that the sample 2 was more active than 1. As regards the inhibition of NO production, the extracts from sample 2 were more active than those from sample 1.

  1. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production.

  2. Enhancement of tolerance to soft rot disease in the transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin.

    PubMed

    Vanjildorj, Enkhchimeg; Song, Seo Young; Yang, Zhi Hong; Choi, Jae Eul; Noh, Yoo Sun; Park, Suhyoung; Lim, Woo Jin; Cho, Kye Man; Yun, Han Dae; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2009-10-01

    We developed a transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin, with high tolerance to soft rot disease. Tolerance was conferred by expression of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AHL-lactonase) in Chinese cabbage through an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. To synthesize and express the AHL-lactonase in Chinese cabbage, the plant was transformed with the aii gene (AHL-lactonase gene from Bacillus sp. GH02) fused to the PinII signal peptide (protease inhibitor II from potato). Five transgenic lines were selected by growth on hygromycin-containing medium (3.7% transformation efficiency). Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated into the genome. Among these five transgenic lines, single copy number integrations were observed in four lines and a double copy number integration was observed in one transgenic line. Northern blot analysis confirmed that pinIISP-aii fusion gene was expressed in all the transgenic lines. Soft rot disease tolerance was evaluated at tissue and seedling stage. Transgenic plants showed a significantly enhanced tolerance (2-3-fold) to soft rot disease compared to wild-type plants. Thus, expression of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii reduces susceptibility to soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. We conclude that the recombinant AHL-lactonase, encoded by aii, can effectively quench bacterial quorum-sensing and prevent bacterial population density-dependent infections. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the transformation of Chinese cabbage inbred line Kenshin, and the first to describe the effect of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii on enhancement of soft rot disease tolerance.

  3. Tissue Culture as a Source of Replicates in Nonmodel Plants: Variation in Cold Response in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea

    PubMed Central

    Kenta, Tanaka; Edwards, Jessica E. M.; Butlin, Roger K.; Burke, Terry; Quick, W. Paul; Urwin, Peter; Davey, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    While genotype–environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates—a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could be potentially overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and “somaclonal” variation. Here, we examined somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for Fv/Fm, Fv′/Fm′, and ΦPSII, representing maximum efficiency of photosynthesis for dark- and light-adapted leaves, and the actual electron transport operating efficiency, respectively, which are reliable indicators of photoinhibition and damage to the photosynthetic electron transport system). We compared this to variation among half-sibling seedlings from three different families of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea. Somaclonal variation was limited, and we could detect within-family variation in change in chlorophyll fluorescence due to cold shock successfully with the help of tissue-culture derived replicates. Icelandic and Norwegian families exhibited higher chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting higher performance after cold shock, than a Swedish family. Although the main effect of tissue culture on Fv/Fm, Fv′/Fm′, and ΦPSII was small, there were significant interactions between tissue culture and family, suggesting that the effect of tissue culture is genotype-specific. Tissue-cultured plantlets were less affected by cold treatment than seedlings, but to a different extent in each family. These interactive effects, however, were comparable to, or much smaller than the single effect of family. These results suggest that tissue culture is a useful method for obtaining genetically homogenous replicates for studying genotype–environment interaction related to adaptively-relevant phenotypes, such

  4. Genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation of two Chinese cabbage cultivars [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yafang; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Xiaohu

    2013-09-01

    A hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate genotypic differences in nitrate uptake, translocation and assimilation between low nitrate accumulator L18 and high accumulator H96 of Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis (L.)]. The results suggested that H96 could uptake more nitrate than L18 in the root but lower transport inside leaf cells and assimilation in the leaf. It was showed that root morphology parameters - length, surface area and volume of H96 were 18.0%, 31.6% and 46.5% higher than L18. Nitrate transporters NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 transcription levels were 41.6% and 269.6% higher than those of L18 respectively. NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expression amount in leaf blade of two cultivars were opposite to in the root, L18 NRT1.1 and NRT2.1 expressions were 279.2% and 80.0% higher than H96. In addition, nitrate assimilation capacity of L18 was significantly higher than H96 in leaf. It was showed that Nitrate Reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1) activity and NIA expression level of L18 leaf were 234 0.4% and 105.4% higher than those of H96, Glutamine Synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) activity, Gln1 and Gln2 expression levels in the leaf blade of L18 were 43.9%, 331.5% and 124.8% higher than those of H96 respectively. Nitrate assimilation products-Glu, total amino acid, soluble protein content in the leaf of L18 were all significantly higher than those of H96. The results above suggested that nitrate accumulation differences were due to differential capacities to uptake, mechanisms for nitrate transport in leaves and assimilate nitrate. Comparing contribution of three aspects in nitrate accumulation, translocation and assimilation were contributed more in low nitrate concentration in the leaf blade.

  5. ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN CHINESE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) AFTER CONTINUOUS SEEDLING BREEDING.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Wang, X L; Guo, M H; Zhang, Y W

    2015-08-01

    Vernalization plays a key role in the bolting and flowering of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Plants can switch from vegetative to reproductive growth and then bolt and flower under low temperature induction. The economic benefits of Chinese cabbage will decline significantly when the bolting happens before the vegetative body fully grows due to a lack of the edible value. It was found that continuous seedling breeding reduced the heading of Chinese cabbage and led to bolt and flower more easily. In the present study, two inbred lines, termed A161 and A105, were used as experiment materials. These two lines were subjected to vernalization and formed four types: seeds-seedling breeding once, seedling breeding twice, seedling breeding thrice and normal type. Differences in plant phenotype were compared. DNA methylation analysis was performed based on MSAP method. The differential fragments were cloned and analyzed by qPCR. Results showed that plants after seedling breeding thrice had a loosen heading leaves, elongated center axis and were easier to bolt and flower. It is suggested that continuous seedling breeding had a weaker winterness. It was observed that genome methylation level decreased with increasing generation. Four differential genes were identified, short for BraAPC1, BraEMP3, BraUBC26, and BraAL5. Fluorescent qPCR analysis showed that expression of four genes varied at different reproduction modes and different vernalization time. It is indicated that these genes might be involve in the development and regulation of bolting and flowering of plants. Herein, the molecular mechanism that continuous seedling breeding caused weaker winterness was analyzed preliminarily. It plays an important guiding significance for Chinese cabbage breeding.

  6. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-10-05

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved β strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage.

  7. High-throughput sequencing discovery of conserved and novel microRNAs in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengde; Li, Libin; Liu, Lifeng; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Yihui; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Gao, Jianwei

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. miRNAs have been extensively analyzed in a few model plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and Populus, and partially investigated in other non-model plant species. However, only a few conserved miRNAs have been identified in Chinese cabbage, a common and economically important crop in Asia. To identify novel and conserved miRNAs in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) we constructed a small RNA library. Using high-throughput Solexa sequencing to identify microRNAs we found 11,210 unique sequences belonging to 321 conserved miRNA families and 228 novel miRNAs. We ran a Blast search with these sequences against the Chinese cabbage mRNA database and found 2,308 and 736 potential target genes for 221 conserved and 125 novel miRNAs, respectively. The BlastX search against the Arabidopsis genome and GO analysis suggested most of the targets were involved in plant growth, metabolism, development and stress response. This study provides the first large scale-cloning and characterization of Chinese cabbage miRNAs and their potential targets. These miRNAs add to the growing database of new miRNAs, prompt further study on Chinese cabbage miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in Chinese cabbage.

  8. Tissue Culture as a Source of Replicates in Nonmodel Plants: Variation in Cold Response in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea.

    PubMed

    Kenta, Tanaka; Edwards, Jessica E M; Butlin, Roger K; Burke, Terry; Quick, W Paul; Urwin, Peter; Davey, Matthew P

    2016-12-07

    While genotype-environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates-a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could be potentially overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and "somaclonal" variation. Here, we examined somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', and ΦPSII, representing maximum efficiency of photosynthesis for dark- and light-adapted leaves, and the actual electron transport operating efficiency, respectively, which are reliable indicators of photoinhibition and damage to the photosynthetic electron transport system). We compared this to variation among half-sibling seedlings from three different families of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea Somaclonal variation was limited, and we could detect within-family variation in change in chlorophyll fluorescence due to cold shock successfully with the help of tissue-culture derived replicates. Icelandic and Norwegian families exhibited higher chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting higher performance after cold shock, than a Swedish family. Although the main effect of tissue culture on Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', and ΦPSII was small, there were significant interactions between tissue culture and family, suggesting that the effect of tissue culture is genotype-specific. Tissue-cultured plantlets were less affected by cold treatment than seedlings, but to a different extent in each family. These interactive effects, however, were comparable to, or much smaller than the single effect of family. These results suggest that tissue culture is a useful method for obtaining genetically homogenous replicates for studying genotype-environment interaction related to adaptively-relevant phenotypes, such as cold response, in

  9. Seed germination ecology of the annual grass Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata and a comparison with L. panicoides and L. fusca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Chester, Edward W.

    1999-09-01

    Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata is an annual grass that grows in relatively dry habitats. Requirements for dormancy loss and germination were determined for seeds of this species and compared to those of two species from wet habitats. Seeds of L. panicea were dormant at maturity in autumn, but when exposed to actual or simulated autumn temperatures (e.g. 20/10, 15/6 °C), they entered conditional dormancy and thus germinated to high percentages in light at 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exposed to natural seasonal temperature changes in Kentucky (USA) were non-dormant by the following summer and germinated to 80-100 % in light at 25/15, 30/15 and 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, with seeds mostly germinating to 80-100 % in light at 30/15 and 35/20 °C throughout the year but to 80-100 % in light at 25/15 °C only in summer. Results for L. panicea were compared to published data for L. panicoides and L. fusca. Whereas seeds of L. panicea buried in flooded soil failed to come out of dormancy, those of L. panicoides, an annual of moist habitats such as mudflats, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, and those of L. fusca, a semi-aquatic, required flooding for both dormancy loss and germination. Differences in dormancy breaking and germination responses of seeds of Leptochloa species may help to explain why this genus occupies a wide range of habitats with regard to soil moisture conditions.

  10. Proteogenomic Analysis Greatly Expands the Identification of Proteins Related to Reproduction in the Apogamous Fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Jonas; Fernández, Helena; Chaubey, Pururawa M.; Valdés, Ana E.; Gagliardini, Valeria; Cañal, María J.; Russo, Giancarlo; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    Performing proteomic studies on non-model organisms with little or no genomic information is still difficult. However, many specific processes and biochemical pathways occur only in species that are poorly characterized at the genomic level. For example, many plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually, the first one allowing the generation of new genotypes and the latter their fixation. Thus, both modes of reproduction are of great agronomic value. However, the molecular basis of asexual reproduction is not well understood in any plant. In ferns, it combines the production of unreduced spores (diplospory) and the formation of sporophytes from somatic cells (apogamy). To set the basis to study these processes, we performed transcriptomics by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and shotgun proteomics by tandem mass spectrometry in the apogamous fern D. affinis ssp. affinis. For protein identification we used the public viridiplantae database (VPDB) to identify orthologous proteins from other plant species and new transcriptomics data to generate a “species-specific transcriptome database” (SSTDB). In total 1,397 protein clusters with 5,865 unique peptide sequences were identified (13 decoy proteins out of 1,410, protFDR 0.93% on protein cluster level). We show that using the SSTDB for protein identification increases the number of identified peptides almost four times compared to using only the publically available VPDB. We identified homologs of proteins involved in reproduction of higher plants, including proteins with a potential role in apogamy. With the increasing availability of genomic data from non-model species, similar proteogenomics approaches will improve the sensitivity in protein identification for species only distantly related to models. PMID:28382042

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of Teknar HP-D, a biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, K; Doss, P S Boopathi; Vaidyanathan, K

    2004-10-01

    Larvicidal efficacy of Teknar HP-D, an improved biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti), against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was determined in the laboratory, and in field the efficacy of the formulation was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding in cesspits, unused wells and drains. The toxicity of the formulation to Gambusia affinis (larvivorous fish), Notonecta sp. and Diplonychus indicus (water bugs) was also evaluated in the laboratory. Teknar HP-D was field tested at three recommended dosages, 1, 1.5 and 2l/ha, selecting five habitats for each dosage. Another five habitats were kept untreated as controls. Ae. aegypti showed greatest susceptibility to the Bti toxin in the laboratory. In cesspits, all the three dosages caused >80% reduction of pupal recruitment up to day 6 post-treatment, indicating that a weekly application at the lowest would be necessary for sustained control. The residual activity of the formulation was longer in unused wells, causing >80% reduction of pupal recruitment for 17 days from the day of treatment. In controlling pupal recruitment the three dosages produced equal effect. Application of Teknar HP-D at 1 l/ha once in three weeks is therefore recommended to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in unused wells. However, in drains, >80% reduction of pupal recruitment was observed for only 3 days and hence, application of Teknar HP-D at 2 l/ha that caused significantly higher level of reduction twice in a week at 3-day interval is necessary. At dosages from 0.032 to 3.2 mg/l (ppm), Teknar HP-D was non-toxic to Gambusia fish. The two predatory water bugs, Notonecta sp. and Diplonychus indicus that fed on the surviving larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus exposed to the sub-lethal doses (LC(50) and LC(80)) of Teknar HP-D were safe with out having any mortality.

  12. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  13. A molecular linkage map of tomato displaying chromosomal locations of resistance gene analogs based on a Lycopersicon esculentum x Lycopersicon hirsutum cross.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L P; Khan, A; Niño-Liu, D; Foolad, M R

    2002-02-01

    A molecular linkage map of tomato was constructed based on a BC1 population (N = 145) of a cross between Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. line NC84173 (maternal and recurrent parent) and Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. accession PI126445. NC84173 is an advanced breeding line that is resistant to several tomato diseases, not including early blight (EB) and late blight (LB). PI126445 is a self-incompatible accession that is resistant to many tomato diseases, including EB and LB. The map included 142 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and 29 resistance gene analogs (RGAs). RGA loci were identified by PCR amplification of genomic DNA from the BC1 population, using ten pairs of degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed based on conserved leucine-rich repeat (LRR), nucleotide binding site (NBS), and serine (threonine) protein kinase (PtoKin) domains of known resistance genes (R genes). The PCR-amplified DNAs were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which allowed separation of heterogeneous products and identification and mapping of individual RGA loci. The map spanned 1469 cM of the 12 tomato chromosomes with an average marker distance of 8.6 cM. The RGA loci were mapped to 9 of the 12 tomato chromosomes. Locations of some RGAs coincided with locations of several known tomato R genes or quantitative resistance loci (QRLs), including Cf-1, Cf-4, Cf-9, Cf-ECP2, rx-1, and Cm1.1 (chromosome 1); Tm-1 (chromosome 2); Asc (chrromosme 3); Pto, Fen, and Prf (chromosome 5); 01-1, Mi, Ty-1, Cm6.1, Cf-2, CF-5, Bw-5, and Bw-1 (chromosome 6); I-1, 1-3, and Ph-1 (chromosome 7); Tm-2a and Fr1 (chromosome 9); and Lv (chromosome 12). These co-localizations indicate that the RGA loci were either linked to or part of the known R genes. Furthermore, similar to that for many R gene families, several RGA loci were found in clusters, suggesting their potential evolutionary relationship with R genes. Comparisons of the present map with

  14. [Acute toxicity and analgesic activity of the global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].

    PubMed

    Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Fkih-Tetouani, Souad; Idrissi, Abdelkader Il

    2006-01-01

    The global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire are especially rich in secondary metabolites of the type iridoid lactonique and glucosidique and of type lupane triterpine. The aerial part of each species is crushed, and then extracted by cold maceration in methanol. These total extracts are in the form of suspension in Arabic gum with 5%, they are tested on the mice for the tests of acute toxicity like for the peripheral analgesic activity according to the test of Koster; and also on the rats for the central analgesic activity of the morphine type based on the test "Tail Flick". The acute toxicity evaluation of these extracts follows upon the determination of the lethal amounts 50% of essential oils from these two species, already given it is specified here by the lethal dose 50% (DL50) of 1672 +/- 232 mg/kg with confidence limits [1030 - 2320] mg/kg for Nepeta atlantica and 1401 +/- 97.29 mg/kg with confidence limits [1130 - 1670] mg/kg for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata. The tests of Koster in the mouse and the "Tail Flik" in the rat showed that the global extracts of the studied species have all two greatly peripheral analgesic activity with an important protection against abdominal cramp 67.91% and 75.53% for 60 mg/kg IP respectively for Nepeta atlantica and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. Reticulata, which rise up to 90.10% and 92.89% for 120 mg/kg IP. A central morphine like analgesic activity is record with 120 mg/kg IP for the two species.

  15. Impact of injected dose and acquisition time on a normal database by use of 3D-SSP in SPECT images: quantitative simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideo; Hatazawa, Jun; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Ito, Kengo; Ha-Kawa, Sang Kil; Masuda, Yasuhiko; Sugibayashi, Keiichi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Kei; Katsuta, Noboru

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to validate the accuracy of normal databases (NDBs) with respect to variable injected doses and acquisition times by use of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) in N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (I-123-IMP) brain perfusion images. We constructed NDBs based on brain SPECT images obtained from 29 healthy volunteers. Each NDB was rebuilt under simulated unique conditions by use of dynamic acquisition datasets and comprised injected doses (222, 167, and 111 MBq) and acquisition times (30, 20, and 15 min). We selected seven of 29 datasets derived from the volunteers to simulate patients' data (PD). The simulated PD were designed to include regions of hypoperfusion. The study comprised protocol A (same conditions for PD and NDB) and protocol B (mismatched conditions for PD and NDB). We used 3D-SSP to compare with the Z score and detection error. The average Z scores were decreased significantly in protocol A [PD (High)-NDB (High) vs. PD (Low)-NDB (Low); PD (30 m)-NDB (30 m) vs. PD (15 m)-NDB (15 m) and PD (20 m)-NDB (20 m)].The average Z scores of PD (High) and PD (Medium) with NDB (High) did not differ significantly in protocol B, whereas all others were decreased significantly. The error of detection increased 6.65 % (protocol A) and 32.05 % (protocol B). The Z scores were specific to the injected dose and acquisition time used in 3D-SSP studies, and the calculated Z scores were affected by mismatched injected doses and acquisition times between PD and selected NDBs.

  16. Reduced-gravity Testing of The Huygens Probe Ssp Tiltmeter and Hasi Accelerometer Sensors and Their Role In Reconstruction of The Probe Descent Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, N.; Zarnecki, J.

    When the ESA Huygens Probe arrives at Titan in 2005, measurements taken during and after the descent through the atmosphere are likely to revolutionise our under- standing of SaturnSs most enigmatic moon. The accurate atmospheric profiling of Titan from these measurements will require knowledge of the probe descent trajectory and in some cases attitude history, whilst certain atmospheric information (e.g. wind speeds) may be inferred directly from the probe dynamics during descent. Two of the instruments identified as contributing valuable information for the reconstruction of the probeSs parachute descent dynamics are the Surface Science Package Tilt sensor (SSP-TIL) and the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument servo accelerometer (HASI-ACC). This presentation provides an overview of these sensors and their static calibration before describing an investigation into their real-life dynamic performance under simulated Titan-gravity conditions via a low-cost parabolic flight opportunity. The combined use of SSP-TIL and HASI-ACC in characterising the aircraft dynam- ics is also demonstrated and some important challenges are highlighted. Results from some simple spin tests are also presented. Finally, having validated the performance of the sensors under simulated Titan conditions, estimates are made as to the output of SSP-TIL and HASI-ACC under a variety of probe dynamics, ranging from verti- cal descent with spin to a simple 3 degree-of-freedom parachute descent model with horizontal gusting. It is shown how careful consideration must be given to the instru- mentsS principles of operation in each case, and also the impact of the sampling rates and resolutions as selected for the Huygens mission. The presentation concludes with a discussion of ongoing work on more advanced descent modelling and surface dy- namics modelling, and also of a proposal for the testing of the sensors on a sea-surface.

  17. Complete coding regions of two novel HLA-B alleles detected by phototyping (PCR-SSP) in the British caucasoid population: B*5108 and B*5002.

    PubMed

    Vilches, C; Bunce, M; de Pablo, R; Murray, A K; McIntyre, C A; Kreisler, M

    1997-07-01

    Two previously reported PCR-SSP variants of the HLA-B locus, B51GAC and B45v, were investigated by RT-PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of their complete coding regions. They have been shown to correspond to the new alleles B*5108 and B*5002, both of which differ from the common B*5101 and B*5001 subtypes, respectively, by amino acid replacements at their alpha-2 domain alpha-helices. The primary structure of B*5002, intermediate between those of B*4501 and B*5001, raises further concern about the current classification of B*45 as a B12 rather than as a B*50 subtype.

  18. Role of nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) in NO(3-)-N accumulation in greengrocery( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wu, Liang-huan; Ju, Xiao-tang; Zhang, Fu-suo

    2005-01-01

    The influence of nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on nitrate accumulation in greengrocery (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil at surface layer were investigated in field experiments in 2002 and 2003. Results showed that NI DMPP took no significant effect on yields of edible parts of greengrocery, but it could significantly decrease NO(3-)-N concentration in greengrocery and in vegetable soil at surface layer. In addition, NI DMPP could reduce the NO(3-)-N concentration during the prophase stage of storage.

  19. Policy for Heritage Language Instruction = Politique sur l'enseignement des langues ancestrales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Policy established by the Manitoba (Canada) provincial government to inform the development and implementation of heritage language programs is outlined. Introductory sections provide background on the history of heritage language instruction, foreign language instruction, and language of instruction in Manitoba public schools. A brief discussion…

  20. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  1. Developmental changes in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and pigments in fruit exocarp of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes: beta-carotene, high pigment-1, ripening inhibitor, and 'Rutgers'.

    PubMed

    Torres, C A; Andrews, P K

    2006-01-01

    In surface cell layers of fleshy fruit, antioxidants must limit photooxidative reactions that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high light. Our objective was to measure changes in the concentrations of antioxidant metabolites and pigments, and the activities of enzymes of the Mehler-peroxidase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle in fruit exocarp tissue under non-stress conditions of the following fruit-specific tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.=Solanum lycopersicum) mutants and their parent: (1) beta-carotene (B), (2) high pigment (hp-1), (3) ripening inhibitor (rin), and (4) the nearly isogenic wild-type 'Rutgers'. Developmental variables included days after anthesis (DAA) and fruit surface color. The highest total ascorbic acid (AsA) concentration was in the exocarp of immature green fruit of hp-1, being 32% higher than 'Rutgers'. The hp-1 mutant also had the highest chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations, comprised mostly of lycopene in red ripe fruit; whereas, beta-carotene comprised 90% of the carotenoids in B. Although enzyme activities varied within genotype, they generally increased with development, then decreased as fruit maturity was reached, being coupled with AsA and glutathione (GSH) concentrations. In all mutants, dark-green (DG) exocarp had more chlorophyll and protein, higher concentrations of reduced AsA and GSH, and usually lower enzyme activities than light-green (LG) exocarp taken from the same fruit.

  2. IgE-binding epitopic peptide mapping on a three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) consists of three protomers exhibiting the cupin motif, arranged in a homotrimer around a three-fold symmetry axis. Using the SPOT technique, 11 continuous IgE-binding epitopic peptides were characterized on the molecular surface of the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat. Except for one of them, they all correspond to well exposed regions containing electropositiveley and/or electronegatively charged residues, which cover up to 40% of the molecular surface of the allergen. Some of these epitopes come in close contact to probably create more extended discontinuous epitopes, especially those located on the edge of the 13S globulin homotrimer. Half of the identified epitope peptides remain unaltered in a core structure protected against hydrolysis by digestive proteases and are thus assumed to promote the allergenicity of the 13S globulin. In addition, a few of these epitopes coincide with sequential IgE-binding epitopes previously characterized in soybean 11S globulins, that could account for the IgE-binding cross-reactions observed between soybean and buckwheat in Western blot experiments.

  3. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) based on transcriptome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Demidenko, Natalia V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A

    2011-05-12

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits). These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1), AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND) and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS) are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  4. Determination of rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Danila, Ana-Maria; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2007-02-21

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and seeds by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Chromatography was performed using an octadecylsilica column, acetonitrile-water-formic acid (13:87:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase, and an applied potential at +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. We found that Japanese buckwheat flour contains rutin (12.7 mg/100 g), catechin (3.30 mg/100 g), epicatechin (20.5 mg/100 g), and epicatechin gallate (1.27 mg/100 g). The relative standard deviations for rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate peak heights were less than 0.86% (n = 5). The detection limit of rutin was 0.86 ng/mL. Moreover, the present method was applied to the distribution analysis of these compounds in buckwheat seed. The embryo proper and cotyledons of a mature buckwheat seed contained rutin with the highest concentration as compared to other parts. This method is useful in determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat with a small amount of sample for quality control in the food industry.

  5. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information.

  6. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  7. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Based on Transcriptome Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Demidenko, Natalia V.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Penin, Aleksey A.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits). These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications – geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper - were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1), AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND) and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS) are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species. PMID:21589908

  8. The second step of the biphasic endosperm cap weakening that mediates tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seed germination is under control of ABA.

    PubMed

    Toorop, P E; van Aelst, A C; Hilhorst, H W

    2000-08-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the weakening of the endosperm cap prior to radicle protrusion in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) seeds was studied. The endosperm cap weakened substantially in both water and ABA during the first 38 h of imbibition. After 38 h the force required for endosperm cap puncturing was arrested at 0.35 N in ABA, whereas in water a further decrease occurred until the radicle protruded. During the first 2 d of imbibition endo-beta-mannanase activity was correlated with the decrease in required puncture force and with the appearance of ice-crystal-induced porosity in the cell walls as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Prolonged incubation in ABA resulted in the loss of endo-beta-mannanase activity and the loss of ice-crystal-induced porosity, but not in a reversion of the required puncture force. ABA also had a distinct but minor effect on the growth potential of the embryo. However, endosperm cap resistance played the limiting role in the completion of germination. It was concluded that (a) endosperm cap weakening is a biphasic process and (b) inhibition of germination by ABA is through the second step in the endosperm cap weakening process.

  9. Effect of ethephon on protein degradation and the accumulation of pathogensis-related (PR) proteins in tomato leaf discs. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, P.; Conejero, V. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ethephon (2-chloroetylphosphonic acid) on the degradation of proteins and on the induction of Lycopersicon esculentum pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins was studied in tomato leaf discs. The rate of ribulose, -1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) degradation was maximal in discs after 48 hours of incubation with 1 millimolar ethephon, leading to complete disappearance of Rubisco after 96 hours. This effect was correlated with an increase in PR protein synthesis and the induction of the previously reported alkaline proteolytic enzyme PR-P69. In vivo pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that ethephon not only affected Rubisco content but that of many other {sup 35}S-labeled proteins as well, indicating that ethylene activates a general and nonspecific mechanism of protein degradation. This effect was partially inhibited in vivo by the action of pCMB, a selective inhibitor of cysteine-proteinases such as P69. These data reinforce the hypothesis that P69 and perhaps other PR proteins are involved in the mechanism of accelerated protein degradation activated by ethylene.

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-01

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2‧-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm-1, being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Adaptation of photosynthesis in marama bean Tylosema esculentum (Burchell A. Schreiber) to a high temperature, high radiation, drought-prone environment.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R A C; Keys, A J; Madgwick, P J; Parry, M A J; Lawlor, D W

    2005-01-01

    Marama bean, Tylosema esculentum, is a tuberous legume native to the Kalahari region of Southern Africa where it grows under high temperatures (typical daily max 37 degrees C during growing season) and radiation (frequently in excess of 2000 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) in sandy soils with low rainfall. These conditions might be expected to select for increased water-use efficiency of photosynthesis. However, marama was found to give similar leaf photosynthetic rates to other C3 plants for a given internal leaf CO2 concentration and Rubisco content. Under conditions of increasing drought, no increase in water-use efficiency of photosynthesis was observed, but stomata closed early and preceded any change in leaf water potential. The possibility of subtle adaptations of photosynthetic characteristics to its natural environment were investigated at the level of Rubisco kinetics. The specificity factor of marama Rubisco was slightly lower than that of wheat, but the apparent Km for CO2 in air (Km') was about 20% lower than that of wheat. This is consistent with better adaptation for efficient photosynthesis at high temperatures in marama compared to wheat, although the net benefit is predicted to be very small (<0.5% at 35 degrees C). The sequence of marama rbcL gene shows 27 deduced amino acid residue differences from that for wheat, and the possibility that one or more of these cause the difference in Rubisco Km' is discussed.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Cristina M; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-05

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm(-1). Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2'-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm(-1), being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  14. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.

  15. Genealogy and fine mapping of obscuravenosa, a gene affecting the distribution of chloroplasts in leaf veins, and evidence of selection during breeding of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Carl M; Rick, Charles M; Adams, Dawn; Jernstedt, Judy; Chetelat, Roger T

    2007-06-01

    In the processes of plant domestication and variety development, some traits are under direct selection, while others may be introduced by indirect selection or linkage. In the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum = Solanum lycopersicum), and all other Solanaceae examined, chloroplasts are normally absent from subepidermal and mesophyll cells surrounding the leaf veins, and thus, veins appear clear upon subillumination. The tomato mutant obscuravenosa (obv), in contrast, contains chloroplasts in cells around the vein, and thus, veins appear as dark as the surrounding leaf tissue. Among tomato cultivars, the obv allele is common in processing varieties bred for mechanical harvest, but is otherwise rare. We traced the source of obv in processing tomatoes to the cultivar Earliana, released in the 1920s. The obv locus was mapped to chromosome 5, bin 5G, using introgression lines containing single chromosome segments from the wild species L. pennellii. This region also contains a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for plant height, pht5.4, which cosegregated with SP5G, a paralog of self-pruning (sp), the gene that controls the switch between determinate and indeterminate growth in tomato. The pht5.4 QTL was partially dominant and associated with a reduced percentage of red fruit at harvest. Our data suggest that the prevalence of obv in nearly all processing varieties may have resulted from its tight linkage to a QTL conferring a more compact, and horticulturally desirable, plant habit.

  16. Biosynthesis of 14C-phytoene from tomato cell suspension cultures (Lycopersicon esculentum) for utilization in prostate cancer cell culture studies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jessica K; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2006-02-08

    This work describes the development and utilization of a plant cell culture production approach to biosynthesize and radiolabel phytoene and phytofluene for prostate cancer cell culture studies. The herbicide norflurazon was added to established cell suspension cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT cherry), to induce the biosynthesis and accumulation of the lycopene precursors, phytoene and phytofluene, in their natural isomeric forms (15-cis-phytoene and two cis-phytofluene isomers). Norflurazon concentrations, solvent carrier type and concentration, and duration of culture exposure to norflurazon were screened to optimize phytoene and phytofluene synthesis. Maximum yields of both phytoene and phytofluene were achieved after 7 days of treatment with 0.03 mg norflurazon/40 mL fresh medium, provided in 0.07% solvent carrier. Introduction of 14C-sucrose to the tomato cell culture medium enabled the production of 14C-labeled phytoene for subsequent prostate tumor cell uptake studies. In DU 145 prostate tumor cells, it was determined that 15-cis-phytoene and an oxidized product of phytoene were taken up and partially metabolized by the cells. The ability to biosynthesize, radiolabel, and isolate these carotenoids from tomato cell cultures is a novel, valuable methodology for further in vitro and in vivo investigations into the roles of phytoene and phytofluene in cancer chemoprevention.

  17. Leaf and root pectin methylesterase activity and 13C/12C stable isotopic ratio measurements of methanol emissions give insight into methanol production in Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Patricia Yoshino; Giebel, Brian M; Sternberg, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly; Li, Lei; Timko, Michael P; Swart, Peter K; Riemer, Daniel D; Mak, John E; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2011-09-01

    Plant production of methanol (MeOH) is a poorly understood aspect of metabolism, and understanding MeOH production in plants is crucial for modeling MeOH emissions. Here, we have examined the source of MeOH emissions from mature and immature leaves and whether pectin methylesterase (PME) activity is a good predictor of MeOH emission. We also investigated the significance of below-ground MeOH production for mature leaf emissions. We present measurements of MeOH emission, PME activity, and MeOH concentration in mature and immature tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We also present stable carbon isotopic signatures of MeOH emission and the pectin methoxyl pool. Our results suggest that below-ground MeOH production was not the dominant contributor to daytime MeOH emissions from mature and immature leaves. Stable carbon isotopic signatures of mature and immature leaf MeOH were similar, suggesting that they were derived from the same pathway. Foliar PME activity was related to MeOH flux, but unexplained variance suggested PME activity could not predict emissions. The data show that MeOH production and emission are complex and cannot be predicted using PME activity alone. We hypothesize that substrate limitation of MeOH synthesis and MeOH catabolism may be important regulators of MeOH emission.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of lycopene extract from Lycopersicum esculentum (Tomato) and its evaluation as a chemopreventive agent against experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prachi; Bansal, Mohinder Pal; Koul, Ashwani

    2013-03-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the lycopene extract (LycT) prepared from tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) and then to evaluate its chemopreventive efficacy in N-diethylnitrosamine (NDEA)-induced experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in female Balb/c mice. The extraction of lycopene was carried out using hexane/acetone/ethanol as an extracting medium and then characterized by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Chemopreventive efficacy of characterized LycT in vivo was evaluated in terms of hepatic tumour incidence, multiplicity, burden, hepatosomatic index and animal survival rate. Results indicated that average lycopene content of the tomato was 11.6-14 mg/kg tomato weight. Spectroscopic data confirmed the structural characteristics of lycopene in the extract. In the animal study, reduction in tumour incidence (42.05%), tumour burden (1.39) and tumour multiplicity (3.42) was observed upon LycT pretreatment to NDEA-treated animals. Histopathological analysis unravelled that the increased survival rate in LycT + NDEA-treated animals was due to the delay in the formation of aggressive tumour nodules. These observations indicate that lycopene seems to be an able candidate for chemoprevention in hepatocarcinogenesis resulting from NDEA insults.

  19. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Stenman, L K; Waget, A; Garret, C; Klopp, P; Burcelin, R; Lahtinen, S

    2014-12-01

    Alterations of the gut microbiota and mucosal barrier are linked with metabolic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the potential benefit of the potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 in reducing high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and diabetes in mice. In the obesity model, C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (60 energy %) for 12 weeks, and gavaged daily with B. lactis 420 (109 cfu) or vehicle. In the diabetes model, mice were fed a high-fat, ketogenic diet (72 energy % fat) for 4 weeks, with a 6-week subsequent treatment with B. lactis 420 (108-1010 cfu/day) or vehicle, after which they were analysed for body composition. We also analysed glucose tolerance, plasma lipopolysaccharide and target tissue inflammation using only one of the B. lactis 420 groups (109 cfu/day). Intestinal bacterial translocation and adhesion were analysed in a separate experiment using an Escherichia coli gavage. Body fat mass was increased in both obese (10.7 ± 0.8 g (mean ± standard error of mean) vs. 1.86 ± 0.21 g, P<0.001) and diabetic mice (3.01 ± 0.4 g vs. 1.14 ± 0.15 g, P<0.001) compared to healthy controls. Treatment with B. lactis 420 significantly decreased fat mass in obese (7.83 ± 0.67 g, P=0.007 compared to obese with vehicle) and diabetic mice (1.89 ± 0.16 g, P=0.02 for highest dose). This was reflected as reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide levels (P<0.001), liver inflammation (P=0.04), and E. coli adhesion in the distal gut (P<0.05). In conclusion, B. lactis 420 reduces fat mass and glucose intolerance in both obese and diabetic mice. Reduced intestinal mucosal adherence and plasma lipopolysaccharide suggest a mechanism related to reduced translocation of gut microbes.

  20. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  1. Implications of PCR and ELISA results on the routes of bulk-tank contamination with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Beaver, A; Cazer, C L; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, may enter the bulk tank via environmental contamination or direct excretion into milk. Traditionally, diagnostics to identify MAP in milk target either MAP antibodies (by ELISA) or the organism itself (by culture or PCR). High ELISA titers may be directly associated with excretion of MAP into milk but only indirectly linked to environmental contamination of the bulk tank. Patterns of bulk-milk ELISA and bulk-milk PCR results could therefore provide insight into the routes of contamination and level of infection or environmental burden. Coupled with questionnaire responses pertaining to management, the results of these diagnostic tests could reveal correlations with herd characteristics or on-farm practices that distinguish herds with high and low environmental bulk-tank MAP contamination. A questionnaire on hygiene, management, and Johne's specific parameters was administered to 292 dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Bulk-tank samples were collected from each farm for evaluation by real-time PCR and ELISA. Before DNA extraction and testing of the unknown samples, bulk-milk template preparation was optimized with respect to parameters such as MAP fractionation patterns and lysis. Two regression models were developed to explore the relationships among bulk-tank PCR, ELISA, environmental predictors, and herd characteristics. First, ELISA optical density (OD) was designated as the outcome in a linear regression model. Second, the log odds of being PCR positive in the bulk tank were modeled using binary logistic regression with penalized maximum likelihood. The proportion of PCR-positive bulk tanks was highest for New York and for organic farms, providing a clue as to the geographical patterns of MAP-positive bulk-tank samples and relationship to production type. Bulk-milk PCR positivity was also higher for large relative to small herds. The models

  2. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum

    PubMed Central

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  3. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed

  4. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    PubMed

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  5. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  6. Analysis of chromosomal polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and between H. vulgare and H. chilense using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Szakács, É; Kruppa, K; Molnár-Láng, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study chromosomal polymorphism within cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The physical distribution of the most frequently used, highly repetitive DNA sequences (GAA)7 specific for pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, the ribosomal DNA clone pTa71, specific for the 45S rDNA, and the barley-specific telomere-associated sequence HvT01, was investigated to reveal genetic diversity in metaphase spreads of ten barley genotypes with diverse geographical origin, growth habit and row number. A wild relative of barley, Hordeum chilense was also studied in order to compare the polymorphism between and within Hordeum species. Significant differences in the hybridization patterns of all three DNA probes could be detected between the two related species, but only probes pTa71 and HvT01 showed variation in the intensity and/or position of hybridization sites among genotypes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare. The extent of polymorphism was less than that earlier reported for molecular markers and was restricted to the long chromosome arms, with differences between the chromosomes. 1H and 3H proved to be the most variable chromosomes and 4H and 6H the most conserved.

  7. Characterization of BcMF23a and BcMF23b, two putative pectin methylesterase genes related to pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sue; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xingpeng; Yue, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    Two homologous genes, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23a (BcMF23a) and Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23b (BcMF23b), encoding putative pectin methylesterases (PMEs) were isolated from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (syn. Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). These two genes sharing high sequence identity with each other were highly expressed in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile line system ('Bcajh97-01A/B'). Results of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization suggested that BcMF23a and BcMF23b were pollen-expressed genes, whose transcripts were first detected at the binucleate pollen and maintained throughout to the mature pollen grains. Western blot indicated that both of the putative BcMF23a and BcMF23b proteins are approximately 40 kDa, which exhibited extracellular localization revealed by transient expression analysis in the onion epidermal cells. The promoter of BcMF23a was active specifically in pollen during the late pollen developmental stages, while, in addition to the pollen, BcMF23b promoter drove an extra gene expression in the valve margins, abscission layer at the base of the first true leaves, taproot and lateral roots in seedlings.

  8. Long-distance signals regulating stomatal conductance and leaf growth in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants subjected to partial root-zone drying.

    PubMed

    Sobeih, Wagdy Y; Dodd, Ian C; Bacon, Mark A; Grierson, Donald; Davies, William J

    2004-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ailsa Craig) plants were grown with roots split between two soil columns. After plant establishment, water was applied daily to one (partial root-zone drying-PRD) or both (well-watered control-WW) columns. Water was withheld from the other column in the PRD treatment, to expose some roots to drying soil. Soil and plant water status were monitored daily and throughout diurnal courses. Over 8 d, there were no treatment differences in leaf water potential (psileaf) even though soil moisture content of the upper 6 cm (theta) of the dry column in the PRD treatment decreased by up to 70%. Stomatal conductance (gs) of PRD plants decreased (relative to WW plants) when of the dry column decreased by 45%. Such closure coincided with increased xylem sap pH and did not require increased xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration ([X-ABA]). Detached leaflet ethylene evolution of PRD plants increased when of the dry column decreased by 55%, concurrent with decreased leaf elongation. The physiological significance of enhanced ethylene evolution of PRD plants was examined using a transgenic tomato (ACO1AS) with low stress-induced ethylene production. In response to PRD, ACO1AS and wild-type plants showed similar xylem sap pH, [X-ABA] and gs, but ACO1AS plants showed neither enhanced ethylene evolution nor significant reductions in leaf elongation. Combined use of genetic technologies to reduce ethylene production and agronomic technologies to sustain water status (such as PRD) may sustain plant growth under conditions where yield would otherwise be significantly reduced.

  9. 5alpha-Reductase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum: cloning and functional characterization of LeDET2 and evidence of the presence of two isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Fabiana; Bardazzi, Irene; De Blasi, Paola; Simi, Lisa; Scarpi, Dina; Guarna, Antonio; Serio, Mario; Racchi, Milvia L; Danza, Giovanna

    2005-08-01

    The full-length cDNA (LeDET2) encoding a 257 amino acid protein homolog of Arabidopsis DET2 (AtDET2) was isolated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). LeDET2 has 76% similarity with AtDET2 and structural characteristics conserved among plant and mammalian steroid 5alpha-reductases (5alphaRs). LeDET2 is ubiquitously expressed in tomato tissues with higher levels in leaf than in stem, root, seed and callus. When expressed in mammalian cells (COS-7), recombinant LeDET2 was active on substrates typical of mammalian 5alphaRs (progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione), but reduced at very low levels campestenone, the substrate described for AtDET2. Similar results were obtained with the expression in COS-7 of recombinant AtDET2 that showed 5alphaR activity for progesterone and not for campestenone. Recombinant LeDET2 was inhibited by several inhibitors of the human 5alphaRs and the application of an active inhibitor to tomato seedlings induced dwarfism and morphological changes similar to BR-deficient mutants. In tomato tissues, campestenone was 5alpha-reduced in leaf, stem and root homogenates, like progesterone and testosterone, while androstenedione was converted to testosterone, evidencing for the first time a 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in plants. Moreover, two separate 5alphaR activities with different kinetic characteristic and response to inhibitors were characterized in tomato tissues. The presence of two 5alphaR isoenzymes was demonstrated also in Arabidopsis using the det2-1 mutant, in which a residual 5alphaR activity for campestenone and progesterone was evidenced and characterized. Therefore, the existence of two isoenzymes of 5alphaR is probably characteristic of the whole plant kingdom highlighting the similarities between the animal and plant steroid biosynthetic pathways.

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase microextraction method for determination of methyl salicylate and other volatile compounds in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin; Zhu, Weimin; Qian, Ji

    2004-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) in many plants is a important signaling compound, which plays an important role in a pathogen-induced defense response. In this paper, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was developed for determination of MeSA and other volatile compounds in leaves of a tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum). Tomato leaves were ground under liquid nitrogen and sampled by HS-SPME, with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fiber, and finally analyzed by GC-MS. Eighteen compounds in the leaves of tomato plant infested by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were separated and identified, among them MeSA, which was quantitatively analyzed by the standard addition method. MeSA concentrations higher than 2.0 microg g(-1) fresh weight accumulated in leaves of TMV-infested tomato plant as the defense response to TMV. A similar concentration of MeSA in the leaves of MeSA-treated tomato plant was also found. No MeSA in leaves of control tomato plant was detected. These findings suggest that MeSA might be a signaling compound in the tomato plant response to TMV. The present method for determination of MeSA required only simple sample preparation and no organic solvent, and provided an excellent relative standard deviation of less than 5.0% and a low detection limit of 10 ng g(-1) fresh weight for MeSA. These results show that GC-MS-HS-SPME is a simple, rapid and sensitive method for determination of MeSA and other plant-signaling compounds in plant tissues.

  11. Exposure of Lycopersicon esculentum to microcystin-LR: effects in the leaf proteome and toxin translocation from water to leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Neves, Joana; Freitas, Marisa; Guzmán-Guillén, Remédios; Cameán, Ana María; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-06-11

    Natural toxins such as those produced by freshwater cyanobacteria have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. However, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. The aim of this work was to investigate microcystin-LR (MC-LR) toxicity in Lycopersicon esculentum and the toxin accumulation in this horticultural crop. Adult plants (2 month-old) grown in a greenhouse environment were exposed for 2 weeks to either pure MC-LR (100 μg/L) or Microcystis aeruginosa crude extracts containing 100 μg/L MC-LR. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured, leaf proteome investigated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF, and toxin bioaccumulation assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. Variations in several protein markers (ATP synthase subunits, Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur, oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins) highlight the decrease of the capacity of plants to synthesize ATP and to perform photosynthesis, whereas variations in other proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase) suggest an increase of carbon fixation and decrease of carbohydrate metabolism reactions in plants exposed to pure MC-LR and cyanobacterial extracts, respectively. MC-LR was found in roots (1635.21 μg/kg fw), green tomatoes (5.15-5.41 μg/kg fw), mature tomatoes (10.52-10.83 μg/kg fw), and leaves (12,298.18 μg/kg fw). The results raise concerns relative to food safety and point to the necessity of monitoring the bioaccumulation of water toxins in agricultural systems affected by cyanotoxin contamination.

  12. Identification and quantification of stilbenes in fruits of transgenic tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) by reversed phase HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Isabella; De Rossi, Antonella; Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Corradini, Danilo

    2007-05-02

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection was employed to study the accumulation of stilbenes and other naturally occurring polyphenol intermediates of flavonoid pathway in tomato fruits of plants genetically modified to synthesize resveratrol. The transgenic tomato fruits were obtained by overexpression of a grapevine gene encoding the enzyme stilbene synthase in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Stilbenes and flavonoids, either glycosylated or free, were simultaneosly identified by electrospray interface (ESI)-MS in negative ionization mode and were quantified by PDA detection at the wavelength corresponding to their maximum absorbance. The two detectors were coupled online with an HPLC system utilizing a narrow-bore C18 reversed-phase column, which was eluted by a multistep gradient of increasing concentration of acetonitrile in water containing 0.5% (v/v) formic acid. The results of these analysis revealed that the genetic modification of the tomato plants originated different levels of accumulation of four stilbenes (i.e., trans- and cis-piceid and trans- and cis-resveratrol) in their fruit depending on the stages of ripening. Either at immature or at mature stages of ripening the stilbenes were preferentially accumulated in the fruit peel as the glycosylated form. The highest amount of trans-piceid and trans-resveratrol were found in the peel of fruits harvested at mature stage of ripening. The variations in the levels of rutin, naringenin, and chlorogenic acid found in the samples extracted from the fruits of transgenic tomato plants, in comparison to that determined in the control lines, seemed to be related to the genetic transformation, whose effect on the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway needs to be elucidated by additional studies.

  13. Exposure of Lycopersicon Esculentum to Microcystin-LR: Effects in the Leaf Proteome and Toxin Translocation from Water to Leaves and Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Neves, Joana; Freitas, Marisa; Guzmán-Guillén, Remédios; Cameán, Ana María; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-01-01

    Natural toxins such as those produced by freshwater cyanobacteria have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. However, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. The aim of this work was to investigate microcystin-LR (MC-LR) toxicity in Lycopersicon esculentum and the toxin accumulation in this horticultural crop. Adult plants (2 month-old) grown in a greenhouse environment were exposed for 2 weeks to either pure MC-LR (100 μg/L) or Microcystis aeruginosa crude extracts containing 100 μg/L MC-LR. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured, leaf proteome investigated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF, and toxin bioaccumulation assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. Variations in several protein markers (ATP synthase subunits, Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur, oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins) highlight the decrease of the capacity of plants to synthesize ATP and to perform photosynthesis, whereas variations in other proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase) suggest an increase of carbon fixation and decrease of carbohydrate metabolism reactions in plants exposed to pure MC-LR and cyanobacterial extracts, respectively. MC-LR was found in roots (1635.21 μg/kg fw), green tomatoes (5.15–5.41 μg/kg fw), mature tomatoes (10.52–10.83 μg/kg fw), and leaves (12,298.18 μg/kg fw). The results raise concerns relative to food safety and point to the necessity of monitoring the bioaccumulation of water toxins in agricultural systems affected by cyanotoxin contamination. PMID:24921194

  14. Two isoforms of the A subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in Lycopersicon esculentum: highly similar proteins but divergent patterns of tissue localization.

    PubMed

    Bageshwar, Umesh K; Taneja-Bageshwar, Suparna; Moharram, Hisham M; Binzel, Marla L

    2005-02-01

    The plant vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase, EC 3.6.1.34) generates a H+ electro-chemical gradient across the tonoplast membrane. We isolated two full-length cDNA clones (VHA-A1 and VHA-A2) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Large Cherry Red) coding for two isoforms of the V-ATPase catalytic subunit (V-ATPases A1 and A2). The cDNA clones encoding the two isoforms share 90% identity at the nucleotide level and 96% identity at the amino acid level. The 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, however, are highly diverse. Both V-ATPase A1 and A2 isoforms encode polypeptides of 623 amino acids, with calculated molecular masses of 68,570 and 68,715, respectively. The expression of VHA-A1 and accumulation of V-ATPase A1 polypeptide were ubiquitous in all tissues examined. In response to salinity, the abundances of both transcript (VHA-A1) and protein (V-ATPase A1) of the A1 isoform in leaves were nearly doubled. In contrast to the A1 isoform, VHA-A2 transcript and V-ATPase A2 polypeptide were only detected in abundance in roots, and in minor quantities in mature fruit. In roots, accumulation of transcripts and polypeptides did not change in response to salinity for either isoform. Subcellular localization indicated that the highest levels of both V-ATPase A1 and A2 isoforms were in the tonoplast. However, significant quantities of both isoforms were detected in membranes associated with endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi. Immunoprecipitation of dissociated V1 domains using isoform-specific antibodies showed that V1 domains consist of either V-ATPase A1 or A2 catalytic subunit isoforms.

  15. Genome-wide quantitative trait locus mapping identifies multiple major loci for brittle rachis and threshability in Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Feng; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Luo, Wei; Kong, Xing-Chen; Qi, Peng-Fei; Wang, Ji-Rui; Wei, Yu-Ming; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Ya-Xi; Peng, Yuan-Ying; Chen, Guo-Yue; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) is a semi-wild hexaploid wheat resource that is only naturally distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Brittle rachis and hard threshing are two important characters of Tibetan semi-wild wheat. A whole-genome linkage map of T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was constructed using a recombinant inbred line population (Q1028×ZM9023) with 186 lines, 564 diversity array technology markers, and 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic data on brittle rachis and threshability, as two quantitative traits, were evaluated on the basis of the number of average spike rachis fragments per spike and percent threshability in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping performed using inclusive composite interval mapping analysis clearly identified four QTLs for brittle rachis and three QTLs for threshability. However, three loci on 2DS, 2DL, and 5AL showed pleiotropism for brittle rachis and threshability; they respectively explained 5.3%, 18.6%, and 18.6% of phenotypic variation for brittle rachis and 17.4%, 13.2%, and 35.2% of phenotypic variation for threshability. A locus on 3DS showed an independent effect on brittle rachis, which explained 38.7% of the phenotypic variation. The loci on 2DS and 3DS probably represented the effect of Tg and Br1, respectively. The locus on 5AL was in very close proximity to the Q gene, but was different from the predicted q in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. To our knowledge, the locus on 2DL has never been reported in common wheat but was prominent in T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum accession Q1028. It remarkably interacted with the locus on 5AL to affect brittle rachis. Several major loci for brittle rachis and threshability were identified in Tibetan semi-wild wheat, improving the understanding of these two characters and suggesting the occurrence of special evolution in Tibetan semi-wild wheat.

  16. ISSR markers for gender identification and genetic diagnosis of Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica growing at high altitudes in Ladakh region (Jammu and Kashmir).

    PubMed

    Das, Kamal; Ganie, Showkat Hussain; Mangla, Yash; Dar, Tanvir-Ul-Hassan; Chaudhary, Manju; Thakur, Rakesh Kumar; Tandon, Rajesh; Raina, S N; Goel, Shailendra

    2017-03-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. turkestanica (Elaeagnaceae) is a predominantly dioecious and wind-pollinated medicinal plant species. The mature fruits of the species possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancerous, and antistimulatory properties that are believed to improve the immune system. The identification of male and female plants in H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica is quite difficult until flowering which usually takes 3-4 years or more. A sex-linked marker can be helpful in establishing the orchards through identification of genders at an early stage of development. Therefore, we studied the genetic diversity of populations in Ladakh with the aim to identify a gender-specific marker using ISSR markers. Fifty-eight ISSR primers were used to characterize the genome of H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica, of which eight primers generated 12 sex-specific fragments specific to one or more populations. The ISSR primer (P-45) produced a fragment which faithfully segregates all the males from the female plants across all the three valleys surveyed. This male-specific locus was converted into a SCAR. Forward and reverse primers designed from this fragment amplified a 750-bp sequence in males only, thus specifying it as an informative male-specific sex-linked marker. This SCAR marker was further validated for its capability to differentiate gender on an additional collection of plants, representing three geographically isolated valleys (Nubra, Suru, and Indus) from Ladakh region of India. The results confirmed sex-linked specificity of the marker suggesting that this conserved sequence at the Y chromosome is well preserved through the populations in Ladakh region. At present, there are no reliable markers which can differentiate male from female plants across all the three valleys of Ladakh region at an early stage of plant development. It is therefore envisaged that the developed SCAR marker shall provide a reliable molecular tool for early

  17. Expressed sequence tags from the laboratory-grown miniature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivar Micro-Tom and mining for single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions in tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Yano, Kentaro; Maeda, Fumi; Kuwata, Chikara; Torki, Moez; Ban, Yusuke; Nishimura, Shigeo; Shibata, Daisuke

    2005-08-15

    Laboratory-grown miniature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivar Micro-Tom has attracted attention as a host for functional genomics research. In this study, we generated 35,824 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from leaves and fruits of Micro-Tom. The ESTs comprised 10,287 unigenes (5007 contigs and 5280 singletons), including 1858 novel tomato unigenes. Of the 18 unigenes that shared strong homology with tobacco chloroplast genome sequences, one unigene was likely derived from polyadenylated transcripts of the atpH gene. Interestingly, ESTs for vacuolar invertase, pectate lyase and alcohol acyl transferase were underrepresented in the Micro-Tom data set. From all of the ESTs, we mined 2039 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 121 candidate insertions and deletions (indels) based on homology with four tomato inbred lines, E6203, R11-13, Rio Grande PtoR and R11-12, and a wild relative, L. pennellii TA56, for which sequence data was publicly available with more than 5000 entries. Direct genome sequencing of several SNP or indel sites in Micro-Tom and L. esculentum E6203 suggested that more than 69% of the candidate sites were truly polymorphic, making them useful for the preparation of DNA markers.

  18. Profiling of the Terpene Metabolome in Carrot Fruits of Wild (Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) Accessions and Characterization of a Geraniol Synthase.

    PubMed

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ibdah, Muhammad; Marzouk, Sally; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2016-10-06

    Fruits from wild carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. The oil of its seeds, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, has drawn attention in recent years because of its potential pharmaceutical application. A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of terpene volatiles in carrot fruits of wild accessions. This work reports a similarity-based cloning strategy identification and functional characterization of one carrot monoterpene terpene synthase, WtDcTPS1. Recombinant WtDcTPS1 protein produces mainly geraniol, the predominant monoterpene in carrot seeds of wild accession 23727. The results suggest a role for the WtDcTPS1 gene in the biosynthesis of carrot fruit aroma and flavor compounds.

  19. Determination of antimutagenic properties of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia with yeast DEL assay.

    PubMed

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Adiguzel, Ahmet; Bal, Tugba; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Dermirezer, Lutfiye Omur

    2013-07-01

    Lamiaceae is an important plant family that has been investigated for its medicinal properties due to its large amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in different test systems, but their certain mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia. The possible antimutagenic potential of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside (A7R) was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine (AC) in a eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS112. The results showed that A7R has different inhibition rates against EMS and AC-induced mutagenicity. Thus, the properties of A7R are of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial for reducing the risk of reactive oxygen species-related diseases.

  20. Pollen limitation of female reproductive success at fine spatial scale in a gynodioecious and wind-pollinated species, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.

    PubMed

    De Cauwer, I; Arnaud, J-F; Schmitt, E; Dufay, M

    2010-12-01

    In sexually polymorphic plants, the spatial distribution of sexes is usually not random. Local variation in phenotype frequencies is expected to affect individual fitness of the different phenotypes. For gynodioecious species, with co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females, if sexual phenotypes are structured in space and pollen flow is spatially restricted, local pollen availability should vary among patches. Female fitness may thus be low when hermaphrodites are locally rare. To test this hypothesis, we analysed how the reproductive output of females varied among patches within two natural study sites of the gynodioecious wind-pollinated Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Plants growing in female-biased areas and experiencing pollen limitation were found to have low fruit and seed sets but did not reallocate resources towards better offspring. Our results show that fine-scale processes influence individual fitness and the evolution of sex ratio in sexually polymorphic plants.

  1. Isolation and Characterisation of Bacteriocin
and Aggregation-Promoting Factor Production in
Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis BGBM50 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Nemanja; Radulovic, Zorica; Uzelac, Gordana; Lozo, Jelena; Obradovic, Dragojlo; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis BGBM50, a producer of lactococcin G and aggregation-promoting factor, was isolated from selected lactic acid bacteria taken from semi-hard cheese traditionally produced in the village Žanjic, Montenegro. Strain BGBM50 harbours a number of plasmids of different sizes. Plasmid curing experiments showed that genes for bacteriocin production are located on pBM140, a plasmid 140 kb in length. PCR analysis with primers specific for lactococcin Q and G genes gave fragment of the expected size. In addition, after plasmid curing of strain BGBM50, different derivatives with altered phenotypes were obtained, among them BGBM50-34 strain, which retained bacteriocin synthesis but had enhanced aggregation ability. PMID:27904354

  2. Potential for evolutionary change in the seasonal timing of germination in sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) mediated by seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Wagmann, Kristen; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Piquot, Yves; Van Dijk, Henk

    2010-07-01

    In sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima), germination occurs in autumn or spring and is mediated by dormancy which can be released by cold or dry periods. Environmental change such as current climate change may require evolutionary response in seasonal timing. Here, we explore the potential for such evolutionary change. Seed dormancy was studied in a composite population based on seeds from all over the species range in France together with several generations of reciprocal crosses. We found high, repeatable variability for dormancy rate among individuals under greenhouse conditions and confirmed its relevance for germination phenology in the field. Our data fitted best with an exclusively maternal determination of the dormancy phenotype. Narrow-sense heritability, h(2) approximately 0.5 in the composite population and approximately 0.4 in the original local populations, was such that rapid evolutionary change in the relative proportions of autumn and spring germination may be possible.

  3. XacFhaB adhesin, an important Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri virulence factor, is recognized as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Betiana S; Zimaro, Tamara; Abriata, Luciano A; Ottado, Jorgelina; Gottig, Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Adhesion to host tissue is one of the key steps of the bacterial pathogenic process. Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri possesses a non-fimbrial adhesin protein, XacFhaB, required for bacterial attachment, which we have previously demonstrated to be an important virulence factor for the development of citrus canker. XacFhaB is a 4753-residue-long protein with a predicted β-helical fold structure, involved in bacterial aggregation, biofilm formation and adhesion to the host. In this work, to further characterize this protein and considering its large size, XacFhaB was dissected into three regions based on bioinformatic and structural analyses for functional studies. First, the capacity of these protein regions to aggregate bacterial cells was analysed. Two of these regions were able to form bacterial aggregates, with the most amino-terminal region being dispensable for this activity. Moreover, XacFhaB shows features resembling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are recognized by plants. As PAMPs activate plant basal immune responses, the role of the three XacFhaB regions as elicitors of these responses was investigated. All adhesin regions were able to induce basal immune responses in host and non-host plants, with a stronger activation by the carboxyl-terminal region. Furthermore, pre-infiltration of citrus leaves with XacFhaB regions impaired X. citri ssp. citri growth, confirming the induction of defence responses and restraint of citrus canker. This work reveals that adhesins from plant pathogens trigger plant defence responses, opening up new pathways for the development of protective strategies for disease control.

  4. Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-08-07

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function.

  5. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis.

  6. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  7. Haematophageous vector monitoring in Djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of Culex pipiens ssp. torridus (IGLISCH), and Anopheles sergentii (theobald).

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Ahmed, Ammar A

    2010-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using CDC light traps without an additional CO2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in Djibouti City, from August 2008 until December 2009. An overall of 620 haematophageous Diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes, 10 (1.6%) were sand flies, and 7 (1.1%) were biting midges, respectively. Genus distribution of mosquitoes revealed that 600 (99.5%) were Culex spp., 2 (0.3%) were Anopheles sergentii, and 1 (0.2%) was Aedes aegypti. Culex species were represented by Cx. quinquefasciatus (78.5%), and Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus (21.5%). The later species was first detected focally in early December 2009 showing a strongly increasing population density resulting in a maximum trap rate of 25 mosquitoes per trap night. Sand flies were all Sergentomyia antennata, and biting midges of the genus Culicoides were represented by C. nubeculosus (71.4%) and C. vexans (28.6 %). The findings included the first records for Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus and An. sergentii in Djibouti. However, none of the captured female Culex spp, the known vector for West Nile Virus, showed positive results for viral nucleic acids using WNV RT-real time PCR system. Also, females An. sergentii were Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite protein negative.

  8. A novel Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. MYC-type ICE-like transcription factor gene ZmmICE1, enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Yu, Mengyuan; Lai, Jianbin; Wang, Chao; McNeil, David; Zhou, Meixue; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L., a member of the teosinte group, is a close wild relative of maize and thus can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, an ICE-like gene, ZmmICE1, was isolated from a cDNA library of RNA-Seq from cold-treated seedling tissues of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. The deduced protein of ZmmICE1 contains a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and C-terminal region of ICE-like proteins. The ZmmICE1 protein localizes to the nucleus and shows sumoylation when expressed in an Escherichia coli reconstitution system. In addition, yeast one hybrid assays indicated that ZmmICE1 has transactivation activities. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmmICE1 in the Arabidopsis ice1-2 mutant increased freezing tolerance. The ZmmICE1 overexpressed plants showed lower electrolyte leakage (EL), reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). The expression of downstream cold related genes of Arabidopsis C-repeat-binding factors (AtCBF1, AtCBF2 and AtCBF3), cold-responsive genes (AtCOR15A and AtCOR47), kinesin-1 member gene (AtKIN1) and responsive to desiccation gene (AtRD29A) was significantly induced when compared with wild type under low temperature treatment. Taken together, these results indicated that ZmmICE1 is the homolog of Arabidopsis inducer of CBF expression genes (AtICE1/2) and plays an important role in the regulation of freezing stress response.

  9. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    PubMed Central

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of the male sterility-related CtYABBY1 gene in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis var. parachinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Zhang, L G

    2014-06-10

    Expression of the YABBY gene family in the abaxial surface of lateral plant organs determines abaxial destiny of cells, enhances growth and expansion of lateral organs, and plays an important role in polar establishment of lateral organs. However, the YABBY gene has not been studied in male sterility and fertility restoration. We homologously cloned the CtYABBY1 gene of male-sterile TC1 in Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis var. parachinensis; its expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. A 937-bp sequence was cloned from TC1 and named CtYABBY1. The ORF of this gene has 702 bp, contains a "C2C2 zinc finger" motif at the N-terminal end, and a "YABBY" structural domain at the C-terminal end. This gene had the highest homology with DBC43-3-2 gene in B. campetris ssp pekinensis. Expression of CtYABBY1 gene has a wide range of functions. It is involved in growth and development of lateral organs, such as leaves and flowers, enhancing expansion of the area and volume of young organs. CtYABBY1 is a gene that promotes thermo-sensitive fertility restoration. At room temperature, expression level of this gene was found to be lower in the stamens of sterile flowers. After treating TC1 at a low temperature of 2°-6°C for 20 days, expression of this gene was upregulated in the stamen of fertile flowers. We conclude that male sterility in TC1 is negatively regulated by this gene, which facilitates transition from male sterility to fertility.

  11. Spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) as a source of breadmaking flours and bran naturally enriched in oleic acid and minerals but not phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Ruibal-Mendieta, Nike L; Delacroix, Dominique L; Mignolet, Eric; Pycke, Jean-Marie; Marques, Carole; Rozenberg, Raoul; Petitjean, Géraldine; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Meurens, Marc; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Larondelle, Yvan

    2005-04-06

    The nutritional value of breadmaking cereal spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) is said to be higher than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), but this traditional view is not substantiated by scientific evidence. In an attempt to clarify this issue, wholemeal and milling fractions (sieved flour, fine bran, and coarse bran) from nine dehulled spelt and five soft winter wheat samples were compared with regard to their lipid, fatty acid, and mineral contents. In addition, tocopherol (a biochemical marker of germ) was measured in all wholemeals, whereas phytic acid and phosphorus levels were determined in fine bran and coarse bran samples after 1 month of storage. Results showed that, on average, spelt wholemeals and milling fractions were higher in lipids and unsaturated fatty acids as compared to wheat, whereas tocopherol content was lower in spelt, suggesting that the higher lipid content of spelt may not be related to a higher germ proportion. Although milling fractionation produced similar proportions of flour and brans in spelt and wheat, it was found that ash, copper, iron, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus contents were higher in spelt samples, especially in aleurone-rich fine bran and in coarse bran. Even though phosphorus content was higher in spelt than in wheat brans, phytic acid content showed the opposite trend and was 40% lower in spelt versus wheat fine bran, which may suggest that spelt has either a higher endogenous phytase activity or a lower phytic acid content than wheat. The results of this study give important indications on the real nutritional value of spelt compared to wheat. Moreover, they show that the Ca/Fe ratio, combined with that of oleate/palmitate, provides a highly discriminating tool to authenticate spelt from wheat flours and to face the growing issue of spelt flour adulteration. Finally, they suggest that aleurone differences, the nature of which still needs to be investigated, may account for the differential

  12. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk.

  13. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  14. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  15. Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A

    2013-08-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of

  16. Cucumis melo ssp. Agrestis var. Agrestis Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Syrian Golden Hamsters and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kripa; Singh, Sumit K.; Kumar, Durgesh; Varshney, Salil; Gupta, Abhishek; Rajan, Sujith; Srivastava, Ankita; Beg, Muheeb; Srivastava, Anurag Kumar; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Mishra, Dipak K.; Gaikwad, Anil N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis (CMA) is a wild variety of C. melo. This study aimed to explore anti-dyslipidemic and anti-adipogenic potential of CMA. Materials and Methods: For initial anti-dyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic potential of CMA fruit extract (CMFE), male Syrian golden hamsters were fed a chow or high-fat diet with or without CMFE (100 mg/kg). Further, we did fractionation of this CMFE into two fractions namely; CMA water fraction (CMWF) and CMA hexane fraction (CMHF). Phytochemical screening was done with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry LC- (MS)/MS and direct analysis in real time-MS to detect active compounds in the fractions. Further, high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic hamsters were treated with CMWF and CMHF at 50 mg/kg for 7 days. Results: Oral administration of CMFE and both fractions (CMWF and CMHF) reduced the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low‐density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in high fat diet-fed dyslipidemic hamsters. CMHF also modulated expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and reverse cholesterol transport. Standard biochemical diagnostic tests suggested that neither of fractions causes any toxicity to hamster liver or kidneys. CMFE and CMHF also decreased oil-red-O accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is concluded that CMA possesses anti-dyslipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity along with the anti-adipogenic activity. SUMMARY The oral administration of Cucumis melo agrestis fruit extract (CMFE) and its fractions (CMWF and CMHF) improved serum lipid profile in HFD fed dyslipidemic hamsters.CMFE, CMWF and CMHF significantly attenuated body weight gain and eWAT hypertrophy.The CMHF decreased lipogenesis in both liver and adipose tissue.CMFE and CMHF also inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Abbreviation used: CMA: Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis, CMFE: CMA fruit extract, CMWF

  17. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the Pacific cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki ssp.: Salmonidae) based on partial mtDNA ND4 sequences: a closer look at the highly fragmented inland species.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wade D; Turner, Thomas F

    2009-08-01

    The genus Oncorhynchus includes Pacific salmon and trout (anadromous and land-locked) species of the western United States and Mexico. All species and subspecies in this group are threatened, endangered, sensitive, or species of conservation concern in portions of their native ranges. To examine the relationships of the species within Oncorhynchus we sequenced a 768 bp fragment of the protein-encoding ND4 mtDNA region. We included all six recognized subspecies of O. clarki (cutthroat trout), O. gilaegilae (Gila trout) and O. g. apache (Apache trout). Gene trees from likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses revealed that Salvelinus was the sister group to Oncorhynchus, and as expected based on previous studies, O. clarki was sister to a clade that consisted of O. mykiss plus O. g. gilae and O. g. apache. Within the cutthroat clade (O. clarki), the coastal form O. c. clarki was basal with the Rio Grande cutthroat (O. c. virginalis) most derived. Divergence dating based on a fossil calibration molecular clock showed the oldest clade (mean node age) was O. masou ssp., which diverged roughly 7.6 MYA. Highest probability density intervals for divergence of O. masou overlapped with divergence (6.3 MYA) of Pacific salmon clades ((O. gorbuscha + O. nerka) and (O. tshawytscha + O. kisutch)). The Pacific trout clade ((O. mykiss + O. gilae ssp.) + (O. clarki ssp.)) diverged from the Pacific salmon around 6.3 MYA, with most of the diversification within the O. clarki clade occurring in the last 1 MY.

  19. Identification of QTLs for early blight ( Alternaria solani) resistance in tomato using backcross populations of a Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum cross.

    PubMed

    Foolad, R.; Zhang, P.; Khan, A. A.; Niño-Liu, D.; Lin, Y.

    2002-05-01

    Most commercial cultivars of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., are susceptible to early blight (EB), a devastating fungal ( Alternaria solani Sorauer) disease of tomato in the northern and eastern parts of the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. The disease causes plant defoliation, which reduces yield and fruit quality, and contributes to significant crop loss. Sources of resistance have been identified within related wild species of tomato. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for EB resistance in backcross populations of a cross between a susceptible tomato breeding line (NC84173; maternal and recurrent parent) and a resistant Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. accession (PI126445). Sixteen hundred BC(1) plants were grown to maturity in a field in 1998. Plants that were self-incompatible, indeterminant in growth habit, and/or extremely late in maturity, were discarded in order to eliminate confounding effects of these factors on disease evaluation, QTL mapping, and future breeding research. The remaining 145 plants (referred to as the BC(1) population) were genotyped for 141 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and 23 resistance gene analogs (RGAs), and a genetic linkage map was constructed. BC(1) plants were evaluated for disease symptoms throughout the season, and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and the final percent defoliation (disease severity) were determined for each plant. BC(1) plants were self-pollinated and produced BC(1)S(1) seed. The BC(1)S(1) population, consisting of 145 BC(1)S(1) families, was grown and evaluated for disease symptoms in replicated field trials in two subsequent years (1999 and 2000) and AUDPC and/or final percent defoliation were determined for each family in each year. Two QTL mapping approaches, simple interval mapping (SIM) and composite interval mapping (CIM), were used to identify QTLs for EB resistance in the BC(1) and BC(1)S(1

  20. The Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HN019 on Cellular Immune Function in Healthy Elderly Subjects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E.; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Lehtinen, Markus J.

    2017-01-01

    Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity in healthy elderly subjects. We conducted a systematic review of Medline and Embase for controlled trials that reported polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell phagocytic capacity or natural killer (NK) cell tumoricidal activity following B. lactis HN019 consumption in the elderly. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between probiotic and control groups for each outcome. A total of four clinical trials were included in this analysis. B. lactis HN019 supplementation was highly efficacious in increasing PMN phagocytic capacity with an SMD of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 1.11, p < 0.001) and moderately efficacious in increasing NK cell tumoricidal activity with an SMD of 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.78, p = 0.02). The main limitations of this research were the small number of included studies, short-term follow-up, and assessment of a single probiotic strain. In conclusion, daily consumption of B. lactis HN019 enhances NK cell and PMN function in healthy elderly adults. PMID:28245559

  1. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    PubMed

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  2. Glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulations associated with infection by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus in potato species Solanum acaule and Solanum tuberosum and their interspecific somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Rokka, V-M; Laurila, J; Tauriainen, A; Laakso, I; Larkka, J; Metzler, M; Pietilä, L

    2005-03-01

    Solanum acaule Bitt., a wild potato species, is closely related to cultivated potato (Solanum. tuberosum L.). Incorporation of desirable traits from allotetraploid [2n=4x=48, 2 endosperm balance number (EBN)] S. acaule (acl) into autotetraploid (2n=4x=48, 4EBN) S. tuberosum (tbr) is difficult due to incongruity boundaries. In this study, three hybrid combinations, each with a specific genome constitution, were produced through protoplast fusion: (1) hexaploid 2x acl (+) 4x tbr, (2) tetraploid 2x acl (+) 2x tbr, and (3) hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids. In terms of glycoalkaloid aglycones, the hybrids produced demissidine, tomatidine and solanidine, similarly to the S. acaule parental species, but S. tuberosum synthesised only solanidine. Inoculations with Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), which is the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato, yielded significantly lower total glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulation both in S. acaule plants and in interspecific hybrids in comparison with the corresponding mock-inoculated plants. However, in S. tuberosum the aglycone levels were either higher or unchanged as a result of infection by Cms. To incorporate the desirable traits of the interspecific somatic hybrids into 4EBN S. tuberosum, sexual backcrosses were carried out. The hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids with the hypothetical 4EBN showed the greatest capacity to undergo backcrosses with S. tuberosum.

  3. Nutritional assessment of processing effects on major and trace element content in sea buckthorn juice (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides).

    PubMed

    Gutzeit, D; Winterhalter, P; Jerz, G

    2008-08-01

    Processing effects on the mineral content were investigated during juice production from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides, Elaeagnaceae) using berries from 2 different growing areas. The major and trace elements of sea buckthorn berries and juices were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)--(calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)--(arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc). Potassium is the most abundant major element in sea buckthorn berries and juices. The production process increased the potassium content in the juice by about 20%. Moreover, the processing of juice increased the value of manganese up to 32% compared to the content in berries. During industrial juice production, the technological steps caused a loss of about 53% to 77% of the chromium concentration, 50% of the copper content, 64% to 75% of the molybdenum amount, and up to 45% of the iron concentration in the final juice product. Consumption of sea buckthorn juice represents a beneficial source of chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, iron, and potassium for the achievement of the respective dietary requirements.

  4. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism.

  5. Effects of latitude and weather conditions on proanthocyanidins in berries of Finnish wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides).

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Laaksonen, Oskar; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2017-02-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) of varieties 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' and one of wild origin were cultivated in southern and northern Finland, harvested during 2007-2013. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were analyzed with HILIC UPLC-ESI-MS. The southern and northern samples were separated in the partial least squares discriminant analysis model (four factors, R(2) 0.75, Q(2) 0.70). The total PAs were more abundant in berries from the north (610-970mg/100gDW) than in those from the south (340-450mg/100gDW) (p<0.05). In northern Finland, the length of the growth season as well as the temperature sum and radiation sum of the growth season until harvest were negatively correlated with the total PAs in all the samples but positively with PA oligomers in 'Tytti' and 'Terhi'. In southern Finland no respective correlations were seen. 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' had different trends in the content of total PA and oligomers in overripe stages.

  6. Relationships between functional genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolates and phenotypic characteristics associated with fermentation time and flavor production in yogurt elucidated using multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Song, Yuqin; Wang, Xueni; Wang, Hongmei; Wuren, Tuoya; Zha, Musu; Menghe, Bilige; Heping, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is well known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. Flavor production and acid producing are considered as the most important characteristics for starter culture screening. To our knowledge this is the first study applying functional gene sequence multilocus sequence typing technology to predict the fermentation and flavor-producing characteristics of yogurt-producing bacteria. In the present study, phenotypic characteristics of 35 L. bulgaricus strains were quantified during the fermentation of milk to yogurt and during its subsequent storage; these included fermentation time, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, and flavor characteristics (acetaldehyde concentration). Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis of 7 functional genes associated with fermentation time, acid production, and flavor formation was done to elucidate the phylogeny and genetic evolution of the same L. bulgaricus isolates. The results showed that strains significantly differed in fermentation time, acidification rate, and acetaldehyde production. Combining functional gene sequence analysis with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that groups of strains established using genotype data were consistent with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. This study has established an efficient and rapid molecular genotyping method to identify strains with good fermentation traits; this has the potential to replace time-consuming conventional methods based on direct measurement of phenotypic traits.

  7. DNA typing by microbead arrays and PCR-SSP: apparent false-negative or -positive hybridization or amplification signals disclose new HLA-B and -DRB1 alleles.

    PubMed

    Rahal, M; Kervaire, B; Villard, J; Tiercy, J-M

    2008-03-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) hybridization on solid phase (microbead assay) or polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) requires interpretation softwares to detect all possible allele combinations. These programs propose allele calls by taking into account false-positive or false-negative signal(s). The laboratory has the option to validate typing results in the presence of strongly cross-reacting or apparent false-negative signals. Alternatively, these seemingly aberrant signals may disclose novel variants. We report here four new HLA-B (B*5620 and B*5716) and HLA-DRB1 alleles (DRB1*110107 and DRB1*1474) that were detected by apparent false-negative or -positive hybridization or amplification patterns, and ultimately resolved by sequencing. To avoid allele misassignments, a comprehensive evaluation of acquired data as documented in a quality assurance system is therefore required to confirm unambiguous typing interpretation.

  8. Glucosinolate Accumulation and Related Gene Expression in Pak Choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis [N. Tsen & S.H. Lee] Hanelt) in Response to Insecticide Application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Biao; Yang, Jing; He, Yong; Zang, Yunxiang; Zhu, Zhujun

    2015-11-11

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are well-known for their cancer-chemoprotective functions and biocidal activities against pathogens and generalist herbivores. Insecticides are commonly used in the production of pak choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis [N. Tsen & S.H. Lee] Hanelt). We studied the effects of four commonly used insecticides, namely, β-cypermethrin, acephate, pymetrozine, and imidacloprid, on glucosinolate metabolism in pak choi. All insecticides significantly increased both the transcription of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and the aliphatic and total glucosinolate accumulations in pak choi. β-Cypermethrin and acephate caused gradual and continuous up-regulation of gene expression from 0.5 to 24 h after treatment, whereas pymetrozine and imidacloprid did so more rapidly, reaching a peak at 1 h and returning to normal at 3 h. Our findings indicate that the four insecticides affect glucosinolate metabolism in pak choi plants to various degrees and suggest that glucosinolates may be involved in plant insecticide metabolism.

  9. Resistance to citrus canker induced by a variant of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri is associated with a hypersensitive cell death response involving autophagy-associated vacuolar processes.

    PubMed

    Roeschlin, Roxana A; Favaro, María A; Chiesa, María A; Alemano, Sergio; Vojnov, Adrián A; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Filippone, María P; Gmitter, Frederick G; Gadea, José; Marano, María R

    2016-09-20

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (X. citri) is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a disease that seriously affects most commercially important Citrus species worldwide. We have identified previously a natural variant, X. citri A(T) , that triggers a host-specific defence response in Citrus limon. However, the mechanisms involved in this canker disease resistance are unknown. In this work, the defence response induced by X. citri A(T) was assessed by transcriptomic, physiological and ultrastructural analyses, and the effects on bacterial biofilm formation were monitored in parallel. We show that X. citri A(T) triggers a hypersensitive response associated with the interference of biofilm development and arrest of bacterial growth in C. limon. This plant response involves an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, setting in motion cell wall reinforcement, the oxidative burst and the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds. Ultrastructural analyses revealed subcellular changes involving the activation of autophagy-associated vacuolar processes. Our findings show the activation of SA-dependent defence in response to X. citri A(T) and suggest a coordinated regulation between the SA and flavonoid pathways, which is associated with autophagy mechanisms that control pathogen invasion in C. limon. Furthermore, this defence response protects C. limon plants from disease on subsequent challenges by pathogenic X. citri. This knowledge will allow the rational exploitation of the plant immune system as a biotechnological approach for the management of the disease.

  10. Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2006-06-14

    Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth.

  11. Geosmin (2β,6α-dimethylbicyclo[4.4.0]decan-1β-ol) production associated with Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivar specific.

    PubMed

    Freidig, Amy K; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-03-05

    The characteristic earthy flavor and aroma of table beet [Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (garden beet group)] is due to the presence of geosmin, C₁₂H₂₂O, a volatile terpenoid compound commonly produced by many soil microorganisms. This study screened beet and related subspecies cultivars grown in three different environments (field, greenhouse in nonautoclaved soil, greenhouse in autoclaved soil) to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on geosmin level in table beet. There was no significant difference between years or between cultivars grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, indicating geosmin content may not be primarily attributable to microbial associations. A significant interaction between cultivar and environment was found, but generalizations could be made for high- or low-producing cultivars, demonstrating that geosmin levels were cultivar specific. 'Bull's Blood', 'Chioggia', and sugar beet exhibited the highest geosmin levels. Cultivars grown in the field had the smallest range of geosmin production, from 4.84 to 20.82 μg geosmin (kg root tissue)⁻¹. The high degree of consistency in cultivar performance across years and in ranking for geosmin levels across environments as well as the lack of a significant difference between plants grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil suggests characteristic levels of geosmin may be present in and produced endogenously by cultivars of table beet. It may be possible to establish breeding populations with defined geosmin levels and to identify variety-specific aroma and flavor intensities that would be durable across environments.

  12. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  13. Carbohydrate derivatives from the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris and their effects on ROS production and glutamate-induced cell death in HT-22 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Lee, Dong-Sung; Lee, Dae-Young; Song, Na-Young; Kim, Youn-Chul; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Chung, Hae-Gon; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Kim, Geum-Soog; Baek, Nam-In

    2013-05-03

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris led to the isolation of three new carbohydrate derivatives, namely sucrose 3,3',4'-triisovalerate (2), sucrose 6,3',4'-triisovalerate (3), and ethanone-1-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (3,7-anhydro-1-deoxy-d-glycero-d-gulo-2-octulose, 6), along with four known carbohydrate derivatives, 2,6,3',4'-tetraisovalerate (1), ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), n-butyl β-d-fructofuranoside (5), and n-pentyl β-d-fructofuranoside (7), which were initially isolated from plants of the Brassica genus. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, MS, and NMR. All of the isolated carbohydrate derivatives were evaluated to determine their effect on ROS production and glutamate-induced cell death in HT-22 cells. Compound 6 showed the most significant ROS reduction and a protective effect with IC50 values of 69.4 ± 3.8 μM and 4.96 ± 0.32 μM, respectively, which were equivalent to those of the positive control, Trolox.

  14. Induced production of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate by jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in sprouts and leaves of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

    2013-07-18

    Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

  15. Determining the persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish in select tissues of orally vaccinated feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.).

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Rhyan, Jack C; McCollum, Matt P; Triantis, Joni M; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Salman, Mo D

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for vaccination of feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.). Since BCG is a live bacterium, evaluation of its safety and persistence in tissues is important. Fifteen feral swine received approximately 4.5 × 10(6) colony forming units of BCG Danish via oral bait. Four animals received bait without BCG. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months post-vaccination, four vaccinates were euthanized. Non-vaccinates were euthanized at 9 months. Clinical signs were not noted in vaccinated pigs at any time. Tissues from all 20 pigs were culture-negative for mycobacteria. Based on our data, BCG is safe and appears not to persist in feral swine tissues after one month post-oral vaccination. However, further work must be performed at higher doses, and on a larger number of animals representing the target population, and further evaluation of persistence in tissues within the first month post-vaccination is needed.

  16. Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-06-24

    The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law.

  17. From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Annelise Sabine

    1998-09-01

    The green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) has been introduced accidentally and successfully from Japan to many shores of the northern and southern hemispheres, including those of the Northeast and Northwest Atlantic Ocean. On most European coasts, Codium occurs regularly but at low abundances in the intertidal zone and is absent from subtidal habitats. In contrast, Codium is extremely abundant in subtidal kelp beds in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean where it often reaches nuisance proportions. This differential success cannot be accounted for by either the properties of the invader or by physico-chemical differences between invaded coasts. A theoretical comparison between two regions on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean, i.e. Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada, and south central Britain, illustrates how the resident benthic community may determine the difference in relative abundance of Codium in subtidal habitats between northeast America and Europe. In this review, low floral species diversity, biological disturbance and facilitation by a previous species invasion are suggested as potential factors for the establishment, success and abundance of Codium in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, but these require testing in field experiments.

  18. Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10 kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10 kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  19. Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Wang, Yi; Lievens, Caroline; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, Liping; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Bio-oil from pyrolysis of mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves differs from that obtained with wood by its content of cyclic ethers, terpenoids and N-containing organic compounds. Upgrading of the leaf bio-oil in methanol with a solid acid catalyst was investigated and it was found that the N-containing organics in the bio-oil lead to deactivation of the catalyst in the initial stage of exposure and have to be removed via employing high catalyst loading to allow the occurrence of other acid-catalysed reactions. Eucalyptol, the main cyclic ether in the bio-oil, could be converted into the aromatic hydrocarbon, p-cymene, through a series of intermediates including α-terpineol, terpinolene, and α-terpinene. Various steps such as ring-opening, dehydration, isomerisation, and aromatization were involved in the conversion of eucalyptol. The terpenoids in bio-oil could also be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons that can serve as starting materials for the synthesis of fine chemicals, via the similar processes.

  20. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution.

  1. Discrimination of cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) cultivars grown in different geographical areas using ¹H NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jahan; Jung, Youngae; Song, Byeongyeol; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Do Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2013-04-15

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most popular foods in Asia and is widely cultivated in many countries for the production of lightly fermented vegetables. In this study, metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish two cultivars of cabbage grown in different geographical areas, Korea and China, using ¹H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear discrimination between extracts of cabbage grown in Korea and China for two different cultivars (Chunmyeong and Chunjung). The major biochemicals (metabolites) that contributed to discrimination between cabbages grown in the two regions were 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), acetate, asparagine, leucine, isoleucine, O-phosphocholine, phenylacetate, phenylalanine, succinate, sucrose, tyrosine, and valine. These results suggest that the levels of the major metabolites that differ significantly between cabbages grown in these two areas were influenced by environmental factors such as climate and geology. Our study demonstrates that ¹H NMR based on metabolomics, coupled with multivariate statistics, can be applied to identify the regions of cultivation of various cabbage cultivars.

  2. Interchangeable effects of gibberellic acid and temperature on embryo growth, seed germination and epicotyl emergence in Ribes multiflorum ssp. sandalioticum (Grossulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Mattana, E; Pritchard, H W; Porceddu, M; Stuppy, W H; Bacchetta, G

    2012-01-01

    Morphophysiological dormancy was investigated in seeds of Ribes multiflorum Kit ex Roem et Schult. ssp. sandalioticum Arrigoni, a rare mountain species endemic to Sardinia (Italy). There were no differences in imbibition rates between intact and scarified seeds, suggesting a lack of physical dormancy, while methylene blue solution (0.5%) highlighted a preferential pathway for solution entrance through the raphe. Embryos were small at seed dispersal, with an initial embryo:seed ratio (E:S) of ca. 0.2 (embryo length, ca. 0.5 mm), whereas the critical E:S ratio for germination was three times longer (ca. 0.6). Gibberellic acid (GA(3), 250 mg · l(-1)) and warm stratification (25 °C for 3 months) followed by low temperature (<15 °C) enhanced embryo growth rate (maximum of ca. 0.04 mm · day(-1) at 10 °C) and subsequent seed germination (radicle emergence; ca. 80% at 10 °C). Low germination occurred at warmer temperatures, and cold stratification (5 °C for 3 months) induced secondary dormancy. After radicle emergence, epicotyl emergence was delayed for ca. 2 months for seeds from three different populations. Mean time of epicotyl emergence was affected by GA(3) . Seeds of this species showed non-deep simple (root) - non-deep simple (epicotyl) morphophysiological dormancy, highlighting a high synchronisation with Mediterranean seasonality in all the investigated populations.

  3. Effect of the absence of the CcpA gene on growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Sun, J W; Zhang, G F; Liu, L B

    2016-01-01

    The catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is a kind of multi-effect regulatory protein. In the study, the effect of the inactivation of CcpA and aerobic conditions on the growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance to heat, oxidative, and cold stresses in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was investigated. Results showed that inactivation of CcpA distinctly hindered growth. Total lactic acid concentration was significantly lower in aerobiosis for both strains and was lower for the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. Acetic acid production from the mutant strain was higher than L. bulgaricus in aerobiosis compared with anaerobiosis. Enzyme activities, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphate fructose kinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and pyruvic dehydrogenase (PDH), were significantly lower in the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. The diameters of inhibition zone were 13.59 ± 0.02 mm and 9.76 ± 0.02 mm for L. bulgaricus in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively; and 8.12 ± 0.02 mm and 7.38 ± 0.02 mm for the mutant in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively. For both strains, cells grown under aerobic environment possess more stress tolerance. This is the first study in which the CcpA-negative mutant of L. bulgaricus is constructed and the effect of aerobic growth on stress tolerance of L. bulgaricus is evaluated. Although aerobic cultivation does not significantly improve growth, it does improve stress tolerance.

  4. Spatial analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA diversity in wild sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) populations: do marine currents shape the genetic structure?

    PubMed

    Fievet, Virgil; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-François; Cuguen, Joël

    2007-05-01

    Patterns of seed dispersal in the wild sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) are predicted to be influenced by marine currents because populations are widely distributed along the European Atlantic coast. We investigated the potential influence of marine currents on the pattern of spatial genetic structuring in natural populations of sea beet. Populations were located along the French coasts of the Anglo-Norman gulf that features peculiar marine currents in the Channel. Thirty-three populations were sampled, among which 23 were continental and 10 were insular populations located in Jersey, Guernsey and Chausey, for a total of 1224 plants genotyped. To validate the coastal topography influence and the possibility of marine current orientated gene flow on the genetic features of sea beet populations, we assessed patterns of genetic structuring of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity by: (i) searching for an isolation-by-distance (IBD) pattern using spatial autocorrelation tools; (ii) using the Monmonier algorithm to identify genetic boundaries in the area studied; and (iii) performing assignment tests that are based on multilocus genotype information to ascertain population membership of individuals. Our results showed a highly contrasted cytoplasmic and nuclear genetic differentiation and highlighted the peculiar situation of island populations. Beyond a classical isolation-by-distance due to short-range dispersal, genetic barriers fitting the orientation of marine currents were clearly identified. This suggests the occurrence of long-distance seed dispersal events and an asymmetrical gene flow separating the eastern and western part of the Anglo-Norman gulf.

  5. The Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HN019 on Cellular Immune Function in Healthy Elderly Subjects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Lehtinen, Markus J

    2017-02-24

    Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity in healthy elderly subjects. We conducted a systematic review of Medline and Embase for controlled trials that reported polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell phagocytic capacity or natural killer (NK) cell tumoricidal activity following B. lactis HN019 consumption in the elderly. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between probiotic and control groups for each outcome. A total of four clinical trials were included in this analysis. B. lactis HN019 supplementation was highly efficacious in increasing PMN phagocytic capacity with an SMD of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 1.11, p < 0.001) and moderately efficacious in increasing NK cell tumoricidal activity with an SMD of 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.78, p = 0.02). The main limitations of this research were the small number of included studies, short-term follow-up, and assessment of a single probiotic strain. In conclusion, daily consumption of B. lactis HN019 enhances NK cell and PMN function in healthy elderly adults.

  6. Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Friar, E A; Ladoux, T; Roalson, E H; Robichaux, R H

    2000-12-01

    The Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, has experienced both a severe population crash associated with an increase in alien ungulate populations on Mauna Kea, and a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction. In this paper, we address the genetic consequences of both demographic events using eight microsatellite loci. The population crash was not accompanied by a significant reduction in number of alleles or heterozygosity. However, the population bottleneck was accompanied by significant reductions in observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, and expected heterozygosity, though not in observed heterozygosity. The effective size of the population bottleneck was calculated using both observed heterozygosities and allele frequency variances. Both methods corroborated the historical census size of the population bottleneck of at most three individuals. The results suggest that: (i) small populations, even those that result from severe reductions in historical population size and extent, are not necessarily genetically depauperate; and (ii) species reintroduction plans need to be conceived and implemented carefully, with due consideration to the genetic impact of sampling for reintroduction.

  7. Severe tomato allergy (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Elms, Nancy P; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2002-01-01

    Although tomatoes are a commonly consumed food, severe allergic reactions to tomatoes are unusual or rarely reported. Previously reported allergic manifestations to tomato include urticaria/angioedema, dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, rhinitis, and abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to report two patients with significant immediate hypersensitivity reactions to tomato and characterize the responsible allergen. We reviewed the history and documentation of tomato-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) of two patients with adverse symptoms after ingesting tomato. Fresh tomato extracts prepared from the skin, seeds, and flesh of red, ripe tomatoes were evaluated for total protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize the tomato protein. IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the patients' serum against the various tomato extracts was accomplished and IgE immunoblot was performed. Percutaneous skin tests or radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) were positive to tomato in both patients. Both adults experienced laryngeal edema and one had anaphylaxis. Similar total protein contents were found in each of the tomato extracts and gel electrophoresis revealed similar protein profile for skin and seed extracts with protein bands discernible at molecular weights of 21, 33, and 43 kDa. One patient reacted specifically to a 43-kDa protein band on IgE immunoblot. The two cases show that severe allergic reactions to tomato occur in adults and one is associated with IgE binding to a 43-kDa protein.

  8. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  9. Evidence for Cross-Tolerance to Nutrient Deficiency in Three Disjunct Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in Response to Substrate Calcium to Magnesium Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Veatch-Blohm, Maren E.; Roche, Bernadette M.; Campbell, MaryJean

    2013-01-01

    Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25∶1 in the limestone sand to 0.2∶1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

  10. Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6 h and up to 72 h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120 h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (XccΔfliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker.

  11. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  12. Characterization of a novel murine model of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infection reveals roles for Ssp and SdrI in virulence.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kimberly A; Ingersoll, Molly A; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Sakinc, Türkan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Gatermann, Sören; Caparon, Michael G; Hultgren, Scott J

    2010-05-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an obligate human pathogen, is the most common Gram-positive causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young, healthy women. Despite the clinical importance of S. saprophyticus, little is known about how it causes disease in the urinary tract or how the host responds to the infection. Here we established an in vivo model to study both host and bacterial factors contributing to S. saprophyticus UTI. Using this model, we show that S. saprophyticus preferentially infects C3H/HeN murine kidneys instead of the bladder, a trait observed for multiple clinical isolates. Bacterial persistence in the kidneys was observed in C3H/HeN mice but not in C57BL/6 mice, indicating that host factors strongly contribute to the ability of S. saprophyticus to cause UTI. Using C3H/HeN mice as a model, histologic and immunofluorescence analyses of infected tissues revealed that S. saprophyticus induced epithelial cell shedding in the bladder and an inflammatory response characterized by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the bladder and kidneys. The inflammatory response correlated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both the bladder and the kidneys. Finally, we observed that the putative S. saprophyticus virulence factors Ssp and SdrI were important for persistence, but not for initial colonization, in the murine urinary tract. Thus, we characterized both host and bacterial factors involved in progression of S. saprophyticus UTI, and we describe a useful model system for studying factors involved in the pathogenesis of this Gram-positive uropathogen.

  13. Three groups of transposable elements with contrasting copy number dynamics and host responses in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) genome.

    PubMed

    Diez, Concepcion M; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I; Gaut, Brandon S

    2014-04-01

    Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24:22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome.

  14. Reducing the risk of infection in the elderly by dietary intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    PubMed

    Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Kume, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hajime; Orii, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    Immune senescence potentially leads to an increased risk of infections. It is desirable to augment the immune system and protect against infections by daily consumption of immunostimulatory food. The present study evaluated whether the intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) OLL1073R-1 has an effect on resistance to the common cold. We conducted two independent studies, in which fifty-seven (median age 74.5 years) and eighty-five healthy elderly individuals (median age 67.7 years) were participants. In each study, the subjects were divided into two groups based on age and sex and instructed to eat 90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group (P = 0.028). In addition, the quality of life score for the 'eye/nose/throat' system after intake was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the improvement of the score was correlated with the promotion of natural killer cell activity. In conclusion, consumption of yoghurt fermented with L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 augmented natural killer cell activity and reduced the risk of catching the common cold in elderly individuals.

  15. ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

    2013-12-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs.

  16. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    SciTech Connect

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  17. Evidence for cross-tolerance to nutrient deficiency in three disjunct populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in response to substrate calcium to magnesium ratio.

    PubMed

    Veatch-Blohm, Maren E; Roche, Bernadette M; Campbell, Maryjean

    2013-01-01

    Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25:1 in the limestone sand to 0.2:1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio.

  18. Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.

    PubMed

    Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

    2014-01-28

    The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately.

  19. A quorum sensing-defective mutant of Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. brasiliense 1692 is attenuated in virulence and unable to occlude xylem tissue of susceptible potato plant stems.

    PubMed

    Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; Pretorius, Rudolph Gustav; Tanui, Collins Kipngetich; Mosina, Gabolwelwe; Theron, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. brasiliense 1692 (Pcb1692) is an important emerging pathogen of potatoes causing blackleg in the field and soft rot during post-harvest storage. Blackleg diseases involve the bacterial colonization of vascular tissue and the formation of aggregates, also known as biofilms. To understand the role of quorum sensing in vascular colonization by Pcb1692, we generated a Pcb1692ΔexpI mutant strain. Inactivation of expI led to the reduced production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), the inability to produce acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and reduced virulence in potato tubers and stems. Complementation of the mutant strain with the wild-type expI gene in trans successfully restored AHL and PCWDE production as well as virulence. Transmission electron microscopy and in vitro motility assays demonstrated hyperpiliation and loss of flagella and swimming motility in the mutant strain compared with the wild-type Pcb1692. Furthermore, we noted that, in the early stages of infection, Pcb1692 wild-type cells had intact flagella which were shed at the later stages of infection. Confocal laser microscopy of PcbΔexpI-inoculated plants showed that the mutant strain tended to aggregate in intercellular spaces, but was unable to transit to xylem tissue. On the contrary, the wild-type strain was often observed forming aggregates within xylem tissue of potato stems. Gene expression analyses confirmed that flagella are part of the quorum sensing regulon, whereas fimbriae and pili appear to be negatively regulated by quorum sensing. The relative expression levels of other important putative virulence genes, such as those encoding different groups of PCWDEs, were down-regulated in the mutant compared with the wild-type strain.

  20. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  1. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops.

  2. Nod factors produced by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae induce ethylene-related changes in root cortical cells of Vicia sativa ssp. nigra.

    PubMed

    van Spronsen, P C; van Brussel, A A; Kijne, J W

    1995-12-01

    Vicia sativa ssp. nigra plants develop the "Thick short root" (Tsr) phenotype when both (i) the roots are inoculated with the root nodule inducing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae, and (ii) the plants, including the roots, are grown in the light. Tsr roots have a reduced length, are locally twice as thick as normal roots and have an increased number of root hairs. Development of the Tsr phenotype is correlated with the presence of nod (nodulation) genes in the rhizobia. Nod factors (lipochitin oligosaccharides), products of these nod genes, can induce the Tsr phenotype in the absence of rhizobia. The Tsr phenotype can be mimicked by addition of the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon. Using several microscopical techniques, we compared roots showing the Tsr phenotype (Tsr roots) with normal roots and roots grown in the presence of the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The thickening of Tsr roots appeared to be caused by a swelling of the cortical cells, which corresponded with (i) a reorientation of the interphase cortical microtubules from a transverse to a longitudinal direction, (ii) general cell wall modifications, (iii) frequent absence of middle lamellae, and (iv) local maceration. The same changes could be induced by ethephon and were inhibited by AVG. This strongly suggests that the Tsr phenotype is caused by excessive ethylene production. The ethylene-related changes mentioned above are also seen during infection thread formation, but only very locally. Apparently, Vicia roots when grown in the light overrespond to Nod factors leading to overproduction of ethylene and to a non-local "ripening" process. These phenomena inhibit nodulation of the main root by preventing formation of pre-infected threads and by reducing formation of root nodule primordia. Local controlled production of ethylene, as induced by Nod factors, may, however, be an essential element of the nodulation process.

  3. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

    2007-03-01

    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  4. Phenolic responses of mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) to global climate change are compound specific and depend on grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Maria; Martz, Françoise; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Stark, Sari

    2013-12-01

    Mountain crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) is a keystone species in northern ecosystems and exerts important ecosystem-level effects through high concentrations of phenolic metabolites. It has not been investigated how crowberry phenolics will respond to global climate change. In the tundra, grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) affects vegetation and soil nutrient availability, but almost nothing is known about the interactions between grazing and global climate change on plant phenolics. We performed a factorial warming and fertilization experiment in a tundra ecosystem under light grazing and heavy grazing and analyzed individual foliar phenolics and crowberry abundance. Crowberry was more abundant under light grazing than heavy grazing. Although phenolic concentrations did not differ between grazing intensities, responses of crowberry abundance and phenolic concentrations to warming varied significantly depending on grazing intensity. Under light grazing, warming increased crowberry abundance and the concentration of stilbenes, but decreased e.g., the concentrations of flavonols, condensed tannins, and batatasin-III, resulting in no change in total phenolics. Under heavy grazing, warming did not affect crowberry abundance, and induced a weak but consistent decrease among the different phenolic compound groups, resulting in a net decrease in total phenolics. Our results show that the different phenolic compound groups may show varying or even opposing responses to warming in the tundra at different levels of grazing intensity. Even when plant phenolic concentrations do not directly respond to grazing, grazers may have a key control over plant responses to changes in the abiotic environment, reflecting multiple adaptive purposes of plant phenolics and complex interactions between the biotic and the abiotic factors.

  5. Identification of novel and conserved miRNAs involved in pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis by high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, noncoding, small RNAs that have essential regulatory functions in plant growth, development, and stress response processes. However, limited information is available about their functions in sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Pollen development is an important process in the life cycle of a flowering plant and is a major factor that affects the yield and quality of crop seeds. Results This study aims to identify miRNAs involved in pollen development. Two independent small RNA libraries were constructed from the flower buds of the male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. The libraries were subjected to high-throughput sequencing by using the Illumina Solexa system. Eight novel miRNAs on the other arm of known pre-miRNAs, 54 new conserved miRNAs, and 8 novel miRNA members were identified. Twenty-five pairs of novel miRNA/miRNA* were found. Among all the identified miRNAs, 18 differentially expressed miRNAs with over two-fold change between flower buds of male sterile line (Bcajh97-01A) and male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B) were identified. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were preferentially expressed in flower buds of the male fertile line (Bcajh97-01B). Degradome analysis showed that a total of 15 genes were predicted to be the targets of seven miRNAs. Conclusions Our findings provide an overview of potential miRNAs involved in pollen development and interactions between miRNAs and their corresponding targets, which may provide important clues on the function of miRNAs in pollen development. PMID:24559317

  6. Molecular cloning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-8 gene and its involvement in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida triggered apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marta I R; Costa-Ramos, Carolina; do Vale, Ana; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2010-07-01

    Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this work, the sea bass counterpart of mammalian caspase-8 was sequenced and characterized, and its involvement in the apoptogenic activity of a toxin from a fish pathogen was assessed. A 2472 bp cDNA of sea bass caspase-8 was obtained, consisting of 1455 bp open reading frame coding for 484 amino acids and with a predicted molecular weight of 55.2 kDa. The sea bass caspase-8 gene has 6639 bp and is organized in 11 introns and 12 exons. Several distinctive features of sea bass caspase-8 were identified, which include two death effector domains, the caspase family domains p20 and p10, the caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. The sea bass caspase-8 sequence revealed a significant degree of similarity to corresponding sequences from several vertebrate taxonomic groups. A low expression of sea bass caspase-8 was detected in various tissues of non-stimulated sea bass. Furthermore, it is shown that stimulation of sea bass with mid-exponential phase culture supernatants from Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Phdp), known to induce selective apoptosis of macrophages and neutrophils, resulted in an increased expression of caspase-8 in the spleen, one of the main affected organs by Phdp infection.

  7. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms.

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Rigassio-Radler, Diane; Denmark, Robert; Haley, Timothy; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2013-06-01

    College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34% with probiotics v. placebo (P,0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P=0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P=0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost-benefit of prophylactic supplementation.

  9. β-Casein hydrolysate generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 protects against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Espeche Turbay, M B; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Perdigón, G; Savoy de Giori, G; Hebert, E M

    2012-03-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581, a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as a starter culture for the manufacture of several fermented dairy products, possesses an efficient proteolytic system that is able to release a series of potentially bioactive peptides (i.e., antihypertensive and phosphopeptides) from α- and β-caseins. Considering the potential beneficial health effects of the peptides released by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 from milk proteins, the aim of this work was to analyze the anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties of the casein hydrolysates generated by the cell envelope-associated proteinase of this bacterium. The ability of α- and β-casein hydrolysates to suppress the mutagenesis of a direct-acting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 increased concomitantly with the time of casein hydrolysis. The anti-inflammatory effect of the β-casein hydrolysate was evaluated using a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced Crohn's disease murine model. The hydrolysate was administered to mice 10 d before the intrarectal inoculation of TNBS. The mice that received β-casein hydrolysate previously to TNBS showed decreased mortality rates, faster recovery of initial body weight loss, less microbial translocation to the liver, decreased β-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase activities in the gut, and decreased colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage compared with the animals that did not receive this hydrolysate. In addition, β-casein hydrolysate exerted a beneficial effect on acute intestinal inflammation by increased interleukin 10 and decreased IFN-γ production in the gut. Our findings are consistent with the health-promoting attributes of the milk products fermented by L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis CRL 581 and open up new opportunities for developing novel functional foods.

  10. LuxA gene of light organ symbionts of the bioluminescent fish Acropoma japonicum (Acropomatidae) and Siphamia versicolor (Apogonidae) forms a lineage closely related to that of Photobacterium leiognathi ssp. mandapamensis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Minoru; Kamiya, Akiko; Uchiyama, Nami; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Ikejima, Kou; Yu, Reiko; Imada, Chiaki; Karatani, Hajime; Mizuno, Naoki; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2006-07-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of luxA gene sequences of light organ symbionts of the fish Acropoma japonicum (Acropomatidae) and Siphamia versicolor (Apogonidae) revealed that the sequences were related to those of Photobacterium leiognathi ssp. mandapamensis, which is not known to occur as a light organ symbiont among bioluminescent P. leiognathi clades. The presence of another lux gene element, luxF, coding for nonfluorescent protein, provided additional support for the identity of the light organ symbionts of the fish. Cladogenesis of the light organ symbiont P. leiognathi may be influenced by the radiation of host fishes.

  11. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S W F; Veldman, E; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2015-04-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410 dairy cows were sampled monthly and MAP milk ELISA status and milk yield and composition were determined. Data were analyzed by mixed model analysis. Milk yield was found to significantly influence ELISA results expressed as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios. For each 5-kg increase in milk, the S/P ratio has to be multiplied by 0.89; therefore, high milk yield can change the MAP milk ELISA outcome of a cow in early infection from positive to negative. Parity influenced ELISA outcome significantly, indicating that cows with a parity >1 are more likely to be identified by milk testing. Also, herd was an important predictor, showing that herd prevalence influences the milk ELISA strongly. Other factors influencing the S/P ratios were protein concentration, somatic cell count, and days in milk. The IgG concentration and mass excreted per day were determined longitudinally in a subset of 41 cows of which samples and data of a complete lactation were available. Again, the IgG concentration in milk was mainly influenced by milk yield. The total IgG mass secreted per day in milk was found to be relatively constant, with a mean of 8.70 ± 5.38 g despite an increasing IgG concentration in serum at the same time. The variation of IgG concentration in milk can be mainly attributed to dilution through changes in milk yield. This supports the assumption that concentrations of MAP-specific antibodies are influenced by changes in milk yield similarly. In conclusion, we confirmed that antibody concentrations, and therefore MAP ELISA outcome, were influenced by milk yield, herd, and parity. To enhance performance, milk ELISA tests should either be performed in early or late lactation, when

  12. Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ΦL47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R. Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ΦL47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ΦL47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ΦL47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage Φ949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ΦL47 and Φ949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ΦL47 from Φ949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ΦL47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy Φ949. PMID

  13. A phase 1 randomized study evaluating the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist, revexepride (SSP-002358), in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, David; Corcoran, Mary; Velinova, Maria; Hossack, Stuart; Hoppenbrouwers, Mieke; Martin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background About 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease continue to experience symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist revexepride (SSP-002358) is a novel prokinetic that stimulates gastrointestinal motility, which has been suggested as a continued cause of symptoms in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether revexepride pharmacokinetics were affected by co-administration of omeprazole, in preparation for a proof-of-concept evaluation of revexepride added to proton pump inhibitor treatment. Methods In this phase 1, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study, healthy adults aged 18–55 years were given a single dose of revexepride 1 mg or revexepride 1 mg + omeprazole 40 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for up to 48 hours after administration of the investigational product. Adverse events, clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, electrocardiograms, and vital signs were monitored. Results In total, 42 participants were enrolled and 40 completed the study. The median age was 24 years (18–54 years), 55% were women and 93% were white. The pharmacokinetic parameters of revexepride were similar without or with omeprazole co-administration. The mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞) was 23.3 ng · h/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 6.33 ng · h/mL) versus 24.6 ng · h/mL (SD: 6.31 ng · h/mL), and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 3.89 ng/mL (SD: 1.30 ng/mL) and 4.12 ng/mL (SD: 1.29 ng/mL) in participants without and with omeprazole, respectively. For AUC0–∞ and Cmax, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric least-squares means (with:without omeprazole) were fully contained within the pre-defined equivalence limits of 0.80–1.25. Mean apparent terminal phase half-life was 9.95 hours (SD: 2.06 hours) without omeprazole, and 11.0 hours (SD: 3.25 hours) with omeprazole. Conclusion

  14. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in animals, food, water and other sources or vehicles of human exposure: A scoping review of the existing evidence.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa; Rajić, Andrijana; Stärk, Katharina; McEwen, Scott A

    2016-09-15

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants and is hypothesized to be an infectious cause of Crohn's disease, as well as some other human diseases. Due to key knowledge gaps, the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis is unknown. This scoping review aims to identify and characterised the evidence on potential sources and vehicles of M. paratuberculosis exposure for humans to better understand how exposure is likely to occur. Evidence from 255 primary research papers is summarized; most examined the prevalence or concentration of M. paratuberculosis in animals (farmed domestic, pets and wildlife) (n=148), food for human consumption (62) (milk, dairy, meat, infant formula) or water (drinking and recreational) and the environment (farm, pasture and areas affected by runoff water) (20). The majority of this research has been published since 2000 (Figure- abstract). Nine case-control studies examining risk factors for Crohn's disease highlighted significant associations with the consumption of processed meats and cheese, while direct contact with ruminants, high risk occupations (farmer, veterinarian), milk consumption and water source were factors not associated with the disease and/or M. paratuberculosis exposure status. Molecular epidemiology studies demonstrated strain-sharing between species. Produce and seafood were the only previously suggested sources of human exposure for which there was no supporting evidence identified in this scoping review. The results of this review indicate that ruminant populations from around the globe are infected with M. paratuberculosis and many non-ruminant species have also been found to carry or be infected with M. paratuberculosis. Several potential sources for human exposure to M. paratuberculosis were identified; however there remain important gaps in quantitative information on the prevalence and concentration of M. paratuberculosis in contaminated sources of

  15. Designing a risk-based surveillance program for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Norwegian dairy herds using multivariate statistical process control analysis.

    PubMed

    Whist, A C; Liland, K H; Jonsson, M E; Sæbø, S; Sviland, S; Østerås, O; Norström, M; Hopp, P

    2014-11-01

    Surveillance programs for animal diseases are critical to early disease detection and risk estimation and to documenting a population's disease status at a given time. The aim of this study was to describe a risk-based surveillance program for detecting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Norwegian dairy cattle. The included risk factors for detecting MAP were purchase of cattle, combined cattle and goat farming, and location of the cattle farm in counties containing goats with MAP. The risk indicators included production data [culling of animals >3 yr of age, carcass conformation of animals >3 yr of age, milk production decrease in older lactating cows (lactations 3, 4, and 5)], and clinical data (diarrhea, enteritis, or both, in animals >3 yr of age). Except for combined cattle and goat farming and cattle farm location, all data were collected at the cow level and summarized at the herd level. Predefined risk factors and risk indicators were extracted from different national databases and combined in a multivariate statistical process control to obtain a risk assessment for each herd. The ordinary Hotelling's T(2) statistic was applied as a multivariate, standardized measure of difference between the current observed state and the average state of the risk factors for a given herd. To make the analysis more robust and adapt it to the slowly developing nature of MAP, monthly risk calculations were based on data accumulated during a 24-mo period. Monitoring of these variables was performed to identify outliers that may indicate deviance in one or more of the underlying processes. The highest-ranked herds were scattered all over Norway and clustered in high-density dairy cattle farm areas. The resulting rankings of herds are being used in the national surveillance program for MAP in 2014 to increase the sensitivity of the ongoing surveillance program in which 5 fecal samples for bacteriological examination are collected from 25 dairy herds

  16. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of vaccination against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle, given its cross-reactivity with tuberculosis tests.

    PubMed

    Groenendaal, Huybert; Zagmutt, Francisco J; Patton, Elisabeth A; Wells, Scott J

    2015-09-01

    Johne's disease (JD), or paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Johne's disease causes considerable economic losses to the US dairy industry, estimated to be over $200 million annually. Available control strategies include management measures to improve calf hygiene, test-and-cull strategies, and vaccination. Although the first 2 strategies have shown to reduce the prevalence of MAP, they require dedicated and long-term efforts from dairy producers, with often relatively slow progress. As a result, uptake of both strategies has not been as wide as expected given the economic benefits especially of improved hygiene. Vaccination has also been found to reduce the prevalence and economic losses of JD, but most economic estimates have been based on simulation of hypothetical vaccines. In addition, if an animal is vaccinated, cross-reactivity between MAP antibodies and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) antigens may occur, decreasing the specificity of BTB tests. Therefore, MAP vaccination would cause additional indirect costs to the BTB surveillance and control program. The objective of the present study was to use data from a MAP vaccine trial together with an epidemiologic and economic model to estimate the direct on-farm benefits of MAP vaccination and to estimate the indirect costs of MAP vaccination due to the cross-reactivity with BTB tests. Direct economic benefits of MAP vaccination were estimated at $8.03 (90% predictive interval: -$25.97 to $41.36) per adult animal per year, all accruing to the dairy producers. This estimate is likely an underestimation of the true direct benefits of MAP vaccination. In addition, indirect economic costs due to cross-reactivity were $2.14 per adult animal per year, making MAP vaccination economically attractive. Only in regions or states with a high frequency of BTB testing (because of, for example, Mycobacterium bovis outbreaks in a wild

  18. Relative distribution and abundance of fishes and crayfish in 2010 and 2014 prior to saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.) removal in the Amargosa River Canyon, southeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Mark E.

    2016-07-22

    The Amargosa River Canyon, located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern California, contains the longest perennial reach of the Amargosa River. Because of its diverse flora and fauna, it has been designated as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern and a Wild and Scenic River by the Bureau of Land Management. A survey of fishes conducted in summer 2010 indicated that endemic Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were abundant and occurred throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. The 2010 survey reported non-native red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) captures were significantly higher, whereas pupfish captures were lower, in areas dominated by non-native saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.). Based on the 2010 survey, it was hypothesized that the invasion of saltcedar could result in a decrease in native species. In an effort to maintain and enhance native fish populations, the Bureau of Land Management removed saltcedar from a 1,550 meter reach of stream on the Amargosa River in autumn 2014 and autumn 2015. Prior to the removal of saltcedar, a survey of fishes and crayfish using baited minnow traps was conducted in the treatment reach to serve as a baseline for future comparisons with post-saltcedar removal surveys. During the 2014 survey, 1,073 pupfish and 960 speckled dace were captured within the treatment reach. Catch per unit effort of pupfish and speckled dace in the treatment reach was less in 2014 than in 2010, although differences could be owing to seasonal variation in capture probability. Non-native mosquitofish catch per unit effort decreased from 2010 to 2014; however, the catch per unit effort of crayfish increased from 2010 to 2014. Future monitoring efforts of this reach should be conducted at the same time period to account for potential seasonal fluctuations of abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish. A more robust study design that

  19. Consequences of inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis seedlings after transplanting.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Bill E; Novak, Stephen J; Serpe, Marcelo D

    2016-08-01

    In arid environments, the propagule density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may limit the extent of the plant-AMF symbiosis. Inoculation of seedlings with AMF could alleviate this problem, but the success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These phenomena were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings inoculated with native AMF. Seedlings were first grown in a greenhouse in soil without AMF (non-inoculated seedlings) or with AMF (inoculated seedlings). In spring and fall, 3-month-old seedlings were transplanted outdoors to 24-L pots containing soil from a sagebrush habitat (spring and fall mesocosm experiments) or to a recently burned sagebrush habitat (spring and fall field experiments). Five or 8 months after transplanting, colonization was about twofold higher in inoculated than non-inoculated seedlings, except for the spring field experiment. In the mesocosm experiments, inoculation increased survival during the summer by 24 % (p = 0.011). In the field experiments, increased AMF colonization was associated with increases in survival during cold and dry periods; 1 year after transplanting, survival of inoculated seedlings was 27 % higher than that of non-inoculated ones (p < 0.001). To investigate possible mechanisms by which AMF increased survival, we analyzed water use efficiency (WUE) based on foliar (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios (δ (13)C). A positive correlation between AMF colonization and δ (13)C values was observed in the spring mesocosm experiment. In contrast, inoculation did not affect the δ (13)C values of fall transplanted seedlings that were collected the subsequent spring. The effectiveness of AMF inoculation on enhancing colonization and reducing seedling mortality varied among the different experiments, but average effects were estimated by meta-analyses. Several months after

  20. Comparative risk assessment for new cow-level Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infections between 3 dairy production types: Organic, conventional, and conventional-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, A; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2016-12-01

    Johne's disease, a granulomatous enteritis of ruminant animals, is a hidden threat on dairy farms, adversely affecting animal welfare as well as herd productivity. Control programs in the United States advocate for specific management practices to temper the spread of the causal organism (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP), such as improving calving area hygiene and limiting introduction of replacement stock with unknown infection status. A need remains for direct exploration of Johne's disease prevention strategies in the United States with respect to production type. Alongside the growing demand for organic products, the safety of organic dairy practices with respect to MAP control is warranted. Further, conventional herds for which organic practices such as pasture grazing are used should be situated within the risk spectrum. We developed a risk assessment model using the US Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program as a framework, with the goal of evaluating the risk of new cow-level MAP infections. A total of 292 organic and conventional farms in 3 states were surveyed on management practices, and an overall analysis was conducted in which each farm was first scored on individual practices using a range of "no risk" to "high risk," according to the literature. The sum of all risk factors was then analyzed to quantify and compare the risk burden for each production type. Organic herds received higher overall risk scores compared with both conventional grazing and nongrazing subtypes. To identify which factors contributed to the overall increased risk for organic herds, the management practices were categorized and evaluated by logistic regression. We determined that the increased risk incurred by organic herds was predominantly due to decisions made in the calving area and preweaned calf group. However, although certain individual risk factors related to calf management are commonly involved in prevention strategies (e.g., cow

  1. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. To gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of MYB genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). We identified 475 Chinese cabbage MYB genes, among which most were from R2R3-MYB (256 genes) and MYB-related (202) subfamilies. Analysis of sequence characteristics, phylogenetic classification, and protein motif structures confirmed the existence of several categories (1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, and 5R) of Chinese cabbage MYB genes, which is comparable with MYB genes of other crops. An extensive in silico functional analysis, based on established functional properties of MYB genes from different crop species, revealed 11 and four functional clades within the Chinese cabbage R2R3-MYB and MYB-related subfamilies, respectively. In this study, we reported a MYB-like group within the MYB-related subfamily contains 77 MYB genes. Expression analysis using low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data revealed variable transcript abundance of 1R/2R/3R/4R/5R-MYB genes in 11 clusters between two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin, which differ in cold tolerance. In further validation tests, we used qRT-PCR to examine the cold-responsive expression patterns of 27 BrMYB genes; surprisingly, the MYB-related genes were induced more highly than the R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, we identified 10 genes with corresponsive expression patterns from a set of salt-, drought-, ABA-, JA-, and SA-induced R2R3-MYB genes. We identified 11 R2R3-MYBs functioning in resistance against biotic stress, including 10 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and one against Pectobacterium carotovoram subsp. caratovorum. Furthermore, based on

  2. A 500 year early summer temperature reconstruction for the western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be severely affected by modern climate change. Strong temperature increase and precipitation decrease is expected for large regions, resulting in a northward extension of arid conditions. Information of past temperature changes which could contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often carry strong temperature information but they are critically in their application as climate proxies because of the influence by the change of atmopsheric CO2-concentration due to the fossil fuel burning effect. These changes are recorded in the chronologies by a remarkable downward trend over the last approximately 150 years and are routinely corrected. However, these correction values do not account for a plant physiological response to higher pCO2, a factor which is especially important in high mountain environments. We tested the influence of different correction models on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 years) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean. A negative trend in the carbon isotope ratios during the last 150 years is still visible after correcting for changes of atmospheric CO2-concentration indicating that plant physiological responses to increased CO2 levels significantly influence the δ13C tree-ring values. Carbon isotope series corrected for both, increase in atmospheric CO2 and plant physiological response, show stronger correlations with climate parameters, especially summer temperature, and better mirror increasing temperatures in the climate data. Carbon isotope records from trees at cooler and wetter sites show generally lower δ13C-values and are more sensitive to temperature at the beginning of the vegetation period. δ13C records from drier and warmer sites are

  3. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lamien, Charles Euloge; Spergser, Joachim; Lelenta, Mamadou; Wade, Abel; Gelaye, Esayas; Loitsch, Angelika; Minoungou, Germaine; Thiaucourt, Francois; Diallo, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%–4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in 17 samples

  4. A survey of FLS2 genes from multiple citrus species identifies candidates for enhancing disease resistance to Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI) is an important component of plant innate immunity. In a previous study, we showed that the PAMP flg22 from Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xflg22), the causal agent of citrus canker, induced PTI in citrus, which correlated with the observed levels of canker resistance. Here, we identified and sequenced two bacterial flagellin/flg22 receptors (FLS2-1 and FLS2-2) from ‘Duncan’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi, CpFLS2-1 and CpFLS2-2) and ‘Sun Chu Sha’ mandarin (C. reticulata, CrFLS2-1 and CrFLS2-2). We were able to isolate only one FLS2 from ‘Nagami’ kumquat (Fortunella margarita, FmFLS2-1) and gene flanking sequences suggest a rearrangement event that resulted in the deletion of FLS2-2 from the genome. Phylogenetic analysis, gene structure and presence of critical amino acid domains all indicate we identified the true FLS2 genes in citrus. FLS2-2 was more transcriptionally responsive to Xflg22 than FLS2-1, with induced expression levels higher in canker-resistant citrus than in susceptible ones. Interestingly, ‘Nagami’ kumquat showed the highest FLS2-1 steady-state expression levels, although it was not induced by Xflg22. We selected FmFLS2-1, CrFLS2-2 and CpFLS2-2 to further evaluate their capacity to enhance bacterial resistance using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays. Both FmFLS2-1 and CrFLS2-2, the two proteins from canker-resistant species, conferred stronger Xflg22 responses and reduced canker symptoms in leaves of the susceptible grapefruit genotype. These two citrus genes will be useful resources to enhance PTI and achieve resistance against canker and possibly other bacterial pathogens in susceptible citrus types. PMID:27222722

  5. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  6. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D. ); Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  7. Effect of temperature on the occurrence of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive photosynthesis in field grown plants. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Capsicum annum; Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum; Cardaria draba, Populus fremontii

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthesis to O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ was measured in leaves from field grown plants of six species (Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annuum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum, Cardaria draba, and Populus fremontii) from 5/sup 0/C to 35/sup 0/C using gas-exchange techniques. In all species but Phaseolus, photosynthesis was insensitive to O/sub 2/ in normal air below a species dependent temperature. CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under the same conditions that resulted in O/sub 2/ insensitivity. A complete loss of O/sub 2/ sensitivity occurred up to 22/sup 0/C in Lycopersicon but only up to 6/sup 0/C in Scrophularia. In Lycopersicon and Populus, O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under conditions regularly encountered during the cooler portions of the day. Because O/sub 2/ insensitivity is an indicator of feedback limited photosynthesis, these results indicate that feedback limitations can play a role in determining the diurnal carbon gain in the field. At higher partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ the temperature at which O/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred was higher, indicating that feedback limitations in the field will become more important as the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere increases.

  8. Effect of temperature on the occurrence of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive photosynthesis in field grown plants. [Phaselous vulgaris; capsicum annum; lycopersicon esculentum; scrophularia desertorum; cardaria

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1987-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthesis to O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ was measured in field grown plants of six species (Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum, Cardaria draba and Populus Fremontii) from 5/sup 0/C to 35/sup 0/C. Photosynthesis was insensitive to O/sub 2/ in normal air below a species dependent temperature. CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under the same conditions that resulted in O/sub 2/ insensitivity. A complete loss of O/sub 2/ sensitivity was observed up to 22/sup 0/C (in Lycopersicon) but only up to 6/sup 0/C (in Scrophularia). In Lycopersicon and Populus, O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under conditions regularly encountered during the cooler portions of the day. The authors believe that O/sub 2/ insensitivity is an indicator of feedback limited photosynthesis, and that these results indicate that feedback limitations can play a role in determining plant carbon gain in the field. At higher partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ the temperature at which O/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred was higher, indicating that feedback limitations in the field will become more important as the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere increases.

  9. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens.

  10. LeMAPK1, LeMAPK2, and LeMAPK3 are associated with nitric oxide-induced defense response against Botrytis cinerea in the Lycopersicon esculentum fruit.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanyan; Hong, Hui; Chen, Lin; Li, Jingyuan; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2014-02-12

    Nitric oxide (NO) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are signal molecules involved in the disease resistance of plants. To investigate the role of tomato MAPKs in the NO-mediated defense response, mature green tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Qian-xi) were treated with a MAPKs inhibitor (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-amino-phenylmercapto) butadiene (U0126)), NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and SNP plus U0126. Treatment with U0126 increased the incidence of disease and size of lesion areas in the tomato fruits after being inoculated with Botrytis cinerea. NO enhanced the resistance of the tomato fruits against Botrytis cinerea invasion and the activities of nitric oxide synthase, Chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, polyphenol oxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. However, the effects of NO on disease resistance were weakened by the MAPKs inhibitor. Meanwhile, the relative expression of LeMAPK1, LeMAPK2, and LeMAPK3 in the (SNP + U0126)-treated fruits was lower than that in the SNP-treated fruits. The results suggest that LeMAPK1/2/3 are involved in NO-induced disease resistance of tomato fruits against Botrytis cinerea.

  11. Higher accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in flowers than leaves and fruits as a possible basis for differential feeding preference of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, Cv. Dhanashree).

    PubMed

    Damle, Mrunal S; Giri, Ashok P; Sainani, Mohini N; Gupta, Vidya S

    2005-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill; cultivar- Dhanashree) proteinase inhibitors (PIs) were tested for their trypsin inhibitory (TI) and Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases inhibitory (HGPI) activity in different organs of the tomato plants. Analysis of TI and HGPI distribution in various parts of the plant showed that flowers accumulated about 300 and 1000 times higher levels of TI while 700 and 400 times higher levels of HGPI as compared to those in leaves and fruits, respectively. Field observation that H. armigera larvae infest leaves and fruits but not the flowers could be at least partially attributed to the protective role-played by the higher levels of PIs in the flower tissue. Tomato PIs inhibited about 50-80% HGP activity of H. armigera larvae feeding on various host plants including tomato, of larvae exposed to non-host plant PIs and of various larval instars. Tomato PIs were found to be highly stable to insect proteinases wherein incubation of inhibitor with HGP even for 3h at optimum conditions did not affect inhibitory activity. Bioassay using H. armigera larvae fed on artificial diet containing tomato PIs revealed adverse effect on larval growth, pupae development, adult formation and fecundity.

  12. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152).

  13. Genetic basi