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Sample records for esophagus neurologisch bedingte

  1. Esophagus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The esophagus connects the nose and mouth with the stomach. The epiglottis folds over the trachea when a swallow ... mouth or nose, past the epiglottis, into the esophagus and into the stomach. Nutrients will be passed ...

  2. Esophagus Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common problem with the esophagus is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It happens when a band of ... This allows stomach contents to leak back, or reflux, into the esophagus and irritate it. Over time, ...

  3. Barrett Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-01-01

    Barrett esophageal cancer has the fastest growing incidence of any cancer in Western countries. In Asian countries, most cases of esophageal cancer consist of squamous cell carcinomas, not adenocarcinomas. Recently, however, the increase in the number of Barrett esophagus cases with subsequent Barrett cancer has become worrisome in Asian countries, as the number of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease has been increasing in these countries. In this review, recent reports regarding Barrett esophagus in Asian countries have been collected and this problem is discussed from various perspectives. In Asia, long-segment Barrett esophagus is much less prevalent than in Western countries, whereas short-segment Barrett esophagus is frequently found. In epidemiologic studies, evaluation of the prevalence of Barrett esophagus is limited by poor interob-server diagnostic agreement. Standard criteria for the endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett esophagus in Asian patients, especially of the short-segment type, should be established as soon as possible. A high prevalence of hiatal hernia and a decreasing prevalence of Helico-bacter pylori infection may increase the number of Barrett esophagus cases and subsequent Barrett cancer in Asian countries in the near future. Therefore, a strategy for the clinical management of Barrett esophagus in Asian countries should be devised. PMID:22798736

  4. Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Berardi, R S; Devaiah, K A

    1983-04-01

    Barrett's esophagus remains an interesting but incompletely understood entity. Although most authors contend that it is of acquired origin, evidence is presented to substantiate either an acquired or a congenital origin. The possibility exists that Barrett's esophagus may be acquired in some instances and congenital in others. The most characteristic, albeit not exclusive, histologic features of Barrett's esophagus are defined by the presence of three types of columnar epithelium: an atrophic gastric fundic type of epithelium, a junctional type of epithelium and a specialized columnar epithelium. Reversion of columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium after successful antireflux operation demands further confirmation and study. Dysplastic, metaplastic and adenomatous changes in Barrett's esophagus do occur and must be observed carefully with endoscopy during the follow-up period. The possible relationship between these changes and malignant degeneration requires further study. Although the clinical presentation of benign complications occurring in a Barrett's esophagus simulates those occurring with reflux peptic esophagitis, distinctive roentgenographic and endoscopic features suggest the diagnosis. Treatment of the complications of Barrett's esophagus is essentially surgical, although cimetidine has been shown to be effective for healing of Barrett's ulcer. The need remains for further definition and clarification of the natural history of Barrett's esophagus so that its management can be based upon more definitive grounds.

  5. Barrett esophagus

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/26526079 . Spechler SJ, Sharma P, Souza RF, Inadomi JM, Shaheen NJ. American Gastroenterological Association medical ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376940 . Spechler SJ, Souza RF. Barrett's esophagus. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ...

  6. Barrett's Esophagus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Esophagus Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  7. Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, Shanmugarajah; Sharma, Prateek

    2014-06-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most important and recognizable precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), which is the one of the fastest-growing cancers in the Western world (600 % in the U.S. in the last 40 years), and therefore it is critical to manage the risk of cancer present in BE. New developments in imaging and molecular markers, as well as an armamentarium of novel and effective endoscopic eradication therapy - especially radio-frequency ablation (RFA) and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) - are now available to the interventional endoscopist to help curb the significant rise of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Endoscopic surveillance is currently recommended by most gastroenterology societies worldwide, although there is no data to support this practice in relation to reducing mortality from EAC. Paradoxically, the cancer risk in Barrett's esophagus is being progressively downgraded, which raises fundamental questions about our understanding of the risk factors and molecular biology of the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The recent discovery of a strong association of transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) with Barrett's dysplasia (BD) and EAC may shed some light on this anomaly. It is imperative that we identify the high-risk group of progressors to EAC. While p53 immunohistochemistry is currently probably the best clinical molecular marker for predicting disease progression in BD, we must think outside the box and cast the net wide in search of additional biomarkers (e.g., high-risk human papilloma virus (hr-HPV)].

  8. General anatomy of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Oezcelik, Arzu; DeMeester, Steven R

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the embryology and general anatomy of the esophagus, including the topography and relationships of the esophagus to surrounding structures. The esophagus is the only internal organ that traverses 3 body cavities, and a complete understanding of the anatomy and anatomic relationships of the esophagus in each area is essential for surgeons who address esophageal disorders. Details regarding the normal histology and basic function of the esophagus are also provided. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Esophagus Cancer: Palliative Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/esophageal.pdf on May 6, 2017. Posner MC, Minsky B, Ilson DH. Ch 45 - Cancer of the esophagus. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and ...

  10. Endomicroscopy of Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Canto, Marcia Irene

    2010-12-01

    Endomicroscopy is a remarkable technical advance in gastrointestinal mucosa imaging. In 2003, Kiesslich and colleagues described the first human use of contrast-aided confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) as a novel technique for in vivo microscopic imaging of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Both probe-based and endoscope-based systems have been applied to many gastrointestinal disorders, including Barrett's esophagus (BE) and associated neoplasia. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy can be used in conjunction with highresolution white light endoscopy and other contrast enhancement techniques. It has proven high accuracy for prediction of high-grade neoplasia and cancer. In vivo imaging of both flat BE and mucosal lesions can influence diagnosis and thereby impact upon decision making regarding tissue sampling and endoscopic therapy. This article discusses the scientific literature related to clinical use of CLE for BE, the techniques for performing CLE in the esophagus, and the potential future directions for CLE in BE and esophageal cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Diabetes and the Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Remes-Troche, José M

    2017-09-15

    Chronic hyperglycemia is a well-known cause of gastrointestinal motility disorders extending from the esophagus to the anorectum. Even though little attention has been paid to esophageal disorders in the context of DM, its prevalence is higher compared to gastroparesis. Heartburn, as a typical symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is the most prevalent symptom and has been found in 25 to 41% of patients with DM. Furthermore, DM has recently been established as possible independent factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus. The pathophysiology of esophageal disorders in patients with DM is complex and multifactorial, and the mechanisms described include the following: hyperglycemia, autonomic neuropathy, biomechanical and sensory alterations of the esophagus, presbyesophagus, and psychiatric comorbidity. Opportune detection, together with adequate glycemic control, can delay the onset of esophageal dysfunction and slow its progression in diabetic patients. There is limited evidence on patients with DM and esophageal dysfunction, with respect to medical treatment. Lifestyle modifications, prokinetics, and proton pump inhibitors should be indicated on an individual basis in patients that present with DM and esophageal disorders. A greater number of improved studies are needed to develop new therapeutic strategies. This chapter will review esophageal disorders associated with DM and the currently available treatment options.

  12. [Barret esophagus--molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is nowadays observed in western countries. Estimation of the unique molecules may, in the future, lead to early diagnostics of pathological changes in the Barret esophagus and identification of the patient at risk from cancerogenesis. The aim of this study is to explain terminology of Barret esophagus, basis of histopatology, diagnostics and to show molecules which have crucial significance in cancerogenesis.

  13. Columnar-lined esophagus. Definitions.

    PubMed

    Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2002-02-01

    Recognition of a columnar-lined esophagus requires precise criteria by which to delimit the esophagus and the stomach. Endoscopically recognizable landmarks such as the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ or Z-line) can be used to identify structures at the gastroesophageal junction. Once the SCJ is located proximal to the gastroesophageal junction, a columnar-lined segment of esophagus is visible. If biopsy specimens from the columnar-lined segment show specialized intestinal metaplasia, then the patient has Barrett's esophagus (BE), and the extent of the columnar lining determines if it is short- or long-segment BE.

  14. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    PubMed

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  15. [Thoracolaparoscopic simultaneous operations on esophagus].

    PubMed

    Khat'kov, I E; Izrailov, R E; Domrachev, S A; Kononets, P V; Vasnev, O S; Koshkin, M A

    2014-01-01

    Extirpation or subtotal resection of esophagus was performed in 14 patients by using of thoracolaparoscopic technique in terms from November 2011 to March 2014. The mean patients' age was 56 years old (27-67 years). In 10 patients indications for surgery included benign esophagus diseases such as cardiospasm stage IV (2 cases), peptic stricture (5 cases) and burn stricture (3 cases). 4 patients were operated for esophagus cancer including middle one-third cancer in 1 patient, lower one-third cancer in 3 cases. 10 patients underwent extirpation of esophagus with peristaltic gastric tube plasty. 1 patient had esophagus substituted by segment of the left colon. Esophageal anastomoses were formed on the neck (interrupted sutures were applied in 7 patients; staplers - in 3 cases). Lewis operation with intrapleural esophageal-gastric anastomosis forming was performed in 3 patients. The mean surgery duration was 579 minutes (305-710 min), mean blood loss - 141 ml (from 50 to 300 ml). Postoperative period had not complications in 8 of 14 patients. Different complications including partial failure of the anastomosis on the neck (5 cases), intrapleural anastomosis failure (1 case) were observed in 6 patients. Partial failure of the anastomosis on the neck was treated by using of therapy. All patients recovered. Patient with intrapleural anastomosis failure required additional surgery which included uncoupling of anastomosis, esophagostomy on the neck and gastrostomy forming. This patient died from recurrent myocardial infarction. Thus the authors consider that complete thoracolaparoscopic technique provides precise preparation of esophagus and stomach, adequate lymphadenectomy with minimal blood loss and operative trauma. The results after these operations are comparable with those after open interventions. Thoracolaparoscopic simultaneous operations must be applied in clinics having sufficient experience in esophagus surgery and thoracolaparoscopic technique.

  16. [Comparative analysis chest CT 3D reconstruction and esophagus barium swallow in esophagus foreign body].

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Chu, Hanqi; Huang, Xiaowen; Cui, Yonghua

    2010-06-01

    To compare the diagnosis and therapeutic between chest computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction and esophagus barium swallow in esophagus foreign body. retrospective analyze one hundred and thirty six patients who suffered from esophagus foreign body in our hospital, 97 cases using esophagus barium swallow, 17 cases using chest computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction, 15 cases using both. The patients who showed positive of esophagus foreign body in esophagus barium swallow or chest computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction, 91.8% (89/97) cases or 88.2% (15/17) cases found esophagus foreign bodies finally. All cases successfully took out the esophagus foreign bodies only through one operation which used chest computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction as primary examination, while only 91.0% for those used esophagus barium swallow as primary examination. Both chest computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction and esophagus barium swallow showed high diagnostic efficiency on esophagus foreign body. Chest computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction had advantages in patients with one of following conditions: (1) esophagus foreign body located in the middle of the esophagus, especially complicated with esophagus perforation; (2) with fever, high white blood count, presence of abscess surrounding the esophagus was suspected; (3) with dyspnea; (4) with a history of esophagus foreign body longer than 5 days; (5) younger than 6 years old.

  17. Barrett esophagus: when to endoscope.

    PubMed

    Butt, Joshua; Kandel, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in identifying an effective strategy for decreasing the burden of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been fuelled by the rising EAC rates worldwide, the morbidity associated with esophagectomy, and the development of endoscopic methods for curing early-stage EAC. In the face of this enthusiasm, however, we should be cautious about continuing our current evidence-free approach to screening and one with unclear benefits and unclear costs to the community. The literature is increasingly recognizing that the value of traditional endoscopy for screening and surveillance of Barrett esophagus may be more limited than initially believed. A better understanding of the risk factors for Barrett esophagus and progression to dysplasia and a more individualized risk calculation will be useful in defining populations to consider for Barrett screening. The development of novel, nonendoscopic screening techniques and of less expensive endoscopic techniques holds promise for a cost-effective screening and surveillance method to curtail the increasing rates of EAC.

  18. Management strategies of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Giovanni D

    2012-11-21

    Barrett's esophagus is a condition resulting from chronic gastro-esophageal reflux disease with a documented risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Current strategies for improved survival in patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma focus on detection of dysplasia. This can be obtained by screening programs in high-risk cohorts of patients and/or endoscopic biopsy surveillance of patients with known Barrett's esophagus (BE). Several therapies have been developed in attempts to reverse BE and reduce cancer risk. Aggressive medical management of acid reflux, lifestyle modifications, antireflux surgery, and endoscopic treatments have been recommended for many patients with BE. Whether these interventions are cost-effective or reduce mortality from esophageal cancer remains controversial. Current treatment requires combinations of endoscopic mucosal resection techniques to eliminate visible lesions followed by ablation of residual metaplastic tissue. Esophagectomy is currently indicated in multifocal high-grade neoplasia or mucosal Barrett's carcinoma which cannot be managed by endoscopic approach.

  19. Histopathology in Barrett Esophagus and Barrett Esophagus-Related Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Grin, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic specimens, both biopsies and endoscopic mucosal resections, for Barrett esophagus and Barrett-associated dysplasia and malignancy are common for pathologists in North America, and the incidence in South Asian countries seems to be increasing. Dysplasia and malignancy arising in intestinalized gastric-type mucosa raises issues in the interpretation of dysplasia and the evaluation of the depth of invasion of malignancies that are not seen in squamous dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. We review the North American approach to these lesions. PMID:24570881

  20. Huge benign mesenchymoma in pharynx-esophagus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Omo, Alfred; Liu, Ligang; Liu, Lisi; Tang, Yinxiong; Pan, Tiecheng

    2006-06-01

    Benign mesenchymoma is an uncommon neoplastic disease and its occurrence in pharynx-esophagus is even more rarely reported. A successful case operation is reported. The origin of this tumor was in the pharynx-esophagus, and complete excision was achieved through a laterocervical approach.

  1. Chromoendoscopy and magnifying endoscopy for Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Canto, Marcia Irene

    2005-07-01

    Chromoendoscopy and magnification endoscopy are 2 endoscopic techniques used to improve visualization and diagnosis of gastrointestinal mucosa. This article summarizes the principles behind magnification endoscopy, with and without chromoendoscopy, for the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, this article discusses the possible clinical use of magnification endoscopy and chromoendoscopy in evaluating patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus.

  2. Scintigraphic assessment of Barrett's esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Kotler, J.A.; Sampliner, R.E.; Kogan, F.J.; Henry, R.E.; Mason, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    Barrett's (B) esophagus is defined by the presence of columnar epithelium above the gastroesophageal junction. Patients with 5cm histologically proven B were evaluated for mucosal labeling (ML), esophageal motility (EM), gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and gastric emptying (GE) of solids and liquids with and without iv metaclopramide (MCP). ML, after premedication with cimetidine, was evaluated 20 and 40 min after injection of Tc-99m04 with ANT and RAO views. Eight of 11 B and 0 of 2 controls (C) labeled esophageal mucosa. EM was assessed in the supine position over one min after a 15 ml swallow Tc-99mSc-H2O. The normal pattern shows sequential, aboral, discreet peaks with no retrograde movement over one min in three computer derived regions over the esophagus. Five of 16 B and 1 of 6 C demonstrated abnormal pattern. GER was assessed in the supine position by serially increasing extrinsic binder pressures from 0 to 100 Torr after ingestion of 300 ml of Tc-99mSc-orange juice (OJ). GER was present in 13 of 15 B and 0 of 11 C. Reflux ranged from 5.1% to 30% at 100 Torr. Hiatal hernia (HH) was identified in 14 of 16 B by endoscopy and in 10 of 16 by scintigraphy. GE was evaluated after a liquid meal of 300 ml Tc-99mSc-OJ and a solid meal of Tc-99mSc-egg salad sandwich. The supine subject was imaged anteriorly for 30 min (liquid) or 60 min (solid). GE was assessed an additional 10 min after MCP. Clearance time (50%) for solid Ge was calculated from extrapolated linear fits of decay corrected data. There was no significant difference in liquid or solid GE between B and C. The authors conclude the following: 1) ML detects B with lower sensitivity than previously reported; 2) EM disorders are frequently found in B; 3) GER is frequently identified in B; 4) HH can be identified by nuclear technique; and 5) B shows normal GE and responds to MCP.

  3. Natural history of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E

    2012-07-21

    The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett's epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett's to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett's is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett's Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett's and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE.

  4. Natural history of Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E

    2012-01-01

    The natural history of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett’s epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett’s to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett’s is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett’s Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett’s and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE. PMID:22826612

  5. Epidemiology and molecular biology of Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Casson, Alan G; Williams, Lara; Guernsey, Duane L

    2005-01-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been a marked change in the epidemiology of esophageal malignancy, with an increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The reasons for this are largely unknown and remain controversial, but several lifestyle risk factors have been proposed, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is hypothesized that chronic GERD results in acute mucosal injury, promotes cellular proliferation, and induces specialized columnar metaplasia (Barrett esophagus). Progression of Barrett esophagus to invasive adenocarcinoma is reflected histologically by the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Dysplasia is widely regarded as the precursor of invasive cancer, and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett epithelium is frequently associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although several molecular alterations have been described in Barrett esophagus, it is anticipated that relatively few will prove to be clinically useful. To date, biomarkers which currently appear to predict the progression of Barrett esophagus to invasive malignancy include aneuploidy, loss of heterozygosity of 17p (implicating the p53 tumor suppressor gene), and cyclin D1 protein overexpression, and with further validation, will most likely be incorporated into routine clinical practice. It is anticipated that models incorporating objective scores of sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors (ie, age, gender, body mass index), severity of reflux symptoms, endoscopic and histologic findings, and an assessment of a panel of biomarkers will be developed to further define subsets of patients with Barrett esophagus at increased risk for malignant progression, thereby permitting the development of more rational endoscopic surveillance and screening programs.

  6. Microbial flora of the normal esophagus.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, D; Makihara, S; Corsi, P R; Viana, A de T; Wiczer, M V; Nakakubo, S; Mimica, L M

    1998-10-01

    The endogenous flora of the skin and some mucous membranes are well known, however, we were unable to find descriptions about normal esophageal flora in literature. We believe that knowledge about normal esophageal flora is important for therapeutic implications. We compiled data on 30 patients without infection of the oropharynx or esophagus who were admitted for an endoscopy of the upper digestive tract to determine normal esophageal flora. The samples were collected by injecting 10 ml of 0.9% physiological solution into the esophagus and oropharynx and removing it by suction. Esophageal samples from 30 patients and oropharingeal samples from 10 of these patients were collected. We identified mixed flora being Streptococcus viridans the most frequent microorganism found. Where samples from both the esophagus and oropharynx were collected, three occurrences of this same microorganism were found. We concluded that the isolation frequency of germs in the esophagus by the method used was high and the most frequently found germ was S. viridans. There is therefore a possible correlation between the flora from the oropharynx and the esophagus.

  7. Can Cancer of the Esophagus Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of esophageal cancer, such as those with Barrett’s esophagus, have upper endoscopy regularly. For this test, the doctor looks at the inside of the esophagus through a flexible lighted tube called an endoscope ( ...

  8. Effect of Slip Time in Forming Neo-Esophageal Stenosis After Replacement of a Thoracic Esophagus With Nitinol Artificial Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xian-Liang; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Attempts have been made to investigate the effect of slip time of nitinol artificial esophagus for forming neo-esophageal stenosis after replacement of a thoracic esophagus with nitinol artificial esophagus in 20 experimental pigs. The pigs whose slip time was less than 90 days postoperatively had severe dysphagia (Bown's III) immediately after they were fed, and the dysphagia aggravated gradually later on (Bown's III-IV). The pigs whose slip time was more than 90 days postoperatively had mild/moderate dysphagia (Bown's I-II) immediately after they were fed, and the dysphagia relieved gradually later on (Bown's II-I-0). The ratios between the diameter of neo-esophagus in different slip time and normal esophagus were 25% (at 2 months postoperatively), 58% (at 4 months postoperatively), and 93% (at 6 months postoperatively), respectively. The relationship between nitinol artificial esophagus slip time and neo-esophageal stenosis showed a positive correlation. After replacement of a thoracic esophagus with nitinol artificial esophagus, the artificial esophageal slip time not only affected the original diameter of the neo-esophagus immediately, but also affected the neo-esophageal scar stricture forming process later on. The narrowing of neo-esophagus is caused by overgrowth of scar tissue. But there is the positive correlation between artificial esophagus slip time and neo-esophageal stenosis, so this can be a way of overcoming neo-esophageal stenosis by delaying slip time of artificial esophagus.

  9. Anatomy and physiology of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, M

    1999-02-01

    Modern diagnosis and treatment of esophageal disease is a result of progress in assessing the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus, as well as refinements in anesthetic and surgical techniques. Esophageal carcinoma spreads rapidly and metastasizes easily. The tendency for early spread and the absence of symptoms result in late diagnosis that reduces treatment options and cure rates. Lifestyle (i.e., use of alcohol and tobacco), nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of nitrosamines, and mutagen-inducing fungi are blamed for cancer of the esophagus. Other pathologic conditions (e.g., achalasia, Barrett's epithelium, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia) are potential contributors to the development of carcinoma. Nurses are in key positions to identify the existence of factors contributing to premalignant or malignant lesions and to educate patients and make the appropriate referrals.

  10. Two Distinct Types of Hypercontractile Esophagus: Classic and Spastic Jackhammer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yun Soo; Min, Yang Won; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2016-01-01

    Hypercontractile esophagus (nicknamed jackhammer esophagus) is a recently defined disease within the esophageal motility disorders classification. Responses to treatments for jackhammer esophagus have been inconsistent in previous trials, possibly due to its heterogeneous manifestation. Thus, we reviewed 10 patients diagnosed with jackhammer esophagus and compared their clinical and manometric features at baseline. Additionally, manometric and symptomatic responses after treatment with known smooth muscle relaxants, including anticholinergic drugs (cimetropium bromide and scopolamine butylbromide) and a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil) were compared. We observed two distinct subgroups in the findings: one with hypercontractility and normal distal latencies (“classic jackhammer esophagus,” n=7) and the other with hypercontractility and short distal latencies (“spastic jackhammer esophagus,” n=3). The two types also differed in their responses to medications in that symptoms improved upon treatment with an anticholinergic agent in classic jackhammer esophagus patients, while spastic jackhammer esophagus was unresponsive to both the anticholinergic drugs and the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. In conclusion, hypercontractile esophagus may be a heterogeneous disease with different underlying pathophysiologies. We introduced two novel terms, “classic jackhammer esophagus” and “spastic jackhammer esophagus,” to distinguish the two types. PMID:27458179

  11. Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  12. Update on management of Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Macías-García, Fernando; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a common condition that develops as a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The significance of Barrett's metaplasia is that predisposes to cancer development. This article provides a current evidence-based review for the management of BE and related early neoplasia. Controversial issues that impact the management of patients with BE, including definition, screening, clinical aspects, diagnosis, surveillance, and management of dysplasia and early cancer have been assessed. PMID:27158538

  13. The Pumping Mechanism of the Nematode Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J. Richard; Burr, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radial orientation of the myofilaments in the nematode esophagus raises interesting questions as to how such a structure can function as a pump. A physical model of the esophagus of Ascaris lumbricoides was developed and the membrane theory of shells applied in order to relate the observed dimensional changes to myofilament force, pressure stresses, and membrane elastic constants. By stressing the excised esophagus passively with osmotic pressure, the esophagus was shown to be elastically anisotropic with the ratio of circumferential to longitudinal elastic constants, Eψ/El ≃ 2.74. When this value was incorporated, the model predicted the ratio of the respective strains, εψ/εl, to be 0.52 during an equilibrium contraction of the esophagus. This agreed with the experimental value, 0.46 ± 0.10, measured during occasional, prolonged muscle contractions. When measured during normal pumping, on the other hand, the value of εψ/εl was 0 ± 0.10. This indicated that a nonequilibrium condition normally occurs in which a greater myofilament force per unit area of lumen membrane is not balanced by internal pressure and therefore acceleration of the lumen contents and negative intraluminal pressure occurs. The pumping action of esophagi dissected from Ascaris was observed to be normally peristaltic and periodic. Contraction was initiated by a spontaneous depolarization that propagated at 4.0 ± 0.20 cm/s along the esophageal membrane. A wave of localized increases in the internal pressure of the muscle and localized changes in external dimensions was observed. A subsequent spontaneous repolarization, which propagated at 5.8 ± 0.23 cm/s, triggered relaxation of the muscle during which the localized pressure and dimensional changes returned to resting values. A mechanism was deduced in which fluid is drawn into and moved along the lumen by the wave of contraction. During the wave of relaxation, the lumen contents are pressurized and injected into the intestine by

  14. Gastric fluid bile concentrations and risk of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Nason, Katie S; Farrow, Diana C; Haigh, Geoffrey; Lee, Sum P; Bronner, Mary P; Rosen, Sheldon N; Vaughan, Thomas L

    2007-06-01

    Patients with Barrett's esophagus are at high risk of progression to adenocarcinoma. A growing, but conflicting body of evidence implicates bile reflux as a contributor to Barrett's esophagus. To investigate whether duodenogastric reflux was associated with an increased risk of Barrett's esophagus, a case-control study of incident Barrett's esophagus was performed. Cases (n=72) were identified by new histologically-confirmed diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia (indicative of Barrett's esophagus) following upper endoscopy for refractory gastroesophageal reflux between October 1997 and September 2000. Cases were compared to gastroesophageal reflux patients without specialized intestinal metaplasia (controls; n=72). There was no difference in total bile acid concentrations between cases and controls. Risk of Barrett's esophagus did not significantly vary with increasing concentrations of total or free bile acids, respectively (OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.12, 1.02) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.22, 1.66)). Low gastric fluid pH (toxic range 3-5), was associated with a non-significant increase in the risk of Barrett's esophagus. In conclusion, no significant association between Barrett's esophagus and total or free bile acids in gastric refluxate was found. Patients with low gastric fluid pH (3-5) may represent a subset of patients at high risk of developing Barrett's esophagus.

  15. Red flag imaging techniques in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Payal; Canto, Marcia Irene

    2013-07-01

    The key to detection and treatment of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is thorough and careful inspection of the Barrett's segment. The greatest role for red flag techniques is to help identify neoplastic lesions for targeted biopsy and therapy. High-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) can potentially improve endoscopic imaging of BE compared with standard endoscopy, but little scientific evidence supports this. The addition of autofluorescence imaging to HD-WLE and narrow band imaging increases sensitivity and the false-positive rate without significantly improving overall detection of BE-related neoplasia.

  16. Injurious effects of radiation on the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Chowhan, N.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Esophageal damage secondary to radiation therapy to thoracic tumors is a major dose limiting complication. Concomitant use of chemotherapeutic agents enhance this problem which can appear as esophagitis early in the course of treatment or as strictures later. Early complications usually are treated conservatively, whereas endoscopic dilatations of the esophagus are often used for strictures. Newer developments in the field include use of arachidonic acid metabolism pathway inhibitors and radioprotectants. The use of these pharmacologicals, together with modification of the mechanics of radiation delivery, may lead us close to elimination of the complications in normal esophageal tissue, while enhancing localized response in the thoracic tumors.29 references.

  17. Short segment Barrett's esophagus and distal gastric intestinal metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Judite; Chaves-E-Silva, Sílvia; Meurer, Luíse; Sekine, Setsuo; de Souza, Andréa Ribeiro; Meine, Gilmara Coelho

    2006-01-01

    Short segment Barrett's esophagus is defined by the presence of <3 cm of columnar-appearing mucosa in the distal esophagus with intestinal metaplasia on histophatological examination. Barrett's esophagus is a risk factor to develop adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. While Barrett's esophagus develops as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, intestinal metaplasia in the gastric cardia is a consequence of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and is associated with distal gastric intestinal metaplasia. It can be difficult to determine whether short-segment columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia are lining the esophagus (a condition called short segment Barrett's esophagus) or the proximal stomach (a condition called intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia). To study the association of short segment Barrett's esophagus (length <3 cm) with gastric intestinal metaplasia (antrum or body) and infection by H. pylori. Eight-nine patients with short segment columnar-appearing mucosa in the esophagus, length <3 cm, were studied. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were recorded. Biopsies were obtained immediately below the squamous-columnar lining, from gastric antrum and gastric corpus for investigation of intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori. Forty-two from 89 (47.2%) patients were diagnosed with esophageal intestinal metaplasia by histopathology. The mean-age was significantly higher in the group with esophageal intestinal metaplasia. The two groups were similar in terms of gender (male: female), gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and H. pylori infection. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (antrum or body) was diagnosed in 21 from 42 (50.0%) patients in the group with esophageal intestinal metaplasia and 7 from 47 (14.9%) patients in the group with esophageal columnar appearing mucosa but without intestinal metaplasia. Intestinal metaplasia is a frequent finding in patients with <3 cm of columnar-appearing mucosa in the distal esophagus. In

  18. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    PubMed

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH < 5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases.

  19. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose

    PubMed Central

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH<5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. PMID:26498387

  20. Recurrent giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ser Yee; Chan, Weng Hoong; Sivanandan, Ranjiv; Lim, Dennis Teck Hock; Wong, Wai Keong

    2009-01-01

    Giant fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus and hypopharynx are rare benign esophageal tumors. They arise most commonly in the upper esophagus and may, rarely, originate in the hypopharynx. They can vary significantly in size. Even though they are benign, they may be lethal due to either bleeding or, rarely, asphyxiation if a large polyp is regurgitated. Patients commonly present with dysphagia or hematemesis. The polyps may not be well visualized on endoscopy and imaging plays a vital role in aiding diagnosis as well as providing important information for pre-operative planning, such as the location of the pedicle, the vascularity of the polyp and the tissue elements of the mass. They can also be recurrent in rare cases, especially if the resection margins of the base are involved. We review the recent literature and report a case of a 61-year-old man with a recurrent giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp with illustrative contrast barium swallow, CT and intra-operative images, who required several surgeries via a combination of endoscopic, trans-oral, trans-cervical, trans-thoracic and trans-abdominal approaches. PMID:19653354

  1. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G.S.; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  2. Prediction of Barrett’s Esophagus Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Joel H.; Morgenstern, Hal; Appelman, Henry; Scheiman, James; Schoenfeld, Philip; McMahon, Laurence F.; Metko, Valbona; Near, Ellen; Kellenberg, Joan; Kalish, Tal; Inadomi, John M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, age, abdominal obesity, and tobacco use. We aimed to develop a tool using these factors to predict the presence of Barrett’s esophagus. METHODS Male colorectal cancer (CRC) screenees were recruited to undergo upper endoscopy, identifying newly diagnosed cases of Barrett’s esophagus. Logistic regression models predicting Barrett’s esophagus using GERD symptoms alone and together with abdominal obesity, tobacco use, and age were compared. RESULTS Barrett’s esophagus was found in 70 (8.5%) of 822 CRC screenees. Mutually adjusting for other covariates, Barrett’s esophagus was associated with weekly GERD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.33, 95% confidence interval (Cl)=1.34, 4.05), age (OR per 10 years = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.25), waist-to-hip ratio (OR per 0.10 = 1.44, 95% Cl=0.898, 2.32) and packyears of cigarette use (OR per 10 pack-years = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.14). A model including those four factors had a greater area under the receiver operating characteristics curve than did a model based on GERD frequency and duration alone (0.72 vs. 0.61, P<0.001), and it had a net reclassification improvement index of 19–25%. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus was substantial in our population of older overweight men. A model based on GERD, age, abdominal obesity, and cigarette use more accurately classified the presence of Barrett’s esophagus than did a model based on GERD alone. Following validation of the tool in another population, its use in clinical practice might improve the efficiency of screening for Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:23318485

  3. Longitudinal Muscle Dysfunction in Achalasia Esophagus and Its Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Bhargava, Valmik

    2013-01-01

    Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), longitudinal muscle contracts independently of circular muscle. Recent studies provide novel insights, i.e., longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation and possibly descending relaxation of the esophagus. In achalasia esophagus and other motility disorders there is discoordination between the 2 muscle layers. Longitudinal muscle contraction patterns are different in the recently described three types of achalasia identified by high-resolution manometry. Robust contraction of the longitudinal muscle in type II achalasia causes pan-esophageal pressurization and is the mechanism of whatever little esophageal emptying that take place in the absence of peristalsis and impaired LES relaxation. It may be that preserved longitudinal muscle contraction is also the reason for superior outcome to medical/surgical therapy in type II achalasia esophagus. Prolonged contractions of longitudinal muscles of the esophagus is a possible mechanism of heartburn and "angina like" pain seen in esophageal motility disorders and possibly achalasia esophagus. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are on the horizon. Neuro-pharmacologic control of circular and longitudinal muscles is different, which provides an important opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. PMID:23667744

  4. Dilatation of the Lower Cervical Esophagus in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    Acquired megaesophagus of suspected neuromuscular origin was diagnosed in a six year old Holstein cow. The dilatation was restricted to the lower cervical esophagus. Signs included projectile regurgitation of chewed ingesta at variable periods of time after swallowing, nasal discharge of mucus and feed particles, and a cough. A secondary aspiration pneumonia was associated with this condition. The dilated portion of the esophagus was detected utilizing positive contrast radiography and fiberoptic endoscopy. Treatment consisted of feed management and antibiotics. Deglutition in the cow returned to normal over a three month period despite radiographic and fiberoptic endoscopic evidence of a persistent dilatation of the esophagus. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422388

  5. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus in a neurologically impaired teenager.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Chun, Peter; Shin, Dong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) accompanied by Barrett esophagus (BE) is rare in patients younger than 20 years old. EAC in the upper esophagus is also rare. We report a rare case of EAC with BE that developed in the upper esophagus after chronic, untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease in a neurologically impaired teenager. A 19-year-old neurologically impaired man underwent endoscopy for evaluation of dysphagia and vomiting, and was diagnosed with EAC with BE. He underwent transthoracic esophagectomy, extensive lymph node dissection, and cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but the prognosis was poor. Pathology indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with BE.

  6. History, molecular mechanisms, and endoscopic treatment of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Spechler, Stuart Jon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Prasad, Ganapathy A; Wang, Kenneth K

    2010-03-01

    This report is an adjunct to the American Gastroenterological Association Institute's medical position statement and technical review on the management of Barrett's esophagus, which will be published in the near future. Those documents will consider a number of broad questions on the diagnosis, clinical features, and management of patients with Barrett's esophagus, and the reader is referred to the technical review for an in-depth discussion of those topics. In this report, we review historical, molecular, and endoscopic therapeutic aspects of Barrett's esophagus that are of interest to clinicians and researchers. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus: diagnosis, management, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.J.; Harris, A.; Gillette, A.; Munoz, L.; Kashima, H.

    1984-11-01

    Nine of 168 patients (5.3%) with carcinoma of the esophagus had primary tumors in the cervical esophagus. The principal symptoms and signs of carcinoma of the cervical esophagus were dysphagia, hoarseness, neck mass, and weight loss. The esophagogram was a very reliable study, revealing the abnormality in all nine patients. The true extent of the disease was better delineated by computerized tomography which demonstrated not only the intraluminal mass but also the extraesophageal spread. Endoscopic examination of the cervical esophagus was the definitive procedure to establish the diagnosis. All nine patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy, three surviving two to five years. The major cause of death was the failure to control local disease. 14 references, 3 tables.

  8. Air column in esophagus and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Alijavad; Raji, Hanieh; Teimoori, Mojtaba; Ghourchian, Shadi

    2012-01-25

    During imaging of the normal esophagus, air is often detected. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the appearance of air bubbles on imaging and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) symptoms. The cross-sectional imaging study was conducted at Rasole Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran. A total of 44 patients underwent X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning; the presence of air in the esophagus and visible on CT imaging was scrutinized. The average age of the subjects was 59 and the male to female ratio was 0.83. We found a significant relationship between the presence of GERD symptoms, the size of air bubbles and esophageal dilation (ED) on the CT scan. Air bubbles in the esophagus may be seen frequently in CT scans, but their size and location can vary. The GERD symptoms can arise when a small diameter air column is present within the esophagus, especially in the middle and lower parts.

  9. Pathophysiology and treatment of Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daniel S; DeMeester, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects an estimated 20% of the population in the United States. About 10%-15% of patients with GERD develop Barrett’s esophagus, which can progress to adenocarcinoma, currently the most prevalent type of esophageal cancer. The esophagus is normally lined by squamous mucosa, therefore, it is clear that for adenocarcinoma to develop, there must be a sequence of events that result in transformation of the normal squamous mucosa into columnar epithelium. This sequence begins with gastroesophageal reflux, and with continued injury metaplastic columnar epithelium develops. This article reviews the pathophysiology of Barrett’s esophagus and implications for its treatment. The effect of medical and surgical therapy of Barrett’s esophagus is compared. PMID:20698038

  10. Barrett's esophagus: a late complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Varela, J Esteban

    2010-02-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding has become a popular bariatric restrictive procedure in the USA. The increasing popularity of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band procedure could, in part, be related to the lower cost and lower morbidity compared with laparoscopic gastric bypass. Although its placement is related to a lower number of perioperative complications compared with laparoscopic gastric bypass, its morbidity may be substantial. Barrett's esophagus or esophageal intestinal metaplasia is a known complication of chronic gastro-esophageal reflux disease that, in rare occasions, progresses to dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Barrett's esophagus, after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding placement, is a rare but not unexpected complication after gastric band placement. The incidence of Barrett's esophagus after adjustable gastric banding is not known. We present a case of Barrett's esophagus as a result of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding placement due to a chronically and highly restrictive gastric band in a former morbidly obese patient.

  11. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies. | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  12. Segmental high amplitude peristaltic contractions in the distal esophagus.

    PubMed

    Freidin, N; Mittal, R K; Traube, M; McCallum, R W

    1989-06-01

    High amplitude peristaltic contractions in the distal esophagus ("nutcracker esophagus") is the most common manometric disorder seen in patients with noncardiac chest pain. Although this abnormality is found in the distal esophagus, the definition regarding its precise level in the esophagus is unclear. A careful analysis of 99 consecutive manometric tracings performed during a 1-yr period revealed that in patients with noncardiac chest pain and/or dysphagia, the location of the abnormal esophageal contractions varied: 1) in 11 patients the esophageal contractions were abnormal at 2 cm, as well as 7 cm, above the lower esophageal sphincter (LES); 2) the abnormality was limited to the 2-cm location above the LES in six patients; and 3) was confined to the 7-cm location above the LES in five patients. If the conventional criteria of averaging the distal esophageal contraction amplitudes at 2 and 7 cm above the LES were adopted, six of the 11 patients with segmental esophageal contraction abnormality would not have been identified. We suggest that, by inspection of each location of the distal esophagus separately, localized high amplitude contractions can be identified, and the distal 2 cm segment of the esophagus should be routinely included in the manometric evaluation.

  13. Barrett's Esophagus: Emerging Knowledge and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Stairs, Douglas B.; Mani, Haresh; McGarrity, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased exponentially in the last 3 decades. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of EAC. Patients with BE have a greater than 40 folds higher risk of EAC compared with the general population. Recent years have witnessed a revolution in the clinical and molecular research related to BE. However, several aspects of this condition remain controversial. Data regarding the true prevalence of BE have varied widely. Recent studies have suggested a lower incidence of EAC in nondysplastic BE (NDBE) than previously reported. There is paucity of prospective data showing a survival benefit of screening or surveillance for BE. Furthermore, the ever-increasing emphasis on healthcare cost containment has called for reexamination of the screening and surveillance strategies for BE. There is a need for identification of reliable clinical predictors or molecular biomarkers to risk-stratify patients who might benefit the most from screening or surveillance for BE. Finally, new therapies have emerged for the management of dysplastic BE. In this paper, we highlight the key areas of controversy and uncertainty surrounding BE. The paper discusses, in detail, the current literature about the molecular pathogenesis, biomarkers, histopathological diagnosis, and management strategies for BE. PMID:22701199

  14. Screening for Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    di Pietro, Massimiliano; Chan, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.; Wang, Kenneth K.

    2015-01-01

    The large increase in the incidence of esophageal adeno-carcinoma in the West during the past 30 years has stimulated interest in screening for Barrett’s esophagus (BE), a precursor to esophageal cancer. Effective endoscopic treatments for dysplasia and intramucosal cancer, coupled with screening programs to detect BE, could help reverse the increase in the incidence of esophageal cancer. However, there are no accurate, cost-effective, minimally invasive techniques available to screen for BE, reducing the enthusiasm of gastroenterologists. Over the past 5 years, there has been significant progress in the development of screening technologies. We review existing and developing technologies, new minimally invasive imaging techniques, nonendoscopic devices for cell collection, and biomarkers that can be measured in blood or stool samples. We discuss the status of these approaches, data from clinical studies of their effects, and their anticipated strengths and weaknesses in screening. The area is rapidly evolving, and new tools will soon be ready for prime time. PMID:25701083

  15. Variables in photodynamic therapy for Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Linda R.; Preyer, Norris W.; Buchanan, Jane; Reynolds, Daryl M.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.; Wallace, Michael B.; Gill, Kanwar R. S.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy with porfimer sodium (PS) is a treatment option for high grade dysplasia associated with Barrett's esophagus. This study sought to investigate the optical properties of Barrett's dysplasia that may be useful in light dosimetry planning and to determine the effect of PS on tissue absorption and scattering. Fiber optic reflectance spectra were collected before and 48 hours after administration of 2 mg/kg PS. Mucosal biopsies were collected at the same locations. According to Monte Carlo analysis, the fiber optic probe sampled only the mucosal layer. A mathematical fit of the reflectance spectra was performed as a function of blood volume fraction, oxygen saturation and scattering. The average calculated blood volume was 100% higher in Barrett's tissue than normal esophageal tissue. The average scattering slope from 620 to 750 nm was 26% higher for Barrett's dysplasia than normal esophageal tissue, indicating an increase in the size of scattering particles. The difference in the scattering amplitude was not statistically significant, suggesting no significant increase in the number of scattering particles. PS tissue content was determined with extraction methods. Changes in the scattering slope due to PS sensitization were observed; however they were not proportional to the extracted PS concentration.

  16. Evaluation of Barrett esophagus by multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianxin; Wong, Serena; Nathanson, Michael H; Jain, Dhanpat

    2014-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on 2-photon excitation fluorescence and second-harmonic generation allows simultaneous visualization of cellular details and extracellular matrix components of fresh, unfixed, and unstained tissue. Portable multiphoton microscopes, which could be placed in endoscopy suites, and multiphoton endomicroscopes are in development, but their clinical utility is unknown. To examine fresh, unfixed endoscopic biopsies obtained from the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction to (1) define the MPM characteristics of normal esophageal squamous mucosa and gastric columnar mucosa, and (2) evaluate whether diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia/Barrett esophagus (BE) could be made reliably with MPM. The study examined 35 untreated, fresh biopsy specimens from 25 patients who underwent routine upper endoscopy. A Zeiss LSM 710 Duo microscope (Carl Zeiss, Thornwood, New York) coupled to a Spectra-Physics (Mountain View, California) Tsunami Ti:sapphire laser was used to obtain a MPM image within 4 hours of fresh specimen collection. After obtaining MPM images, the biopsy specimens were placed in 10% buffered formalin and submitted for routine histopathologic examination. Then, the MPM images were compared with the findings in the hematoxylin-eosin-stained, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. The MPM characteristics of the squamous, gastric-type columnar and intestinal-type columnar epithelium were analyzed. In biopsies with discrepancy between MPM imaging and hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, the entire tissue block was serially sectioned and reevaluated. A diagnosis of BE was made when endoscopic and histologic criteria were satisfied. Based on effective 2-photon excitation fluorescence of cellular reduced pyridine nucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotide and lack of 2-photon excitation fluorescence of mucin and cellular nuclei, MPM could readily identify and distinguish among squamous epithelial cells, goblet cells, gastric

  17. Optimal management of Barrett's esophagus: pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Konda, Vani Ja; Dalal, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus, are rapidly rising in incidence. This review serves to highlight the role of pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical intervention in the management of Barrett's esophagus, which requires acid suppression and endoscopic assessment. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may decrease acid exposure and delay the progression to dysplasia. Patients who require aspirin for cardioprotection or other indications may also benefit in terms of a protective effect against the development of esophageal cancer. However, without other indications, aspirin is not indicated solely to prevent cancer. A careful endoscopic examination should include assessment of any visible lesions in a Barrett's segment. An expert gastrointestinal pathologist should confirm neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. For those patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma, careful consideration of endoscopic therapy or surgical therapy must be given. All visible lesions in the setting of dysplasia should be targeted with focal endoscopic mucosal resection for both accurate histopathologic diagnosis and treatment. The remainder of the Barrett's epithelium should be eradicated to address all synchronous and metachronous lesions. This may be done by tissue acquiring or nontissue acquiring means. Radiofrequency ablation has a positive benefit-risk profile for flat Barrett's esophagus. At this time, endoscopic therapy is not indicated for nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Esophagectomy is still reserved for selected cases with evidence of lymph node metastasis, unsuccessful endoscopic therapy, or with high-risk features of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma.

  18. Freezing of the esophagus: histological changes and immunological response.

    PubMed

    Graña, L; Ablin, R J; Goldman, S; Milhouse, E

    1981-01-01

    Experimental freezing of the esophagus was accomplished in canines. The temperature used was from -10 degrees C. to -20 degrees C., for from two to ten minutes. Histological studies revealed cryonecrosis, limited to the cells immediately in contact with the probe surface, edema and cryothrombosis, as the most outstanding and significant histological lesions. Preliminary evaluation of the effects of in situ freezing of the esophagus is suggestive of the development of a cellular response. This response appeared to be directed to antigens present in extracts of esophageal mucosa and muscularis. Repeated in situ freezing of the esophagus resulted in the development of an increased (i.e., anamnestic), immunologic response to mucosa and muscularis antigens. The results of this experiment suggest the use of freezing techniques as an alternative to total esophageal resection for early carcinoma of the esophagus. The 98% cure rate of freezing techniques in the squamous cell carcinoma of the skin encourages us to emphasize the possibility of using this technique with a similar degree of success in early carcinoma of the esophagus.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Esgaib, A S; Eda, C J; de Oliveira, R I; Ghefter, M C; Lyra, R M; Guidugli, R B; de Oliveira Júnior, N R

    1997-01-01

    To study the diagnosis, prognosis and management of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus. This is a retrospective study through the analysis of two cases with delayed diagnosis and subsequent treatment at the Track Surgery Service. LOCALE: The study was performed at the Thoracic Surgery Unit of the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira in the city of São Paulo. This is a specialized service. The two patients reported on had suffered spontaneous rupture of the esophagus. They were transferred to the Thoracic Surgery Unit because of the worsening of their condition in the previous institution which they had been admitted into. The two patients with esophagus pleural fistula received similar treatment, initially advocated by Kanashin in Russia and Hauer-Santos in the United States, which consists of washing the fistula and using continuous pleural aspiration. Although both patients had to spend a long period of time in hospital, their evolution was satisfactory with the treatment adopted, and the fistula closed. The authors conclude that the method of lavage of the mediastinum and continuous pleural aspiration, in patients who after spontaneous rupture of the esophagus developed a pleural esophagus fistula due to belated diagnosis, is an alternative and satisfactory therapy. Furthermore, in order to have the best outcome, an early diagnosis is recommended and thoracostomy as the surgical procedure, with primary suture.

  20. Malakoplakia of the esophagus caused by human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Li; Xie, Yu-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Jing; Sun, Tao; Tang, Jing

    2012-12-07

    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease probably caused by infection and characterized histologically by Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. We report a more rarely seen case esophageal malakoplakia in a 54-year-old woman. She presented with coughing while eating and drinking. Gastroscopy showed yellow nodules in the esophagus, and endoscopic ultrasonography showed a space-occupying lesion in the substratum of the esophageal mucosa. All findings highly resembled esophageal cancer. Histopathological examination finally indentified this space-occupying lesion as malakoplakia and not cancer. Immunohistochemistry showed that she had human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the esophagus, which indicates that infection was responsible for the malakoplakia. This is believed to be the first case of malakoplakia in the esophagus, and more importantly, we established that HPV infection was the initiator of esophageal malakoplakia.

  1. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertesteanu, SVG; Mirea, D; Grigore, R; Ionescu, D; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in human population in regards to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngo–esophageal junction, knowledge that contributes to latest therapeutic assessment through interdisciplinary collaboration (E.N.T. surgeon, general surgeon, radiation oncologist, chemotherapist, nutritionist). The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer includes three major areas of interest: descriptive (the study of the spread in mass population), analytical (the study of causal risk factors on the disease) and experimental (that verifies by experiments on animals the prior identified hypothesis). PMID:21254737

  2. Microscopic esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca; Milione, Massimo; Parente, Paola; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common digestive disease in industrialized countries (Europe and North America) and is associated with microscopic changes in the squamous epithelium. However, biopsy is not presently included in the routine diagnostic flow chart of GERD. In contrast, esophageal biopsy is mandatory when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus. High quality histology reports are necessary to provide information on diagnosis and can also be important for research and epidemiological studies. It has been evident for decades that pathology reports vary between institutions and even within a single institution. Standardization of reporting is the best way to ensure that information necessary for patient management is included in pathology reports. This paper details the histological criteria for diagnosing GERD-associated microscopic esophagitis, other forms of esophagitis with specific features and columnar metaplasia in the lower esophagus (Barrett's esophagus). It provides a detailed description of appropriate sampling criteria, individual lesions and how they contribute to the histology report.

  3. Does Barrett's esophagus regress after surgery (or proton pump inhibitors)?

    PubMed

    Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus, the condition in which metaplastic columnar epithelium that predisposes to cancer development replaces the squamous epithelium that normally lines the distal esophagus, is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Metaplasia is a potentially reversible condition, and partial regression of Barrett's metaplasia has been documented with effective medical or surgical therapy for GERD. The important issue for patient management is not whether antireflux treatment causes Barrett's esophagus to regress, but rather whether antireflux therapy prevents cancer in Barrett's esophagus. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) would be expected to prevent this cancer because they heal reflux esophagitis, reduce exposure to a potential carcinogen (acid), and might prevent acid-induced proliferation and cancer-promoting cytokine secretion by esophageal epithelial cells. Furthermore, observational studies have shown that PPI use is associated with a decreased incidence of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. In theory, successful antireflux surgery, which eliminates the reflux of both acid and bile, should be better for cancer prevention than medical therapy, which only decreases the reflux of acid. However, high-quality studies show no significant difference in cancer incidence between medically and surgically treated patients with GERD and Barrett's esophagus. Furthermore, for individual patients with nondysplastic Barrett's metaplasia, the cancer risk is so small and the number needed to treat for cancer prevention with surgery so large, that it does not matter whether or not surgery provides a tiny margin of extra protection against cancer beyond that provided by medical therapy. The cost and risks of the operation overwhelm any small, additional cancer protective benefit. Antireflux surgery is very effective at controlling the endoscopic signs and symptoms of GERD, but the operation should not be recommended to patients solely with the rationale that it

  4. Smoking and Barrett's Esophagus in Women who Undergo Upper Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Brian C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette use is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma, and cross-sectional studies suggest an association between smoking and Barrett's esophagus. Aims We sought to examine prospectively the influence of smoking on the risk for Barrett's esophagus. Methods This was a prospective cohort study among 20,863 women within the Nurses’ Health Study who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for any reason between 1980 and 2006. We assessed the association between smoking and pathologically-confirmed Barrett's esophagus (n=377). Self-reported data on smoking and potential confounding variables were collected from biennial questionnaires. Results Compared to women who never smoked, former smokers who used 1-24 cigarettes/day had a multivariate odds ratio for Barrett's esophagus of 1.25 (95% CI 0.99-1.59), former smokers who used ≥25 cigarettes/day had a multivariate odds ratio of 1.52 (95% CI 1.04-2.22), current smokers who used 1-24 cigarettes/day had a multivariate odds ratio of 0.89 (95% CI 0.54-1.45), and current smokers who used ≥25 cigarettes/day had a multivariate odds ratio of 0.92 (95% CI 0.34-2.54). The risk for Barrett's esophagus increased significantly with increasing pack-years smoked among former (P = 0.008), but not current smokers (p=0.99), especially when considering exposure ≥25 years prior to index endoscopy. Results were similar among women reporting regular heartburn/acid-reflux one or more times a week, and were not accounted for by changes in weight. Conclusions Heavy, remote smoking is associated with an increased risk for Barrett's esophagus. This finding suggests a long latency period between exposure and development of the disease, even after discontinuation of smoking. PMID:21448698

  5. Clinical Study of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Barrett's Esophagus Patients.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Martinez, Jessica A; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Trowers, Eugene; Gibson, Blake A; Della'Zanna, Gary; Richmond, Ellen; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2016-07-01

    Prior research strongly implicates gastric acid and bile acids, two major components of the gastroesophageal refluxate, in the development of Barrett's esophagus and its pathogenesis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been shown to protect esophageal cells against oxidative stress induced by cytotoxic bile acids. We conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the clinical activity of UDCA in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Twenty-nine patients with Barrett's esophagus received UDCA treatment at a daily dose of 13 to 15 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The clinical activity of UDCA was assessed by evaluating changes in gastric bile acid composition and markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), cell proliferation (Ki67), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in Barrett's esophagus epithelium. The bile acid concentrations in gastric fluid were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. At baseline, UDCA (sum of unchanged and glycine/taurine conjugates) accounted for 18.2% of total gastric bile acids. After UDCA intervention, UDCA increased significantly to account for 93.4% of total gastric bile acids (P < 0.0001). The expression of markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis was assessed in the Barrett's esophagus biopsies by IHC. The selected tissue biomarkers were unchanged after 6 months of UDCA intervention. We conclude that high-dose UDCA supplementation for 6 months resulted in favorable changes in gastric bile acid composition but did not modulate selected markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the Barrett's esophagus epithelium. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 528-33. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Brian J. Reid, p. 512.

  6. Antiinflammatory agents protect opossum esophagus during radiotherapy. [Cobalt 60

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Eastwood, G.L.; Libshitz, H.I.; Feldman, M.S.; Mamel, J.J.; Szwarc, I.A.

    1982-10-01

    Eighteen opossums received 2250 rad /sup 60/Co to the entire esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter. Animals received treatment with 600 mg aspirin, 25 mg/kg hydrocortisone, or saline before irradiation and twice daily for 1 week after irradiation. At 10 days postirradiation, animals were evaluated for signs of acute esophagitis by esophagoscopy and barium esophagram. Each animal was then killed and the esophagus removed and evaluated histologically. Animals treated with either aspirin or hydrocortisone had significantly milder esophagitis than control irradiated animals.

  7. Jackhammer esophagus treated by a peroral endoscopic myotomy.

    PubMed

    Ko, Weon Jin; Lee, Byoung Moo; Park, Won Young; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Cho, Jun Hyung; Lee, Tae Hee; Hong, Su Jin; Cho, Joo Young

    2014-12-01

    A 49-year-old woman visited our hospital with dysphagia and chest pain. In another hospital, she was diagnosed as reflux esophagitis. Although she had taken proton pump inhibitor and prokinetics drugs for a long time, she was not relieved of any symptoms. On the basis of high resolution manometry and endoscopic ultrasonography findings, Jackhammer esophagus was diagnosed. In this patient, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was performed for long myotomy of thickened circular muscle. During the procedure, there were no significant complications and she was discharged uneventfully. Symptoms were completely improved during three months after POEM. Here, we report on a case of Jackhammer esophagus treated by POEM.

  8. Midesophageal Pulsion Diverticulum Resulting From Hypercontractile (Jackhammer) Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Onkar V; Shroff, Sagar R; Sakaria, Sonali S; Force, Seth D

    2017-02-01

    We report a patient with significant dysphagia from hypercontractile "jackhammer" esophagus and a midesophageal pulsion diverticulum. This was treated with a thoracoscopic diverticulectomy and a long esophageal myotomy sparing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). We describe the clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment of this uncommon esophageal motility disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of a midesophageal diverticulum caused by jackhammer esophagus. We propose that in the setting of normal LES function, successful treatment should include diverticulectomy with an LES-sparing myotomy. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endoscopic Ultrasound Does Not Accurately Stage Early Adenocarcinoma or High-Grade Dysplasia of the Esophagus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    MeSH search terms: " endoscopic ultrasound," "Barrett’s esophagus ," "adeno· carcinoma," "Barrett’s esophagus and high grade dyspla.c;ia...adenocarcinoma of the esophagus ; EMR, endoscopic mucosal resection; EUS, endoscopic ul- trasound; HGD, high-grade dysplasia. <D 2010 by the AGA Institute... esophagus and early adenocarcinoma found EUS examination to have perfecr accuracy for differentiating Tl CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY Vol

  10. Long-term form and function of neoesophagus after experimental replacement of thoracic esophagus with nitinol composite artificial esophagus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian-Hui; Zhou, Xing; Zheng, Zhao-Bing; Liang, Xian-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Attempts were made to observe long-term form and function of neoesophagus with three pigs that survived for more than 42 months after Nitinol composite artificial esophagus replacement. The neoesophagus was shorter in length than resected esophagus (shorten rate 13.9 +/- 3.1) and thinner than normal esophagus (thickness rate 53.8 +/- 5.5). Esophagography and endoscopic findings indicated that the neoesophagus was dilatation of cystic form, and there was not autonomic peristalsis or constrictive motion. Microscopical findings showed that the wall of the neoesophagus consisted of fibrous connective tissue and esophageal mucosa.These results suggest that the long-term neoesophagus is a stratified squamous epithelium cover scar tissue tube. Although it does not have peristaltic function, experimental pigs can survive long-term with the neoesophagus.

  11. Polypoid leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Nishisaki, Hogara; Koma, Yu-ichiro; Sawai, Hiroaki; Sakai, Aya; Mimura, Takuya; Kushida, Saeko; Tsumura, Hidetaka; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Tobimatsu, Kazutoshi; Miki, Ikuya; Sakuma, Toshiko; Tsuda, Masahiro; Mano, Masayuki; Hirose, Takanori; Inokuchi, Hideto

    2015-09-01

    We report a rare case of polypoid leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus that was treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). A 63-year-old man with complaints of progressive dysphagia was referred to Hyogo Cancer Center for treatment of esophageal tumor. Esophagoscopy revealed a polypoid tumor 25 mm in diameter on the left side of the upper esophagus. Despite several biopsy specimens, the diagnosis could not be confirmed. Computed tomography showed a protruded, homogeneously enhancing mass in the upper esophagus, but no lymph node enlargement or metastasis. After 1.5 months, the esophagogram showed a filling defect 47 mm in diameter in the upper esophagus. Given this rapid tumor growth, en bloc resection was done by ESD for therapeutic diagnosis. After this treatment, the tumor seemed to grow larger, showing a short stalk and occupying the esophageal lumen. Histopathologically, the tumor comprised pleomorphic spindle cells with mitosis. Tumor invasion involved the lumina propria mucosae and contact with the muscularis mucosae, but not involving the submucosa. Immunohistochemical examination showed positive staining for smooth muscle actin and HHF35, but negative for desmin, caldesmon, CD34, c-kit, DOG1, ALK, S-100 protein and cytokeratin. These histopathological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyosarcoma derived from the muscularis mucosae.

  12. Black esophagus (acute esophageal necrosis) after spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Fossati Puertas, S; Areán González, I; Varela García, O; Viaño López, P M

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophagic necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity that owes its name to the endoscopic view of the necrotic esophageal mucosa. It is always related with a critical medical condition and usually has an ischemic etiology. We report the first case of acute esophageal necrosis after a spinal anesthetic for partial hip joint arthroplasty. We discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  13. A pedunculated intraluminal foregut reduplication cyst of the proximal esophagus.

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Wallace, W H; Scott, D J; Cameron, E W

    1998-06-01

    A 66-year-old woman with a 3-month history of progressive dysphagia underwent transoral excision of a pedunculated cyst arising in the proximal esophagus. Histologic examination confirmed a pedunculated intraluminal foregut reduplication cyst. She remains well 1 year after excision with no recurrence of dysphagia.

  14. What Happens After Treatment for Cancer of the Esophagus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... And long term, we know that getting regular physical activity plays a role in helping to lower the risk of some cancers, as well as having other health benefits. How might having esophagus cancer affect your emotional health? During and after treatment, you ...

  15. Black and White Esophagus: Rare Presentations of Severe Esophageal Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel B; Bowers, Steven; Thomas, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Benign esophageal strictures are typically the result of long-standing gastroesophageal reflux, and are usually treated with serial dilations and acid-suppressive therapy. Other causes of benign esophageal strictures include external beam radiation, caustic ingestions, prior surgery, and external compression from mediastinal fibrosis. We report 2 rare causes of ischemic esophageal structuring occurring after operations unrelated to the esophagus. The first is a patient who developed esophageal injury following radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. The direct thermal injury resulted in a "white esophagus" with a full-thickness, long-segmental stricture. The second patient presented with a "black esophagus" also known as acute necrotizing esophagitis. This occurred after an orthotopic liver transplant, which was complicated by multiple organ dysfunction secondary to hemorrhagic shock. In this report, we present 2 rare causes of esophageal stricturing that occurred after procedures not necessarily related to the esophagus itself. Early recognition and active management of these esophageal injuries may lead to better outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of esophagus distention on urinary bladder function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G; Qnais, E Y; Allouh, M Z

    2012-01-01

    Micturition process is a spinobulbospinal reflex that is affected by the viscero-visceral interactions due to convergent inputs into spinal and/or supraspinal centers controlling that reflex. Although interaction between bladder and other pelvic organs, such as colon, are well studied, the viscero-visceral interaction between urinary bladder and internal organs in other regions are rarely studied. In the present study, continuous filling cystometry recordings, in male rats, were used to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation of distal-esophagus (distention), as well as, electrical stimulation of abdominal branches of the vagus nerve on urinary bladder micturition cycles. Distal esophagus distention and electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve significantly increased the micturition frequency through decreasing the time of the storage phase of the micturition cycle. However, bilateral cervical vagotomy eliminated the effects of distal esophagus distention and electrical stimulation of vagus nerve on micturition cycles. The results of this study indicate that there is a viscero-visceral interaction between esophagus and urinary bladder, which is mediated through vagal afferents. Understanding the properties of the viscero-visceral interactions affecting the urinary bladder will help in the diagnosis and management of micturition problems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Diabetes-induced mechanophysiological changes in the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Esophageal disorders are common in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. DM induces mechanostructural remodeling in the esophagus of humans and animal models. The remodeling is related to esophageal sensorimotor abnormalities and to symptoms frequently encountered by DM patients. For example, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder associated with DM. This review addresses diabetic remodeling of esophageal properties and function in light of the Esophagiome, a scientifically based modeling effort to describe the physiological dynamics of the normal, intact esophagus built upon interdisciplinary approaches with applications for esophageal disease. Unraveling the structural, biomechanical, and sensory remodeling of the esophagus in DM must be based on a multidisciplinary approach that can bridge the knowledge from a variety of scientific disciplines. The first focus of this review is DM-induced morphodynamic and biomechanical remodeling in the esophagus. Second, we review the sensorimotor dysfunction in DM and how it relates to esophageal remodeling. Finally, we discuss the clinical consequences of DM-induced esophageal remodeling, especially in relation to GERD. The ultimate aim is to increase the understanding of DM-induced remodeling of esophageal structure and sensorimotor function in order to assist clinicians to better understand the esophageal disorders induced by DM and to develop better treatments for those patients. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Deterioration of muscle function in the human esophagus with age.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Hans; Pedersen, Jan; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2008-12-01

    Most studies on the effect of aging on esophageal motor function have shown that peristaltic function deteriorates with age. Esophageal motor function is traditionally studied by means of manometry and radiography. Distension of the esophagus with evaluation of active and passive mechanical parameters have become available during recent years. In this study, we did a manometric swallow analysis and used the distension method to study esophageal properties and function during aging. An impedance planimetric probe with a bag for distension was placed in the distal esophagus of 25 healthy volunteers with a median age of 35 (range 23-86) years. Distensions were done at an infusion rate of 25 ml min(-1) with and without relaxation of neuromuscular activity with butylscopolamine. The infusion was reversed when moderate pain was experienced by the subjects. Swallow-induced contraction amplitudes decreased as function of age for persons older than 40 years (P < 0.05). The total and passive tension showed an exponential increase as function of the change in radius, whereas the active tension increased until it reached a local maximum point. The maximum active tension deteriorated as a function of age after the age of 40 years (P < 0.05). Furthermore, esophagus became stiffer with age. In conclusion, age-related changes of increased stiffness and reduced primary and secondary peristalsis were found in the human esophagus with a deterioration of esophageal function after the age of 40 years. Such changes may contribute to the high prevalence of reflux disease in elderly.

  19. The Role of Acid Suppression in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Elias, Pooja S; Castell, Don O

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have come under great scrutiny due to possible adverse, long-term side effects. At the same time, Barrett's esophagus, a premalignant condition in the esophagus, continues to be a disease whose course is thought to be improved by the use of PPIs. We review the impact of proton pump therapy on the esophagus and on Barrett's mucosa. In analyzing changes on a cellular level, we explore the effect of mixed gastric refluxate and the complex cascade that ensues with esophageal exposure of these contents. Because the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is on the rise, we explore other factors that may contribute to the progression of Barrett's from non-dysplastic mucosa to esophageal adenocarcinoma. By revisiting the need for adequate acid suppression in Barrett's and increasing our understanding of other possible factors that may have an effect of Barrett's progression, we hope to support our multifaceted approach to acid suppression in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unusual U wave induced by reconstructed retrosternal esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Kenichiro; Uno, Kansei; Mori, Kazuhiko; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message The present case shows that a broad compression of the right ventricle by the reconstructed stomach tube after esophagus cancer surgery induced an abnormal U wave. When facing an abnormal ECG, we should keep in mind of the mechanical compression to the heart as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26576279

  1. Seven-year follow-up study after the replacement of the esophagus with an artificial esophagus in the dog.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Kako, N; Chiba, K; Kawaguchi, T; Kimura, Y; Sato, M; Yamauchi, M; Koie, H

    1983-01-01

    An artificial esophagus was made of silicone rubber (Phycon) tube covered with a Dacron mesh. A segment of thoracic esophagus of 16 dogs was replaced with this graft using three different types of anastomosis--overlayer end-to-end anastomosis with flanged tube, two-layer end-to-end anastomosis with flanged tube, and monolayer end-to-end anastomosis with no flange tube. Seven of 16 dogs (44%) survived more than 12 months without complications, four of them surviving more than 6 years. In six of seven of the prolonged survivors, extrusion of the graft was recognized in the 3 to 6 months after operation. Esophageal stricture increased slightly up to 6 months after extrusion of the graft, but it did not further advance until sacrifice. In these dogs, mucosal regeneration of the neoesophagus was complete with muscle layers and mucous glands in the submucosa recognized microscopically. Proximal esophagus from the replaced portion was apparently dilatated more than that of the distal portion. There was no definite difference between the anastomotic techniques with regard to complication or prognosis. These results suggest that this artificial esophagus should be considered as a possibility for clinical trials in the future.

  2. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-10-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus.

  3. Histological and histochemical investigations on Japanese lizard esophagus.

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Izumi, T

    1992-05-01

    The authors previously investigated the bottle-shaped glands distributed in the lamina propria mucosae of the Japanese lizard and gecko. We made two sets of sections of the Japanese lizard at that time. The numerical values of the physical dimensions of the two individuals were as given table 1, showing that No. 2 was slightly smaller. Moreover we found very unusual tissue in the lower portion of the esophagus of No. 2. Therefore we excluded this individual from the preceding investigations. However, we made various observations, and the results of these investigations are as follows. 1. The lumen of the upper portion of the esophagus has no fold. However, the middle and lower portions formed very complicated folds. Therefore, the lumen was remarkably narrow. 2. The epithelium of the esophageal mucous membrane consisted of simple columnar cells and throughout each part, reacted strongly to PAS and moderately to AB (pH 2.5 and 0.5). It presented a dark blue (R18-B13 of Blue-Purple-Red) color in response to PAS-AB (pH 2.5) and contained no pepsinogen granules. The esophageal upper portion of small individuals only exhibited the PAS reaction in this investigation. 3. A number of bottle-shaped glands were distributed in the lamina propria mucosae of the lower portion of the esophagus of each material. The glandular cells in the basal portion were most differentiated and contained a great number of pepsinogen granules. 4. The above-mentioned glands were extremely simple and glands of this type could not be found in textbooks and theses. Accordingly, we previously described them with the tentative name of shimple branched tubular glands, but subsequently found this to be erroneous. We assume that these glands are esophageal gastric glands. 5. Compound tubular glands are formed in the lamina propria mucosae of the human esophagus, but do not exist in the Japanese macaque, crab-eating monkey, horse, cow, swine, dog, cat, rabbit, mouse and rat. Dellmann-Brown also described

  4. Experimental reconstruction of cervical esophageal defect with artificial esophagus made of polyurethane in a dog model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Cui, Y; Ma, K; Gong, M; Chang, D; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    The defect of esophagus after surgical excision in patients is usually replaced by autologous stomach, jejunum, or colon. The operation brings severe trauma and complications. Using artificial esophagus to replace the defect in situ can reduce the operative trauma, simplify the operative procedures, and decrease the influence to digestive function. A variety of experiments have been designed for developing a practical artificial esophagus. Nevertheless, a safe and reliable artificial esophagus is not yet available. The objective is to evaluate the possibility of the artificial esophagus made of non-degradable polyurethane materials being used in reconstruction of the segmental defect of cervical esophagus in beagles, observe the regeneration of esophageal tissue, and gather experience for future study. The cervical esophageal defects in 13 beagles were designed to 2-cm long and were constructed by the artificial esophagus made of non-degradable polyurethane materials. Nutrition supports were given after the operation. The operative mortality, anastomotic leakage, migration of artificial esophagus, and dysphagia were followed up. The regeneration of the esophageal tissues was evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemical labeled streptavidin-biotin method. The surgical procedures were successfully completed in all beagles, and 12-month follow-ups were done. Only one beagle died of severe infection, and all others survived until being killed. The anastomotic leakage occurred in nine beagles, most of them (8/9) were cured after supportive therapy. The migration of artificial esophagus occurred in all 12 surviving beagles, and one artificial esophagus stayed in situ after migration. All 12 surviving beagles showed dysphagia with taking only fluid or soft food. No beagle died of malnutrition. The neo-esophagus was composed of granulation tissue, and the inner surface was covered by epithelium in 2-3 months completely. But the inner surface of neo-esophagus with

  5. New insights into the surgical anatomy of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ruurda, Jelle P.; Luyer, Michael D. P.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Bleys, Ronaldus L. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of (robot assisted) minimally invasive esophagectomy and increased knowledge of the relation between the autonomic nervous system and the immune response have led to new insights regarding the surgical anatomy of the esophagus. First, two layers of connective tissue were identified; the aorto-esophageal and aorto-pleural ligaments that separate the peri-esophageal compartment, containing vagus nerves, carinal lymph nodes and trachea, from the para-aortic compartment; containing thoracic duct and azygos vein. Second the surgical anatomy of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches has been described in detail. Based on the hypothesis that sparing the vagal nerve branches may be important a method to spare the pulmonary branches of the vagus nerve during thoracoscopic esophagectomy was validated in a cadaver study. Further studies will now investigate the impact of these new insights in the surgical anatomy of the esophagus in clinical practice. PMID:28815062

  6. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  7. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus: An Obscure Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P; Federspiel, Birgitte; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease.

  8. Review: Experimental models for Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Roy C.; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    Several different cell culture systems and laboratory animal models have been used over the years to study Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Most of the existing models have key differences with the human esophagus and complex pathogenesis of disease. None of the models offers an ideal system for the complex study of environmental exposure, genetic risk, and prevention strategies. In fact, different model systems may be required to answer different specific research questions about the pathogenesis of BE and EAC. Given the high mortality associated with EAC and the fact that current screening strategies miss most cases of EAC, advances in basic and translational science related to esophageal injury, repair, and carcinogenesis are clearly needed. This review describes several of the existing and potential model systems for BE and EAC with their benefits and disadvantages. PMID:22421618

  9. Treatment of Barrett's esophagus: update on new endoscopic surgical modalities.

    PubMed

    Kristo, I; Asari, R; Rieder, E; Riegler, V; Schoppmann, S F

    2015-04-01

    Barrett's esophagus represents a premalignant condition, which is strongly associated with the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, there are no validated markers to extract exactly that certain patient that will proceed to neoplastic progression. Therefore, therapeutic options have to include a larger population to provide prophylaxis for affected patients. Recently developed endoscopic therapeutic approaches offer treatment options for prevention or even treatment of limited esophageal adenocarcinoma. At present, high eradication rates of intestinal metaplasia as well as dysplasia are observed, whereas low complication rates offer a convenient safety profile. These striking new methods symbolize a changing paradigm in a field, where minimal-invasive tissue ablating methods and tissue preserving techniques have led to modified regimens. This review will focus on current standards and newly emerging methods to treat Barrett's esophagus and its progression to cancer and will highlight their evolution, potential benefits and their limitations.

  10. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Diagnosis of Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Helmut; Langner, Cord; Neurath, Markus F.; Vieth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is established as a premalignant condition in the distal esophagus. Current surveillance guidelines recommend random biopsies every 1–2 cm at intervals of 3–5 years. Advanced endoscopic imaging of BE underwent several technical revolutions within the last decade including broad-field (red-flag) techniques (e.g., chromoendoscopy) and small-field techniques with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) at the forefront. In this review we will focus on advanced endoscopic imaging using CLE for the diagnosis and characterization of BE and associated neoplasia. In addition, we will critically discuss the technique of CLE and provide some tricks and hints for the daily routine practice of CLE for diagnosis of BE. PMID:22645719

  11. [Foreign bodies in esophagus in children: case series].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Hugo; Cuestas, Giselle; Botto, Hugo; Nieto, Mary; Cocciaglia, Alejandro; Gregori, Dario

    2013-06-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies is an avoidable accident that is seen mainly in children under 3 years-old. Most of them pass through the digestive tract without causing clinical manifestations or complications, but a significant percentage is impacted in the esophagus causing vomiting, sore throat, dysphagia and drooling. The most common foreign bodies are coins. Complications usually occur when there is a delay in diagnosis or with large, sharp or potentially toxic objects, as the button battery. It is essential to make differential diagnosis between coin and button battery, since the latter requires urgent removal due to the earliness of the injury caused. We report 115 cases of foreign bodies in the esophagus, and we alert the pediatrician in recognizing and preventing this problem.

  12. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus: An Obscure Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P.; Federspiel, Birgitte; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease. PMID:27721734

  13. Esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in cervical inlet patch with synchronous Barrett's esophagus-related dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mariko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Ikemura, Masako; Shibahara, Junji; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-08-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinomas usually develop in Barrett's esophagus, typically through the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, but adenocarcinomas can occur from heterotopic gastric mucosa in cervical esophagus (inlet patch). This report describes the first case of synchronous presentation of adenocarcinoma arising from cervical inlet patch and Barrett's esophagus-related dysplasia in a 76-year-old man. Surveillance CT detected a 3-cm polypoid mass in the cervical esophagus. Endoscopic biopsies confirmed a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the cervical esophagus. Barrett's esophagus was present also in the lower esophagus. Histologic examination of the surgically resected specimen revealed the polypoid mass as composed of tubular adenocarcinoma, and was associated with non-neoplastic columnar mucosa representing pre-existing inlet patch. Another isolated cervical inlet patch with intestinal metaplasia was also recognized. In the lower esophagus, high-grade dysplasia was noted within the Barrett's esophagus. Immunohistochemically, the adenocarcinoma associated with inlet patch had intestinal immunophenotype (CDX2-, CD10- and MUC2-positive), whereas the Barrett's esophagus-related high-grade dysplasia showed mixed immunophenotype (MUC5AC- and MUC6-positive, with scattered MUC2-positive goblet cells). Previous studies and our findings suggest that intestinal metaplasia might predispose to the development of adenocarcinoma in the inlet patch. Therefore, endoscopists and pathologists should be aware of rare malignant transformation of inlet patches, especially those with intestinal metaplasia.

  14. Endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Deepak K; Rana, Surinder S; Chandail, Vijant S; Nanda, Mohit; Nadkarni, Nikhil; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Sinha, Saroj K; Nagi, Birinder

    2006-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is an important diagnostic modality in evaluation of patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, lesions located in the cricopharyngeal area and upper esophagus can be missed, as this area may not be well visualized during endoscopy. This study was conducted to study the utility of a new technique of endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire in diagnosing esophageal disorders. Patients with suspected upper esophageal disorders on history and radiological investigations were assessed using guide wire assisted endoscopic examination during withdrawal of the endoscope. In this technique, endoscope is inserted into the esophagus under vision and thereafter the whole of esophagus, stomach and proximal duodenum is examined. The endoscope is then withdrawn into the mid-esophagus, a guide wire is fed into the biopsy channel, and thereafter inserted into the esophagus. Once guide wire has been advanced into the esophagus, the endoscope is withdrawn gently over the guide wire into esophagus carefully examining for lesions in upper esophagus and cricopharyngeal area. Twenty cases of various abnormalities localized to the upper esophagus were studied. The final diagnosis in these patients was cervical esophageal web (10), post transhiatal esophagectomy leak (4), heterotopic gastric mucosa (3), posttraumatic esophageal perforation (2), and Zenker's diverticulum (1). Intact web was detected in 2 patients and in 8 patients fractured web was seen. Guide wire assisted examination of upper esophagus improved the ability to visualize and characterize these lesions and no complications were encountered as a result of this procedure. Endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire is safe and effective in diagnosing anatomical abnormalities of the upper esophagus that may be missed or poorly characterized during standard endoscopy.

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus: role of obesity and diet.

    PubMed

    Brown, L M; Swanson, C A; Gridley, G; Swanson, G M; Schoenberg, J B; Greenberg, R S; Silverman, D T; Pottern, L M; Hayes, R B; Schwartz, A G

    1995-01-18

    In the United States, the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, including the esophagogastric junction, has been increasing rapidly over the past two decades. Except for an association with Barrett's esophagus, little is known about the etiology of these cancers. Our purpose was to investigate dietary and nutritional risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. A population-based, case-control interview study of 174 white men with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and 750 control subjects living in three areas of the United States was conducted during 1986 through 1989. Risk was significantly elevated for subjects in the heaviest quartile compared with the lightest quartile of body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-5.3). No significant associations were seen with total calories from food, number of meals eaten per day, level of fat intake, or consumption of coffee and tea. Risks were highest for those consuming the least amount of vegetables, with some evidence of a dose response for the subcategories of cruciferous vegetables (P for trend < .001) and vegetables consumed raw (P for trend = .10). A significantly elevated risk was also seen for those consuming the least amount of raw fruit (P for trend = .05). No clear associations were reported for intake of particular micronutrients overall or in supplements, but a significant protective effect was associated with increasing intake of dietary fiber (P for trend = .004). The findings of an increased risk with obesity and decreased risks with intake of raw fruits and vegetables and dietary fiber provide useful directions to pursue in further investigations of this malignancy. The finding with respect to obesity is particularly noteworthy, since it may explain at least a portion of the recent epidemic increases reported in the incidence of this tumor.

  16. Lifetime risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Gatenby, Piers; Caygill, Christine; Wall, Christine; Bhatacharjee, Santanu; Ramus, James; Watson, Anthony; Winslet, Marc

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the lifetime risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma and/or high-grade dysplasia in patients diagnosed with Barrett’s esophagus. METHODS: Data were extracted from the United Kingdom National Barrett’s Oesophagus Registry on date of diagnosis, patient age and gender of 7877 patients from who had been registered from 35 United Kingdom centers. Life expectancy was evaluated from United Kingdom National Statistics data based upon gender and age at year at diagnosis. These data were then used with published estimates of annual adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia incidences from meta-analyses and large population-based studies to estimate overall lifetime risk of development of these study endpoints. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus was 61.6 years in males and 67.3 years in females. The mean life expectancy at diagnosis was 23.1 years in males, 20.7 years in females and 22.2 years overall. Using data from published meta-analyses, the lifetime risk of development of adenocarcinoma was between 1 in 8 and 1 in 14 and the lifetime risk of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma was 1 in 5 to 1 in 6. Using data from 3 large recent population-based cohort studies the lifetime risk of adenocarcinoma was between 1 in 10 and 1 in 37 and of the combined end-point of high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma was between 1 in 8 and 1 in 20. Age at Barrett’s esophagus diagnosis is reducing and life expectancy is increasing, which will partially counter-balance lower annual cancer incidence. CONCLUSION: There is a significant lifetime risk of development of high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25071359

  17. [Stretch sphincter of the esophagus : Paradoxical sphincter with angiomyoelastic architecture].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, F

    2015-08-01

    The investigations described in this article clearly show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) represents a variation of circular muscular occlusive mechanisms found elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. The LES is a double layer stretch sphincter that operates in an apparently paradoxical manner: it closes when under stretch but opens when the muscle fibers contract. Impedance manometry studies demonstrate that the entire esophagus is involved in the normal functioning of the esophagus as well as in esophageal disorders. The pronounced elasticity of esophageal tissue is a functional feature that has its basis in the singular architecture of elastic fibers located between the muscle layers. All traditional forms of operative treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) impede the natural functioning of the stretch sphincter to a greater or lesser degree by locking it up. The cause of GERD is mainly by contraction of the esophagus brought about by the cephalad transposition of the stretch sphincter segment into the chest. In a sense this is an incipient axial hernia that frequently remains undiagnosed in the early stages. The operative repositioning of the stretch sphincter segment into the abdominal cavity provides sufficient restoration of the natural topographic relationships to achieve a cure of GERD. Whether this straightforward repair restores the function of the entire esophagus remains to be elucidated. The concept of the stretch provides a good explanation of the pathophysiology of achalasia, a condition in which a paralyzed paradoxical ring sphincter remains occluded. Successful myotomy approaches only split the muscularis propria layer of the stretch sphincter while leaving subepithelial muscle fibers intact that remain paralyzed. This limited intervention provides a good relief of symptoms.

  18. Response of canine esophagus to intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, W.F.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Kinsella, T.J.; Barnes, M.; DeLuca, A.M.; Tochner, Z.; Pass, H.I.; Kranda, K.C.; Terrill, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Tolerance of esophagus to intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was investigated in dogs. Thirteen adult foxhounds were subjected to right thoractomy, mobilization of the intrathoracic esophagus, and IORT to a 6 cm full-thickness esophageal segment using 9 MeV electrons at doses of 0, 2,000, or 3,000 cGy. Dogs were followed clinically and were evaluated at regular intervals after treatment with fiberoptic esophagoscopy, barium swallows, and postmortem histologic evaluations. One sham-irradiated control dog showed no abnormalities during follow-up of 24 months. Seven dogs receiving 2,000 cGy IORT showed transient mild dysphagia and mild esophagitis, but no clinically or pathologically significant complications. Five dogs receiving 3,000 cGy demonstrated severe ulcerative esophagitis within 6 weeks of treatment which progressed to chronic ulcerative esophagitis with stricture formation by 9 months following IORT. One 3,000 cGy dog died at 13 months from an esophageal perforation. On the basis of a pilot experience using 13 experimental animals, it was concluded that intact canine esophagus tolerates IORT well to doses of 2,000 cGy, but doses of 3,000 cGy pose serious and potentially lethal risks. The clinical application of IORT to the treatment of human intrathoracic neoplasms requiring esophageal irradiation should be approached with caution, particularly at doses exceeding 2,000 cGy.

  19. Atopic dermatitis with possible polysensitization and monkey esophagus reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S.; Smoller, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Recent studies link atopic dermatitis with asthma and with eosinophilic esophagitis. Case Report: Based on this association, we investigated by indirect immunofluorescence the immunoreactivity patterns on monkey esophagus substrate utilizing the serum of a patient with severe atopic dermatitis. We also examined the patient's skin biopsy by H&E histology and immunohistochemistry. We detected strong deposits of albumin, IgE, IgG, IgD, IgA, Complement/C1q and mast cell tryptase in multiples structures of the skin, as well as a broad pattern of intraepithelial staining on monkey esophagus. Strong staining positivity was also detected within the inflammatory infiltrate around the upper dermal vessels, as well as additional positive staining for the human leukocyte antigen system antigens DR DP and DQ. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that there could be an indication for testing patients with severe atopic dermatitis for autoreactivity to filaggrin (anti-keratin antibodies) utilizing monkey esophagus. Larger studies are needed to clarify any immunologic interaction between the reactivity to albumin and food allergens that may sensitize patients via the esophageal mucosa. PMID:22558585

  20. Palliative treatment of patients with malignant structures of esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Kuzin, M. I.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Posypanova, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), spectral- analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different localizations and different geometry of tumor, and phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with malignant strictures of esophagus is discussed. Photodynamic therapy was carried out to four patients: with esophageal cancer (3 patients) and gastric cancer with infiltration of lower esophagus (1 patient). All patients suffered from severe dysphagia. Photosensitizer was used in a dose 1-1.5 mg/kg of weight. Usually we used 3-4 seances of laser treatment 10-30 minutes long. The accumulation of photosensitizer was controlled by LESA-5. Laser induced fluorescent image was monitored by the video-imaging system in order to control laser treatment. There were no side-effects. The results show high efficiency of photodynamic therapy. There was marked reduction of dysphagia symptoms in all cases. It seems that photodynamic therapy is a good alternative to palliative surgical treatment of patients with malignant strictures of esophagus.

  1. Pathogenesis and outcomes of traumatic injuries of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Makhani, M; Midani, D; Goldberg, A; Friedenberg, F K

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injury of the esophagus is extremely uncommon. The aims of this study were to use the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study (PTOS) database to identify clinical factors predictive of esophageal trauma, and to report the morbidity and mortality of this injury. A cross-sectional review of patients presenting to 20 Level I trauma centers in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2010 was performed. We compared clinical and demographic variables between patients with and without esophageal trauma both prior to and after arrival in the emergency room (ER). Primary mechanism of injury and clinical outcomes were analyzed. There were 231 694 patients and 327 (0.14%) had esophageal trauma. Patients with esophageal trauma were considerably younger than those without this injury. The risk of esophageal trauma was markedly increased in males (odds ratio [OR] = 2.62 [CI 1.98-3.47]). The risk was also increased in African Americans (OR = 4.61 [CI 3.65-5.82]). Most cases were from penetrating gunshot and stab wounds. Only 34 (10.4%) of esophageal trauma patients underwent an upper endoscopy; diagnosis was usually made by CT, surgery, or autopsy. Esophageal trauma patients were more likely to require surgery (35.8% vs. 12.5%; P < 0.001). Patients with esophageal trauma had a substantially higher mortality than those without the injury (20.5% vs. 1.4%; P < 0.005). In logistic regression modeling, traumatic injury of the esophagus (OR = 3.43 [2.50-4.71]) and male gender (OR = 1.52 [1.46-1.59]) were independently associated with mortality. For those patients with esophageal trauma, there was an association between trauma severity and mortality (OR = 1.10 [1.07-1.12]) but not for undergoing surgery within the first 24 hours of hospitalization (OR = 0.84; 0.39-1.83). Our study on traumatic injury of the esophagus is in concordance with previous studies demonstrating that this injury is rare but carries considerable morbidity (∼46%) and mortality (∼20%). The injury has a higher morbidity

  2. Elevated Z line: a new sign of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marc S; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Rubesin, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    We describe an elevated Z line as a new radiographic sign of Barrett's esophagus characterized by a transversely oriented, zigzagging, barium-etched line extending completely across the circumference of the midesophagus. An elevated Z line is rarely seen in other patients, so this finding should be highly suggestive of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms. If the patient is a potential candidate for surveillance, endoscopy and biopsy should be performed to confirm the presence of Barrett's esophagus.

  3. The Association between Barrett’s Esophagus and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Lori A.; Nordenstedt, Helena; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Gandhi, Subi; Dick-Onuoha, Sam; Lewis, Anthony; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The effect of Helicobacter pylori on Barrett’s esophagus is poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the existing literature examining the effect that H pylori has on Barrett’s esophagus. Design We performed a comprehensive search to identify studies pertaining to the association between H pylori and Barrett’s esophagus. We conducted meta-regression analyses to identify sources of variation in the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus. Results Our analysis included a total of 49 studies that examined the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus and 7 studies that examined the effect of cag A positivity on Barrett’s esophagus. Overall, H pylori, and even more so cag A, tended to be protective for Barrett’s esophagus in most studies; however there was obvious heterogeneity across studies. The effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus varied by geographic location and in the presence of selection and information biases. Only 4 studies were found without obvious selection and information bias, and these showed a protective effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus (Relative Risk = 0.46 [95% CI: 0.35, 0.60]). Conclusions Estimates for the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus were heterogeneous across studies. We identified selection and information bias as potential sources of this heterogeneity. Few studies without obvious selection and information bias have been conducted to examine the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus, but in these, H pylori infection is associated with a reduced risk of Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:22515353

  4. Predictors of Progression to High-Grade Dysplasia or Adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Matthew J.; Falk, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Article Synopsis The prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing dramatically. Barrett’s esophagus remains the most well established risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. There are multiple clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic factors that increase the risk of neoplastic progression to high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus. This article will review both risk and protective factors for neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:26021196

  5. [Incidence and physiopathology of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus].

    PubMed

    Coriat, Romain; Perkins, Géraldine; Brezault, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a well-known precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Monitoring patients with Barrett's esophagus is recommended for detecting high-grade dysplasia or cancer. Gastroesophageal reflux disease affects approximately 20% of the population in developed countries. About 10-15% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease develop Barrett's esophagus, which can progress to adenocarcinoma. The esophagus is normally lined by squamous mucosa. Therefore, it is clear that for an adenocarcinoma, there is a prior sequence of events that lead to normal squamous mucosa transformation.

  6. Automatic grade classification of Barretts Esophagus through feature enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatwary, Noha; Ahmed, Amr; Ye, Xujiong; Jalab, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Barretts Esophagus (BE) is a precancerous condition that affects the esophagus tube and has the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. BE is the process of developing metaplastic intestinal epithelium and replacing the normal cells in the esophageal area. The detection of BE is considered difficult due to its appearance and properties. The diagnosis is usually done through both endoscopy and biopsy. Recently, Computer Aided Diagnosis systems have been developed to support physicians opinion when facing difficulty in detection/classification in different types of diseases. In this paper, an automatic classification of Barretts Esophagus condition is introduced. The presented method enhances the internal features of a Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) image by utilizing a proposed enhancement filter. This filter depends on fractional differentiation and integration that improve the features in the discrete wavelet transform of an image. Later on, various features are extracted from each enhanced image on different levels for the multi-classification process. Our approach is validated on a dataset that consists of a group of 32 patients with 262 images with different histology grades. The experimental results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed technique. Our method helps clinicians for more accurate classification. This potentially helps to reduce the need for biopsies needed for diagnosis, facilitate the regular monitoring of treatment/development of the patients case and can help train doctors with the new endoscopy technology. The accurate automatic classification is particularly important for the Intestinal Metaplasia (IM) type, which could turn into deadly cancerous. Hence, this work contributes to automatic classification that facilitates early intervention/treatment and decreasing biopsy samples needed.

  7. Motion of the Esophagus Due to Cardiac Motion

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jacob; Yang, Jinzhong; Pan, Tinsu; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-01-01

    When imaging studies (e.g. CT) are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion). The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm) in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle. PMID:24586540

  8. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jacob; Yang, Jinzhong; Pan, Tinsu; Court, Laurence E

    2014-01-01

    When imaging studies (e.g. CT) are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion). The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm) in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  9. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Leiomyosarcoma of the Esophagus, a Rare Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Massimo; Zanasi, Giulio; Vanini, Marco; Camozzi, Mario

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the distal third of the esophagus in a 51-year-old woman presenting with a six-month history of severe epigastric pain, disphagia and weight loss. The diagnosis, suspected on endoscopic examination, was preoperatively acheived by biopsy and immunohistological stain. Surgical treatment was undertaken with good results. Differentiation between leiomyosarcoma and more common esophageal neoplasm may be difficult if based on radiographic and endoscopic appearance. Preoperative histological confirmation is therefore mandatory to schedule a wide surgical excision. PMID:18493479

  10. Endoscopic diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus, a rare neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Ravini, M; Torre, M; Zanasi, G; Vanini, M; Camozzi, M

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the distal third of the esophagus in a 51-year-old woman presenting with a six-month history of severe epigastric pain, disphagia and weight loss. The diagnosis, suspected on endoscopic examination, was preoperatively acheived by biopsy and immunohistological stain. Surgical treatment was undertaken with good results. Differentiation between leiomyosarcoma and more common esophageal neoplasm may be difficult if based on radiographic and endoscopic appearance. Preoperative histological confirmation is therefore mandatory to schedule a wide surgical excision.

  11. Mid-Esophagus Columnar Metaplasia: What Is the Biopathogenic Pathway?

    PubMed

    Rolim, Inês; Rodrigues, Rita Vale; Bettencourt, António; Barros, Rita; Camilo, Vânia; Dias Pereira, António; Almeida, Raquel; Chaves, Paula

    2016-10-05

    We report a case of metaplastic columnar epithelium in the mid-esophagus in a patient with history of caustic ingestion. A cardiac-type gastric phenotype, with early signs of intestinalization, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies (MUC5AC, MUC6, SOX2, and CDX2). Nonmetaplastic mucosa had histologic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux. In this case, esophageal reepithelization seems to have been modulated by acidic gastroesophageal reflux, which might activate transcription factors leading to phenotypic reprogramming of the regenerative epithelium. Most interestingly, it is a clinical example showcasing the origin of columnar metaplasia from stem cells located within the esophageal epithelium.

  12. Color-matched esophagus phantom for fluorescent imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-02-01

    We developed a stable, reproducible three-dimensional optical phantom for the evaluation of a wide-field endoscopic molecular imaging system. This phantom mimicked a human esophagus structure with flexibility to demonstrate body movements. At the same time, realistic visual appearance and diffuse spectral reflectance properties of the tissue were simulated by a color matching methodology. A photostable dye-in-polymer technology was applied to represent biomarker probed "hot-spot" locations. Furthermore, fluorescent target quantification of the phantom was demonstrated using a 1.2mm ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope with concurrent fluorescence-reflectance imaging.

  13. The hypersensitive esophagus: pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Remes-Troche, Jose M

    2010-10-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of esophageal functional disorders such as functional heartburn and chest pain of presumed esophageal origin (noncardiac chest pain). About 80% of patients with unexplained noncardiac chest pain exhibit lower esophageal sensory thresholds when compared to controls during esophageal sensory testing (ie, esophageal barostat, impedance planimetry). Such information has led to prescription of peripherally and/or centrally acting therapies for the management of these patients. This review summarizes and highlights recent and significant findings regarding the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of the hypersensitive esophagus, a central factor in functional esophageal disorders.

  14. Intramural hematoma of the esophagus mimicking hemorrhaging esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Yeng Kwang; Tay, Jia Yin; Dandie, Lachlan; Gribbin, John

    2013-01-01

    Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE) is an uncommon esophageal injury. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion as it can mimic various other cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal or esophageal diseases. Although multiple imaging modalities have been reported to be useful, CT with intravenous contrast should be the imaging modality of choice if not contraindicated. Treatment of IHE is mainly supportive; complete resolution in several weeks is the expected outcome. It is crucial that this condition is recognized and considered in the differential diagnosis of any patients who present with chest pain or dysphagia. PMID:24714326

  15. Mucosal integrity and sensitivity to acid in the proximal esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, Froukje B; Weijenborg, Pim W; van den Bergh Weerman, Marius A; van den Wijngaard, René M J G J; Verheij, J; Smout, André J P M; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    Acid reflux episodes that extend to the proximal esophagus are more likely to be perceived. This suggests that the proximal esophagus is more sensitive to acid than the distal esophagus, which could be caused by impaired mucosal integrity in the proximal esophagus. Our aim was to explore sensitivity to acid and mucosal integrity in different segments of the esophagus. We used a prospective observational study, including 12 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). After stopping acid secretion-inhibiting medication, two procedures were performed: an acid perfusion test and an upper endoscopy with electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and esophageal biopsies. Proximal and distal sensitivity to acid and tissue impedance were measured in vivo, and mucosal permeability and epithelial intercellular spaces at different esophageal levels were measured in vitro. Mean lag time to heartburn perception was much shorter after proximal acid perfusion (0.8 min) than after distal acid perfusion (3.9 min) (P = 0.02). Median in vivo tissue impedance was significantly lower in the distal esophagus (4,563 Ω·m) compared with the proximal esophagus (8,170 Ω·m) (P = 0.002). Transepithelial permeability, as measured by the median fluorescein flux was significantly higher in the distal (2,051 nmol·cm(-2)·h(-1)) than in the proximal segment (368 nmol·cm(-2)·h(-1)) (P = 0.033). Intercellular space ratio and maximum heartburn intensity were not significantly different between the proximal and distal esophagus. In GERD patients off acid secretion-inhibiting medication, acid exposure in the proximal segment of the esophagus provokes symptoms earlier than acid exposure in the distal esophagus, whereas mucosal integrity is impaired more in the distal esophagus. These findings indicate that the enhanced sensitivity to proximal reflux episodes is not explained by increased mucosal permeability. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Barrett esophagus: perspectives on its diagnosis and management in asian populations.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yuji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-01-01

    Barrett esophageal cancer has the fastest growing incidence of any cancer in Western countries. In Asian countries, most cases of esophageal cancer consist of squamous cell carcinomas, not adenocarcinomas. Recently, however, the increase in the number of Barrett esophagus cases with subsequent Barrett cancer has become worrisome in Asian countries, as the number of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease has been increasing in these countries. In this review, recent reports regarding Barrett esophagus in Asian countries have been collected and this problem is discussed from various perspectives. In Asia, long-segment Barrett esophagus is much less prevalent than in Western countries, whereas short-segment Barrett esophagus is frequently found. In epidemiologic studies, evaluation of the prevalence of Barrett esophagus is limited by poor interob-server diagnostic agreement. Standard criteria for the endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett esophagus in Asian patients, especially of the short-segment type, should be established as soon as possible. A high prevalence of hiatal hernia and a decreasing prevalence of Helico-bacter pylori infection may increase the number of Barrett esophagus cases and subsequent Barrett cancer in Asian countries in the near future. Therefore, a strategy for the clinical management of Barrett esophagus in Asian countries should be devised.

  17. Motor and sensory function of the esophagus: revelations through ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2005-04-01

    Catheter based high frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS) imaging is a powerful tool to study esophageal sensory and motor function and dysfunction in vivo in humans. It has provided a number of important insights into the longitudinal muscle function of the esophagus. Based on the ultrasound images and intraluminal pressure recordings, it is clear that there is synchrony in the timing as well as the amplitude of contraction between the circular and the longitudinal muscle layers of the esophagus in normal subjects. On the other hand, in patients with spastic disorders of the esophagus, there is an asynchrony of contraction related to the timing and amplitude of contraction of the two muscle layers during peristalsis. Achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, and nutcracker esophagus (spastic motor disorders of the esophagus) are associated with hypertrophy of the circular as well as longitudinal muscle layers. A sustained contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the esophagus is temporally related to chest pain and heartburn and may very well be the cause of symptoms. Longitudinal muscle function of the esophagus can be studied in vivo in humans using dynamic ultrasound imaging. Longitudinal muscle dysfunction appears to be important in the motor and sensory disorders of the esophagus.

  18. Prevalence of Barrett's esophagus: An observational study from a gastroenterology clinic.

    PubMed

    Herrera Elizondo, J L; Monreal Robles, R; García Compean, D; González Moreno, E I; Borjas Almaguer, O D; Maldonado Garza, H J; González González, J A

    2017-07-04

    Barrett's esophagus is a condition that predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Our aim was to establish the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus at our center, as well as determine its associated factors. We retrospectively assessed the endoscopic reports of 500 outpatients seen at our Gastroenterology Service from November 2014 to April 2016. We determined the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus and analyzed the demographic, clinical, and endoscopic findings associated with that pathology. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus was 1.8%. The mean age of the patients with Barrett's esophagus was 58.7 years (range: 45-70) and there was a predominance of men (66%). In the subgroup of patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (n=125), Barrett's esophagus prevalence was 7.2%. In the multivariate analysis, the factors that were independently associated with Barrett's esophagus were gastroesophageal reflux (P=.005) and hiatal hernia (P=.006). The overall prevalence of Barrett's esophagus was 1.8% in our population, with a prevalence of 7.2% in patients that had symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. [Carcinoma of the esophagus. Palliative treatment with endoscopic prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Sala, T; Pertejo, V; Linares, M; Del Val, A

    1990-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of endoscopically inserted esophageal prosthesis was evaluated in 33 patients with non-operable carcinoma involving the esophagus. In 30 cases, the origin of the tumor was esophageal, and in 3 cases, bronchopulmonary. Esophago-pulmonary fistula was present in 9 patients. Histologic exam of the tumors revealed 11 adenocarcinomas and 22 epidermoid carcinomas. In every case, Atkinson prosthesis was used and previous esophageal dilatation was needed in 21 patients. Normal oral feeding was achieved in 29 patients. Mean hospital stay after insertion of the prosthesis was 5 days. Survival rate was 84.8% at one month, 63.6% at 4-6 months, 42.4% survived more than 6 months, and 21.2% were still alive one year after the procedure. Complications occurred in 3 patients (9%) -esophageal perforation in two cases, and pneumonia in one case. One patient died. In conclusion, in patients with advanced carcinoma involving the esophagus, palliative therapy with endoscopically inserted esophageal prosthesis is effective, relatively safe and cheap.

  20. An immunofluorescent method for characterization of Barrett's esophagus cells.

    PubMed

    Inge, Landon J; Fowler, Aaron J; Bremner, Ross M

    2014-07-20

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has an overall survival rate of less than 17% and incidence of EAC has risen dramatically over the past two decades. One of the primary risk factors of EAC is Barrett's esophagus (BE), a metaplastic change of the normal squamous esophagus in response to chronic heartburn. Despite the well-established connection between EAC and BE, interrogation of the molecular events, particularly altered signaling pathways involving progression of BE to EAC, are poorly understood. Much of this is due to the lack of suitable in vitro models available to study these diseases. Recently, immortalized BE cell lines have become commercially available allowing for in vitro studies of BE. Here, we present a method for immunofluorescent staining of immortalized BE cell lines, allowing in vitro characterization of cell signaling and structure after exposure to therapeutic compounds. Application of these techniques will help develop insight into the mechanisms involved in BE to EAC progression and provide potential avenues for treatment and prevention of EAC.

  1. Current Management of Low-Grade Dysplasia in Barrett Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Low-grade dysplasia in Barrett esophagus remains an ongoing challenge in clinical management. Recent studies suggest an increased risk in progression of low-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia and/or adenocarcinoma. This is especially seen when 1 or more expert gastrointestinal pathologist confirms the diagnosis and in the setting of low-grade dysplasia that persists on more than 1 endoscopy. In the setting of confirmed and persistent low-grade dysplasia, level 1 evidence supports endoscopic ablation as a treatment option for these patients, although continued surveillance remains a viable option. Current management of these patients emphasizes the importance of the following principles: (1) biopsies should not be obtained in the setting of erosive esophagitis; (2) any diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia should be confirmed by a second pathologist with extensive expertise in Barrett esophagus; (3) surveillance endoscopy should be repeated within 3 to 6 months of the initial diagnosis with rigorous visual inspection to exclude higher-level lesions; and (4) the advantages and disadvantages of both endoscopic ablation and continued surveillance should be reviewed with the patient. PMID:28546793

  2. Barrett’s esophagus and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies suggest that obstructive sleep apnea may be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, a strong risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. The goals of this pilot case–control study were to determine whether Barrett’s esophagus patients have an increased likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea and to determine whether nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux symptoms affect the relationship between Barrett’s esophagus and obstructive sleep apnea risk. Methods Patients with Barrett’s esophagus completed the Berlin Questionnaire, a validated survey instrument identifying subjects at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Two outpatient control groups were recruited: 1) EGD Group, subjects matched to Barrett’s esophagus cases by age, race, and gender with esophagogastroduodenoscopy negative for Barrett’s esophagus; and 2) Colonoscopy Group, patients getting colonoscopy. Rates of scoring at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea were compared. Respondents were also questioned regarding severity of their typical gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and presence of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Results The study included 287 patients (54 Barrett’s esophagus, 62 EGD, and 171 colonoscopy subjects). Barrett’s esophagus patients were slightly older than colonoscopy patients and more obese. 56% (n = 30) of Barrett’s esophagus subjects scored at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea, compared with 42% (n = 26) of EGD subjects (OR 1.73, 95% CI [0.83, 3.62]) and 37% (n = 64) of colonoscopy patients (OR 2.08, 95% CI [1.12, 3.88]). The association between Barrett’s esophagus and scoring at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea compared with colonoscopy patients disappeared after adjusting for age. Barrett’s esophagus patients reported more severe typical heartburn and regurgitation symptoms than either control group. Among all subjects, patients with nocturnal reflux symptoms were more likely to score at high risk for obstructive

  3. Distension-evoked motility analysis in human esophagus.

    PubMed

    Liao, D; Villadsen, G E; Gregersen, H

    2013-05-01

    The major function of the esophagus is to transport food from the mouth to the stomach by peristaltic muscle action. However, only few techniques exist for detailed evaluation of motor activity of the esophagus in vivo. The aim of this study is to use distension combined with manometry and impedance planimetry [pressure-cross-sectional area (P-CSA) recordings] to assess esophageal peristaltic motor function in terms of the mechanical energy output, and to examine the change in the motor activity of the esophagus in response to butylscopolamine, an anticholinergic drug known to impair the smooth muscle contraction in the gastrointestinal tract. The probe with CSA measurements was positioned 7 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter in 16 healthy volunteers before and during butylscopolamine administration. Distension-evoked esophageal peristalsis was analyzed using P-CSA data during distension up to pressures of 5 kPa. The P-CSA, work output (area of the tension-CSA curves), and propulsive tension were analyzed. The wave-like peristalsis resulted in P-CSA loops consisting of relaxation and contraction phases. The work increased with the distension pressure (from 1311 ± 198 to 16 330 ± 1845 μJ before butylscopolamine vs from 2615 ± 756 to 11 404 ± 1335 μJ during butylscopolamine administration), and propulsive tension increased from 18.7 ± 1.9 to 88.5 ± 5.5 N m(-1) before the drug and from 23.1 ± 3.9 to 79.5 ± 3.3 N m(-1) during butylscopolamine administration). Significantly, lower values were found during butylscopolamine administration compared with the distension before using the drug (P < 0.01). Esophageal muscle properties during peristalsis can be assessed in vivo in terms of mechanical energy output parameters. Butylscopolamine impaired muscle contraction which could be detected as altered contraction parameters. The analysis can be further used as an adjunct tool of the combined manometry and impedance planimetry recordings to derive advanced

  4. Barrett's Esophagus Methylation Profiles — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    We propose a nested case-control study of biomarkers in the setting of BE. By bringing together research institutions with large populations of patients with BE, we will perform a multi-center study of FISH and hypermethylation markers as possible prognostic factors in BE. The centers will select from their cohorts who have progressed to HGD or to adenocarcinoma of the esophagus ("progressors"), and who also donated samples prior to the development of cancer, when their histology was felt to be benign. These subjects will be compared to individuals who have been under endoscopic surveillance, but who have not progressed to HGD or EAC ("non-progressors"). Using this approach, we hope to identify promising markers for risk stratification in BE. We expect to be able to make successful application for a prospective study of markers identified in this case-control study.

  5. [Transmediastinal esophagectomy without thoracotomy in cancer of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Huamán, M; Santibañez, G; Ayala, L; Jáuregui, F; Madalengoitia, G

    1990-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1990 twenty report cases who suffered carcinoma of the esophagus underwent transmediastinal esophagectomy without thoracotomy at the Surgery Service of the Edgardo Rehabilitation Hospital. Of the report cases 90% were at stage III, 5% of stage II and 5% at stage I of the TNM Classification. Post operative complications were cervical leaks, transitory dysphonia and respiratory illness, and were solved by conservative management. Only one case died with sepsis and mediastinitis, this represents an inpatient mortality of 5%. There were no hemorrhagic complications, nor chylothorax neither visceral necrosis during surgical time. Transmediastinal esophagectomy offers a good choice for the management of surgical cases, it has low mortality, morbidity and similar survival time than other procedures.

  6. Barrett's Esophagus: A Review of Biology and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Davila, Marta; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, esophageal cancer remains a highly lethal disease. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen faster than that of any other cancer in the western world, and Barrett's esophagus (BE) may be a significant contributing factor. In-depth knowledge of biology of cancer progression and cancer could lead to the identification of biomarkers that are the hallmark of BE's progression. By integrating validated biomarkers of progression into clinical practice, there is a possibility of identifying high-risk patient population for targeted surveillance, and such biomarkers may serve as novel therapeutic targets for chemoprevention and therapy. Clinical management of BE has improved considerably due to the improvements in endoscopic resection and ablation techniques. We discuss the current status of biology and therapeutic approaches to BE. PMID:22690258

  7. Turning Skyscrapers into Town Houses: Insights into Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Theresa D; Lutz, Lisa; Lassmann, Silke; Werner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium with multiple cell layers into a single layer of intestinal columnar epithelial cells - or, in other words, skyscrapers are turned into town houses. The underlying pathomechanism(s) and the cell of origin of BE lesions have not been defined yet. However, four potential hypotheses for BE development have been suggested. The morphological changes during BE development are associated with rather well-described aberrant gene/protein expression patterns. However, the potential key regulators of this conversion process are still unclear. The process of metaplastic conversion is difficult to monitor in a spatiotemporal manner in vitro, and robust models are lacking. There is therefore a need for novel experimental systems. This review focuses on potential key regulators, microenvironmental influences, epigenetic alterations and experimental research systems related to BE.

  8. Outcomes of Radiofrequency Ablation for Dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Iabichino, Giuseppe; Arena, Monica; Consolo, Pierluigi; Morace, Carmela; Opocher, Enrico; Mangiavillano, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which the normal squamous lining of the esophagus has been replaced by columnar epithelium containing intestinal metaplasia induced by recurrent mucosal injury related to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition that can progress through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Multiple endoscopic ablative techniques have been developed with the goal of eradicating Barrett's esophagus and preventing neoplastic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. For patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal neoplasia, radiofrequency ablation with or without endoscopic resection for visible lesions is currently the most effective and safe treatment available. Recent data demonstrate that, in patients with Barrett's esophagus and low-grade dysplasia confirmed by a second pathologist, ablative therapy results in a statistically significant reduction in progression to high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Treatment of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus with radiofrequency ablation results in complete eradication of both dysplasia and of intestinal metaplasia in a high proportion of patients with a low incidence of adverse events. A high proportion of treated patients maintain the neosquamous epithelium after successful treatment without recurrence of intestinal metaplasia. Following successful endoscopic treatment, endoscopic surveillance should be continued to detect any recurrent intestinal metaplasia and/or dysplasia. This paper reviews all relevant publications on the endoscopic management of Barrett's esophagus using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:28070182

  9. Polypoid Dysplasia in Barrett's Esophagus: Diagnosis, Management, and Very Different Outcomes in Two Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Megan; Gandhi, Kunjal; Infantolino, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background. Barrett's esophagus is associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus is a precursor to adenocarcinoma. Rarely, dysplastic polypoid lesions are superimposed on Barrett's esophagus. Most reported cases of polypoid dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus have been advanced on presentation and treated with esophagectomy. We describe two cases of polypoid changes in Barrett's esophagus and treatment with polypectomy followed by radiofrequency ablation. Cases. A 75 yo male presented with esophageal polyps, which on biopsy showed gastric cardia/foveolar mucosa with focal intestinal metaplasia without dysplasia. Biopsy of intervening flat mucosa was consistent with nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Extensive hot snare polypectomies were performed followed by RFA. One year later, repeat EGD revealed no evidence of Barrett's esophagus. A 61 yo male presented with esophageal polyps, which on biopsy showed gastric cardia/foveolar mucosa with intestinal metaplasia and foci of low-grade dysplasia. Extensive hot snare polypectomies were performed followed by RFA. At repeat EGD, four months later, an esophageal mass was found. Biopsy of the mass showed invasive adenocarcinoma. The patient was referred for esophagectomy. Conclusion. This case series shows two outcomes, one with successful eradication of dysplasia and the other with disease progression to invasive adenocarcinoma requiring esophagectomy. PMID:27999692

  10. Potential of non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weisheng; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Buhong; Chen, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was presented. Urine SERS spectra were measured on esophagus cancer patients (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) for control analysis. Tentative assignments of the urine SERS spectra indicated some interesting esophagus cancer-specific biomolecular changes, including a decrease in the relative content of urea and an increase in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of esophagus cancer patients compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and differentiate the SERS spectra between normal and esophagus cancer urine. The diagnostic algorithms utilizing a multivariate analysis method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 83.3% for separating esophagus cancer samples from normal urine samples. These results from the explorative work suggested that silver nano particle-based urine SERS analysis coupled with PCA-LDA multivariate analysis has potential for non-invasive detection of esophagus cancer.

  11. Longitudinal muscle of the esophagus: its role in esophageal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2013-07-01

    The muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. The function of the longitudinal muscle and its role in bolus propulsion are not clear. The goal of this review is to summarize what is known of the role of the longitudinal muscle in health, as well as in sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging reveal that, during peristalsis, the two muscle layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the contrary, during transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, longitudinal muscle contracts independent of the circular muscle. Recent studies have provided novel insights into the role of the longitudinal muscle in LES relaxation and descending relaxation of the esophagus. In certain diseases (e.g. some motility disorders of the esophagus), there is discoordination between the two muscle layers, which likely plays an important role in the genesis of dysphagia and delayed esophageal emptying. There is close temporal correlation between prolonged contractions of the longitudinal muscles of the esophagus and esophageal 'angina-like' pain. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are reviewed. Longitudinal muscles of the esophagus play a key role in the physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Neuro-pharmacologic controls of circular and longitudinal muscle are different, which provides an opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies in the treatment of esophageal sensory and motor disorders.

  12. Transduction sites of vagal mechanoreceptors in the guinea pig esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnyuk, V P; Brookes, S J

    2000-08-15

    Extrinsic afferent neurons play an essential role in both sensation and reflex control of visceral organs, but their specialized morphological peripheral endings have never been functionally identified. Extracellular recordings were made from fine nerve trunks running between the vagus nerve and esophagus of the guinea pig. Mechanoreceptors, which responded to esophageal distension, fired spontaneously, had low thresholds to circumferential stretch, and were slowly adapting. Calibrated von Frey hairs (0.12 mN) were used to probe the serosal surface at 100-200 sites, which were mapped on a video image of the live preparation. Each stretch-sensitive unit had one to three highly localized receptive fields ("hot spots"), which were marked with Indian ink applied on the tip of the von Frey hair. Recorded nerve trunks were then filled anterogradely, using biotinamide in an artificial intracellular solution. Receptive fields were consistently associated with intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) in myenteric ganglia, but not with other filled neuronal structures. The average distance of receptive fields to IGLEs was 73 +/- 14 microm (24 receptive fields, from 12 units; n = 5), compared to 374 +/- 17 microm for 240 randomly generated sites (n = 5; p < 0.001). After maintained probing on a single receptive field, spontaneous discharge of units was inhibited, as were responses to distension. During adapted discharge to maintained distension, interspike intervals were distributed in a narrow range. This indicates that multiple receptive fields interact to encode mechanical distortion in a graded manner. IGLEs are specialized transduction sites of mechanosensitive vagal afferent neurons in the guinea pig esophagus.

  13. [Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer].

    PubMed

    Lamônica-Garcia, Vânia Cristina; Marin, Flávia Andréa; Lerco, Mauro Masson; Moreto, Fernando; Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho Arruda; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old) and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old) were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts), general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases) and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50) and survival (r = 0.81). Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins) of these patients.

  14. A two-layered mechanical model of the rat esophagus. Experiment and theory

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yanhua; Gregersen, Hans; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2004-01-01

    Background The function of esophagus is to move food by peristaltic motion which is the result of the interaction of the tissue forces in the esophageal wall and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus. The structure of the esophagus is layered. In this paper, the esophagus is treated as a two-layered structure consisting of an inner collagen-rich submucosa layer and an outer muscle layer. We developed a model and experimental setup for determination of elastic moduli in the two layers in circumferential direction and related the measured elastic modulus of the intact esophagus to the elastic modulus computed from the elastic moduli of the two layers. Methods Inflation experiments were done at in vivo length and pressure-diameters relations were recorded for the rat esophagus. Furthermore, the zero-stress state was taken into consideration. Results The radius and the strain increased as function of pressure in the intact as well as in the individual layers of the esophagus. At pressures higher than 1.5 cmH2O the muscle layer had a larger radius and strain than the mucosa-submucosa layer. The strain for the intact esophagus and for the muscle layer was negative at low pressures indicating the presence of residual strains in the tissue. The stress-strain curve for the submucosa-mucosa layer was shifted to the left of the curves for the muscle layer and for the intact esophagus at strains higher than 0.3. The tangent modulus was highest in the submucosa-mucosa layer, indicating that the submucosa-mucosa has the highest stiffness. A good agreement was found between the measured elastic modulus of the intact esophagus and the elastic modulus computed from the elastic moduli of the two separated layers. PMID:15518591

  15. 8-gene Panel for Barrett's Esophagus — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Eight methylation biomarkers - p16, RUNX3, HPP1 (HGNC name TMEFF2), NELL1, TAC1, SST, AKAP12 and CDH13 - were tested in a restrospective multicenter double-blinded validation study for their accuracy in predicting neoplastic progression in Barrett's Esophagus. Hypermethylation of p16, RUNX3 and HPP1 has been show to occur in early Barrett's Esophagus-related neoplastic progression and predicts progression risk. Several of the panel (NELL1, TAC1, SST, AKAP12 and CDH13) were also shown to be methylated early and often in Barrett's Esophagus-related neoplastic progression.

  16. Potential Role of the Microbiome in Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Snider, Erik J; Freedberg, Daniel E; Abrams, Julian A

    2016-08-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor Barrett's esophagus have been rapidly increasing in incidence for half a century, for reasons not adequately explained by currently identified risk factors such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity. The upper gastrointestinal microbiome may represent another potential cofactor. The distal esophagus has a distinct microbiome of predominantly oral-derived flora, which is altered in Barrett's esophagus and reflux esophagitis. Chronic low-grade inflammation or direct carcinogenesis from this altered microbiome may combine with known risk factors to promote Barrett's metaplasia and progression to adenocarcinoma.

  17. History, Molecular Mechanisms, and Endoscopic Treatment of Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Spechler, Stuart Jon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.; Prasad, Ganapathy A.; Wang, Kenneth K.

    2010-01-01

    This report is written as an adjunct to the American Gastroenterological Association Institute’s medical position statement and technical review on the management of Barrett’s esophagus, which will be published in the near future. Those documents will consider a number of broad questions on the diagnosis, clinical features, and management of patients with Barrett’s esophagus, and the reader is referred to the technical review for an in-depth discussion of those topics. In this report, we review historical, molecular, and endoscopic therapeutic aspects of Barrett’s esophagus that are of interest to clinicians and researchers. PMID:20080098

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Esophagus with Pulmonary Metastasis in a Backyard Laying Hen.

    PubMed

    Laura, Nordio; Marta, Vascellari; Giacomo, Berto; Luca, Bano

    2016-09-01

    A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation. The diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with the uncommon feature of pulmonary metastasis.

  19. [Foreign body in the esophagus as a cause of respiratory symptoms in children. Clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Rodríguez, Verónica; Doormann, Flavia; Bellia Munzón, Patricio; Bellia Munzón, Gastón

    2017-04-01

    Foreign bodies in esophagus are avoidable accidents that occur most often in children younger than 3 years. The most common presenting symptoms are dysphagia, drooling and vomiting. Occasionally a foreign body in the esophagus may present with respiratory symptoms such as cough, stridor and respiratory distress. This is more common in young children and when the object remains lodged in the esophagus for a prolonged period. Clinical suspicion is essential for early diagnosis, which allows to avoid potential complications. We describe 3 children with a foreign body impacted in the esophagus who presented mainly respiratory symptoms. We alert pediatricians on symptomatic variation in the presentation of a foreign body ingestion and we underline the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Regeneration of Surgically Excised Segments of Dog Esophagus using Biodegradable PLA Hollow Organ Grafts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    received no further dilations (over seven months). Endoscopic examination showed that no esophageal constric- tions were present and that the epithelium of...7 AG 396 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC FIG 6/5 REGENERATION OF SURGICALLY EXCISED SEGMENTS OF DOG ESOPHAGUS US-ETC(W) U15 G’OE UN8 N F...which will yield effective long-term functional results. The current therapy for repair and replacement of the diseased or avulsed esophagus is by the

  1. [Whole esophagus deep burns with a metal foreign body in the stomach: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Xiao, Nengkan; Xie, Hanqiu; Tang, Zhongming

    2014-04-01

    Whole esophagus deep burn is an extremely rare upper gastrointestinal tract disease. We report a case of severe burns of involving extensive body skin, eyes, throat, and esophagus. Endoscopic examination revealed acute necrotizing esophagitis and detected a metal foreign body in the stomach. The patient underwent burn wound debridement with analgesia, anti-shock rehydration, anti-infection, and symptomatic treatments, which failed to improve the conditions. The patient died of respiratory and circulatory failure secondary to serious sepsis.

  2. [Prospects for improving the management tactics for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease complicated by Barrett's esophagus].

    PubMed

    Maev, I V; Trukhmanov, A S

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the new principles relative to adequate diagnosis, management tactics, and rational treatment regimens in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) complicated by the development of Barrett's esophagus. The paper contains up-to-date, mainly original information on the pathological physiology, clinical picture, and principles of diagnosis of this form of GERD. It outlines data on approaches to the early diagnosis and prevention of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus, by taking into account recent advances in pharmacotherapy.

  3. [Characteristics of motility function of the esophagus in patients with aphagia].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, T P; Abakumov, M M; Kvardakova, O V; Avdiunina, I A

    2010-01-01

    In article is shown the results of investigation of motility function of esophagus in 18 patients with pharyngoesophageal obstruction. 16 patients were operated. The essence of method was in simultaneous registration of UES intracavitary pressure and impedance. We discovered that all patients have both not opening of for the swallow and disturbances of sphincteral function of LES and contractive activity of thoracic esophagus. Dynamic of this parameters in 7 operated patients was monitored. Obtained data were analyzed according to clinical results of surgery.

  4. Toll-like Receptor 2 Signalling and the Lysosomal Machinery in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Romy E; Siersema, Peter D; Vleggaar, Frank P; Ten Kate, Fiebo J; Posthuma, George; Souza, Rhonda F; de Haan, Judith; van Baal, Jantine W P M

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its metaplastic precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 signalling and lysosomal function have been linked to inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. We examined the expression of TLR2 in the esophagus and the effect of long-term TLR2 activation on morphological changes and expression of factors involved in lysosomal function in a Barrett's esophagus epithelium cell line. TLR2 expression in normal squamous esophagus, reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma biopsies was assessed with Q-RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Barrett's esophagus epithelium cells (BAR-T) were incubated with acid and bile salts in the presence or absence of the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 for a period up to 4 weeks. Morphological changes were assessed with electron microscopy, while Q-RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of lysosomal enzymes (Cathepsin B and C) and factors involved in endocytosis (LAMP-1 and M6PR) and autophagy (LC3 and Rab7). TLR2 was expressed in normal squamous esophagus, reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus but was most prominent in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Long-term TLR2 activation in acid and bile salts exposed BAR-T cells resulted in more and larger lysosomes, more mitochondria and increased expression of LAMP-1, M6PR, Cathepsin B and C when compared to BAR-T cells incubated with acid and bile salts but no TLR2 agonist. Factors associated with autophagy (LC3 and Rab7) expression remained largely unchanged. Activation of TLR2 in acid and bile salts exposed Barrett epithelium cells resulted in an increased number of mitochondria and lysosomes and increased expression of lysosomal enzymes and factors involved in endocytosis.

  5. Barrett's esophagus in the patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Gatalica, Zoran; Chen, Mingkui; Snyder, Carrie; Mittal, Sumeet; Lynch, Henry T

    2014-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germ line mutations in the APC gene. Barrett's esophagus (BE) and Barrett's adenocarcinoma are intestinal type lesions of the esophagus characterized by an early loss of heterozygosity at the APC locus. We hypothesized that patients with FAP are at risk for the early development of BE due to the inherited mutations in the APC gene (haploinsufficiency). Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract biopsies from 36 patients with FAP were reviewed to determine the incidence and characteristics of BE in these patients. Twenty-four patients were confirmed carriers of a deleterious germline APC mutation. The other 12 patients were from FAP families with known APC gene mutations and had clinical manifestations of FAP. The control group consisted of patients who did not have a personal or family history of FAP undergoing UGI endoscopic examination in our institution over a 30 month period of time. The difference in expression of Wnt pathway proteins (APC, β-catenin, E-cadherin and cyclin D1) in BE between BE(+)/FAP(+), BE(-)/FAP(+) and age-matched BE(+)/FAP(-) groups was studied using immunohistochemistry. BE was found in 6 of 36 (6/36 or 16%) patients with FAP and in 266 of 1662 patients (16%) in the control group of symptomatic patients. The average age at the first diagnosis of BE in FAP patients was 37.8 versus 57.5 years in the control group (sporadic BE). When compared to age matched BE(+)/FAP- group (7/334), patients with FAP had a significantly (p = 0.005843, odds ratio 9.2; Fisher exact test) higher incidence of BE. Both classic FAP and attenuated FAP phenotypes were associated with BE .Two types of germ line mutations in APC gene were identified in BE(+)/FAP(+) patients: Five patients had 2-base deletion in exon 4 (426delAT) and one patient had 4-base deletion in exon 15 (3202del4). No difference in Wnt signaling pathway proteins expression was detected between BE(+)/FAP(+) and the age matched group of patients with

  6. Molecular mechanism of KCl-induced relaxation of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yaktubay Döndaş, Naciye; Karataş, Yusuf; Kaya, Derya; Soylu, Neslihan; Singirik, Ergin; Baysal, Firuz

    2009-03-01

    KCl (40 mM) caused reproducible relaxations in frog esophagus. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 1-100 microM), a steriospecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), completely inhibited the relaxations induced by KCl but not those induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antagonist. The inhibitory effect of L-NOARG was prevented by L-arginine (L-ARG; 0.1-1 mM), the precursor of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis, but not by D-arginine (D-ARG; 0.1-0.5 mM), the enantiomer of L-arginine. L-ARG or D-ARG alone did not significantly modify the effect of KCl. The relaxations to KCl were significantly inhibited by omega conotoxin (omega-conotoxin; 0.1 microM), a selective blocker of N-type calcium channels. Propranolol (0.1-1 microM), a nonselective blocker of beta-adrenergic receptors, prazosine (0.01-0.1 microM), a selective blocker of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors, phentolamine (0.1-1 microM), a nonselective blocker of adrenergic receptors, atropine, a selective blocker of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, and lidocaine (1-10 microM), a blocker of sodium channels, had no effect on KCl-evoked relaxations. Caffeine (500 microM), an intracellular calcium releasing agent, did not significantly modify the effect of KCl. In contrast, ruthenium red (100 microM), a selective blocker of ryanodine receptors (intracellular Ca(2+) channels), significantly inhibited these relaxations. Similarly, potassium channel blockers such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 100 microM) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 100 microM) caused a significant inhibition on relaxations to KCl. In addition, ouabain (100 microM), a specific blocker of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, also caused a significant inhibition on these relaxations. The results suggest that NO, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and potassium channels may have a role on relaxations induced by 40 mM KCl in the frog esophagus.

  7. From reflux esophagitis to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in the human population. Almost all cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma are derived from Barrett’s esophagus, which is a complication of esophageal adenocarcinoma precancerous lesions. Chronic exposure of the esophagus to gastroduodenal intestinal fluid is an important determinant factor in the development of Barrett’s esophagus. The replacement of normal squamous epithelium with specific columnar epithelium in the lower esophagus induced by the chronic exposure to gastroduodenal fluid could lead to intestinal metaplasia, which is closely associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the exact mechanism of injury is not completely understood. Various animal models of the developmental mechanisms of disease, and theoretical and clinical effects of drug treatment have been widely used in research. Recently, animal models employed in studies on gastroesophageal reflux injury have allowed significant progress. The advantage of using animal models lies in the ability to accurately control the experimental conditions for better evaluation of results. In this article, various modeling methods are reviewed, with discussion of the major findings on the developmental mechanism of Barrett’s esophagus, which should help to develop better prevention and treatment strategies for Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25954094

  8. Mucous Gland Metaplasia in the Esophagus and Gastric Mucosa in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carlos A.; Owston, Michael; Orrego, Abiel; Nilsson, Robert; Löfdahl, Hedwig; Nesi, Gabriella; Dick, Edwards J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chewing of regurgitated food elicits in baboons life-long gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The acid reflux transforms the multilayered squamous cell epithelium of the esophagus into columnar-lined mucosa with mucus-producing accessory glands. The function of this mucous gland metaplasia (MGM), which mimics Barrett’s mucosa with MGM in humans, is to buffer the gastric acid entering the esophagus during regurgitation. In a previous study of entire esophagi, the majority of baboons showed MGM. The gastric mucosa was not investigated. Materials and Methods Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections from the esophagus, from the lesser gastric curvature and from the greater gastric curvature were collected separately from 50 adult baboons. The presence of MGM was assessed in each one of these locations. Results MGM was demonstrated in 92% (46/50) of blocks from the esophagus, in 98% (49/50) of blocks from the lesser curvature and in 90% (45/50) of those of the greater curvature (fundus). Conclusion The majority of the animals had MGM, not only in the esophagus but also in the proximal gastric mucosa. Rationally, MGM in baboons starts in the distal esophagus and proceeds downwards, towards the proximal stomach. The histogenesis of the MGM in Barrett’s mucosa in humans (that is Barrett’s mucosa type 2) remains elusive. Therefore the baboon might be an important animal model for studying the histogenesis of Barrett’s mucosa with MGM in humans, a recognized pre-cancerous lesion. PMID:21737639

  9. Swallowing performance after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, I.C.; Tiver, K.; Bull, C.; Gebski, V.; Langlands, A.O.

    1988-05-15

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to tabulate the incidence and etiologic factors of importance in the development of strictures after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus and to analyze the outcome of patients who develop such strictures. Eighty patients were treated with radiotherapy, 50 having radical and 30 having palliative treatment. Sixty-nine patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had adenocarcinoma, one had sarcoma, one had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and five had undifferentiated tumors. Forty percent developed no stricture, 30% had benign fibrotic stricture, and 28% developed malignant stricture. The etiologic factors analysed included age, pretreatment swallowing score, histology and length (size) of tumor; stage of disease, dose of radiotherapy, and use of chemotherapy. None of these factors were shown to be of etiologic importance. The survival of patients who developed benign strictures was found to be significantly longer (1-year survival 88%) than those who developed no stricture (50%) or malignant stricture (19%). Using a success score for palliation of dysphagia, it was found that the majority of patients (71%) who developed a benign stricture had a moderately successful outcome--they were able to tolerate a full or soft diet and required dilatation with a median duration between dilatations of 5 months. Patients who developed a malignant stricture were palliated poorly by dilatation alone, and most required esophageal intubation.

  10. Epidemiology of Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Thomas M.; Abrams, Julian A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a common condition, and is the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, a disease with increasing burden in the western world, especially in Caucasian males. The incidence of BE increased dramatically during the late-20th century and incidence estimates continue to increase, with a prominent male:female ratio. The prevalence is between 0.5 – 2.0 percent. A number of anthropomorphic and behavioral risk factors exist for BE including obesity and tobacco smoking, but GERD is the strongest risk factor, and the risk is more pronounced with long-standing GERD. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most common form of esophageal cancer in the U.S. Risk factors include GERD, tobacco smoking, and obesity, while NSAIDs and statins may be protective. A major factor predicting progression from non-dysplastic BE to EAC is the presence of dysplastic changes seen on esophageal histology, although a number of issues limit the utility of dysplasia as a marker for disease. Length of the involved BE segment is another risk for progression to high-grade dysplasia and cancer. Biomarkers have shown promise, but none are approved for clinical use. PMID:26021191

  11. Effects of telomerase expression on photodynamic therapy of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kenneth K.; Anderson, Marlys; Buttar, Navtej; WongKeeSong, Louis-Michel; Borkenhagen, Lynn; Lutzke, Lori

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been applied to Barrett's esophagus and has been shown in prospective randomized studies to eliminate dysplasia as well as decrease the occurrence of cancer. However, the therapy isnot always effective and there are issues with residual areas of Barrett's mucosa despite therapy. There has not been a good explanation for these residual areas and they seem to imply that there may exist a biological mechanisms by which these cells may be resistant to photodynamic therapy. It was our aim to determine if known abnormalities in Barrett's mucosa could be correlated with the lack of response of some of these tissues. We examined the tissue from mulitpel patients who had resonse to therapy as well as those who did not respond. We assessed the tissue for p53 mutations, inactivatino of p16, ploidy status, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, and degree of dysplasia. Interestingly, the only genetic marker than was found to be correlated with lack of reonse was p53 and telomerase activity. This suggests that cells that have lost mechanisms for cell death such as apoptosis or telomere shortengin may be more resistant to photodynamic therapy. In this study, we examined patients before and after PDT for telomerase activity.

  12. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy: Improving neoplasia detection in Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Chedgy, Fergus J Q; Subramaniam, Sharmila; Kandiah, Kesavan; Thayalasekaran, Sreedhari; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an important condition given its significant premalignant potential and dismal five-year survival outcomes of advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is therefore suggested that patients with a diagnosis of BE undergo regular surveillance in order to pick up dysplasia at an earlier stage to improve survival. Current “gold-standard” surveillance protocols suggest targeted biopsy of visible lesions followed by four quadrant random biopsies every 2 cm. However, this method of Barrett’s surveillance is fraught with poor endoscopist compliance as the procedures are time consuming and poorly tolerated by patients. There are also significant miss-rates with this technique for the detection of neoplasia as only 13% of early neoplastic lesions appear as visible nodules. Despite improvements in endoscope resolution these problems persist. Chromoendoscopy is an extremely useful adjunct to enhance mucosal visualization and characterization of Barrett’s mucosa. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy (AAC) is a simple, non-proprietary technique that can significantly improve neoplasia detection rates. This topic highlight summarizes the current evidence base behind AAC for the detection of neoplasia in BE and provides an insight into the direction of travel for further research in this area. PMID:27433088

  13. Carcinogenesis of Barrett's esophagus: a review of the clinical literature.

    PubMed

    Watari, Jiro; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto

    2013-12-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although the incidence of BE has risen rapidly in the West, it is rare in Asia despite a recent increase in the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Controversies over the definition of BE are presented because most cases show short-segment BE, especially ultra-short BE, in Asia. Here we review possible risk factors for the development of EAC, particularly possible roles of ethnicity, specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM), BE length, and environmental factors, such as Helicobacter pylori infection and obesity. Additionally, we summarize recent studies on the effect of chemoprevention including proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin in order to reduce the risk of neoplastic progression in BE patients. Although substantial knowledge of risk factors of dysplasia/EAC in BE is shown, the risk for neoplastic development may be influenced by geographic variation, study population, the presence or absence of SIM or dysplasia at baseline, and the small number of BE patients investigated. Recently, the efficiency of surveillance for BE patients has been discussed from the standpoint of cost-effectiveness. It may be too difficult to draw conclusions because no randomized clinical trials of BE surveillance have been performed.

  14. Three-dimensional photoacoustic endoscopic imaging of the rabbit esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joon Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Yao, Junjie; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    We report photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic images of two intact rabbit esophagi. To investigate the esophageal lumen structure and microvasculature, we performed in vivo and ex vivo imaging studies using a 3.8-mm diameter photoacoustic endoscope and correlated the images with histology. Several interesting anatomic structures were newly found in both the in vivo and ex vivo images, which demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this endoscopic imaging modality. In the ex vivo imaging experiment, we acquired high-resolution motion-artifact-free three-dimensional photoacoustic images of the vasculatures distributed in the walls of the esophagi and extending to the neighboring mediastinal regions. Blood vessels with apparent diameters as small as 190 μm were resolved. Moreover, by taking advantage of the dual-mode high-resolution photoacoustic and ultrasound endoscopy, we could better identify and characterize the anatomic structures of the esophageal lumen, such as the mucosal and submucosal layers in the esophageal wall, and an esophageal branch of the thoracic aorta. In this paper, we present the first photoacoustic images showing the vasculature of a vertebrate esophagus and discuss the potential clinical applications and future development of photoacoustic endoscopy.

  15. The phrenic ampulla: distal esophagus or potential hiatal hernia?

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Brasseur, J G; Pouderoux, P; Kahrilas, P J

    1995-02-01

    The mechanics of phrenic ampullary emptying were analyzed to determine whether this structure functions in a manner similar to the tubular esophagus or a hiatal hernia. Simultaneous videofluoroscopy and intraluminal manometry of the gastroesophageal junction were done during barium swallows in 18 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was studied without any external influences, during abdominal compression with a cuff inflated to 100 mmHg, during a Müller maneuver, and after medication with atropine. The key finding of the study was that ampullary emptying was distinct from esophageal bolus transport in several ways: the propagation velocity of the clearing wave was slower, the maximal contact pressures achieved after luminal closure were lower and unaffected by atropine or outflow obstruction, and ampulary emptying was driven by a hydrostatic pressure difference between the ampulla and stomach rather than by a peristaltic contraction. Increased bolus volume slightly enlarged the ampulla. Taken together, these findings suggest that ampullary emptying occurs, in part, as a result of the restoration of esophageal length (presumably by tension from the phrenoesophageal membrane) rather than as a result of an aborally propagated contraction. As such, a normal phrenic ampulla is analogous to a small reducing hiatal hernia. We speculate that overt hernia formation occurs as a result of progressive degeneration of the phrenoesophageal membrane.

  16. The Prevalence of Barrett Esophagus Diagnosed in the Second Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Suna, Nuretdin; Parlak, Erkan; Kuzu, Ufuk Baris; Yildiz, Hakan; Koksal, Aydin Seref; Oztas, Erkin; Sirtas, Zeliha; Yuksel, Mahmut; Aydinli, Onur; Bilge, Zulfikar; Taskiran, Ismail; Sasmaz, Nurgul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At present, we do not know the exact prevalence of Barrett esophagus (BE) developing later in patients without BE in their first endoscopic screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BE on the second endoscopic examination of patients who had no BE in their first endoscopic examination. The data of the patients older than 18 years who had undergone upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy more than once at the endoscopy unit of our clinic during the last 6 years were retrospectively analyzed. During the last 6 years, 44,936 patients had undergone at least one endoscopic examination. Among these patients, 2701 patients who had more than one endoscopic screening were included in the study. Of the patients, 1276 (47.3%) were females and 1425 (52.7%) were males, with an average age of 54.9 (18–94) years. BE was diagnosed in 18 (0.66%) of the patients who had no BE in the initial endoscopic examination. The patients with BE had reflux symptoms in their medical history and in both endoscopies, they revealed a higher prevalence of lower esophageal sphincter laxity, hiatal hernia, and reflux esophagitis when compared to patients without BE (P < 0.001). Our study showed that in patients receiving no diagnosis of BE on their first endoscopic examination performed for any reason, the prevalence of BE on their second endoscopy within 6 years was very low (0.66%). PMID:27057907

  17. Barrett’s esophagus in 2016: From pathophysiology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Russo, Salvatore; Bertani, Lorenzo; Furnari, Manuele; Mokrowiecka, Anna; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo; Marchi, Santino

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal complications caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus (BE). BE is a premalignant condition with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The carcinogenic sequence may progress through several steps, from normal esophageal mucosa through BE to EAC. A recent advent of functional esophageal testing (particularly multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring) has helped to improve our knowledge about GERD pathophysiology, including its complications. Those findings (when properly confirmed) might help to predict BE neoplastic progression. Over the last few decades, the incidence of EAC has continued to rise in Western populations. However, only a minority of BE patients develop EAC, opening the debate regarding the cost-effectiveness of current screening/surveillance strategies. Thus, major efforts in clinical and research practice are focused on new methods for optimal risk assessment that can stratify BE patients at low or high risk of developing EAC, which should improve the cost effectiveness of screening/surveillance programs and consequently significantly affect health-care costs. Furthermore, the area of BE therapeutic management is rapidly evolving. Endoscopic eradication therapies have been shown to be effective, and new therapeutic options for BE and EAC have emerged. The aim of the present review article is to highlight the status of screening/surveillance programs and the current progress of BE therapy. Moreover, we discuss the recent introduction of novel esophageal pathophysiological exams that have improved the knowledge of the mechanisms linking GERD to BE. PMID:27158534

  18. Ectopic Cdx2 Expression in Murine Esophagus Models an Intermediate Stage in the Emergence of Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jianping; Crissey, Mary Ann; Funakoshi, Shinsuke; Kreindler, James L.; Lynch, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an intestinal metaplasia that occurs in the setting of chronic acid and bile reflux and is associated with a risk for adenocarcinoma. Expression of intestine-specific transcription factors in the esophagus likely contributes to metaplasia development. Our objective was to explore the effects of an intestine-specific transcription factor when expressed in the mouse esophageal epithelium. Transgenic mice were derived in which the transcription factor Cdx2 is expressed in squamous epithelium using the murine Keratin-14 gene promoter. Effects of the transgene upon cell proliferation and differentiation, gene expression, and barrier integrity were explored. K14-Cdx2 mice express the Cdx2 transgene in esophageal squamous tissues. Cdx2 expression was associated with reduced basal epithelial cell proliferation and altered cell morphology. Ultrastructurally two changes were noted. Cdx2 expression was associated with dilated space between the basal cells and diminished cell-cell adhesion caused by reduced Desmocollin-3 mRNA and protein expression. This compromised epithelial barrier function, as the measured trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the K14-Cdx2 epithelium was significantly reduced compared to controls (1189 Ohm*cm2 ±343.5 to 508 Ohm*cm2±92.48, p = 0.0532). Secondly, basal cells with features of a transitional cell type, intermediate between keratinocytes and columnar Barrett's epithelial cells, were observed. These cells had reduced keratin bundles and increased endoplasmic reticulum levels, suggesting the adoption of secretory-cell features. Moreover, at the ultrastructural level they resembled “Distinctive” cells associated with multilayered epithelium. Treatment of the K14-Cdx2 mice with 5′-Azacytidine elicited expression of BE-associated genes including Cdx1, Krt18, and Slc26a3/Dra, suggesting the phenotype could be advanced under certain conditions. We conclude that ectopic Cdx2 expression in keratinocytes

  19. Barrett's esophagus: Ten years of experience at a tertiary care hospital center in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Andraca, F; Bernal-Méndez, A R; Barreto-Zúñiga, R; Briseño-García, D; Martínez-Lozano, J A; Romano-Munive, A F; Elizondo-Rivera, J; Téllez-Ávila, F I

    2017-05-24

    The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus has been calculated at between 1.3 and 1.6%. There is little information with respect to this in Mexico. To determine the frequency and characteristics of Barrett's esophagus in patients that underwent endoscopy at a national referral center, within a 10-year time frame. The databases of the pathology and gastrointestinal endoscopy departments of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" were analyzed, covering the period of January 2002 to December 2012. Patients with a histologic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus were included. The variables of age, sex, the presence of dysplasia/esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus length, and follow-up were analyzed. Of 43,639 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed, 420 revealed Barrett's esophagus, corresponding to a frequency of 9.6 patients for every 1,000 endoscopies. Of those patients, 66.9% (n=281) were men, mean patient age±SD was 57.2±15.3 years, 223 patients (53%) presented with long-segment Barrett's esophagus, and 197 (47%) with short-segment Barrett's esophagus. Dysplasia was not present in 339 patients (80.7%). Eighty-one (19.3%) patients had some grade of dysplasia or cancer: 48/420 (11.42%) presented with low-grade dysplasia, 20/420 (4.76%) with high-grade dysplasia, and 13/420 (3.1%) were diagnosed with esophageal cancer arising from Barrett's esophagus. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 years. The frequency of Barrett's esophagus was 9.6 cases for every 1,000 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed. Dysplasia was not documented in the majority of the patients with Barrett's esophagus and they had no histopathologic changes during follow-up. A total of 19.3% of the patients presented with dysplasia or cancer. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspirin in Preventing Disease Recurrence in Patients With Barrett Esophagus After Successful Elimination by Radiofrequency Ablation | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies the safety of and how well aspirin works in preventing Barrett's esophagus from returning after it has been successfully eliminated by radiofrequency ablation. Studying samples of tissue from patients with Barrett's esophagus for the levels of a specific protein that is linked to developing Barrett's esophagus may help doctors learn whether aspirin can prevent it from returning after it has been successfully treated. |

  1. Dietary Factors and the Risks of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Ai; Corley, Douglas A.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Kaur, Rubinder

    2010-01-01

    Incidence rates for esophageal adenocarcinoma have increased by over 500% during the past few decades without clear reasons. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obesity, and smoking have been identified as risk factors, although the demographic distribution of these risk factors is not consistent with the demographic distribution of esophageal adenocarcinoma, which is substantially more common among whites and males than any other demographic groups. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested associations between dietary factors and the risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett’s esophagus, though a comprehensive review is lacking. The main aim of the present review is to consider the evidence linking dietary factors with the risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett’s esophagus, and the progression from Barrett’s esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The existing epidemiological evidence is strongest for an inverse relationship between intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, fruits and vegetables, particularly raw fruits and vegetables and dark-green, leafy and cruciferous vegetables, carbohydrates, fiber and iron and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s esophagus. Patients at higher risk for Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma may benefit from increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables and reducing their intake of red meat and other processed food items. Further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between diet and the progression of Barrett’s esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Evidence from cohort studies will help determine whether randomized chemoprevention trials are warranted for the primary prevention of Barrett’s esophagus or its progression to cancer. PMID:20624335

  2. Development of a risk prediction model for Barrett's esophagus in an Australian population.

    PubMed

    Ireland, C J; Fielder, A L; Thompson, S K; Laws, T A; Watson, D I; Esterman, A

    2017-11-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has poor 5-year survival rates. Increased survival might be achieved with earlier treatment, but requires earlier identification of the precursor, Barrett's esophagus. Population screening is not cost effective, this may be improved by targeted screening directed at individuals more likely to have Barrett's esophagus. To develop a risk prediction tool for Barrett's esophagus, this study compared individuals with Barrett's esophagus against population controls. Participants completed a questionnaire comprising 35 questions addressing medical history, symptom history, lifestyle factors, anthropomorphic measures, and demographic details. Statistical analysis addressed differences between cases and controls, and entailed initial variable selection, checking of model assumptions, and establishing calibration and discrimination. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess overall accuracy. One hundred and twenty individuals with Barrett's esophagus and 235 population controls completed the questionnaire. Significant differences were identified for age, gender, reflux history, family reflux history, history of hypertension, alcoholic drinks per week, and body mass index. These were used to develop a risk prediction model. The AUC was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.87). Good calibration between predicted and observed risk was noted (Hosmer-Lemeshow test P = 0.67). At the point minimizing false positives and false negatives, the model achieved a sensitivity of 84.96% and a specificity of 66%. A well-calibrated risk prediction model with good discrimination has been developed to identify patients with Barrett's esophagus. The model needs to be externally validated before consideration for clinical practice. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Adherence to therapy for Barrett's esophagus-associated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Lisa; Slaughter, James C; Yachimski, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Multiple endoscopic sessions may be necessary for treatment and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (BE)-associated neoplasia. Adherence to an endoscopic therapeutic regimen is important for longitudinal management of BE. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adherence to therapy for BE-associated neoplasia. We retrospectively identified patients with BE whom were referred to a tertiary center for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) between 2009 and 2012. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the medical record. We had 69 subjects meet our inclusion criteria. Referral diagnosis was low-grade dysplasia in 9 (13%) subjects, high-grade dysplasia in 33 (48%) subjects and adenocarcinoma in 26 (38%) subjects. The majority (55%) lived more than 100 miles from the treatment center. The primary third-party payer was US Medicare for 54% of the subjects and private insurance for 36% of them; 45% of the subjects were seen in the clinic by the treating endoscopist, prior to endoscopic therapy and 71% underwent EMR as the initial treatment, while 29% underwent RFA without prior EMR. We found that 72% of subjects were adherent to therapy, including: 23 (33%) completing endoscopic therapy with documented post-treatment surveillance, 18 (26%) with ongoing endoscopic therapy, and 9 (13%) whom underwent esophagectomy. Subjects seen in gastroenterology clinical consultation were significantly more likely to demonstrate adherence than those referred for open access endoscopy (Lasso OR 2.31). Patients seen in a clinical consultation prior to endoscopic therapy for BE-associated neoplasia were more likely to demonstrate treatment adherence, compared to patients referred for open-access endoscopy. A clinic visit prior to therapy may define expectations regarding treatment course and increase the likelihood of patient adherence.

  4. Intratumoral lactate metabolism in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huhta, Heikki; Helminen, Olli; Palomäki, Sami; Kauppila, Joonas H; Saarnio, Juha; Lehenkari, Petri P; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2017-04-04

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are cell membrane proteins which transport pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. MCTs are activated in various cancers, but their expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma is not known. The present study was conducted to elucidate the expression of MCTs in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. Cytoplasmic MCT1, MCT4 and MTCO1 expression linearly increased from normal epithelium to Barrett's mucosa to dysplasia and cancer. Low cytoplasmic MCT1 expression associated with high T-class (P < 0.01), positive lymph node metastases (P < 0.05), positive distant metastases (P < 0.01) and high tumor stage (P < 0.01). High cytoplasmic MCT4 expression correlated significantly with positive distant metastases (P < 0.05). Both low MCT1 and high MCT4 histoscore predicted survival in univariate analysis (P < 0.01). MCT4 histoscore predicted survival in multivariate analysis (P = 0.043; HR 1.8 95%CI 1.0-3.1). MTCO1 expression was not correlated to clinicopathological variables or survival. MCT1, MCT4 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (MTCO1) expression were determined with immunohistochemistry in esophageal specimens from 129 patients with columnar dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. Specimens including normal esophagus (n = 88), gastric (n = 67) or intestinal metaplasia (n = 51), low-grade (n = 42), high-grade dysplasia (n = 37) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 99) were evaluated. Major increase in markers of tumor metabolism occurs during carcinogenesis and progression of esophageal adenocarcinoma. MCT1 and MCT4 are prognostic factors in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  5. Improved biopsy accuracy in Barrett's esophagus with a transparent cap.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bai-Li; Xing, Xiang-Bin; Wang, Jin-Hui; Feng, Ting; Xiong, Li-Shou; Wang, Jin-Ping; Cui, Yi

    2014-04-28

    To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopy with a transparent cap on biopsy positioning in Barrett's esophagus (BE). One hundred and sixty-eight patients with suspected BE at endoscopy were enrolled in our study from November 2007 to December 2009 and divided into two groups: transparent cap group (n = 60) and control group (n = 108). Endoscopy with or without a transparent cap and subsequent biopsy of suspected lesions were performed by five experienced endoscopists in our hospital. In both groups, two biopsy specimens were taken from each patient, and the columnar epithelium or goblet cells in histological assessment were used as the diagnostic standard for BE. In the transparent cap group, 41 cases were tongue type, while 17 and two cases were identified as island type and circumferential type, respectively. In the control group, 65 tongue-type cases were confirmed, with 38 island-type and five circumferential-type cases. Moreover, there was no significant difference with regard to the composition of endoscopic BE types in the two groups (P > 0.05). In the biopsy specimens, BE was detected in 50 cases in the transparent cap group (83.3%, 50/60), whereas the detection rate in the control group (69.4%, 75/108) was lower compared to that in the transparent cap group (P < 0.05). In addition, goblet cells were recognized in only eight cases (all with columnar epithelium) (8/60, 13.3%) in the transparent cap group, with 11 cases in the control group. Transparent cap-fitted endoscopy can guide biopsy positioning in BE without other accompanying complications, thus increasing the detection rate of BE.

  6. Risk of recurrence of Barrett's esophagus after successful endoscopic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthi, Rajesh; Singh, Siddharth; Ragunathan, Karthik; Katzka, David A.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Iyer, Prasad G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous estimates of incidence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) recurrence after achieving complete remission of IM (CRIM) through endoscopic therapy of Barrett's esophagus (BE) have varied widely. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to estimate an accurate recurrence risk after CRIM. Methods We performed a systematic search of multiple literature databases through June 2015 to identify studies reporting long-term follow-up after achieving CRIM through endoscopic therapy. Pooled incidence rate (IR) of recurrent IM, dysplastic BE, and high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) per person-year of follow-up after CRIM was estimated. Factors associated with recurrence were also assessed. Results We identified 41 studies that reported 795 cases of recurrence in 4443 patients over 10,427 patient-years of follow-up. This included 21 radiofrequency ablation studies that reported 603 cases of IM recurrence in 3186 patients over 5741 patient-years of follow-up. Pooled IRs of recurrent IM, dysplastic BE, and HGD/EAC after radiofrequency ablation were 9.5% (95% CI, 6.7-12.3), 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3-2.7), and 1.2% (95% CI, .8-1.6) per patient-year, respectively. When all endoscopic modalities were included, pooled IRs of recurrent IM, dysplastic BE, and HGD/EAC were 7.1% (95% CI, 5.6-8.6), 1.3% (95% CI, .8-1.7), and .8% (95% CI, .5-1.1) per patient-year, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity was noted. Increasing age and BE length were predictive of recurrence; 97% of recurrences were treated endoscopically. Conclusions The incidence of recurrence after achieving CRIM through endoscopic therapy was substantial. A small minority of recurrences were dysplastic BE and HGD/EAC. Hence, continued surveillance after CRIM is imperative. Additional studies with long-term follow-up are needed. PMID:26902843

  7. Carcinoma of the esophagus - observations of 40 years

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, E.F.; Gregorie, H.B.; Prioleau, W.H. Jr.; Marks, R.D.; Bartles, D.M.

    1982-05-01

    The long-term results of treatment of primary carcinoma of the esophagus continue to be poor, and attempts to improve them remain as challenging as any that exist in the field of malignant neoplasia today. Even so, there has been improvement, and this report contrasts age, race, sex, levels of involvement, methods of treatment, and results in our first series of 170 cases, seen between 1940 and 1951, with those in our last series of 300 cases, seen between 1967 and 1975. In the latter group, among those treated by megavoltage radiation as the sole theoretically curative method, the five-year survival rate was 1.0%. Among operable patients, there were 15 who had resection without preliminary radiation, with a mortality rate of 40% (6/15), a two-year survival rate of 13% (2/15), and a five-year survival rate of 7.0% (1/15). Also among operable patients, there were 75 who had resection following radiation therapy with a mortality rate of 19% (14/75), a two-year survival rate of 20% (15/75), and a five-year survival rate of 10% (7/75). These rates contrast with a five-year survival rate of 0.5% in the 1940-1951 series. Improvements in methods of treatment and adjuncts, such as nutrition, radiation, and operation, are cited. Even so, results in our last group did not show improvement over those in the 1962-1967 series. Therefore, we have begun a new program involving the use of chemotherapy in conjunction with radiation therapy and resection in those cases in which it may be applicable.

  8. Electrophysiological recording from neurons controlling sensory and motor functions of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, J N

    2001-12-03

    Much work has been done in recent years to understand the functional roles of sensory neurons that regulate reflexes and sensations. Information about the response patterns of spinal dorsal horn and brain stem neurons associated with esophageal functions has become available by using electrophysiological techniques. These techniques allow understanding of response characteristics of neurons to various types of stimuli, neurotransmitters involved in excitation or inhibition of neurons, changes in response characteristics of neurons under pathological conditions, and the shape and size of a particular neuron in the central nervous system, as well as its projection to other areas of the brain. Response properties of primary afferent fibers in the vagus and thoracic sympathetic nerves have been studied in intact animal models by using single-fiber or extracellular microelectrode recording techniques. Recently, the single-fiber recording technique has been used in vitro in isolated esophagus-vagus nerve preparations. Recordings from the brain stem nuclei and thoracic spinal dorsal horn neurons also have examined the response characteristics of second-order neurons receiving afferent input from the esophagus. In the spinal cord, dorsal horn neurons responsive to esophageal distension also receive ipsilateral somatic input (ie, viscero-somatic convergence) from the upper thoracic area. These neurons exhibit sensitization of response after repeated noxious distension of the esophagus or instillation of irritant substances in the esophagus. In the nucleus ambiguus, neurons receiving input from the distal esophagus exhibit excitation to distension of the distal esophagus but undergo inhibition to midthoracic esophageal distension or to swallow. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius receiving input from the distal esophagus exhibit 2 types of responses to proximal and distal esophageal distension. One type of response is a rhythmic firing synchronized with peristaltic

  9. [Impact of artificial esophagus slipped time upon the function formation of neoesophageal channel].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian-hui; Zhou, Xing; Liang, Xian-liang

    2009-09-22

    To observe the impact of artificial esophagus slipped time upon the function formation of neoesophageal channel, explore the scope of secure control time and assess the treatment methods of neoesophageal stenosis. A total of 18 pigs in which artificial esophagus slipping at Month 1, 2, 3, 6 post-operation were observed with regards to complications, neoesophageal structures and functions and survival status of experimental animals. Three pigs had a slip of artificial esophagus within a month post-operation and severe eating difficulties (Bown's Grade IV) because the neoesophagus had a severe narrowing (< 0.5 cm). All were dead shortly resulting from a failed treatment of esophageal dilation. Four pigs had a slip of artificial esophagus within 2 months post-operation. They all had dysphagia (Grade III-IV) as a result of moderate or severe neoesophageal stenosis (0.5 - 0.9 cm). Dysphagia was progressive. Repeated esophageal dilation was in vain. Three pigs were dead shortly and 1 pig achieved a long-term survival through a bare stent replacement therapy. Four pigs had a slip of artificial esophagus within 3 months post-operation. Dysphagia (Grade I-II) occurred as a result of mild or moderate neoesophageal stenosis (0.9 - 1.5 cm). Two pigs with moderate dysphagia achieved a long-term survival through a bare stent replacement therapy while another two were sacrificed. Seven had a slip of artificial esophagus at 3 months post-operation. The neoesophagus showed expansion and a relative narrowing (> 1.9 cm). Experimental animals had a mild difficulty in eating (Grade I), but it had an automatic relief. Experimental animals achieved a long-term survival and did not advance further. Artificial esophagus (implant) stays in place for 2 - 3 months to form a functional esophageal channel. The longer an artificial esophagus is in place, a better channel of neoesophagus will form. Resetting a bare stent treatment of serious neoesophageal stenosis has significant therapeutic

  10. Improved survival with neoadjuvant therapy and resection for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J R; Hoff, S J; Johnson, D H; Murray, M J; Butler, D R; Elkins, C C; Sharp, K W; Merrill, W H; Sawyers, J L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the impact of preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy (neoadjuvant therapy) followed by resection in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Long-term survival in patients with carcinoma of the esophagus has been poor. An increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus has been reported recently. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the esophagus treated at this institution from January 1951 through February 1993 were studied. Since 1989, 24 patients were entered prospectively into a multimodality treatment protocol consisting of preoperative cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and leucovorin with or without etoposide, and concomitant mediastinal radiation (30 Gy). Patients were re-evaluated and offered resection. RESULTS: There were no deaths related to neoadjuvant therapy and toxicity was minimal. Before multimodality therapy was used, the operative mortality rate was 19% (3 of 16 patients). With multimodality therapy, there have been no operative deaths (0 of 23 patients). The median survival time in patients treated before multimodality therapy was 8 months and has yet to be reached for those treated with the neoadjuvant regimen (> 26 months, p < 0.0001). The actuarial survival rate at 24 months was 15% before multimodality therapy and 76% with multimodality therapy. No difference in survival was noted in neoadjuvant protocols with or without etoposide (p = 0.827). CONCLUSIONS: Multimodality therapy with preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by resection appears to offer a survival advantage to patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. PMID:8215648

  11. Histochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the posterior esophagus of Bulla striata (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Oliveira, Elsa; Ferreira, Iris; Coelho, Rita; Calado, Gonçalo

    2010-12-01

    The posterior esophagus of Bulla striata, running from the gizzard to the stomach, was investigated with light and electron microscopy to obtain new data for a comparative analysis of the digestive system in cephalaspidean opisthobranchs. In this species, the posterior esophagus can be divided into two regions. In the first, the epithelium is formed by columnar cells with apical microvilli embedded in a cuticle. Many epithelial and subepithelial secretory cells are present in this region. In both, electron-lucent secretory vesicles containing filaments and a peripheral round mass of secretory material fill the cytoplasm. These acid mucus-secreting cells may also contain a few dense secretory vesicles. In the second part of the posterior esophagus, the cuticle is absent and the epithelium is ciliated. In this region, epithelial cells may contain larger lipid droplets and glycogen reserves. Subepithelial secretory cells are not present, and in epithelial secretory cells the number of dense vesicles increases, but most secretory cells still contain some electron-lucent vesicles. These cells secrete a mixture of proteins and acid polysaccharides and should be considered seromucous. The secretory cells of the posterior esophagus are significantly different from those previously reported in the anterior esophagus of this herbivorous species.

  12. High level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta in scoliosis: CT study

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koji; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Hyodoh, Hideki

    1996-05-01

    The esophagus occasionally crosses the descending aorta at an unusually high level (3-5 cm inferior to the carina) in right-sided scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of this finding. We prospectively evaluated thoracic CT scans in 30 patients with right-sided scoliosis. We assessed the alterations in the positions of the esophagus and the descending aorta by the thoracic deformity. The descending aorta followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 26 (87%) patients. The esophagus followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 14 (47%) patients and did not in 16 (53%). The anteroposterior diameter of the thorax in the former group was significantly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.01). High level cross of both structures was identified in 14 (47%) patients, and all of them belonged to the group in which the esophagus did not follow the scoliotic curve of the spine. The unusual high level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta occasionally seen in scoliosis is due to a difference in the positional alterations of the two structures resulting from the scoliosis. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Proposal for methods of diagnosis of fish bone foreign body in the Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the methods of diagnosis of fish bone foreign body in the esophagus and suggest a diagnostic protocol. Prospective cohort study. A prospective study was performed on 286 patients with a history of fish bone foreign body impaction. Among them, 88 patients had negative findings in the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. Subsequent radiologic assessment of these patients included plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). Sixty-six patients showed positive findings in the esophagus, and an attempt was made to remove the obstruction using transnasal esophagoscopy. In 66 patients, a fish bone foreign body was detected in the esophagus by CT. In contrast, plain radiography detected a foreign body in only 30 patients. The overall detection rate of plain radiography compared with CT for fish bones was 45.5%. Plain radiography detected 35.9% of the simple type fish bones and 54.5% of the gill bone detected by CT. However, jaw bones had a detection rate of 100% with both methods. The fish bone foreign bodies were most commonly located in the upper esophagus (n=65, 98.5%), followed by the lower esophagus (n=1, 1.5%). CT is a useful method for identification of esophageal fish bone foreign bodies. Therefore, CT should be considered as the first-choice technique for the diagnosis of esophageal fish bone foreign body. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Anatomic relations between the esophagus and left atrium and relevance for ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quintana, Damian; Cabrera, José Angel; Climent, Vicente; Farré, Jerónimo; Mendonça, Maria Cristina de; Ho, Siew Yen

    2005-09-06

    Esophageal injury is a potential complication after intraoperative or percutaneous transcatheter ablation of the posterior aspect of the left atrium. Understanding the spatial relations between the esophagus and the left atrium is essential to reduce risks. We examined by gross dissection the course of the esophagus in 15 cadavers. We measured the minimal distance of the esophageal wall to the endocardium of the left atrium with histological studies in 12 specimens. To measure the transmural thickness of the atrial wall, we sectioned another 30 human heart specimens in the sagittal plane at 3 different regions of the left atrium. The esophagus follows a variable course along the posterior aspect of the left atrium; its wall was <5 mm from the endocardium in 40% of specimens. The posterior left atrial wall has a variable thickness, being thickest adjacent to the coronary sinus and thinnest more superiorly. Behind is a layer of fibrous pericardium and fibrofatty tissue of irregular thickness that contains esophageal arteries of 0.4+/-0.2-mm external diameters. The nonuniform thickness of the posterior left atrial wall and the variable fibrofatty layer between the wall and the esophagus are risk factors that must be considered during ablation procedure. Esophageal arteries and vagus nerve plexus on the anterior surface of the esophagus may be affected by ablative procedures.

  15. Barrett’s Esophagus: Frequency and Prediction of Dysplasia and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is continuing to increase at an alarming rate in the Western world today. Barrett’s esophagus is a clearly recognized risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the overwhelming majority of patients with Barrett’s esophagus will never develop esophageal cancer. A number of endoscopic, histologic and epidemiologic risk factors identify Barrett’s esophagus patients at increased risk for progression to high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic factors include segment length, mucosal abnormalities as seemingly trivial as esophagitis and the 12 to 6 o’clock hemisphere of the esophagus. Both intestinal metaplasia and low grade dysplasia, the latter only if confirmed by a pathologist with expertise in Barrett’s esophagus pathologic interpretation are the histologic risk factors for progression. Epidemiologic risk factors include aging, male gender, obesity, and smoking. Factors that may protect against the development of adenocarcinoma include a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and the use of proton pump inhibitors, aspirin/NSAIDs and statins. PMID:25743461

  16. Creation of an Esophageal Atresia Animal Model Using a Bifurcated Esophagus to Maintain Digestive Tract Continuity.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Ian C; Bruns, Nicholas E; Schomisch, Steve J; Ponsky, Todd A

    2017-09-06

    We previously developed a porcine model of long gap pure esophageal atresia (EA) to aid in the creation of novel devices and techniques for treatment of EA. Shortcomings of the model included difficulty decompressing the proximal esophageal pouch (leading to recurrent aspiration) and a requirement for gastrostomy tube (G-tube) feeds. Therefore, we sought to create a porcine model with a bifurcated esophagus wherein one portion of the esophageal lumen retained patency and the other part mimicked EA. After G-tube placement, thoracotomy was performed with subsequent partial stapled transection of the esophagus in a transverse manner, followed by longitudinal, partial stapled transection of the esophagus proximally and distally. Magnets were placed in the esophageal pouches. Proximal and distal esophageal pouches were created while preserving a parallel, narrower segment of continuous esophagus. G-tube feeds were used initially, but the animal ultimately tolerated full nutrition by mouth. The magnets successfully restored esophageal continuity. The animal regained much of the initial weight lost and survived to planned euthanasia. Necropsy revealed anastomosis formation without evidence of leak. A bifurcated porcine esophagus model was successfully devised, simulating EA while allowing the animal to receive oral feeds and clear oral secretions. This model is anticipated to promote animal well-being and ease of care during future investigations, as well as a platform for the safe development of new therapies for EA.

  17. Xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstructs hypopharynx and cervical esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Danhui; Tang, Qinglai; Wang, Shuang; Li, Shisheng; He, Xiangbo; Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Bingbing; Yang, Mi; Yang, Xinming

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction. A total of five patients were treated with this surgical method to reconstruct hypopharynx and cervical esophagus in Second Xiangya Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. Four of them had hypopharyngeal carcinoma with laryngeal and cervical esophageal invasion, while the fifth patient with hypopharyngeal cancer had developed scars and atresia after postoperative radiotherapy. The defect length after hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal resection was 6-8 cm, and was repaired by a combination of ADM and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap by our team. Interestingly, the four patients had primary healing and regained their eating function about 2-3 weeks after surgery, the fifth individual suffered from pharyngeal fistula, but recovered after dressing change about 2 months. Postoperative esophageal barium meals revealed that the pharynx and esophagus were unobstructed in all five patients. Xenogeneic ADM in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction is a simple, safe and effective method with fewer complications. Nevertheless, according to the defect length of the cervical esophagus, the patients need to strictly follow the medical advice.

  18. Studies on the regulation of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) by acid in the esophagus and stomach.

    PubMed

    Banovcin, P; Halicka, J; Halickova, M; Duricek, M; Hyrdel, R; Tatar, M; Kollarik, M

    2016-07-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is the major mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux, but the regulation of TLESR by stimuli in the esophagus is incompletely understood. We have recently reported that acid infusion in the esophagus substantially (by 75%) increased the number of meal-induced TLESR in healthy subjects. We concluded that the TLESR reflex triggered by gastric distention with meal was enhanced by the stimulation of esophageal nerves by acid. However, the possibilities that the acid infused into the esophagus acts after passing though lower esophageal sphincter in stomach to enhance TLESR, or that the acid directly initiates TLESR from the esophagus were not addressed. Here, we evaluated the effect of acid infusion into the proximal stomach on meal-induced TLESR (study 1) and the ability of acid infusion into the esophagus to initiate TLESR without prior meal (study 2). We analyzed TLESRs by using high-resolution manometry in healthy subjects in paired randomized studies. In study 1, we found that acid infusion into the proximal stomach did not affect TLESRs induced by standard meal. The number of meal-induced TLESRs following the acid infusion into the proximal stomach was similar to the number of meal-induced TLESRs following the control infusion. In study 2, we found that acid infusion into the esophagus without prior meal did not initiate TLESRs. We conclude that the increase in the meal-induced TLESRs by acid in the esophagus demonstrated in our previous study is not attributable to the action of acid in the stomach or to direct initiation of TLESR from the esophagus by acid. Our studies are consistent with the concept that the stimuli in the esophagus can influence TLESRs. The enhancement of TLESR by acid in the esophagus may contribute to pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux in some patients. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  19. A case of EMRC for basaloid squamous carcinoma of the cervical esophagus.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishikawa, Jun; Suenaga, Shigeyuki; Okamoto, Takeshi; Okamoto, Fumiki; Miura, Osamu; Sakaida, Isao

    2012-08-16

    Basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus is a rare esophageal tumor. A 79-year-old man with a history of proximal gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma in 2000 was followed-up by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) annually. In June 2010, EGD revealed a new protruding lesion in the cervical esophagus. The small lesion was approximately 5 mm in size. A biopsy specimen showed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. We performed endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap-fitted endoscope (EMRC). The histological diagnosis of the endoscopically resected specimen was BSC and the invasion depth was limited to the muscularis mucosae. Horizontal and vertical margins were negative. We report the case of superficial BSC in the cervical esophagus successfully resected by EMRC.

  20. Side to Side Esophagogastrojejunoplasty in Post-corrosive Stricture of Distal Esophagus and Proximal Stomach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen; Pancholi, Mukesh; Patel, Gulab; Sharma, Anju

    2015-12-01

    A four years old female child presented after 2 months of ingestion of battery fluid (sulfuric acid) accidently with stricture of the distal esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and fundus as well as proximal portion of the body of the stomach. Corrosive stricture involving the distal esophagus with the proximal stomach is not a frequently encountered condition. Side to side esophagogastrojejunostomy without removal of the strictured esophagus or stomach (side to side esophagogastrojejunoplasty) can be done in such patient hence preserving the stomach which is important physiologically as a reservoir and for the secretion of gastric juices. In review of literature in search engines like MD Consult, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase and standard textbooks of surgery, we could not find such procedure had been performed till date, so that it is the innovative approach with support of literature and surgical principles.

  1. The sensory system of the esophagus--what do we know?

    PubMed

    Brock, Christina; Gregersen, Hans; Gyawali, C Prakash; Lottrup, Christian; Furnari, Manuele; Savarino, Edoardo; Novais, Luis; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Bor, Serhat; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-09-01

    The nervous innervation and complex mechanical function of the esophagus make sensory evaluation difficult. However, during the last decades, several new techniques have made it possible to gain insight into pain processing of nociceptive signals. The current review highlights the sensory innervation and possibilities for quantitative sensory testing, the mechanosensory properties, the potential of high-resolution manometry and imaging, and the sensory system in special conditions, such as Barrett's esophagus. It is mandatory to understand the complex pathophysiology of the esophagus to enhance our understanding of esophageal disorders, but it also increases the complexity of future experimental and clinical studies. The new methods, as outlined in the current review, provide the possibility for researchers to enhance the quality of interdisciplinary research and to gain more knowledge about sensory symptoms and treatment possibilities. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Propulsion Velocity and ETT on Biomagnetic Assessment of the Human Esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Fraga, T.; Cano, E.; Bravo-Miranda, C.; Huerta, R.; De la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-01

    Esophagus transit time measurement is a common clinical practical. Biomagnetic techniques and modern instrumentation can perform non invasive and functional assessments of the gastrointestinal tract. This study presents the evaluation of the esophagus transit time and propulsion velocity of a magnetic marker from the mouth to stomach using water vs. a swallow easy substance recently patented. A group of ten healthy subjects from 45 to 55 years, were evaluated in identical conditions for two times, they ingested randomly a magnetic marker in an anatomical body position of 45°, one times with water and the other one with a patented substance developed in order to help the subjects to swallow pills. The esophagus transit time was shorter when the subjects ingested the magnetic marker with the swallow easy substance than they ingested the magnetic marker with same quantity of water

  3. Propulsion Velocity and ETT on Biomagnetic Assessment of the Human Esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Cordova-Fraga, T.; Cano, E.; Bravo-Miranda, C.; De la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.; Huerta, R.

    2008-08-11

    Esophagus transit time measurement is a common clinical practical. Biomagnetic techniques and modern instrumentation can perform non invasive and functional assessments of the gastrointestinal tract. This study presents the evaluation of the esophagus transit time and propulsion velocity of a magnetic marker from the mouth to stomach using water vs. a swallow easy substance recently patented. A group of ten healthy subjects from 45 to 55 years, were evaluated in identical conditions for two times, they ingested randomly a magnetic marker in an anatomical body position of 45 deg., one times with water and the other one with a patented substance developed in order to help the subjects to swallow pills. The esophagus transit time was shorter when the subjects ingested the magnetic marker with the swallow easy substance than they ingested the magnetic marker with same quantity of water.

  4. Photoplethysmographic measurements from the esophagus using a new fiber-optic reflectance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Justin P.; Langford, Richard M.; Chang, Serene H.; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A.; Jones, Deric P.

    2011-07-01

    A prototype fiber-optic reflectance-mode pulse oximetry sensor and measurement system is developed for the purposes of estimating arterial oxygen saturation in the esophagus. A dedicated probe containing miniature right-angled glass prisms coupled to light sources and a photodetector by means of optical fibers is designed and used to record photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals from the esophageal epithelium in anesthetized patients. The probe is inserted simply by an anesthesiologist in all cases, and signals are recorded successfully in all but one of 20 subjects, demonstrating that esophageal PPG signals can be reliably obtained. The mean value of the oxygen saturation recorded from the esophagus for all subjects is 94.0 +/- 4.0%. These results demonstrate that SpO2 may be estimated in the esophagus using a fiber-optic probe.

  5. [Minimally invasive abdominothoracic esophagus resection by transoral esophagogastrostomy: interdisciplinary challenge].

    PubMed

    Gockel, I; Paschold, M; Lang, H; Heid, F

    2013-10-01

    Resection of the esophagus is an invasive 2-cavitiy procedure which requires special anesthesiological expertise during perioperative care. Furthermore, in surgery new minimally invasive techniques are continually being established which place special challenges on the treatment team because the anesthesiologist is decisively involved in the course of surgery. The aim of this article is to present the development of surgical treatment options for esophageal cancer starting from classical open resection up to the minimally invasive technique of esophagectomy (MIE). Previous experience with MIE on a cohort of patients is presented and the special anesthesiological characteristics of this innovative technique are illustrated. In the department for general, visceral and transplantation surgery of the University Medical Center of Mainz, minimally invasive abdominothoracic esophageal resection has been carried out since 2010. High thoracic anastomization was performed using the EEA™-OrVil™ system operated by the anesthesiologist. Currently 17 highly selected patients have been surgically treated using this technique. Esophagogastric anastomosis with the EEA™-OrVil™ system was feasible in all patients. Transoral introduction of the gastric probe with the connecting sheath and the angled anvil led to minor dislocation of the double lumen tube in only one patient and could immediately be corrected. Further intraoperative complications did not occur. Four of the 17 patients developed pneumonia which could be controlled by intravenous antibiotics. None of the patients had to be reintubated. One patient developed gastric tube necrosis and died 51 days postoperatively due to massive intracerebral hemorrhage. There were no complications of anastomoses following OrVil™ anastomization. In all patients an R0 resection could be achieved. Minimally invasive esophagectomy with transoral anastomization appears to be an enrichment of the minimally invasive spectrum as

  6. Optimization of light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Phan, Mary N.; Overholt, Bergein F.; Haydek, John M.

    2004-06-01

    Background and Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may be used for ablation of high grade dysplasia and/or early cancer (HGD/T1) in Barrett's esophagus. A complication of PDT is esophageal stricture. The objective of this study was to find the lowest light dose to potentially reduce the incidence of strictures while effectively ablating HGD/T1. Materials and Methods: Patients (n=113) with HGD/T1 received an intravenous injection of porfimer sodium (2 mg/kg). Three days later, laser light (630 nm) was delivered using a cylindrical diffuser inserted in a 20 mm.diameter PDT balloon. Patients were treated at light doses of 115 J/cm, 105 J/cm, 95 J/cm and 85 J/cm. The efficacy was determined by four quadrant biopsies of the treated area three months after PDT. The formation of stricture was determined by the incidence of dysphagia and the need for esophageal dilation. Strictures were considered mild if they required less than 6 dilations, and severe if 6 or more dilations were required. Efficacy and incidence of strictures were tabulated as a function of light dose. Results: Using 115 J/cm, there were 17% of patients with residual HGD/T1 after one treatment. However, when the light doses of 105 J/cm, 95 J/cm and 85 J/cm were used, the residual HGD/T1 after one PDT session was increased to 33%, 30%, and 32% respectively. The overall incidence of strictures (mild and severe) was not correlated to the light dose. However, the incidence of severe strictures was directly proportional to the light dose. Using the light dose of 115 J/cm, 15.3% of patients developed severe strictures compared to about 5% in the groups of patients who received the lower light doses. Conclusions: Decreasing the light dose below 115 J/cm doubled the rate of residual HGD/T1 after one treatment while reducing the incidence of severe strictures to one-third of cases from 115 J/cm. The results may be used to evaluate the risks and benefits of different light doses.

  7. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the esophagus: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of 14 cases

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, Akinori; Morita, Masaru; Kumagai, Reiko; Taguchi, Ken-ichi; Ueda, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Yamamoto, Manabu; Minami, Kazuhito; Ikeda, Yasuharu; Toh, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Background Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the esophagus is a rare and highly aggressive disease but the biological features are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of NEC of the esophagus. Methods Fourteen patients diagnosed with NEC of the esophagus from 1998 to 2013 were included in this study. Clinicopathologic features, therapeutic outcomes and immunohistochemical results were analyzed. Results Eleven out of 14 cases showed protruding or localized type with or without ulceration. Only three patients were negative for both lymph node and organ metastasis and seven cases were positive for metastases to distant organs and/or distant lymph nodes. Of the six patients with limited disease (LD), three patients were treated by surgery. Three patients with LD and seven patients with extensive disease (ED) were initially treated with chemotherapy, except for one who underwent concurrent chemo-radiotherapy due to passage disturbance. The median survival of patients with LD was 8.5 months, whereas that of patients with LD was 17 months. Among the 14 cases, 12 cases (83.3%), 13 cases (91.7%) and 12 cases (83.3%) showed positive immunostaining for choromogranin A, synaptophysin and CD56, respectively. Nine of 14 cases (64.2%) presented positive staining for c-kit and most (8/9, 88%) simultaneously showed p53 protein abnormality. Two cases were negative for c-kit and p53, and positive for CK20. Conclusion Consistent with previous reports, the prognosis of NEC of esophagus is dismal. From the results of immunohistochemical study, NEC of esophagus might be divided into two categories due to the staining positivity of c-kit and p53. This study provides new insight into the biology of NEC of the esophagus. PMID:28288180

  8. Swallowable capsule with air channel for improved image-guided cancer detection in the esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.; Melville, C. David; Lung, Jonathan K. C.; Babchanik, Alexander P.; Lee, Cameron M.; Johnston, Richard S.; Dominitz, Jason A.

    2009-02-01

    A new type of endoscope has been developed and tested in the human esophagus, a tethered-capsule endoscope (TCE) that requires no sedation for oral ingestion and esophageal inspection. The TCE uses scanned red, green, and blue laser light to image the upper digestive tract using a swallowable capsule of 6.4mm in diameter and 18mm in length on a 1.4mm diameter tether. The TCE has been modified for image-guided interventions in the lower esophagus, specifically for more effective detection and measurement of the extent of Barrett's esophagus, a precursor to esophageal cancer. Three modifications have been tested in vivo: (1) weighting the capsule so it is negatively buoyant in water, (2) increasing the frame rate of 500-line images to 30 Hz (video rate), and (3) adding a 1.0mm inner diameter working channel alongside the tether for distending the lower esophagus with air pressure during endoscopy. All three modifications proved effective for more clearly visualizing the lower esophagus in the first few human subjects. The air channel was especially useful because it did not change tolerability in the first subject for unsedated endoscopy and the air easily removed bubbles obscuring tissue from the field of view. The air provided a non-invasive intervention by stimulating the mechanosensor of the lower esophageal sphincter at the precise time that the TCE was positioned for most informative imaging. All three TCE modifications proved successful for improved visualization of esophageal pathology, such as suspected Barrett's esophagus, without the use of sedation.

  9. Reduced Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in Statin Users: Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Beales, Ian L P; Dearman, Leanne; Vardi, Inna; Loke, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Use of statins has been associated with a reduced incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in population-based studies. However there are few studies examining statin use and the development of Barrett's esophagus. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between statin use and the presence of Barrett's esophagus in patients having their first gastroscopy. We have performed a case-control study comparing statin use between patients with, and without, an incident diagnosis of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Male Barrett's cases (134) were compared to 268 male age-matched controls in each of two control groups (erosive gastro-esophageal reflux and dyspepsia without significant upper gastrointestinal disease). Risk factor and drug exposure were established using standardised interviews. Logistic regression was used to compare statin exposure and correct for confounding factors. We performed a meta-analysis pooling our results with three other case-control studies. Regular statin use was associated with a significantly lower incidence of Barrett's esophagus compared to the combined control groups [adjusted OR 0.62 (95 % confidence intervals 0.37-0.93)]. This effect was more marked in combined statin plus aspirin users [adjusted OR 0.43 (95 % CI 0.21-0.89)]. The inverse association between statin or statin plus aspirin use and risk of Barrett's was significantly greater with longer duration of use. Meta-analysis of pooled data (1098 Barrett's, 2085 controls) showed that statin use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of Barrett's esophagus [pooled adjusted OR 0.63 (95 % CI 0.51-0.77)]. Statin use is associated with a reduced incidence of a new diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus.

  10. Role of brush cytology in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, Femila; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Although debatable, role of cytology in diagnosing Barrett's esophagus has been stressed by some authors. Our brief report analyses the role of brush cytology (BC) in its diagnosis. Eight patients who presented with upper gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and subsequently diagnosed to have Barrett's esophagus with or without adenocarcinoma on brush cytology (BC) or, endoscopic biopsy (EB) or, a combination of both the techniques were included in the study. In all the cases routine cytologic smears and histologic sections with relevant special stains (when essential) were studied. On cytology, the diagnosis of "Barrett's esophagus" was made when the esophageal brushings obtained from a region beyond 3 cm from the gastroesophageal junction showed closely intermingled clusters of squamous and columnar cells, or when there was evidence of intestinal metaplasia. Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus was diagnosed by the usual criteria for malignancy with features of adenocarcinoma. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the histologic diagnoses. Of the eight cases, seven had histopathologic correlation of which six had evidence of BE on BC; four had cytohistologic concordance, of which three cases revealed adenocarcinoma arising in BE. Two endoscopic biopsies were nonrepresentative. In one case, cytology missed Barrett's esophagus. For two cases in which cytology detected Barrett's mucosa, biopsies were nonrepresentative. Our study showed brush cytology (BC) to be a fairly reliable test for detecting Barrett's esophagus. Owing to its inherent advantage of sampling a wider and circumferential area, a technically well performed brushing procedure is likely to be more representative and superior than multiple endoscopic biopsies. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Survival of stomach and esophagus cancer patients in Germany in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hiripi, Eva; Jansen, Lina; Gondos, Adam; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Luttmann, Sabine; Nennecke, Alice; Brenner, Hermann

    2012-09-01

    Esophagus and stomach cancers are associated with poor prognosis. But most published population-based cancer survival estimates for stomach and esophagus cancer refer to survival experience of patients diagnosed in the 1990s or earlier years. The aim of this study was to provide up-to-date survival estimates and trends for patients with stomach and esophagus cancer in Germany. Our analysis is based on data from 11 population-based cancer registries, covering 33 million inhabitants. Patients diagnosed with stomach and esophagus cancer in 1997-2006 were included. Period analysis was used to derive five-year relative survival estimates and trends by age, sex, cancer subsite, and stage for the time period of 2002-2006. German and US survival estimates were compared utilizing the SEER 13 database. Overall age-standardized five-year relative survival was 31.8% and 18.3% for stomach and esophagus cancer, respectively, compared to 27.2% and 17.4% in the US. Survival was somewhat higher among female than among male patients for both cancer sites (33.6% vs. 30.6% and 21.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively) and much higher for non-cardia stomach cancer (40.4%) than for cardia cancer (23.4%). From 2002 to 2006, a moderate increase in five-year relative survival by 2.7 percent units was observed for non-cardia stomach cancer patients in Germany (p < 0.001). Five-year relative cancer survival has reached levels around 40% for patients with non-cardia stomach cancer in Germany in the early 21st century, whereas it remained at lower levels around 20% for patients with esophagus and cardia cancer.

  12. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use is Not Associated With Reduced Risk of Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Thrift, Aaron P.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Murray, Liam J.; Cook, Michael B.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Rubenstein, Joel H.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Schneider, Jennifer L.; Whiteman, David C.; Corley, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiological studies examining the association between NSAID use and the risk of the precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, have been inconclusive. METHODS We analyzed pooled individual-level participant data from six case-control studies of Barrett's esophagus in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). We compared medication use from 1474 patients with Barrett's esophagus separately with two control groups: 2256 population-based controls and 2018 gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) controls. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models and were combined using a random effects meta-analytic model. RESULTS Regular (at least once weekly) use of any NSAIDs was not associated with the risk of Barrett's esophagus (vs. population-based controls, adjusted OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.76–1.32; I2=61%; vs. GERD controls, adjusted OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82–1.19; I2=19%). Similar null findings were observed among individuals who took aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs. We also found no association with highest levels of frequency (at least daily use) and duration (≥5 years) of NSAID use. There was evidence of moderate between-study heterogeneity; however, associations with NSAID use remained non-significant in “leave-one-out” sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS Use of NSAIDs was not associated with the risk of Barrett's esophagus. The previously reported inverse association between NSAID use and esophageal adenocarcinoma may be through reducing the risk of neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett's esophagus. PMID:27575711

  13. Characterization and mechanisms of the pharyngeal swallow activated by stimulation of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Shaker, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Stimulation of the esophagus activates the pharyngeal swallow response (EPSR) in human infants and animals. The aims of this study were to characterize the stimulus and response of the EPSR and to determine the function and mechanisms generating the EPSR. Studies were conducted in 46 decerebrate cats in which pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal motility was monitored using EMG, strain gauges, or manometry. The esophagus was stimulated by balloon distension or luminal fluid infusion. We found that esophageal distension increased the chance of occurrence of the EPSR, but the delay was variable. The chance of occurrence of the EPSR was related to the position, magnitude, and length of the stimulus in the esophagus. The most effective stimulus was long, strong, and situated in the cervical esophagus. Acidification of the esophagus activated pharyngeal swallows and sensitized the receptors that activate the EPSR. The EPSR was blocked by local anesthesia applied to the esophageal lumen, and electrical stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve caudal to the cricoid cartilage (RLNc) activated the pharyngeal swallow response. We conclude that the EPSR is activated in a probabilistic manner. The receptors mediating the EPSR are probably mucosal slowly adapting tension receptors. The sensory neural pathway includes the RLNc and superior laryngeal nerve. We hypothesize that, because the EPSR is observed in human infants and animals, but not human adults, activation of EPSR is related to the elevated position of the larynx. In this situation, the EPSR occurs rather than secondary peristalsis to prevent supraesophageal reflux when the esophageal bolus is in the proximal esophagus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Association between Helicobacter pylori and Barrett's esophagus, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Joel H; Inadomi, John M; Scheiman, James; Schoenfeld, Philip; Appelman, Henry; Zhang, Min; Metko, Val; Kao, John Y

    2014-02-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori, particularly the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA)+ strain, is believed to protect against Barrett's esophagus, but it is not clear if it protects against gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to determine whether H pylori infection is associated with GERD symptoms, erosive esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus within the same cohort. We analyzed data from a case-control study of 533 men (ages, 50-79 y) who underwent colorectal cancer screening at 2 tertiary medical centers in Michigan between 2008 and 2011 and who also were recruited to undergo upper endoscopy. We assessed 80 additional men found to have Barrett's esophagus during clinically indicated upper-endoscopy examinations. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between serum antibodies against H pylori or cagA and GERD symptoms, esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus, compared with randomly selected men undergoing colorectal cancer screens (n = 177). H pylori infection was associated inversely with Barrett's esophagus (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.97), particularly the cagA+ strain (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90). There was a trend toward an inverse association with erosive esophagitis (H pylori OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.37-1.08; and cagA+ OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.21-1.03). However, GERD symptoms were not associated with H pylori infection (OR, 0.948; 95% CI, 0.548-1.64; and cagA+ OR, 0.967; 95% CI, 0.461-2.03). Based on a case-control study, infection with H pylori, particularly the cagA+ strain, is associated inversely with Barrett's esophagus. We observed a trend toward an inverse association with esophagitis, but not with GERD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ESGE Survey: worldwide practice patterns amongst gastroenterologists regarding the endoscopic management of Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Simon J.; Neilson, Laura J.; Hassan, Cesare; Sharma, Prateek; Guy, Claire; Rees, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Barrett’s esophagus is a common condition that is widely encountered in clinical practice. This European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) survey aimed to determine practice patterns amongst European clinicians with regard to the diagnosis and management of Barrett’s esophagus. Methods: Clinicians attending the ESGE learning area at the United European Gastroenterology Week in 2014 were invited to complete a 10-question survey. This survey was programed on to two Apple iPads. Information was gathered with regard to demographics, practice settings, and diagnosis and management strategies for Barrett’s esophagus. Results: In total, 163 responses were obtained. Over half of respondents (61 %) were based in university hospitals, the majority (78 %) were aged 30 – 50 and half had more than 10 years’ experience; 66 % had attended courses on Barrett’s esophagus and more than half (60 %) used the Prague C & M classification. Advanced imaging was used by 73 % of clinicians and 72 % of respondents stated that their group practiced ablation therapy. Most (76 %) practiced surveillance for non-dysplastic Barrett’s, 6 % offered ablation therapy in some situations, and 18 % offered no intervention. For low grade dysplasia, 56 % practiced surveillance, 19 % ablated some cases and 15 % ablated all cases. In total, 32 % of clinicians referred high grade dysplasia to expert centers, with 20 % referring directly for surgery and 46 % using ablation therapy in certain cases. Endoscopic mucosal resection was the most commonly used ablation technique (44 %). Conclusions: There has been reasonable uptake of the Prague C & M classification for describing Barrett’s esophagus, and ablation is widely practiced. However, practice patterns for Barrett’s esophagus vary widely between clinicians with clear guidance and quality standards required. PMID:26793783

  16. Sex steroid hormones in relation to Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of the FINBAR Study.

    PubMed

    Cook, M B; Wood, S; Hyland, P L; Caron, P; Drahos, J; Falk, R T; Pfeiffer, R M; Dawsey, S M; Abnet, C C; Taylor, P R; Guillemette, C; Murray, L J; Anderson, L A

    2017-03-01

    Previously, we observed strong positive associations between circulating concentrations of free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in relation to Barrett's esophagus in a US male military population. To replicate these findings, we conducted a second study of sex steroid hormones and Barrett's esophagus in the Factors Influencing the Barrett/Adenocarcinoma Relationship (FINBAR) Study based in Northern Ireland and Ireland. We used mass spectrometry to quantitate EDTA plasma concentrations of nine sex steroid hormones and ELISA to quantitate sex hormone-binding globulin in 177 male Barrett's esophagus cases and 185 male general population controls within the FINBAR Study. Free testosterone, free DHT, and free estradiol were estimated using standard formulas. Multivariable logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of associations between exposures and Barrett's esophagus. While plasma hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were not associated with all cases of Barrett's esophagus, we did observe positive associations with estrogens in younger men (e.g. estrone + estradiol ORcontinuous per ½IQR  = 2.92, 95%CI:1.08, 7.89), and free androgens in men with higher waist-to-hip ratios (e.g. free testosterone ORcontinuous per ½IQR  = 2.71, 95%CI:1.06, 6.92). Stratification by body mass index, antireflux medications, and geographic location did not materially affect the results. This study found evidence for associations between circulating sex steroid hormones and Barrett's esophagus in younger men and men with higher waist-to-hip ratios. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether sex steroid hormones are consistently associated with esophageal adenocarcinogenesis.

  17. Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, Erlotinib Hydrochloride, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery and Erlotinib Hydrochloride After Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cancer of the Esophagus or Gastroesophageal Junction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage II Esophageal Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer

  18. The challenge of esophagoscopy in infants with open safety pin in the esophagus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bizakis, J G; Prokopakis, E P; Papadakis, C E; Skoulakis, C E; Velegrakis, G A; Helidonis, E S

    2000-01-01

    Among all foreign bodies impacted at the esophagus, the safety pin still seems to be a challenge for the specialist. This is a report of 2 cases presenting infants with open safety pin impacted in the esophagus. The strategy and intraoperative management of this rare finding is discussed in detail.

  19. New barium paste mixture for helical (slip-ring) CT evaluation of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Noda, Y; Ogawa, Y; Nishioka, A; Inomata, T; Yoshida, S; Toki, T; Ogoshi, S; Ma, J

    1996-01-01

    Successful opacification of the lumen of the esophagus with cancer or paraesophageal diseases has not yet been fully achieved. Therefore, we have recently adopted a new method for complete and continuous opacification of the whole thoracic esophagus using our newly developed oral contrast agent with a helical (slip-ring) CT scanner. The agent consists of 3.6 (wt/vol)% carboxy-methyl cellulose sodium paste containing 2 (wt/vol)% barium sulfate. The results indicate that almost complete and continuous opacification of esophageal lumen was achieved. Our new method of esophageal CT is easy to perform and was well tolerated by patients, being therefore ideal for routine examinations.

  20. Progression of Barrett’s esophagus toward esophageal adenocarcinoma: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Schoofs, Nele; Bisschops, Raf; Prenen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In Barrett’s esophagus, normal squamous epithelium is replaced by a metaplastic columnar epithelium as a consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease. There is a strong association with esophageal adenocarcinoma. In view of the increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the western world, it is important that more attention be paid to the progression of Barrett’s esophagus toward esophageal adenocarcinoma. Recently, several molecular factors have been identified that contribute to the sequence towards adenocarcinoma. This might help identify patients at risk and detect new targets for the prevention and treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the future. PMID:28042232

  1. Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongkyun; Schlachter, Simon C; Carruth, Robert W; Kim, Minkyu; Wu, Tao; Tabatabaei, Nima; Soomro, Amna R; Grant, Catriona N; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of esophageal diseases is often hampered by sampling errors that are inherent in endoscopic biopsy, the standard of care. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal endomicroscopy technology that has the potential to visualize cellular features from large regions of the esophagus, greatly decreasing the likelihood of sampling error. In this paper, we report results from a pilot clinical study imaging the human esophagus in vivo with a prototype SECM endoscopic probe. In this pilot clinical study, six patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (BE) were imaged with the SECM endoscopic probe. The device had a diameter of 7 mm, a length of 2 m, and a rapid-exchange guide wire provision for esophageal placement. During EGD, the distal portion of the esophagus of each patient was sprayed with 2.5% acetic acid to enhance nuclear contrast. The SECM endoscopic probe was then introduced over the guide wire to the distal esophagus and large-area confocal images were obtained by helically scanning the optics within the SECM probe. Large area confocal images of the distal esophagus (image length = 4.3-10 cm; image width = 2.2 cm) were rapidly acquired at a rate of ∼9 mm(2) /second, resulting in short procedural times (1.8-4 minutes). SECM enabled the visualization of clinically relevant architectural and cellular features of the proximal stomach and normal and diseased esophagus, including squamous cell nuclei, BE glands, and goblet cells. This study demonstrates that comprehensive spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy is feasible and can be used to visualize architectural and cellular microscopic features from large segments of the distal esophagus at the gastroesophageal junction. By providing microscopic images that are less subject to sampling error, this technology may find utility in guiding biopsy and planning and assessing endoscopic therapy

  2. Dynamic, diagnostic, and pharmacological radionuclide studies of the esophagus in achalasia

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, P.; Gelfond, M.; Zaltzman, S.; Baron, J.; Gilat, T.

    1982-08-01

    The esophagus was evaluated in 15 patients with achalasia by continuous gamma camera imaging following ingestion of a semi-solid meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc. The images were displayed and recorded on a simple computerized data processing/display system. Subsequent cine mode images of esophageal emptying demonstrated abnormalities of the body of the esophagus not reflected by the manometric examination. Computer-generated time-activity curves representing specific regions of interest were better than manometry in evaluating the results of myotomy, dilatation, and drug therapy. Isosorbide dinitrate significantly improved esophageal emptying.

  3. Dynamic, diagnostic, and pharmacological radionuclide studies of the esophagus in achalasia: correlation with manometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, P.; Gelfond, M.; Zaltzman, S.; Baron, J.; Gilat, T.

    1982-08-01

    The esophagus was evaluated in 15 patients with achalasia by continuous gamma camera imaging following ingestion of a semi-solid meal labeled with /sup 99//sup m/Tc. The images were displayed and recorded on a simple computerized data processing/display system. Subsequent cine' mode images of esophagela emptying demonstrated abnormalities of the body of the esophagus not reflected by the manometric examination. Computer-generated time-activity curves representing specific regions of interest were better than manometry in evaluating the results of myotomy, dilatation, and drug therapy. Isosorbide dinitrate significantly improved esophageal emptying.

  4. Fishbone penetration of the thoracic esophagus with prolonged asymptomatic impaction within the aorta.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Lu, Hung-I; Ng, Shu-Hang; Kung, Chia-Te

    2013-02-01

    A 54-year-old man with fishbone penetration of the thoracic esophagus and mediastinal hematoma was successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six-month follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed migration of the fishbone into the aorta; however, the patient was asymptomatic and refused surgery. Six years later, CT showed persistent impaction of the fishbone within the aorta, but the patient was healthy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of serial CT documentation of fishbone penetration of the esophagus with migration into and prolonged asymptomatic impaction within the aorta.

  5. [Malignant tumors of the esophagus in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Duda, M; Adamcík, L; Dusek, L; Skrovina, M; Jínek, T

    2012-03-01

    five-year survival was 30% in stage I and II diosease cases, 12% in stage III disorders and 2% in stage IV cases. When comparing the analysis of data from 2004 to 2007 with the analysis of data from 2000 to 2003, there is a 10% improvement in stages I and II and a 4% improvement in stage III disorders. According to the Thoracic Surgery Registry of Thoracic Procedures data covering the period 2007 to 2010, thoracic procedures are performed at 19 to 22 surgical departments, esophageal resections are performed at 13 to 14 surgical departments, but only in 8 to 9 of these departments is the frequency of such procedures more than 10 operations per year. At the authors' department, 53 esophageal resections have been performed in the past five years with a 3.8% postoperative mortality rate and a 23 % total postoperative morbidity rate. Forty-nine percent of the cases were adenocarcinomas. Based on its incidence in our population, esophageal cancer can be considered an unfrequent tumour. This analysis shows regions of the Czech Republic with higher incidence and the most at-risk age group in males. Significant risk factors for squamous cell cancer such as smoking and alcohol consumption have already been previously identified; in adenocarcinoma it is primarily Barrett's esophagus. Other risk groups include patients with achalasia and with strictures after corrosion injury to the esophagus. Acceptable treatment results may only be achieved in patients with less severe stages of the disease and it would therefore be appropriate to actively search for such patients in at-risk regions and among the risk groups as part of the preventive programs. To date, universally accepted guidelines for monitoring of such patients have not been defined. Surgical treatment is a highly specialized domain of thoracic surgeons focused on esophageal surgery and patients should be concentrated in specialized centres.

  6. Whole-genome sequencing provides new insights into the clonal architecture of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ross-Innes, Caryn S; Becq, Jennifer; Warren, Andrew; Cheetham, R Keira; Northen, Helen; O'Donovan, Maria; Malhotra, Shalini; di Pietro, Massimiliano; Ivakhno, Sergii; He, Miao; Weaver, Jamie M J; Lynch, Andy G; Kingsbury, Zoya; Ross, Mark; Humphray, Sean; Bentley, David; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2015-09-01

    The molecular genetic relationship between esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, is poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing on 23 paired Barrett's esophagus and EAC samples, together with one in-depth Barrett's esophagus case study sampled over time and space, we have provided the following new insights: (i) Barrett's esophagus is polyclonal and highly mutated even in the absence of dysplasia; (ii) when cancer develops, copy number increases and heterogeneity persists such that the spectrum of mutations often shows surprisingly little overlap between EAC and adjacent Barrett's esophagus; and (iii) despite differences in specific coding mutations, the mutational context suggests a common causative insult underlying these two conditions. From a clinical perspective, the histopathological assessment of dysplasia appears to be a poor reflection of the molecular disarray within the Barrett's epithelium, and a molecular Cytosponge technique overcomes sampling bias and has the capacity to reflect the entire clonal architecture.

  7. Basaloid-squamous carcinoma of the esophagus treated by preoperative chemotherapy: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Koide, Naohiko; Kishimoto, Kyo; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Igarashi, Jun; Maezawa, Tsuyoshi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Wataru; Amano, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus has been associated with a poor outcome after surgery. We herein report two patients with esophageal BSC treated by preoperative chemotherapy. Patient 1 was a 55-year-old man who presented with a tumor of the middle esophagus diagnosed as BSC. He was treated by chemotherapy using a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU: 750 mg/m(2), 1st-5th day, 24-h continuous infusion) and cisplatin (CDDP: 75 mg/m(2), 1st day, drip infusion per 2 h) before surgery, because of lymph node metastases of the mediastinum and around the left gastric artery. Even though the metastatic nodes were reduced and an esophagectomy was performed, the patient died of recurrence 12 months after chemotherapy. Patient 2 was a 57-year-old man who demonstrated BSC of the esophagus with direct invasion to the discending aorta, who was treated by preoperative chemotherapy using the same regimen as that of patient 1. The esophageal tumor was reduced, and a curative esophagectomy was performed. The patient is now alive without recurrence 38 months after chemotherapy. In conclusion, preoperative chemotherapy using a combination of 5-FU and CDDP may thus be an effective treatment for patients with advanced BSC of the esophagus.

  8. Foreign Body Impaction in the Esophagus: A Review of 10 Years Experience in a Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Fajolu, Oluwole

    1986-01-01

    This report reviews 271 cases of impacted foreign bodies in the esophagus seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital between January 1973 and January 1983. In 270 patients, esophagoscopy was employed to relieve the obstructions. One patient had a prolonged impaction requiring a surgical procedure. The diagnosis in two patients was made at autopsy. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:3783753

  9. Somatically acquired LINE-1 insertions in normal esophagus undergo clonal expansion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Doucet-O’Hare, Tara T.; Sharmad, Reema; Rodić, Nemanja; Anders, Robert A.; Burns, Kathleen H.; Kazazian, Haig H.

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC) is the most common form of esophageal cancer in the world and is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage when successful treatment is challenging. Understanding the mutational profile of this cancer may identify new treatment strategies. Because somatic retrotransposition has been shown in tumors of the gastrointestinal system, we focused on LINE-1 (L1) mobilization as a source of genetic instability in this cancer. We hypothesized that retrotransposition is ongoing in SCC patients. The expression of L1 encoded proteins is necessary for retrotransposition to occur; therefore, we evaluated the expression of L1 open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p). Using immunohistochemistry, we detected ORF1p expression in all four SCC cases evaluated. Using L1-seq, we identified and validated 74 somatic insertions in eight tumors of the nine evaluated. Of these, 12 insertions appeared to be somatic, not genetically inherited, and sub-clonal (i.e., present in less than one copy per genome equivalent) in the adjacent normal esophagus while clonal in the tumor. Our results indicate that L1 retrotransposition is active in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and that insertion events are present in histologically normal esophagus that expand clonally in the subsequent tumor. PMID:27319353

  10. Fulminant phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum due to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ogura, Hiroshi; Seki, Masafumi; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-03-28

    We report a case of phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum in patient in an immunocompromised state. Culture of gastric juice and blood yielded Bacillus thuringiensis. This case showed that even low-virulence bacilli can cause lethal gastrointestinal phlegmonous gastritis in conditions of immunodeficiency.

  11. Mantle cell lymphoma-like solitary polypoid tumor of the esophagus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Komeno, Takuya; Ohtani, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Primary mantle cell lymphoma of the esophagus is quite rare, and we report here a case of a submucosal polypoid tumor of the esophagus that was pathologically similar, but not identical, to mantle cell lymphoma. Case presentation A 66-year-old man underwent surgery in our hospital for a submucosal tumor of the esophagus. Histopathologically, the submucosal tumor uniformly showed a vague, nodular pattern composed of a regular proliferation of CD3-CD10-CD20+CD79a+bcl2+ small lymphoid cells with islands of abortive CD10+Ki67+ germinal centers, without evidence of marginal zone formation or lymphoepithelial lesions. These features were consistent with mantle cell lymphoma. However, the proliferating cells weakly expressed the D-type cyclins, IgD and IgM. The tumor was diagnosed as a “mantle cell lymphoma-like tumor”. Postoperative examination confirmed no tumour involvement in other organs. The patient was treated with rituximab postoperatively and has been disease free for more than 28 months after surgery. Conclusion The present case might be regarded as a “hyperplastic change of the mantle zone” without the molecular features of mantle cell lymphoma, a case that adds to the limited clinicopathological data on B-lymphoproliferative diseases of the esophagus. PMID:19829839

  12. Perspectives on narrow-band imaging endoscopy for superficial squamous neoplasms of the orohypopharynx and esophagus.

    PubMed

    Goda, Kenichi; Dobashi, Akira; Tajiri, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is widely available and over the last decade has been applied as a detection and characterization technique for superficial neoplasms of the aerodigestive tract. The aims of the present study were to systematically review clinical trials of NBI endoscopy and to investigate an upgraded NBI system using a novel endoscope for superficial squamous neoplasms in the orohypopharynx and esophagus. Studies on the diagnostic use of NBI endoscopy for superficial squamous neoplasms in the orohypopharynx and esophagus were retrieved from MEDLINE and PubMed and reviewed. An upgraded NBI system using a novel endoscope was investigated with our clinical cases. In many clinical trials, NBI endoscopy with or without magnification had high diagnostic value for superficial squamousneoplasms in the orohypopharynx and esophagus. An upgraded NBI system can produce a significantly brighter endoscopic view than conventional endoscopes with high-quality magnified images that could be used to diagnose superficial squamous neoplasms. NBI endoscopy with or without magnification has diagnostic utility for superficial squamous neoplasms in the orohypopharynx and esophagus. The upgraded NBI endoscopic system is expected to facilitate the use of NBI and magnifying endoscopic diagnosis. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  13. Screening for Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Rationale, Recent Progress, Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Sarmed S.; Ragunath, Krish; Iyer, Prasad G.

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma continue to increase, strategies to counter this need to be explored. Screening for Barrett’s esophagus, which is the known precursor of a large majority of adenocarcinomas, has been debated without a firm consensus. Given evidence for and against perceived benefits of screening, the multitude of challenges in the implementation of such a strategy and in the downstream management of subjects with Barrett’s esophagus who could be diagnosed by screening, support for screening has been modest. Recent advances in form of development and initial accuracy of non-invasive tools for screening, risk assessment tools and biomarker panels to risk stratify subjects with BE, have spurred renewed interest in the early detection of Barrett’s esophagus and related neoplasia, particularly with the advent of effective endoscopic therapy. In this review, we explore in depth, the potential rationale for screening for Barrett’s esophagus, recent advances which have the potential of making screening feasible and also highlight some of the challenges which will have to be overcome to develop an effective approach to improve the outcomes of subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24887058

  14. Impaired visceral sensitivity to acid reflux in patients with Barrett's esophagus. The role of esophageal motility*.

    PubMed

    Byrne, P J; Mulligan, E D; O'Riordan, J; Keeling, P W N; Reynolds, J V

    2003-01-01

    Patients with Barrett's esophagus have been reported to have impaired visceral sensitivity to acid perfusion and distension compared with non-Barrett's refluxers, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Esophageal motility and clearance mechanisms may be important, and this study explored the relationship of motility with symptoms. Seventy-four patients with Barrett's esophagus were compared with 216 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with abnormal acid reflux scores, and 50 symptomatic patients who had normal acid exposure. All patients had esophageal manometry and 24-h pH monitoring. Thirty-six Barrett's patients also had 24-h bile reflux monitoring. Symptoms were assessed by Symptom Index (SI) during 24-h pH monitoring. Barrett's patients with normal motility had a significantly lower SI than GERD patients for similar acid exposure (P < 0.001). Barrett's patients with abnormal motility had higher acid exposure than those with normal motility (P < 0.05), but the SI values for this group was not significantly different from the GERD patients. SI and Bile reflux in Barrett's esophagus was not significantly different in patients with normal or abnormal motility. Barrett's patients had less sensitivity than GERD patients for similar acid exposure. Normal motility in Barrett's esophagus is associated with the poorest sensitivity and the presence of increased acid exposure is required in order to achieve sensitivity levels comparable with GERD patients.

  15. Metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the esophagus with features of medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Raymond M; Alperstein, Adam; Diaz, Carlos; Klingbeil, Kyle D; Vangara, Sameera S.; Misawa, Ryosuke; Reed, Jennifer; Gaudi, Sudeep

    2017-01-01

    Summary A 41-year-old female presented with a pedunculated mass in the upper esophagus and bilateral lymphadenopathy. Biopsies suggested a neuroendocrine tumor, possibly carcinoid, and ensuing imaging revealed cervical lymph node metastases. The esophageal mass was removed endoscopically and discovered by pathologists to closely resemble medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) on immunohistochemistry staining. Following surgery, further work up demonstrated very high serum calcitonin levels, suggestive of medullary thyroid carcinoma, however the thyroid gland was normal on ultrasound. The patient underwent a neck dissection to remove the lymph node metastases and subsequently her calcitonin levels dropped to 0 ng/mL, indicating remission. It appears that the primary tumor was not in the thyroid, but in the cervical esophagus. The thyroid has appeared normal on multiple ultrasounds without any detectable nodules or masses. This is quite a unique case because this patient presented with a tumor resembling medullary carcinoma of the thyroid that presented as a pedunculated mass in the cervical esophagus. The actual final diagnosis of this mass in the cervical esophagus was neuroendocrine tumor (NET), consistent with a carcinoid tumor, not ectopic MTC. This case report highlights that calcitonin-secreting tumors outside the thyroid should not lead to erroneous recommendations for thyroidectomy. PMID:28944148

  16. Historia morbi atrocis--2 new cases of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus (Boerhaave syndrome).

    PubMed

    Tagan, D; Boesch, C; Baur, A; Berger, J P

    1990-11-24

    We report the case of two patients hospitalized within a few weeks of each other and both presenting with spontaneous rupture of the esophagus whose evolution proved fatal. We take the opportunity of drawing attention to this rare and challenging disease, which is often diagnosed too late.

  17. Non-invasive optical detection of esophagus cancer based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Duo; Huang, Lingling; Wu, Shanshan; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach was utilized for urine biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a label-free and non-invasive optical diagnostic method for esophagus cancer detection. SERS spectrums were acquired from 31 normal urine samples and 47 malignant esophagus cancer (EC) urine samples. Tentative assignments of urine SERS bands demonstrated esophagus cancer specific changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of urea and a decrease in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of normal compared with EC. The empirical algorithm integrated with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to identify some important urine SERS bands for differentiation between healthy subjects and EC urine. The empirical diagnostic approach based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 527 to 1002 cm-1 and 725 to 1002 cm-1 coupled with LDA yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 96.8%, respectively. The area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.954, which further evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity combined with LDA analysis. This work demonstrated that the urine SERS spectra associated with empirical algorithm has potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagus cancer.

  18. [Subtotal esophagus resection and stomach tube transposition in laryngectomized patients without loss of esophageal speech].

    PubMed

    Lörken, M; Jansen, M; Schumpelick, V

    1999-03-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old patient who had a laryngectomy 16 years ago because of a laryngeal carcinoma and achieved voice restoration by esophageal speech. Now a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus had been diagnosed and was treated with a subtotal esophagectomy, stomach transposition, and collar anastomosis. Postoperatively, the patient remained esophageal speech without loss of quality.

  19. Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.F.; Dodds, W.J.; Pelc, L.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Hogan, W.J.; Teeter, B.C.

    1984-02-02

    The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with (/sup -99m/Tc)sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva. 13 references, 3 figures.

  20. Migration of fishbone following penetration of the cervical esophagus presenting as a thyroid mass.

    PubMed

    Bendet, E; Horowitz, Z; Heyman, Z; Faibel, M; Kronenberg, J

    1992-01-01

    Fishbones are among the commonest foreign bodies lodged in the cervical esophagus. A small percentage of them will penetrate the esophageal wall and will be found either intra- or extraluminally. Migration of esophageal foreign bodies to the thyroid gland, and presentation as a mass, is extremely rare. We present such a case and review the relevant literature.

  1. Proximal and distal esophageal sensitivity is decreased in patients with Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Krarup, Anne L; Olesen, Søren S; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate sensations to multimodal pain stimulation in the metaplastic and normal parts of the esophagus in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE). METHODS: Fifteen patients with BE and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers were subjected to mechanical, thermal and electrical pain stimuli of the esophagus. Both the metaplastic part and the normal part (4 and 14 cm, respectively, above the esophago-gastric junction) were examined. At sensory thresholds the stimulation intensity, referred pain areas, and evoked brain potentials were recorded. RESULTS: Patients were hyposensitive to heat stimulation both in the metaplastic part [median stimulation time to reach the pain detection threshold: 15 (12-34) s vs 14 (6-23) s in controls; F = 4.5, P = 0.04] and the normal part of the esophagus [median 17 (6-32) s vs 13 (8-20) s in controls; F = 6.2, P = 0.02]. Furthermore, patients were hyposensitive in the metaplastic part of the esophagus to mechanical distension [median volume at moderate pain: 50 (20-50) mL vs 33 (13-50) mL in controls; F = 5.7, P = 0.02]. No indication of central nervous system abnormalities was present, as responses were comparable between groups to electrical pain stimuli in the metaplastic part [median current evoking moderate pain: 13 (6-26) mA vs 12 (9-24) mA in controls; F = 0.1, P = 0.7], and in the normal part of the esophagus [median current evoking moderate pain: 9 (6-16) mA, vs 11 (5-11) mA in controls; F = 3.4, P = 0.07]. Furthermore, no differences were seen for the referred pain areas (P-values all > 0.3) or latencies and amplitudes for the evoked brain potentials (P-values all > 0.1). CONCLUSION: Patients with BE are hyposensitive both in the metaplastic and normal part of esophagus likely as a result of abnormalities affecting peripheral nerve pathways. PMID:21274382

  2. High definition versus standard definition white light endoscopy for detecting dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sami, S S; Subramanian, V; Butt, W M; Bejkar, G; Coleman, J; Mannath, J; Ragunath, K

    2015-01-01

    High-definition endoscopy systems provide superior image resolution. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of high definition compared with standard definition endoscopy system for detecting dysplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A retrospective cohort study of patients with non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus undergoing routine surveillance was performed. Data were retrieved from the central hospital electronic database. Procedures performed for non-surveillance indications, Barrett's esophagus Prague C0M1 classification with no specialized intestinal metaplasia on histology, patients diagnosed with any dysplasia or cancer on index endoscopy, and procedures using advanced imaging techniques were excluded. Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing outcomes with standard definition and high-definition systems. The high definition was superior to standard definition system in targeted detection of all dysplastic lesions (odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval 1.27-8.40) as well as overall dysplasia detected on both random and target biopsies (odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.72). More non-dysplastic lesions were detected with the high-definition system (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.33). There was no difference between high definition and standard definition endoscopy in the overall (random and target) high-grade dysplasia or cancers detected (odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.04). Trainee endoscopists, number of biopsies taken, and male sex were all significantly associated with a higher yield for dysplastic lesions. The use of the high-definition endoscopy system is associated with better targeted detection of any dysplasia during routine Barrett's esophagus surveillance. However, high-definition endoscopy cannot replace random biopsies at present time. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  3. [The possibilities and barriers in endoscopic examination and treatment of esophagus cancer].

    PubMed

    Gil, Jerzy; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Koktysz, Robert

    2007-05-01

    When it comes to the effective treatment of esophagus tumor is one of the most difficult tumor to treat of all tumors of alimentary tract. It is due to the biological features of this tumor and lack of its early clinical symptoms, which would allow to recognize it in the early stage and to begin with a radical treatment. The main method to recognize the esophagous tumor is the endoscopic treatment with histopathology, and the endosonography is the best method which allows to estimate its local advancement. Endoscopy allows to detect pre-malignant phase and the early stage as well use of the alternative to surgical endoscopic methods of the treatment. Unfortunately, endoscopy made to patients with swallow discordance usually shows the advanced esophagus tumor, which is to be qualified for palliative treatment that include: widening of esophagus, different methods of ablation, endoscopic stenting and implementing alimentary gastrostomy. The choice of the treatment method should be based on the type of the tumor and the advancement stage of disease, but the clinical practice shows that the method of treatment is determined by the availability of the methods and experience. The parallel use of different methods of treatment may give better results, but the wide range of treatment methods shows the lack of optimal way of treatment, on the other hand gives the possibility to chose the individual method of optimal treatment. Surgical treatment is still method of choice in the esophagus tumor, but it is often impossible to perform or is appears to be ineffective and it creates the possibility of use of alternative endoscopic methods. The article shows the possibilities of diagnosing and different endoscopic techniques for radical treatment of earlyphase and palliative treatment of advanced tumor of esophagus.

  4. Computer-aided detection of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Curvers, Wouter L; Bisschops, Raf; Pech, Oliver; Weusten, Bas L A M; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; de With, Peter H N; Schoon, Erik J

    2016-07-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus is difficult to detect and often overlooked during Barrett's surveillance. An automatic detection system could be beneficial, by assisting endoscopists with detection of early neoplastic lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a computer system to detect early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Based on 100 images from 44 patients with Barrett's esophagus, a computer algorithm, which employed specific texture, color filters, and machine learning, was developed for the detection of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus. The evaluation by one endoscopist, who extensively imaged and endoscopically removed all early neoplastic lesions and was not blinded to the histological outcome, was considered the gold standard. For external validation, four international experts in Barrett's neoplasia, who were blinded to the pathology results, reviewed all images. The system identified early neoplastic lesions on a per-image analysis with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.83. At the patient level, the system achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. A trade-off between the two performance metrics could be made by varying the percentage of training samples that showed neoplastic tissue. The automated computer algorithm developed in this study was able to identify early neoplastic lesions with reasonable accuracy, suggesting that automated detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus is feasible. Further research is required to improve the accuracy of the system and prepare it for real-time operation, before it can be applied in clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Impairment of secondary peristalsis in Barrett’s esophagus by transnasal endoscopy-based testing

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Go; Kaise, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Tajiri, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate dysfunctions in esophageal peristalsis and sensation in patients with Barrett’s esophagus following acid infusion using endoscopy-based testing. METHODS: First, physiological saline was infused into the esophagus of five healthy subjects, at a rate of 10 mL/min for 10 min, followed by infusion of HCl. Esophageal contractions were analyzed to determine whether the contractions observed by endoscopy and ultrasonography corresponded to the esophageal peristaltic waves diagnosed by manometry. Next, using nasal endoscopy, esophageal sensations and contractions were investigated in patients with, as well as controls without, Barrett’s esophagus using the same infusion protocol. RESULTS: All except one of the propulsive contractions identified endoscopically were recorded as secondary peristaltic waves by manometry. Patients with long segment Barrett’s esophagus (LSBE) tended to have a shorter lag time than the control group, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (88 ± 54 s vs 162 ± 150 s respectively, P = 0.14). Furthermore, patients with LSBE had significantly fewer secondary contractions following the infusion of both saline and HCl than did either the control group or patients with short segment Barrett’s esophagus (4.1 ± 1.2 vs 8.0 ± 2.8, P < 0.001 and 7.3 ± 3.2, P < 0.01, respectively, following saline infusion; 5.3 ± 1.2 vs 8.4 ± 2.4 and 8.1 ± 2.9 respectively, P < 0.01 for both, following infusion of HCl). CONCLUSION: Using nasal endoscopy and a simple acid-perfusion study, we were able to demonstrate disorders in secondary peristalsis in patients with LSBE. PMID:24574755

  6. Failure of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce suspension to induce esophageal motility response in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Király, A; Süto, G; Czimmer, J; Horváth, O P; Mózsik, G

    2001-01-01

    The physiologic importance of afferent sensory pathways in the esophageal motor functions has been recently recognised. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory afferents were shown to play a role in the maintenance of mucosal integrity of the GI tract, and regulation of human esophageal motility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topical application of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce (Tabasco, 25%v/v, pH:7.0) suspension on the phasic activity of the human esophagus of healthy volunteers and patients with Barrett's esophagus. The diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus was based on the findings of esophagoscopy and histology taken from the squamocolumnar junction of the esophagus. Esophageal motility was measured by perfusion manometry before and after application of red pepper sauce. Capsaicin containing red pepper sauce increases the motility response (LES tone, contraction amplitude, propagation velocity) of the human esophagus in healthy volunteers. This response failed in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Impaired esophageal sensory motor function may serve as one etiologic role in the development of Barrett's esophagus.

  7. Presence of Hypoderma lineatum stage I larvae in the esophagus of cattle slaughtered in Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Martínez, M T; Otero Negrete, J; Benítez, R; Méndez, M A; Juárez Vega, G; Cruz-Vázquez, C

    2007-05-15

    In order to detect the presence of Hypoderma lineatum stage I larvae within the esophagus of cattle slaughtered in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico, a total of five samplings were carried out between July and November 2000. In each instance, a random sample was taken from 10% of the animals slaughtered in a single work shift in each of the two slaughterhouses included in this study. The esophagus were cut longitudinally in order to carry out visual inspection and detect the presence of H. lineatum stage I larvae in the submucosa. The larvae were separated and counted. We identified the presence of H. lineatum stage I larvae in the esophagus for all sampling dates, nevertheless, within the last sampling only one esophagus had them. For all sampling dates the prevalence ranged between 11 and 33%; the latter corresponded to the sampling in October. A total of 287 esophagus was inspected of which 54 were positive with one or more larvae (19%); 233 larvae were obtained from these cases. The number of larvae recovered per sampling ranged from 46 to 74 between July and October, the highest number was found in September's sampling. The largest amount of stage I larvae per esophagus was 22 in the months of July and August. Larvae were always located in the submucosa of the esophagus and all were oriented longitudinally.

  8. Intra-procedure Visualization of the Esophagus using Interventional C-arm CT as Guidance for Left Atrial Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Tognolini, Alessia; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Wang, Paul J.; Hsia, Henry H.; Herfkens, Robert J.; Girard, Erin; Moore, Teri; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Rational and Objectives During radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation, the esophagus is at risk for thermal injury. In this study we compared using C-arm CT to clinical CT, without administration of oral contrast, to visualize the esophagus and its relationship to the left atrium (LA) and the ostia of the pulmonary veins (PV) during the RF ablation procedure. Materials and Methods Sixteen subjects underwent both cardiac clinical CT and C-arm CT. CT scans were obtained on a multi-detector CT using a standard ECG-gated protocol. C-arm CT scans were obtained using either a multi-sweep protocol with retrospective ECG-gating or a non-gated single-sweep protocol. C-arm CT and CT scans were analyzed in a random order and then compared for the following criteria: a) visualization of the esophagus (yes/no), b) relationship of esophagus position to the 4 PVs, and c) direct contact or absence of a fat pad between the esophagus and PV antrum. Results a) The esophagus was identified in all C-arm CT and CT scans. In 4 cases, orthogonal planes were needed on C-arm CT (inferior PV level); b) In 6 patients, the esophagus location on C-arm CT was different from CT; c) Direct contact was reported in 19/64 (30%) of the segments examined on CT vs. 26/64 (41%) on C-arm CT. In 5/64 segments (8%), C-arm CT overestimated a direct contact of the esophagus to the LA. Conclusion C-arm CT image quality without administration of oral contrast agents was shown to be sufficient for visualization of the esophagus location during an RFCA procedure for atrial fibrillation. PMID:21440465

  9. Squamous Tissue Lymphocytes in the Esophagus of Controls and Patients with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett’s Esophagus Are Characterized by a Non-Inflammatory Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Alexandra; Koenderman, Leo; Kusters, Johannes G.; Siersema, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Reflux esophagitis (RE) is characterized by inflammation of the squamous epithelium (SQ) of the esophagus and may progress to Barrett’s esophagus (BE) characterized by intestinal metaplasia. The role of inflammation in this transition has been postulated but lacks experimental evidence. Here, the inflammatory responses in the esophagus of these patients were investigated. Patients and Methods Fifty-one esophageal biopsies from with patients BE (n = 19), RE (n = 8) and controls (n = 23) were analyzed. T-cells were analyzed before and after ex vivo expansion (14 days) by multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The following markers were studied: CD3, CD4, CD8 (T-cell markers), Granzyme B (marker of cytotoxicity), CD103 (αE/epithelial integrin) and NKg2a (inhibitory receptor on T-cells and NK-cells). Results Analysis of ex vivo cultures from normal looking SQ from controls, RE patients, and BE patients revealed no significant differences in the number and phenotypes of T-cells. In contrast, tissue from RE was different to normal SQ in four aspects: 1) higher percentages of CD3+CD4+-cells (72±7% vs 48±6%, p = 0.01) and 2) CD8+GranzymeB+ -cells (53±11% vs 26±4%, p<0.05), while 3) lower percentages of CD4+CD103+-cells (45±19% vs 80±3%, p = 0.02) and 4) CD8+NKg2a+- cells (31±12% vs 44±5%). Conclusion Despite the fact that both tissues are exposed to the same reflux associated inflammatory triggers, the immune response observed in RE is clearly distinct from that in SQ of BE. The differences in immune responses in BE tissue might contribute to its susceptibility for transformation into intestinal metaplasia. PMID:25170842

  10. The inaccuracy of ICD-9-CM Code 530.2 for identifying patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, B C; Gerson, L B

    2008-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a chronic complication associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The ICD-9-CM code used for BE, 530.2, is also used for patients with 'ulcer of the esophagus.' We aimed to determine if the ICD-9-CM code of 530.2 is reliable for identifying cases of Barrett's esophagus within databases for research purposes. We reviewed the records of all patients assigned code 530.2 at two university medical center hospitals and a veterans' administration hospital over a cumulative 16-year period. Billing records provided information about where the code was assigned, whether it was a major or minor diagnosis, and if the code was assigned on multiple occasions for each patient. Histology and endoscopy records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus. Among 435 patients with code 530.2 in their records, 354 (82%) had an esophageal biopsy reported and 393 (90%) had an endoscopy report available for review. Only 182 (42%) had specialized intestinal metaplasia documented in a biopsy from an area of salmon-colored mucosa arising above the esophagogastric junction (51% of those with histology available). There were 288 patients (66%) with an endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus (73% of those with an endoscopy reported). Variables associated with documented specialized intestinal metaplasia were age > or = 60 (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.7), multiple assignments of 530.2 (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.0-5.0), and assignment of 530.2 in a gastrointestinal (GI) clinic or an endoscopy unit (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.0-6.3). The positive predictive value of the code being assigned in a GI location was 48% (95% CI 43-54%). Therefore, ICD-9-CM code of 530.2 is not specific for the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus. The usage of code 530.2 in a GI setting was not sufficiently predictive of BE to be reliable for rigorous epidemiological studies.

  11. Esophagus sparing with IMRT in lung tumor irradiation: An EUD-based optimization technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Thomas, Emma; Kessler, Marc L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Ten Haken, Randall K. . E-mail: rth@umich.edu

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) to optimize dose escalation of lung tumors when the esophagus overlaps the planning target volume (PTV) and (2) the potential benefit of further dose escalation in only the part of the PTV that does not overlap the esophagus. Methods and Materials: The treatment-planning computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with primary lung tumors located in different regions of the left and right lung were used for the optimization of beamlet intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. In all cases, the PTV overlapped part of the esophagus. The dose in the PTV was maximized according to 7 different primary cost functions: 2 plans that made use of mean dose (MD) (the reference plan, in which the 95% isodose surface covered the PTV and a second plan that had no constraint on the minimum isodose), 3 plans based on maximizing gEUD for the whole PTV with ever increasing assumptions for tumor aggressiveness, and 2 plans that used different gEUD values in 2 simultaneous, overlapping target volumes (the whole PTV and the PTV minus esophagus). Beam arrangements and NTCP-based costlets for the organs at risk (OARs) were kept identical to the original conformal plan for each case. Regardless of optimization method, the relative ranking of the resulting plans was evaluated in terms of the absence of cold spots within the PTV and the final gEUD computed for the whole PTV. Results: Because the MD-optimized plans lacked a constraint on minimum PTV coverage, they resulted in cold spots that affected approximately 5% of the PTV volume. When optimizing over the whole PTV volume, gEUD-optimized plans resulted in higher equivalent uniform PTV doses than did the reference plan while still maintaining normal-tissue constraints. However, only under the assumption of extremely aggressive tumors could cold spots in the PTV be avoided. Generally, high-level overall results are obtained

  12. Esophagus tissue engineering: designing and crafting the components for the "hybrid construct" approach.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amulya K

    2014-06-01

    Although being a tubular structure, the esophagus is an extremely complex organ to engineer. To engineer an organ, its components and their structure and function must be well understood. With regards to esophagus, extensive investigations have been performed in experimental models to understand the nature of the esophageal epithelial cells with regards to their isolation, culture, and growth on scaffolds to generate epithelium. Special subpopulations of these cells have been identified that possess proliferative capabilities with subsequent differentiative capacity to generate epithelium. Studies have also been performed to obtain data on the possibilities of utilizing esophageal biopsies from esophagus damaged after caustic exposure for tissue engineering applications. Subsequently, attention is being paid to the esophageal smooth muscle which is an extremely complex structure responsible for the propulsive activities. In addition to the muscle complex, proper functioning of the esophagus will require understanding of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that controls the propulsive activity in a coordinated manner. Investigations have been performed to better understand the esophageal ENS and to isolate and maintain these cells under tissue culture conditions. Besides the cellular elements, studies have also been performed to seed these cells on scaffolds and study the constructs with regards to cell attachment and viability under tissue culture conditions. Tests have also been performed on native esophageal tissue to understand the functioning of this tissue under the effect of pharmacological agents and to establish norms to compare engineered esophageal tissue. Vascularization, which is a limiting factor in tissue engineering, has been approached with the in situ bioreactor concept using the omentum not only to provide vascular ingrowth but also to offer a pedicle for the engineered esophagus to enable its surgical transposition. This review offers an insight

  13. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  14. [Clinical profile and anesthesia during radical operations in patients with burn strictures and the esophagus and stomach cancer (literature review)].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    In the review basic problems bound with preoperative period of patients with stenosing diseases of an esophagus and a stomach are consecrated. The history of development of domestic and foreign surgery of esophagus and stomach is short state, features of a preoperative conditions of patients, there preoperative for an operative measure are shown. Various techniques of currying out of anesthesia and intraoperative monitoring of these patients a current of the early postoperative period, structure and character of postoperative complications are described.

  15. Association of adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus, "gastroesophageal junction," and "gastric cardia" with gastric pathology.

    PubMed

    Wijetunge, Sulochana; Ma, Yanling; DeMeester, Steve; Hagen, Jeffrey; DeMeester, Tom; Chandrasoma, Parakrama

    2010-10-01

    Controversy exists as to whether adenocarcinomas occurring in the gastroesophageal junctional region and gastric cardia originate in the esophagus or the stomach. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is known to be strongly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease; gastric adenocarcinoma with Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and gastric intestinal metaplasia. This study evaluates the association of these tumors with pathologic findings in the biopsies of the gastric body and the antrum. It is hypothesized that if these malignancies are esophageal, they should have little or no significant association with gastric pathology; if they are gastric, these patients should have a high prevalence of gastric pathology. Between 2004 and 2008, 234 patients were diagnosed with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and/or adenocarcinoma; 107 were distal esophageal, 79 straddled the distal end of the tubular esophagus, and 48 were in the "gastric cardia." Simultaneous biopsies of the distal body and antrum were present in 185 patients; 49 had biopsy of either antrum or body. Gastric biopsies were assessed for inflammation, H. pylori infection, and intestinal metaplasia. During this period, 2146 patients had nonmalignant columnar epithelia in the esophagus with similar assessment of the stomach; these acted as a control group. The gastric biopsy was normal in 201/234 (85.9%) patients and showed significant inflammation, H. pylori infection, and/or gastric intestinal metaplasia in 33/234 (14.1%) patients. There was no gastritis, H. pylori infection, or intestinal metaplasia in 88/107 (82.2%) of the patients with distal esophageal HGD and/or adenocarcinoma, 70/79 (88.6%) with junctional HGD and/or adenocarcinoma, and 43/48 (85.9%) with "gastric cardiac" HGD and/or adenocarcinoma. The incidence of gastritis was significantly higher in the patients with HGD and/or adenocarcinoma (33/234 or 14.1%) than in the control population (146/2146 or 9.0%; P=0.01). This difference was largely the result of a

  16. Advances in the management of Barrett’s esophagus and early esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajaypal; Chak, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has markedly increased in the United States over the last few decades. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is the most significant known risk factor for this malignancy. Theoretically, screening and treating early BE should help prevent EAC but the exact incidence of BE and its progression to EAC is not entirely known and cost-effectiveness studies for Barrett’s screening are lacking. Over the last few years, there have been major advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis and endoscopic management of BE. These developments focus on early recognition of advanced histology and endoscopic treatment of high-grade dysplasia. Advanced resection techniques now enable us to endoscopically treat early esophageal cancer. In this review, we will discuss these recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of Barrett’s esophagus and early esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26486568

  17. [Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Atsuo; Sekine, Atsuo

    2005-08-01

    Intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's esophagus is pre-cancerous lesion and it is important to diagnose intestinal metaplasia by endoscopic examination. Predefined 4 quadrant sampling technique is popular in western countries. However, chromoendoscopy or magnification endoscopy have been tried to diagnose intestinal metaplasia. We have carried out magnification endoscopy with methylene blue and magnification endoscopy with acetic acid. In magnification endoscopy with methylene blue, intestinal metaplasia showed blue-staining area with tubulaous or cavernous pattern. In magnification endoscopy with acetic acid, all of epithelium of Barrett's esophagus changed to whitening surface and it was easy to observe the structure of each epithelium. Intestinal metaplasia showed tubulaous or villous, although fundic type showed pits of small round and cardiac type showed oval pattern with central-slit pits.

  18. [Endoscopic submucosal dissection of a leiomyoma originating from the muscularis propria of upper esophagus].

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung Soo; Hong, Su Jin; Han, Jae Pil; Seo, Jung Yeon; Yoon, La Young; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-10-01

    The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection is occasionally used for resection of myogenic tumors originating from muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria of stomach and esophagus. However, endoscopic treatments for esophageal myogenic tumors >2 cm have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of large leiomyoma originating from muscularis propria in the upper esophagus. A 59-year-old woman presented with dysphagia. Esophagoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed an esophageal subepithelial tumor which measured 25 × 20 mm in size, originated from muscularis propria, and was located at 20 cm from the central incisors. The tumor was successfully removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection and there were no complications after en bloc resection. Pathologic examination was compatible with leiomyoma.

  19. Comprehensive spectral endoscopy of topically applied SERS nanoparticles in the rat esophagus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu W; Khan, Altaz; Leigh, Steven Y; Wang, Danni; Chen, Ye; Meza, Daphne; Liu, Jonathan T C

    2014-09-01

    The early detection and biological investigation of esophageal cancer would benefit from the development of advanced imaging techniques to screen for the molecular changes that precede and accompany the onset of cancer. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to improve cancer detection and the investigation of cancer progression through the sensitive and multiplexed phenotyping of cell-surface biomarkers. Here, a miniature endoscope featuring rotational scanning and axial pull back has been developed for 2D spectral imaging of SERS NPs topically applied on the lumenal surface of the rat esophagus. Raman signals from low-pM concentrations of SERS NP mixtures are demultiplexed in real time to accurately calculate the concentration and ratio of the NPs. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrate the feasibility of topical application and imaging of multiplexed SERS NPs along the entire length of the rat esophagus.

  20. Measurement of optical properties of pig esophagus by using a modified spectrometer set-up.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Martin; Lengenfelder, B; Kanawade, R; Klämpfl, F; Douplik, A; Albrecht, H

    2017-05-02

    Optical properties (μa , μs and g) of certain human tissue types such as skin and blood have been very well investigated. However until today, for internal body organs such as the esophagus they are not well characterized. For ex-vivo measurements "Inverse Adding Doubling" (IAD) and Inverse Monte-Carlo-Simulation (IMCS) are state of the art. Both methods need the measurement of the collimated transmission. Current methods lack a proper way of measuring the collimated transmission. Hence, this measurement of the g-factor has a systematic error. Therefore, for the measurement of the collimated transmission, a new approach has been developed and evaluated with intralipid. Finally, the optical properties of mucosa, sub mucosa, muscularis and adventitia of pig esophagus tissue are calculated with IAD. The results are promising and in agreement with published literature. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Heterogeneous vesicles in mucous epithelial cells of posterior esophagus of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Guo, X; Zhong, S; Ge, T; Peng, S; Yu, P; Zhou, Z

    2015-08-25

    The Chinese giant salamander belongs to an old lineage of salamanders and endangered species. Many studies of breeding and disease regarding this amphibian had been implemented. However, the studies on the ultrastructure of this amphibian are rare. In this work, we provide a histological and ultrastructural investigation on posterior esophagus of Chinese giant salamander. The sections of amphibian esophagus were stained by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Moreover, the esophageal epithelium was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that esophageal epithelium was a single layer epithelium, which consisted of mucous cells and columnar cells. The esophageal glands were present in submucosa. The columnar cells were ciliated. According to the diverging ultrastructure of mucous vesicles, three types of mucous cells could be identified in the esophageal mucosa: i) electron-lucent vesicles mucous cell (ELV-MC); ii) electron-dense vesicles mucous cell (EDV-MC); and iii) mixed vesicles mucous cell (MV-MC).

  2. Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma of the Esophagus: A Case Report and Selected Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Christopher L.; Miller, Daniel H.; Jiang, Liuyan; Wolfsen, Herbert C.; Attia, Steven; Hintenlang, Lauren; Jagadesh, Niveditha; Miller, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas of the esophagus represent an extremely rare cause of esophageal masses, and an even smaller proportion of these tumors represent dedifferentiated liposarcomas. We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman presenting with dysphagia found to have a 5 cm pedunculated mass in the cervical esophagus, originating at the cricopharyngeus. This was found to have involvement limited to the superficial mucosa by endoscopic ultrasound, and the lesion was subsequently resected endoscopically. Pathology demonstrated an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma later determined to represent dedifferentiated liposarcoma after fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The patient received no additional adjuvant therapy and remains disease free 20 months from the procedure. While treatment experience is limited, our case demonstrates that in selected patients, sustained local control can be obtained without radical resection. PMID:28191296

  3. Endoscopic diagnosis of early carcinoma of the esophagus using Lugol's solution.

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, K; Kitamura, K; Baba, K; Ikebe, M; Kuwano, H

    1992-01-01

    Small esophageal lesions, particularly intraepithelial cancers, are extremely difficult to detect. We used Lugol's iodine solution with panendoscopic examination to detect the presence and spread of small squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus. Serial histologic specimens of the surgically removed esophagus from 32 patients with Lugol's combined endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal carcinoma were examined to determine the correlation between endoscopic and histologic findings. All of the early staged carcinomas clearly remained unstained by Lugol's solution. We believe that the application of Lugol's solution will greatly aid in instances when a suspicious mucosal lesion is noted, when the margin of the lesion is unclear, or when there is suspicion that a mucosal lesion may have been overlooked.

  4. Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry; Clavé, Pere; Farré, Ricard; Lecea, Begoña; Ruggieri, Michael R; Ouyang, Ann; Regan, Julie; McMahon, Barry P

    2013-10-01

    The following discussion on the physiology of the esophagus includes commentaries on the function of the muscularis mucosa and submucosa as a mechanical antireflux barrier in the esophagus; the different mechanisms of neurological control in the esophageal striated and smooth muscle; new insights from animal models into the neurotransmitters mediating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, peristalsis in the esophageal body (EB), and motility of esophageal smooth muscle; differentiation between in vitro properties of the lower esophageal circular muscle, clasp muscle, and sling fibers; alterations in the relationship between pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in patients with dysphagia; the mechanical relationships between anterior hyoid movement, the extent of upper esophageal opening, and aspiration; the application of fluoroscopy and manometry with biomechanics to define the stages of UES opening; and nonpharmacological approaches to alter the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry; Clavé, Pere; Farré, Ricard; Lecea, Begoña; Ruggieri, Michael R.; Ouyang, Ann; Regan, Julie; McMahon, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    The following discussion on the physiology of the esophagus includes commentaries on the function of the muscularis mucosa and submucosa as a mechanical antireflux barrier in the esophagus; the different mechanisms of neurological control in the esophageal striated and smooth muscle; new insights from animal models into the neurotransmitters mediating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, peristalsis in the esophageal body (EB), and motility of esophageal smooth muscle; differentiation between in vitro properties of the lower esophageal circular muscle, clasp muscle, and sling fibers; alterations in the relationship between pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in patients with dysphagia; the mechanical relationships between anterior hyoid movement, the extent of upper esophageal opening, and aspiration; the application of fluoroscopy and manometry with biomechanics to define the stages of UES opening; and nonpharmacological approaches to alter the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). PMID:24117648

  6. Endoscopic evaluation of esophago-gastro-jejunostomy in rat model of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Lu, S; Lowe, A W; Triadafilopoulos, G; Hsiung, P-L; Hao, Y; Crawford, J M; Wang, T D

    2009-01-01

    Endoscopy can be used to monitor the onset of metaplastic transformation and to observe the progression of neoplasia in small animal models of Barrett's esophagus. By avoiding animal sacrifice, the natural history of this disease can be studied in a longitudinal fashion. We aim to characterize the endoscopic features of esophageal mucosa at various stages of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in a rat reflux model of Barrett's for comparison with histology. Acid and bile reflux was produced by introducing a side-to-side esophago-gastro-jejunostomy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Endoscopic examination of the distal esophagus was performed in 24 surgically altered and 4 control rats, between weeks 24 and 36 after the operation in 4-week intervals, and all rats were biopsied and sacrificed at 36 weeks. Endoscopic images were classified based on the surface mucosal patterns of the distal esophagus and then compared with histology. The endoscopic appearance was classified as: (i) normal, characterized by a smooth surface; (ii) intestinal metaplasia, defined as elevated plaques/ridges, deep grooves, and thin linear folds; (iii) dysplasia, indicated by coarse folds/grooves, meshlike villi, and foveolar appearance; and (iv) carcinoma, suggested by irregular-shaped mass lesions with ulcerations. The endoscopic criteria for intestinal metaplasia yielded a sensitivity of 100% in comparison with histology. Intestinal metaplasia with high-grade dysplasia was found in two rats and with low-grade dysplasia in three rats. Both focally invasive squamous cell carcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma were found in one rat. Small animal endoscopy in a rat model of Barrett's esophagus can be used to perform surveillance, classify mucosal patterns, observe the onset of intestinal metaplasia, and monitor the progression of neoplastic transformation, representing a useful tool for studying the natural history of this disease.

  7. [Gastric esophagoplasty in cancer of the middle third of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Mamontov, A S; Orokhovskiĭ, V I; Ivanov, P A; Vasilenko, L I

    1986-08-01

    The examination of 119 corpses, experiments in 67 dogs and clinical management of 127 patients with the II-III degrees of cancer of the middle third of the esophagus have supported new methods of esophagoplasty by a tube from the greater curvature of the stomach with highly germetic sutures, longer transplants and diaphragmo-percutaneous conduction of it onto the neck. The method is shown to be more safe, less traumatic, not followed by functional alterations of the heart, lungs, diaphragm.

  8. The Trend in Histological Changes and the Incidence of Esophagus Cancer in Iran (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Maleki, Farzad; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salemi, Morteza; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth cause of death in the world, there was a lack of population-based information on the trend and incidence rate of esophagus cancer, so this study aimed to determine the incidence and pathological changes of esophagus cancer in Iran. In this study, data were extracted from annual cancer registry reports of Iranian ministry of health between 2003 and 2008. Standardized incidence rates were calculated using the world standard population, and incidence rate was calculated by age groups, sex, and histological type. Data on epidemiologic trend and histology were analyzed using Joinpoint software package. In this study, there were 18,177 recorded cases of esophagus cancer. Of all cases, 45.72% were females and 54.28% were males. Sex ratio was 1.19. The most common histological types related to squamous cell carcinoma NOS and adenocarcinoma NOS were 64.53% and 10.37%, respectively. The trend of annual changes of incidence rate significantly increased in both sexes. The annual percentage changes, the incidence rate was 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3-12.6) for women and 9.6 (95% CI: 6.0-13.2) for men. The histology type of SCC, large cell, nonkeratinizing and SCC, keratinizing and SCC, NOS had a significant decreasing trend in total population (P < 0.05). According to this study, the trend of age-standardized incidence rate of esophagus cancer in Iran is rising. Hence, to prevent and control this cancer, it is necessary to investigate related risk factors and implement prevention programs in Iran.

  9. Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul D; Lagergren, Jesper; Wolk, Alicja; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyrén, Olof

    2003-09-01

    The results of two epidemiological studies suggest that high intake of heterocyclic amines, which are formed on the surface of meats cooked at high temperatures, might be associated with increased risk of esophageal or cardia cancers. Our aim was to further investigate heterocyclic amine intake and risk of these cancers. We examined data from a nationwide, population-based, case-control study of risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in Sweden, with 185, 258, and 165 cases, respectively, and 815 controls. Heterocyclic amine intake was estimated based on the frequency of consumption and degree of surface browning of commonly fried meats, and the consumption of pan juices. Statistically nonsignificant 50-70% higher risks of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were observed among individuals in the highest quartile levels of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, and 2-amino-1methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine relative to those in the lowest. Dose-risk trends were evident. Subjects reporting high intake of all three heterocyclic amines had an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.8) relative to those with low intake of all three substances. In contrast, no association was found with risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastric cardia. Heterocyclic amine intake might be associated with an increase in risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Given the dearth of epidemiological data regarding these cancers and the lack of established biological mechanisms, confirmatory data are needed.

  10. Influence of malpractice history on the practice of screening and surveillance for Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Joel H; Saini, Sameer D; Kuhn, Latoya; McMahon, Laurence; Sharma, Pratima; Pardi, Darrell S; Schoenfeld, Philip

    2008-04-01

    Gastroenterologists' approach to surveillance for Barrett's esophagus is variable. We hypothesized that financial incentives and concerns over malpractice litigation influence gastroenterologists' usual practices regarding screening and surveillance. We surveyed gastroenterologists (N = 224) regarding their usual practice of screening or surveillance for Barrett's esophagus, belief in the efficacy of screening, knowledge of published guidelines, demographic factors, compensation structure, volume of endoscopies, and malpractice history. Practices were characterized as aggressive or conservative in the utilization of services compared with a published guideline. Twenty-one percent of attending gastroenterologists reported being identified as a defendant in at least one malpractice suit. Prior malpractice defendants had practiced gastroenterology longer and performed a higher volume of endoscopies, but had similar knowledge regarding published screening guidelines to those who had not been defendants. They were more likely to be aggressive rather than conservative in screening and surveillance for Barrett's esophagus (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-12), and remained so after controlling for other factors. In particular, they were more likely to recommend screening for populations with a lower risk of development of cancer, and to perform more frequent surveillance for low-grade dysplasia. Other factors were not associated with aggressive practice, including compensation structure. History of at least one prior malpractice suit appears to be associated with the more aggressive use of endoscopic screening and surveillance for Barrett's esophagus, irrespective of physician belief regarding the efficacy of that strategy in reducing mortality. Hypervigilance and fear of future malpractice suits may drive this increased use.

  11. Cell kinetic study on histogenesis of Barrett's esophagus using rat reflux model.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, H; Mukaisho, K; Sugihara, H; Bamba, M; Miyashita, T; Miwa, K; Hattori, T

    2003-07-01

    To elucidate the histogenesis of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, we designed a duodeno-gastric reflux model in which normal stomach function and normal nutritional status are retained. Male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The esophago-gastric junction was side-to-side anastomosed to a loop of jejunum about 3 cm distal to Treitz's ligament. The animals were not exposed to any known carcinogens during the experiment. Sequential morphological changes were studied for up to 50 weeks after surgery. Serial sections were made and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). In addition, immunohistochemical staining for bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was performed along with histochemical staining for mucins using paradoxical concanavalin A (ConA), galactose oxidase Schiff (GOS), and high-iron diamine-alcian blue (HID-AB). Severe esophagitis with squamous cell hyperplasia was noted in all animals after surgery. At week 20 after surgery, glandular metaplastic cells positive for ConA first appeared within the basal cell layer of esophageal squamous cell epithelium, and then GOS-positive cells and HID-AB goblet cells appeared. This is a characteristic of the specialized columnar epithelium of Barrett's esophagus. We detected esophageal adenocarcinomas in 1 out of 8 subjects at week 40 and in 3 out of 8 subjects at week 50 after surgery. Reflux of duodenal contents causes specialized columnar epithelium of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. As part of the sequence of events leading to the development of Barrett's esophagus, pyloric-foveolar metaplasia was observed followed by the appearance of intestinal goblet cells. The pyloric-foveolar metaplasia appears to be associated with chronic mucosal damage and regeneration. This multiplastic cell lineage is referred to as 'gut-regenerative cell lineage' (GRCL).

  12. Rapid and reproducible two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis analysis of Barrett’s esophagus tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kraly, James R.; Jones, Megan R.; Gomez, David G.; Dickerson, Jane A.; Harwood, Melissa M.; Eggertson, Michael; Paulson, Thomas G.; Sanchez, Carissa A.; Odze, Robert; Feng, Ziding; Reid, Brian J.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a high-speed two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system with a compact and high sensitivity fluorescence detector. This instrument is used for the rapid and reproducible separations of Barrett’s esophagus tissue homogenates. Proteins and biogenic amines are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde. Labeled biomolecules are separated sequentially in two capillaries. The first capillary employs capillary sieving electrophoresis using a replaceable sieving matrix. Fractions are successively transferred to a second capillary where they undergo additional separation by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The comprehensive two-dimensional separation requires 60 minutes. Within-day migration time reproducibility is better than 1% in both dimensions for the 50 most intense features. Between-day migration time precision is 1.3% for CSE and better than 0.6% for MECC. Biopsies were obtained from the squamous epithelium in the proximal tubular esophagus, Barrett’s epithelium from the distal esophagus, and fundus region of the stomach from each of three Barrett’s esophagus patients with informed consent. We identified eighteen features from the homogenate profiles as biogenic amines and amino acids. For each of the patients, Barrett’s biopsies had more than 5 times the levels of phenylalanine and alanine as compared to squamous tissues. The patient with high-grade dysplasia shows the highest concentrations for 13 of the amino acids across all tissue types. Concentrations of glycine are 40 times higher in squamous biopsies compared to Barrett’s and fundal biopsies from the patient with high-grade dysplasia. These results suggest that two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis may be of value for the rapid characterization of endoscopic and surgical biopsies. PMID:16944874

  13. A case of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from the ectopic gastric mucosa in the thoracic esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Shuji; Osada, Shinji; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Takao; Nagao, Narutoshi; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Asano, Nami; Yoshida, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A 75-year old man was detected with a pediculate tumor in the upper esophagus. A biopsy determined that it was an adenocarcinoma. A subtotal esophagectomy with dissection of three-fields of lymph nodes was selected. The pathological study revealed it to be an esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from ectopic gastric mucosa of the fundus of the stomach. His post-operative course was uneventful and without sign of recurrence for 3.5 years. PMID:21139950

  14. Laparoscopic transhiatal approach for resection of an adenocarcinoma in long-segment Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Kinoshita, Osamu; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kazuma; Sakakura, Chouhei; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma and is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, which is often preceded by a hiatal hernia. We describe a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in long-segment BE (LSBE) associated with a hiatal hernia that was successfully treated with a laparoscopic transhiatal approach (LTHA) without thoracotomy. The patient was a 42-year-old male who had previously undergone laryngectomy and tracheal separation to avoid repeated aspiration pneumonitis. An ulcerative lesion was found in a hiatal hernia by endoscopy and superficial esophageal cancer was also detected in the lower thoracic esophagus. The histopathological diagnosis of biopsy samples from both lesions was adenocarcinoma. There were difficulties with the thoracic approach because the patient had severe kyphosis and muscular contractures from cerebral palsy. Therefore, we performed subtotal esophagectomy by LTHA without thoracotomy. Using hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery, the esophageal hiatus was divided and carbon dioxide was introduced into the mediastinum. A hernial sac was identified on the cranial side of the right crus of the diaphragm and carefully separated from the surrounding tissues. Abruption of the thoracic esophagus was performed up to the level of the arch of the azygos vein via LTHA. A cervical incision was made in the left side of the permanent tracheal stoma, the cervical esophagus was divided, and gastric tube reconstruction was performed via a posterior mediastinal route. The operative time was 175 min, and there was 61 mL of intra-operative bleeding. A histopathological examination revealed superficial adenocarcinoma in LSBE. Our surgical procedure provided a good surgical view and can be safely applied to patients with a hiatal hernia and kyphosis. PMID:26269688

  15. Does impaired gallbladder function contribute to the development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Nassr, Ayman O; Gilani, Syeda Nadia Shah; Atie, Mohammed; Abdelhafiz, Tariq; Connolly, Val; Hickey, Neil; Walsh, Thomas Noel

    2011-06-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is aetiologically associated with gastro-esophageal reflux, but the mechanisms responsible for the metaplasia-dysplasia sequence are unknown. Bile components are implicated. Impaired gallbladder function may contribute to duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and harmful GERD. This study aims to compare gallbladder function in patients with Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma, and controls. Three groups of patients, all free of gallstone disease, were studied. Group 1: (n = 15) were normal controls. Group 2: (n = 15) were patients with >3-cm-long segment of Barrett's esophagus. Group 3: (n = 15) were patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Using real-time ultrasonography unit, gallbladder volume was measured in subjects following a 10-h fast. Ejection fraction was calculated before and after standard liquid meal and compared between the groups. The mean percentage reduction in gallbladder volume was 50% at 40 min in the adenocarcinoma group compared with 72.4% in the control group (p < 0.001). At 60 min, gallbladder filling had recommenced in the control group to 64.1% of fasting volume while continuing to empty with further reduction to 63% in the Barrett's group and to 50.6% (p = 0.008) in the adenocarcinoma group. The mean gallbladder ejection fraction decreased progressively from controls to Barrett's to adenocarcinoma and was significantly lower in Barrett's group (60.9%; p = 0.019) and adenocarcinoma group (47.9%; p < 0.001) compared with normal controls (70.9%). Gallbladder function is progressively impaired in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma. Gallbladder malfunction increases duodenogastric reflux, exposing the lower esophagus to an altered chemical milieu which, in turn, may have a role in promoting metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence in the lower esophageal mucosa.

  16. Macrophage Phenotype Is Associated With the Regenerative Response in Experimental Replacement of the Porcine Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Linus; Dellenmark Blom, Michaela; Friberg, Lars; Gatzinsky, Vladimir; Holmquist, Olof; Jennische, Eva; Sandin, Anders; Abrahamsson, Kate

    2016-10-01

    A porcine model for bridging circumferential defects in the intrathoracic esophagus has been developed in order to improve the treatment of children born with long-gap esophageal atresia. The aim of this study was to identify factors beneficial for tissue regeneration in the bridging area in this model and to describe the histological progression 20 days after replacement with a silicone-stented Biodesign mesh. Resection of 3 cm of intrathoracic esophagus and replacement with a bridging graft was performed in six newly weaned piglets. They were fed through a gastrostomy for 10 days, and then had probe formula orally for another 10 days prior to sacrifice. Two out of six piglets had stent loss prior to sacrifice. In the four piglets with the stent in place, a tissue tube, with visible muscle in the wall, was seen at sacrifice. Histology showed that the wall of the healing area was well organized with layers of inflammatory cells, in-growing vessels, and smooth muscle cells. CD163+ macrophages was seen toward the esophageal lumen. In the animals where the stent was lost, the bridging area was narrow, and histology showed a less organized structure in the bridging area without the presence of CD163+ macrophages. This study indicates that regenerative healing was seen in the porcine esophagus 20 days after replacement of a part of the intrathoracic esophagus with a silicone-stented Biodesign mesh, if the bridging graft is retained. If the graft is lost, the inflammatory pattern changes with invasion of proinflammatory, M1 macrophages in the entire wall, which seems to redirect the healing process toward scar formation. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dosimetric study of a brachytherapy treatment of esophagus with Brazilian 192Ir sources using an anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Lucio P.; Santos, William S.; Gorski, Ronan; Perini, Ana P.; Maia, Ana F.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Orengo, Gilberto

    2014-11-01

    Several radioisotopes are produced at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares for the use in medical treatments, including the activation of 192Ir sources. These sources are suitable for brachytherapy treatments, due to their low or high activity, depending on the concentration of 192Ir, easiness to manufacture, small size, stable daughter products and the possibility of re-utilization. They may be used for the treatment of prostate, cervix, head and neck, skin, breast, gallbladder, uterus, vagina, lung, rectum, and eye cancer treatment. In this work, the use of some 192Ir sources was studied for the treatment of esophagus cancer, especially the dose determination of important structures, such as those on the mediastinum. This was carried out utilizing a FASH anthropomorphic phantom and the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code to transport the radiation through matter. It was possible to observe that the doses at lungs, breast, esophagus, thyroid and heart were the highest, which was expected due to their proximity to the source. Therefore, the data are useful to assess the representative dose specific to brachytherapy treatments on the esophagus for radiation protection purposes. The use of brachytherapy sources was studied for the treatment of esophagus cancer. FASH anthropomorphic phantom and MCNP5 Monte Carlo code were employed. The doses at lungs, breast, esophagus, thyroid and heart were the highest. The data is useful to assess the representative doses of treatments on the esophagus.

  18. Effect of feeding regulation measures for establishing esophageal channel function in neoesophagus created with a nitinol artificial esophagus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian-hui; Cai, Pin; Luo, Zhon-ran; Liang, Xian-liang; Zhou, Xing

    2012-09-01

    This study attempted to observe the effect of feeding regulation measures (FRM) for the construction of an esophageal channel function in a neoesophagus using an artificial nitinol esophagus. Experiments were divided among groups: group 1, receiving FRM; and group 2, the non-feeding regulation measures (NFRM) group. Ten pigs survived for 6 months without any complications such as anastomotic leakage. The shedding time of the artificial esophagus in group 1 was significantly delayed in comparison with group 2 (>180 ± 0.0 days vs. 75.6 ± 27.1 days, respectively, p<0.05). In group 1, the weight changes at 3 and 6 months postoperation were significantly different in comparison with preoperative values (t = 14.86, 9.17 > 2.78, respectively; p<0.05). In group 2, the weight changes at 3 and 6 months postoperation were significantly different in comparison with preoperative values (t = 7.95, 11.37 > 2.78, respectively; p<0.05). FRM not only effectively delayed the shedding time of the artificial esophagus but also played a role in protecting the neoesophagus from stenosis, by functioned as a bougienage after artificial esophagus sloughing. Therefore, FRM is an effective way for establishing a stable eating channel in the neoesophagus when using a nitinol composite artificial esophagus to replace the resected segment of an intrathoracic esophagus.

  19. Dedicated multi-detector CT of the esophagus: spectrum of diseases.

    PubMed

    Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Zacherl, Johannes; Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris Melanie; Uffmann, Martin; Matzek, Wolfgang Karl; Pinker, Katja; Herold, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (CT) offers new opportunities in the imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. Its ability to cover a large volume in a very short scan time, and in a single breath hold with thin collimation and isotropic voxels, allows the imaging of the entire esophagus with high-quality multiplanar reformation and 3D reconstruction. Proper distention of the esophagus and stomach (by oral administration of effervescent granules and water) and optimally timed administration of intravenous contrast material are required to detect and characterize disease. In contrast to endoscopy and double-contrast studies of the upper GI tract, CT provides information about both the esophageal wall and the extramural extent of disease. Preoperative staging of esophageal carcinoma appears to be the main indication for MDCT. In addition, MDCT allows detection of other esophageal malignancies, such as lymphoma and benign esophageal tumors, such as leiomyma. A diagnosis of rupture or fistula of the esophagus can be firmly established using MDCT. Furthermore, miscellaneous esophageal conditions, such as achalasia, esophagitis, diverticula, and varices, are incidental findings and can also be visualized with hydro-multi-detector CT. Multi-detector CT is a valuable tool for the evaluation of esophageal wall disease and serves as an adjunct to endoscopy.

  20. Animal models of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma–Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Harit; Lohani, Kush Raj; Lee, Tommy H.; Agrawal, Devendra K.; Mittal, Sumeet K.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is the fastest rising cancer in the United States. It develops from long-standing gastroesophageal reflux disease which affects >20% of the general population. It carries a very poor prognosis with five-year survival <20%. The disease is known to sequentially progress from reflux esophagitis to a metaplastic precursor, Barrett's esophagus and then onto dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, only few patients with reflux develop Barrett's esophagus and only a minority of these turn malignant. The reason for this heterogeneity in clinical progression is unknown. To improve patient management, molecular changes which facilitate disease progression must be identified. Animal models can provide a comprehensive functional and anatomic platform for such a study. Rats and mice have been the most widely studied but disease homology with humans has been questioned. No animal model naturally simulates the inflammation to adenocarcinoma progression as in humans, with all models requiring surgical bypass or destruction of existing antireflux mechanisms. Valuable properties of individual models could be utilized to holistically evaluate disease progression. In this review article, we critically examined the current animal models of Barrett's esophagus, their differences and homologies with human disease and how they have shaped our current understanding of Barrett's carcinogenesis. PMID:26211420

  1. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the esophagus: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Kato, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Norihiro; Nakajima, Masanobu; Manda, Ryokuhei; Fukuchi, Minoru; Tsukada, Katsuhiko; Kojima, Masaru; Nakajima, Takashi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    We report the histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features of another case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma arising from the esophagus and discuss the problems of differential diagnosis. The patient was a 49-year-old man, who had no gastrointestinal symptoms. On endoscopy, a smooth-surfaced, semibulbous lesion was found 36 cm from the incisors. We performed radical resection of this submucosal tumor with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment. The immunophenotype of the centrocyte-like-cells was CD20+, BCL2+, CD5-, CD10-, CD23- CD45RO- and cyclin D1-. Diffuse immunostaining of bcl-2 was detected in the nuclei of the tumor cells without lymph follicles. Southern blotting analyses of the IgH gene detected a single dominant band indicative of a clonal IgH rearrangement. From the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological features we concluded that the tumor was a MALT lymphoma. Only three cases of primary esophageal MALT lymphoma have been reported to date. On the basis of the present case and the three previously reported cases, we suggest that MALT lymphoma of the esophagus is usually an elevated type. The spectrum of sites in which gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma occurs should be expanded to include the esophagus.

  2. Kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation and glycolysis in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma via targeting EGFR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shihua; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Chunguang; Zhao, Tiejun; Jin, Hai; Fang, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    Antitumor activity of kaempferol has been studied in various tumor types, but its potency in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma is rarely known. Here, we reported the activity of kaempferol against esophagus squamous cell carcinoma as well as its antitumor mechanisms. Results of cell proliferation and colony formation assay showed that kaempferol substantially inhibited tumor cell proliferation and clone formation in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that tumor cells were induced G0/G1 phase arrest after kaempferol treatment, and the expression of protein involved in cell cycle regulation was dramatically changed. Except the potency on cell proliferation, we also discovered that kaempferol had a significant inhibitory effect against tumor glycolysis. With the downregulation of hexokinase-2, glucose uptake and lactate production in tumor cells were dramatically declined. Mechanism studies revealed kaempferol had a direct effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity, and along with the inhibition of EGFR, its downstream signaling pathways were also markedly suppressed. Further investigations found that exogenous overexpression of EGFR in tumor cells substantially attenuated glycolysis suppression induced by kaempferol, which implied that EGFR also played an important role in kaempferol-mediated glycolysis inhibition. Finally, the antitumor activity of kaempferol was validated in xenograft model and kaempferol prominently restrained tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of EGFR activity and hexokinase-2 expression were observed in kaempferol-treated tumor tissue, which confirmed these findings in vitro. Briefly, these studies suggested that kaempferol, or its analogues, may serve as effective candidates for esophagus squamous cell carcinoma management.

  3. The evolution of viscous flow structures in the esophagus during tracheoesophageal speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron; Hemsing, Frank

    2015-11-01

    A laryngectomy is an invasive surgical procedure whereby the entire larynx is removed, usually as a result of cancer. Removal of the larynx renders conventional voiced speech impossible, with the most common remediation following surgery being tracheoeosphageal (TE) speech. TE speech is produced by inserting a one-way valve to connect the posterior wall of the trachea with the anterior wall of the esophagus. As air is forced up from the lungs it passes through the prosthesis and into the esophagus. The resulting esophageal pressure field incites self-sustained oscillations of the pharyngoesophageal segment (PES), which ultimately produces sound. Unfortunately, the physics of TE speech are not well understood, with up to 50% of individuals unable to produce intelligible sound. This failure can be related to a lack of understanding regarding the esophageal flow field, where all previous scientific investigations have assumed the flow is one-dimensional and steady. An experimental TE speech flow facility was constructed and particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired at the exit of the model prosthesis (entrance of the esophagus). The flow is observed to be highly unsteady, and the formation and propagation of vortical flow structures through the esophageal tract are identified. Observations regarding the influence of the flow dynamics on the esophageal pressure field and its relation to the successful production of TE speech are discussed.

  4. Restoration of the normal squamous lining in Barrett's esophagus by argon beam plasma coagulation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J P; Armstrong, G R; Attwood, S E

    1998-10-01

    Barrett's esophagus is associated with significantly increased risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Replacing columnar epithelium with the normal squamous lining in this condition offers the possibility of decreasing the risk of degeneration to invasive adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of argon beam plasma coagulation (ABPC), in conjunction with control of gastroesophageal reflux, to restore the squamous lining. Thirty patients with Barrett's esophagus (four low-grade dysplasia, three high-grade) were recruited from our surveillance program, and underwent endoscopic ABPC. Twenty-seven patients completed treatment, with macroscopic replacement of their columnar lining by squamous epithelium, histologically confirmed in all 27, and followed up for a median of 9 months (range, 6-18 months). Two patterns of squamous replacement were identified: 70% of patients showed squamous epithelium with no persistent intestinal metaplasia, and in 30% the new squamous epithelium covered areas of underlying intestinal metaplasia. One patient has withdrawn from the study. Two esophageal perforations, with one death, occurred early in the study. ABPC, in conjunction with control of gastroesophageal reflux, allows squamous regrowth in both benign and dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Despite the theoretical safety advantages of ABPC over techniques such as laser, esophageal perforation may occur with this technique. It is too soon to recommend ABPC for dysplastic or nondysplastic Barrett's because follow-up is too short to show a decreased incidence of and mortality from adenocarcinoma.

  5. Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Chintan; Shah, Neil; Nathan, Ramasamy Swami

    2014-07-16

    Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus is a variant of a squamous cell cancer. Our case is a 78-year-old male patient comes in with the dysphagia and weight loss, and on endoscopy (EGD) he is found to have an irregular intraluminal mass at the distal esophagus. With the deep EGD assisted biopsy, diagnosis of the verrucous carcinoma is made. Due to multiple co morbidities and possible infiltration to the pericardium, patient is taken for the esophageal stent placement and is being referred for the chemo-radiation treatment. The diagnosis can be very difficult to make with the superficial biopsies due to very non specific histological changes and requires very high clinical suspicion and deep mucosal biopsies are required for accurate diagnosis of the tumor. Chronic and local disease process is the main risk factor for the development of the verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus. Surgery is the treatment of the choice for the early stage tumor and advanced cases are treated with the palliation and possibly chemo- radiation. The prognosis is usually guarded and needs long term follow up.

  6. Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Chintan; Shah, Neil; Nathan, Ramasamy Swami

    2014-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus is a variant of a squamous cell cancer. Our case is a 78-year-old male patient comes in with the dysphagia and weight loss, and on endoscopy (EGD) he is found to have an irregular intraluminal mass at the distal esophagus. With the deep EGD assisted biopsy, diagnosis of the verrucous carcinoma is made. Due to multiple co morbidities and possible infiltration to the pericardium, patient is taken for the esophageal stent placement and is being referred for the chemo-radiation treatment. The diagnosis can be very difficult to make with the superficial biopsies due to very non specific histological changes and requires very high clinical suspicion and deep mucosal biopsies are required for accurate diagnosis of the tumor. Chronic and local disease process is the main risk factor for the development of the verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus. Surgery is the treatment of the choice for the early stage tumor and advanced cases are treated with the palliation and possibly chemo- radiation. The prognosis is usually guarded and needs long term follow up. PMID:25032204

  7. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of esophagus during the early phase of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancer and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ, and early invasive carcinoma in order to investigate the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of tumor progression. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. The infiltration depth during tumor progression was determined by the appearance of cancerous cells. The significant change of layer structure between cancerous tissue and normal esophagus was described. We also quantitatively described the differences of morphology between normal and cancerous cells. These results correlated well with the corresponding histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Presentation and Management of Giant Fibrovascular Polyps of the Hypopharynx and Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Anzalone, C Lane; Salazar, Esperanza; Donovan, Donald T

    2017-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyps of the hypopharynx and esophagus are rare, with few case reports in the literature. In this article, we present our institutional experience with a focus on airway and surgical management. Case series. Tertiary academic institution. A retrospective review was conducted of 4 patients that presented to a tertiary medical center with fibrovascular polyps between 1990 and 2012. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, and surgical approaches were reviewed. A review of the published literature was also performed. The average age at presentation was 72 years (range, 59-85 years). Among the 4 patients, 2 presented with airway compromise requiring tracheotomy. All patients had removal of the polyp shortly after presentation; 2 underwent transcervical approaches with lateral pharyngotomy/esophagotomy, and the other 2 had endoscopic removal. The polyps arose from the hypopharynx in 3 patients and upper esophagus in 1. Three patients had complete resolution of their symptoms and remained disease free. One patient had recurrence of the polyp 2 years later and is currently being observed. Fibrovascular polyps are rare tumors of the hypopharynx/esophagus that present in older adults. Although benign, they can cause life-threatening airway compromise that may necessitate tracheotomy. We present 4 cases of fibrovascular polyps and discuss our evolving surgical management, including endoscopic removal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Circumferential optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the swine esophagus using a micromotor balloon catheter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Liang, Kaicheng; Wang, Zhao; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Potsaid, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni; Fujimoto, James G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a micromotor balloon imaging catheter for ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides wide area, circumferential structural and angiographic imaging of the esophagus without contrast agents. Using a 1310 nm MEMS tunable wavelength swept VCSEL light source, the system has a 1.2 MHz A-scan rate and ~8.5 µm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor balloon catheter enables circumferential imaging of the esophagus at 240 frames per second (fps) with a ~30 µm (FWHM) spot size. Volumetric imaging is achieved by proximal pullback of the micromotor assembly within the balloon at 1.5 mm/sec. Volumetric data consisting of 4200 circumferential images of 5,000 A-scans each over a 2.6 cm length, covering a ~13 cm2 area is acquired in <18 seconds. A non-rigid image registration algorithm is used to suppress motion artifacts from non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD), cardiac motion or respiration. En face OCT images at various depths can be generated. OCT angiography (OCTA) is computed using intensity decorrelation between sequential pairs of circumferential scans and enables three-dimensional visualization of vasculature. Wide area volumetric OCT and OCTA imaging of the swine esophagus in vivo is demonstrated. PMID:27570688

  10. Barrett’s Esophagus: A Comprehensive and Contemporary Review for Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Rhonda F.; Odze, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a summary of our current understanding of, and the controversies regarding, the diagnosis, pathogenesis, histopathology, and molecular biology of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and associated neoplasia. Barrett's esophagus is defined as columnar metaplasia of the esophagus. There is worldwide controversy regarding the diagnostic criteria of BE, mainly with regard to the requirement to histologically identify goblet cells in biopsies. Patients with BE are at increased risk for adenocarcinoma which develops via a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Surveillance of patients with BE relies heavily on the presence and grade of dysplasia. However, there are significant pathologic limitations and diagnostic variability in evaluating dysplasia, particularly with regard to the more recently recognized unconventional variants. Identification of non-morphology based biomarkers may help risk stratification of BE patients and this is a subject of ongoing research. Due to recent achievements in endoscopic therapy, there has been a major shift in the treatment of BE patients with dysplasia or intramucosal cancer, away from esophagectomy and towards endoscopic mucosal resection and ablation. The pathologic issues related to treatment and its complications are also discussed in this review article. PMID:26813745

  11. Sensory and motor function of the esophagus: lessons from ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K; Liu, Jianmin; Puckett, James L; Bhalla, Vikas; Bhargava, Valmik; Tipnis, Neelish; Kassab, Ghassan

    2005-02-01

    Catheter-based high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging is a powerful tool to study esophageal sensory and motor function and dysfunction in vivo in humans. It can be combined with manometry, pH, and impedance measurement techniques to determine the relationships between different physiologic parameters. High-frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging has provided a number of important insights regarding the longitudinal muscle function of the esophagus. On the basis of the ultrasound images and intraluminal pressure recordings, it seems that there is synchrony in the timing and the amplitude of contraction between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. A sustained contraction of the longitudinal muscle layer is temporally related to esophageal chest pain and heartburn. The biomechanics of the esophageal wall and its relationship to sensory and motor function can be studied in humans in vivo by using high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound much more precisely than has previously been possible. Achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, and nutcracker esophagus are associated with hypertrophy of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Finally, high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging is the only technique that can detect reflux-related distention of the esophagus and its role in esophageal symptoms. Future approaches to display and quantify ultrasound image data are discussed. The principles of high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound described here are also applicable to study of the motor and sensory function of the other regions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. BMP signaling in the development of the mouse esophagus and forestomach

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Pavel; Da Silva, Susana; Oxburgh, Leif; Wang, Fan; Hogan, Brigid L. M.; Que, Jianwen

    2010-01-01

    The stratification and differentiation of the epidermis are known to involve the precise control of multiple signaling pathways. By contrast, little is known about the development of the mouse esophagus and forestomach, which are composed of a stratified squamous epithelium. Based on prior work in the skin, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is a central player. To test this hypothesis, we first used a BMP reporter mouse line harboring a BRE-lacZ allele, along with in situ hybridization to localize transcripts for BMP signaling components, including various antagonists. We then exploited a Shh-Cre allele that drives recombination in the embryonic foregut epithelium to generate gain- or loss-of-function models for the Bmpr1a (Alk3) receptor. In gain-of-function (Shh-Cre;Rosa26CAG-loxpstoploxp-caBmprIa) embryos, high levels of ectopic BMP signaling stall the transition from simple columnar to multilayered undifferentiated epithelium in the esophagus and forestomach. In loss-of-function experiments, conditional deletion of the BMP receptor in Shh-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox embryos allows the formation of a multilayered squamous epithelium but this fails to differentiate, as shown by the absence of expression of the suprabasal markers loricrin and involucrin. Together, these findings suggest multiple roles for BMP signaling in the developing esophagus and forestomach. PMID:21068065

  13. A mathematical model for the movement of food bolus of varying viscosities through the esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra

    2011-09-01

    This mathematical model is designed to study the influence of viscosity on swallowing of food bolus through the esophagus. Food bolus is considered as viscous fluid with variable viscosity. Geometry of esophagus is assumed as finite length channel and flow is induced by peristaltic wave along the length of channel walls. The expressions for axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, volume flow rate and stream function are obtained under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The impacts of viscosity parameter on pressure distribution, local wall shear stress, mechanical efficiency and trapping are numerically discussed with the help of computational results. On the basis of presented study, it is revealed that swallowing of low viscous fluids through esophagus requires less effort in comparison to fluids of higher viscosity. This result is similar to the experimental result obtained by Raut et al. [1], Dodds [2] and Ren et al. [3]. It is further concluded that the pumping efficiency increases while size of trapped bolus reduces when viscosity of fluid is high.

  14. Diffusion of dialkylnitrosamines into the rat esophagus as a factor in esophageal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haorah, J; Miller, D W; Brand, R; Smyrk, T C; Wang, X; Chen, S C; Mirvish, S S

    1999-05-01

    To indicate how readily nitrosamines (NAms) diffuse into the esophagus, we measured diffusion rate (flux) through rat esophagus of dialkyl-NAms using side-by-side diffusion apparatuses. Mucosal and serosal flux at 37 degrees C of two NAms, each at 50 microM, was followed for 90 min by gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis of NAms in the receiver chamber. Mucosal flux of one or two NAms at a time gave identical results. Mucosal flux was highest for the strong esophageal carcinogens methyl-n-amyl-NAm (MNAN) and methylbenzyl-NAm. Mucosal esophageal flux of 11 NAms was 18-280 times faster and flux of two NAms through skin was 13-28 times faster than that predicted for skin from the molecular weights and octanol:water partition coefficients, which were also measured. Mucosal: serosal flux ratio was correlated (P < 0.05) with esophageal carcinogenicity and molecular weight. For seven NAms tested for carcinogenicity by Druckrey et al. [(1967) Z. Krebsforsch., 69, 103-201], mucosal flux was correlated with esophageal carcinogenicity with borderline significance (P = 0.07). The MNAN:dipropyl-NAm ratio for mucosal esophageal flux was unaffected when rats were treated with phenethylisothiocyanate and was similar to that for forestomach, indicating no involvement by cytochromes P450. Mucosal esophageal flux of MNAN and dimethyl-NAm was reduced by >90% on enzymic removal of the stratum corneum, was unaffected by 0.1 mM verapamil and was inhibited 67-94% by 1.0 mM KCN and 82-93% by 0.23% ethanol. NAm flux through rat skin and jejunum was 5-17% of that through esophagus. Flux through skin increased 5-13 times after enzymic or mechanical removal of the epidermis; the histology probably explained this difference from esophagus. Hence, NAms could be quite rapidly absorbed by human esophagus when NAm-containing foods or beverages are swallowed, the esophageal carcinogenicity of NAms may be partly determined by their esophageal flux and NAm flux probably occurs by passive

  15. Secondary Chemoprevention of Barrett’s Esophagus With Celecoxib: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Elisabeth I.; Canto, Marcia Irene; Piantadosi, Steven; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Weinstein, Wilfred M.; Herman, James G.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.; Yang, Vincent W.; Shar, Albert O.; Hawk, Ernest; Forastiere, Arlene A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Barrett’s esophagus is a premalignant condition that is a risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a disease whose incidence is rapidly increasing. Because aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, such as celecoxib, may decrease the risk of developing esophageal cancer, we investigated the effect of long-term administration of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia. Methods Chemoprevention for Barrett’s Esophagus Trial (CBET) is a phase IIb multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and low- or high-grade dysplasia. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with 200 mg of celecoxib or placebo, both administered orally twice daily, and then stratified by grade of dysplasia. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 48 weeks of treatment in the proportion of biopsy samples with dysplasia between the celecoxib and placebo arms. Secondary and tertiary outcomes included evaluation of changes in histology and expression levels of relevant biomarkers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results From April 1, 2000, through June 30, 2003, 222 patients were registered into CBET, and 100 of them with low- or high-grade Barrett’s dysplasia were randomly assigned to treatment (49 to celecoxib and 51 to placebo). After 48 weeks of treatment, no difference was observed in the median change in the proportion of biopsy samples with dysplasia or cancer between treatment groups in either the low-grade (median change with celecoxib = − 0.09, interquartile range [IQR] = − 0.32 to 0.14 and with placebo = − 0.07, IQR = − 0.26 to 0.12; P = .64) or high-grade (median change with celecoxib = 0.12, IQR = − 0.31 to 0.55, and with placebo = 0.02, IQR = − 0.24 to 0.28; P = .88) stratum. No statistically significant differences in total surface area of the Barrett’s esophagus; in prostaglandin levels; in cyclooxygenase-1/2 mRNA levels

  16. Mesoesophagus and other fascial structures of the abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus: a histological study using human embryos and fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Si Eun; Bae, Sang In; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A term "mesoesophagus" has been often used by surgeons, but the morphology was not described well. To better understand the structures attaching the human abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus to the body wall, we examined serial or semiserial sections from 10 embryos and 9 fetuses. The esophagus was initially embedded in a large posterior mesenchymal tissue, which included the vertebral column and aorta. Below the tracheal bifurcation at the fifth week, the esophagus formed a mesentery-like structure, which we call the "mesoesophagus," that was sculpted by the enlarging lungs and pleural cavity. The pneumatoenteric recess of the pleuroperitoneal canal was observed in the lowest part of the mesoesophagus. At the seventh week, the mesoesophagus was divided into the upper long and lower short parts by the diaphragm. Near the esophageal hiatus, the pleural cavity provided 1 or 2 recesses in the upper side, while the fetal adrenal gland in the left side was attached to the lower side of the mesoesophagus. At the 10th and 18th week, the mesoesophagus remained along the lower thoracic esophagus, but the abdominal esophagus attached to the diaphragm instead of to the left adrenal. The mesoesophagus did not contain any blood vessels from the aorta and to the azygos vein. The posterior attachment of the abdominal esophagus seemed to develop to the major part of the phrenoesophageal membrane with modification from the increased mass of the left fetal adrenal. After postnatal degeneration of the fetal adrenal, the abdominal esophagus might again obtain a mesentery. Consequently, the mesoesophagus seemed to correspond to a small area containing the pulmonary ligament and aorta in adults. PMID:25548720

  17. Fully automatic segmentation of complex organ systems: example of trachea, esophagus and heart segmentation in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Carsten; Peters, Jochen; Weese, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Automatic segmentation is a prerequisite to efficiently analyze the large amount of image data produced by modern imaging modalities. Many algorithms exist to segment individual organs or organ systems. However, new clinical applications and the progress in imaging technology will require the segmentation of more and more complex organ systems composed of a number of substructures, e.g., the heart, the trachea, and the esophagus. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that such complex organ systems can be successfully segmented by integrating the individual organs into a general model-based segmentation framework, without tailoring the core adaptation engine to the individual organs. As an example, we address the fully automatic segmentation of the trachea (around its main bifurcation, including the proximal part of the two main bronchi) and the esophagus in addition to the heart with all chambers and attached major vessels. To this end, we integrate the trachea and the esophagus into a model-based cardiac segmentation framework. Specifically, in a first parametric adaptation step of the segmentation workflow, the trachea and the esophagus share global model transformations with adjacent heart structures. This allows to obtain a robust, approximate segmentation for the trachea even if it is only partly inside the field-of-view, and for the esophagus in spite of limited contrast. The segmentation is then refined in a subsequent deformable adaptation step. We obtained a mean segmentation error of about 0.6mm for the trachea and 2.3mm for the esophagus on a database of 23 volumetric cardiovascular CT images. Furthermore, we show by quantitative evaluation that our integrated framework outperforms individual esophagus segmentation, and individual trachea segmentation if the trachea is only partly inside the field-of-view.

  18. Interobserver reliability in the endoscopic diagnosis and grading of Barrett’s esophagus: an Asian multi-national study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. C.; Cook, M. B.; Bhatia, S.; Chow, W. H.; El-Omar, E. M.; Goto, H.; Lin, J. T.; Li, Y. Q.; Rhee, P. L.; Sharma, P.; Sung, J. J. Y.; Wong, J. Y. Y.; Wu, J. C. Y.; Ho, K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background and study aim The establishment of precise and valid diagnostic criteria is the first step towards understanding the pathogenesis of Barrett’s esophagus in Asia. The present study determined the interobserver reliability in the endoscopic diagnosis and grading of Barrett’s esophagus among Asian endoscopists. Patients and methods Video clips of endoscopy in 21 patients with and without Barrett’s esophagus were used for training (n=3) and standardized diagnosis and grading (n=18) of Barrett’s esophagus by endoscopists from seven hospitals in different Asian regions/countries. Barrett’s esophagus, where present, was graded using the Prague C & M Criteria whereby the circumferential extent of Barrett’s segment (C value), maximum extent of Barrett’s segment (M value), location of the gastroesophageal junction, and location of the diaphragmatic hiatus were scored. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated as a measure of interobserver reliability. Results A total of 34 endoscopists participated. The ICC values for the scores of C value, M value, location of the gastroesophageal junction, and location of the diaphragmatic hiatus were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88–0.97), 0.94 (0.90–0.98), 0.86 (0.78–0.94), and 0.81 (0.71–0.92), respectively, indicating excellent interobserver reliability. The differences in region/country, experience of endoscopists, volume of participating center, or the primary practice type did not have significant effect on the reliability. The ICC values for recognition of Barrett’s esophagus with an extent ≥1 cm were 0.90 (0.80–1.00) and 0.92 (0.87–0.98) for the C and M values, respectively, whereas the corresponding ICC values for Barrett’s segment <1 cm were 0.18 (0.03–0.32) and 0.21 (0.00–0.51), respectively. Conclusions Despite the relatively uncommon occurrence of Barrett’s esophagus in Asia, endoscopists in our study exhibited excellent consistency in the endoscopic diagnosis and grading

  19. Oat cell carcinoma of esophagus: a report of six British patients with a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, M.A.; McIntyre, M.; Arnott, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents 6 British patients with a diagnosis of oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Sixty-six patients have previously been reported in the literature, the majority (30) being British. Approximately two-thirds of these tumors have been reported as pure oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Four other histological patterns have been described: oat cell carcinoma with squamous carcinoma in situ; oat cell carcinoma with squamous carcinoma; oat cell carcinoma with adenocarcinoma; and oat cell carcinoma with carcinoid differentiation. A preponderance of males has also been noted, although this series shows a 2:1 female:male ratio. The tumor arises most commonly in the mid or lower esophagus. The cell of origin of these tumors is considered to be the Kulchitsky or APUD cell of neuroectodermal derivation. They may show neurosecretory granules on electron microsopy. Polypeptides have been identified within the tumor cells. One previous report describes a patient with primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus and hypercalcemia. A patient with the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion is described in this paper. Survival is poor following radiotherapy, with a median survival of 3 months in this series. On reviewing the records of the Radiation Oncology Unit in Edinburgh, no patient with oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus was reported before 1972. This suggests that awareness of this tumor is increasing and, although rare, its incidence is greater than previously reported.

  20. [Adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophagus junction associated to endobrachyesophagus. Two case reports. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Kreiker, Joseph; Daou, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Barrett esophagus (BE) is intestinal metaplasia (MI) within the distal tubular esophagus. The BE results in replacement of the normal squamous-lined epithelium with a columnar type epithelium. This metaplastic lesion is a clearly defined risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (ADC). In the western countries the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus and the gastro-esophagus junction have rapidly increased during the past twenty years. The 5-year survival is very poor. Although the relative risk of individuals in the United States with BE developing esophageal adenocarcinoma is very high, the absolute risk is extremely low due to the small number of cases. This lesion is caused by a persistent gastro-esophageal reflux. The nature of the reflux liquid is mixed acid and alkaline in the big majority of cases. A familial aggregation of BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma are present in 14% of patients with BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis, the surveillance, the new tools of characterization of BE and the therapy remain an actual problem. We present 2 cases of endobrachyesophagus associated to an adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus and a review of the main actual problem.

  1. Whole-genome sequencing provides new insights into the clonal architecture of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Andrew; Cheetham, R. Keira; Northen, Helen; O’Donovan, Maria; Malhotra, Shalini; di Pietro, Massimiliano; Ivakhno, Sergii; He, Miao; Weaver, Jamie M.J.; Lynch, Andy G.; Kingsbury, Zoya; Ross, Mark; Humphray, Sean; Bentley, David; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular genetic relationship between esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor lesion, Barrett’s esophagus, is poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing on 23 paired Barrett’s esophagus and EAC samples, together with one in-depth Barrett’s esophagus case-study sampled over time and space, we have provided new insights on the following aspects: i) Barrett’s esophagus is polyclonal and highly mutated even in the absence of dysplasia; ii) when cancer develops, copy number increases and heterogeneity persists such that the spectrum of mutations often shows surprisingly little overlap between EAC and adjacent Barrett’s esophagus; and iii) despite differences in specific coding mutations the mutational context suggests a common causative insult underlying these two conditions. From a clinical perspective, the histopathological assessment of dysplasia appears to be a poor reflection of the molecular disarray within the Barrett’s epithelium and a molecular Cytosponge™ technique overcomes sampling bias and has capacity to reflect the entire clonal architecture. PMID:26192915

  2. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Barrett’s Esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia. Barrett’s Esophagus strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumour with a very poor prognosis. We have undertaken the first genome-wide association study on Barrett’s Esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in discovery and 5,986 cases and 12,825 controls in the replication. Two regions were associated with disease risk: chromosome 6p21, rs9257809 (Pcombined=4.09×10−9, OR(95%CI) =1.21(1.13-1.28)) and chromosome 16q24, rs9936833 (Pcombined=2.74×10−10, OR(95%CI) =1.14(1.10-1.19)). The top SNP on chromosome 6p21 is within the major histocompatibility complex, and the closest protein-coding gene to rs9936833 on chromosome 16q24 is FOXF1, which is implicated in esophageal development and structure. We found evidence that the genetic component of Barrett’s Esophagus is mediated by many common variants of small effect and that SNP alleles predisposing to obesity also increase risk for Barrett’s Esophagus. PMID:22961001

  3. Acute and Long-Term Effects of Full-Power Electroporation Ablation Directly on the Porcine Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Neven, Kars; van Es, René; van Driel, Vincent; van Wessel, Harry; Fidder, Herma; Vink, Aryan; Doevendans, Pieter; Wittkampf, Fred

    2017-05-01

    Esophageal ulceration and fistula are complications of pulmonary vein isolation using thermal energy sources. Irreversible electroporation is a novel, nonthermal ablation modality for pulmonary vein isolation. A single 200 J application can create deep myocardial lesions. Acute and chronic effects of this new energy source on the esophagus are unknown. In 8 pigs (±70 kg), the suprasternal esophagus was surgically exposed. A linear suction device with a single 35-mm long and 6-mm wide protruding linear electrode inside a plastic suction cup was used for ablation. Single, nonarcing, nonbarotraumatic, cathodal 100 and 200 J applications were delivered at 2 different sites on the anterior esophageal adventitia. No proton-pump inhibitors were administered during follow-up. Esophagoscopy was performed at days 2 and 7. After euthanasia at day 60, the esophagus was evaluated visually and histologically. All ablations were uneventful. Esophagoscopy at day 2 showed small white densities in the ablated areas, which appeared to be small intraepithelial vesicles. No epithelial erythema, erosions, or ulcerations were seen. At day 7, all densities had disappeared, and all esophaguses appeared completely normalized. After euthanasia, there were no macroscopically visible lesions on the adventitia or epithelium. Histologically, a small scar was observed at the outer part of the muscular layer, whereas the mucosa and submucosa were normal. Esophageal architecture remains unaffected 2 months after irreversible electroporation, purposely targeting the adventitia. Irreversible electroporation seems to be a safe modality for catheter ablation near the esophagus. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Effect of miR-503 Down-Regulation on Growth and Invasion of Esophagus Carcinoma and Related Immune Function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Chen, Bao-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Yong-Jian; Xu, Di; Liu, Qi

    2015-11-18

    BACKGROUND MicroRNA (miR) has been proved to be an important biomarker for tumors because it can regulate occurrence, progression, invasion, and metastasis of cancer. A previous study has shown the involvement of miR-503 in multiple gastrointestinal tumors. Its detailed role and immune regulatory function in esophagus carcinoma, however, remains unknown. This study thus investigated the effect of miR-503 in regulating growth, proliferation, and invasion of esophagus cancer and its influence on cytokine secretion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Esophagus carcinoma cell line EC9706 and normal esophageal epithelial cell line HEEC were transfected with miR-503 inhibitor. MTT assay was used to quantify the cell proliferation, and a Transwell chamber was used to evaluate cell invasion. Release of cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS MiR-503 expression was significantly elevated in esophagus carcinoma cells (p<0.05). The specific inhibition of miR-503 expression remarkably suppressed proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. It can also down-regulated IL-2 and IFN-γ expression and facilitate secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 when compared to the control group (p<0.05 in all ceases). CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of miR-503 can effectively inhibit tumor progression and improve immune function, suggesting its potency as a novel drug target for esophagus cancer treatment.

  5. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Heuvel, Michel van den; Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van; Belderbos, Jose

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  6. Silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium-stent insertion in the esophagus: a comparison with plastic stents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Qi; Yang, Kai; Edmonds, Laura; Wei, Li-Ming; Zheng, Reila; Cheng, Ruo-Yu; Cui, Wen-Guo; Cheng, Ying-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of, and tissue response to silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium- and plastic-stent insertion into the esophagus in rabbits. The mechanical compression-recovery characteristics and degradation behaviors of the magnesium stent were investigated in vitro. A total of 45 rabbits were randomly divided into a magnesium- (n = 15) and a plastic- (n = 15) stent group, and underwent stent insertion into the lower third of the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance; a control group (n = 15) did not undergo the intervention. Esophagography was performed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Five rabbits in each group were euthanized at each time point for histological examination. Silicone-covered magnesium stents showed similar radial force to plastic stents (p > 0.05). The magnesium stents degraded rapidly in an acidic solution, but 90.2% ± 3.1% of the residual mass was maintained after a 2-week degradation in a solution with a pH of 4.0. All stent insertions were well tolerated. Magnesium stents migrated in six rabbits (one at 1 week, one at 2 weeks and four at 4 weeks), and plastic stents migrated in three rabbits (one at 2 weeks and two at 4 weeks; p > 0.05). Esophageal wall remodeling (thinner epithelial and smooth muscle layers) was similar in both stented groups (p > 0.05), and the esophagus wall was found to be significantly thinner in the stented groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). Esophageal injury and collagen deposition following stent insertion were similar and did not differ from the control group (p > 0.05). Esophageal silicone-covered magnesium stents provided reliable support for at least 2 weeks, with acceptable migration rates and without causing severe injury or tissue reaction compared with plastic stents.

  7. Silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium-stent insertion in the esophagus: a comparison with plastic stents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yue-Qi; Yang, Kai; Edmonds, Laura; Wei, Li-Ming; Zheng, Reila; Cheng, Ruo-Yu; Cui, Wen-Guo; Cheng, Ying-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: We determined the feasibility of, and tissue response to silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium- and plastic-stent insertion into the esophagus in rabbits. Methods: The mechanical compression–recovery characteristics and degradation behaviors of the magnesium stent were investigated in vitro. A total of 45 rabbits were randomly divided into a magnesium- (n = 15) and a plastic- (n = 15) stent group, and underwent stent insertion into the lower third of the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance; a control group (n = 15) did not undergo the intervention. Esophagography was performed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Five rabbits in each group were euthanized at each time point for histological examination. Results: Silicone-covered magnesium stents showed similar radial force to plastic stents (p > 0.05). The magnesium stents degraded rapidly in an acidic solution, but 90.2% ± 3.1% of the residual mass was maintained after a 2-week degradation in a solution with a pH of 4.0. All stent insertions were well tolerated. Magnesium stents migrated in six rabbits (one at 1 week, one at 2 weeks and four at 4 weeks), and plastic stents migrated in three rabbits (one at 2 weeks and two at 4 weeks; p > 0.05). Esophageal wall remodeling (thinner epithelial and smooth muscle layers) was similar in both stented groups (p > 0.05), and the esophagus wall was found to be significantly thinner in the stented groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). Esophageal injury and collagen deposition following stent insertion were similar and did not differ from the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Esophageal silicone-covered magnesium stents provided reliable support for at least 2 weeks, with acceptable migration rates and without causing severe injury or tissue reaction compared with plastic stents. PMID:28286555

  8. A laser-induced pulsed water jet for layer-selective submucosal dissection of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Sato, C; Yamada, M; Nakagawa, A; Yamamoto, H; Fujishima, F; Tominaga, T; Satomi, S; Ohuchi, N

    2016-10-01

    Background and aims: Conventional water jet devices have been used for injecting fluid to lift up lesions during endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection procedures. However, these devices cannot dissect the submucosal layer effectively. Here we aim to elucidate the dissection capability of a laser-induced pulsed water jet and to clarify the mechanism of dissection with layer selectivity. Materials (Subjects) and methods: Pulsed water jets were ejected from a stainless nozzle by accelerating saline using the energy of a pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The impact force (strength) of the jet was evaluated using a force meter. Injection of the pulsed jet into the submucosal layer was documented by high-speed imaging. The physical properties of the swine esophagus were evaluated by measuring the breaking strength. Submucosal dissection of the swine esophagus was performed and the resection bed was evaluated histologically. Results: Submucosal dissection of the esophagus was accomplished at an impact force of 1.11-1.47 N/pulse (laser energy: 1.1-1.5 J/pulse; standoff distance: 60 mm). Histological specimens showed clear dissection at the submucosal layer without thermal injury. The mean static breaking strength of the submucosa (0.11 ± 0.04 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the mucosa (1.32 ± 0.18 MPa), and propria muscle (1.45 ± 0.16 MPa). Conclusions: The pulsed water jet device showed potential for achieving selective submucosal dissection. It could achieve mucosal, submucosal, and muscle layer selectivity owing to the varied breaking strengths.

  9. A laser-induced pulsed water jet for layer-selective submucosal dissection of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, C; Yamada, M; Nakagawa, A; Yamamoto, H; Fujishima, F; Tominaga, T; Satomi, S; Ohuchi, N

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Conventional water jet devices have been used for injecting fluid to lift up lesions during endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection procedures. However, these devices cannot dissect the submucosal layer effectively. Here we aim to elucidate the dissection capability of a laser-induced pulsed water jet and to clarify the mechanism of dissection with layer selectivity. Materials (Subjects) and methods: Pulsed water jets were ejected from a stainless nozzle by accelerating saline using the energy of a pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The impact force (strength) of the jet was evaluated using a force meter. Injection of the pulsed jet into the submucosal layer was documented by high-speed imaging. The physical properties of the swine esophagus were evaluated by measuring the breaking strength. Submucosal dissection of the swine esophagus was performed and the resection bed was evaluated histologically. Results: Submucosal dissection of the esophagus was accomplished at an impact force of 1.11–1.47 N/pulse (laser energy: 1.1–1.5 J/pulse; standoff distance: 60 mm). Histological specimens showed clear dissection at the submucosal layer without thermal injury. The mean static breaking strength of the submucosa (0.11 ± 0.04 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the mucosa (1.32 ± 0.18 MPa), and propria muscle (1.45 ± 0.16 MPa). Conclusions: The pulsed water jet device showed potential for achieving selective submucosal dissection. It could achieve mucosal, submucosal, and muscle layer selectivity owing to the varied breaking strengths. PMID:27853343

  10. Diagnosis of Neoplasia in Barrett’s Esophagus using Vital-dye Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Daniel P.; Parikh, Neil; Chang, Shannon; Peng, Paul; Thekkek, Nadhi; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Mitcham, Josephine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    The ability to differentiate benign metaplasia in Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) from neoplasia in vivo remains difficult as both tissue types can be flat and indistinguishable with white light imaging alone. As a result, a modality that highlights glandular architecture would be useful to discriminate neoplasia from benign epithelium in the distal esophagus. VFI is a novel technique that uses an exogenous topical fluorescent contrast agent to delineate high grade dysplasia and cancer from benign epithelium. Specifically, the fluorescent images provide spatial resolution of 50 to 100 μm and a field of view up to 2.5 cm, allowing endoscopists to visualize glandular morphology. Upon excitation, classic Barrett’s metaplasia appears as continuous, evenly-spaced glands and an overall homogenous morphology; in contrast, neoplastic tissue appears crowded with complete obliteration of the glandular framework. Here we provide an overview of the instrumentation and enumerate the protocol of this new technique. While VFI affords a gastroenterologist with the glandular architecture of suspicious tissue, cellular dysplasia cannot be resolved with this modality. As such, one cannot morphologically distinguish Barrett’s metaplasia from BE with Low-Grade Dysplasia via this imaging modality. By trading off a decrease in resolution with a greater field of view, this imaging system can be used at the very least as a red-flag imaging device to target and biopsy suspicious lesions; yet, if the accuracy measures are promising, VFI may become the standard imaging technique for the diagnosis of neoplasia (defined as either high grade dysplasia or cancer) in the distal esophagus. PMID:24893592

  11. Fish bone foreign bodies in the pharynx and upper esophagus: evaluation with 64-slice MDCT.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeon; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Hwa Seon; Cho, Jae Min; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Bae, Kyung-Soo; Koh, Eun Ha; Park, Jung Je

    2014-02-01

    Fish bone (FB) is one of the common causes of foreign body impaction in the pharynx and esophagus. To investigate the efficacy of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the evaluation of pharynx and upper esophageal FB foreign bodies. Sixty-six patients with suspected FB foreign body ingestion were examined by plain radiography (n = 40) and unenhanced MDCT (n = 66). We analyzed the presence, location, size, shape, and lying position of the foreign bodies. On MDCT, 46 foreign bodies were detected. Among them, 45 were confirmed by endoscopy. The sensitivity of MDCT for the detection of foreign bodies was 100%, which was superior to that of the plain radiography (51.7%). The location of the foreign bodies was most common in the upper esophagus (n = 22, 47.8%), followed by pharyngoesophageal junction (n = 10, 21.7%), transjunctional (n = 7, 15.2%), hypopharynx (n = 5, 10.9%), and oropharynx (n = 2, 4.3%). Their longest length was 5.3-40.1 mm (mean, 21.3 mm). Thirty-three FBs (71.7%) were linear and 13 (28.3%) were flat in shape. They showed transverse (n = 23, 50.0%), parallel (n = 13, 28.3%), and oblique positions (n = 10, 21.7%) to the long axis of the pharynx and esophagus, respectively. MDCT is useful for the evaluation of the pharynx and upper esophageal FB foreign bodies.

  12. Improved specimen adequacy using jumbo biopsy forceps in patients with Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Martinek, Jan; Maluskova, Jana; Stefanova, Magdalena; Tuckova, Inna; Suchanek, Stepan; Vackova, Zuzana; Krajciova, Jana; Kollar, Marek; Zavoral, Miroslav; Spicak, Julius

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the sampling quality of four different forceps (three large capacity and one jumbo) in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-blind study. A total of 37 patients with Barrett’s esophagus were enrolled. Targeted or random biopsies with all four forceps were obtained from each patient using a diagnostic endoscope during a single endoscopy. The following forceps were tested: A: FB-220K disposable large capacity; B: BI01-D3-23 reusable large capacity; C: GBF-02-23-180 disposable large capacity; and jumbo: disposable Radial Jaw 4 jumbo. The primary outcome measurement was specimen adequacy, defined as a well-oriented biopsy sample 2 mm or greater with the presence of muscularis mucosa. RESULTS: A total of 436 biopsy samples were analyzed. We found a significantly higher proportion of adequate biopsy samples with jumbo forceps (71%) (P < 0.001 vs forceps A: 26%, forceps B: 17%, and forceps C: 18%). Biopsies with jumbo forceps had the largest diameter (median 2.4 mm) (P < 0.001 vs forceps A: 2 mm, forceps B: 1.6 mm, and forceps C: 2mm). There was a trend for higher diagnostic yield per biopsy with jumbo forceps (forceps A: 0.20, forceps B: 0.22, forceps C: 0.27, and jumbo: 0.28). No complications related to specimen sampling were observed with any of the four tested forceps. CONCLUSION: Jumbo biopsy forceps, when used with a diagnostic endoscope, provide more adequate specimens as compared to large-capacity forceps in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25954107

  13. Determination of Respiratory Motion for Distal Esophagus Cancer Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yaremko, Brian P.; Guerrero, Thomas M. McAleer, Mary F.; Bucci, M. Kara; Noyola-Martinez, Josue M.S.; Nguyen, Linda T. C.; Balter, Peter A.; Guerra, Rudy; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the motion characteristics of distal esophagus cancer primary tumors using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-one consecutive patients treated for esophagus cancer who received respiratory-gated 4D CT imaging for treatment planning were selected. Deformable image registration was used to map the full expiratory motion gross tumor volume (GTV) to the full-inspiratory CT image, allowing quantitative assessment of each voxel's displacement. These displacements were correlated with patient tumor and respiratory characteristics. Results: The mean (SE) tidal volume was 608 (73) mL. The mean GTV volume was 64.3 (10.7) mL on expiration and 64.1 (10.7) mL on inspiration (no significant difference). The mean tumor motion in the x-direction was 0.13 (0.006) cm (average of absolute values), in the y-direction 0.23 (0.01) cm (anteriorly), and in the z-direction 0.71 (0.02) cm (inferiorly). Tumor motion correlated with tidal volume. Comparison of tumor motion above vs. below the diaphragm was significant for the average net displacement (p = 0.014), motion below the diaphragm was greater than above. From the cumulative distribution 95% of the tumors moved less than 0.80 cm radially and 1.75 cm inferiorly. Conclusions: Primary esophagus tumor motion was evaluated with 4D CT. According to the results of this study, when 4D CT is not available, a radial margin of 0.8 cm and axial margin of {+-}1.8 cm would provide tumor motion coverage for 95% of the cases in our study population.

  14. Emerging enhanced imaging technologies of the esophagus: spectroscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Robles, Lourdes Y; Singh, Satish; Fisichella, Piero Marco

    2015-05-15

    Despite advances in diagnoses and therapy, esophageal adenocarcinoma remains a highly lethal neoplasm. Hence, a great interest has been placed in detecting early lesions and in the detection of Barrett esophagus (BE). Advanced imaging technologies of the esophagus have then been developed with the aim of improving biopsy sensitivity and detection of preplastic and neoplastic cells. The purpose of this article was to review emerging imaging technologies for esophageal pathology, spectroscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We conducted a PubMed search using the search string "esophagus or esophageal or oesophageal or oesophagus" and "Barrett or esophageal neoplasm" and "spectroscopy or optical spectroscopy" and "confocal laser endomicroscopy" and "confocal microscopy" and "optical coherence tomography." The first and senior author separately reviewed all articles. Our search identified: 19 in vivo studies with spectroscopy that accounted for 1021 patients and 4 ex vivo studies; 14 clinical CLE in vivo studies that accounted for 941 patients and 1 ex vivo study with 13 patients; and 17 clinical OCT in vivo studies that accounted for 773 patients and 2 ex vivo studies. Human studies using spectroscopy had a very high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of BE. CLE showed a high interobserver agreement in diagnosing esophageal pathology and an accuracy of predicting neoplasia. We also found several clinical studies that reported excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the detection of BE using OCT. Advanced imaging technology for the detection of esophageal lesions is a promising field that aims to improve the detection of early esophageal lesions. Although advancing imaging techniques improve diagnostic sensitivities and specificities, their integration into diagnostic protocols has yet to be perfected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mast cell activation is involved in stress-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chan Juan; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Chang Qing; Zhang, Kuo; Zhou, Shu Pei; Duan, Li Ping

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of mast cell in stress-induced barrier dysfunction in the esophagus and its possible pathway involved using mast cell-deficient (Ws/Ws) rats. Ws/Ws rats and normal (+/+) rats were submitted to chronic restraint stress (CRS) 2 h/day for 7 days. Tissues were obtained from distal esophagus. Mast cells were counted under Alcian blue-safranin O stain. Activation of mast cells was assessed using transmission electron microscope. Esophageal epithelial barrier dysfunction was evaluated by measuring intercellular spaces (ICS) and by quantifying tight junction (TJ) proteins. The localization and expression of mast cell-derived tryptase and proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) were assessed. A higher number of mast cells and higher proportion of activated mast cells were observed in CRS +/+ rats compared with non-stress controls. Increased ICS and decreased expression of some TJ proteins were observed in the CRS +/+ rats but not in the CRS Ws/Ws rats. Tryptase and its receptor PAR-2 were found elevated concomitantly by nearly 100% in CRS +/+ rats, but not in CRS Ws/Ws rats. Mast cells play an important role in stress-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in esophagus. The mechanism may involve the activation of PAR-2 by mast cell-derived tryptase, causing proinflammatory responses and the subsequent disruption of the epithelial TJ proteins and a disturbed cytoskeleton function, resulting in dilated intercellular spaces. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Involvement of catecholaminergic neurons in motor innervation of striated muscle in the mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    van der Keylen, Piet; Garreis, Fabian; Steigleder, Ruth; Sommer, Daniel; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Wörl, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Enteric co-innervation is a peculiar innervation pattern of striated esophageal musculature. Both anatomical and functional data on enteric co-innervation related to various transmitters have been collected in different species, although its function remains enigmatic. However, it is unclear whether catecholaminergic components are involved in such a co-innervation. Thus, we examined to identify catecholaminergic neuronal elements and clarify their relationship to other innervation components in the esophagus, using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), α-bungarotoxin (α-BT) and PCR with primers for amplification of cDNA encoding TH and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH). TH-positive nerve fibers were abundant throughout the myenteric plexus and localized on about 14% of α-BT-labelled motor endplates differing from VAChT-positive vagal nerve terminals. TH-positive perikarya represented a subpopulation of only about 2.8% of all PGP 9.5-positive myenteric neurons. Analysis of mRNA showed both TH and DBH transcripts in the mouse esophagus. As ChAT-positive neurons in the compact formation of the nucleus ambiguus were negative for TH, the TH-positive nerve varicosities on motor endplates are presumably of enteric origin, although a sympathetic origin cannot be excluded. In the medulla oblongata, the cholinergic ambiguus neurons were densely supplied with TH-positive varicosities. Thus, catecholamines may modulate vagal motor innervation of esophageal-striated muscles not only at the peripheral level via enteric co-innervation but also at the central level via projections to the nucleus ambiguus. As Parkinson's disease, with a loss of central dopaminergic neurons, also affects the enteric nervous system and dysphagia is prevalent in patients with this disease, investigation of intrinsic catecholamines in the esophagus may

  17. Mechanisms of Barrett’s esophagus (clinical): LES dysfunction, hiatal hernia, peristaltic defects

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sabine; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Barrett’s esophagus, with the potential to develop into esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), is a major complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, about 50% of patients developing EAC had no known GERD beforehand. Hence, while GERD symptoms, esophagitis, and Barrett’s have a number of common determinants (esophagogastric junction (EGJ) incompetence, impaired esophageal clearance mechanisms, hiatus hernia) they also have some independent determinants. Further, although excess esophageal acid exposure plays a major role in the genesis of long-segment Barrett’s esophagus there is minimal evidence supporting this for short-segment Barrett’s. Hence, these may have unique pathophysiological features as well. Long-segment Barrett’s seems to share most, if not all, of the risk factors for esophagitis, particularly high-grade esophagitis. However, it is uncertain if EGJ function and acid clearance are more severely impaired in patients with long-segment Barrett’s compared to patients with high-grade esophagitis. With respect to short-segment Barrett’s, the acid pocket may play an important pathogenic role. Conceptually, extension of the acid pocket into the distal esophagus, also known as intra-sphincteric reflux, provides a mechanism or acid exposure of the distal esophageal mucosa without the occurrence of discrete reflux events, which are more likely to prompt reflux symptoms and lead to the development of esophagitis. Hence, intra-sphincteric reflux related to extension of the acid/no acid interface at the proximal margin of the acid pocket may be key in the development of short segment Barrett’s. However, currently this is still somewhat speculative and further studies are required to confirm this. PMID:25743453

  18. Mucosal bridges of the upper esophagus after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Papazian, A.; Capron, J.P.; Ducroix, J.P.; Dupas, J.L.; Quenum, C.; Besson, P.

    1983-05-01

    A 47-yr-old man developed dysphagia 4 yr after mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. X-ray series, fiberoptic endoscopy, and computerized transverse tomography showed mucosal bridges in the upper esophagus. Histologically, these bridges were constituted from normal epithelium overlying a chronic inflammatory lamina propria, without evidence of Hodgkin's disease recurrence or of squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing was improved by endoscopic electrocoagulation and Eder-Puestow dilatations. Several arguments favor the hypothesis that these mucosal bridges were the late sequelae of radiation esophagitis.

  19. Huge Lymphangioma of the Esophagus Resected by Endoscopic Piecemeal Mucosal Resection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dinghai; Ye, Liping; Wu, Weidan; Zheng, Haihong; Mao, Xinli

    2017-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a 41-year-old male patient with a large lymphangioma of the esophagus. Endoscopy revealed that the structure measured 60 × 10 mm in the mucosa and the submucosa and had a heterogenous echo pattern. The esophageal mass was successfully resected by endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection. However, most esophageal lymphangiomas that are larger than 2 cm in diameter reported in the literature can be removed only through open surgery. Thus far, we know of no reported cases of endoscopic resection as a treatment for this case.

  20. Insights into esophagus tissue architecture using two-photon confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nenrong; Wang, Yue; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, microstructures of human esophageal mucosa were evaluated using the two-photon laser scanning confocal microscopy (TPLSCM), based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). The distribution of epithelial cells, muscle fibers of muscularis mucosae has been distinctly obtained. Furthermore, esophageal submucosa characteristics with cancer cells invading into were detected. The variation of collagen, elastin and cancer cells is very relevant to the pathology in esophagus, especially early esophageal cancer. Our experimental results indicate that the MPM technique has the much more advantages for label-free imaging, and has the potential application in vivo in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of early esophageal cancer.

  1. Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Vivian; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We developed a stable, reproducible three-dimensional optical phantom for the evaluation of a wide-field endoscopic molecular imaging system. This phantom mimicked a human esophagus structure with flexibility to demonstrate body movements. At the same time, realistic visual appearance and diffuse spectral reflectance properties of the tissue were simulated by a color matching methodology. A photostable dye-in-polymer technology was applied to represent biomarker probed “hot-spot” locations. Furthermore, fluorescent target quantification of the phantom was demonstrated using a 1.2 mm ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope with concurrent fluorescence-reflectance imaging. PMID:23403908

  2. Huge Lymphangioma of the Esophagus Resected by Endoscopic Piecemeal Mucosal Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liping; Wu, Weidan; Zheng, Haihong

    2017-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a 41-year-old male patient with a large lymphangioma of the esophagus. Endoscopy revealed that the structure measured 60 × 10 mm in the mucosa and the submucosa and had a heterogenous echo pattern. The esophageal mass was successfully resected by endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection. However, most esophageal lymphangiomas that are larger than 2 cm in diameter reported in the literature can be removed only through open surgery. Thus far, we know of no reported cases of endoscopic resection as a treatment for this case. PMID:28408932

  3. Color-matched and fluorescence-labeled esophagus phantom and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-02-01

    We developed a stable, reproducible three-dimensional optical phantom for the evaluation of a wide-field endoscopic molecular imaging system. This phantom mimicked a human esophagus structure with flexibility to demonstrate body movements. At the same time, realistic visual appearance and diffuse spectral reflectance properties of the tissue were simulated by a color matching methodology. A photostable dye-in-polymer technology was applied to represent biomarker probed "hot-spot" locations. Furthermore, fluorescent target quantification of the phantom was demonstrated using a 1.2 mm ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope with concurrent fluorescence-reflectance imaging.

  4. Autofluorescence endoscopy in surveillance of Barrett's esophagus: a multicenter randomized trial on diagnostic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Borovicka, J; Fischer, J; Neuweiler, J; Netzer, P; Gschossmann, J; Ehmann, T; Bauerfeind, P; Dorta, G; Zürcher, U; Binek, J; Meyenberger, C

    2006-09-01

    The reference surveillance method in patients with Barrett's esophagus is careful endoscopic observation, with targeted as well as random four-quadrant biopsies. Autofluorescence endoscopy (AFE) may make it easier to locate neoplasia. The aim of this study was to elucidate the diagnostic accuracy of surveillance with AFE-guided plus four-quadrant biopsies in comparison with the conventional approach. A total of 187 of 200 consecutive Barrett's esophagus patients who were initially enrolled (73 % male, mean age 67 years, mean Barrett's segment length 4.6 cm), who underwent endoscopy for Barrett's esophagus in four study centers, were randomly assigned to undergo either AFE-targeted biopsy followed by four-quadrant biopsies or conventional endoscopic surveillance, also including four-quadrant biopsies (study phase 1). After exclusion of patients with early cancer or high-grade dysplasia, who underwent endoscopic or surgical treatment, as well as those who declined to participate in phase 2 of the study, 130 patients remained. These patients were examined again with the alternative method after a mean of 10 weeks, using the same methods described. The main study parameter was the detection of early cancer/adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia (HGD), comparing both approaches in study phase 1; the secondary study aim in phase 2 was to assess the additional value of the AFE-guided approach after conventional surveillance, and vice versa. Test accuracy measures were derived from study phase 1. In study phase 1, the AFE and conventional approaches yielded adenocarcinoma/HGD rates of 12 % and 5.3 %, respectively, on a per-patient basis. With AFE, four previously unrecognized adenocarcinoma/HGD lesions were identified (4.3 % of the patients); with the conventional approach, one new lesion (1.1 %) was identified. Of the 19 adenocarcinoma/HGD lesions detected during AFE endoscopy in study phase 1, eight were visualized, while 11 were only detected using untargeted four

  5. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of endoscopic low-pressure liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Bruce D.; Dumot, John A.; Horwhat, J. David; Lightdale, Charles J.; Abrams, Julian A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Endoscopic cryotherapy is a new technique for ablation of esophageal dysplasia and neoplasia. Preliminary studies have shown it to be safe and effective for this indication. The objective of this study is to characterize safety, tolerability, and efficacy of low-pressure liquid nitrogen endoscopic spray cryotherapy ablation in a large cohort across multiple study sites. Parallel prospective treatment studies at four tertiary care academic medical centers in the U.S. assessed spray cryotherapy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus with or without dysplasia, early stage esophageal cancer, and severe squamous dysplasia who underwent cryotherapy ablation of the esophagus. All patients were contacted between 1 and 10 days after treatment to assess for side effects and complications of treatment. The main outcome measurement was the incidence of serious adverse events and side effects from treatment. Complete response for high-grade dysplasia (HGD) (CR-HGD), all dysplasia (CR-D), intestinal metaplasia (CR-IM) and cancer (CR-C) were assessed in patients completing therapy during the study period. A total of 77 patients were treated for Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia (58.4%), intramucosal carcinoma (16.9%), invasive carcinoma (13%), Barrett’s esophagus without dysplasia (9.1%), and severe squamous dysplasia (2.6%). Twenty-two patients (28.6%) reported no side effects throughout treatment. In 323 procedures, the most common complaint was chest pain (17.6%) followed by dysphagia (13.3%), odynophagia (12.1%), and sore throat (9.6%). The mean duration of any symptoms was 3.6 days. No side effects were reported in 48% of the procedures (155/323). Symptoms did not correlate with age, gender, diagnosis, or to treatment early versus late in the patient’s or site’s experience. Logit analysis showed that symptoms were greater in those with a Barrett’s segment of 6 cm or longer. Gastric perforation occurred in one patient with Marfan’s syndrome. Esophageal

  6. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in esophagus: Early alteration during carcinogenesis and prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Chianello Nicolau, Marina; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Nicolau-Neto, Pedro; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Rossini, Ana; de Almeida Simão, Tatiana; Soares Lima, Sheila Coelho

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (CHRNs) in healthy and squamous cell carcinoma-affected esophagus and determine the prognostic value. METHODS We performed RT-qPCR to measure the expression of CHRNs in 44 esophageal samples from healthy individuals and in matched normal surrounding mucosa, and in tumors from 28 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Next, we performed correlation analysis for the detected expression of these receptors with the habits and clinico-pathological characteristics of all study participants. In order to investigate the possible correlations between the expression of the different CHRN subunits in both healthy esophagus and tissues from ESCC patients, correlation matrices were generated. Subsequently, we evaluated whether the detected alterations in expression of the various CHRNs could precede histopathological modifications during the esophageal carcinogenic processes by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Finally, we evaluated the impact of CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 expression on overall survival by using multivariate analysis. RESULTS CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CHRNA7 and CHRNB4, but not CHRNA1, CHRNA4, CHRNA9 or CHRNA10, were found to be expressed in normal (healthy) esophageal mucosa. In ESCC, CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 were overexpressed as compared with patient-matched surrounding non-tumor mucosa (ESCC-adjacent mucosa; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0091, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 expression in all samples analyzed. Additionally, CHRNB4 was found to be differentially expressed in the healthy esophagus and the normal-appearing ESCC-adjacent mucosa, allowing for distinguishment between these tissues with a sensitivity of 75.86% and a specificity of 78.95% (P = 0.0002). Finally, CHRNA5 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC; patients with high CHRNA5 expression showed an increased overall survival, in comparison with

  7. Periprocedural 3D imaging of the left atrium and esophagus: comparison of different protocols of 3D rotational angiography of the left atrium and esophagus in group of 547 consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation of the complex atrial arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Starek, Zdenek; Lehar, František; Jez, Jiri; Wolf, Jiri; Kulik, Tomas; Zbankova, Alena; Novak, Miroslav

    2016-07-01

    A new method in creating 3D models of the left atrium (LA) and esophagus before catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias is 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) of the LA. The purpose of this retrospective study was to test various acquisition protocols of the 3DRA and attempt to define the parameters influencing the success of the protocols. From August 2010 to November 2014, 3DRA of the LA using the Philips Allura FD 10 X-ray system was performed in 547 consecutive patients using right atrial and left atrial protocols. Visualization of the esophagus was performed after oral administration of a contrast agent. Patients were monitored for success (creation of a useful 3D models) and evaluated for a number of parameters affecting the success of 3DRA. The success of the RA protocol was 88.89 % with and 91.91 % without esophagus imaging. The success of the LA protocol was 97.42 % with and 94.54 % without esophagus imaging. The only factor reducing the success of the RA protocol was BMI; the LA protocol was not influenced by any factor. Ventricular fibrillation induced in two patients was successfully treated with defibrillation. 3DRA of the LA is a reliable method that supports catheter ablation of complex atrial arrhythmias. The LA protocol with esophagus imaging was significantly more reliable than the RA protocol; the other protocols were comparable. The RA protocol may be negatively affected by high BMI. Simultaneous imaging of the esophagus is safe and feasible, and the LA protocol can be recommended.

  8. The new kid on the block for advanced imaging in Barrett's esophagus: a review of volumetric laser endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Arvind J; Smith, Michael S; Pleskow, Douglas K

    2016-05-01

    Advanced imaging techniques used in the management of Barrett's esophagus include electronic imaging enhancement (e.g. narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and i-Scan), chromoendoscopy, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Electronic imaging enhancement is used frequently in daily practice, but use of the other advanced technologies is not routine. High-definition white light endoscopy and random four quadrant biopsy remain the standard of care for evaluation of Barrett's esophagus; this is largely due to the value of advanced imaging technologies not having been validated in large studies or in everyday practice. A new advanced imaging technology called volumetric laser endomicroscopy is commercially available in the United States. Its ease of use and rapid acquisition of high-resolution images make this technology very promising for widespread application. In this article we review the technology and its potential for advanced imaging in Barrett's esophagus.

  9. Surgical removal of a denture with sharp clasps impacted in the cervicothoracic esophagus: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Toshima, Takeo; Morita, Masaru; Sadanaga, Noriaki; Yoshida, Rintaro; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-09-01

    We report three cases of successful surgical removal of a denture with sharp clasps impacted in the cervical esophagus. Patient 1 was a 57-year-old woman institutionalized for over 30 years for schizophrenia, patient 2 was a 62-year-old man hospitalized for brain paralysis, and patient 3 was a 64-year-old man suffering cerebral hemorrhage sequelae. All three patients swallowed a denture accidentally. Chest X-rays showed the denture with sharp clasps in the cervicothoracic region of the esophagus, and endoscopy revealed that it was lodged in the esophageal mucosa. The denture was subsequently removed by cervical esophagotomy. All three patients had a good clinical postoperative course without any complications. Thus, we recommend surgery via a cervical approach to remove a denture with sharp clasps impacted in the cervicothoracic esophagus, with intraoperative endoscopic examination for esophageal injury.

  10. The influence of age, smoking, antiretroviral therapy, and esophagitis on the local immunity of the esophagus in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; de Melo e Silva, Ana Teresa; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia Fonseca; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rocha, Laura Penna

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown immunological and morphological alterations in the esophagus during the course of AIDS. Esophageal postmortem samples of 22 men with AIDS autopsied in a teaching hospital between 1982 and 2009 were collected. We carried out revision of the autopsy reports and medical records, morphometric analysis (Image J and KS-300 Kontron-Zeiss), and immunohistochemical (anti-S100, anti-IgA, anti-IgG, and anti-IgM) analysis of the esophagus. In accordance with most of the parameters evaluated, age and the smoking habit harmed the esophageal local immunity, whereas the use of antiretroviral therapy improved the immune characteristics of this organ. Patients with esophagitis also presented immunological fragility of the esophagus. This leads to the conclusion that alterations in the esophageal epithelium of patients with AIDS are not only caused by direct action of HIV but also the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the patient.

  11. Establishment of rules for interpreting ultraviolet autofluorescence microscopy images for noninvasive detection of Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bevin; Urayama, Shiro; Saroufeem, Ramez M. G.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Demos, Stavros G.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostic potential of autofluorescence (AF) microscopy under ultraviolet (UV) excitation is explored using ex vivo human specimens. The aim is to establish optical patterns (the rules for interpretation) that correspond to normal and abnormal histologies of the esophagus, spanning from early benign modifications (Barrett's esophagus) to subsequent dysplastic change and progression toward carcinoma. This was achieved by developing an image library categorized by disease progression. We considered morphological changes of disease as they are compared with histological diagnosis of the pathological specimen, as well as control samples of normal esophagus, proximal stomach, and small intestine tissue. Our experimental results indicate that UV AF microscopy could provide real-time histological information for visualizing changes in tissue microstructure that are currently undetectable using conventional endoscopic methods.

  12. Pilot randomized crossover study comparing the efficacy of transnasal disposable endosheath with standard endoscopy to detect Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Mohammed K; Varghese, Sibu; O'Donovan, Maria; Abdullahi, Zarah; Liu, Xinxue; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; di Pietro, Massimiliano

    2016-02-01

    The transnasal endosheath endoscope is a new disposable technology with potential applicability to the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transnasal endosheath endoscopy (TEE) for the detection of Barrett's esophagus, by comparing the diagnostic accuracy of TEE with that of standard endoscopy. This was a prospective, randomized, crossover study performed in a single tertiary referral center. Consecutive patients undergoing surveillance for Barrett's esophagus or referred for diagnostic assessment were recruited. All patients were randomized to undergo TEE followed by standard endoscopy or the reverse. Endoscopy experiences and patient preferences were evaluated using a questionnaire. Endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, and optical image quality of both endoscopic procedures, were compared. A total of 21 of 25 patients completed the study. TEE had sensitivity and specificity of 100 % for an endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, and of 66.7 % and 100 %, respectively, for the histologic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus. The mean optical quality of standard endoscopy was significantly better than that of TEE (7.11 ± 0.42 vs. 4.06 ± 0.27; P < 0.0001). However, following endoscopy, patients reported a significantly better experience with TEE compared with standard endoscopy (7.05 ± 0.49 vs. 4.35 ± 0.53; P = 0.0006), with 60 % preferring TEE and 25 % preferring sedated standard endoscopy. In this study, TEE had equal accuracy for an endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus compared with standard endoscopy, at the expense of reduced image quality and a lower yield of intestinal metaplasia on biopsy. TEE was better tolerated and preferred by patients. Hence, TEE needs further evaluation in primary care as an initial diagnostic tool. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Inadomi, John M.; Takayama, Michiyo; Makino, Kanako; Iwao, Yasushi; Sugino, Yoshinori; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. Methods Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46) and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40). Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41) and the presence of Barrett’s esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56). Conclusion Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett’s esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. PMID:26225858

  14. Does Cytokeratin7/20 immunoreactivity help to distinguish Barrett's esophagus from gastric intestinal metaplasia? Results of a prospective study of 75 patients.

    PubMed

    Schilling, D; Spiethoff, A; Rosenbaum, Anika; Hartmann, D; Eickhoff, A; Jakobs, R; Weickert, U; Rebe, M; Bohrer, M H; Riemann, J F

    2005-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a recognized risk factor for the development of esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma. Unfortunately, gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia arising in Short Segment Barrett's esophagus can be indistinguishable histologically on hematoxylin/eosin stains. Distinct patterns of CK 7 and CK 20 immunohistochemical expression have been demonstrated to be both highly sensitive and specific for Barrett's esophagus, but have not been found in gastric metaplasia. The aim of our study was to test whether immunostaining with CK 7/20 helps to distinguish between Barrett's epithelium and gastric incomplete metaplasia. Cases of long segment Barrett's esophagus, short segment Barrett's esophagus, and cases with a normal gastroesophageal junction, as well as specimens with gastric antral intestninal metaplasia, were examined: three patterns were defined. Barrett's pattern (superficial CK 20 staining; superficial and crypt CK 7 staining); gastric pattern (superficial and crypt staining of both markers); other patterns (different from Barrett and gastric types). Seventy-five patients were enrolled in this study, 26 with long segment Barrett's esophagus, 21 with short segment esophagus, 13 with intestinal metaplasia of the cardia, and 18 with antral intestinal metaplasia. The Barrett pattern showed a high specificity of 97%, but a sensitivity of only 30% in patients with short segment Barrett esophagus. Our results do not confirm the hypothesis that CK 7/20 immunostaining can be used for a reliable differentiation between incomplete intestinal metaplasia and Barrett's epithelium.

  15. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Joseph; Gertner, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach) in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract. PMID:28203138

  16. Management of treatment-naïve limited-stage small cell esophagus carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Haitao; Li, Fangfang; Wang, Jinliang; Dong, Weiwei; Gao, Jie; Jiao, Shunchang; Hu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the problems and principles of treatment decisions in treatment-naïve limited-stage small cell esophagus carcinoma (LD-SCEC). Methods: Clinical data from 39 patients with LD-SCEC treated in the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively collected with regard to pathologic characteristics, overall survival (OS), and relevant prognostic factors. Results: The median OS was 21.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.4-29.7 months). The one-year OS was 76%, 3-year was 25%, and the 5-year OS was 8%. Depth of invasion, lymph metastasis status, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. Of the 39 cases, only 38.4% (15 cases) were diagnosed as SCEC by the biopsy specimen. Eight of the 15 patients (group A) received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, while the remaining 7 patients (group B) and the other 24 patients (group C) received surgery as initial treatment. The one-year survival of group A was 87%, of group B was 69%, and of group C was 74% (p=0.037). The accuracy of the biopsy diagnosis influenced the treatment decisions and prognosis. Conclusion: Small cell esophagus carcinoma is a systemic disease, with depth of invasion, lymph metastasis status, and chemotherapy as independent prognostic factors. Systemic therapy based on chemotherapy is recommended. The top priority is to improve the accuracy of diagnosis before deciding on the initial treatment option. PMID:25737171

  17. CLINICAL, ENDOSCOPIC AND MANOMETRIC FEATURES OF THE PRIMARY MOTOR DISORDERS OF THE ESOPHAGUS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Júlio César; LIMA, Gustavo Rosa de Almeida; SILVA, Diego Henrique; DUARTE, Alexandre Ferreira; NOVO, Neil Ferreira; da SILVA, Ernesto Carlos; PINTO, Pérsio Campos Correia; MAIA, Alexandre Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Background Significant incidence, diagnostic difficulties, clinical relevance and therapeutic efficacy associated with the small number of publications on the primary esophageal motor disorders, motivated the present study. Aim To determine the manometric prevalence of these disorders and correlate them to the endoscopic and clinical findings. Methods A retrospective study of 2614 patients, being 1529 (58.49%) women and 1085 (41.51%) men. From 299 manometric examinations diagnosed with primary esophageal motor disorder, were sought-clinical data (heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, odynophagia, non-cardiac chest pain, pharyngeal globe and extra-esophageal symptoms) and/or endoscopic (hiatal hernia, erosive esophagitis, food waste) that motivated the performance of manometry. Results Were found 49 cases of achalasia, 73 diffuse spasm, 89 nutcracker esophagus, 82 ineffective esophageal motility, and six lower esophageal sphincter hypertension. In relation to the correlations, it was observed that in 119 patients clinical conditions were associated with dysphagia, found in achalasia more than in other conditions; in relationship between endoscopic findings and clinical conditions there was no statistical significance between data. Conclusions The clinical and endoscopic findings have little value in the characterization of the primary motor disorders of the esophagus, showing even more the need for manometry, particularly in the preoperative period of gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25861066

  18. Metastatic basaloid-squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus treated by 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoshihiro; Baba, Eishi; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Miki, Ryusuke; Ogami, Nobumichi; Arita, Shuji; Qin, Baoli; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Mitsugi, Kenji; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Yao, Takashi; Nakano, Shuji

    2007-07-14

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus is a rare malignant disease. We report here a patient with recurrent esophageal BSC, who was successfully treated by systemic chemotherapy containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP). A 57-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus upon endoscopic examination. Curative esophagectomy with lymph node dissection was performed under the thoracoscope. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was BSC. Five months after operation, the patient was diagnosed as having a recurrence of the BSC with metastases to the liver and spleen, and a right paraclavicular lymph node. She was given systemic chemotherapy consisting of continuous infusion of 800 mg/d of 5-FU and 3 h infusion of 20 mg/d of CDDP for 5 consecutive days every 4 wk. The metastatic lesions in the spleen and right paraclavicular lymph node disappeared, and the liver metastasis was apparently reduced in size after 2 courses of chemotherapy. The tumor regression was seen over 6 courses, with progression afterwards. Although subsequent treatment with CPT-11 and CDDP was not effective, docetaxel and vinorelbine temporarily controlled the tumor growth for 2 mo. 5-FU and CDDP combination may be useful for the patients with advanced BSC.

  19. 3D Mechanical properties of the layered esophagus: experiment and constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Fung, T C; Chian, K S; Chong, C K

    2006-12-01

    The identification of a three dimensional constitutive model is useful for describing the complex mechanical behavior of a nonlinear and anisotropic biological tissue such as the esophagus. The inflation tests at the fixed axial extension of 1, 1.125, and 1.25 were conducted on the muscle and mucosa layer of a porcine esophagus separately and the pressure-radius-axial force was recorded. The experimental data were fitted with the constitutive model to obtain the structure-related parameters, including the collagen amount and fiber orientation. Results showed that a bilinear strain energy function (SEF) with four parameters could fit the inflation data at an individual extension very well while a six-parameter model had to be used to capture the inflation behaviors at all three extensions simultaneously. It was found that the collagen distribution was axial preferred in both layers and the mucosa contained more collagen, which were in agreement with the findings through a pair of uniaxial tensile test in our previous study. The model was expected to be used for the prediction of stress distribution within the esophageal wall under the physiological state and provide some useful information in the clinical studies of the esophageal diseases.

  20. CT of the normal esophagus to define the normal air column and its extent and distribution.

    PubMed

    Schraufnagel, Dean E; Michel, Jon C; Sheppard, Todd J; Saffold, Patricia Cole; Kondos, George T

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to quantify and characterize the air-containing thoracic esophagus on CT to help diagnose diseases and facilitate correlation with lung diseases that may be associated with aspiration. The maximal air-containing esophageal lumina on each section of standard CT scans of 110 subjects were measured. These subjects came from a cohort of 10,132 self-reported healthy individuals who underwent CT for measurement of coronary artery calcium. Measurements were interpolated to account for variation in the length of the thoraces. Greater than 60% of the esophageal segments contained no air. On average the maximum air column was 10.5 (SD, 5.0) mm. Only 7.9% of the lumina were > 10 mm. Only 2% were > 15 mm, and only 0.2% were > 20 mm. The average number of lumina > 10 mm as a proportion of the entire esophageal length was 8% (14%). The average size at the carina was 2.6 (4.1) mm. In the upper 30% and from 61% to 75% down the length of the esophagus, < 5% of the lumina were > 10 mm. Less than 3% of subjects had air in the lowest two sections, indicating that the normal lower esophageal sphincter was closed. Esophageal air of > 10 mm should be considered abnormal in all segments except between the cardiac ventricles and lower esophageal sphincter. In this area, > 15 mm should be considered abnormal. An air-fluid level is abnormal.

  1. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus among white Americans by sex, stage, and age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Linda Morris; Devesa, Susan S; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2008-08-20

    Rapid increases in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus have been reported among white men. We further explored the temporal patterns of this disease among white individuals by sex, stage, and age by use of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We identified 22,759 patients from January 1, 1975, through December 31, 2004, with esophageal cancer, of whom 9526 were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Among white men, increases in the incidence of esophageal cancer were largely attributed to a 463% increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma over this time period, from 1.01 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90 to 1.13) in 1975-1979 to 5.69 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 5.47 to 5.91) in 2000-2004. A similar rapid increase was also apparent among white women, among whom the adenocarcinoma rate increased 335%, from 0.17 (95% CI = 0.13 to 0.21) to 0.74 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.81), over the same time period. Adenocarcinoma rates rose among white men and women in all stage and age groups, indicating that these increases are real and not an artifact of surveillance.

  2. Rebamipide Alters the Esophageal Microbiome and Reduces the Incidence of Barrett's Esophagus in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Kohata, Yukie; Nakahara, Kenichi; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Toshio; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is characterized by a distinct Th2-predominant cytokine profile. However, antigens that shift the immune response toward the Th2 profile are unknown. We examined the effects of rebamipide on the esophageal microbiome and BE development in a rat model. BE was induced by esophagojejunostomy in 8-week-old male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into control and rebamipide-treated group receiving either a normal or a 0.225 % rebamipide-containing diet, respectively, and killed 8, 16, 24, and 32 weeks after the operation. PCR-amplified 16S rDNAs extracted from esophageal samples were examined by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to assess microbiome composition. The dynamics of four bacterial genera (Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus) were analyzed by real-time PCR. The incidences of BE in the control and rebamipide group at 24 and 32 weeks were 80 and 100, and 20 and 33 %, respectively. T-RFLP analysis of normal esophagus revealed that the proportion of Clostridium was 8.3 %, while that of Lactobacillales was 71.8 %. The proportions of Clostridium increased and that of Lactobacillales decreased at 8 weeks in both groups. Such changes were consistently observed in the control but not in the rebamipide group. Clostridium and Lactobacillus expression was lower and higher, respectively, in the rebamipide group than in the control group. Rebamipide reduced BE development and altered the esophageal microbiome composition, which might play a role in BE development.

  3. Clinicopahological features of superficial basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Oguma, J; Ozawa, S; Kazuno, A; Nitta, M; Ninomiya, Y; Tomita, S

    2017-12-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus is classified as an epithelial malignant tumor and is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most previous reports have suggested that advanced BSC has a poorer prognosis than typical SCC because of its high biological malignancy, but the biological activity of superficial BSC remains unclear. Twenty cases of superficial BSC, which underwent surgical resection in Tokai University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Among these cases, 19 cases with a T1 depth of invasion (BSC group) were compared with 180 cases of SCC that were resected during the same period and were pathologically diagnosed as T1 (SCC group). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in the T1 BSC group was significantly lower (2 patients, 11%) than that in the SCC group (84 patients, 47%) (P = 0.005). The frequency of lymphatic invasion in the BSC group was also lower (9 patients, 47%) than that in the SCC group (131 patients, 73%) (P = 0.021). The pathological type of the metastatic lymph node was BSC in all the superficial BSC cases with lymph node metastasis. This study demonstrated that lymph node metastasis was less likely to occur in cases with superficial BSC than in cases with superficial SCC. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Modulation of salivary secretion by acid infusion in the distal esophagus in humans.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S K; Matossian, H B; Meirowitz, R F; Vaeth, J

    1992-12-01

    To examine the relationship between esophageal acid exposure and development of salivation and heartburn, 15 healthy subjects underwent perfusion of the distal esophagus with varying concentrations of hydrochloric acid, different-osmolality saline solutions, and deionized water. In five study subjects, hydrochloric acid was infused in the body of the stomach only. During the study, timed samples of whole and parotid saliva were collected and analyzed for flow rate and bicarbonate concentration. Only hydrochloric acid concentrations of 20 mmol/L or greater (pH 1.8 or lower) induced a rapid (within 2 minutes) and significant (P < 0.05) increase in salivation. The hydrochloric acid-induced salivation was associated with significant (P < 0.05) increase in bicarbonate secretion in both parotid and whole saliva samples. Intravenous atropine administration completely inhibited hydrochloric acid-induced salivary secretion in all six subjects. Changes in osmolality of saline solution infused in the esophagus and hydrochloric acid infused in the stomach did not significantly alter parotid and whole saliva flow rates. These data suggest that in humans, rapid salivation in response to esophageal mucosal exposure to intraluminal hydrochloric acid is a pH-dependent and osmolality-independent phenomenon that is most likely mediated by pH-sensitive chemoreceptors located in the esophageal mucosa.

  5. Overview of major molecular alterations during progression from Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kalatskaya, Irina

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops in the sequential transformation of normal epithelium into metaplastic epithelium, called Barrett's esophagus (BE), then to dysplasia, and finally cancer. BE is a common condition in which normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus is replaced with an intestine-like columnar epithelium, and it is the most prominent risk factor for EAC. This review aims to impartially systemize the knowledge from a large number of publications that describe the molecular and biochemical alterations occurring over this progression sequence. In order to provide an unbiased extraction of the knowledge from the literature, a text-mining methodology was used to select genes that are involved in the BE progression, with the top candidate genes found to be TP53, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, CDH1, GPX3, and NOX5. In addition, sample frequencies across analyzed patient cohorts at each stage of disease progression are summarized. All six genes are altered in the majority of EAC patients, and accumulation of alterations correlates well with the sequential progression of BE to cancer, indicating that the text-mining method is a valid approach for gene prioritization. This review discusses how, besides being cancer drivers, these genes are functionally interconnected and might collectively be considered a central hub of BE progression. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Pilot translational study of dietary vitamin C supplementation in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Babar, M; Abdel-Latif, M M M; Ravi, N; Murphy, A; Byrne, P J; Kelleher, D; Reynolds, J V

    2010-04-01

    The transcription factor Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is central to the regulation of genes encoding for mediators of inflammation and carcinogenesis. In the esophagus, NF-kappaB is progressively activated from inflammation to Barrett's metaplasia and adenocarcinoma. Vitamin C, an antioxidant, can inhibit NF-kappaB in in vitro models, and the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the effect of supplemental vitamin C on NF-kappaB and associated cytokines in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Twenty-five patients with long-segment Barrett's and specialized intestinal metaplasia received dietary vitamin C (1000 mg/day) orally for four weeks, and had pre- and post-vitamin C endoscopic biopsies. NF-kappaB activity (activated p50 and p65 subunits) of nuclear extracts was assessed using the Active Motif NF-kappaB assay, and cytokines and growth factors were measured using the Evidence Investigator biochip array. NF-kappaB and related pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors (IL-8, VEGF, IL-10) were activated in all Barrett's tissue pre-treatment. Down-regulation in activated NF-kappaB and cytokines was observed in 8/25 (35%) patients. Dietary vitamin C supplementation may down-regulate pro-inflammatory markers in a subset of Barrett's patients. Further studies with larger numbers of endpoints will be needed to further evaluate this effect.

  7. Local Synthesis of Pepsin in Barrett's Esophagus and the Role of Pepsin in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Tina; Hoekzema, Craig; Gould, Jon; Goldblatt, Matthew; Frelich, Matthew; Bosler, Matthew; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Johnston, Nikki

    2015-11-01

    Despite widespread use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) continues to rise. PPIs reduce reflux acidity, but only transiently inactivate gastric enzymes. Nonacid reflux, specifically nonacid pepsin, contributes to carcinogenesis in the larynx. Given the carcinogenic potential of pepsin and inefficacy of PPIs to prevent EAC, the presence and effect of pepsin in the esophagus should be investigated. Normal and Barrett's biopsies from 8 Barrett's esophagus patients were collected for pepsin analysis via Western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Human esophageal cells cultured from healthy patients were treated with pepsin (0.01-1 mg/mL; 1-20 hours), acid (pH 4)±pepsin (5 minutes); real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and cell migration were assayed. Pepsin was detected in all 8 Barrett's and 4 of 8 adjacent normal specimens. Pepsinogen mRNA was observed in 22 Barrett's, but not in normal adjacent samples. Pepsin induced PTSG2 (COX-2) and IL-1β expression and cell migration in vitro. Pepsin is synthesized by metaplastic, Barrett's esophageal mucosa. Nonacid pepsin increases metrics of tumorigenicity in esophageal epithelial cells in vitro. These findings implicate refluxed and locally synthesized pepsin in development and progression of EAC and, in part, explain the inefficacy of PPIs in the prevention of EAC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Endoscopic mucosal resection for superficial carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Moreira, L F; Kamikawa, Y; Naomoto, Y; Haisa, M; Orita, K

    1995-06-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a recently introduced therapeutic method based on the principles of the strip biopsy for resection of flat lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Eleven asymptomatic patients (nine men, two women) with superficial carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia of the intrathoracic esophagus were treated by EMR during a 6-month period. The patients' mean age was 64 years (range, 49-78). The site of the lesions was the middle third of the esophagus in eight, upper third in two, and lower third in one patient. All patients in this series had a flat (II) type of superficial cancer. The procedure was carried out in all 11 patients without complication. Histopathological examination of the specimens revealed squamous cell carcinoma in nine patients. The remaining two patients were confirmed to have dysplasia only. Free margins measured greater than 5 mm in all cases. No recurrence was detected in a mean follow-up of 8 (5-10) months. For superficial flat lesions, EMR proved to be a safe and curative procedure that provided good quality of life following resection. However, larger trials are needed to confirm these results. Applying EMR to esophageal dysplasia could decrease the incidence of esophageal cancer.

  9. Membrane potential and mechanical responses of the opossum esophagus to vagal stimulation and swallowing.

    PubMed

    Rattan, S; Gidda, J S; Goyal, R K

    1983-10-01

    Studies were performed in anesthetized opossums. The electrical changes, recorded using a suction electrode applied to the outside of the esophagus, and mechanical activity, recorded by an intraluminal catheter, were monitored from 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Swallowing was associated with membrane hyperpolarization followed by depolarization and spike burst. Electrical stimulation of the decentralized vagus also caused a prompt hyperpolarization followed by an overshoot depolarization. Single pulses of stimulation caused primarily hyperpolarization. The amplitude and duration of hyperpolarization increased with increasing frequencies of vagal stimulation. Spike burst occurred as the membrane potential was recovering from the peak hyperpolarization and moving toward peak depolarization. The latency of onset of spike burst decreased with increasing frequency of vagal stimulation. The muscle contraction occurred after a latency. The latency of contractions, like the latency of spike burst, decreased with increased frequency of vagal stimulation. These studies show that (a) membrane hyperpolarization is present during the latent period of contraction associated with swallowing, suggesting that swallow-induced esophageal response may be mediated by vagal inhibitory pathway to the esophagus and (b) spike bursts can be temporally dissociated from depolarization by changing the vagal stimulation frequency, suggesting that spike burst and depolarization may be mediated by different excitatory mechanisms.

  10. Bizarre stromal cells in the esophagus: report of 2 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Bal M; De Petris, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    A significant mimicker of malignancy in the esophagus is the presence of atypical/bizarre stromal cells (BSCs). Two patients, a 60-year-old woman and a 59-year-old man, with esophageal polyps at the gastroesophageal junction showed highly atypical/bizarre cells in the polyps' stroma. BSCs were admixed with inflammatory cells and had large atypical nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and variably abundant amphophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical studies showed that BSCs expressed vimentin whereas S-100, CD68, HMB45, CD45, Pan-cytokeratin, CK5/6, p63, CD10, EMA, MART-1, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD31, CD34, and CMV were negative. Ki-67 showed low proliferative rate (less than 1% positivity). No evidence of intracellular mucin was found after histochemical stains (AB/PAS and mucicarmine). Follow-up endoscopic mucosal resection was available in both cases and showed benign esophageal mucosa and submucosa with disappearance, in one case, or marked decrease of BSCs. Esophageal BSCs reports in the literature invariably locate them in distal esophagus polyps or masses. Awareness of BSCs, of their location and associations, may help to prevent misdiagnosis of malignancy. The literature of esophageal BSCs is reviewed and the approach to this abnormality is discussed.

  11. Differential Responses to Steroid Hormones in Fibroblasts From the Vocal Fold, Trachea, and Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Bando, Hideki; Hirota, Ryuichi; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that fibroblasts are target cells for steroids such as sex hormones and corticoids. The characteristics of fibroblasts vary among tissues and organs. Our aim in this study is to examine differences in responses to steroid hormones among fibroblasts from different cervicothoracic regions. We compared the actions of steroid hormones on cultured fibroblasts from the vocal folds, which are considered to be the primary target of steroid hormones, and the trachea and esophagus in adult male rats. Expression of steroid hormone receptors (androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α, and glucocorticoid receptor) was identified by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Androgen receptor was much more frequently expressed in fibroblasts from the vocal fold than in those from the trachea and esophagus. Cell proliferation analysis showed that administration of testosterone, estradiol, or corticosterone suppressed growth of all 3 types of fibroblasts. However, mRNA expression for extracellular matrix–associated genes, including procollagen I and III and elastin, and hyaluronic acid synthase I was elevated only by addition of testosterone to fibroblasts from the vocal fold. These results indicate that each steroid hormone exerts region-specific effects on cervicothoracic fibroblasts with different properties through binding to specific receptors. PMID:25514085

  12. Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25400987

  13. Predictive biomarkers for Barrett's esophagus: so near and yet so far.

    PubMed

    Timmer, M R; Sun, G; Gorospe, E C; Leggett, C L; Lutzke, L; Krishnadath, K K; Wang, K K

    2013-08-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the strongest risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the risk of cancer progression is difficult to ascertain in individuals, as a significant number of patients with BE do not necessarily progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma. There are several issues with the current strategy of using dysplasia as a marker of disease progression. It is subject to sampling error during biopsy acquisition and interobserver variability among gastrointestinal pathologists. Ideal biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity are needed to accurately detect high-risk BE patients for early intervention and appropriate cost-effective surveillance. To date, there are no available molecular tests in routine clinical practice despite known genetic and epigenetic aberrations in the Barrett's epithelium. In this review, we present potential biomarkers for the prediction of malignant progression in BE. These include markers of genomic instability, tumor suppressor loci abnormalities, epigenetic changes, proliferation markers, cell cycle predictors, and immunohistochemical markers. Further work in translating biomarkers for routine clinical use may eventually lead to accurate risk stratification. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  14. Esophagus cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Tang, S P; Wang, K Z

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between occupational asbestos exposure and esophagus cancer (EC) is not fully understood. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association. We systematically searched databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies with quantitative estimates of asbestos exposure and EC mortality. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty cohort studies on EC and asbestos exposure were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, occupational exposure to asbestos was associated with an excess risk of EC (SMR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.13-1.38, P < 0.001), with little evidence of heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.682). Being male, exposure to chrysotile or mixed asbestos, working at textile industry, long study follow-up (≥20 years), Asia, Europe and America cohorts with larger cohort size (>500), and high-exposure group all contribute to significantly higher SMR. Publication bias was not detected (Egger's test P-value = 0.374). This meta-analysis suggested that occupational asbestos exposure might be associated with an increased risk of EC in male. High-exposure level of asbestos could contribute to significantly higher risk of EC mortality. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. [Endoscopic palliation of malignant esophagus processes using a self-expanding metallic stent].

    PubMed

    Binek, J; Eigenmann, F; Hammer, B

    1995-04-15

    We investigated the palliative effect of self-expanding metallic stents on malignant obstruction of the esophagus in 10 patients. All patients had high grade dysphagia and one had an esophago-bronchial fistula. Endoscopic insertions of the prosthesis was done under sedation. Dilatation of the stricture prior to insertion was rarely necessary. Coated stents were used as secondary treatment for patients with fistulae. The procedure related morbidity was low and no mortality was observed. The stents remained patent during the residual lifetime of the patients. Dislocation or perforation did not occur. The median survival of 8 deceased patients was 3.5 months (range 1.25-14.5 months). At present 2 patients are still alive 2.7 and 1.5 months after the procedure. Self-expanding stents in the esophagus provide good palliative therapy of dysphagia or fistulae caused by malignant tumors. Insertion is relatively simple and safer than in nonexpandable types. These improvements may justify the considerably higher price of these devices.

  16. Clinical significance and management of Barrett's esophagus with epithelial changes indefinite for dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Thota, Prashanthi N; Kistangari, Gaurav; Esnakula, Ashwini K; Gonzalo, David Hernandez; Liu, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-06

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as the extension of salmon-colored mucosa into the tubular esophagus ≥ 1 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction with biopsy confirmation of intestinal metaplasia. Patients with BE are at increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and undergo endoscopic surveillance biopsies to detect dysplasia or early EAC. Dysplasia in BE is classified as no dysplasia, indefinite for dysplasia (IND), low grade dysplasia (LGD) or high grade dysplasia (HGD). Biopsies are diagnosed as IND when the epithelial abnormalities are not sufficient to diagnose dysplasia or the nature of the epithelial abnormalities is uncertain due to inflammation or technical issues. Specific diagnostic criteria for IND are not well established and its clinical significance and management has not been well studied. Previous studies have focused on HGD in BE and led to changes and improvement in the management of BE with HGD and early EAC. Only recently, IND and LGD in BE have become focus of intense study. This review summarizes the definition, neoplastic risk and clinical management of BE IND.

  17. Clinical significance and management of Barrett’s esophagus with epithelial changes indefinite for dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Thota, Prashanthi N; Kistangari, Gaurav; Esnakula, Ashwini K; Gonzalo, David Hernandez; Liu, Xiu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is defined as the extension of salmon-colored mucosa into the tubular esophagus ≥ 1 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction with biopsy confirmation of intestinal metaplasia. Patients with BE are at increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and undergo endoscopic surveillance biopsies to detect dysplasia or early EAC. Dysplasia in BE is classified as no dysplasia, indefinite for dysplasia (IND), low grade dysplasia (LGD) or high grade dysplasia (HGD). Biopsies are diagnosed as IND when the epithelial abnormalities are not sufficient to diagnose dysplasia or the nature of the epithelial abnormalities is uncertain due to inflammation or technical issues. Specific diagnostic criteria for IND are not well established and its clinical significance and management has not been well studied. Previous studies have focused on HGD in BE and led to changes and improvement in the management of BE with HGD and early EAC. Only recently, IND and LGD in BE have become focus of intense study. This review summarizes the definition, neoplastic risk and clinical management of BE IND. PMID:27602241

  18. Reflection and transmission of laser light from the esophagus: the influence of incident angle

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, N.S.; Jacques, S.L.; Richter, J.M.; Anderson, R.R.

    1988-05-01

    The application of lasers in gastrointestinal endoscopy is rapidly expanding. Because of the tubular configuration of the gastrointestinal tract, endoscopists often deliver laser energy at large angles of incidence. As incident angle affects the fraction of radiation reflected from the tissue surface, we measured the transmittance and reflectance of laser light from in vitro esophagus as a function of incident angle, using integrating sphere and goniometric techniques. At a wavelength of 633 nm and angles of incidence less than 50 degrees, the total transmittance of the esophagus is approximately 25% and the total reflectance is approximately 45%; both are isotropically distributed. At larger angles of incidence, a specularly reflected component becomes evident and the total reflectance increases. The absorbed light per unit area illuminated decreases with increasing angle, because the area illuminated by the laser beam is proportional to the secant of the incident angle. The data suggest that during endoscopic laser procedures the incident laser beam should be directed within 50 degrees of normal for optimal performance and safety.

  19. Design of a protocol for combined laser hyperthermia-photodynamic therapy in the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    London, R A; Eichler, J; Liebetrudt, J; Ziegenhagen, L

    2000-02-01

    Photodynamic laser therapy (PDT) for esophageal cancer has recently been studied in animal and clinical trials. In several animal experiments a synergetic effect was found by simultaneously applying PDT and hyperthermia (HT). In this paper an optical fiber system is described which can be used in the esophagus for combined PDT with a 1 W dye laser and HT with a 15--40 W Nd-YAG laser. Phantoms were developed to simulate the geometry of the esophagus using cow muscle. The spatial-temporal temperature field during HT was measured. The results were compared with calculations using a coupled Monte Carlo laser transport/finite difference heat transport model using the LATIS computer program. Measurements and calculations yield a realistic description of the temperature distribution during HT under various experimental conditions. The LATIS program allows the prediction of the effects of blood perfusion for in-vivo situations. The results show that the perfusion has considerable influence on the temperature field, which must be considered for in-vivo applications.

  20. Clinical significance of heterotopic gastric mucosal patch of the proximal esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vui Heng

    2013-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the proximal esophagus (HGMPE), also referred to as “inlet patch” or “cervical inlet patch”, is a salmon colored patch that is usually located just distal to the upper esophageal sphincter. HGMPE is uncommon with endoscopic studies reporting a prevalence ranging from less than one percent to 18%. Most HGMPE are asymptomatic and are detected incidentally during endoscopy for evaluations of other gastrointestinal complaints. Most consider HGMPE as clinically irrelevant entity. The clinical significance of HGMPE is mainly acid related or neoplastic transformation. The reported prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms varies from less than 20% to as high as 73.1%. However, most of these symptoms are mild. Clinically significant acid related complications such as bleeding, ulcerations, structure and fistulization have been reported. Although rare, dysplastic changes and malignancies in association with HGMPE have also been reported. Associations with Barrett’s esophagus have also been reported but the findings so far have been conflicting. There are still many areas that are unknown or not well understood and these include the natural history of HGMPE, risk factors for complications, role of Helicobacter pylori infection and factors associated with malignant transformations. Follow-up may need to be considered for patients with complications of HGMPE and surveillance if biopsies show intestinal metaplasia or dysplastic changes. Despite the overall low incidence of clinically relevant manifestations reported in the literature, HGMPE is a clinically significant entity but further researches are required to better understand its clinical significance. PMID:23372354

  1. Affinity fluorescence-labeled peptides for the early detection of cancer in Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Appelman, Henry; Kwon, Rich; Soetikno, Roy; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Wang, Thomas D.

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence-labeled peptides that affinity bind to neoplastic mucsosa are promising for use as a specific contrast agent in the detection of pre-malignant tissue in the esophagus. This method is can be used to identify expression of biological markers associated with dysplasia on endoscopic imaging as a guide for biopsy and represents a novel method for the early detection and prevention of cancer. We demonstrate the use of phage display to select affinity peptides and identify the sequence "ASYNYDA" that binds with high target-to-background ratio to dysplastic esophageal mucosa compared to that of intestinal metaplasia. Validation of preferential binding is demonstrated for neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. An optimal tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 85% was found at the relative threshold of 0.60 with a target-to-background ratio of 1.81 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.87. Peptides are a novel class of ligand for targeted detection of pre-malignant mucosa for purposes of screening and surveillance.

  2. Long-term mobility of the esophagus in patients undergoing catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: data from computer tomography and 3D rotational angiography of the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Stárek, Zdeněk; Lehar, František; Jež, Jiří; Žbánková, Alena; Kulík, Tomáš; Wolf, Jiří; Novák, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) of the left atrium (LA) are used to evaluate the esophagus prior to radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to compare preprocedural and periprocedural views of the esophagus and the left atrium. From September 2011 to August 2012, 3DRA and CT of the LA were performed on 56 patients before they underwent catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The 3DRA was performed periprocedurally, and the CT was performed an average of 20 days prior to the procedure. 3D models of the LA and the esophagus were then segmented on the EP Navigator V 3.1 workstation. Five positions of the esophagus, A-E, in order from left to right, were evaluated. The most common position of the esophagus was behind the left part of the LA (CT, position B (n = 26)) and behind the central part of the LA (3DRA, position C (n = 21)). The maximum shift of the esophagus was three positions, and the average shift was 0.857 ± 0.766 of a position. There was a shift of one position in 44.6 % of the patients, two positions in 17.9 %, and three positions in 1.8 %. A statistically significant difference was found between the positions of the esophagus when the 3DRA and CT evaluations were compared. The most common position of the esophagus was behind the middle and left part of the LA. The outpatient views of the esophagus obtained before ablation did not reflect the position of the esophagus at the beginning of the procedure.

  3. Photodynamic therapy for Barrett's esophagus using a 20-mm diameter light-delivery balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Phan, Mary N.; Haydek, John M.; Robinson, Amy R.

    2002-06-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with high grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's esophagus are at a high risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophagectomy is the standard treatment for such patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using an improved light delivery balloon for ablation of Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia and/or early cancer. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with HGD or early cancer (19 with HGD, 1 with T1 cancer) received 2 mg/kg of porfimer sodium, intravenously. Two to three days after the injection, laser light was delivered using a cylindrical diffuser inserted inside a 20-mm diameter reflective esophageal PDT balloon. Initially, the balloon was inflated to a pressure of 80 mm Hg. The balloon pressure was gradually reduced to 30 mm Hg. A KTP/dye laser at 630 nm was used as the light source. Light dose of 115 J/cm was delivered at an intensity of 270 mw/cm. Nodules were pre- treated with an extra 50 J/cm using a short diffuser inserted through the scope. Patients were maintained on PPI therapy to keep the gastric pH higher than 4. Eighteen patients required one treatment, while two patients were treated twice. Follow-up consisted of endoscopy with four quadrant biopsies at every 2 cm of the treated area. Thermal ablation was used to treat small residual islands on the follow-ups. The follow-up endoscopies ranged from 6 to 17 months. Results: On follow-up endoscopy, 12 patients had complete replacement of their Barrett's mucosa with neosquamous mucosa. Five patients had residual non-dysplastic Barrett's mucosa, one had indefinite dysplasia, two had low grad dysplasia. There were no residual HGD or cancers. The average length of Barrett's was reduced from 5.4 cm to 1.2 cm. High balloon pressure resulted in wide variation in PDT response among patients. Lower balloon pressures resulted in more consistent destruction of Barrett's mucosa among patients. Five

  4. Nutcracker esophagus: demographic, clinical features, and esophageal tests in 115 patients.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, R; Heckman, M G; Diehl, N; DeVault, K R; Achem, S R

    2015-01-01

    Nutcracker esophagus (NE) is a common esophageal motility disorder chacterized by high amplitude peristaltic contractions in the distal esophagus. While previous studies have examined selected aspects of this condition (e.g. pathogenesis and treatment), there is a paucity of data regarding demographic and clinical features in large cohorts of patients. The aim of this study was to describe demographics, clinical features, comorbidities, time to diagnosis, source of patient referral by specialty, and medication use in a large cohort of patients with NE. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive cases of NE diagnosed from 2008-2010. The electronic medical records of these patients were reviewed, and relevant information was extracted. We identified 115 patients with NE. The median age was 62 years (range 25-87 years), and 63% were female. The median time patients experienced symptoms prior to diagnosis was 24 months (0-480 months). Most patients presented to an internal medicine consultant (42%) or to a gastroenterologist (35%). Presenting symptoms were chest pain (31%) and dysphagia (21%). Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms were common: heartburn occurred in 51% of patients, 77% had a prior history of GERD, and 78% were receiving acid suppressive medications. GERD was confirmed by testing in at least 35%. Psychiatric comorbidity occurred in 24% with half the patients receiving psychotropic medications. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and fibromyalgia co-existed in 15% and 12% of patients, respectively. Surprisingly, opioids were prescribed to 26% of patients. No statistically significant correlation was found between esophageal motility parameters and symptoms. In this study, NE patients were more commonly middle-aged females experiencing a considerable amount of time between symptom onset and diagnosis. Many were initially evaluated by internists for dysphagia or chest pain and had a history of GERD. Medication prescribed prior to diagnoses frequently

  5. BLOOD VESSELS IN GANGLIA IN HUMAN ESOPHAGUS MIGHT EXPLAIN THE HIGHER FREQUENCY OF MEGAESOPHAGUS COMPARED WITH MEGACOLON

    PubMed Central

    Adad, Sheila Jorge; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Jammal, Alessandro Adad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon. PMID:25351549

  6. Blood vessels in ganglia in human esophagus might explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon.

    PubMed

    Adad, Sheila Jorge; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Jammal, Alessandro Adad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon.

  7. Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldoon, Timothy J.; Thekkek, Nadhi; Roblyer, Darren; Maru, Dipen; Harpaz, Noam; Potack, Jonathan; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-03-01

    Early detection of neoplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus is essential to improve outcomes. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution microendoscopic imaging and quantitative image analysis to identify neoplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Nine patients with pathologically confirmed Barrett's esophagus underwent endoscopic examination with biopsies or endoscopic mucosal resection. Resected fresh tissue was imaged with fiber bundle microendoscopy; images were analyzed by visual interpretation or by quantitative image analysis to predict whether the imaged sites were non-neoplastic or neoplastic. The best performing pair of quantitative features were chosen based on their ability to correctly classify the data into the two groups. Predictions were compared to the gold standard of histopathology. Subjective analysis of the images by expert clinicians achieved average sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 61%, respectively. The best performing quantitative classification algorithm relied on two image textural features and achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 85%, respectively. This ex vivo pilot trial demonstrates that quantitative analysis of images obtained with a simple microendoscope system can distinguish neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus with good sensitivity and specificity when compared to histopathology and to subjective image interpretation.

  8. Quantifying glucose permeability and enhanced light penetration in ex vivo human normal and cancerous esophagus tissues with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q. L.; Si, J. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Li, X. Y.; Guo, X.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, L. Q.

    2011-01-01

    We report our pilot results on quantification of glucose (G) diffusion permeability in human normal esophagus and ESCC tissues in vitro by using OCT technique. The permeability coefficient of 40% aqueous solution of G was found to be (1.74±0.04)×10-5 cm/s in normal esophagus and (2.45±0.06)×10-5 cm/s in ESCC tissues. The results from this study indicate that ESCC tissues had a higher permeability coefficient compared to normal esophageal tissues, and the light penetration depths gradually increase with the increase of applied topically with G time for the normal esophageal and ESCC tissues. The results indicate that the permeability coefficient of G in cancer tissues was 1.41-fold than that in normal tissues, and the light penetration depth for the ESCC tissues is significantly smaller than that of normal esophagus tissues in the same time range. These results demonstrate that the optical clearing of normal and cancer esophagus tissues are improved after application of G.

  9. New and safe treatment of food impacted in the esophagus: a single center experience of 100 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Muhammad; Yaqub, Sheraz; Lie, Erik S; Dahl, Vegard; Olsbø, Frode; Røkke, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Large food bits can get stuck in the esophagus and must be removed by endoscopy. In some cases, this can be difficult or unsafe. We describe a new and safe treatment for such patients. Materials and Methods. 100 consecutive patients were referred to Akershus University Hospital with impacted food in the esophagus. In 36 patients (36%), the food passed spontaneously. In 59 (92%) of the remaining 64 patients, the food was removed by endoscopic intervention. In the last five patients, endoscopic removal was judged difficult or unsafe. These patients received the new treatment: one capsule Creon 10000 IU dissolved in 30 mL of Coca-Cola administered by a nasooesophageal tube four times daily for 2-3 days. Results. Of the 59 patients treated with endoscopic procedure, complications occurred in four (7%): three bleedings and one perforation of the esophagus. In five patients treated with Coca-Cola and Creon, the food had either passed or was soft after 2-3 days and could easily be removed. Conclusion. The treatment of choice of impacted food in the esophagus is endoscopic removal. In cases where this is difficult, we recommend treatment with Coca-Cola and Creon for 2-3 days before complications occur.

  10. [Safe extraction of an impacted open safety pin from the esophagus: a new technique and five case studies].

    PubMed

    Golz, Avishay; Gordin, Arie; Netzer, Aviram

    2006-08-01

    Esophageal foreign bodies are common, especially in children less than 5 years old. However, the presence of an open safety pin in the esophagus is quite rare. When this occurs, immediate removal of the safety pin is recommended due to its propensity to pierce the esophagus and surrounding structures causing severe and sometimes even lethal complications. Between the years 1990 and 2003, fifteen infants were referred to the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Rambam Health Care Campus with a history of safety pin ingestion. Plain neck, chest and abdomen radiographs showed the presence of an open safety pin impacted in the esophagus and pointing upwards in nine of the cases, and in the remainder (six infants) a closed pin was demonstrated in the stomach or in the duodenum. This report focuses on five cases in which during esophagoscopy only the clasp of the safety pin was visible, whereas the sharp point was impossible to be grasped, as it seemed to be stuck in the mucosa of the esophagus. In these cases the pin was pushed into the stomach, where it was closed, and then it was pulled outside without any harm to the mucosa or the gastric and esophageal walls. We present a new technique on how to safely close an open safety pin in the stomach and remove it, without any complications, using a flexible endoscope.

  11. Impairment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 increases accumulation of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage in the esophagus after ethanol ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Yukawa, Yoshiyuki; Ohashi, Shinya; Amanuma, Yusuke; Nakai, Yukie; Tsurumaki, Mihoko; Kikuchi, Osamu; Miyamoto, Shin’ichi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Muto, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde, are the definite carcinogens for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and reduced catalytic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which detoxifies acetaldehyde, increases the risk for ESCC. However, it remains unknown whether the ALDH2 genotype influences the level of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage in the esophagus after ethanol ingestion. In the present study, we administered ethanol orally or intraperitoneally to Aldh2-knockout and control mice, and we quantified the level of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage, especially N2-ethylidene-2’-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG), in the esophagus. In the model of oral ethanol administration, the esophageal N2-ethylidene-dG level was significantly higher in Aldh2-knockout mice compared with control mice. Similarly, in the model of intraperitoneal ethanol administration, in which the esophagus is not exposed directly to the alcohol solution, the esophageal N2-ethylidene-dG level was also elevated in Aldh2-knockout mice. This result indicates that circulating ethanol-derived acetaldehyde causes esophageal DNA damage, and that the extent of damage is influenced by knockout of Aldh2. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest the importance of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage which is induced in the esophagus of individuals with ALDH2 gene impairment. This provides a physiological basis for understanding alcohol-related esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:24959382

  12. Multiple fields may offer better esophagus sparing without increased probability of lung toxicity in optimized IMRT of lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Fraass, Benedick A.; Haken, Randall K. ten . E-mail: rth@umich.edu

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether increasing numbers of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields enhance lung-tumor dose without additional predicted toxicity for difficult planning geometries. Methods and Materials: Data from 8 previous three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) patients with tumors located in various regions of each lung, but with planning target volumes (PTVs) overlapping part of the esophagus, were used as input. Four optimized-beamlet IMRT plans (1 plan that used the 3D-CRT beam arrangement and 3 plans with 3, 5, or 7 axial, but predominantly one-sided, fields) were compared. For IMRT, the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in the whole PTV was optimized simultaneously with that in a reduced PTV exclusive of the esophagus. Normal-tissue complication probability-based costlets were used for the esophagus, heart, and lung. Results: Overall, IMRT plans (optimized by use of EUD to judiciously allow relaxed PTV dose homogeneity) result in better minimum PTV isodose surface coverage and better average EUD values than does conformal planning; dose generally increases with the number of fields. Even 7-field plans do not significantly alter normal-lung mean-dose values or lung volumes that receive more than 13, 20, or 30 Gy. Conclusion: Optimized many-field IMRT plans can lead to escalated lung-tumor dose in the special case of esophagus overlapping PTV, without unacceptable alteration in the dose distribution to normal lung.

  13. The Inaccuracy of ICD-9-CM Code 530.2 for Identifying Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Brian C.; Gerson, Lauren B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Barrett’s esophagus is a chronic complication associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The ICD-9-CM code used for Barrett’s esophagus, 530.2, is also used for patients with “ulcer of the esophagus.” Objectives We aimed to determine if the ICD-9-CM code of 530.2 is reliable for identifying cases of Barrett’s esophagus within databases for research purposes. Methods We reviewed the records of all patients assigned code 530.2 at two university medical center hospitals and a veterans’ administration hospital over a cumulative 16 year period. Billing records provided information about where the code was assigned, whether it was a major or minor diagnosis, and if the code was assigned on multiple occasions for each patient. Histology and endoscopy records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus. Results Among 435 patients with code 530.2 in their records, 354 (82%) had an esophageal biopsy reported and 393 (90%) had an endoscopy report available for review. Only 182 (42%) had specialized intestinal metaplasia documented in a biopsy from an area of salmon-colored mucosa arising above the esophagogastric junction (51% of those with histology available). There were 288 patients (66%) with an endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus (73% of those with an endoscopy reported). Variables associated with documented specialized intestinal metaplasia were age ≥ 60 (odds ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.4–3.7), multiple assignments of 530.2 (odds ratio 3.2; 95% confidence interval 2.0–5.0), and assignment of 530.2 in GI clinic or an endoscopy unit (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.0–6.3). The positive predictive value of the code being assigned in a GI location was 48% (95% confidence interval 43%–54%). Conclusions The ICD-9-CM code of 530.2 is not specific for the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus. The usage of code 530.2 in a GI setting was not sufficiently predictive of BE to be reliable for

  14. Molecular mechanisms underlying active desalination and low water permeability in the esophagus of eels acclimated to seawater.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshio; Wong, Marty K-S; Pipil, Supriya; Ozaki, Haruka; Suzuki, Yutaka; Iwasaki, Wataru; Kusakabe, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Marine teleosts can absorb imbibed seawater (SW) to maintain water balance, with esophageal desalination playing an essential role. NaCl absorption from luminal SW was enhanced 10-fold in the esophagus of SW-acclimated eels, and removal of Na(+) or Cl(-) from luminal SW abolished the facilitated absorption, indicating coupled transport. Mucosal/serosal application of various blockers for Na(+)/Cl(-) transporters profoundly decreased the absorption. Among the transporter genes expressed in eel esophagus detected by RNA-seq, dimethyl amiloride-sensitive Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive Cl(-)/[Formula: see text] exchanger (AE) coupled by the scaffolding protein on the apical membrane of epithelial cells, and ouabain-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-ATPases (NKA1α1c and NKA3α) and diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid-sensitive Cl(-) channel (CLCN2) on the basolateral membrane, may be responsible for enhanced transcellular NaCl transport because of their profound upregulation after SW acclimation. Upregulated carbonic anhydrase 2a (CA2a) supplies H(+) and [Formula: see text] for activation of the coupled NHE and AE. Apical hydrochlorothiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters and basolateral Na(+)-[Formula: see text] cotransporter (NBCe1) and AE1 are other possible candidates. Concerning the low water permeability that is typically seen in marine teleost esophagus, downregulated aquaporin genes (aqp1a and aqp3) and upregulated claudin gene (cldn15a) are candidates for transcellular/paracellular route. In situ hybridization showed that these upregulated transporters and tight-junction protein genes were expressed in the absorptive columnar epithelial cells of eel esophagus. These results allow us to provide a full picture of the molecular mechanism of active desalination and low water permeability that are characteristic to marine teleost esophagus and gain deeper insights into the role of gastrointestinal tracts in SW acclimation

  15. Label-free multi-photon imaging of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Mehravar, Soroush; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Chatrath, Hemant; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Patel, Krunal; Patel, Charmi; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Kieu, Khanh

    2015-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic disorder where dysplastic and early cancerous changes are invisible to the naked eye and where the practice of blind biopsy is hampered by large sampling errors. Multi-photon microscopy (MPM) has emerged as an alternative solution for fast and label-free diagnostic capability for identifying the histological features with sub-micron accuracy. We developed a compact, inexpensive MPM system by using a handheld mode-locked fiber laser operating at 1560nm to study mucosal biopsies of BE. The combination of back-scattered THG, back-reflected forward THG and SHG signals generate images of cell nuclei and collagen, leading to label-free diagnosis in Barrett’s. PMID:26819824

  16. Immunolocalization of succinate dehydrogenase in the esophagus epithelium of domesticated mammals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Kacza, J; Hornickel, I N; Schoennagel, B

    2013-05-10

    Using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the esophagus epithelia of seven domesticated mammals (horse, cattle, goat, pig, dog, laboratory rat, cat) of three nutrition groups (herbivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous) were studied to get first information about energy generation, as demonstrated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities. Distinct reaction intensities could be observed in all esophageal cell layers of the different species studied reflecting moderate to strong metabolic activities. The generally strong staining in the stratum basale indicated that new cells are continuously produced. The latter feature was confirmed by a thick, and in the horse generally highly active stratum spinosum. Only in the pig, reaction intensity variations occurred, obviously related to differences in physical feed quality or restricted feed allocation. The immunohistochemical results were corroborated by the presence of intact mitochondria in the esophageal cells of all species and nutrition types studied, except for the horse. Possible relationships between SDH reaction intensities and feed structure, mass or consistency are discussed.

  17. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in Barret's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, N. D.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Zuccaro, G.; Kareta, M. V.; Feldchtein, F. I.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Balandina, E. B.

    2007-02-01

    Statistical analysis of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) surveillance of 78 patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) is presented in this study. The sensitivity of OCT device in retrospective open detection of early malignancy (including high grade dysplasia and intramucosal adenocarcinoma (IMAC)) was 75%, specificity 82%, diagnostic accuracy - 80%, positive predictive value- 60%, negative predictive value- 87%. In the open recognition of IMAC sensitivity was 81% and specificity were 85% each. Results of a blind recognition with the same material were similar: sensitivity - 77%, specificity 85%, diagnostic accuracy - 82%, positive predictive value- 70%, negative predictive value- 87%. As the endoscopic detection of early malignancy is problematic, OCT holds great promise in enhancing the diagnostic capability of clinical GI endoscopy.

  18. Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Le; Pleskow, Douglas K; Chuttani, Ram; Vitkin, Edward; Leyden, Jan; Ozden, Nuri; Itani, Sara; Guo, Lianyu; Sacks, Alana; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Modell, Mark D; Hanlon, Eugene B; Itzkan, Irving; Perelman, Lev T

    2010-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is increasing in frequency in the United States faster than any other cancer. Barrett's esophagus, an otherwise benign complication of esophageal reflux, affects approximately three million Americans and precedes almost all cases of esophageal cancer. If detected as high-grade dysplasia (HGD), most esophageal cancers can be prevented. Standard-of-care screening for dysplasia uses visual endoscopy and a prescribed pattern of biopsy. This procedure, in which a tiny fraction of the affected tissue is selected for pathological examination, has a low probability of detection because dysplasia is highly focal and visually indistinguishable. We developed a system called endoscopic polarized scanning spectroscopy (EPSS), which performs rapid optical scanning and multispectral imaging of the entire esophageal surface and provides diagnoses in near real time. By detecting and mapping suspicious sites, guided biopsy of invisible, precancerous dysplasia becomes practicable. Here we report the development of EPSS and its application in several clinical cases, one of which merits special consideration.

  19. Morphological Changes in a Pyogenic Granuloma of the Esophagus Observed over Three Years.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takehiro; Hori, Keisuke; Kita, Masahide; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    A 78-year-old Japanese man underwent routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy, during which a reddish, flat elevated lesion was observed in the middle third of the esophagus. A bright red area of protrusion appeared in the center of the elevated lesion three months later, and the protruded nodule grew to be a blood blister six months after the initial endoscopy examination. The morphology of the lesion changed from a protruded nodule to a mass with two humps that subsequently returned to a single hump during the three-year observation period. A histological diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma was made based on a biopsy performed at six months. This report illustrates a rare case of an esophageal pyogenic granuloma presenting with a unique endoscopic appearance and morphologic changes. Endoscopic ultrasonography images are also presented.

  20. Distinguishing human normal or cancerous esophagus tissue ex vivo using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G. N.; Wu, S. S.; Chen, R.

    2014-02-01

    Application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to clinical cancer research has greatly developed over the last few years. In this paper, we mainly focus on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) for investigating esophageal cancer. We chiefly discuss the SHG/TPEF image and spectral characteristics of normal and cancerous esophagus submucosa with the combined multi-channel imaging mode and Lambda mode of a multiphoton microscope (LSM 510 META). Great differences can be detected, such as collagen content and morphology, glandular-shaped cancer cells, TPEF/SHG intensity ratio, and so on, which demonstrate that the multiphoton imaging technique has the potential ability for minimally-invasive early cancer diagnosis.

  1. MicroRNAs in Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Takatsugu

    2009-01-01

    Summary The molecular genetics of Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) and its evolution to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have been widely studied, however, the molecular mechanism of BE-EAC carcinogenesis has not been completely understood. MicroRNA (miRNA) is now essential to understanding the molecular mechanism of cancer progression. Recent findings include the following: (1) miRNA expression profiles can distinguish between BE and EAC; (2) miR-196a is upregulated in EAC tissues targeting annexin A1, thereby exerting anti-apoptotic effects and contributing to EAC cell survival; miR-196a may also constitute a good biomarker of progression during BE-EAC carcinogenesis; and (3) The miR-106b-25 polycistron is activated by genomic amplification and is involved in esophageal neoplastic progression and proliferation via suppression of two target genes, p21 and Bim. PMID:19773200

  2. Expression of EpCam and Villin in Barrett’s Esophagus and in Gastric Cardia

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Mario; Sarbia, Mario; Grotzinger, Carsten; Meining, Alexander; Hofler, Heinz; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Rosch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In the current study we aimed to clarify the potential of EpCAM and villin as in vivo biomarkers for both Barrett esophagus (BE)-associated neoplasia and BE versus cardiac mucosa. Immunohistochemical staining in BE with various degrees of intraepithelial neoplasia (IN), Barrett carcinoma (BC) and in normal cardiac mucosa (CM) revealed a lack of EpCam and villin in squamous esophageal epithelium. All specimens of IN and BC showed EpCam with varying staining intensities. In 57% of CM samples a weak signal was detected; the remainder displayed strong EpCam expression. Villin was found in 97% of BE specimens and in all those with IN; 37% of BC and 75% of CM specimens were also positive. We conclude that expression of EpCam and villin differs only between squamous epithelium and BE. Determination of these proteins does not allow discrimination between different degrees of neoplasia or between esophageal intestinal metaplasia and cardiac mucosa. PMID:18688077

  3. [Relationship between Helicobacter pylori status and the development of reflux esophagitis or Barrett's esophagus].

    PubMed

    Watari, Jiro; Tomita, Toshihiko; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Miwa, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    To date, there are many studies on the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here we reviewed the relationship between H. pylori status and the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) or Barrett's esophagus (BE). According to many case-controlled studies, H. pylori infection may play a protective role in the development of RE. However, the frequency of RE development does not increase following successful H. pylori treatment based on the previous studies including meta-analysis and systematic review. Even though RE newly develops after H. pylori eradication, endoscopic findings reveal mild such as grade A or B according to the Los Angeles Classification System. With regard to BE, there is an inverse significant relationship. Since there are few studies indicating that BE increases after treatment of H. pylori, the eradication should be recommended for patients with H. pylori infection irrespective of the presence of RE or BE even in terms of the prevention of gastric cancer.

  4. Immunolocalization of Succinate Dehydrogenase in the Esophagus Epithelium of Domesticated Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, W.; Kacza, J.; Hornickel, I.N.; Schoennagel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the esophagus epithelia of seven domesticated mammals (horse, cattle, goat, pig, dog, laboratory rat, cat) of three nutrition groups (herbivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous) were studied to get first information about energy generation, as demonstrated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities. Distinct reaction intensities could be observed in all esophageal cell layers of the different species studied reflecting moderate to strong metabolic activities. The generally strong staining in the stratum basale indicated that new cells are continuously produced. The latter feature was confirmed by a thick, and in the horse generally highly active stratum spinosum. Only in the pig, reaction intensity variations occurred, obviously related to differences in physical feed quality or restricted feed allocation. The immunohistochemical results were corroborated by the presence of intact mitochondria in the esophageal cells of all species and nutrition types studied, except for the horse. Possible relationships between SDH reaction intensities and feed structure, mass or consistency are discussed. PMID:23807297

  5. Thoracoscopic removal of dental prosthesis impacted in the upper thoracic esophagus.

    PubMed

    Bonavina, Luigi; Aiolfi, Alberto; Siboni, Stefano; Rausa, Emanuele

    2014-01-14

    Dental appliances are the most common cause of accidental foreign body esophageal impaction, especially in the elderly population with decreased oral sensory perception. A 47-year-old man with history of oligophrenia and recurrent epileptic seizures was referred to our hospital following dislocation and ingestion of his upper dental prosthesis. Endoscopic removal and clipping of an esophageal tear had been unsuccessfully attempted. A chest CT scan confirmed entrapment of the dental prosthesis in the upper thoracic esophagus, the presence of pneumomediastinum, and the close proximity of one of the metal clasps of the prosthesis to the left subclavian artery. A video-assisted right thoracoscopy in the left lateral decubitus position was performed and the foreign body was successfully removed. The patient was then allowed to wear the retrieved prosthesis after dentistry consultation and repair of the wire clasps by a dental technician. At the 6-month follow-up visit the patient was doing very well without any trouble in swallowing.

  6. Microvasculature of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction: Lesson learned from submucosal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Roberta; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Yoshida, Akira; Santi, Esperanza Grace; Sato, Hiroki; Hayee, Bu’Hussain; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapeutic endoscopy, in particular endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, per-oral endoscopic myotomy, submucosal endoscopic tumor resection opened a new era where direct esophageal visualization is possible. Combining these information with advanced diagnostic endoscopy, the esophagus is organized, from the luminal side to outside, into five layers (epithelium, lamina propria with lamina muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscle layer, adventitia). A specific vascular system belonging to each layer is thus visible: Mucosa with the intra papillary capillary loop in the epithelium and the sub-epithelial capillary network in the lamina propria and, at the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) level with the palisade vessels; submucosa with the drainage vessels and the spindle veins at LES level; muscle layer with the perforating vessels; peri-esophageal veins in adventitia. These structures are particularly important to define endoscopic landmark for the gastro-esophageal junction, helpful in performing submucosal therapeutic endoscopy. PMID:27909548

  7. The molecular basis for carcinogenesis in metaplastic columnar-lined esophagus.

    PubMed

    Souza, R F; Meltzer, S J

    1997-09-01

    A wide variety of biologic events and mechanisms appear to have roles in the development and progression of Barrett's esophagus-associated neoplastic lesions. Figure 5 is a schematic depiction of these events. This is known as an infernogram (named after Dante's Inferno) (S. Kern, unpublished presentations, 1996). Events at the bottom rings of the inferno are high-frequency mutations; nearer to the top of the inferno are the less common events. The next several years promise many further discoveries of not only high-frequency and low-frequency events, but also their application. Some of the molecular alterations already studied show promise as markers for early cancer detection or prognostication. Eventually, applications of these discoveries should yield new and more effective means of preventing and treating the deadly complications of this troublesome premalignant condition.

  8. Digital microscopy as valid alternative to conventional microscopy for histological evaluation of Barrett's esophagus biopsies.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, M J; Duits, L C; Seldenrijk, C A; Offerhaus, G J; Visser, M; Ten Kate, F J; de Boer, O J; Tijssen, J G; Bergman, J J; Meijer, S L

    2017-11-01

    Management of Barrett's esophagus (BE) relies heavily on histopathological assessment of biopsies, associated with significant intra- and interobserver variability. Guidelines recommend biopsy review by an expert in case of dysplasia. Conventional review of biopsies, however, is impractical and does not allow for teleconferencing or annotations. An expert digital review platform might overcome these limitations. We compared diagnostic agreement of digital and conventional microscopy for diagnosing BE ± dysplasia. Sixty BE biopsy glass slides (non-dysplastic BE (NDBE); n = 25, low-grade dysplasia (LGD); n = 20; high-grade dysplasia (HGD); n = 15) were scanned at ×20 magnification. The slides were assessed four times by five expert BE pathologists, all practicing histopathologists (range: 5-30 years), in 2 alternating rounds of digital and conventional microscopy, each in randomized order and sequence of slides. Intraobserver and pairwise interobserver agreement were calculated, using custom weighted Cohen's kappa, adjusted for the maximum possible kappa scores. Split into three categories (NDBE, IND, LGD+HGD), the mean intraobserver agreement was 0.75 and 0.84 for digital and conventional assessment, respectively (p = 0.35). Mean pairwise interobserver agreement was 0.80 for digital and 0.85 for conventional microscopy (p = 0.17). In 47/60 (78%) of digital microscopy reviews a majority vote of ≥3 pathologists was reached before consensus meeting. After group discussion, a majority vote was achieved in all cases (60/60). Diagnostic agreement of digital microscopy is comparable to that of conventional microscopy. These outcomes justify the use of digital slides in a nationwide, web-based BE revision platform in the Netherlands. This will overcome the practical issues associated with conventional histologic review by multiple pathologists. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus

  9. Analysis of tissue and circulating microRNA expression during metaplastic transformation of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, Daniela; Caruso, Stefano; Bazan, Viviana; Castiglia, Marta; Bronte, Giuseppe; Ingrao, Sabrina; Fanale, Daniele; Cangemi, Antonina; Calò, Valentina; Listì, Angela; Incorvaia, Lorena; Galvano, Antonio; Pantuso, Gianni; Fiorentino, Eugenio; Castorina, Sergio; Russo, Antonio

    2016-07-26

    Genetic changes involved in the metaplastic progression from squamous esophageal mucosa toward Barrett's metaplasia and adenocarcinoma are almost unknown. Several evidences suggest that some miRNAs are differentially expressed in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Among these, miR-143, miR-145, miR-194, miR-203, miR-205, miR-215 appear to have a key role in metaplasia and neoplastic progression. The aim of this study was to analyze deregulated miRNAs in serum and esophageal mucosal tissue biopsies to identify new biomarkers that could be associated with different stages of esophageal disease. Esophageal mucosal tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected and analyzed for BE diagnosis. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to compare miRNA expression levels in serum and 60 disease/normal-paired tissues from 30 patients diagnosed with esophagitis, columnar-lined esophagus (CLO) or BE. MiRNA expression analysis showed that miR-143, miR-145, miR-194 and miR-215 levels were significantly higher, while miR-203 and miR-205 were lower in BE tissues compared with their corresponding normal tissues. Esophageal mucosa analysis of patients with CLO and esophagitis showed that these miRNAs were similarly deregulated but to a lesser extent keeping the same trend and CLO appeared as intermediate step between esophagitis and BE. Analysis on circulating miRNA levels confirmed that miR-194 and miR-215 were significantly upregulated in both BE and CLO compared to esophagitis, while miR-143 was significantly upregulated only in the Barrett group. These findings suggest that miRNAs may be involved in neoplastic/metaplastic progression and miRNA analysis might be useful for progression risk prediction as well as for monitoring of BE/CLO patients.

  10. Differential Activation of Pontomedullary Nuclei by Acid Perfusion of Different Regions of the Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Ivan M.; Medda, Bidyut K.; Shaker, Reza

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the brain stem nuclei and physiological responses activated by esophageal acidification. The effects of perfusion of the cervical (ESOc), or thoracic (ESOt) esophagus with PBS or HCl on c-fos immunoreactivity of the brain stem or on physiological variables, and the effects of vagotomy were examined in anesthetized cats. We found that acidification of the ESOc increased the number of c-fos positive neurons in the area postrema (AP), vestibular nucleus (VN), parabrachial nucleus (PBN), nucleus ambiguus (NA), dorsal motor nucleus (DMN), and all subnuclei of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), but one. Acidification of the ESOt activated neurons in the central (CE), caudal (CD), dorsomedial (DM), dorsolateral (DL), ventromedial (VM) subnuclei of NTS, and the DMN. Vagotomy blocked all c-fos responses to acid perfusion of the whole esophagus (ESOw). Perfusion of the ESOc or ESOt with PBS activated secondary peristalsis (2P), but had no effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or respiratory rate. Perfusion of the ESOc, but not ESOt, with HCL activated pharyngeal swallowing (PS), profuse salivation, or physiological correlates of emesis. Vagotomy blocked all physiological effects of ESOw perfusion. We conclude that acidification of the ESOc and ESOt activate different sets of pontomedullary nuclei and different physiological responses. The NTSce, NTScom, NTSdm, and DMN are associated with activation of 2P, the NTSim and NTSis, are associated with activation of PS, and the AP, VN, and PBN are associated with activation of emesis and perhaps nausea. All responses to esophageal fluid perfusion or acidification are mediated by the vagus nerves. PMID:20655885

  11. Hypercontractile esophagus: Clinical context and motors findings in high resolution manometry.

    PubMed

    Martín-Domínguez, Verónica; Pérez-Fernández, María Teresa; Marinero, Almudena; Jusué-Irurita, Vanesa; Caldas, María; Santander, Cecilio

    2015-05-01

    Hypercontractile esophagus (HE) is a primary hypercontractile disorder of the esophageal musculature not frequently seen in the general population. It is characterized by the presence of at least one contraction with a very high amplitude and duration (DCI > 8,000 mmHg/s/cm) in patients with esophageal symptoms. The aim of our study was to assess the clinical context and manometric characteristics in patients with HE using highresolution manometry (HRM). We thoroughly reviewed the clinical features and manometric findings of a total of 720 patients with esophageal symptoms that were attended in the Department of Gastroenterology of our hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. We found seven patients that met criteria for HE according to the Chicago Classification (2012). All of the patients were women (100%). Mean age was 64 years old. Most frequent symptoms were: Chest pain, dysphagia and heartburn.In one patient (14%) the HE was related to a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) outflow obstruction. Three patients (43%) had more than one hypercontractile contraction in the study. Four patient (57%) hade multipeaked pattern (Jackhammer esophagus) and y two of them were synchronized with respiration. Two patients (29%) were diagnosed with hiatus hernias. Integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) was not higher in hypercontractile contractions than in normal contractions. Only one patient presented a slight alteration of the relaxation (IRP-4s = 15 mmHg) with normal peristalsis, GEJ outflow obstruction and not multipeakeded pattern. One patient presented pathological acid exposure (PAE) in 24-hours pH-metry. HE is a rare disorder and HRM is essential for its correct diagnosis and characterization. The treatment of HE should achieve the disappearance or at least improvement of the patient´s symptoms and avoid unnecessary diagnostic testing.

  12. Warburg and Crabtree Effects in Premalignant Barrett's Esophagus Cell Lines with Active Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Suchorolski, Martin T.; Paulson, Thomas G.; Sanchez, Carissa A.; Hockenbery, David; Reid, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer metabolism, yet relatively little is known about this phenotype at premalignant stages of progression. Periodic ischemia occurs in the premalignant condition Barrett's esophagus (BE) due to tissue damage from chronic acid-bile reflux and may select for early adaptations to hypoxia, including upregulation of glycolysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in four cell lines derived from patients with BE (CP-A, CP-B, CP-C and CP-D) in response to metabolic inhibitors and changes in glucose concentration. We report that cell lines derived from patients with more advanced genetically unstable BE have up to two-fold higher glycolysis compared to a cell line derived from a patient with early genetically stable BE; however, all cell lines preserve active mitochondria. In response to the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, the most glycolytic cell lines (CP-C and CP-D) had the greatest suppression of extra-cellular acidification, but were able to compensate with upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, these cell lines showed the lowest compensatory increases in glycolysis in response to mitochondrial uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Finally, these cell lines also upregulated their oxidative phosphorylation in response to glucose via the Crabtree effect, and demonstrate a greater range of modulation of oxygen consumption. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that cells from premalignant Barrett's esophagus tissue may adapt to an ever-changing selective microenvironment through changes in energy metabolic pathways typically associated with cancer cells. PMID:23460817

  13. Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Becker, Lauren; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Huang, Qin; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for BE. Endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is a volumetric imaging technique that is uniquely suited for follow-up surveillance of RFA treatment. 3D-OCT uses a thin fiberoptic imaging catheter placed down the working channel of a conventional endoscope. 3D-OCT enables en face and cross-sectional evaluation of the esophagus for detection of residual BE, neo-squamous mucosa, or buried BE glands. Patients who had undergone RFA treatment with the BARRX HALO90 system were recruited and imaged with endoscopic 3D-OCT before and after (3-25 months) RFA treatment. 3D-OCT findings were compared to pinch biopsy to confirm the presence or absence of squamous epithelium or buried BE glands following RFA. Gastric, BE, and squamous epithelium were readily distinguished from 3D-OCT over a large volumetric field of view (8mmx20mmx1.6 mm) with ~5μm axial resolution. In all patients, neosquamous epithelium (NSE) was observed in regions previously treated with RFA. A small number of isolated glands were found buried beneath the regenerated NSE and lamina propria. NSE is a marker of successful ablative therapy, while buried glands may have malignant potential and are difficult to detect using conventional video endoscopy and random biopsy. Buried glands were not observed with pinch biopsy due to their extremely sparse distribution. These results indicate a potential benefit of endoscopic 3D-OCT for follow-up assessment of ablative treatments for BE.

  14. Added value of narrow band imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy in detecting Barrett's esophagus neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, C; Taylor, A C F; Desmond, P V; Macrae, F; Williams, R

    2012-12-01

    Advances in endoscopic imaging techniques have enabled more accurate identification of subtle mucosal abnormalities. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of predicting high grade dysplasia (HGD) and intramucosal cancer (IMC) in mucosa predicted as being nondysplastic vs. dysplastic by high definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE), narrow band imaging (NBI), and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). A cross-sectional study was performed in a tertiary referral setting between February 2010 and September 2011. A total of 50 consecutive patients who were referred to St Vincent's Hospital for management of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus were included. A prediction of likely histology was made for each mucosal point (four-quadrant every 1 cm and any visible mucosal abnormality), first with HD-WLE, followed by NBI, and finally CLE. Biopsies were taken at all of these points. A total of 1190 individual biopsy points were assessed. At histology, 39 biopsy points were found to harbor HGD and 52 biopsy points harbored IMC. For the detection of HGD/IMC the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were: HD - WLE, 79.1 %, 83.1 %, and 82.8 %; NBI, 89.0 %, 80.1 %, and 81.4 %; and CLE, 75.7 %, 80.0 %, and 79.9 %, respectively. All mucosal points with IMC and all patients with HGD were detected by targeted biopsies guided by HD-WLE and NBI without the need for random Seattle protocol biopsies. HD-WLE in combination with NBI is highly accurate in the detection of HGD/IMC. Performing targeted biopsies in the surveillance of Barrett's esophagus is possible in expert centers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Definition of Barrett's esophagus: time for a rethink--is intestinal metaplasia dead?

    PubMed

    Riddell, Robert H; Odze, Robert D

    2009-10-01

    The definition of Barrett's esophagus (BE) varies worldwide, particularly with regard to the need to identify goblet cells in esophageal biopsies in order to diagnose this condition. Problems related to the need to identify goblet cells to diagnose BE include the facts that goblet cells are uncommon in pediatric patients with BE, a small percentage of adults with columnar metaplasia of the esophagus do not contain goblet cells, the chances of detecting goblet cells are proportional to the length of columnar metaplasia, sampling error is common, and interpretation and differentiation of goblet cells vs. pseudogoblet cells may be difficult in some circumstances. In addition, goblet cells have been shown to wax and wane over the natural history of BE. Recent studies suggest that the background nongoblet epithelium in BE is biologically intestinalized, and shows a variety of molecular abnormalities similar to the goblet cell-containing epithelium. In addition, several retrospective and outcome studies suggest a well-defined risk of neoplasia in patients with esophageal columnar metaplasia, but without goblet cells. There are important clinical and economic implications to these findings and also with regard to the definition of BE. This review provides evidence to suggest that a diagnosis of BE should not require demonstration of goblet cells in mucosal biopsies, and offers considerable data to support the notion that a nongoblet epithelium is also at risk of malignancy. Guidelines for the diagnosis of BE need to consider revisions that take into account new data regarding nongoblet cell epithelium in BE, and the difficulties in recognizing columnar metaplasia that measures less than 1 cm in length.

  16. Automatic classification of endoscopic images for premalignant conditions of the esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetto, Davide; Gambaretto, Gloria; Grisan, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precancerous complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease in which normal stratified squamous epithelium lining the esophagus is replaced by intestinal metaplastic columnar epithelium. Repeated endoscopies and multiple biopsies are often necessary to establish the presence of intestinal metaplasia. Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) is an imaging technique commonly used with endoscopies that enhances the contrast of vascular pattern on the mucosa. We present a computer-based method for the automatic normal/metaplastic classification of endoscopic NBI images. Superpixel segmentation is used to identify and cluster pixels belonging to uniform regions. From each uniform clustered region of pixels, eight features maximizing differences among normal and metaplastic epithelium are extracted for the classification step. For each superpixel, the three mean intensities of each color channel are firstly selected as features. Three added features are the mean intensities for each superpixel after separately applying to the red-channel image three different morphological filters (top-hat filtering, entropy filtering and range filtering). The last two features require the computation of the Grey-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and are reflective of the contrast and the homogeneity of each superpixel. The classification step is performed using an ensemble of 50 classification trees, with a 10-fold cross-validation scheme by training the classifier at each step on a random 70% of the images and testing on the remaining 30% of the dataset. Sensitivity and Specificity are respectively of 79.2% and 87.3%, with an overall accuracy of 83.9%.

  17. Combining endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic mucosal resection to treat neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ian; Hing, Tressia; Friedland, Shai

    2016-12-01

    Piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is the standard treatment of nodular Barrett's esophagus dysplasia and T1a cancer. Piecemeal resection may be incomplete and makes precise histologic assessment difficult. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a technique that enables en-bloc resection but has not gained widespread acceptance due to its technical difficulty, risk and long procedure time. We developed a protocol consisting of a combination of a limited ESD with supplementary EMR in the same session if necessary, designed to increase en-bloc resection of the most worrisome neoplastic area while maximizing the rate of complete resection of dysplasia. Records of consecutive patients referred for treatment during a 2-year period were reviewed. Eleven patients were treated: two with ESD and nine with combined ESD/EMR. Eight patients had mucosal lesions; three patients had submucosally invasive cancer and were referred to surgery. Five of the 8 mucosal lesions were removed en-bloc by ESD with dysplasia-free margins. Two patients with T1a cancer had low-grade dysplasia in the ESD margins and removal of all dysplasia on EMR. One patient with T1a cancer had high-grade dysplasia in the ESD margins and on EMR. He required a second endoscopy to remove residual neoplasia. There were no adverse events. The mean procedure time was 66.4 ± 15.1 min. Combining a limited ESD with EMR in the same session enables efficient treatment of visible dysplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus.

  18. Risk of multiple squamous cell carcinomas both in the esophagus and the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Muto, Manabu; Takahashi, Mari; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ebihara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Shigeaki; Esumi, Hiroyasu

    2005-05-01

    While multiple squamous cell carcinomas are often observed in the esophagus and the head and neck region and confound us about the favorable treatments, the reason why some patients are more likely to develop multiple cancers remains obscure. We statistically analyzed clinical factors in 203 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma, to assess the risk of multiple cancers for the establishment of an effective prevention and screening programs. Widespread epithelial oncogenic alterations were assessed as multiple lugol-voiding lesions (multiple LVL) using lugol chromoendoscopy. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase type 3 (ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Forty patients had synchronous multiple cancers and the remaining 163 had solitary cancer. Presence of multiple LVL was the only independent risk factor for multiple cancers [relative risk (RR) = 67; 95%CI, 15-310]. Multiple LVL was observed in only smoking drinkers. Among them, a multivariate analysis demonstrated that the ALDH2 deficiency allele (RR = 5.7; 95%CI, 2.8-11.6) and the slow metabolizing ADH3 allele (RR = 1.9; 95%CI, 1.1-7.9) were the independent risk factors for multiple LVL. Combination of these alleles lead to increase the risk of multiple LVL. In conclusion, an episode of multiple LVL is a remarkable high risk for multiple cancers both at the esophagus and the head and neck region. The interaction between drinking and the ALDH2 deficiency allele increases the risk. In addition, the slow metabolizing ADH3 allele enhances the risk. Prohibiting the use of alcohol and early detection of cancer are strongly recommended for such individuals.

  19. Effects of acid on vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes in guinea pig esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian

    2014-01-01

    Acid reflux-induced heartburn and noncardiac chest pain are processed peripherally by sensory nerve endings in the wall of the esophagus, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of acid on esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in guinea pig vagal nodose or jugular C fiber neurons by using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. We recorded action potentials (AP) of esophageal nodose or jugular C fibers evoked by acid perfusion and compared esophageal distension-evoked AP before and after acid perfusion. Acid perfusion for 30 min (pH range 7.4 to 5.8) did not evoke AP in nodose C fibers but significantly decreased their responses to esophageal distension, which could be recovered after washing out acid for 90 min. In jugular C fibers, acid perfusion not only evoked AP but also inhibited their responses to esophageal distension, which were not recovered after washing out acid for 120 min. Lower concentration of capsaicin perfusion mimicked acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fibers. Pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810, but not acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor amiloride, significantly inhibited acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fiber. These results demonstrate that esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent nerve subtypes display distinctive responses to acid. Acid activates jugular, but not nodose, C fibers and inhibits both of their responses to esophageal distension. These effects are mediated mainly through TRPV1. This inhibitory effect is a novel finding and may contribute to esophageal sensory/motor dysfunction in acid reflux diseases. PMID:24994852

  20. Dynamic changes in microRNA expression profiles reflect progression of Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Ondrej; Srovnal, Josef; Radova, Lenka; Gregar, Jan; Juracek, Jaroslav; Luzna, Pavla; Svoboda, Marek; Hajduch, Marian; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is highly aggressive malignancy that frequently develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant pathologic change occurring in the lower end of the esophagus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression and were repeatedly proved to play key roles in pathogenesis of BE as well as EAC. In our study, we used Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA arrays to obtain miRNA expression profiles in total of 119 tissue samples [24 normal esophageal mucosa (EM), 60 BE and 35 EAC]. We identified a number of miRNAs, that showed altered expression progressively in sequence EM, BE and EAC, including for instance miR-21, miR-25, miR-194 and miR-196a with increasing levels (P < 0.0015) and miR-203, miR-205, miR-210 and miR-378 with decreasing levels (P < 0.0001). The subsequent analysis revealed four diagnostic miRNA signatures enabling to distinguish EM and BE [12 miRNAs, area under curve (AUC) = 0.971], EM and EAC (13 miRNAs, AUC = 1.0), BE without and BE with dysplasia (21 miRNAs, AUC = 0.856) and BE without dysplastic changes and BE with dysplasia together with EAC (2 miRNAs, AUC = 0.886). We suggest that miRNA expression profiling expands current knowledge in molecular pathology of Barrett's-based carcinogenesis and enables identification of molecular biomarkers for early detection of BE dysplasia and progression to EAC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The influence of gender and of AIDS on the immunity of autopsied patients' esophagus.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Laura Penna; de Melo E Silva, Ana Teresa; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Olegário, Janaínna Grazielle Pacheco; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that males who have AIDS are more frequently affected by infectious diseases than females. The esophagus is the organ in the digestive tube that is more commonly affected by opportunistic infections during the syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AIDS and of gender on local immunity of the esophageal epithelium. Fragments of the esophagus from 29 autopsied women and 37 autopsied men were collected at a university hospital from 1980 to 2009 and were divided in groups with and without AIDS. The IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells and Langerhans cells (LCs) were immunostained, respectively, with anti-IgA, anti-IgG, anti-IgM, and anti-S100. The software Image J was used to measure the esophageal epithelium and to count the epithelium cellular layers. Patients with AIDS, apart from gender, showed an increase in IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells and a reduction of Langerhans cells, in thickness and in number of cellular layers in the esophageal epithelium. However, among individuals with AIDS, men presented lower secretory expression of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells than women and more intense reduction of LCs. Women have naturally presented better local esophageal immunity than men. Although AIDS possibly causes immunological and morphological alterations in the esophageal epithelium in both genders, women have better esophageal immunity, which may explain a greater frequency of hospital admissions due to infection of men with AIDS when compared with women.

  2. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 immunoreactivity in extrinsic and intrinsic innervation of the rat esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ewald, P; Neuhuber, W L; Raab, M

    2006-04-01

    Encouraged by the recent finding of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) immunoreactivity (-ir) in intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) of the rat esophagus, we investigated also the distribution and co-localization patterns of VGLUT1. Confocal imaging revealed substantial co-localization of VGLUT1-ir with selective markers of IGLEs, i.e., calretinin and VGLUT2, indicating that IGLEs contain both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 within their synaptic vesicles. Besides IGLEs, we found VGLUT1-ir in both cholinergic and nitrergic myenteric neuronal cell bodies, in fibers of the muscularis mucosae, and in esophageal motor endplates. Skeletal neuromuscular junctions, in contrast, showed no VGLUT1-ir. We also tested for probable co-localization of VGLUT1-ir with markers of extrinsic and intrinsic esophageal innervation and glia. Within the myenteric neuropil we found, besides co-localization of VGLUT1 and substance P, no further co-localization of VGLUT1-ir with any of these markers. In the muscularis mucosae some VGLUT1-ir fibers were shown to contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-ir. VGLUT1-ir in esophageal motor endplates was partly co-localized with vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)/choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-ir, but VGLUT1-ir was also demonstrated in separately terminating fibers at motor endplates co-localized neither with ChAT/VAChT-ir nor with nNOS-ir, suggesting a hitherto unknown glutamatergic enteric co-innervation. Thus, VGLUT1-ir was found in extrinsic as well as intrinsic innervation of the rat esophagus.

  3. Bacterial Composition of the Human Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome Is Dynamic and Associated with Genomic Instability in a Barrett’s Esophagus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Alevtina; Fero, Jutta; McCoy, Connor; Claywell, Brian C.; Sanchez, Carissa A.; Blount, Patricia L.; Li, Xiaohong; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Matsen, Frederick A.; Reid, Brian J.; Salama, Nina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased nearly five-fold over the last four decades in the United States. Barrett’s esophagus, the replacement of the normal squamous epithelial lining with a mucus-secreting columnar epithelium, is the only known precursor to EAC. Like other parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the esophagus hosts a variety of bacteria and comparisons among published studies suggest bacterial communities in the stomach and esophagus differ. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach has been inversely associated with development of EAC, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Methodology The bacterial composition in the upper GI tract was characterized in a subset of participants (n=12) of the Seattle Barrett’s Esophagus Research cohort using broad-range 16S PCR and pyrosequencing of biopsy and brush samples collected from squamous esophagus, Barrett’s esophagus, stomach corpus and stomach antrum. Three of the individuals were sampled at two separate time points. Prevalence of H. pylori infection and subsequent development of aneuploidy (n=339) and EAC (n=433) was examined in a larger subset of this cohort. Results/Significance Within individuals, bacterial communities of the stomach and esophagus showed overlapping community membership. Despite closer proximity, the stomach antrum and corpus communities were less similar than the antrum and esophageal samples. Re-sampling of study participants revealed similar upper GI community membership in two of three cases. In this Barrett’s esophagus cohort, Streptococcus and Prevotella species dominate the upper GI and the ratio of these two species is associated with waist-to-hip ratio and hiatal hernia length, two known EAC risk factors in Barrett’s esophagus. H. pylori-positive individuals had a significantly decreased incidence of aneuploidy and a non-significant trend toward lower incidence of EAC. PMID:26076489

  4. Bacterial Composition of the Human Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome Is Dynamic and Associated with Genomic Instability in a Barrett's Esophagus Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gall, Alevtina; Fero, Jutta; McCoy, Connor; Claywell, Brian C; Sanchez, Carissa A; Blount, Patricia L; Li, Xiaohong; Vaughan, Thomas L; Matsen, Frederick A; Reid, Brian J; Salama, Nina R

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased nearly five-fold over the last four decades in the United States. Barrett's esophagus, the replacement of the normal squamous epithelial lining with a mucus-secreting columnar epithelium, is the only known precursor to EAC. Like other parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the esophagus hosts a variety of bacteria and comparisons among published studies suggest bacterial communities in the stomach and esophagus differ. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach has been inversely associated with development of EAC, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. The bacterial composition in the upper GI tract was characterized in a subset of participants (n=12) of the Seattle Barrett's Esophagus Research cohort using broad-range 16S PCR and pyrosequencing of biopsy and brush samples collected from squamous esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, stomach corpus and stomach antrum. Three of the individuals were sampled at two separate time points. Prevalence of H. pylori infection and subsequent development of aneuploidy (n=339) and EAC (n=433) was examined in a larger subset of this cohort. Within individuals, bacterial communities of the stomach and esophagus showed overlapping community membership. Despite closer proximity, the stomach antrum and corpus communities were less similar than the antrum and esophageal samples. Re-sampling of study participants revealed similar upper GI community membership in two of three cases. In this Barrett's esophagus cohort, Streptococcus and Prevotella species dominate the upper GI and the ratio of these two species is associated with waist-to-hip ratio and hiatal hernia length, two known EAC risk factors in Barrett's esophagus. H. pylori-positive individuals had a significantly decreased incidence of aneuploidy and a non-significant trend toward lower incidence of EAC.

  5. The Use of Ancillary Stains in the Diagnosis of Barrett Esophagus and Barrett Esophagus-associated Dysplasia: Recommendations From the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amitabh; Appelman, Henry; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Davison, Jon M; Hart, John; Krasinskas, Alyssa M

    2017-05-01

    Barrett esophagus (BE) is a known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Pathologists play a critical role in confirming the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. As these diagnoses are not always straightforward on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, numerous ancillary stains have been used in an attempt to help pathologists confirm the diagnosis. On the basis of an in-depth review of the literature, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society provides recommendations regarding the use of ancillary stains in the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. Because goblet cells are almost always identifiable on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, there is insufficient evidence to justify reflexive use of Alcian blue (at pH 2.5) and/or periodic-acid Schiff stains on all esophageal biopsies to diagnose BE. In addition, the use of mucin glycoprotein immunostains and markers of intestinal phenotype (CDX2, Das-1, villin, Hep Par 1, and SOX9) are not indicated to aid in the diagnosis of BE at this time. A diagnosis of dysplasia in BE remains a morphologic diagnosis, and hence, ancillary stains are not recommended for diagnosing dysplasia. Although p53 is a promising marker for identifying high-risk BE patients, it is not recommended for routine use at present; additional studies are needed to address questions regarding case selection, interpretation, integration with morphologic diagnosis, and impact on clinical outcome. We hope that this review and our recommendations will provide helpful information to pathologists, gastroenterologists, and others involved in the evaluation of patients with BE and BE-associated dysplasia.

  6. Evaluation of Barrett's esophagus with CK7, CK20, p53, Ki67, and COX2 expressions using chromoendoscopical examination.

    PubMed

    Çoban, Ş; Örmeci, N; Savaş, B; Ekiz, F; Ensari, A; Kuzu, I; Palabıyıkoğlu, M

    2013-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and can be diagnosed when there is an endoscopically irregular Z-line and intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a biopsy obtained lower esophagus. It is still not clear whether IM in the gastric cardia or columnar mucosa without IM in the lower esophagus have any significance as BE, which is considered as preneoplastic. The aim of the study was to determine the immunohistochemical features of BE and columnar mucosa in the distal esophagus and also to evaluate the value of chromoendoscopy in the diagnosis of BE in a prospective manner. A total of 12 chromoendoscopic biopsies (six from normal-looking unstained esophagus and six from esophageal mucosa stained with methyl blue suspicious of BE) were taken from 111 cases who underwent endoscopy because of a variety of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using CK7, CK20, p53, Ki67, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Of the 111 cases, 19 cases with carcinoma (nine adeno, six squamous, four undifferentiated carcinomas) and 17 cases with normal squamous epithelium were excluded, while 75 cases showing columnar epithelium, including 46 (61.3%) with IM and 29 (38,7%) without IM, were further evaluated immunohistochemically. CK7 was observed in surface, crypt, and glandular epithelium, whereas CK20 was expressed in surface and superficial crypt epithelium. No significant difference was observed between the Barrett and non-Barrett type of CK7/20 staining pattern (P > 0,05). Expression of p53 did not show any difference between BE and columnar mucosa without IM, whereas COX2 expression was significantly increased in BE (P < 0.05) in comparison with columnar mucosa without IM. Ki67 expression was significiantly higher both in upper and lower crypts in BE (P < 0.05). The present study showed that a Barrett pattern does not seem to exist; however, the analysis of COX2 expression and the Ki67 proliferation fraction by

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung invaded to esophagus: a case report of successful surgical treatment after preoperative transesophageal echographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Kishimoto, Satoru; Yurugi, Youhei; Fujioka, Shinji; Miwa, Ken; Taniguchi, Yuji

    2012-07-01

    We describe a successful surgical case of a 78-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung invaded to the esophagus. Chest computed tomography on admission showed a tumor mass shadow in the left lower lobe (S(6)). The tumor was adjacent to the esophagus, which was a strongly suspected lung cancer with esophageal invasion. We performed the transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for a detailed evaluation of the degree of invasion, and we obtained the findings of localized tumor invasion into the muscular coat of the esophagus. The tumor invaded to the esophagus perioperatively, and we could remove all the involved area with enough surgical margin. We believe that the preoperative evaluation using EUS is a useful procedure, if we suspect the lung cancer with esophageal invasion.

  8. Endoscopic management of Barrett's esophagus: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Weusten, Bas; Bisschops, Raf; Coron, Emanuel; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Esteban, José-Miguel; Hassan, Cesare; Pech, Oliver; Repici, Alessandro; Bergman, Jacques; di Pietro, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    Current practices for the management of Barrett's esophagus (BE) vary across Europe, as several national European guidelines exist. This Position Statement from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is an attempt to homogenize recommendations and, hence, patient management according to the best scientific evidence and other considerations (e.g. health policy). A Working Group developed consensus statements, using the existing national guidelines as a starting point and considering new evidence in the literature. The Position Statement wishes to contribute to a more cost-effective approach to the care of patients with BE by reducing the number of surveillance endoscopies for patients with a low risk of malignant progression and centralizing care in expert centers for those with high progression rates.Main statements MS1 The diagnosis of BE is made if the distal esophagus is lined with columnar epithelium with a minimum length of 1 cm (tongues or circular) containing specialized intestinal metaplasia at histopathological examination. MS2 The ESGE recommends varying surveillance intervals for different BE lengths. For patients with an irregular Z-line/columnar-lined esophagus of < 1 cm, no routine biopsies or endoscopic surveillance is advised. For BE ≥ 1 cm and < 3 cm, BE surveillance should be repeated every 5 years. For BE ≥ 3 cm and < 10 cm, the interval for endoscopic surveillance should be 3 years. Patients with BE with a maximum extent ≥ 10 cm should be referred to a BE expert center for surveillance endoscopies. Patients with limited life expectancy and advanced age should be discharged from endoscopic surveillance. MS3 The diagnosis of any degree of dysplasia (including "indefinite for dysplasia") in BE requires confirmation by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist. MS4 Patients with visible lesions in BE diagnosed as dysplasia or early cancer should be referred to a BE expert center. All visible

  9. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in Barrett's esophagus: developing a large field-of-view screening method discriminating dysplasia from metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Douplik, Alexandre; Zanati, Simon; Saiko, Guennadi; Streutker, Catherine; Loshchenov, Maxim; Adler, Desmond; Cho, Sarah; Chen, Dean; Cirocco, Maria; Marcon, Norman; Fengler, John; Wilson, Brian C

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy implemented as a small field-of-view technique for discrimination of dysplasia from metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus as an adjuvant to autofluorescence endoscopy. Using linear discriminant analysis on 2579 spectra measured in 54 patients identified an optimum a 4-wavelength classifier (at 485, 513, 598 and 629 nm). Sensitivity and specificity for a test data set were 0.67 and 0.85, respectively. Spectroscopic results show that this technique could be implemented in wide-field imaging mode to improve the accuracy of existing endoscopy techniques for finding early pre-malignant lesions in Barrett's esophagus. Results show that the discrimination occurs likely due to redistribution of blood content in the tissue sensed by the optical probing with the wavelength-dependent sampling depth.

  10. Computed organ doses to an Indian reference adult during brachytherapy treatment of esophagus, breast, and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Keshavkumar, Biju

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to generate the normalized mean organ dose factors (mGy min(-1) GBq(-1)) to healthy organs during brachytherapy treatment of esophagus, breast, and neck cancers specific to the patient population in India. This study is in continuation to the earlier published studies on the estimation of organ doses during uterus brachytherapy treatments. The results are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport through MIRD type anthropomorphic mathematical phantom representing reference Indian adult with (192)Ir and (60)Co high dose rate sources in the esophagus, breast, and neck of the phantom. The result of this study is compared with a published computational study using voxel-based phantom model. The variation in the organ dose of this study to the published values is within 50%.

  11. Primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the esophagus: an analysis of 39 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Peng-Zhi; Yang, Yu-Shang; Hu, Wei-Peng; Wang, Wen-Ping; Yuan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the esophagus is an uncommon type of malignant esophageal neoplasm containing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocacinoma (AC) components. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of esophageal ASC. Methods A retrospective review of esophageal ASC patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy in our hospital from July 2007 to April 2014. Results A total of 39 (1.0%) esophageal ASC patients among 3855 patients with esophageal cancers were collected to analyze. There were 34 men and 5 women with a median age of 61.0 years (range from 39–85). Median follow-up time was 30.0 months and median survival time was 44.4 months. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 82.1%, 51.6% and 37.5%, respectively. Compared to esophageal SCC and AC, there were no significant difference in survive time (P=0.616). Thirty five (92.1%) of the 38 patients who underwent preoperative endoscopic biopsy were misdiagnosed, mostly as SCC. Fifteen patients (38.5%) were found to have lymph node metastasis. Thirty two patients (82.1%) had a poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumor. According to the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 3 patients were at Stage I, 21 patients at Stage II and 15 patients at Stage III. In univariate analysis, pT stage, lymph node metastasis and pTNM Stage significantly influenced survive time. In multivariate analysis, however, only lymph node metastasis (P=0.003; 95% CI: 1.626–10.972) was found to be the independent prognostic factor. Conclusions Primary ASC of the esophagus is a rare disease with difficultly to be histologically confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. The prognosis of esophageal ASC was no worse than esophageal SCC and AC. Lymph node metastasis is the most influent prognostic factor. The TNM staging system of esophageal SCC is applicable for esophageal ASC

  12. Occupational Exposure and the Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Zeeshan; Ramsey, David; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Whitehead, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background Case–control studies in the United States and Europe have linked occupational exposure to volatile sulfur compounds, solvents, and pesticide to increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the association between occupational exposures and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is unclear given the absence of studies in this area. Methods This is a case–control study in patients undergoing endoscopy who were either referred directly or were eligible for screening colonoscopy and recruited from primary care clinics. All participants completed a survey on (1) self-reported occupational exposures to asbestos, metal dust, organic solvents, and pesticides, and (2) self reported longest held job and job-related activities. The latter were assigned by an industrial hygienist who was blinded to the case and control status into one of 99 standard occupational categories used by the US Department of Labor. Each occupational category was then assigned an expected level of exposure to the same four classes of agents in addition to radiation. We compared the self-reported exposure and the expected occupational exposure based on the self-reported occupation between cases with definitive BE and controls without BE. We examined the associations adjusting for age, sex, race, and patient recruitment source in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results We examined 226 cases of definitive BE and 1,424 controls without BE. There was a greater proportion of patients with self-reported asbestos exposure in cases than controls (16.2 % vs. 12.0 %; p = 0.08) but no significant differences in metal dust, organic solvents, or pesticides. The multivariate model did not show an independent association between self-reported asbestos exposure and BE. For the calculated occupational exposure, there were no significant differences between cases and controls for asbestos (29.6 % vs. 27.5 %; p = 0.5), metal dust, organic solvents, pesticides, or radiation exposure

  13. Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Esophagus with Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy and Brain Metastasis: A Success Story

    PubMed Central

    Vethody, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the esophagus are very rare. The majority of the patients with NECs present with metastasis. Paraneoplastic syndromes, such as syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone and watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-achlorhydria syndrome, have been reported in previous reports. Esophageal NECs are related to a poor prognosis. A 38-year-old male with the histologic diagnosis of esophageal NEC, which initially manifested as hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), later developed brain metastases. He was initially treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide followed by a partial esophagectomy in November 2009. At follow-up in February 2010, he complained of a headache that prompted imaging. MRI of the brain revealed a left frontal lobe lesion. Subsequently, he underwent a craniotomy and resection of the lesion. Pathological analysis revealed that the lesion was consistent with metastatic disease from the primary esophageal NEC. The patient underwent 40 Gy whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), followed by two weeks of stereotactic radiation (SRS) to the tumor bed for an additional 12 Gy. During this time, his tumor marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) initially dropped but later increased, which led us to offer him radiotherapy to the remaining esophagus to be followed by localized radiation to areas immediately adjacent to the surgical site, followed by six cycles of systemic chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and irinotecan. Finally, his NSE normalized around the end of systemic chemotherapy. Surveillance imaging in 2015 - six years from initial diagnosis - showed no evidence of cancer. Of interest, treatment of the esophageal NEC also led to clinical resolution of his musculoskeletal symptoms, including his HOA. High-grade esophageal NECs are rare, aggressive, and have a poor prognosis. HOA can be a presenting sign associated with a high-grade esophageal NEC. The predominant site of metastatic

  14. Waterjet submucosal dissection of porcine esophagus with the HybridKnife and ERBEJET 2 system: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Akutsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hideo; Narasaka, Toshiaki; Terasaki, Masahiko; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Mizokami, Yuji; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically difficult because of narrow working spaces and ease of perforation due to the lack of serosa. HybridKnife is a recently developed ESD device that is combined with the high pressure waterjet ERBEJET 2 system to lift mucosa. We hypothesized that this waterjet could make submucosal dissection safer and studied this in porcine esophagus. Materials and methods Water pressures of 30 – 70 bar were tested to determine the appropriate pressure for waterjet ESD with HybridKnife (WJ-ESD) in one pig. WJ-ESD safety and completion were compared with those of conventional ESD using DualKnife (C-ESD) as a reference. Each of three virtual esophageal lesions in two pigs were resected alternatively using both methods from the lower to upper esophagus. For WJ-ESD, the submucosa, apart from hard fibrous tissues, was dissected using water pressure alone. Results Using 50 bar of water pressure resulted in the best balance between proper dissection and view-disturbing water backflow. The dissection speeds for the lower, middle, and upper esophagus were 0.2, 0.9, and 0.2 cm2/min in 50 bar WJ-ESD and 1.1, 0.5, and 1.0 cm2/min in C-ESD, respectively. Minor bleeding was frequent in WJ-ESD, but was easily stopped by electrocoagulation with the same needle. No perforation was observed in either procedure. Thermal damage to dissected tissues appeared mild, and the extent of muscle injury was lower for WJ-ESD (4, 6, and 8 %) compared with C-ESD (14, 16, and 7 %). Conclusions WJ-ESD could be completed safely for porcine esophagus with less damage to the muscle layer compared with C-ESD.

  15. Gastrin stimulates a cholecystokinin-2-receptor-expressing cardia progenitor cell and promotes progression of Barrett's-like esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Wang, Hongshan; Au, Andrew S.; Luna, Aesis M.; Chang, Wenju; Jin, Guangchun; Bhagat, Govind; Abrams, Julian A.; Friedman, Richard A.; Varro, Andrea; Wang, Kenneth K.; Boyce, Malcolm; Rustgi, Anil K.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is increasing, but factors contributing to malignant progression of its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), have not been defined. Hypergastrinemia caused by long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has been suggested as one possible risk factor. The gastrin receptor, CCK2R, is expressed in the cardia and upregulated in BE, suggesting the involvement of the gastrin-CCK2R pathway in progression. In the L2-IL-1β mouse model, Barrett's-like esophagus arises from the gastric cardia. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of hypergastrinemia on CCK2R+ progenitor cells in L2-IL-1β mice. Design L2-IL-1β mice were mated with hypergastrinemic (INS-GAS) mice or treated with PPIs to examine the effect of hypergastrinemia in BE progression. CCK2R-CreERT crossed with L2-IL-1β mice were used to analyze the lineage progenitor potential of CCK2R+ cells. Cardia glands were cultured in vitro, and the effect of gastrin treatment analyzed. L2-IL-1β mice were treated with a CCK2R antagonist YF476 as a potential chemopreventive drug. Results Hypergastrinemia resulted in increased proliferation and expansion of Barrett's-like esophagus. Lineage tracing experiments revealed that CCK2R+ cells are long-lived progenitors that can give rise to such lesions under chronic inflammation. Gastrin stimulated organoid growth in cardia culture, while CCK2R inhibition prevented Barrett's-like esophagus and dysplasia. Conclusions Our data suggest a progression model for BE to EAC in which CCK2R+ progenitor cells, stimulated by hypergastrinemia, proliferate to give rise to metaplasia and dysplasia. Hypergastrinemia can result from PPI use, and the effects of hypergastrinemia in human BE should be studied further. PMID:27448962

  16. Esophageal Acid Clearance During Random Swallowing Is Faster in Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus Than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Lottrup, Christian; Krarup, Anne L; Gregersen, Hans; Ejstrud, Per; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Impaired esophageal acid clearance may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Barrett’s esophagus. However, few studies have measured acid clearance as such in these patients. In this explorative, cross-sectional study, we aimed to compare esophageal acid clearance and swallowing rate in patients with Barrett’s esophagus to that in healthy controls. Methods A total of 26 patients with histology-confirmed Barrett’s esophagus and 12 healthy controls underwent (1) upper endoscopy, (2) an acid clearance test using a pH-impedance probe under controlled conditions including controlled and random swallowing, and (3) an ambulatory pH-impedance measurement. Results Compared with controls and when swallowing randomly, patients cleared acid 46% faster (P = 0.008). Furthermore, patients swallowed 60% more frequently (mean swallows/minute: 1.90 ± 0.74 vs 1.19 ± 0.58; P = 0.005), and acid clearance time decreased with greater random swallowing rate (P < 0.001). Swallowing rate increased with lower distal esophageal baseline impedance (P = 0.014). Ambulatory acid exposure was greater in patients (P = 0.033), but clearance times assessed from the ambulatory pH-measurement and acid clearance test were not correlated (all P > 0.3). Conclusions More frequent swallowing and thus faster acid clearance in Barrett’s esophagus may constitute a protective reflex due to impaired mucosal integrity and possibly acid hypersensitivity. Despite these reinforced mechanisms, acid clearance ability seems to be overthrown by repeated, retrograde acid reflux, thus resulting in increased esophageal acid exposure and consequently mucosal changes. PMID:27557545

  17. Distribution of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1-expressing nerve fibers in mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Hosoya, Takuji; Ishikawa, Eriko; Tashima, Kimihito; Amagase, Kikuko; Kato, Shinichi; Murayama, Toshihiko; Horie, Syunji

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) plays a role in esophageal function. However, the distribution of TRPV1 nerve fibers in the esophagus is currently not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of TRPV1 and neurotransmitters released from TRPV1 nerve fibers in the mouse lower esophagus. Furthermore, we investigated changes in the presence of TRPV1 in the mouse model of esophagitis. Numerous TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen in both the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus of the lower esophagus and colocalized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). TRPV1 colocalized with substance P in axons in the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus. TRPV1 colocalized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the myenteric plexus. We observed some colocalization of CGRP with the vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter, packaging of ACh into synaptic vesicles after its synthesis in terminal cytoplasm, in the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus. In the esophagitis model, the number of the TRPV1 nerve fibers did not change, but their immunoreactive intensity increased compared with sham-operated mice. Inhibitory effect of exogenous capsaicin on electrically stimulated twitch contraction significantly increased in esophagitis model compared with the effect in sham-operated mice. Overall, these results suggest that TRPV1 nerve fibers projecting to both the submucosal and muscle layer of the esophagus are extrinsic spinal and vagal afferent neurons. Furthermore, TRPV1 nerve fibers contain CGRP, substance P, nitric oxide, and ACh. Therefore, acid influx-mediated TRPV1 activation may play a role in regulating esophageal relaxation.

  18. Depth-resolved monitoring of diffusion of hyperosmotic agents in normal and malignant human esophagus tissues using optical coherence tomography in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Guo, Zhouyi; Wei, Huajiang; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen

    2011-10-01

    Depth-resolved monitoring with differentiation and quantification of glucose diffusion in healthy and abnormal esophagus tissues has been studied in vitro. Experiments have been performed using human normal esophagus and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues by the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The images have been continuously acquired for 120 min in the experiments, and the depth-resolved and average permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution have been calculated by the OCT amplitude (OCTA) method. We demonstrate the capability of the OCT technique for depth-resolved monitoring, differentiation, and quantifying of glucose diffusion in normal esophagus and ESCC tissues. It is found that the permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution are not uniform throughout the normal esophagus and ESCC tissues and increase from (3.30 ± 0.09) × 10-6 and (1.57 ± 0.05) × 10-5 cm s-1 at the mucous membrane of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues to (1.82 ± 0.04) × 10-5 and (3.53 ± 0.09) × 10-5 cm s-1 at the submucous layer approximately 742 μm away from the epithelial surface of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues, respectively.

  19. Depth-resolved monitoring of diffusion of hyperosmotic agents in normal and malignant human esophagus tissues using optical coherence tomography in-vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Qingliang; Guo Zhouyi; Wei Huajiang; Yang Hongqin; Xie Shusen

    2011-10-31

    Depth-resolved monitoring with differentiation and quantification of glucose diffusion in healthy and abnormal esophagus tissues has been studied in vitro. Experiments have been performed using human normal esophagus and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues by the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The images have been continuously acquired for 120 min in the experiments, and the depth-resolved and average permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution have been calculated by the OCT amplitude (OCTA) method. We demonstrate the capability of the OCT technique for depth-resolved monitoring, differentiation, and quantifying of glucose diffusion in normal esophagus and ESCC tissues. It is found that the permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution are not uniform throughout the normal esophagus and ESCC tissues and increase from (3.30 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and (1.57 {+-} 0.05) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the mucous membrane of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues to (1.82 {+-} 0.04) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} and (3.53 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the submucous layer approximately 742 {mu}m away from the epithelial surface of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues, respectively. (optical coherence tomography)

  20. Expression profile of malignant and nonmalignant lesions of esophagus and stomach: differential activity of functional modules related to inflammation and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luciana I; Esteves, Gustavo H; Carvalho, Alex F; Cristo, Elier B; Hirata, Roberto; Martins, Waleska K; Marques, Sarah M; Camargo, Luiz P; Brentani, Helena; Pelosof, Adriane; Zitron, Cláudia; Sallum, Rubens A; Montagnini, André; Soares, Fernando A; Neves, E Jordão; Reis, Luiz F L

    2005-08-15

    Adenocarcinomas of stomach and esophagus are frequently associated with preceding inflammatory alterations of the normal mucosa. Whereas intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa is associated with higher risk of malignization, Barrett's disease is a risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Barrett's disease is characterized by the substitution of the squamous mucosa of the esophagus by a columnar tissue classified histopathologically as intestinal metaplasia. Using cDNA microarrays, we determined the expression profile of normal gastric and esophageal mucosa as well as intestinal metaplasia and adenocarcinomas from both organs. Data were explored to define functional alterations related to the transformation from squamous to columnar epithelium and the malignant transformation from intestinal metaplasia to adenocarcinomas. Based on their expression profile, adenocarcinomas of the esophagus showed stronger correlation with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach than with Barrett's mucosa. Second, we identified two functional modules, lipid metabolism and cytokine, as being altered with higher statistical significance. Whereas the lipid metabolism module is active in samples representing intestinal metaplasia and inactive in adenocarcinomas, the cytokine module is inactive in samples representing normal esophagus and esophagitis. Using the concept of relevance networks, we determined the changes in linear correlation of genes pertaining to these two functional modules. Exploitation of the data presented herein will help in the precise molecular characterization of adenocarcinoma from the distal esophagus, avoiding the topographical and descriptive classification that is currently adopted, and help with the proper management of patients with Barrett's disease.

  1. Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

    1995-03-01

    Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

  2. Short-term clinical effect of conformal radiotherapy combined with tegafur gimeracil oteracil potassium in treating recurrent esophagus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuyan; Shen, Yuzhen; Yan, Hua; Liu, Yan; Tan, Haihua; Li, Jianzhe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical effects of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with Tegafur Gimeracil Oteracil Potassium chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with recurrent esophagus cancer. Methods: One hundred and twelve senile patients who suffered from esophagus cancer were selected and randomly divided into two groups, namely, observation group (56 cases) and control group (56 cases). The observation group adopted three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with Tegafur Gimeracil Oteracil Potassium chemotherapy and the control group adopted three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy only. Results: All patients completed the treatment, with good compliance. Effective rate of the observation group was 82.1%, which was significantly higher than the control group (67.9%), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Main toxic and side effects of patients of two groups were radiation esophagitis, gastrointestinal reaction, hematologic toxicities and radiative skin reaction. Differences of incidence rates of all types of toxic and side effects were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The one-year and two-year survival rates of patients of the observation group were 80.4% and 53.6%, respectively, while the control group was 55.4% and 30.4%; differences between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with Tegafur Gimeracil Oteracil Potassium chemotherapy has definite curative effect in treating patients with recurrent esophagus cancer and can improve survival rate of patients, without increasing adverse reaction. PMID:27882010

  3. Maté attenuates DNA damage and carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine and thermal injury in rat esophagus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Ferreira da; Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Rivelli, Diogo Pineda; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    Drinking hot maté has been associated with risk for esophageal cancer in South America. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate the modifying effects of maté intake on DNA damage and esophageal carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and thermal injury (TI) in male Wistar rats. At the initiation phase of carcinogenesis, rats were treated with DEN (8 x 80 mg/kg) and submitted to TI (water at 65 degrees C, 1 ml/rat, instilled into the esophagus). Concomitantly, the animals received maté (2.0%w/v) for 8 weeks. Samples of peripheral blood were collected 4h after the last DEN application for DNA damage analysis. At weeks 8 and 20, samples from esophagus and liver were also collected for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Maté significantly decreased DNA damage in leukocytes, cell proliferation rates in both esophagus and liver and the number of preneoplastic liver lesions from DEN/TI-treated animals at week 8. A significant lower incidence of esophageal papillomas and liver adenomas and tumor multiplicity was observed in the animals previously treated with maté at week 20. Thus, maté presented protective effects against DNA damage and esophageal and liver carcinogenesis induced by DEN.

  4. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution microendoscopic images for diagnosis of neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongsuk; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Pierce, Mark C.; Vila, Peter M.; Parikh, Neil D.; Rosen, Daniel G.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies show that microendoscopic images can be interpreted visually to identify the presence of neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus, but this approach is subjective and requires clinical expertise. This study describes an approach for quantitative image analysis of microendoscopic images to identify neoplastic lesions in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Methods Images were acquired from 230 sites in 58 patients using a fiber optic high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) during a standard endoscopic procedure. Images were analyzed by a fully automated image processing algorithm, which automatically selected a region of interest (ROI) and calculated quantitative image features. Image features were used to develop an algorithm to identify the presence of neoplasia; results were compared to histopathology diagnosis. Results A sequential classification algorithm that used image features related to glandular and cellular morphology resulted in a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85%. Applying the algorithm to an independent validation set resulted in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85%. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates that automated analysis of microendoscopic images can provide an objective, quantitative framework to assist clinicians in evaluating esophageal lesions from patients with Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:26253018

  5. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett's Esophagus Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Joana; Mesquita, Marta; Dias Pereira, António; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Chaves, Paula; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett's malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal). Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett's progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett's samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett's esophagus neoplastic progression.

  6. Murine and Human Tissue-Engineered Esophagus Form from Sufficient Stem/Progenitor Cells and Do Not Require Microdesigned Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Spurrier, Ryan Gregory; Speer, Allison L.; Hou, Xiaogang; El-Nachef, Wael N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Tissue-engineered esophagus (TEE) may serve as a therapeutic replacement for absent foregut. Most prior esophagus studies have favored microdesigned biomaterials and yielded epithelial growth alone. None have generated human TEE with mesenchymal components. We hypothesized that sufficient progenitor cells might only require basic support for successful generation of murine and human TEE. Materials and Methods: Esophageal organoid units (EOUs) were isolated from murine or human esophagi and implanted on a polyglycolic acid/poly-l-lactic acid collagen-coated scaffold in adult allogeneic or immune-deficient mice. Alternatively, EOU were cultured for 10 days in vitro prior to implantation. Results: TEE recapitulated all key components of native esophagus with an epithelium and subjacent muscularis. Differentiated suprabasal and proliferative basal layers of esophageal epithelium, muscle, and nerve were identified. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple EOU could contribute to the epithelium and mesenchyme of a single TEE. Cultured murine EOU grew as an expanding sphere of proliferative basal cells on a neuromuscular network that demonstrated spontaneous peristalsis in culture. Subsequently, cultured EOU generated TEE. Conclusions: TEE forms after transplantation of mouse and human organ-specific stem/progenitor cells in vivo on a relatively simple biodegradable scaffold. This is a first step toward future human therapies. PMID:25298083

  7. Evidence for a functional role of epigenetically regulated midcluster HOXB genes in the development of Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    di Pietro, Massimiliano; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Boyle, Shelagh; Cassidy, Andy; Castillo, Dani; Saadi, Amel; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2012-06-05

    Barrett esophagus (BE) is a human metaplastic condition that is the only known precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma. BE is characterized by a posterior intestinal-like phenotype in an anterior organ and therefore it is reminiscent of homeotic transformations, which can occur in transgenic animal models during embryonic development as a consequence of mutations in HOX genes. In humans, acquired deregulation of HOX genes during adulthood has been linked to carcinogenesis; however, little is known about their role in the pathogenesis of premalignant conditions. We hypothesized that HOX genes may be implicated in the development of BE. We demonstrated that three midcluster HOXB genes (HOXB5, HOXB6, and HOXB7) are overexpressed in BE, compared with the anatomically adjacent normal esophagus and gastric cardia. The midcluster HOXB gene signature in BE is identical to that seen in normal colonic epithelium. Ectopic expression of these three genes in normal squamous esophageal cells in vitro induces markers of intestinal differentiation, such as KRT20, MUC2, and VILLIN. In BE-associated adenocarcinoma, the activation midcluster HOXB gene is associated with loss of H3K27me3 and gain of AcH3, compared with normal esophagus. These changes in histone posttranslational modifications correlate with specific chromatin decompaction at the HOXB locus. We suggest that epigenetically regulated alterations of HOX gene expression can trigger changes in the transcriptional program of adult esophageal cells, with implications for the early stages of carcinogenesis.

  8. [An unusual finding of two coins together in the esophagus of pediatric patients. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Ormeño Julca, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies (EB) is a frequent complaint in the Pediatric Emergency Services. Studies report that in children occurs 80% of the EC, most frequently between 6 months and 3 years old and the second held because of urgent endoscopy in pediatrics. In 80-90% of cases the CE spontaneously passes through the upper gastrointestinal tract, however occasionally staying in the esophagus and should be removed to avoid dangerous complications such as obstruction or perforation of the upper digestive tract bleeding, ulcers, or fistulas. Intake and impaction of multiple foreign bodies in the esophagus, is a few event times reported in children. Most reports, corresponds to the ingestion of magnets, although still rare even presentation, can cause serious gastrointestinal complications, because the attraction between them can trap walls causing multiple small bowel perforation, fistula formation, volvulus, intraperitoneal hemorrhage and even death. Although the coins are the most commonly found foreign bodies in esophagus in children, the discovery of multiple currencies is very few times reported event. Two cases of pediatric patients treated in the emergency, with the discovery of two coins together and aligned with esophageal level is presented.

  9. Short-term clinical effect of conformal radiotherapy combined with tegafur gimeracil oteracil potassium in treating recurrent esophagus cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuyan; Shen, Yuzhen; Yan, Hua; Liu, Yan; Tan, Haihua; Li, Jianzhe

    2016-01-01

    To observe clinical effects of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with Tegafur Gimeracil Oteracil Potassium chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with recurrent esophagus cancer. One hundred and twelve senile patients who suffered from esophagus cancer were selected and randomly divided into two groups, namely, observation group (56 cases) and control group (56 cases). The observation group adopted three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with Tegafur Gimeracil Oteracil Potassium chemotherapy and the control group adopted three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy only. All patients completed the treatment, with good compliance. Effective rate of the observation group was 82.1%, which was significantly higher than the control group (67.9%), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Main toxic and side effects of patients of two groups were radiation esophagitis, gastrointestinal reaction, hematologic toxicities and radiative skin reaction. Differences of incidence rates of all types of toxic and side effects were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The one-year and two-year survival rates of patients of the observation group were 80.4% and 53.6%, respectively, while the control group was 55.4% and 30.4%; differences between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with Tegafur Gimeracil Oteracil Potassium chemotherapy has definite curative effect in treating patients with recurrent esophagus cancer and can improve survival rate of patients, without increasing adverse reaction.

  10. Rab11a immunohistochemical analysis does not distinguish indefinite, low-, and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Robert, Marie E; Washington, Mary Kay; Lee, Jeffrey R; Goldenring, James R; Bronner, Mary P; Goldblum, John R; Greenson, Joel K; Haber, Marian M; Hart, John A; Lamps, Laura W; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Lewin, David; Lazenby, Audrey J; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Crawford, James M

    2005-10-01

    Our aim was to determine whether p53 and Rab11a immunoreactivity enhance diagnostic assessment of esophageal dysplasia. Histologic sections from 68 cases of Barrett esophagus obtained as part of a 12-institution study were stained with antibodies to p53 and Rab11a, randomized, and coded. The mucosal surface layer and deeper glands were scored blindly on a semiquantitative scale. The correlations between p53 and Rab11a scoring with the consensus diagnosis of dysplasia were analyzed. The histologic scale was as follows: no dysplasia, indefinite, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, intramucosal carcinoma, and invasive carcinoma. Rab11a staining was most prominent in epithelia negative for dysplasia but with regenerative features. There was an inverse relationship between Rab11a staining and findings of surface dysplasia (P < .02, chi(2)). However, statistical significance largely reflected loss of Rab11a immunoreactivity in intramucosal and invasive carcinoma, which was not a diagnostic dilemma. There was a strong positive correlation of p53 immunoreactivity with an increasing degree of epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma (P < .03, chi(2)). Rab11a immunoreactivity did not enhance the diagnostic assessment of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus. The previously reported positive correlation of p53 immunoreactivity with the presence of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus was confirmed.

  11. NHE-1 isoform of the Na+/H+ antiport is expressed in the rat and rabbit esophagus.

    PubMed

    Shallat, S; Schmidt, L; Reaka, A; Rao, D; Chang, E B; Rao, M C; Ramaswamy, K; Layden, T J

    1995-11-01

    Rabbit esophageal cells show an amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter activity. Several distinct molecular isoforms of the Na+/H+ exchanger family (NHE) are reported to be present in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and rabbits. The aim of this study was to examine which isoforms are present in rabbit and rat esophageal cells and whether this isoform could be up-regulated by serum factors. Specific primers designed from the rat NHE-1-4 and the rabbit NHE-1-3 isoform sequences were used for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis with RNA from rabbit and rat esophageal cells. Ribonuclease protection assay was used to determine the serum-induced up-regulation of NHE-1. Antibodies raised against the NHE-1 C-terminal fragment were used for Western blotting with rabbit esophageal membranes. In both the rat and rabbit esophagus, only the NHE-1 isoform messenger RNA could be detected. The NHE-1 messenger RNA, detected in rabbit esophageal cells grown from tissue explants, was up-regulated by serum factors. The antibody detected a 95-kilodalton protein in esophageal cell membranes. The rabbit and rat esophagus exclusively express the NHE-1 isoform, hypothesized to be involved in cytoplasmic pH regulation. Therefore, the results of this study suggest a role for NHE-1 in protecting cells against gastric acid that is refluxed into the esophagus.

  12. Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the esophagus: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew D; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Andrade, Rafael S; Dolan, Michelle M; Aslan, Deniz L

    2010-10-01

    This study presents a case of Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the esophagus of a 44-year-old woman who presented with progressive dysphagia. Imaging studies demonstrated a polypoid lesion in the esophagus. The tumor was characterized by corded and pseudopapillary architecture, cytologic monotony, and low proliferative activity. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD99, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, cyclin D1, p53, and FLI1 gene product. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated a 22q12 translocation, associated with primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the tumor cells, whereas reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction conformed expression of Ewing sarcoma/FLI1 fusion transcript in the patient's bone marrow aspirate. Although this is a rare site for this type of tumor to occur, primitive neuroectodermal tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the esophagus. Genetic analysis is crucial to establish the diagnosis and can be successfully performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material and hematopoietic tissue.

  13. Emergent treatment of button batteries in the esophagus: evolution of management and need for close second-look esophagoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Cable, Benjamin B; Rieth, Katherine K S

    2014-03-01

    The evolving epidemiology of pediatric button battery ingestion is alarming. Currently, assessment of the degree of damage relies heavily on the initial esophagoscopy in a manner similar to the management of caustic ingestion. We have noted that use of this classic approach may delay the return to normal oral intake. Using several cases treated at our institution, we illustrate the value of "close second-look esophagoscopy" (CSLE) in expediting a return to normal oral intake after button battery ingestion. We present a retrospective case series. Five patients (11 to 18 months of age) with button batteries trapped in the cervical esophagus were recently managed at our institution. The batteries were lodged in the esophagus for durations ranging from 6 hours to 4 months. Three cases of initial grade III circumferential necrotic injury were downgraded to grade IIa after a CSLE performed 2 to 4 days after removal, and their management was appropriately changed. The injury and healing of cases of button batteries in the proximal esophagus appear to be variable; caustic injury, electrical mucosal damage, and direct pressure are thought to be several contributory factors. Performing a CSLE within 2 to 4 days after battery removal may provide more useful prognostic information. In certain cases, downgrading of the injury may facilitate an earlier return to an oral diet, use of fewer diagnostic tests, and a shorter hospital stay. The utility and timing of imaging, management of diet and medications, and acceptable follow-up plans are discussed within the context of guiding future research.

  14. Acute secondary effects in the esophagus in patients undergoing radiotherapy for carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, F.; Silvestre, M.E.; Sa da Costa, M.; Grima, N.; Campos, C.; Chaves, P.

    1989-02-01

    The incidence and nature of acute secondary irradiation esophagitis was studied in a series of 38 patients undergoing 60Co teletherapy for carcinoma of the lung. Thirty-four patients were male and four female, with ages ranging from 38 to 78 years. The mediastinum being irradiated in the process, all the patients underwent endoscopy for signs of esophagitis and/or gastritis after a dose of 30-40 Gy was delivered to the esophagus. Eighteen patients complained of dysphagia, but only in 12 of them did endoscopy show esophagitis. Of the remaining patients without complaints five had endoscopic signs of esophagitis. Gastritis was found in 18 cases and confirmed histologically in 14. In 17 cases, esophagitis and/or gastritis were confirmed histologically. It is believed that there is a fairly close correlation among clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings to support the claim that esophagitis in these patients is radiation induced. However, the cause of gastritis is not well understood. Data in the literature suggest that nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents can act as prophylactic means of preventing radiation esophagitis.

  15. Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus: clinicopathological study of 44 cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) is a highly aggressive disease characterized by early dissemination and poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of this disease, few previous studies have investigated the biomarkers associated with its prognosis. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a stem cell marker and a member of the canonical Wnt-signaling cascade. However, the clinical role of Lgr5 in SCCE remains unknown. Methods Tissue sections were obtained from 44 patients diagnosed with SCCE and expression of Lgr5 was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between Lgr5 expression, and clinical parameters and prognostic significance were evaluated. Results Lgr5 was expressed in SCCE cancer tissues. High Lgr5 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), late stage (p = 0.003) and unfavorable response to chemotherapy (p = 0.013) according to RECIST 1.0 criteria. Patients with higher Lgr5 expression levels had shorter overall survival times than those with lower expression levels. Conclusions These results demonstrated that overexpression of Lgr5 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, and response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, high levels of Lgr5 expression appeared to be associated with poorer survival in patients with SCCE. PMID:24666414

  16. Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus Synchronously Associated with Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masaru; Egashira, Akinori; Nakaji, Y U; Kagawa, Masaki; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Ikebe, Masahiko; Masuda, Muneyuki; Inoue, Yojiro; Kunitake, Naonobu; Toh, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the treatment strategy for synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). Treatment outcomes of 91 patients with synchronous ESCC and HNC were evaluated. Thirty-eight patients received simultaneous definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and 15 patients underwent simultaneous resection. Among the patients who received simultaneous CRT, adverse events (grade 3-5) were recognized in 14 patients (40%), including one case of death due to aspiration pneumonia. Complete response was observed in 22 patients with ESCC (58%) and 19 patients with HNC (50%). The five-year survival rate was 44%. There were no in-hospital deaths after simultaneous resection; however, postoperative complications were recognized in 4 patients. The five-year OS was 70%. The treatment of synchronous ESCC and HNC must be decided by adopting a strategy that is appropriate for each case. Both simultaneous CRT and simultaneous resection are feasible and effective treatment options. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. [The prevalence and clinical aspects of Barrett's esophagus in the population of Eastern Siberia].

    PubMed

    Butorin, N N; Bichurina, T B; Tsukanov, V V; Kasparov, E V; Kuklin, D V; Timoshenko, V O; Shtygasheva, O V; Maady, A S; Vasiutin, A V

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence and clinical aspects of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in natives and newcomers in East Siberia. Clinical examinations and esophagogastroduodenoscopy were performed in 12975 Caucasoids and 1489 Khakases in Abakan (Khakasia), 1861 Caucasoids and 5829 Tuvinians in Kyzyl (Republic of Tuva), and 1177 Caucasoids in Dudinka (Taimyr). The diagnosis of BE was verified by morphological study. Among the Caucasoids, the total prevalence of BE was 1.6% (2.4% in men and 0.8% in women; odds ratio (OR) was 3.21 with 95% CI 2.40-4.29; p < 0.001); among the Mongoloids, that was 3.1% (4.5% in men and 2% in women; OR, 2.3 with 95% CI 1.75-3.04; p < 0.001). Heartburn and other typical symptoms was more prevalent in patients with BE. The risk factors of BE in all the examined populations were male sex, age over 40 years, smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day for 10 years or more in men, and obesity. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of BE, which were prevalent in East Siberia in the Mongoloids as compared to the Caucasoids.

  18. Alcohol consumption and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus: a comprehensive meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lin-Lin; Yan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Bian, Zhao-Lian; Yang, Fan; Hong, Jie; Chen, Hao-Yan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have been proposed to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature to clarify the relationship between them. In our study, twenty eligible cohort studies involving 42925 participants were identified. Combined relative risk (RR) ratios for the highest versus lowest alcohol consumption levels were calculated. The alcohol dose-response analysis was performed to investigate the association between the increment consumption of 10 g/d alcohol and the risk of developing BE. Subgroup analyses were used to examine heterogeneity across the studies. A combined RR of 0.98 (0.62–1.34) was found when comparing highest vs. lowest alcohol consumption levels for BE. An inverse association between alcohol and incidence of BE (RR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.055–0.96) was demonstrated in women. Moreover, Asian drinkers had a relative higher risk of BE (RR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.11–1.56) compared with Western drinkers. In conclusion, our results showed that overall alcohol consumption was not associated with increased BE incidence. The limited data available on alcohol consumption supports a tentative inversion of alcohol consumption with BE risk in women, while Asian drinkers tend to have a higher risk of BE. PMID:26542211

  19. Effect of a paclitaxel-eluting metallic stent on rabbit esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Gao, Ying; Chen, Jianping; Ma, Limei; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiang; Fan, Zhining

    2016-01-01

    The use of self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) is the current treatment of choice for malignant gastrointestinal obstructions. A paclitaxel-eluting metallic SEMS (PEMS) may have an antitumor effect on esophageal tissue. PEMS with 10% paclitaxel or conventional SEMS were inserted into the lower esophagus of rabbits. Following the insertion of the stents for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed and the status of the stent insertion was examined, as well as any macroscopic or microscopic mucosal changes in the esophageal tissue. All the rabbits survived until death without any complications. No migration following stent insertion occurred. The number of cases with proximal obstruction increased in a time-dependent manner, and no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Gross histological examination showed similar tissue reaction to the stents at 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and inflammatory cell infiltrating was higher in the SEMS group at 1 and 2 weeks. However, inflammatory cell infiltration was markedly higher in the PEMS group at 4 and 6 weeks. Food-intake and weight were similar in the two groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that PEMS may serve as a safe alternative treatment strategy for esophageal obstruction. Furthermore, PEMS may inhibit the tumor growth of the esophageal wall through inflammatory infiltration and targeted drug delivery. A tumor model will be required in the future for evaluating the prognosis of patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma. PMID:27882097

  20. Megaesophagus in Friesian horses associated with muscular hypertrophy of the caudal esophagus.

    PubMed

    Komine, M; Langohr, I M; Kiupel, M

    2014-09-01

    Friesian horses have a perceived high rate of congenital or hereditary diseases, including megaesophagus, that may lead to choke and death. A retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence and pathologic characteristics of esophageal disease in 852 horses, including 17 Friesians, that had been necropsied over a 6-year period at the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health. Forty-two horses had grossly described esophageal lesions (25 muscular hypertrophy, 7 hemorrhage, 6 megaesophagus, 4 erosion/ulceration, 3 obstruction, 2 tears, 2 secondary neoplasms, 2 lymphoid patches, 1 thin wall, 1 esophagitis). Some of these lesions occurred concurrently in the same horse. Ten of these horses died or were euthanatized because of severe esophageal disease (6 megaesophagus causing tears in 2 horses, 3 esophageal obstruction with food bolus, and 1 esophagitis). All 6 horses with megaesophagus were Friesians. No cause for megaesophagus was noted in the necropsy reports; however, 5 of these 6 Friesians had marked caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy (wall thickness: 1.9 ± 0.3 cm). Microscopic review of the esophagus of these Friesians confirmed smooth muscle hypertrophy, with no obvious fibrosis, degeneration, or loss of myenteric plexi. Unlike the Friesians, the 4 non-Friesian horses with severe esophageal disease had esophageal obstruction with an intraluminal food bolus or severe esophagitis. None had caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy. It is concluded that in comparison to other horse breeds, Friesians have a higher prevalence of severe esophageal disease, specifically megaesophagus, that is commonly associated with marked caudal muscular hypertrophy.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening followed by surveillance for Barrett's esophagus: a review.

    PubMed

    Barbiere, Josephine M; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2009-12-01

    Screening interventions for Barrett's esophagus (BE) are appealing, but there is little supporting evidence. We reviewed health economics studies about BE endoscopic screening followed by, as required, endoscopic surveillance ("screening and surveillance" hereafter) to help inform the design and conduct of future research. Health economics studies about BE screening and surveillance were identified using electronic database searches and personal contact with authors of identified studies. No studies examined general population screening. Five US studies published between 2003 and 2007 examined the cost effectiveness of screening and surveillance (against no intervention) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There was no randomized trial evidence to inform model construction. Assumptions about prevalence and transition probabilities between BE histologic subtypes and about surveillance and treatment protocols varied substantially between studies. Parameters such as potential BE diagnosis-related reduction in quality of life or increase in health care use, diagnostic accuracy, and infrastructural costs (for quality assurance) were considered either "optimistically" or not at all. Only 2 studies considered endoscopic treatments. No study considered the recently introduced radiofrequency ablation technique, or the potential for biomarker-based risk stratification of surveillance interval or duration. Current health economics evidence is likely to have provided optimistic cost-effectiveness estimates and is not sufficient to support introduction of endoscopic BE screening programs among GERD patients. The evidence does not adequately incorporate novel (endoscopic) treatments and the potential for (clinical, endoscopic, or biomarker-based) risk stratification of surveillance. Future research should aim to encompass both these factors.

  2. Advanced Imaging Technologies for the Detection of Dysplasia and Early Cancer in Barrett Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Espino, Alberto; Cirocco, Maria; DaCosta, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Advanced esophageal adenocarcinomas arising from Barrett esophagus (BE) are tumors with an increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The aim of endoscopic surveillance of BE is to detect dysplasia, particularly high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancers that can subsequently be treated endoscopically before progression to invasive cancer with lymph node metastases. Current surveillance practice standards require the collection of random 4-quadrant biopsy specimens over every 1 to 2 cm of BE (Seattle protocol) to detect dysplasia with the assistance of white light endoscopy, in addition to performing targeted biopsies of recognizable lesions. This approach is labor-intensive but should currently be considered state of the art. Chromoendoscopy, virtual chromoendoscopy (e.g., narrow band imaging), and confocal laser endomicroscopy, in addition to high-definition standard endoscopy, might increase the diagnostic yield for the detection of dysplastic lesions. Until these modalities have been demonstrated to enhance efficiency or cost effectiveness, the standard protocol will remain careful examination using conventional off the shelf high-resolution endoscopes, combined with as longer inspection time which is associated with increased detection of dysplasia. PMID:24570883

  3. Esophageal cancer diagnosed by high-resolution manometry of the esophagus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, RONGBEI; CHU, HUA; XU, FEI; CHEN, SHUJIE

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old female who presented with a history of dysphagia for 5 months and regurgitation for 1 week was referred to the Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital (Hangzhou, China) for further evaluation, since the gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasound performed in local hospitals did not reveal the presence of cancer. High-resolution manometry (HRM) of the esophagus was performed to determine the patient's condition, and revealed an abnormal high-pressure zone that was located 33 cm from the incisor and did not relax upon swallowing. Synchronous waves were observed, and the pressure of the esophageal lumen was found to increase with secondary synchronous peristaltic waves. The lower esophageal sphincter was 39 cm from the incisor and relaxed upon swallowing. The abnormal high-pressure zone could have been caused by an obstruction, and therefore an upper gastrointestinal series (barium swallow) test and gastroscopy were recommended to further pinpoint the cause. Following the two examinations, mid-esophageal cancer was considered as a possible diagnosis. A biopsy was performed and the final diagnosis was that of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The findings of the present study suggest that, for patients with evident symptoms of esophageal motor dysfunction without significant gastroscopy findings, HRM is recommended. PMID:27123076

  4. Coffee or Tea, Hot or Cold, Are Not Associated With Risk of Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Krishna C; El-Serag, Hashem B; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiologic data regarding coffee and tea consumption and risk of esophageal inflammation, Barrett's esophagus (BE), and adenocarcinoma are sparse and inconclusive. This study examined the association between consumption of tea or coffee with risk of BE. We conducted a cross-sectional study among US veterans, comparing 310 patients with histologically confirmed BE with 1728 individuals with no endoscopic or histopathologic features of BE (controls). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In univariate models, we found a statistically significant association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.87) or tea (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05-1.71). However, in multivariate analysis, in which models were adjusted for confounders including sex and race, we found no association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (adjusted OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.76-1.42) or tea (adjusted OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.85-1.44). These data do not support an association between consumption of coffee or tea and the risk of BE. It is unlikely that avoidance of coffee or tea will protect against BE. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-ablation surveillance in Barrett's esophagus: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Matthew W; Konda, Vani J; Hart, John; Waxman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition affecting up to 15% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Neoplastic Barrett’s mucosa is defined as harboring high grade dysplasia or intra-mucosal cancer, and carries a high risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The rising incidence of Barrett’s lesions along with the high morbidity of surgical approaches has led to the development of numerous validated endoscopic techniques capable of eradicating neoplastic mucosa in a minimally invasive manner. While there has been widespread adoption of these techniques, less is known about optimal surveillance intervals in the post-therapy period. This is due in part to limitations in current surveillance methods, questions about durability of treatment response and the risk of subendothelial progression. As we are now able to achieve organ sparing eradication of superficial neoplasia in BE, we need to also then focus our attention on how best to manage these patients after eradication is achieved. Implementing optimal surveillance practices requires additional understanding of the biology of the disease, appreciation of the limits of current tools and treatments, and exploration of the role of adjunctive technologies. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of current literature surrounding post-ablation surveillance in neoplastic BE. PMID:27158198

  6. Predictors of Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ganapathy A.; Bansal, Ajay; Sharma, Prateek; Wang, Kenneth K.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus is the strongest risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a malignancy with persistently poor long-term outcomes. EAC is thought to develop through progression of metaplasia to dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Identification of factors predicting progression to EAC would help in focusing surveillance, chemoprevention or ablation at those deemed to be at highest risk of progression. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature and summarized current evidence on risk factors for progression in subjects with known BE. Clinical and demographic factors (age, male gender, length of BE segment) are associated with modestly increased odds of progression to EAC in some studies. Biomarkers such as aneuploidy and p53 loss of heterozygosity have been associated with increased risk of progression to high-grade dysplasia and / or EAC in single center prospective cohort studies. Promising newer techniques and markers have been recently reported with the potential to help risk stratify BE subjects. Development of a comprehensive BE risk progression score comprised of both clinical and biomarker variables should be the ultimate goal and can be achieved by multicenter prospective collaborative efforts. Though challenging, creation of such a score has the potential to improve outcomes and make the management of patients with BE more cost effective. PMID:20104216

  7. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  8. [The prevalence, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of Barrett esophagus in Fujian].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zhang, Zhi-jian; Lin, Ke-rong; Li, Da-zhou; Wen, Xiao-dong; Wu, Qiu-ping

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the incidence and clinical and endoscopic characteristics of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and the relationship between BE and reflux esophagitis (RE). Patients with BE were diagnosed according to new standard by endoscopy and histology. The prevalence, form in endoscopy, histology of biopsy, age, sex, symptom, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and relationship between BE and RE were analyzed. BE was 7.90% of the total endoscopy number, and male vs female was 1.98, mean age (45.1 +/- 14.8) years old. Only 19.15% of BE patients had typical reflux symptoms. 81.20% of BE patients were with short segment BE. Intestinal metaplasia was detected in 34.83% of BE and dysplasia 9.88%. 39.94% of BE patients were infected with Hp. Patients with RE (2.07%) were significantly less than those of BE (P < 0.01). 8.42% of BE patients were also with RE and 32.11% of RE patients were also with BE. The incidence of BE in Fujian of China is high. Most of BE are short segment BE and male and have no typical reflux symptoms. Intestinal metaplasia is found in 1/3 of BE patients. There isn't a close association between BE and RE.

  9. Replacement of the esophagus with fascial flap-wrapped allogenic aorta.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Williams; Mariette, Christophe; Copin, Marie-Christine; Robb, William B; Jashari, Ramadan; Hubert, Thomas; Wurtz, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Segmental replacement of the esophagus (SRE) is challenging. Allogenic aorta (AA) has shown promising remodeling abilities when used as an esophageal substitute. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and results of esophageal replacement with fascial flap-wrapped AA segments in a novel rabbit model. Seven Geant des Flandres rabbits and one New Zealand rabbit served as thoracic aorta donors, and 25 New Zealand rabbits were used as recipients. One to 3 wk before esophageal replacement either cryopreserved or fresh thoracic aortic segments were wrapped in thoracic wall fascia to generate revascularization. In an attempt to optimize the model, step-by-step modifications concerning perioperative and postoperative management of the recipients were made as results accumulated. Microscopic evaluation was focused on the viability of aortic segments and neoangiogenesis originating from the fascia. Survival after SRE was poor. Most recipients died within 1 wk, mainly from upper digestive tract hypomotility. Microscopically, AAs were severely necrosed. In one recipient sacrificed on day 16, the edges of the graft became evanescent. In these areas, esophageal reepithelialization directly covered the fascia, in which unexpected smooth muscle cells were found, suggestive of the first stages of esophageal remodeling of the graft. Results for SRE using fascial-wrapped AAs in rabbits were disappointing. The transposition of this approach to larger animals might result in longer survival, increasing the possibility for more complete graft remodeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconstructive Trends in Post-Ablation Patients with Esophagus and Hypopharynx Defect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Sim, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction is the restoration of swallow and speech functions. The aim of this paper is to review the reconstructive options and associated complications for patients with head and neck cancer. A literature review was performed for pharynoesophagus reconstruction after ablative surgery of head and neck cancer for studies published between January 1980 to July 2015 and listed in the PubMed database. Search queries were made using a combination of 'esophagus' and 'free flap', 'microsurgical', or 'free tissue transfer'. The search query resulted in 123 studies, of which 33 studies were full text publications that met inclusion criteria. Further review into the reference of these 33 studies resulted in 15 additional studies to be included. The pharyngoesophagus reconstruction should be individualized for each patient and clinical context. Fasciocutaneous free flap and pedicled flap are effective for partial phayngoesophageal defect. Fasciocutaneous free flap and jejunal free flap are effective for circumferential defect. Pedicled flaps remain a safe option in the context of high surgical risk patients, presence of fistula. Among free flaps, anterolateral thigh free flap and jejunal free flap were associated with superior outcomes, when compared with radial forearm free flap. Speech function is reported to be better for the fasciocutaneous free flap than for the jejunal free flap. PMID:28913234

  11. Reconstructive Trends in Post-Ablation Patients with Esophagus and Hypopharynx Defect.

    PubMed

    Ki, Sae Hwi; Choi, Jong Hwan; Sim, Seung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    The main challenge in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction is the restoration of swallow and speech functions. The aim of this paper is to review the reconstructive options and associated complications for patients with head and neck cancer. A literature review was performed for pharynoesophagus reconstruction after ablative surgery of head and neck cancer for studies published between January 1980 to July 2015 and listed in the PubMed database. Search queries were made using a combination of 'esophagus' and 'free flap', 'microsurgical', or 'free tissue transfer'. The search query resulted in 123 studies, of which 33 studies were full text publications that met inclusion criteria. Further review into the reference of these 33 studies resulted in 15 additional studies to be included. The pharyngoesophagus reconstruction should be individualized for each patient and clinical context. Fasciocutaneous free flap and pedicled flap are effective for partial phayngoesophageal defect. Fasciocutaneous free flap and jejunal free flap are effective for circumferential defect. Pedicled flaps remain a safe option in the context of high surgical risk patients, presence of fistula. Among free flaps, anterolateral thigh free flap and jejunal free flap were associated with superior outcomes, when compared with radial forearm free flap. Speech function is reported to be better for the fasciocutaneous free flap than for the jejunal free flap.

  12. Recent advancement of observing living cells in the esophagus using CM double staining: endocytoscopic atypia classification.

    PubMed

    Minami, H; Inoue, H; Yokoyama, A; Ikeda, H; Satodate, H; Hamatani, S; Haji, A; Kudo, S

    2012-04-01

    Magnification endoscopy enables in vivo evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Furthermore, endocytoscopy (ECS) with ultra-high magnification enables in vivo observation of cellular atypia during routine endoscopic examination. The purpose of this study is to clarify the efficacy of ECS and endocytoscopic atypia (ECA) classification in various types of benign and malignant pathology in the esophagus. Consecutive 110 patients, who underwent ECS in our institution from March 2003 to December 2009, were included in this study. One hundred and forty-six esophageal lesions were classified according to ECA classification, and these endocytoscopic images were compared with histological images. We categorized endocytoscopic images into five categories according to size and uniformity of nuclei, number of cells and regularity of cellular arrangement. Eighty-one out of 89 ECA-1 to ECA-3 lesions (91.0%) corresponded to Vienna categories 1 to 3. Seventy-one out of 84 ECA-4 or ECA-5 lesions (91.2%) corresponded to Vienna category 4 or 5. Overall accuracy of ECS was 91.3%, providing images similar to conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, with ECS, we can take an 'optical biopsy' even in patients with cardiovascular disease without interrupting anticoagulant therapy. A newly designed single charge-coupled device endocytoscope allows observation of target tissue noninvasibly from regular magnification to ultra-high magnification. The development of ECS has opened the door to in vivo cellular imaging, enabling endoscopic diagnosis of tissue cytological atypia during routine endoscopic examination.

  13. Preference of Endoscopic Ablation Over Medical Prevention of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma by Patients with Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yachimski, Patrick; Wani, Sachin; Givens, Tonya; Howard, Eric; Higginbotham, Tina; Price, Angie; Berman, Kenneth; Hosford, Lindsay; Katcher, Paul Menard; Ozanne, Elissa; Perzan, Katherine; Hur, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Endoscopic intervention or pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase might be used to prevent progression of Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated whether patients with BE prefer endoscopic therapy or chemoprevention of EAC. Methods Eighty-one subjects with nondysplastic BE were given a survey that described 2 scenarios. The survey explained that treatment A (ablation), endoscopy, reduced lifetime risk of EAC by 50%, with a 5% risk for esophageal stricture, whereas treatment B (aspirin) reduced lifetime risk of EAC by 50% and the risk of heart attack by 30%, yet increased the risk for ulcer by 75%. Subjects indicated their willingness to undergo either treatment A and/or treatment B if endoscopic surveillance was required every 3–5 years, every 10 years, or was not required. Visual aids were included to represent risk and benefit percentages. Results When surveillance was required every 3–5 years, more subjects were willing to undergo treatment A than treatment B (78% [63/81] vs 53% [43/81], P<.01). There were no differences in age, sex, education level, or history of cancer, heart disease, or ulcer between patients willing to undergo treatment A and those willing to undergo treatment B. Altering the frequency of surveillance did not affect patients’ willingness to undergo either treatment. Conclusion In a simulated scenario, patients with BE preferred endoscopic intervention over chemoprevention for EAC. Further investigation may be warranted of the shared decision making process regarding preventive strategies for patients with BE. PMID:24681073

  14. A model of the anterior esophagus in snakes, with functional and developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Cundall, David; Tuttman, Cassandra; Close, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The gross anatomy of the mouth of snakes has always been interpreted as an evolutionary response to feeding demands. In most alethinophidian species, their anatomy allows limited functional independence of right and left sides and the roof and floor of the mouth as well as wide separation of the tips of the mandibles. However, locations of the tongue and glottis in snakes suggest extraordinary rearrangement of pharyngeal structures characteristic of all vertebrates. Serial histological sections through the heads of a number of colubroid species show muscularis mucosal smooth muscle fibers appearing in the paratracheal gutter of the lower jaw at varying levels between the eye and ear regions. Incomplete muscularis externa elements appear beneath the paratracheal gutter more caudally but typically at otic levels. Both muscle layers encompass more of the gut wall at more posterior levels, encircling the gut at the level of the atlas or axis. The pattern in snakes suggests developmental dissociation of dorsal and ventral splanchnic derivatives and extensive topological rearrangements of some ventral pharyngeal arch derivatives typical of most tetrapods. When snakes swallow large prey, the effective oral cavity becomes extremely short ventrally. The palatomaxillary arches function as ratchets packing the prey almost directly into the esophagus. Our findings raise questions about germ layer origins and regulation of differentiation of gut regions and derivatives in snakes and suggest that significant aspects of the evolution of lepidosaurs may be difficult to recover from bones or molecular sequence data alone. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Application of a computer-assisted flexible endoscope system for transoral surgery of the hypopharynx and upper esophagus.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Daniel T; Scheithauer, M O; Greve, J; Rotter, N; Doescher, J; Hoffmann, T K; Schuler, P J

    2017-05-01

    Zenker's diverticulum is a common pathology in the transition zone of the posterior hypopharynx and esophagus. Surgical treatment is routinely performed by ENT and general surgeons. Besides the traditional open transcervical diverticulectomy, the introduction of transoral rigid treatment led to a paradigm change and is now the preferred treatment option for patients who are fit for general anesthesia. The implementation of interventional flexible endoscopy has opened another new micro-invasive approach for patients with high morbidity. Here, we present the potential utilization of a flexible, single port, robot-assisted, and physician-controlled endoscope system to facilitate transoral surgical access to the hypopharynx and upper esophagus. Transoral surgery of the hypopharynx and upper esophagus was performed in human cadavers (n = 5) using the Flex System (Medrobotics, Raynham, USA). Anatomical landmarks were identified, and posterior cricothyroid myotomy was performed with compatible flexible instruments in all cases. The approach to the hypopharynx and upper esophagus using the Flex system is feasible in a cadaveric model. Myotomy with a flexible tool and needle knife (from the perspective of treatment of Zenker´s diverticulum) was successful in all cases. Visualization of the surgical site with the system's HD camera is suitable and the flexible instruments meet the special needs of a micro-invasive transoral approach. Zenker´s diverticulum can be potentially treated with a transoral minimally invasive approach using a computer-assisted flexible endoscope system. This setup could be of advantage in patients with reduced mobility of the cervical spine to prevent open transcervical surgery. In our study, the Flex system enabled advanced visualization of the surgical site and extended intervention options, compared to standard flexible endoscopic treatment. However, general anesthesia is mandatory for the presented approach. Application in live patients

  16. Association of metabolic syndrome with erosive esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Wu; Lien, Han-Chung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Lee, Teng-Yu; Peng, Yen-Chun; Yeh, Hong-Zen

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been highlighted as a risk factor for several gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus (BE). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome with erosive esophagitis (EE) and BE. Data were retrospectively collected from patients who visited the Medical Screening Center at Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2009. All patients underwent an open-access transoral upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and serum laboratory data were collected. The exclusion criteria included prior gastric surgery, or presence of esophageal varices or peptic ulcers. These patients were assigned to groups according to their endoscopic findings as follows: (1) normal group; (2) EE group; and (3) BE group. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria. There were 560/6499 (8.6%) patients, 214/1118 (9.6%) patients, and 19/95 (20%) patients with metabolic syndrome in the normal, EE, and BE groups, respectively. There was a significantly higher percentage of cases with hypertriglyceridemia in the EE group (67%) compared with the other groups. The BE group had significantly higher rates of central obesity (33%) and hypertension (29.5%) compared with rates in the normal and EE groups. After adjusting for confounders, the positive association with metabolic syndrome still existed in both the EE group (adjusted odds ratio=2.43; 95% confidence interval=1.02-3.44) and the BE group (adjusted odds ratio=2.82; 95% confidence interval=2.05-3.88). Our research indicated that in fact there is a greater risk of concurrent metabolic syndrome in patients with EE or BE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.. All rights reserved.

  17. Poor Sleep Quality and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with GERD and Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Marcelo F.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; Dodge, Rhiannon; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) reduces sleep quality. Whether Barrett’s esophagus (BE) affects sleep differently is unknown. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often coexists with GERD and may disrupt sleep; whether GERD reduces sleep quality independently of OSA is unknown. Our aims were to compare the effect of GERD and BE on sleep quality, and assess the impact of OSA on this association. Methods Validated questionnaires for GERD symptoms, sleep quality, and OSA risk were prospectively administered to subjects undergoing upper endoscopy. GERD was defined by erosive esophagitis and/or reflux symptoms >1/week. BE was defined histologically. Controls had normal endoscopy and were asymptomatic. Poor sleep quality was defined by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score >5. Risk of OSA was defined by a positive Berlin Questionnaire. The risk poor sleep quality in GERD, BE, and controls was evaluated in multivariate models. Key Results 83 GERD, 63 BE, and 75 controls were included. OSA and poor sleep quality were significantly more frequent in GERD (65% and 60%) but not BE (52% and 46%) compared with controls (48% and 39%). Controlling for age, race, gender, smoking, BMI, and hypertension, the risk of poor sleep quality was significantly increased in GERD compared with controls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 – 6.80), significance was lost after adding OSA to the model (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 0.87 – 5.85). Conclusions and Inferences GERD but not BE increases the risk of poor sleep quality. This association is not independent of OSA. PMID:24460751

  18. Adherence to therapy for Barrett’s esophagus-associated neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Lisa; Slaughter, James C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Multiple endoscopic sessions may be necessary for treatment and surveillance of Barrett’s esophagus (BE)-associated neoplasia. Adherence to an endoscopic therapeutic regimen is important for longitudinal management of BE. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adherence to therapy for BE-associated neoplasia. Methods We retrospectively identified patients with BE whom were referred to a tertiary center for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) between 2009 and 2012. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the medical record. Results We had 69 subjects meet our inclusion criteria. Referral diagnosis was low-grade dysplasia in 9 (13%) subjects, high-grade dysplasia in 33 (48%) subjects and adenocarcinoma in 26 (38%) subjects. The majority (55%) lived more than 100 miles from the treatment center. The primary third-party payer was US Medicare for 54% of the subjects and private insurance for 36% of them; 45% of the subjects were seen in the clinic by the treating endoscopist, prior to endoscopic therapy and 71% underwent EMR as the initial treatment, while 29% underwent RFA without prior EMR. We found that 72% of subjects were adherent to therapy, including: 23 (33%) completing endoscopic therapy with documented post-treatment surveillance, 18 (26%) with ongoing endoscopic therapy, and 9 (13%) whom underwent esophagectomy. Subjects seen in gastroenterology clinical consultation were significantly more likely to demonstrate adherence than those referred for open access endoscopy (Lasso OR 2.31). Conclusions Patients seen in a clinical consultation prior to endoscopic therapy for BE-associated neoplasia were more likely to demonstrate treatment adherence, compared to patients referred for open-access endoscopy. A clinic visit prior to therapy may define expectations regarding treatment course and increase the likelihood of patient adherence. PMID:26966521

  19. Directional distribution of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus is not influenced by distance from the gastroesophageal junction.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Lisa; Sumner, Eric; Slaughter, James C; Yachimski, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Accurate endoscopic detection and staging are critical for appropriate management of Barrett's esophagus (BE)-associated neoplasia. Prior investigation has demonstrated that the distribution of endoscopically detectable early neoplasia is not uniform but instead favors specific directional distributions within a short BE segment; however, it is unknown whether the directional distribution of neoplasia differs with increasing distance from the gastroesophageal junction, including in patients with long-segment BE. To identify whether directional distribution of BE-associated neoplasia is influenced by distance from the gastroesophageal junction. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary-care referral center. Patients with either short-segment or long-segment BE undergoing EMR. EMR. Directional distribution of BE-associated neoplasia stratified by distance from gastroesophageal junction. EMR was performed on 60 lesions meeting study criteria during the specified time period. Pathology demonstrated low-grade dysplasia in 22% (13/60), high-grade dysplasia in 38% (23/60), intramucosal (T1a) adenocarcinoma in 23% (14/60), and invasive (≥ T1b) adenocarcinoma in 17% (10/60). Directional distribution of lesions was not uniform (P < .001), with 62% of lesions (37/60) located between the 1 o'clock and 5 o'clock positions. When circular statistics methodology was used, there was no difference in the directional distribution of neoplastic lesions located within 3 cm of the gastroesophageal junction compared with ≥ 3 cm from the gastroesophageal junction. Single-center study may limit external validity. The directional distribution of neoplastic foci within a BE segment is not influenced by distance of the lesion from the gastroesophageal junction. Mucosa between the 1 o'clock and 5 o'clock locations merits careful attention and endoscopic inspection in individuals with both short-segment BE and long-segment BE. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  20. Obesity and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Thrift, Aaron P; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Gammon, Marilie D; Bernstein, Leslie; Reid, Brian J; Onstad, Lynn; Risch, Harvey A; Liu, Geoffrey; Bird, Nigel C; Wu, Anna H; Corley, Douglas A; Romero, Yvonne; Chanock, Stephen J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Casson, Alan G; Levine, David M; Zhang, Rui; Ek, Weronica E; MacGregor, Stuart; Ye, Weimin; Hardie, Laura J; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C

    2014-11-01

    Data from observational studies suggest that body mass index (BMI) is causally related to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, the relationships may be affected by bias and confounding. We used data from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Genetic Susceptibility Study: 999 patients with EAC, 2061 patients with BE, and 2169 population controls. We applied the two-stage control function instrumental variable method of the Mendelian randomization approach to estimate the unbiased, unconfounded effect of BMI on risk of EAC and BE. This was performed using a genetic risk score, derived from 29 genetic variants shown to be associated with BMI, as an instrument for lifetime BMI. A higher score indicates propensity to obesity. All tests were two-sided. The genetic risk score was not associated with potential confounders, including gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and smoking. In the instrumental variable analyses (IV), EAC risk increased by 16% (IV-odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 1.33) and BE risk increased by 12% (IV-OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.25) per 1kg/m(2) increase in BMI. BMI was statistically significantly associated with EAC and BE in conventional epidemiologic analyses. People with a high genetic propensity to obesity have higher risks of esophageal metaplasia and neoplasia than people with low genetic propensity. These analyses provide the strongest evidence to date that obesity is independently associated with BE and EAC, and is not due to confounding or bias inherent in conventional epidemiologic analyses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Necrotizing sialometaplasia-like change of the esophageal submucosal glands is associated with Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Braxton, David R; Nickleach, Dana C; Liu, Yuan; Farris, Alton B

    2014-08-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) protect the squamous epithelium from insults such as gastroesophageal reflux disease by secreting mucins and bicarbonate. We have observed metaplastic changes within the SMG acini that we have termed oncocytic glandular metaplasia (OGM), and necrotizing sialometaplasia-like change (NSMLC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the associated clinicopathological parameters of, and to phenotypically characterize the SMG metaplasias. Esophagectomy specimens were retrospectively assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections and assigned to either a Barrett's esophagus (BE) or non-BE control group. Clinicopathologic data was collected, and univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the adjusted associations with NSMLC and OGM. Selected cases of SMG metaplasia were characterized. SMG were present in 82 esophagi that met inclusion criteria. On univariate analysis, NSMLC was associated with BE (p = 0.002). There was no relationship between NSMLC and patient age, sex, tumor size, or treatment history. OGM was associated with BE (p = 0.031). No relationship was found between OGM and patient age, sex, or tumor size. On multivariate analysis, BE was independently associated with NSMLC (odds ratio [OR] 4.95, p = 0.003). Treatment history was also independently associated with OGM (p = 0.029), but not NSMLC. Both NSMLC and OGM were non-mucinous ductal type epithelia retaining a p63-smooth muscle actin co-positive myoepithelial cell layer. NSMLC and OGM were present in endoscopic mucosal resection specimens. Our study suggests that SMG metaplasia is primarily a reflux-induced pathology. NSMLC may pose diagnostic dilemmas in resection specimens or when only partially represented in mucosal biopsies or endoscopic resection specimens.

  2. MicroRNA Expression Signatures During Malignant Progression From Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ajay; Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Wang, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase and poor survival of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have led to significant efforts to promote early detection. Given that the premalignant lesion of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the major known risk factor for EAC, multiple investigators have studied biomarker signatures that can predict malignant progression of BE to EAC. MicroRNAs, a novel class of gene regulators, are small non-coding RNAs and have been associated with carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs are ideal biomarkers because of their remarkable stability in fixed tissues, a common method for collection of clinical specimens, and in blood either within exosomes or as microRNA-protein complexes. Multiple studies show potential of microRNAs as tissue and blood biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of EAC but the results need confirmation in prospective studies. Although head-to-head comparisons are lacking, microRNA panels require less genes than messenger RNA panels for diagnosis of EAC in BE. MicroRNA diagnostic panels will need to be compared for accuracy against global measures of genome instability that were recently shown to be good predictors of progression but require sophisticated analytic techniques. Early studies on blood microRNA panels are promising but have found microRNA markers to be inconsistent among studies. MicroRNA expression in blood is different between various microRNA sub-compartments such as exosomes and microRNA-protein complexes and could affect blood microRNA measurements. Further standardization is needed to yield consistent results. We have summarized the current understanding of the tissue and blood microRNA signatures that may predict the development and progression of EAC.

  3. Analysis of tissue and circulating microRNA expression during metaplastic transformation of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Marta; Bronte, Giuseppe; Ingrao, Sabrina; Fanale, Daniele; Cangemi, Antonina; Calò, Valentina; Listì, Angela; Incorvaia, Lorena; Galvano, Antonio; Pantuso, Gianni; Fiorentino, Eugenio; Castorina, Sergio; Russo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Genetic changes involved in the metaplastic progression from squamous esophageal mucosa toward Barrett's metaplasia and adenocarcinoma are almost unknown. Several evidences suggest that some miRNAs are differentially expressed in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Among these, miR-143, miR-145, miR-194, miR-203, miR-205, miR-215 appear to have a key role in metaplasia and neoplastic progression. The aim of this study was to analyze deregulated miRNAs in serum and esophageal mucosal tissue biopsies to identify new biomarkers that could be associated with different stages of esophageal disease. Esophageal mucosal tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected and analyzed for BE diagnosis. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to compare miRNA expression levels in serum and 60 disease/normal-paired tissues from 30 patients diagnosed with esophagitis, columnar-lined oesophagus (CLO) or BE. MiRNA expression analysis showed that miR-143, miR-145, miR-194 and miR-215 levels were significantly higher, while miR-203 and miR-205 were lower in BE tissues compared with their corresponding normal tissues. Esophageal mucosa analysis of patients with CLO and esophagitis showed that these miRNAs were similarly deregulated but to a lesser extent keeping the same trend and CLO appeared as intermediate step between esophagitis and BE. Analysis on circulating miRNA levels confirmed that miR-194 and miR-215 were significantly upregulated in both BE and CLO compared to esophagitis, while miR-143 was significantly upregulated only in the Barrett group. These findings suggest that miRNAs may be involved in neoplastic/metaplastic progression and miRNA analysis might be useful for progression risk prediction as well as for monitoring of BE/CLO patients. PMID:27374102

  4. Pathway Cross-Talk Analysis in Detecting Significant Pathways in Barrett’s Esophagus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhengyuan; Yan, Yan; He, Jian; Shan, Xinfang; Wu, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    Background The pathological mechanism of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is still unclear. In the present study, pathway cross-talks were analyzed to identify hub pathways for BE, with the purpose of finding an efficient and cost-effective detection method to discover BE at its early stage and take steps to prevent its progression. Material/Methods We collected and preprocessed gene expression profile data, original pathway data, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Then, we constructed a background pathway cross-talk network (BPCN) based on the original pathway data and PPI data, and a disease pathway cross-talk network (DPCN) based on the differential pathways between the PPI data and the BE and normal control. Finally, a comprehensive analysis was conducted on these 2 networks to identify hub pathway cross-talks for BE, so as to better understand the pathological mechanism of BE from the pathway level. Results A total of 12 411 genes, 300 pathways (6919 genes), and 787 896 PPI interactions (16 730 genes) were separately obtained from their own databases. Then, we constructed a BPCN with 300 nodes (42 293 interactions) and a DPCN with 296 nodes (15 073 interactions). We identified 4 hub pathways: AMP signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and osteoclast differentiation. We found that these pathways might play important roles during the occurrence and development of BE. Conclusions We predicted that these pathways (such as AMP signaling pathway and cAMP signaling pathway) could be used as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapy of BE. PMID:28263955

  5. A Molecular Clock Infers Heterogeneous Tissue Age Among Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chao-Jen; Hazelton, William D.; Kaz, Andrew M.; Willis, Joseph E.; Grady, William M.; Luebeck, E. Georg

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers that drift differentially with age between normal and premalignant tissues, such as Barrett’s esophagus (BE), have the potential to improve the assessment of a patient’s cancer risk by providing quantitative information about how long a patient has lived with the precursor (i.e., dwell time). In the case of BE, which is a metaplastic precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), such biomarkers would be particularly useful because EAC risk may change with BE dwell time and it is generally not known how long a patient has lived with BE when a patient is first diagnosed with this condition. In this study we first describe a statistical analysis of DNA methylation data (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) derived from tissue samples from 50 BE patients to identify and validate a set of 67 CpG dinucleotides in 51 CpG islands that undergo age-related methylomic drift. Next, we describe how this information can be used to estimate a patient’s BE dwell time. We introduce a Bayesian model that incorporates longitudinal methylomic drift rates, patient age, and methylation data from individually paired BE and normal squamous tissue samples to estimate patient-specific BE onset times. Our application of the model to 30 sporadic BE patients’ methylomic profiles first exposes a wide heterogeneity in patient-specific BE onset times. Furthermore, independent application of this method to a cohort of 22 familial BE (FBE) patients reveals significantly earlier mean BE onset times. Our analysis supports the conjecture that differential methylomic drift occurs in BE (relative to normal squamous tissue) and hence allows quantitative estimation of the time that a BE patient has lived with BE. PMID:27168458

  6. Trajectories of endoscopic Barrett esophagus: Chronological changes in a community-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Shouji; Ogawa, Toshihisa; Toma, Toshiyuki

    2016-09-21

    To elucidate longitudinal changes of an endoscopic Barrett esophagus (BE), especially of short segment endoscopic BE (SSBE). This study comprised 779 patients who underwent two or more endoscopies between January 2009 and December 2015. The intervals between the first and the last endoscopy were at least 6 mo. The diagnosis of endoscopic BE was based on the criteria proposed by the Japan Esophageal Society and was classified as long segment (LSBE) and SSBE, the latter being further divided into partial and circumferential types. The potential background factors that were deemed to affect BE change included age, gender, antacid therapy use, gastroesophageal reflux disease-suggested symptoms, esophagitis, and hiatus hernia. Time trends of a new appearance and complete regression were investigated by Kaplan-Meier curves. The factors that may affect appearance and complete regression were investigated by χ(2) and Student-t tests, and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Incidences of SSBE and LSBE were respectively 21.7% and 0%, with a mean age of 68 years. Complete regression of SSBE was observed in 61.5% of initial SSBE patients, while 12.1% of initially disease free patients experienced an appearance of SSBE. Complete regressions and appearances of BE occurred constantly over time, accounting for 80% and 17% of 5-year cumulative rates. No LSBE development from SSBE was observed. A hiatus hernia was the only significant factor that facilitated BE development (P = 0.03) or hampered (P = 0.007) BE regression. Both appearances and complete regressions of SSBE occurred over time. A hiatus hernia was the only significant factor affecting the BE story.

  7. Trajectories of endoscopic Barrett esophagus: Chronological changes in a community-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Shimoyama, Shouji; Ogawa, Toshihisa; Toma, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    AIM To elucidate longitudinal changes of an endoscopic Barrett esophagus (BE), especially of short segment endoscopic BE (SSBE). METHODS This study comprised 779 patients who underwent two or more endoscopies between January 2009 and December 2015. The intervals between the first and the last endoscopy were at least 6 mo. The diagnosis of endoscopic BE was based on the criteria proposed by the Japan Esophageal Society and was classified as long segment (LSBE) and SSBE, the latter being further divided into partial and circumferential types. The potential background factors that were deemed to affect BE change included age, gender, antacid therapy use, gastroesophageal reflux disease-suggested symptoms, esophagitis, and hiatus hernia. Time trends of a new appearance and complete regression were investigated by Kaplan-Meier curves. The factors that may affect appearance and complete regression were investigated by χ2 and Student-t tests, and multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS Incidences of SSBE and LSBE were respectively 21.7% and 0%, with a mean age of 68 years. Complete regression of SSBE was observed in 61.5% of initial SSBE patients, while 12.1% of initially disease free patients experienced an appearance of SSBE. Complete regressions and appearances of BE occurred constantly over time, accounting for 80% and 17% of 5-year cumulative rates. No LSBE development from SSBE was observed. A hiatus hernia was the only significant factor that facilitated BE development (P = 0.03) or hampered (P = 0.007) BE regression. CONCLUSION Both appearances and complete regressions of SSBE occurred over time. A hiatus hernia was the only significant factor affecting the BE story. PMID:27672300

  8. Premature Birth and Large for Gestational Age Are Associated with Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in Adults.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; El-Serag, Hashem B; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-04-01

    Birth characteristics, including weight and gestational age, may be associated with risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the only known precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma; however, data are limited. To examine associations between various birth characteristics and BE, and whether these associations are mediated by known risk factors for BE. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among eligible Veterans Affairs patients scheduled for an upper endoscopy, and a sample identified from primary care clinics. Participants underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy and completed a survey that captured information on sociodemographic and clinical factors, as well as birth information. We compared 263 patients with histologically confirmed BE to 1416 controls without BE on endoscopy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Premature birth was independently associated with risk of BE after adjusted by age, sex, race, and other birth characteristics (OR 3.28, 95 % CI 1.22-8.79). On the other hand, large for gestational age was inversely associated with risk of BE (OR 0.46, 95 % CI 0.21-0.98). These effects were stronger for patients with long-segment BE than with short-segment BE. The associations were not mediated by gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, use of proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter Pylori infection, waist-hip-ratio, height or the presence of hiatus hernia. Premature birth and large for gestational age may be associated with risk of BE in adults. These associations do not appear to be mediated through known risk factors for BE; however, additional studies are required to confirm our findings.

  9. Impairment of chemical clearance and mucosal integrity distinguishes hypersensitive esophagus from functional heartburn.

    PubMed

    Frazzoni, Marzio; de Bortoli, Nicola; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Furnari, Manuele; Martinucci, Irene; Tolone, Salvatore; Farioli, Andrea; Marchi, Santino; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2017-04-01

    Hypersensitive esophagus (HE) is defined by endoscopy-negative heartburn with a normal acid exposure time but positive symptom association probability (SAP) and/or symptom index (SI) on impedance-pH monitoring, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) responsiveness. Functional heartburn (FH) is distinguished by negative SAP/SI and PPI refractoriness. The clinical value of SAP and SI has been questioned. We aimed to investigate whether impairment of chemical clearance and of mucosal integrity, expressed by the postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and the mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI), characterize HE independently of SAP and SI. Impedance-pH tracings from PPI-responsive endoscopy-negative patients, 125 with nonerosive reflux disease and 108 with HE, distinguished by an abnormal and a normal acid exposure time, and from 70 patients with FH were retrospectively selected and blindly reviewed. The mean PSPW index and MNBI were significantly lower in nonerosive reflux disease (30 %, 1378 Ω) than in HE (51 %; 2274 Ω) and in both of them as compared with FH (76 %; 3445 Ω) (P = 0.0001). Both the PSPW index (adjusted odds ratio 0.863, P = 0.001) and the MNBI (adjusted odds ratio 0.998, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of HE; with their combined assessment, the area under the curve on receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.957. SAP and/or SI was positive in 67 of the 108 HE patients (62 %), whereas the PSPW index and/or MNBI was abnormal in 99 of the 108 HE patients (92 %; P < 0.0001). HE is characterized by impairment of chemical clearance and mucosal integrity, which explains the increased reflux perception. When SAP and SI afford uncertain results, the PSPW index and MNBI should be analyzed.

  10. Motor efficiency of the refluxing esophagus in basal conditions and after acid challenge.

    PubMed

    Arana, J; Tovar, J A

    1989-10-01

    We have investigated manometrically and endoscopically 60 children with extended pH metering-documented gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and a control group of 14 children of comparable ages. In an attempt to simplify the evaluation of esophageal peristalsis, we measured the frequency of propulsive waves (in waves/hour) and their mean pressure (in mm Hg) in the body of the esophagus and multiplied both values to result in one single figure that reflected esophageal motor efficiency (EME) in some way. We performed the tests in basal conditions (EMEB) and after instillation of 5 mL of 0.1 N CIH into the esophageal lumen (EMECIH). In comparison with controls, refluxing children had a lower sphincter pressure (LESP) (14.9 +/- 8 v 11.8 +/- 6.9 mm Hg, P less than 0.05), an increased proportion of nonpropulsive waves (38.8 +/- 29.3% v 68 +/- 27%, P less than 0.001), and a significantly lower EMEB (896.6 +/- 777 v 375 +/- 306, P less than 0.001). These results suggest that both the sphincteric antireflux barrier and esophageal pump can be damaged in GER. There was a weak, but significant, correlation between EMEB and esophagitis grade (rs = -.25, P less than 0.05). Furthermore, esophageal motor response after CIH instillation may have some prognostic value because EMECIH was significantly higher in those of the 52 children followed-up for more than a year who responded to medical treatment (n = 16) than in those in whom medical treatment was a failure (n = 36) (981.2 +/- 617.4 v 460.5 +/- 452.3, P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Gosain, Sonia; Mercer, Kim; Twaddell, William S; Uradomo, Lance; Greenwald, Bruce D

    2013-08-01

    Liquid nitrogen endoscopic spray cryotherapy can safely and effectively eradicate high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE-HGD). Long-term data on treatment success and safety are lacking. To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of spray cryotherapy in patients with BE-HGD. Single-center, retrospective study. Tertiary-care referral center. A total of 32 patients with BE-HGD of any length. Patients were treated with liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy every 8 weeks until complete eradication of HGD (CE-HGD) and intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) was found by endoscopic biopsy. Surveillance endoscopy with biopsies was performed for at least 2 years. CE-HGD, CE-IM, durability of response, disease progression, and adverse events. CE-HGD was 100% (32/32), and CE-IM was 84% (27/32) at 2-year follow-up. At last follow-up (range 24-57 months), CE-HGD was 31/32 (97%), and CE-IM was 26/32 (81%). Recurrent HGD was found in 6 (18%), with CE-HGD in 5 after repeat treatment. One patient progressed to adenocarcinoma, downgraded to HGD after repeat cryotherapy. BE segment length ≥3 cm was associated with a higher recurrence of IM (P = .004; odds ratio 22.6) but not HGD. No serious adverse events occurred. Stricture was seen in 3 patients (9%), all successfully dilated. Retrospective study design, small sample size. In patients with BE-HGD, liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy has an acceptable safety profile and success rate for eliminating HGD and IM and is associated with a low rate of recurrence or progression to cancer with long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The risk of Barrett's esophagus associated with abdominal obesity in males and females.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Hayward, Nicholas K; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2013-05-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett's esophagus (BE). Both occur predominantly in males. The role of abdominal obesity in this sex distribution is uncertain. Our study aimed to determine whether there is an association between abdominal obesity and risk of BE and if present was it modified by sex. A structured interview and anthropometric measures were conducted within a population-based case-control study. We recruited 237 BE cases (70% male) and 247 population controls, frequency matched by age and sex. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In the overall group and males, all measures of abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and waist-height ratio (WHtR)] were strongly associated with risk of BE (Overall: WC OR 2.2 95% CI 1.4-3.5, WHR 1.8 95% CI 1.2-2.9, SAD 2.3 95% CI 1.4-3.7, WHtR 1.9 95% CI 1.2-3.0, males WC 2.5 95% CI 1.4-4.3, WHR 2.4 95% CI 1.3-4.2, SAD 2.5 95% CI 1.4-4.3, WHtR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-3.4). These associations were minimally attenuated by adjusting for ever-symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). These findings suggest in males, non-GER factors related to abdominal obesity may be important in the development of BE. In females, there was modest association between measures of abdominal obesity and risk of BE but these were all abolished after adjusting for ever-symptoms of GER. The power to detect differences between sexes in the risk of BE associated with abdominal obesity was limited by the number of females in the study. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  13. The risk of Barrett’s esophagus associated with abdominal obesity in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Hayward, Nicholas K; Prins, Johannes B; O’Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Both occur predominantly in males. The role of abdominal obesity in this sex distribution is uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between abdominal obesity and risk of BE and if present was it modified by sex. A structured interview and anthropometric measures were conducted within a population based case-control study. We recruited 237 BE cases (70% male) and 247 population controls, frequency matched by age and sex. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In the overall group and males, all measures of abdominal obesity (waist circumference - WC, waist-hip ratio - WHR, sagittal abdominal diameter – SAD and waist-height ratio - WHtR) were strongly associated with risk of BE. (Overall - WC OR 2.2 95%CI 1.4-3.5, WHR 1.8 95%CI 1.2-2.9, SAD 2.3 95%CI 1.4-3.7, WHtR 1.9 95%CI 1.2-3.0, Males WC 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.3, WHR 2.4 95%CI 1.3-4.2, SAD 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.3, WHtR 1.9 95%CI 1.1-3.4). These associations were minimally attenuated by adjusting for ever-symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). These findings suggest in males, non-GER factors related to abdominal obesity may be important in the development of BE. In females, there was modest association between measures of abdominal obesity and risk of BE but these were all abolished after adjusting for ever-symptoms of GER. The power to detect differences between sexes in the risk of BE associated with abdominal obesity was limited by the number of females in the study. PMID:23034724

  14. Durability and Predictors of Successful Radiofrequency Ablation for Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Sarina; Bulsiewicz, William J.; Hathorn, Kelly E.; Komanduri, Srinadh; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Rothstein, Richard I.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Overholt, Bergein F.; Camara, Daniel S.; Dellon, Evan S.; Lyday, William D.; Ertan, Atilla; Chmielewski, Gary W.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Following radiofrequency ablation (RFA), patients may experience recurrence of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) after complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM). Rates and predictors of recurrence after successful eradication are poorly described. Methods We used the U.S. RFA Registry, a nationwide registry of BE patients receiving RFA, to determine rates and factors that predicted recurrence of IM. We assessed recurrence by Kaplan-Meier analysis for the overall cohort and by worst pretreatment histology. Characteristics associated with recurrence were included in a logistic regression model to identify independent predictors. Results Among 5521 patients, 3728 had biopsies ≥12 months after initiation of RFA. Of these, 3169 (85%) achieved CEIM, and 1634 (30%) met inclusion criteria. Average follow-up was 2.4 years after CEIM. IM recurred in 334 (20%), and was non-dysplastic or indefinite for dysplasia in 86% (287/334); the average length of recurrent BE was 0.6 cm. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, more advanced pretreatment histology was associated with an increased yearly recurrence rate. Compared to patients without recurrence, patients with recurrence were more likely, based on bi-variate analysis, to be older, have longer BE segments, be non-Caucasian, have dysplastic BE before treatment, and require more treatment sessions. In multivariate analysis, likelihood for recurrence was associated with increasing age and BE length, and non-Caucasian race. Conclusion BE recurred in 20% of patients followed for an average of 2.4 years after CEIM. Most recurrences were short segments and were non-dysplastic or indefinite for dysplasia. Older age, non-Caucasian race, and increasing length of BE length were all risk factors. These risk factors should be considered when planning post-RFA surveillance intervals. PMID:24815329

  15. Incidence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Causes of Mortality in Barrett's Esophagus after Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, W. Asher; Pasricha, Sarina; Cotton, Cary; Li, Nan; Triadafilopoulos, George; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Chmielewski, Gary W.; Corbett, F. Scott; Camara, Daniel S.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Wolfsen, Herbert; Chang, Kenneth J.; Overholt, Bergein F.; Pruitt, Ron E.; Ertan, Atilla; Komanduri, Srinadh; Infantolino, Anthony; Rothstein, Richard I.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is commonly used to treat Barrett's esophagus (BE). We assessed the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) after RFA, predictors of EAC, and EAC-specific and all-cause mortality rates. Methods We assessed outcomes in a multicenter study of RFA for BE. Kaplan-Meier curves of EAC incidence were stratified by baseline histology. Crude EAC incidence and mortality (both all-cause and EAC-specific) rates were calculated, and adjusted all-cause mortality rates were assessed. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess predictors of EAC and all-cause mortality. Results Among 4982 patients, 100 (2%) developed EAC (7.8/1000 person-years (PY)), and 9 (0.2%) died of EAC (0.7/1000 PY) in a mean 2.7 ± 1.6 years. The incidence of EAC in non-dysplastic BE (NDBE) was 0.5/1000 PY. Overall, 157 (3%) patients died during follow-up (all-cause mortality 11.2/1000 PY). On multivariate logistic regression, baseline BE length (OR 1.1 per cm) and baseline histology (ORs of 5.8 and 50.3 for low grade dysplasia and high grade dysplasia (HGD) respectively) predicted EAC incidence. Among 9 EAC deaths, 6 (67%) had baseline HGD and 3 (33%) had baseline intramucosal EAC. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular (15%) and extra-esophageal cancers (15%). No deaths were associated with RFA. Conclusion In this multicenter registry of RFA for BE, death from EAC was rare. The incidence of EAC was markedly lower than natural history studies, with the greatest absolute benefit seen in HGD. PMID:26327132

  16. Effects of Learning Curve on Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation for Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Sarina; Cotton, Cary; Hathorn, Kelly E.; Li, Nan; Bulsiewicz, William J.; Wolf, W. Asher; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Komanduri, Srinadh; Wolfsen, Herbert C.; Pruitt, Ron E.; Ertan, Atilla; Chmielewski, Gary W.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Complete eradication of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) often requires multiple sessions of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Little is known about the effects of case volume on the safety and efficacy of RFA, or the presence or contour of learning curves for this procedure. Methods We collected data from the US RFA Patient Registry (from 148 institutions) on patients who underwent RFA for BE from July 2007 to July 2011. We analyzed the effects of the number of patients treated by individual endoscopists and individual centers on safety and efficacy outcomes of RFA. Outcomes, including stricture, bleeding, hospitalization, and complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM), were assessed using logistic regression. The effect of center and investigator experience on number of treatment sessions to achieve CEIM was examined using linear regression. Results After we controlled for potential confounders, we found that as case experience of endoscopists and centers increased, the numbers of treatment sessions required to achieve CEIM decreased. This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient age, sex, race, length of BE, and presence of pretreatment dysplasia (P<.01). Center experience was not significantly associated with overall rates of CEIM or complete eradication of dysplasia. We did not observe any learning curve with regard to risks of stricture, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, or hospitalization (P>.05). Conclusions Based on an analysis of a large multicenter registry, efficiency of the treatment, as measured by number of sessions needed to achieve CEIM, increased with case volume, indicating a learning curve effect. This trend began to disappear after treatment of approximately 30 patients by the center or individual endoscopist. However, there was no significant association between safety or efficacy outcomes and prior case volume. PMID:26116806

  17. Simplified Classification of Capillary Pattern in Barrett Esophagus Using Magnifying Endoscopy With Narrow Band Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Goichi; Ishimura, Norihisa; Tada, Yasumasa; Tamagawa, Yuji; Yuki, Takafumi; Matsushita, Takashi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Maruyama, Riruke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The classification of Barrett esophagus (BE) using magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) is not widely used in clinical settings because of its complexity. To establish a new simplified available classification using ME-NBI. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a single-referral center. One hundred eight consecutive patients with BE using ME-NBI and crystal violet (CV) chromoendoscopy, and histological findings were enrolled. BE areas observed by ME-NBI were classified as type I or II on the basis of capillary pattern (CP), and as closed or open type on the basis of a mucosal pit pattern using CV chromoendoscopy; then, biopsy samples were obtained. We evaluated the relation between CP and pit pattern, expression of the factors with malignant potential, percentage of microvascular density, and interobserver agreement. One hundred thirty lesions from 91 patients were analyzed. Type II CP had more open type pit pattern areas and significantly greater microvascular density than type I. The presence of dysplasia, specialized intestinal metaplasia, expressions of COX-2, CDX2, and CD34, and PCNA index were significantly higher in type II, whereas the multivariate analysis showed that type II was the best predictor for the presence of dysplasia (OR 11.14), CD34 expression (OR 3.60), and PCNA (OR 3.29). Interobserver agreement for this classification was substantial (κ = 0.66). A simplified CP classification based on observation with ME-NBI is presented. Our results indicate that the classification may be useful for surveillance of BE with high malignant potential. PMID:25621687

  18. Aspirin and proton pump inhibitor combination therapy for prevention of cardiovascular disease and Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Peura, David A; Wilcox, C Mel

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin, used at low doses (75-325 mg daily), prevents aggregation of platelets and is prescribed for patients as pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-documented beneficial effects of aspirin, prolonged use is associated with damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa in the upper and lower GI tract. Patient risk of hemorrhage and peptic ulcer formation is increased with older age, previous ulcer history, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, or antithrombotic agents. As termination of aspirin therapy can precipitate a cardiovascular event, patients at risk need co-therapy with gastroprotective agents, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), to reduce the GI side effects of aspirin treatment. Fixed-dose combinations of low-dose aspirin and gastroprotective agents have been designed to increase medication compliance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce the overall cost of therapy. Prolonged use of PPIs may, however, lead to serious adverse effects or, in some cases, reduce the cardioprotective effects of aspirin. Hence, physicians need to carefully consider the benefits and risks associated with the condition of each patient to optimize clinical outcomes of combination therapy. A growing body of clinical evidence indicates that aspirin may decrease the risk of colorectal and other GI cancers, as well as reduce progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, PPIs have recently been shown to reduce neoplastic transformation in patients with BE. Thus, the use of a fixed-dose aspirin/PPI combination could potentially provide chemopreventive benefit to patients with BE, and, at the same time, treat the underlying gastroesophageal reflux responsible for the condition.

  19. Randomized comparison of 3 different-sized biopsy forceps for quality of sampling in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Susana; Yu, Woojin M; Smith, Michael S; Slack, Kristen N; Rotterdam, Heidrun; Abrams, Julian A; Lightdale, Charles J

    2010-11-01

    Several types of forceps are available for use in sampling Barrett's esophagus (BE). Few data exist with regard to biopsy quality for histologic assessment. To evaluate sampling quality of 3 different forceps in patients with BE. Single-center, randomized clinical trial. Consecutive patients with BE undergoing upper endoscopy. Patients randomized to have biopsy specimens taken with 1 of 3 types of forceps: standard, large capacity, or jumbo. Specimen adequacy was defined a priori as a well-oriented biopsy sample 2 mm or greater in diameter and with at least muscularis mucosa present. A total of 65 patients were enrolled and analyzed (standard forceps, n = 21; large-capacity forceps, n = 21; jumbo forceps, n = 23). Compared with jumbo forceps, a significantly higher proportion of biopsy samples with large-capacity forceps were adequate (37.8% vs 25.2%, P = .002). Of the standard forceps biopsy samples, 31.9% were adequate, which was not significantly different from specimens taken with large-capacity (P = .20) or jumbo (P = .09) forceps. Biopsy specimens taken with jumbo forceps had the largest diameter (median, 3.0 mm vs 2.5 mm [standard] vs 2.8 mm [large capacity]; P = .0001). However, jumbo forceps had the lowest proportion of specimens that were well oriented (overall P = .001). Heterogeneous patient population precluded dysplasia detection analyses. Our results challenge the requirement of jumbo forceps and therapeutic endoscopes to properly perform the Seattle protocol. We found that standard and large-capacity forceps used with standard upper endoscopes produced biopsy samples at least as adequate as those obtained with jumbo forceps and therapeutic endoscopes in patients with BE. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Prevalence of Barrett’s Esophagus Associated Dysplasia in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Magno, Priscilla; González, Lorena; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Suárez, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is the strongest risk factor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). A previous study found a lower incidence of EAC in Puerto Rico (PR) as compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US). Notwithstanding, BE epidemiology in PR is unknown. Study aims: i) to determine BE prevalence among individuals with gastroenterological pathology reports from three major anatomic pathology laboratories in PR and (ii) to describe the association between dysplastic BE with age and gender. Methods Clinic-based study examined data collected from three anatomic pathology laboratories encompassing the majority of gastroenterology practices in PR. Individuals with histology confirmed BE (January 2007-December 2011) were analyzed (n=1,232). We estimated BE prevalence and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) to assess magnitude of association between dysplastic BE with age and gender using logistic regression models. Results Overall BE prevalence was 4.4% (95% CI = 4.1–4.6). Most BE patients were males (male-to-female ratio = 2.3:1) with mean age of 64 ± 13 years. Ninety one percent of BE biopsies showed no dysplasia whereas 6.2% had EAC. BE patients age > 74 years had an increased risk of EAC (AOR: 2.38, 95% CI = 1.14–4.94) compared to those < 55 years old. Males had increased EAC risk (AOR: 2.23, 95% CI = 1.23–4.06) compared to females. Conclusions BE prevalence in PR is similar to that of non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics in US. The lower occurrence of dysplastic BE in PR could explain EAC incidence disparities between PR and other groups in the US. PMID:25563036

  1. Inverse Association Between Gluteofemoral Obesity and Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in a Pooled Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Bradley J; Rubenstein, Joel H; Cook, Michael B; Vaughan, Thomas L; Anderson, Lesley A; Murray, Liam J; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Corley, Douglas A; Chandar, Apoorva K; Li, Li; Greer, Katarina B; Chak, Amitabh; El-Serag, Hashem B; Whiteman, David C; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-10-01

    Gluteofemoral obesity (determined by measurement of subcutaneous fat in the hip and thigh regions) could reduce risks of cardiovascular and diabetic disorders associated with abdominal obesity. We evaluated whether gluteofemoral obesity also reduces the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant lesion associated with abdominal obesity. We collected data from non-Hispanic white participants in 8 studies in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium. We compared measures of hip circumference (as a proxy for gluteofemoral obesity) from cases of BE (n = 1559) separately with 2 control groups: 2557 population-based controls and 2064 individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD controls). Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using individual participant data and multivariable logistic regression and combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. We found an inverse relationship between hip circumference and BE (OR per 5-cm increase, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96), compared with population-based controls in a multivariable model that included waist circumference. This association was not observed in models that did not include waist circumference. Similar results were observed in analyses stratified by frequency of GERD symptoms. The inverse association with hip circumference was statistically significant only among men (vs population-based controls: OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96 for men; OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.74-1.16 for women). For men, within each category of waist circumference, a larger hip circumference was associated with a decreased risk of BE. Increasing waist circumference was associated with an increased risk of BE in the mutually adjusted population-based and GERD control models. Although abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of BE, there is an inverse association between gluteofemoral obesity and BE, particularly among men. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by

  2. Characterization of Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by Fourier-transform infrared microscopy.

    PubMed

    Quaroni, Luca; Casson, Alan G

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to characterize formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human esophageal tissues. Matched histologically normal esophageal squamous epithelium (NS), premalignant Barrett esophagus (BE), and primary esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) tissues, each defined according to strict clinicopathologic criteria, were obtained from patients who underwent esophageal resection. Using confocal IR microscopy, measurements in the mid-IR spectral region were carried out in transflection configuration, scanning regions of interest in 15 microm steps. A multidimensional dataset reporting the spectroscopic properties at each sampled point were analyzed by performing a hierarchical cluster analysis on the second derivative of spectral traces. Normal esophageal epithelia were characterized by a few well defined regions, mostly of large size (tens of contiguous pixels), which correlated with tissue histology, specifically the basal cell layer. BE tissues had characteristic regions localized to gland crypts, ranging in size from one pixel to a few tens of pixels, which displayed IR spectra with defined absorption features characteristic of glycoproteins. The incorporation of synchrotron light to improve the resolution of individual cells in BE tissues has demonstrated that these glycoproteins are associated with goblet cells, the characteristic cell type defining BE. Whereas the highly fragmented regions identified in EADC likely reflect tumor heterogeneity, FTIR mapping would appear to be a potentially useful technique to identify premalignant BE tissues. The technical feasibility of using FTIR to characterize formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human esophageal tissues demonstrates the potential of this technique to study archival human BE tissue specimens via automated screening techniques.

  3. Detection of lesions in dysplastic Barrett's esophagus by community and expert endoscopists.

    PubMed

    Schölvinck, Dirk W; van der Meulen, Kim; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Weusten, Bas L A M

    2017-02-01

    Background and aims Endoscopic treatment of Barrett's esophagus (BE) consists of endoscopic resection of visible lesions followed by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for any remaining flat BE. Because RFA is only justified in flat BE, detection of neoplastic lesions (high grade dysplasia [HGD] and early adenocarcinoma [EAC]) is crucial. We hypothesized that the detection of visible lesions containing HGD or EAC would be superior in BE expert centers compared with community hospitals, thereby supporting centralization of therapy for BE-related neoplasia. Methods Patients referred with histologically proven HGD or EAC to two Dutch BE expert centers were included. Referral letters, and endoscopy and pathology reports were reviewed for the description of the BE, presence of lesions, and histopathological analysis of target and random tissue sampling. Primary outcome was the endoscopic detection rate of lesions containing histopathologically proven neoplasia (HGD and/or EAC) in community and expert centers. Results There were 198 patients referred from 37 community hospitals (median referral time 55 days [interquartile range 33 - 85]). Detection rates for visible lesions were 60 % in community centers (75 % in patients with a biopsy diagnosis of EAC, 47 % in HGD) and 87 % in expert centers (98 % in EAC, 75 % in HGD); P < 0.001. Even with HGD/EAC on random biopsies from the index endoscopy, the yield at repeat endoscopy was < 50 % in community hospitals. In 79 patients referred solely because of random biopsy results, a lesion requiring endoscopic resection or surgery was found in 76 % by the expert endoscopists. Conclusions Endoscopists at community hospitals detect neoplastic lesions at a significantly lower rate. These data support the value of BE expert centers for work-up and further treatment of BE.

  4. Obesity and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s Esophagus: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Bernstein, Leslie; Reid, Brian J.; Onstad, Lynn; Risch, Harvey A.; Liu, Geoffrey; Bird, Nigel C.; Wu, Anna H.; Corley, Douglas A.; Romero, Yvonne; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Casson, Alan G.; Levine, David M.; Zhang, Rui; Ek, Weronica E.; MacGregor, Stuart; Ye, Weimin; Hardie, Laura J.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Whiteman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from observational studies suggest that body mass index (BMI) is causally related to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett’s esophagus (BE). However, the relationships may be affected by bias and confounding. Methods We used data from the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Genetic Susceptibility Study: 999 patients with EAC, 2061 patients with BE, and 2169 population controls. We applied the two-stage control function instrumental variable method of the Mendelian randomization approach to estimate the unbiased, unconfounded effect of BMI on risk of EAC and BE. This was performed using a genetic risk score, derived from 29 genetic variants shown to be associated with BMI, as an instrument for lifetime BMI. A higher score indicates propensity to obesity. All tests were two-sided. Results The genetic risk score was not associated with potential confounders, including gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and smoking. In the instrumental variable analyses (IV), EAC risk increased by 16% (IV-odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 1.33) and BE risk increased by 12% (IV-OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.25) per 1kg/m2 increase in BMI. BMI was statistically significantly associated with EAC and BE in conventional epidemiologic analyses. Conclusions People with a high genetic propensity to obesity have higher risks of esophageal metaplasia and neoplasia than people with low genetic propensity. These analyses provide the strongest evidence to date that obesity is independently associated with BE and EAC, and is not due to confounding or bias inherent in conventional epidemiologic analyses. PMID:25269698

  5. Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2013-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

  6. Prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus in patients with moderate to severe erosive esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Nooman; Gerkin, Richard D; Ramirez, Francisco C; Hakim, Shahina; Randolph, Adam C

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the proportion of patients with moderate-severe erosive esophagitis (EE) who will have Barrett’s esophagus (BE) after healing of inflammation. METHODS: Patients with EE of Los Angeles (LA) class B, C and D who underwent follow-up endoscopy documenting complete mucosal healing. RESULTS: A total of 86/169 patients were suspected of having BE (38 before healing and 48 after healing of EE) and, 46/86 eventually had the histological confirmation. At index esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD), BE was suspected in 38/169 (22%), and ultimately, histologically confirmed in 20 of these. In 11 patients where biopsies were performed in the presence of inflammation, BE was detected in 2 and missed in 5 (including 2 dysplasias). In 131/169 patients (77.5%), BE was not suspected at index EGD. After healing of EE though, 48 patients had suspicion of BE who underwent biopsies, and in 26 of these histology was positive for BE. The length of inflammation had a linear correlation with the length of BE (P = 0.01). Out of multiple variables to predict BE, only the suspicion at index endoscopy was statistically significant (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: BE was seen in 46/169 (27%) patients with EE of LA class B, C and D. The length of EE can predict the length of underlying BE segment. Even when suspected, BE and associated dysplasia can be missed in the presence of inflammation; therefore, repeat evaluation should be considered after complete healing of esophagitis. PMID:18567080

  7. Effects of the Learning Curve on Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation for Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sarina; Cotton, Cary; Hathorn, Kelly E; Li, Nan; Bulsiewicz, William J; Wolf, W Asher; Muthusamy, V Raman; Komanduri, Srinadh; Wolfsen, Herbert C; Pruitt, Ron E; Ertan, Atilla; Chmielewski, Gary W; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2015-10-01

    Complete eradication of Barrett's esophagus (BE) often requires multiple sessions of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Little is known about the effects of case volume on the safety and efficacy of RFA or about the presence or contour of learning curves for this procedure. We collected data from the US RFA Patient Registry (from 148 institutions) for patients who underwent RFA for BE from July 2007 to July 2011. We analyzed the effects of the number of patients treated by individual endoscopists and individual centers on safety and efficacy outcomes of RFA. Outcomes, including stricture, bleeding, hospitalization, and complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM), were assessed using logistic regression. The effects of center and investigator experience on numbers of treatment sessions to achieve CEIM were examined using linear regression. After we controlled for potential confounders, we found that as the experience of endoscopists and centers increased with cases, the numbers of treatment sessions required to achieve CEIM decreased. This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient age, sex, race, length of BE, and presence of pretreatment dysplasia (P < .01). Center experience was not significantly associated with overall rates of CEIM or complete eradication of dysplasia. We did not observe any learning curve with regard to risks of stricture, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, or hospitalization (P > .05). Based on analysis of a large multicenter registry, efficiency of the treatment, as measured by number of sessions needed to achieve CEIM, increased with case volume, indicating a learning curve effect. This trend began to disappear after treatment of approximately 30 patients by the center or individual endoscopist. However, there was no significant association between safety or efficacy outcomes and previous case volume. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Causes of Mortality After Radiofrequency Ablation of Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, W Asher; Pasricha, Sarina; Cotton, Cary; Li, Nan; Triadafilopoulos, George; Muthusamy, V Raman; Chmielewski, Gary W; Corbett, F Scott; Camara, Daniel S; Lightdale, Charles J; Wolfsen, Herbert; Chang, Kenneth J; Overholt, Bergein F; Pruitt, Ron E; Ertan, Atilla; Komanduri, Srinadh; Infantolino, Anthony; Rothstein, Richard I; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is commonly used to treat Barrett's esophagus (BE). We assessed the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) after RFA, factors associated with the development of EAC, and EAC-specific and all-cause mortality. We collected data for outcomes of patients who underwent RFA for BE from July 2007 through July 2011 from US multicenter RFA Patient Registry. Patients were followed until July 2014. Kaplan-Meier curves of EAC incidence were stratified by baseline histology. Crude EAC incidence and mortality (all-cause and EAC-specific) were calculated, and adjusted all-cause mortality was assessed. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess predictors of EAC and all-cause mortality. Among 4982 patients, 100 (2%) developed EAC (7.8/1000 person-years [PY]) and 9 patients (0.2%) died of EAC (0.7/1000 PY) in a mean 2.7 ± 1.6 years. The incidence of EAC in nondysplastic BE was 0.5/1000 PY. Overall, 157 patients (3%) died during follow-up (all-cause mortality, 11.2/1000 PY). On multivariate logistic regression, baseline BE length (odds ratio, 1.1/ cm) and baseline histology (odds ratios, 5.8 and 50.3 for low-grade dysplasia and high-grade dysplasia [HGD] respectively) predicted EAC incidence. Among 9 EAC deaths, 6 (67%) had baseline HGD, and 3 (33%) had baseline intramucosal EAC. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular (15%) and extraesophageal cancers (15%). No deaths were associated with RFA. Based on analysis of a multicenter registry of patients who underwent RFA of BE, less than 1% died from EAC. The incidence of EAC was markedly lower in this study than in other studies of disease progression, with the greatest absolute benefit observed in patients with HGD. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tissue engineered esophagus scaffold constructed with porcine small intestinal submucosa and synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mei-Rong; Gong, Mei; Da, Lin-Cui; Bai, Lin; Li, Xiu-Qun; Chen, Ke-Fei; Li-Ling, Jesse; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Xie, Hui-Qi

    2014-0