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Sample records for espirito santo afluente

  1. Male-specific contributions to the Brazilian population of Espirito Santo.

    PubMed

    de F Figueiredo, Raquel; Ambrosio, Isabela B; Braganholi, Danilo F; Chemale, Gustavo; Martins, Joyce A; Gomes, Veronica; Gusmão, Leonor; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2016-05-01

    Y chromosome markers have been widely studied due to their various applications in the fields of forensic and evolutionary genetics. In this study, 35 Y-SNPs and 17 Y-STRs were genotyped in 253 males from the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. A total of 18 haplogroups and 243 haplotypes were detected; the haplogroup and haplotype diversities were 0.7794 and 0.9997, respectively. Genetic distance analysis using the Y-STR data showed no statistically significant differences between Espirito Santo and other admixed populations from Brazil. The classification of paternal lineages based on haplogroups showed a predominant European contribution (85.88%), followed by African (11.37%) and Amerindian (2.75%) contributions.

  2. Espirito Santo Virus: a New Birnavirus That Replicates in Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vancini, Ricardo; Paredes, Angel; Ribeiro, Mariana; Blackburn, Kevin; Ferreira, Davis; Kononchik, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Espirito Santo virus (ESV) is a newly discovered virus recovered as contamination in a sample of a virulent strain of dengue-2 virus (strain 44/2), which was recovered from a patient in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, and amplified in insect cells. ESV was found to be dependent upon coinfection with a virulent strain of dengue-2 virus and to replicate in C6/36 insect cells but not in mammalian Vero cells. A sequence of the genome has been produced by de novo assembly and was not found to match to any known viral sequence. An incomplete match to the nucleotide sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Drosophila X virus (DXV), another birnavirus, could be detected. Mass spectrometry analysis of ESV proteins found no matches in the protein data banks. However, peptides recovered by mass spectrometry corresponded to the de novo-assembled sequence by BLAST analysis. The composition and three-dimensional structure of ESV are presented, and its sequence is compared to those of other members of the birnavirus family. Although the virus was found to belong to the family Birnaviridae, biochemical and sequence information for ESV differed from that of DXV, the representative species of the genus Entomobirnavirus. Thus, significant differences underscore the uniqueness of this infectious agent, and its relationship to the coinfecting virus is discussed. PMID:22171264

  3. Survey for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the State of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Spolidorio, Mariana G.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Zago, Augusto M.; Donatele, Dirlei M.; Pinheiro, Sônia R.; Silveira, Iara; Caliari, Késia M.; Yoshinari, Natalino H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome. PMID:20595502

  4. Air pollution and its impacts on health in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; de Leon, Antonio Ponce; Juger, Washington; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity of children and adults in the city of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo. METHODS A study was carried out using time-series models via Poisson regression from hospitalization and pollutant data in Vitoria, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. Fine particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were tested as independent variables in simple and cumulative lags of up to five days. Temperature, humidity and variables indicating weekdays and city holidays were added as control variables in the models. RESULTS For each increment of 10 µg/m3 of the pollutants PM10, SO2, and O3, the percentage of relative risk (%RR) for hospitalizations due to total respiratory diseases increased 9.67 (95%CI 11.84-7.54), 6.98 (95%CI 9.98-4.17) and 1.93 (95%CI 2.95-0.93), respectively. We found %RR = 6.60 (95%CI 9.53-3.75), %RR = 5.19 (95%CI 9.01-1.5), and %RR = 3.68 (95%CI 5.07-2.31) for respiratory diseases in children under the age of five years for PM10, SO2, and O3, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases showed a significant relationship with O3, with %RR = 2.11 (95%CI 3.18-1.06). CONCLUSIONS Respiratory diseases presented a stronger and more consistent relationship with the pollutants researched in Vitoria. A better dose-response relationship was observed when using cumulative lags in polynomial distributed lag models. PMID:26982960

  5. Molecular Characterization of Noroviruses and HBGA from Infected Quilombola Children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L.; Ferreira, Mônica S. R.; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher’s exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n = 6), O (n = 6), and B (n = 2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se40, 171,216,357,428,739,960 were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le59, 202, 314 for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as

  6. The role of gravitational collapse in controlling the evolution of crestal fault systems (Espirito Santo Basin, SE Brazil) - Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Bell, Rebecca E.

    2017-05-01

    Ze and Alves (2016) use 3D seismic reflection data to describe the geometry and throw characteristics of a salt-related normal fault population in the Espirito Santo Basin, offshore SE Brazil. As part of their analysis they test two competing fault growth models; (i) the isolated model, which states that faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length, an inference seemingly consistent with displacement-length (D-L) scaling relationships (e.g. Watterson, 1986; Walsh and Watterson, 1988; Dawers et al., 1993; Cartwright et al., 1995; Dawers and Anders, 1995); and (ii) the constant-length model, which states that faults grow via establishment of their near-final length relatively early in their slip history, prior to the accumulation of significant displacement (Fig. 1) (e.g. Morewood and Roberts (1999); Morley, 2002; Walsh et al., 2002, 2003; Childs et al., 2003; Nicol et al., 2005; Schlagenhauf et al., 2008; Giba et al., 2012; Jackson and Rotevatn, 2013). Because they make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution and earthquake hazard potential of rifts, critically testing these models is important for structural geologists, geomorphologists and stratigraphers, amongst many others. However, in our view, such critical testing has rarely been undertaken, thus the study of Ze and Alves (2016) is most welcome.

  7. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, Espirito Santo, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Igor da Cunha Lima; Centoducatte, Luana D'Avila; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Marcili, Arlei; Gondim, Maria Fernanda Naegeli; Rossi, João Luiz; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The Reserve is one of the last lowland Atlantic Forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. The presence of IgG antibodies was determined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for T. gondii (cut-off 1:16) and N. caninum (cut-off 1:50). Positive samples were diluted 2-fold until the last positive dilution. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 77 (47.05%) dogs and antibodies to N. caninum in 22 dogs (11.76%) and one only dog was positive for both infections. No association between T. gondii and N. caninum infection and sex was observed (p>0.05). Control measures to prevent those infections in dogs that living surrounding the reserve and that had contact with wild animals are important to avoid the introduction of N. caninum in wild animals. This was the first study of frequency of occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in dogs from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  8. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-03

    This image, acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, shows Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, founded in 1496 Christopher Columbus, it is the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the Americas.

  9. Rainfall erosivity and rainfall return period in the experimental watershed of Aracruz, in the Coastal Plain of Espirito Santo, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The knowledge of the factors influencing water erosion is relevant to land management practices. Rainfall, expressed by rainfall erosivity, is very important among the factors affecting water erosion. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity and return period for the Coa...

  10. Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espírito Santo

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Patricia Lofego; da Penha Zago-Gomes, Maria; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonça, Ana Tereza; Gonçalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2±12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1%), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1%), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001) with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis) and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.052). CONCLUSION: Alcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis. PMID:23644846

  11. Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espírito Santo.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Patricia Lofego; Zago-Gomes, Maria da Penha; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonça, Ana Tereza; Gonçalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2013-01-01

    To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2 ± 12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1 %), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1 %), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001) with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis) and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.052). Alcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis.

  12. Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalea, Roger; Robertson, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Boaventura de Sousa Santos is Professor of Sociology, School of Economics, University of Coimbra and Distinguished Legal Scholar, Law School, University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is also director of the Center for Social Studies at the University of Coimbra. Santos is one of the outstanding theorists whose work is engaged with pressing social and…

  13. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  14. [Haitian migration to Santo Domingo].

    PubMed

    Latortue, P R

    1985-01-01

    This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has

  15. Interview to Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Manuela; Dietz, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    In this interview, Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos addresses, on the one hand, the process of transnationalisation of universities and the neoliberalisation of the classical model of the European university. On the other hand, he stresses that the recognition of difference and internal pluralism of science, which have pervaded the…

  16. Interview to Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Manuela; Dietz, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    In this interview, Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos addresses, on the one hand, the process of transnationalisation of universities and the neoliberalisation of the classical model of the European university. On the other hand, he stresses that the recognition of difference and internal pluralism of science, which have pervaded the…

  17. A survey of adulterants used to cut cocaine in samples seized in the Espírito Santo State by GC-MS allied to chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lindamara M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Santos, Heloá; Costa, Helber B; Merlo, Bianca B; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Poppi, Ronei J; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug of the central nervous system (CNS) extracted from the leaves of Erytroxylum coca. It is defined as a tropane alkaloid containing 1R-(exo,exo)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esther. However, despite its defined composition, a wide variety of chemical additives are present in cocaine found in the illicit market, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, caffeine, procaine and phenacetin. In this work, 512 cocaine samples seized by the Civil Police of Espirito Santo state (PC-ES, Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allied to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to classify the samples as a function of seizure year (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) and location (metropolitan, north, south and central). The cocaine content (wt.%) and its adulterants were also estimated. Analyzing the samples seized between 2008 and 2011, three sample sets are clearly grouped according to the degree of adulteration with caffeine and lidocaine: 100-50 wt.% of cocaine; 50-20 wt.% of cocaine; and 20-80 wt.% of lidocaine and 60-80 wt.% of caffeine, simultaneously. The last group is formed by samples seized between 2008 and 2009, which proves the higher degree of adulteration during this period. In 2012, higher cocaine content was observed for the 191 analyzed samples than in samples from previous years. The PCA data also suggests that the metropolitan region samples had a higher degree of adulteration than the state countryside samples. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Izabel dos Santos and the training of the health workers.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses the career of Izabel dos Santos (1927-2010) as a means of examining the connections between health schools and agendas in contemporary Brazil. The article highlights dos Santos's training and her work in the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP- Special Public Health Service), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and in the formulation and implementation of national training programs for human resources within the area of health from the late 1970s onwards. The article highlights dos Santos's central role in the formulation and implementation of training policies for health workers, especially nursing technicians and assistants, and demonstrates how she occupies an important place in the history of Brazilian public health.

  19. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic as seen from STS-60

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-09

    STS060-84-063 (3-11 Feb 1994) --- This is an excellent photograph of the coastal city of Santo Domingo on the Caribbean Sea. The airports including De las Americas International Airport are clearly seen. This photo illustrates the resolving power of the films. For example, two isolated smoke plumes are clearly seen each side of the city.

  20. SantosTM: A New Generation of Virtual Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Generation of Virtual Humans Jingzhou Yang, Tim Marler , HyungJoo Kim, Kimberly Farrell, Anith Mathai, Steven Beck, Karim Abdel-Malek and Jasbir Arora...2005-01-1407 SantosTM: A New Generation of Virtual Humans Jingzhou Yang, Tim Marler , HyungJoo Kim, Kimberly Farrell

  1. Santo Domingo School: A Rural Schoolwide Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    C de Baca, Mary Rose; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The schoolwide project option of the 1988 Hawkins Stafford Amendments to Chapter 1 allowed a rural school serving a disadvantaged Native American population to restructure its compensatory and regular education services. Santo Domingo school (New Mexico) illustrates the ways modifications of federal law and policy benefit children. (SLD)

  2. Continuous Mantle Exhumation at the Outer Continental Margin of the Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, P. V.; Severino, M. G.; Rigoti, C. A.; Magnavita, L. P.; Oliveira, J. B.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of 12,000 km of very deep (PSTM to 16 sec., PSDM to 25 km) 2D seismic sections, coupled with gravimetric and magnetometric modeling line-by-line, and the integration of the results with the regional data bank of Petrobras, all together viewed in terms of the recent tectonic models developed for the rupturing and separation of mega-plates, led to a regional (500,000 km2), first-time ever, 3D-view of the deep structure underlying the prolific sedimentary basins of Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil. The three basins are situated onto a continental margin that narrows gradually, from south to north, from a very wide (Santos), through an intermediate (Campos), and then to a narrow (Espírito Santo) passive margin. The seismic sections shows very well the dual rheological behavior of the continental crust, consisting of a deeper and plastic lower crust (with numerous short and strong reflections that display sub-horizontal ductile flow) and a shallower and brittle upper crust (represented by a mostly transparent and faulted seismic facies topped by the sedimentary sections of the rift and thermal subsidence phases). The crustal structure of the Santos Basin shows a zonation from west to east of alternating bands of NE-SW-trending thin (plastic basement terrains) and thick (resistant basement terrains) stretched continental crust. In vertical section this zonation is displayed as a series of necking zones, leading to a highly irregular, low to moderate crustal taper. Such zonation is less developed in the Campos Basin, where the crustal taper is moderate and regular, and practically non-existent in the Espírito Santo Basin, where the crustal taper is high. The most outstanding crustal feature shared in common by the three basins is the exhumation of mantle between the tip of the hyper-extended continental crust and the tabular-shaped oceanic crust. Although the crustal taper varies significantly from basin to basin their

  3. The Role of Rhetoric in the Judicial Opinion: The Rhetoric of Boaventura De Sousa Santos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    Boaventura De Sousa Santos, a Portuguese law professor, appears to be the first legal scholar and theorist who works with rhetorical theories and who is accepted by the legal profession. Santos's major works have centered on the legal system of Pasargada, a Brazilian favela (squatter village) whose residents try to settle disputes outside the…

  4. Other Worlds Are Possible: An Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Santos is a professor of Sociology at the University of Coimbra, where he is the director of the internationally renowned Centro de Estudos Sociais. He offers a rich vein of theoretical reflection and translation for language(s) and intercultural communication.

  5. The Role of Rhetoric in the Judicial Opinion: The Rhetoric of Boaventura De Sousa Santos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    Boaventura De Sousa Santos, a Portuguese law professor, appears to be the first legal scholar and theorist who works with rhetorical theories and who is accepted by the legal profession. Santos's major works have centered on the legal system of Pasargada, a Brazilian favela (squatter village) whose residents try to settle disputes outside the…

  6. Other Worlds Are Possible: An Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Santos is a professor of Sociology at the University of Coimbra, where he is the director of the internationally renowned Centro de Estudos Sociais. He offers a rich vein of theoretical reflection and translation for language(s) and intercultural communication.

  7. New species and records of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho; Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Salles, Frederico Falcão

    2017-06-01

    Two new species of the perlid genus Anacroneuria, A. rotunda n. sp and A. pitii n. sp are described from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Additionally, six species of Anacroneuria and four species of Kempnyia are reported for the first time from Espírito Santo State. Records are also provided for A. debilis, A. subcostalis, K. flava, K. gracilenta, and K. neotropica. An undetermined species of Macrogynoplax based on nymphs is also reported from Espírito Santo State.

  8. Forbidden therapies: Santo Daime, ayahuasca, and the prohibition of entheogens in Western society.

    PubMed

    Blainey, Marc G

    2015-02-01

    Santo Daime, a Brazilian religion organized around a potent psychoactive beverage called ayahuasca, is now being practiced across Europe and North America. Deeming ayahuasca a dangerous "hallucinogen," most Western governments prosecute people who participate in Santo Daime. On the contrary, members of Santo Daime (called "daimistas") consider ayahuasca a medicinal sacrament (or "entheogen"). Empirical studies corroborate daimistas' claim that entheogens are benign and can be beneficial when employed in controlled contexts. Following from anthropology's goal of rendering different cultural logics as mutually explicable, this article intercedes in a misunderstanding between policies of prohibition and an emergent subculture of entheogenic therapy.

  9. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Obón, C

    1995-05-01

    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic.

  10. HIV infection and risk behaviors among male port workers in Santos, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Larcerda, R; Stall, R; Gravato, N; Tellini, R; Hudes, E S; Hearst, N

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper measured the extent to which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has spread among the male working-class population of Santos, Brazil. METHODS. Questionnaires on risk behaviors and blood tests were administered to a random sample (n = 395) of male port workers employed by the Santos Port Authority. RESULTS. Although the rate of HIV infection among these men- the working-class male population of Santos-remains low (1.1%), self-reported behavioral risks for HIV infection are common. CONCLUSIONS. There is still time to prevent a widespread outbreak of HIV infection among the hetero-sexual population of Santos and of the transportation corridors emanating from that city. PMID:8712280

  11. Prevalence of Pediatric Asthma Risk in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wendy W; Gupta, Lipi; Andreae, Andrew E; Romutis, Kristin; Borda, Allison M; Sabu, Priya; McKenna, Sean; Ryan, Mark

    Early detection and treatment of pediatric asthma could reduce morbidity and lessen burden on society. Currently there is no known research on the prevalence of pediatric asthma in the Dominican Republic (DR) and no known asthma risk assessment tool for one-time encounters in a fast-paced clinic. To pilot a streamlined version of previously validated screening tools to estimate the prevalence of pediatric asthma risk in Santo Domingo Norte, DR. A combined asthma questionnaire and clinical assessment tool was developed and administered to patients aged 2-12 years. We found that 25.7% of the 74 study participants were categorized as probable asthma, 21.6% were at high risk for asthma, 14.9% elevated risk, and 37.8% not at risk. If the prevalence of 25.7% is representative of the DR as a whole, the DR would have one of the highest national rates in Latin America. The study assessment tool was convenient to use, but tool validation is needed. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Violence against women, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with psychological, physical and sexual violence in women victims of intimate partner violence assisted in the primary care services. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 26 health units in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, from March to September 2014. We interviewed 991 women aged 20-59 years. To classify the psychological, physical and sexual violence, the World Health Organization instrument on violence against women was used and a questionnaire to investigate the sociodemographic, behavioral characteristics, and the women’s family and life history was developed. The statistical analyzes used were Poisson regression, Fisher’s exact test and Chi-square. RESULTS The prevalence we observed were psychological 25.3% (95%CI 22.6–28.2); physical 9.9% (95%CI 8.1–11.9) and sexual 5.7% (95%CI 4.3–7.3). Psychological violence remained associated with education, marital status, maternal history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence in childhood and drug use, while physical assault was related to age, education, marital status and maternal history of intimate partner violence. Sexual violence occurred the most among women with low income, and victims of sexual violence in childhood. CONCLUSIONS Psychological, physical and sexual violence showed highly frequency among women assisted by primary care services. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors, personal experiences, and maternal violence influence the phenomenon. PMID:28423136

  13. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive development and cognitive evolution. Laurie R. Santos links many branches of psychological inquiry in her research, including animal behavior, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, judgment and decision making, and social psychology. In particular, her studies of biases, irrationalities, and errors- where rational decision making fails, rather than succeeds-are providing remarkable insights into how cognitive biases evolved and how decision making operates at a fundamental level. Her accomplishments beautifully illustrate the power of comparative studies of animal learning and behavior to help us understand the human mind. Santos' Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented here.

  14. Three new species of Bertolonia (Melastomataceae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, André M.; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We describe and illustrate three new species of Bertolonia, all endemic to the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Bertolonia duasbocaensis and B. macrocalyx occur close to each other, in the municipalities of Cariacica and Viana. Bertolonia ruschiana has a wider distribution, occurring in the municipalities of Santa Leopoldina, Santa Maria de Jetibá and Santa Teresa. The first two species are classified as critically endangered (CR), and the latter as endangered (EN). We also present an identification key for the species of Bertolonia that occur in Espírito Santo. PMID:28028482

  15. [The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].

    PubMed

    Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations.

  16. Control design of Santo Tome back-to-back HVDC link

    SciTech Connect

    Rostamkolai, N.; Wegner, C.A.; Piwko, R.J.; Elahi, H.; Eitzmann, M.A. ); Garzi, G.; Tietz, P. )

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the control design of the Santo tome' back-to-back HVDC link. The Santo Tome' HVDC converter will be the second dc link asynchronously connecting the Argentina and Brazil power systems. This paper focuses on the design of the reactive power control, automatic power control, load frequency control, power modulation control, automatic frequency control, and automatic synchronizing control functions of the 50 MW dc link. Time simulation and frequency domain results are included to illustrate the system response and verify the adequacy of the controllers performance in achieving stable operating conditions.

  17. Three new species of Bertolonia (Melastomataceae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Lucas F; Amorim, André M; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We describe and illustrate three new species of Bertolonia, all endemic to the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Bertolonia duasbocaensis and B. macrocalyx occur close to each other, in the municipalities of Cariacica and Viana. Bertolonia ruschiana has a wider distribution, occurring in the municipalities of Santa Leopoldina, Santa Maria de Jetibá and Santa Teresa. The first two species are classified as critically endangered (CR), and the latter as endangered (EN). We also present an identification key for the species of Bertolonia that occur in Espírito Santo.

  18. Violence against women, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2017-04-10

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with psychological, physical and sexual violence in women victims of intimate partner violence assisted in the primary care services. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 26 health units in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, from March to September 2014. We interviewed 991 women aged 20-59 years. To classify the psychological, physical and sexual violence, the World Health Organization instrument on violence against women was used and a questionnaire to investigate the sociodemographic, behavioral characteristics, and the women's family and life history was developed. The statistical analyzes used were Poisson regression, Fisher's exact test and Chi-square. The prevalence we observed were psychological 25.3% (95%CI 22.6-28.2); physical 9.9% (95%CI 8.1-11.9) and sexual 5.7% (95%CI 4.3-7.3). Psychological violence remained associated with education, marital status, maternal history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence in childhood and drug use, while physical assault was related to age, education, marital status and maternal history of intimate partner violence. Sexual violence occurred the most among women with low income, and victims of sexual violence in childhood. Psychological, physical and sexual violence showed highly frequency among women assisted by primary care services. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors, personal experiences, and maternal violence influence the phenomenon. Estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados às violências psicológica, física e sexual nas mulheres vítimas de violência perpetrada pelo parceiro íntimo atendidas nos serviços de atenção primária. Estudo transversal, realizado em 26 unidades de saúde do município de Vitória, no Espírito Santo, de março a setembro de 2014. Foram entrevistadas 991 usuárias de 20 a 59 anos. Para classificar as violências psicológica, física e sexual foi utilizado o instrumento da Organização Mundial de Sa

  19. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  20. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  1. Eosinophilic meningitis in a returned traveler from Santo Domingo: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Leone, Sebastiano; De Marco, Michele; Ghirga, Piero; Nicastri, Emanuele; Esposito, Mario; Narciso, Pasquale

    2007-01-01

    We describe one case of eosinophilic meningitis (EM) in a traveler returning from Santo Domingo, presumably caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Treatment with mebendazole and steroids was effective. The presence of persistent headache, fever, and eosinophilia in travelers who return from developing countries should alert clinicians to the possibility of EM.

  2. Mean sea-level rise impacts on Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazil--physical modelling study.

    PubMed

    Alfredini, Paolo; Arasaki, Emilia; do Amaral, Rogério Fernando

    2008-09-01

    The greenhouse effect and resulting increase in the Earth's temperature may accelerate the mean sea-level rise. The natural response of bays and estuaries to this rise, such as this case study of Santos Bay (Brazil), will include change in shoreline position, land flooding and wetlands impacts. The main impacts of this scenario were studied in a physical model built in the Coastal and Harbour Division of Hydraulic Laboratory, University of São Paulo, and the main conclusions are presented in this paper. The model reproduces near 1,000 km(2) of the study area, including Santos, São Vicente, Praia Grande, Cubatão, Guarujá and Bertioga cities.

  3. [The city of Santos and the expansion of Brazilian public health services in homeopathy].

    PubMed

    Justo, Célia Maria Patriani; Gomes, Mara H de Andréa

    2007-01-01

    In consonance with the principles of comprehensiveness, equity, and universality that underlie Brazil's sanitary reform and creation of its Unified Health System, some municipalities have begun offering homeopathy as a treatment option. The article explores the context in which homeopathic treatment was introduced and gained ground in the city of Santos, São Paulo, down through its incorporation as an alternative in the public healthcare network. Homeopathy was introduced in Santos not only by doctors and pharmacists but also by prescribing mediums from spiritist centers. The request that the municipality's primary-care services offer this alternative was possible thanks to the presence of all these players. The present analysis was based on interviews with the professionals who took part in the process, on technical reports, newspaper articles, and scientific journals, and on a book about the city's first spiritist society.

  4. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil).

    PubMed

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.

  5. Dental caries at Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil: An Early Holocene archaeological site.

    PubMed

    DA-Gloria, Pedro; Oliveira, Rodrigo E; Neves, Walter A

    2017-02-06

    The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses. The results show a high prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition (5.50%, n=327 teeth; 69.23%, n=13 individuals) compared to other samples of hunter-gatherers worldwide. In addition, dental caries in deciduous teeth start occurring as early as 3 to 4 years old, suggesting an early start to caries. Compared with other samples from Lagoa Santa, Lapa do Santo shows statistically similar prevalence of overall caries but different caries location pattern. We believe that a subsistence adaptation to a tropical environment rich in sources of carbohydrates, such as fruits, is the best explanation for the overall caries prevalence.

  6. Entropies of kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite: additional constraints on the pressure and temperature of the Al2SiO5 triple point.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The low-T heat capacities of kyanite (Minas Gerais, Brazil), andalusite (Espirito Santo, Brazil), and sillimanite (Reinbolt Hills, Antarctica) were measured with an automatic, adiabatically shielded calorimeter between approx 10 and 380 K. -J.A.Z.

  7. Complex intrasalt deformation in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil: the role of density inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Tim; Jackson, Chris; Jackson, Martin; Hudec, Mike; Rodriguez, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Understanding intrasalt structure may elucidate the fundamental kinematics and, ultimately, the mechanics of diapir growth. However, there have been relatively few studies of the internal structure of salt diapirs outside the mining industry because their cores are only partly exposed in the field and poorly imaged in seismic reflection data. 3D seismic reflection from the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil reveal enigmatic allochthonous salt sheets of older evaporites emplaced above an overlying stratified evaporite sequence. Seismic-stratigraphic observations form the basis for a kinematic model invoking: (i) initial inward flow and thickening of the lower mobile salt within the rising wall, and arching of stratified overburden; (ii) breaching of the overburden, ascent of mobile lower evaporites along single or multiple feeders, and emplacement of upper-wall sheets or canopies; and (iii) later diapir squeezing due to regional shortening. We designed and ran physical models to explain how and why these structures occur, and to provide a mechanical basis for our kinematic model. Our first two models simulated salt having uniform internal density, with walls growing by (i) initially symmetric differential loading; and (ii) initially symmetric differential loading plus shortening. These models reproduced anticlines and injection folds seen in the simpler deformed walls in the Santos Basin. However, neither model reproduced the most complex structures (e.g. allochthonous intrusions, steep feeders, recumbent synclines) seen within the Santos evaporites. Thus, we argue differential loading and shortening alone are insufficient to generate these complex structures. In our third model, a less-dense lower evaporite was overlain by denser upper evaporites, similar to the density structure found in Santos Basin wellbores. In this model the wall rose solely by differential loading, with the lower mobile unit breaching the overlying stratified evaporites to form vertical diapirs

  8. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7–12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1–9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26’s isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo’s inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. PMID:26397983

  9. Gravity and Seismic Investigations of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Boucher, C.; Novitsky, C. G.; O'Shea, P. M.; Daves, J.; Marzen, R.; Mendoza, K.; Rasmussen, T.; Wei, W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Claytor, J. M.; Bischoff, S. H.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Corredor, A.

    2014-12-01

    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new gravity, seismic, electromagnetic and down-hole temperature data in 2014 in the Santo Domingo Basin and adjacent areas of the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) area of northern New Mexico. The SAGE 2014 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2010 and adds data and interpretations to a W to E transect of the RGR. The transect includes previous SAGE seismic refraction and CMP reflection profiles recorded in 2010 and 2011, some industry seismic reflection data, and detailed gravity observations. Seismic data consisted of a 4.8 km NW to SE profile (120 three-component stations in four overlapping deployments, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) along the Borrego Canyon road with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. About 50,000 seismograms were recorded. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated sediments) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of reflection arrivals although some wide-angle reflections with two-way times as great as 1.8 s were visible. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods and mainly helped identify the velocity and minimum thickness of the Tertiary Santa Fe group sedimentary rocks in the Santo Domingo Basin. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data along the transect was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. Gravity modeling, with significant control on depths of interfaces and densities from the seismic and drill hole data, indicates that the Santo Domingo sedimentary basin has a total depth of about 6 km.

  10. The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System: From R&D to Operational Regional Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rocha Fragoso, M.; Moore, A. M.; dos Santos, F. A.; Marques Da Cruz, L.; Carvalho, G. V.; Soares, F.

    2016-02-01

    Santos Basin is located on the Southwestern Brazilian Ocean Basin and comprises the main offshore oil reserves of Brazil. The exploration and production activities on its ocean are growing in accelerated pace, which means that oil spill contingency and search & rescue operations are likely to be more frequent. Therefore, ocean current reliable nowcasts and forecasts has become even more important for this region. The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System was designed as an R&D project and its main objective was to establish and maintain a systematic oceanographic data collection for this region in order to study its ocean dynamics and improve regional ocean forecast through data assimilation. In the first three years of the project surface drifters, profiling floats and gliders were deployed to measure and monitor mainly the Brazil Current Western Boundary System, a highly unstable baroclinic current system, that present several meanders and mesoscale eddies activities. Throughout the development of the project, the team involved was able to learn how to operate the equipment, treat the collected data and use it to assimilate on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). After performing a one-year 4DVAR assimilation cycle (Fragoso et al., 2015) in which the forecasting skill was assessed, the system was considered mature enough to start producing ocean circulation forecasts for Santos Basin. It is the first time in Brazil that a regional ocean model using a 4DVAR data assimilation scheme was used to produce high resolution operational ocean current forecasts. This paper describes all the components of this forecasting system, its main results and discoveries with special focus on the Brazil Current System Transport and mesocale eddies dynamics and statistics.

  11. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  12. Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Los Santos, Panama, 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bayard, Vicente; Barria, Eduardo O.; Ruedas, Luis A.; Tinnin, David S.; Muñoz, Carlos; de Mosca, Itza B.; Guerrero, Gladys; Kant, Rudick; Garcia, Arsenio; Caceres, Lorenzo; Gracia, Fernando G.; Quiroz, Evelia; de Castillo, Zoila; Armien, Blas; Libel, Marlo; Mills, James N.; Khan, Ali S.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Peters, Clarence J.

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in the province of Los Santos, Panama, in late 1999 and early 2000. Eleven cases were identified; 9 were confirmed by serology. Three cases were fatal; however, no confirmed case-patient died. Case-neighborhood serologic surveys resulted in an overall hantavirus antibody prevalence of 13% among household and neighborhood members from the outbreak foci. Epidemiologic investigations did not suggest person-to-person transmission of hantavirus infection. By use of Sin Nombre virus antigen, hantavirus antibodies were detected in Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda cherriei. This outbreak resulted in the first documented cases of human hantavirus infections in Central America. PMID:15498167

  13. [Caregivers of alcohol addicted patients in the city of Santos, SP, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Elizama Cabral Vasconcelos Dos; Martin, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study is to assess the meaning of alcoholism to alcoholic's patient's caregivers. Fieldwork involved comprehensive ethnographic observation and in depth interviews with ten female caregivers of alcoholic patients undergoing treatment in health mental care in Santos. The study showed that family relationships were unstable and conflicting. It was difficult to recognize addiction. Women accepted addiction as illness when the patient was hospitalized. Addiction to alcohol had been hidden by social value of intake and by unequal gender relationships. There has been a social restraint of the caregivers. Women have assumed the care and were organizers of an unstable and painful everyday life.

  14. Cytherellid species (Ostracoda) and their significance to the Late Quaternary events in the Santos Basin, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergue, C.T.; Coimbra, J.C.; Cronin, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Four autochthonous cytherellid species (Cytherella serratula (BRADY, 1880), C. hermargentina WHATLEY et al. 1998, C. pleistocenica sp. nov. and C. santosensis sp. nov.) have been identified from two offshore cores (44 samples) within the Santos Basin. The distribution of these ostracodes is controlled by local hydrological conditions such as the temperature and, possibly, the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, these factors cannot explain completely the species occurrence in the analysed cores, and relative sea level changes and productivity variation driven by climatic changes are proposed as additional explanations for the faunal distribution pattern. ?? E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Na??gele u. Obermiller), 2007.

  15. Two new species of Tornidae (Caenogastropoda, Rissooidea) from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simone, Luiz Ricardo L

    2012-01-01

    Two new species of shallow water Tornidae are found in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, formally described herein. They belong to a complex group of tiny gastropods, in such the taxonomy is very confused. Cyclostremiscus mohicanussp. n. is characterized by three well-developed spiral, equidistant carinas, working as base of three series of tall, aligned periostracal rods. Episcinia itanhunasp. n. has as single sculpture a series of pustules in periphery, but the periostracum bears three series of peripheral fringes with irregular rods. The new species are compared with the allies, showing a close relation with Caribbean fauna, but possessing worthy differences. These similarities have raised misidentifications.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Oral Health on the Santo Domingo Pueblo Reservation.

    PubMed

    Batliner, Terrence; Wilson, Anne; Davis, Elaine; Gallegos, Joaquin; Thomas, Jacob; Tiwari, Tamanna; Fehringer, Karen; Wilson, Katherine; Albino, Judith

    2016-06-01

    The study was done to compare oral health data from a tribe in a relatively accessible location between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico to national American Indian data and broader US data sets. Participants (N = 399) were recruited via random sampling of housing units. Dental health measures included DMFT/dmft and dental sealants. Comparisons were made using data from large-scale oral health surveillance studies. There was no difference in oral health for 3-5 year olds compared to a recent study of AI/AN preschool children. Compared to the general US population, Santo Domingo Pueblo children and adults showed higher prevalence of untreated decay. Children ages 5-19 had higher rates of sealant retention on permanent teeth, and adults showed lower prevalence of complete tooth retention. The children ages 5-19 and 12-19 with at least one sealant have significantly lower DMFT and less untreated decay than those without sealants. However, the percentage of children with and without sealants who had untreated decay was still more than two times higher than the general US population. Oral health of American Indian children and adults in Santo Domingo Pueblo was worse compared to the general US population but similar to previous results reported for the same Indian Health Service Area even though their location is less isolated than many other tribes.

  17. Phylogenetic characterization of Dengue virus type 2 in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, the Espírito Santo State, Brazil has become an endemic Dengue fever location with annual outbreaks of varying magnitude. It is still unclear which geographical route allowed the virus entry in the state and how it has genetically changed since then. Therefore we have set out to study the local molecular constitution of the virus and determine phylogenetic similarities and differences with other Brazilian locations, as well as locations worldwide. Viral envelope genes were partially sequenced from Dengue patients during the 2009 epidemic. We were able to determine that local strains were of American/Asian genotype and closely related to viruses circulating in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states during the 2007, 2008 and 2009 epidemics. Genetic divergence analysis showed that the American/Asian genotype is evolutionarily closer to the Asian II genotype and distant from the Sylvatic genotype. Sequenced strains were not 100% similar and showed a high evolutionary conservation of the fusion peptide in the dimerization domain of E protein. This is the first molecular description of circulating Dengue virus strains in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil and should help monitor and control local Dengue outbreaks.

  18. A 4D-variational ocean data assimilation application for Santos Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha Fragoso, Mauricio; de Carvalho, Gabriel Vieira; Soares, Felipe Lobo Mendes; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Toste, Raquel; Sancho, Lívia Maria Barbosa; Passos, Elisa Nóbrega; Böck, Carina Stefoni; Reis, Bruna; Landau, Luiz; Arango, Hernan G.; Moore, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to achieve systematic ocean forecasting for the southeastern Brazilian coast, an incremental 4D-Var data assimilation system is applied to a regional ocean model focused mainly in the Santos Basin region. This implementation is performed within the scope of The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System (or Project Azul), a pilot project designed to collect oceanographic data with enough frequency and spatial coverage so to improve regional forecasts through data assimilation. The ocean modeling and data assimilation system of Project Azul is performed with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The observations used in the assimilation cycles include the following: 1-day gridded, 0.1° resolution SST from POES AVHRR; 1-day gridded, 0.3° composite of the MDT SSH from AVISO; and surface and subsurface hydrographic measurements of temperature and salinity collected with gliders and ARGO floats from Project Azul and from UK Met-Office EN3 project dataset. The assimilative model results are compared to forward model results and independent observations, both from remote sensing and in situ sources. The results clearly show that 4D-Var data assimilation leads to an improvement in the skill of ocean hindcast in the studied region.

  19. 212 Allergic Sensitization to Domestic Mites in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Antonio; Muñoz, William; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of mites sensitization in Santo Domingo. Methods One hundred consecutive patients (52 males and 48 females, mean age 30.3 years; 4–68) with asthma and /or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were skin tested with 9 commercial extracts of mites of the following species: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, B. kulagini, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Glycyphagus domesticus and Chortoglyphus arcuatus. A skin test was considered positive when the wheal was > 3 mm with erythema. Conventional exclusion criteria were used, in order to avoid masking a skin reaction. Results A positive skin test to any of the mites tested was detected in 98% of the patients; Dermatophagoides spp. was positive in 89% of the patients; 15% were exclusively positive to Dermatophagoides spp; 87% reacted to Blomia spp. and 3% were exclusively positive to Blomia tropicalis spp; 80% were sensitized to 3 or more specie. Conclusions The allergy sensitization to domestic mites in Santo Domingo is high. Sensitization to several species is very common. B. tropicalis is an important species in this region. With these results we could extrapolate that immunotherapy with only Dermatophagoides species could not be enough achieve clinical improvement in mite allergic patients. Other species, such as B. tropicalis may be needed.

  20. Migration Patterns, Densities, and Growth of Neritina punctulata Snails in Rio Espiritu Santo and Rio Mameyes, Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    MARK PYRON; ALAN P. COVICH

    2003-01-01

    Snail size-frequency distributions in Rios Espiritu Santo and Mameyes, which drain the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, showed that Neritina punctulata with shell lengths greater than 30 mm were the most abundant size class at upstream sites. The highest densities for all size classes were at the downstream sites. Growth rates were 0.015 mm/day for a large...

  1. Two new species of Ectobiidae (Blattaria) collected in the Santa Lúcia Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, S M; de Oliveira, E H; Assumpção, M

    2012-12-01

    This contribution describes and illustrates the male genitalia of two new species of Ectobiidae belonging to Pseudophyllodromiinae, Chorisoneura Brunner von Wattenwyl, and Blattellinae, Xestoblatta Hebard. Both species were collected in the Santa Lúcia Biological Reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  2. [Lead poisoning: Zinc protoporphyrin in blood of children from Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F M; Neto, A M; Peres, M F; Gonçalves, H R; Guimarães, G C; Amorim, C J; Silva, J A; Tavares, T M

    1996-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study has investigated lead poisoning among all the 101 children aged 1 to 5 years, living at less then 500 m from a lead smelter which has been operating since 1960 in Santo Amaro da Purificação, State of Bahia, Brazil. Lead poisoning was evaluated by determining the concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in whole blood. Results were compared with those obtained from 98 children of the same age range, in a nursery from Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. In Santo Amaro, ZPP geometric mean was 65.5 mg/dl (geometric S.D. = 1.7), much higher, therefore, than the normal threshold of 30 microg/dl recommended by the CDC-USA. A child was excluded from statistical analyses because of very high ZPP level: 789 mg/dl. In Salvador, ZPP geometric mean was 31.0 mg/dl (geometric SD = 1.6). "Extremely elevated" ZPP levels (above 156 mg/dl) were observed in 8% of the children from Santo Amaro and in none (0%) of the children from Salvador, this statistical difference being highly significant. Anaemia was present among 35.0% of the children from Santo Amaro and among 25.5% of those from Salvador. One year-old children showed the highest levels of ZPP and anaemia. No marked statistical association was found between ZPP levels and anaemia. Lead contamination of this children population remained in a permanently high level during, at least, the period from 1980 to 1992. In December, 1993 the lead smelter has definitively ceased its industrial activities in Santo Amaro da Purificação.

  3. HIV type 1 diversity from newly diagnosed patients in Santos metropolitan area/Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sa-Filho, Dercy José; Ambar, Rafael Favero; Duarte, Natalia Brenneken; Matias, Rafael Bragança Rodrigues; Candido, Valéria; Gagliani, Luiz Henrique; Caseiro, Marcos Montani

    2009-09-01

    HIV-1 from infected subjects has been characterized in order to provide a more accurate view of the strains that are currently found in a given region. In this report, we focused on characterizing the pol gene diversity obtained from newly diagnosed patients in Santos metropolitan area, Brazil. This region is composed of nine cities and an international port. Analysis of the 33 samples revealed that 22 strains belonged to subtype B, 4 to subtype F, and 2 to subtype C; 5 strains were B/F recombinants. Our results demonstrated that 18.2% of samples were primary antiretroviral resistance genotypic mutations, with high-level resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors in both subtypes B and F and in recombinant forms B/F. Our data revealed that the primary antiretroviral resistance genotypic mutations should be carefully investigated in developing countries with widespread access to antiretrovirals, such as Brazil.

  4. Metal concentration in muscle of two species of flatfish from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, M. L. F.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Santos, C. E. I.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metals in muscles of two species of flatfish, using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Specimens were caught monthly throughout the year 2005. Sampling was done at six points in the Santos Bay under different anthropogenic influences. Analysis of 56 samples of muscle showed detectable amounts of Al, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Sr, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se and Zn. Except Cu, there were no correlations with the levels of sediment contamination by metals and those found in muscles. Moreover, there were significant differences between juveniles and adults concerning the concentration of Al, Mn and As. According to Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, some elements detected in the samples of muscle were above of permitted by law for consumption: Hg and Pb (in samples from the internal area), As (from the west side) and Se and Cr (from east side of the bay).

  5. [The Hospital Real de Todos-os-Santos and its healing agents].

    PubMed

    Silva, Priscila Aquino

    2015-12-01

    The article explores the actions of king Dom João II (1481-1495), who spearheaded a major assistance reform in Portugal during the late fifteenth century, when charitable institutions were grappling with a serious crisis. The king and his queen, Dona Leonor, ordered two large, modern hospitals to be built, centralizing assistance work and cementing a new assistance model. Relying on chronicles and royal decrees from the period, the article focuses on the main hospital that was built then: Hospital Real de Todos-os-Santos, located in Lisbon. The king and queen also intervened heavily in the practice of health agents by regulating, overseeing, and inspecting the work of doctors and apothecaries.

  6. Fundamental measure theory for the inhomogeneous hard-sphere system based on Santos' consistent free energy.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Mortazavifar, Mostafa; Oettel, Martin; Roth, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Based on Santos' general solution for the scaled-particle differential equation [Phys. Rev. E 86, 040102(R) (2012)], we construct a free-energy functional for the hard-sphere system. The functional is obtained by a suitable generalization and extension of the set of scaled-particle variables using the weighted densities from Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory for the hard-sphere mixture [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 980 (1989)]. While our general result applies to the hard-sphere mixture, we specify remaining degrees of freedom by requiring the functional to comply with known properties of the pure hard-sphere system. Both for mixtures and pure systems, the functional can be systematically extended following the lines of our derivation. We test the resulting functionals regarding their behavior upon dimensional reduction of the fluid as well as their ability to accurately describe the hard-sphere crystal and the liquid-solid transition.

  7. Gravity and Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Santo Domingo Basin, Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, K. D.; Keithline, N.; Blum, C.; Cunningham, E.; Fromont, A.; Jorgensen, M.; Lee, R.; McBride, K.; Saez Berrios, P.; Harper, C.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Santo Domingo Basin, one of a series of basins within the Rio Grande Rift, is located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, NM, and has been the focus of research by the Summer of Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program since 2000. Gravity, magnetotelluric (MT), and seismic data have been collected throughout the region, although we are concentrating on gravity and MT data collected during SAGE 2014 and 2015. The study area is located in the center of the Santo Domingo basin, an extensional, Miocene age, rift basin, in an area that was minimally involved in the preceding local Laramide orogenic activity. Rift sediments (~3.5 km thick) are underlain by Eocene age sediments that were shed from adjacent uplifts. Up to 3 km of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are preserved above the Precambrian basement. Geologic outcrop, borehole and seismic reflection data, and known density values were used in the construction of a ~100 km-long, generalized geologic cross section from which a gravity response was calculated. The modeled gravity response makes fairly definitive predictions about the geometry of the basin as well as the stratigraphy and faulting within and bounding the basin. MT data was collected at ten stations within the basin. The MT sounding curves exhibit one-dimensional behavior at short periods (<10 s), not surprisingly considering the relatively flat local structure in the area. Layered-earth MT models, without geologic constraints, show a conductive (<10 ohm-m) layer at ~1.5 km above a more resistive layer (>1000 ohm-m) at ~ 3.5-4 km. Conductivities of the major stratigraphic units have been determined from well logs and previous MT modeling. Forward and inverse MT models constrained by the gravity-modeled geologic cross section are used to develop a conductivity model consistent with the geology, and are a step towards a better unified treatment of MT, seismic and gravity data.

  8. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  9. Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Emerich, Tatiana Breder; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; dos Santos-Neto, Edson Theodoro; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs) via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value) and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media. Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011-2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists' reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics. Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms. Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing various realities. Therefore, we propose that the health

  10. Clinical manifestations of chikungunya among university professors and staff in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Zingman, Michael A; Paulino, Amarilis Then; Payano, Matilde Peguero

    2017-08-21

    To further characterize chikungunya virus infection and its associated clinical manifestations, using a sample of university professors and staff in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic. A cross-sectional study with quota sampling by department was performed to obtain a convenience sample of professors (n = 736) and staff (n = 499) at the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo. Surveys were used to collect demographic and infection data during the fall term of 2014. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out to quantify infection and clinical manifestation prevalence and to assess relationships of these outcomes with age, sex, and acute phase duration. Of 1 236 participants, 49% reported infection (professors = 41%; staff = 61%). Of these, 53% also reported the presence of chronic effects, largely arthralgia (48%). Significant relationships were observed between reported infection and sex (P = 0.023), age (P < 0.001), and occupation (P < 0.001). More headache (P = 0.008) and edema (P < 0.001) in females, more headache (P = 0.005) in younger subjects, and more myalgia (P = 0.006) in those with longer acute symptoms were found. Additionally, more chronic arthralgia (P < 0.001; P = 0.003) and chronic edema (P < 0.001; P = 0.001) in females and older subjects, and more chronic myalgia (P = 0.041) and chronic edema (P = 0.037) in those with longer acute symptoms were observed. To the authors knowledge, this is the first population-based chikungunya prevalence study in the Dominican Republic, and the first to explore clinical manifestations in a university setting. The findings reflect results from studies following the 2005 - 2006 Reunion Island outbreak: prevalence of infection and chronic arthralgia, as well as associations with sex, age, and acute intensity. Longitudinal research can provide further insight into these effects.

  11. Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs) via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value) and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media. Methodology Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011–2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists’ reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics. Principal Findings Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms. Conclusions Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing

  12. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fregona, Geisa; Cosme, Lorrayne Belique; Moreira, Cláudia Maria Marques; Bussular, José Luis; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-04-27

    To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis - from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24-14.05) and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81-8.43)], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98-7.79), and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15-8.99). The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo. Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à tuberculose resistente

  13. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): sources and depositional history.

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Mahiques, Michel M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Tessler, Moyses G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2011-01-01

    Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatão industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  16. Comment on: "Possible source of ancient carbon in phytolith concentrates from harvested grasses" by G. M. Santos et al. (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, L. A.; Parr, J. F.

    2012-10-01

    Santos et al. (2012) address the important issue that 14C dating of the carbon occluded in silica phytoliths (PhytOC) isolated from contemporary plant materials can produce ages that are incompatible, being often several kyr older, with both their known recent origin and the 14C age of the bulk plant material. In their article, Santos et al. (2012) propose that the anomalously old 14C carbon dates of PhytOC from harvested plant materials are based on plants taking up "old" dissolved soil carbon to the plant by roots during nutrient uptake. They then propose that this old soil-derived carbon is subsequently partitioned from the general plant biomass into either the silica phytoliths they produce, or as recalcitrant organic matter elsewhere in the plant. We suggest that the full data available for PhytOC 14C dating does not support this hypothesis. Santos et al. (2012) also address the important issue of contamination of PhytOC by general plant biomass material that can occur with procedures that incompletely extract phytoliths. Whilst we agree that such contamination needs to be avoided when examining the nature of PhytOC, we also point out that the converse problem, i.e. removal of PhytOC by over-vigorous extraction procedures, can also have important adverse consequences.

  17. Comment on "Possible source of ancient carbon in phytolith concentrates from harvested grasses" by G. M. Santos et al. (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, L. A.; Parr, J. F.

    2013-02-01

    Santos et al. (2012) address the important issue that 14C dating of the carbon occluded in silica phytoliths (PhytOC) isolated from contemporary plant materials can produce ages that are incompatible, being often several kyr older, with both their known recent origin and the 14C age of the bulk plant material. In their article, Santos et al. (2012) propose that the anomalously old 14C carbon dates of PhytOC from harvested plant materials are based on plants taking up "old" dissolved soil carbon to the plant by roots during nutrient uptake. They then propose that this old soil-derived carbon is subsequently partitioned from the general plant biomass into either the silica phytoliths they produce or as recalcitrant organic matter elsewhere in the plant. We suggest that the full data available for PhytOC 14C dating do not support this hypothesis. Santos et al. (2012) also address the important issue of contamination of PhytOC by general plant biomass material that can occur with procedures that incompletely extract phytoliths. Whilst we agree that such contamination needs to be avoided when examining the nature of PhytOC, we also point out that the converse problem, i.e. removal of PhytOC by over-vigorous extraction procedures, can also have important adverse consequences.

  18. Human sporotrichosis beyond the epidemic front reveals classical transmission types in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Mariceli L; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Fernandes, Geisa F; de Camargo, Zoilo P; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-08-01

    Sporotrichosis has emerged as the main subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals around the world. With particular differences in frequency, the major species includes Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. In Brazil, the main aspect of this epidemic is based on the zoonotic transmission through the scratches and bites of diseased cats contaminated with S. brasiliensis. Areas free of feline sporotrichosis are poorly characterised in Brazil. We investigated by molecular tools the epidemiology of human sporotrichosis in the Espírito Santo (ES) state, an area adjacent to Rio de Janeiro where is the epicentre of the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. The human cases in the ES state reveal the prevalence of classical transmission types where subjects are mainly infected by accidental traumatic inoculation during manipulation of contaminated plant material. In agreement with an environmental source, Sporothrix schenckii was the major aetiological agent in the classical transmission. Unlike Rio de Janeiro, this study shows that cat-transmitted epidemic in Espírito Santo is still scanty, although the geographic proximity and similar climatic features. Sporothrix brasiliensis was the agent in the feline-transmitted cases. Sporothrix globosa was isolated from a patient with fixed cutaneous lesions that did not report any contact with diseased animals. In conclusion, beyond the borders of Rio de Janeiro epidemic, agents of sporotrichosis in Espírito Santo show a scattered occurrence with high species diversity.

  19. Geology and mineralogy of the Santo Nino Ag-Pb-Zn vein, Fresnillo District, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, J.B.; Zantop, H.; Birnie, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Santo Nino Ag-Pb-Zn vein is the major producer of the Fresnillo District, located 750 km NW of Mexico City. It is over 2.4 km long, more than 480 m in vertical extent, more than 2.5 m wide overall, and has average grades of >600 gm/t Ag and <2% combined Pb and Zn. The vein is hosted by a tilted sequence of Cretaceous graywackes, shales and andesitic volcanics and extends upward into a Lower Tertiary conglomerate. Up to 5 separate opening events occurred along the vein, resulting in discontinuous stages of brecciation and crustiform banding. Ore mineral zonation is well developed both vertically and laterally and closely reflects metal and metal ratio distributions. Ore minerals are sphalerite, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, acanthite, native silver, and three coexisting solid solution series, pyrargyrite-proustite, polybasite-arsenopolybasite, and tetrahedrite-tennantite in a gangue of quartz, calcite, clay, sericite,and chlorite. A 5-stage paragenetic sequence can be established: 1) pyrite, arsenopyrite, quartz, 2) sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, quartz, 3) tetrahedrite, pyrargyrite, polybasite, quartz, 4) acanthite, native silver, calcite, quartz, and 5) calcite. Preliminary microprobe analyses indicate that the Ag-rich solid solution series are Sb-rich in the central and upper portions of the vein and As-rich at deeper levels.

  20. [Psychoactive substance use among Espírito Santo Federal University odontology students].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renata Frossard; Souza, Renata Santos de; Buaiz, Vitor; Siqueira, Marluce Miguel de

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to trace the psychoactive substance use profile among odontology college students from the Espírito Santo Federal University Health Sciences Center. It is an explorative, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study developed with first to last year college students of the odontology course. The instrument used for data collection was an adaptation of one proposed by WHO and developed by WHO - Research and Reporting Project on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Data were listed and analyzed through the Statistical Package Program for the Social Science. The results showed that 60.3% colleges student are female, 48.9% age between 20 and 22 years, 41.3% and 43.7% belong to A and B social class, respectively. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs use reported at least once in lifetime was 72.4% except for alcohol and tobacco; 25.9% used inhaled drugs, 13.2% marijuana, 10.9% amphetamines , 27% tobacco and 87.9% alcohol. It could be concluded that is necessary to prevent improper drug use among college students by inserting this subject on the college curriculum as well as establishing drug use prevention programs for students.

  1. Prevention of diarrhoea in a poor District of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: practices, knowledge, and barriers.

    PubMed

    McLennan, J D

    2000-06-01

    The study, conducted in a poor periurban community of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, assessed the practices, knowledge, and barriers relating to prevention of diarrhoea. A total of 582 caregivers of children, aged less than 5 years, were systematically sampled from four barrios. Results of the study showed that 55% of the caregivers did not boil drinking water for children; 38% did not always wash hands of the children prior to meals; 87% of the children did not always wear shoes outside their house; and 54% were breastfed for less than one year. Biomedical knowledge about these practices was high among the caregivers, and was not related to the reported behaviours. However, several barriers were significantly related to practices, including lapse in caregiving, limited resources, erroneous beliefs, and non-compliance by children. Health education, based on a biomedical knowledge-deficit model, may have little impact on improving the diarrhoea-prevention practices in these communities. Greater attention should, therefore, be directed toward the barriers experienced by caregivers of children.

  2. Inorganic As speciation and bioavailability in estuarine sediments of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hatje, V; Macedo, S M; de Jesus, R M; Cotrim, G; Garcia, K S; de Queiroz, A F; Ferreira, S L C

    2010-12-01

    The spatial distribution of As (total As, As (III) and As (V)) in estuarine sediments from the main tributaries of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil, was evaluated under high and low flow conditions. The concentrations of As were determined using a slurry sampling procedure with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The highest concentrations were observed at estuary mouths, and exceeded conservative lower threshold value (Threshold Effects Level; TEL). Due to the oxic conditions and abundance of Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides in the sediments, most inorganic arsenic in the Subaé and Paraguaçu estuaries was present as As (V). Nevertheless, the concentration of As (III) at several locations along the Jaguaripe River were also above the TEL value, suggesting that As may be toxic to biota. In the Subaé estuary, antropogenic activities are the main source of As. At the Jaguaripe and at Paraguaçu estuaries, nevertheless, natural sources of As need to be considered to explain the distribution patterns.

  3. Enrichment Factors (EF) on Superficial Sediments of Santos Estuarine System, Southeasthern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. S. M.; Salaroli, A. B.; Mahiques, M.; Figueira, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Baixada Santista, located at southeastern Brazilian coast, hosts the largest harbor of South America, it is also the third most heavily populated region in São Paulo state. Many industries and domestic sewage have been contaminating the environment with heavy metals and arsenic since industrial revolution. This has been a major concern worldwide due to its toxicity and persistence. Levels of metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sc, V) and As were determinated on 180 samples of surface sediments, by acid digestion and quantified by ICP-OES to assess enrichment factors in order to know the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. The levels of metals indicated absence of contamination, but a higher enrichment of As (approximately 9.5) near Bertioga city. Ni and Cr had values between 0.5 - 2.0, Cu and Zn between 0.6 - 4.0 and 0.9 - 7.5 for Pb. Despite As, all others metals showed higher enrichment in Santos - São Vicente Estuary, especially near Cubatão. The analysis of the enrichment factor of As indicate that these values could be due to natural processes of weathering and sedimentation, meanwhile the other metals could be from antropogenic sources, since thoses values were found near industrial area.

  4. Trace elements in muscle of three fish species from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, William Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an analysis was performed on the concentrations of the trace elements Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in muscle of two carnivorous and one planktivorous fish species collected at Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The accumulation order of the trace elements in Lutjanus analis was Al >Zn >Fe >Cr >Ba >Ni. In Cetengraulis edentulus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >As. In the species Diapterus rhombeus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >Cd. To determine the risk related to the consumption of fish, toxicity guidelines were used as standard references. It was observed that the species C. edentulus contained concentrations of As exceeding WHO limits, but these concentrations were acceptable according to the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) guidelines. Cd levels were found only in D. rhombeus and in low concentrations according to the determinations of WHO and ANVISA. Pb levels were not detected in any of the three fish species. The analyzed elements did not differ statistically according to the species and feeding habits. The results point to possible risks of human contamination by As related to the consumption of the fish species C. edentulus from the BTS.

  5. Conceptions of health, illness and treatment of patients who use homeopathy in Santos, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Patriani Justo, C M; Dé Andrea Gomes, Mara H

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the conceptions of health and illness, the reasons for seeking homeopathy and continuing treatment, compliance and the meaning of the relationship between religiosity and health for patients who adhere to homeopathy. A qualitative study of 20 adult patients in Santos (Brazil) treated by homeopaths in the public and private sector for at least 2 years. Semi-structured interviews, organized by predefined thematic categories, the content of the interviews was analyzed. The conceptions of health and illness of the interviewed patients are related to the idea of vital balance/imbalance mediated by body-mind interaction. Dissatisfaction with conventional treatment, family influence and suggestions of others were the reasons for seeking homeopathic treatment. Patients continued homeopathic treatment due to positive therapeutic results, cure without being aggressive to the organism, the holistic integrated approach, the preventive nature of the treatment and low prices of medicine. For these patients, the availability of homeopathy in the public health sector extends the possibility of access. The need for a wider dissemination of homeopathy and the difficulties in following the prescription are the main problems involved in continuing treatment. Faith is an important component. We found a correlation between the conceptions of health and illness and the principles of homeopathy, assimilated through a strong bond between patients and the homeopathic practitioners. To investigate the beliefs, values and meanings that patients attribute to homeopathy helps to understand subjective aspects that may interfere with treatment compliance.

  6. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.

  7. Dynamic changes in microbiota and mycobiota during spontaneous 'Vino Santo Trentino' fermentation.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Cavazza, Agostino; Franciosi, Elena; De Filippo, Carlotta; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-03-01

    Vino Santo is a sweet wine produced from late harvesting and pressing of Nosiola grapes in a small, well-defined geographical area in the Italian Alps. We used metagenomics to characterize the dynamics of microbial communities in the products of three wineries, resulting from spontaneous fermentation with almost the same timing and procedure. Comparing fermentation dynamics and grape microbial composition, we show a rapid increase in a small number of wine yeast species, with a parallel decrease in complexity. Despite the application of similar protocols, slight changes in the procedures led to significant differences in the microbiota in the three cases of fermentation: (i) fungal content of the must varied significantly in the different wineries, (ii) Pichia membranifaciens persisted in only one of the wineries, (iii) one fermentation was characterized by the balanced presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora osmophila during the later phases. We suggest the existence of a highly winery-specific 'microbial-terroir' contributing significantly to the final product rather than a regional 'terroir'. Analysis of changes in abundance during fermentation showed evident correlations between different species, suggesting that fermentation is the result of a continuum of interaction between different species and physical-chemical parameters. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. La vida normal: living with HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Clare; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ureña, Francisco I Cáceres; Brudney, Karen

    2017-05-18

    In this study, we explore how individuals living with HIV in the Dominican Republic strive to live a 'normal' life and the consequences of this pursuit of normalcy. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with men (n = 20) and women (n = 20) living with HIV and receiving care at two urban clinics in Santo Domingo. We analysed the data using a combination of narrative analysis and thematic coding. We aimed to identify how fears and/or lived experiences with social rejection and HIV-related stigma and discrimination shaped participants' abilities to maintain social relationships, be economically productive and manage HIV within the context of sexual relationships. Participants used the discourse of una vida normal (a normal life) to frame their response to HIV. This pursuit of normality was driven by the social and economic pressures of living with a chronic condition in a context of HIV-related stigma; trying to keep things 'normal' further added to these pressures. We argue that the normal life discourse fails to recognise the dynamic and complex nature of negotiating this condition and may also create additional burdens for individuals living with HIV that could impact their wellbeing and preventive behaviours.

  9. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; Brink, Uri ten; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353–865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  10. Heavy metals in benthic organisms from Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amado-Filho, G M; Salgado, L T; Rebelo, M F; Rezende, C E; Karez, C S; Pfeiffer, W C

    2008-02-01

    The marine ecosystems of Todos os Santos Bay (TSB, The State of Bahia, Brazil) have been impacted by the presence on its coast of a large metropolitan area as well as of chemical and petrochemical activities. Despite its ecological importance, there is a lack of scientific information concerning metal contamination in TSB marine biota. Thus, we analyzed concentrations of metals in four species of marine benthic organisms (two seaweeds, Padina gymnospora and Sargassum sp. one seagrass, Halodule wrightii and one oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae) in three sites from the TSB region that have been most affected by industrial activities. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry. The obtained data indicates that cadmium and copper in seaweeds, oysters and seagrass, as well as Ni concentrations in oysters, were in range of contaminated coastal areas. Cadmium and copper are available to organisms through suspended particles, dissolved fraction of water column and bottom sediment interstitial water. As oysters and other mollusks are used as food sources by the local population, the metal levels found in oysters in TSB may constitute a health risk for this population. Our results suggest implanting a heavy metals biomonitoring program in the TSB marine ecosystems.

  11. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; ten Brink, U.; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353-865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  12. Profile of skin cancer in Pomeranian communities of the State of Espírito Santo.

    PubMed

    Frasson, Patrícia Henriques Lyra; Duque, Danilo Schwab; Pinto, Estanrley Barcelos; Dalvi, Giulia Cerutti; Madalon, Sammy Zogheib; Nunes, Tarcizo Afonso; DE-Vargas, Paulo Roberto Merçon

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the profile of skin cancer in Pomeranian communities of the State of Espírito Santo, composed of descendants of European immigrants, regarding gender and age at diagnosis, lesion size and histological type. we studied histopathological reports of 3,781 patients operated between 2000 and 2010, with resection of 4,881 lesions. We assessed histological type, lesion size, age and gender of the patients at diagnosis and their correlations in the 11-year period. the histopathological examination revealed basal cell carcinoma in 3,159 patients (83.5%), squamous cell carcinoma in 415 (11%), melanoma in 64 (1.7%), and 143 patients (3.8%) had combined lesions of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. As to size, 47.1% measured between 5.1 and 10mm. The age group of 61 to 70 years was the one that sustained the largest number of surgical interventions (24.3%). There was a predominance of the female gender (2,027, 53.6%) in relation to the male (1,754, 46.4%). basal cell carcinoma was the most frequent histological type. The prevalences of squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma were below the national estimate of the National Cancer Institute. The diagnosis of tumors occurred at more advanced ages (above 60 years) and there was an increase in the incidence and size of skin tumors in the male population. avaliar o panorama do câncer de pele em comunidades pomeranas do Estado do Espírito Santo, compostas por descendentes de imigrantes europeus, quanto ao sexo e idade ao diagnóstico, tamanho da lesão e tipo histológico. foram avaliados laudos histopatológicos de 3781 pacientes operados entre os anos de 2000 e 2010, com ressecção de 4881 lesões. Foram avaliados tipo histológico, tamanho das lesões, idade e sexo dos pacientes ao diagnóstico e suas correlações no período de 11 anos. o exame histopatológico evidenciou carcinoma basocelular em 3159 pacientes (83,5%), carcinoma espinocelular em 415 (11%), melanoma em 64 (1,7%) e 143 pacientes (3

  13. Mountain-Block Recharge in the Santo Tomas Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. M.; Kretzschmar, T.

    2009-12-01

    Mountain block recharge (MBR) to adjacent basin aquifers can be a significant source of groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions. Unfortunately, geologic complexities within the mountain block often limit our understanding of this indirect form of recharge. Secondary permeability, resulting from faults and fractures, allows rainwater to infiltrate crystalline mountain rock, ultimately recharging the basin aquifer. Therefore, it is essential to consider mountain block geological features, especially faults, in recharge studies. We attempt to better understand MBR by creating a detailed fracture-trace map and by sampling springs and groundwater throughout the Santo Tomas valley, located in Northern Baja California, Mexico. Bounded by active faults, the valley is heavily fractured. These fractures enable fluid flow within the mountain block. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data show two distinct types of spring water within the watershed, possibly representing local and regional flow paths. Thermal springs, believed to be regional flow, display a -1.9‰ δ18O depletion when compared to all other spring water, indicative of recharge from higher elevations or older waters; both of the latter would be less affected under local drought conditions. This distinct isotopic signal was found 15 km downstream in the alluvial aquifer, indicating a significant amount of water is recharging the basin aquifer via the mountain block along this flow regime. A quantitative permeability value for the faults and fracture zones is difficult to attain due to their heterogeneous nature. However, the thermal system and most cold-water springs surface along active faults, which appear to transmit more water than undifferentiated fractures. Stable isotope (O and H) data. An isotopic distinction can be seen between the hot and cold springs within the watershed. Note that all the spring samples are taken between 400 - 550 m elevation, which includes the hot springs.

  14. Biplot analysis of strawberry genotypes recommended for the State of Espírito Santo.

    PubMed

    Costa, A F; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Leal, N R; Tardin, F D; Daher, R F

    2016-08-26

    Most strawberry genotypes grown commercially in Brazil originate from breeding programs in the United States, and are therefore not adapted to the various soil and climatic conditions found in Brazil. Thus, quantifying the magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interactions serves as a primary means for increasing average Brazilian strawberry yields, and helps provide specific recommendations for farmers on which genotypes meet high yield and phenotypic stability thresholds. The aim of this study was to use AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and GGE biplot (genotype main effects + genotype x environment interaction) analyses to identify high-yield, stable strawberry genotypes grown at three locations in Espírito Santo for two agricultural years. We evaluated seven strawberry genotypes (Dover, Camino Real, Ventana, Camarosa, Seascape, Diamante, and Aromas) at three locations (Domingos Martins, Iúna, and Muniz Freire) in agricultural years 2006 and 2007, totaling six study environments. Joint analysis of variance was calculated using yield data (t/ha), and AMMI and GGE biplot analysis was conducted following the detection of a significant genotypes x agricultural years x locations (G x A x L) interaction. During the two agricultural years, evaluated locations were allocated to different regions on biplot graphics using both methods, indicating distinctions among them. Based on the results obtained from the two methods used in this study to investigate the G x A x L interaction, we recommend growing the Camarosa genotype for production at the three locations assessed due to the high frequency of favorable alleles, which were expressed in all localities evaluated regardless of the agricultural year.

  15. Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

  16. Prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life in the city of Santo André, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel Cristina C.; Wandalsen, Neusa Falbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and the severity of wheezing in the first year of life for infants who live in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Cross sectional study with the administration of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL), which is a standardized and validated written questionnaire applied to parents and/or guardians of infants aged 12-24 months treated at primary health units, vaccination centers, day care centers, or kindergartens. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding demographic characteristics, presence of wheezing, respiratory infections, and risk factors. Results were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows, 20.0 (SPSS Inc. - Chicago, Il, United States). Logistic regression was applied to verify variables associated to recurrent wheezing. Results: Among the 1,028 infants studied, 48.5% had one or more episodes of wheezing during the first 12 months of life (wheezing once), and 23.9% had three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Nocturnal symptoms, severe breathing difficulty, and visits to the emergency room were observed in 67.3%, 42.4%, and 60.7% of infants, respectively. Among the studied infants, 19.4% were hospitalized, and 11.0% had a medical diagnosis of asthma in the first year of life. Use of β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists were observed in 88.8%, 21.0%, 54.9%, and 3.2% of children with wheezing, respectively. Use of oral corticosteroids, perception of breathlessness by parents, diagnosis of asthma, pneumonia, and hospitalization for pneumonia were more frequent among infants with recurrent wheezing (p<0.001). Conclusions: In the city of Santo André, approximately half of infants had at least one episode of wheezing in the first year of life, and almost 25% had recurrent wheezing. Wheezing disorders in Santo André have early onset and high morbidity. PMID:25479844

  17. [Ways of managing madness during the First Republic: the case of the state of Espírito Santo].

    PubMed

    Jabert, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The article explores the creation of institutions for managing madness and the 'mad' under the First Republic. By focusing specifically on the state of Espírito Santo, it analyzes how the government designed policies for dealing with the mad and asks whether this particular state's experience can validate hypotheses defended for the nation as a whole. The study also aims to demonstrate the complex relations between madness, society, medicine, and the State. A main discussion point is the process by which medicine was transformed into hegemonic knowledge and practice used to justify and validate government guardianship of the mad.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Santo Domingo Pueblo in Sandoval County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Pueblo of Santo Domingo in Sandoval County, New Mexico, for a renewable energy production feasibility study. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess specific areas on the Pueblo for potential installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. The report also recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of these PV systems.

  19. First record of Anopheles (Anopheles) costai Fonseca & Ramos, 1939 in Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Natal, Delsio; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Cerutti, Crispim; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2007-01-01

    Field collections of immatures and adults of Culicidae were carried out in the Rio Doce Valley, Espírito Santo State, aiming to increase knowledge on the anopheline species of that region. Considering all Culicidae species collected, among other anopheline it is noteworthy the presence of Anopheles darlingi, An. oswaldoi and An. costai. Regarding to An. darlingi, responsible for malaria outbreak in the low lands in that state, it was expected to confirm its presence in the area. The register of specimens of An. costai in the field collections is relevant, increasing the geographical distribution of the species and representing better knowledge of the Series Arribalzagia of the subgenus Anopheles.

  20. [Record of Dasypus novemcinctus (Mammalia: Xenarthra) parasited by Tunga terasma (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Alegre, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Antunes, João Marcelo A P; Demoner, Larissa de C; Martins, Isabella V F; Zanini, Marcos S; Deps, Patrícia D; Pujol-Luz, José R

    2006-01-01

    During a survey of Mycobacterium leprae in wild armadillos in the State of Espírito Santo, thirty-four armadillos were captured in the municipality of Alegre (20 degrees 45'S, 41 degrees 29'W, 150m). The armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus were examined by clinical and macroscopic examination. In four armadillos (11.7%), were found nodes in the abdomen. The nodules were identified as Tunga terasma. This is the first report of T. terasma in D. novemcinctus armadillos in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  1. The epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage among infants and young children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E; Moore, A; Sánchez, J; Kool, J; Castellanos, P L; Feris, J M; Kolczak, M; Levine, O S

    1998-09-01

    Whether herd immunity will occur with widespread Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination in developing countries is dependent on whether the vaccines are capable of reducing carriage in these settings. However, few population-based studies of Hib carriage in developing countries exist. To study Hib carriage in the Dominican Republic, we collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens from a population-based sample of 983 children 0 to 47 months old in a periurban area of Santo Domingo. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 76 (7.7%) children were positive for Hib. Hib carriage varied by age group with a low of 1.5% among 0 to 5 month olds, a peak of 12.5% in 6 to 11 month olds and prevalence rates of 6.0, 7.9 and 9.8% among 1-, 2- and 3-year-olds, respectively. Hib carriage was 51% lower among currently breast-fed 6 to 11 month olds than among those not currently breast-fed (18.2% vs. 9.0%; P=0.08). Infants and young children in Santo Domingo have high rates of Hib carriage, characterized by an early peak in carriage that corresponds with the peak of risk for Hib meningitis. The ability of Hib vaccines to diminish carriage to levels that will effectively reduce transmission and lead to herd immunity in this setting needs to be determined.

  2. Dead infants, cruel mothers, and heroic popes: the visual rhetoric of foundling care at the hospital of Santo Spirito, Rome.

    PubMed

    Presciutti, Diana Bullen

    2011-01-01

    The fresco cycle painted at the behest of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 1470s in the main ward of the hospital of Santo Spirito in rome comprises an extended pictorial biography of Sixtus, prefaced by scenes representing the legendary foundation of the hospital by his predecessor Innocent III. The legend, which tells how Innocent established Santo Spirito as a foundling hospital in response to the discovery of victims of infanticide in the Tiber River, positions the pope as the savior of the city's unwanted children. This article elucidates how the construction and renovation of the hospital is presented in the cycle as a generative product of papal will, with the care of foundlings situated as an integral part of the image of the pope as both Father of the Church and restorer of past glory to the city of Rome. While the frescoes engage with both widespread conventions for representing infanticide and commonplace notions of the social value of caring for abandoned children, I demonstrate that the ideologically potent visual rhetoric of foundling care was also flexible, and could be adapted to meet the specific needs of a particular institutional and patronal context.

  3. Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members.

    PubMed

    Santos, R G; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Strassman, R J; Motta, V; Cruz, A P M

    2007-07-25

    The use of the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca, obtained from infusing the shredded stalk of the malpighiaceous plant Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of other plants such as Psychotria viridis, is growing in urban centers of Europe, South and North America in the last several decades. Despite this diffusion, little is known about its effects on emotional states. The present study investigated the effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in members of the Santo Daime, an ayahuasca-using religion. Standard questionnaires were used to evaluate state-anxiety (STAI-state), trait-anxiety (STAI-trait), panic-like (ASI-R) and hopelessness (BHS) in participants that ingested ayahuasca for at least 10 consecutive years. The study was done in the Santo Daime church, where the questionnaires were administered 1h after the ingestion of the brew, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure. While under the acute effects of ayahuasca, participants scored lower on the scales for panic and hopelessness related states. Ayahuasca ingestion did not modify state- or trait-anxiety. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of ayahuasca in alleviating signs of hopelessness and panic-like related symptoms.

  4. Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, L R P de Andrade; Bernardez, L A

    2011-05-30

    For 33 years, a primary lead smelter operated in Santo Amaro (Brazil). Since the 1970s, large amounts of Pb and Cd have been widely documented in the blood and hair of people living near the smelter. The plant closed down in 1993, and several years later, the Pb levels in the blood of children under 4 years of age living near the smelter were high, where the disposed lead slag was suspected to be the main source of this contamination. The objective of this study is to elucidate the source of the Pb contamination and any other potentially toxic contamination, focusing on the characterization of the slag. The samples used for this characterization study were taken from the slag heaps. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the major constituents of the slag, in decreasing order of wt%, were the following: Fe(2)O(3) (28.10), CaO (23.11), SiO(2) (21.39), ZnO (9.47), MgO (5.44), PbO (4.06), Al(2)O(3) (3.56), C (2.26), MnO (1.44), Na(2)O (0.27), S (0.37), K(2)O (0.26), and TiO(2) (0.25). The Cd content of the slag was 57.3mg/kg, which is relatively low. The X-ray diffraction and the electron probe microanalyzer X-ray mapping indicated that the major phases in the slag were wüstite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and franklinite. Only spheroidal metallic Pb was found in the slag. The leaching study showed that the slag was stable at a pH greater than 2.8, and only in an extremely acidic environment was the solubilization of the Pb enhanced significantly. The solubilization of Zn was very limited in the acidic and alkaline environments. These results can be explained by the limited leachability of the metallic Pb and Zn-bearing compounds. The leaching study used TCLP, SPLP, and SWEP and indicated that the lead slag was stable in weak acidic environments for short contact times. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Owned dog demography in Todos Santos Cuchumatán, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Pulczer, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Waltner-Toews, David; Dewey, Cate E

    2013-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the dog demography should be an integral element in the planning, implementation and evaluation of dog population control measures. In May 2008, a door-to-door household census of human and owned canine populations was conducted in 12 contiguous neighbourhoods in the town of Todos Santos Cuchumatán, Guatemala. During the census, household and footpath data were recorded using a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS), and used to create digital census route maps, and perimeter and area estimates of the study region. Approximately 99% of all households (472/476) participated in the census, representing 2461 people in the overall estimated study region area of 80 hectares (ha). A total of 382 dogs were owned by 50.8% (240/472) of households, yielding means of 0.8 (382/472) owned dogs per household and 1.6 (382/240) dogs per dog-owning household. Of the total 382 owned dogs, 88.2% (337/382) were aged three months or older; of these, 68.5% (231/337) were reported as not normally being confined on the household property during the average day, and 9.7% (24/247) of the males and none of the females (0/81) were reported to be neutered. Of the households that owned female dogs, 89.7% (52/58) and 91.4% (53/58) reported that they would have females surgically or non-surgically neutered, respectively, if these services were available. Of the households that owned male dogs, 90.3% (176/195) and 92.3% (180/195) reported that they would have males surgically or non-surgically neutered, respectively, if these services were available. Approximately 72% (238/330) of owned dogs were vaccinated for rabies, and 80% (187/238) of these were males. The owned dog male:female ratio was 2.6:1 (275/107), the owned dog:human ratio was 1:6.4 (382/2461), and the absolute density was 478 (382/0.80) owned dogs/km(2). This knowledge of the owned dog demography was generated using simple means and has been of direct use in support of, and as baseline data for the planning

  7. [Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected in the Natural Reserve of the Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, State of Espírito Santo].

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Uezu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2007-01-01

    We confirm, after decades without new registers, the occurrence of the ticks Amblyomma obolongoguttatum Koch, 1844, A. brasiliense Aragão, 1908, and A. humerale Koch, 1844 in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, besides the first record of A. naponense (Packard, 1869) in this state.

  8. A Future for the Excluded. Job Creation and Income Generation by the Poor: Clodomir Santos de Morais and the Organization Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmen, Raff, Ed.; Sobrado, Miguel, Ed.

    This book, translated from Spanish, contains 20 chapters by various authors examining and expanding on the work of Clodomir Santos de Morais in educating and empowering the poor, mostly in Latin America, for entrepreneurship. One of the chapters is by de Morais. The following are included, organized in four sections: "Those Who Don't Eat and Those…

  9. Peridomiciliary colonies of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in rural areas of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2005-08-01

    In Brazil, the colonization of human dwellings by triatomines occurs in areas with native vegetation of the caatinga or cerrado types. In areas of Atlantic forest such as in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo, there are no species adapted to live in human habitations. The few autochthonous cases of Chagas disease encountered in Espírito Santo have been attributed to adult specimens of Triatoma vitticeps that invade houses from forest remnants. In recent years, the entomology unit of the Espírito Santo State Health Secretariat has recorded nymphs infected with flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi in rural localities. Entomological surveys were carried out in the residences and outbuildings in which the insects were found, and serological examinations for Chagas disease performed on the inhabitants. Four colonies were found, all associated with nests of opossums (Didelphis aurita), 111 specimens of T. vitticeps, and 159 eggs being collected. All the triatomines presented flagellates in their frass. Mice inoculated with the faeces presented trypomastigotes in the circulating blood and groups of amastigotes in the cardiac muscle fibres. Serological tests performed on the inhabitants were negative for T. cruzi. Even with the intense devastation of the forest in Espírito Santo, there are no indications of change in the sylvatic habits of T. vitticeps. Colonies of this insect associated with opossum nests would indicate an expansion of the sylvatic environment into the peridomicile.

  10. A Future for the Excluded. Job Creation and Income Generation by the Poor: Clodomir Santos de Morais and the Organization Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmen, Raff, Ed.; Sobrado, Miguel, Ed.

    This book, translated from Spanish, contains 20 chapters by various authors examining and expanding on the work of Clodomir Santos de Morais in educating and empowering the poor, mostly in Latin America, for entrepreneurship. One of the chapters is by de Morais. The following are included, organized in four sections: "Those Who Don't Eat and Those…

  11. [Prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life in the city of Santo André, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabel Cristina C; Wandalsen, Neusa Falbo

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and the severity of wheezing in the first year of life for infants who live in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. Cross sectional study with the administration of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL), which is a standardized and validated written questionnaire applied to parents and/or guardians of infants aged 12-24 months treated at primary health units, vaccination centers, day care centers, or kindergartens. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding demographic characteristics, presence of wheezing, respiratory infections, and risk factors. Results were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows, 20.0 (SPSS Inc. - Chicago, Il, United States). Logistic regression was applied to verify variables associated to recurrent wheezing. Among the 1,028 infants studied, 48.5% had one or more episodes of wheezing during the first 12 months of life (wheezing once), and 23.9% had three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Nocturnal symptoms, severe breathing difficulty, and visits to the emergency room were observed in 67.3%, 42.4%, and 60.7% of infants, respectively. Among the studied infants, 19.4% were hospitalized, and 11.0% had a medical diagnosis of asthma in the first year of life. Use of β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists were observed in 88.8%, 21.0%, 54.9%, and 3.2% of children with wheezing, respectively. Use of oral corticosteroids, perception of breathlessness by parents, diagnosis of asthma, pneumonia, and hospitalization for pneumonia were more frequent among infants with recurrent wheezing (p<0.001). In the city of Santo André, approximately half of infants had at least one episode of wheezing in the first year of life, and almost 25% had recurrent wheezing. Wheezing disorders in Santo André have early onset and high morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Style and pattern of salt diapirs due to thin-skinned gravitational gliding, Campos and Santos basins, offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demercian, S.; Szatmari, P.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1993-12-01

    Portions of seismic lines and a structure-contour map illustrate the patterns and shapes of salt diapirs and related structures in the Campos and Santos areas, off the Atlantic coast of Brazil. We interpret the structures both kinematically and mechanically, drawing on our experience with similar salt structures worldwide, with the results of recent physical modelling and with geometric restorations in section and in plan. Salt diapirs and related structures have a variety of structural styles, distributed in domains and provinces. Near the coast, there is an upper domain, 100-200 km wide, with a suite of structures that we attribute to horizontal downdip extension: these are salt rollers, in the footwalls of listric normal growth faults; salt walls of triangular cross section, beneath intersecting conjugate normal faults; turtle anticlines; and salt welds. Downslope extension started in the Albian and has continued to the present day. In the Campos area, from simple line balancing, the accumulated downslope displacement is about 100 km. Seawards of this, there is a lower domain, 100-400 km wide, with a different suite of structures, that we attribute to downdip contraction: these are growth folds of various wavelengths, in sedimentary sequences of various thicknesses; asymmetric salt walls, emplaced above reverse faults; deep basins, wedged down between conjugate reverse faults; and salt tongues above thrusts. For Campos, we estimate the total downslope contraction, accumulated since the Albian, to be about 100 km. From the balance between extension and contraction, we infer that the thin-skinned salt tectonics are gravitationally driven and independent of any basement tectonics. The structure-contour map on the top of the salt shows that structural style is variable also along strike. Seismic sections along regional contours indicate differing amounts of strain. On this basis, we distinguish five provinces, separated by NW-SE-trending lines. For the Northern

  13. SPCZ- and ENSO-related Salinity Variations Recorded in the Skeletal Geochemistry of a Porites Coral from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Delcroix, T.; Gouriou, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) are important components of climate variability in the tropical ocean-atmosphere system. Instrumental SST time series are much more readily available than are instrumental SSS time series, which are exceedingly rare. SSS variations are strongly linked to seawater δ 18O variations in the tropics, thus coral-based reconstructions of seawater δ 18O offer an opportunity to reconstruct the history of SSS variations in the tropical oceans. Seawater δ 18O is obtained by combining coral skeletal δ 18O, which varies in response to changes in seawater δ 18O and SST, with coral skeletal Sr/Ca, which varies in response to SST changes. This method has great potential for reconstructing past salinity variations. We explore this potential using a monthly-resolved, 65-year record of skeletal δ 18O and Sr/Ca variations in a Porites coral from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (16.0° S, 166.7° E). Santo is well positioned for such a study because ENSO-related climate variability strongly influences local salinity through changes in the position of the center of South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) convection/precipitation and associated salinity front movements. Moreover, a 24-year record of SSS variations is available from this region, which permits a ground-truth assessment of the robustness of the coral-based seawater δ 18O-SSS reconstruction. Investigation into different methods of combining coral δ 18O and Sr/Ca to reconstruct SSS reveals that the coral δ 18O anomaly time series provides the best fit to the SSS time series. A post-1976/1977 freshening trend in the δ 18O anomaly time series, which has been documented in other proxy time series, increases our confidence that this time series accurately reflects changes in the hydrologic balance in the western tropical Pacific. The Vanuatu coral δ 18O anomaly time series also correlates strongly with the Southern Oscillation Index, the Niño 3.4 SST

  14. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (<33.4) and with low stability. During spring and summer a hydrographic structure of three layers is noticed. The deepest layer is composed of the southern California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The

  15. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (<18 years). However, there was no significant difference in cumulative incidence of dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and

  16. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    elements provide a hint at a prevailing subsidence regime and effective sediment supply into the basin that clearly contrast with the conveyed idea of a sediment-starved and tectonic stable shelf. They naturally raise questions about the nature and origin of sediment supply, since no significant point siliciclastic fluvial source flows directly into the shelf. Stemming from that, we are forced to speculate about: (A) the role of neotectonic movements involving the Serra do Mar coastal mountain ranges to potentially source clastic influx into the basin during the Quaternary, or about the real importance of secondary drainage basins debouching today; and (B) the mechanical nature of a supposed subsidence during the Pliocene and the Quaternary time span (overloading ? sediment compaction ? thermal cooling ?). The interpretation of industrial seismic lines can provide the answers of many of these questions. The next step of this work is to make a stratigraphy model of the sedimentary systems of Santos basin to understand how the ancient creation of accommodation space can influence the recent sedimentary architecture and how is the change in sedimentary influx and the sedimentary records of different orders of cyclicity.

  17. Assessment of health risk related to the ingestion of trace metals through fish consumption in Todos os Santos Bay.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, Willian Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle of carnivorous fish species from three different areas of Todos os Santos Bay (BTS), Bahia State, Brazil. Trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. As concentrations in fish samples from Jiribatuba were higher than legal limits set by FAO, and Cd concentrations in fish from Iguape Bay were high in comparison with FAO and EC. This study provides information about the fish consumption limits, considering the elements concentrations observed in the analyses, in particular As and Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks.

  18. Low sensitivity of NS1 protein tests evidenced during a dengue type 2 virus outbreak in Santos, Brazil, in 2010.

    PubMed

    Felix, Alvina Clara; Romano, Camila Malta; Centrone, Cristiane de Campos; Rodrigues, Célia Lima; Villas-Boas, Lucy; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau; de Matos, Andréia Manso; Carvalho, Karina Inácio; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Kallas, Esper Georges; Pannuti, Claúdio Sérgio; Levi, José Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of dengue occurred in Santos, Brazil. The detection of the NS1 antigen was used for diagnosis in addition to the detection of IgG, IgM, and RNA. A large number of NS1 false-negative results were obtained. A total of 379 RNA-positive samples were selected for thorough evaluation. NS1 was reactive in 37.7% of cases. Most of the cases were characterized as a secondary infection by dengue 2 virus. Sequencing of NS1 positive and negative isolates did not reveal any mutation that could justify the diagnostic failure. Use of existing NS1 tests in the Brazilian population may present a low negative predictive value, and they should be used with caution, preferentially after performing a validation with samples freshly obtained during the ongoing epidemic.

  19. The role of research in coastal westlands management: Salt Marshes of Santoña and Noja (Spain).

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, Elena; Valle, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Coastal environments, such as marshes, dunes, or estuaries, are characterized by their high natural values that usually cause them to be subjected to high protection levels, affecting activities taking place within them. This is why the action in these spaces must be based on the use of proper techniques and approaches, which integrate ecology with practical engineering necessities. In this context, the Department of Sciences and Techniques of the Water and Environment of the University of Cantabria, through methods developed in the natural reserve of the Salt Marshes of Santoña and Noja, proposes the use of a working methodology based on the discipline of "ecosystem management" combined with the "adaptive management" methodologies; the application of mathematical, statistical, and specific predictive instruments; and the utilization of an "ecologic niche" as a union between the scientific knowledge of the littoral environments and the true actuation scale of the projects and activities carried out within them.

  20. Geochemical markers of sedimentary organic matter in Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia - Brazil. Indicators of sources and preservation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; do Rosário Zucchi, Maria; Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; Spano, Saulo

    2017-06-30

    Natural stable isotopes, such as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), are modern tools to assess geochemical processes. C and N in organic matter can carry fingerprints of their hydrologic flows and sedimentary processes, including any anthropogenic modification on the natural system. This study focuses on the determination of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and isotopic ratio in the sediment of Todos os Santos Bay (TSB). The isotopic results of the total organic matter indicate varied contribution marine and terrigenous. Typical rates of PAHs mainly indicate a pyrogenic source and mixture between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. Typical ratios for the n-alkanes indicate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The isotopic composition of n-alkanes suggests a mixture of sources, with the possible contribution of petrogenic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Assessment of metal concentrations in muscles of the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Santos Estuarine System.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A; Andrade, Nathalia P

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the concentrations of eleven metals in the blue crab, Callinectes danae, from nine sites in the Santos Estuarine System of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The results were compared to guidelines established in the United States, Europe and Brazil for the safety of human consumers. Muscles of blue crabs were removed by dissection and concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. In general, the concentrations of metals were low, and the crabs were regarded as safe for human consumption. Crabs from a single site (site 4) exceeded the guidelines established by the United States and Europe, but not Brazil, for Pb, with a mean tissue concentration of 1.725 μg g(-1). With the exception of Al, Fe and Ni, significant differences were noted between sites in the concentrations of each metal in crab tissue.

  2. Ant and termite mound coinhabitants in the wetlands of Santo Antonio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diehl, E; Junqueira, L K; Berti-Filho, E

    2005-08-01

    This paper reports on ant and termite species inhabiting the mounds (murundus) found in three wetland sites in Santo Antonio da Patrulha. Ants and termites were found in 100% of the mounds of two sites and in 20% of those in the third site. Colonies of Camponotus fastigatus were found inhabiting all the mounds, while colonies of Brachymyrmex sp., Linepithema sp., Pheidole sp., and/or Solenopsis sp. were collected in less than 30% of the mounds. In the mounds of the three sites, colonies of Anoplotermes sp. and/or Aparatermes sp. termites were found together with the ant colonies. Another cohabiting termite species, Cortaritermes sp., was found only in the mounds of one site. The results suggest that C. fastigatus is the species building the mounds, with the other species, whether ants or termites, being the inquilines.

  3. FPGA implementation of Santos-Victor optical flow algorithm for real-time image processing: an useful attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos Arribas, Pedro; Monasterio Huelin Macia, Felix

    2003-04-01

    A FPGA based hardware implementation of the Santos-Victor optical flow algorithm, useful in robot guidance applications, is described in this paper. The system used to do contains an ALTERA FPGA (20K100), an interface with a digital camera, three VRAM memories to contain the data input and some output memories (a VRAM and a EDO) to contain the results. The system have been used previously to develop and test other vision algorithms, such as image compression, optical flow calculation with differential and correlation methods. The designed system let connect the digital camera, or the FPGA output (results of algorithms) to a PC, throw its Firewire or USB port. The problems take place in this occasion have motivated to adopt another hardware structure for certain vision algorithms with special requirements, that need a very hard code intensive processing.

  4. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Mahiques, Michel M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Tessler, Moyses G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by (137)Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area.

  5. The Cerrillos Uplift, the La Bajada Constriction, and Hydrogeologic Framework of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic, geophysical, and hydrogeologic properties of the La Bajada constriction and Santo Domingo Basin, northern New Mexico, result from tectonic and volcanic processes of the late Tertiary and Quaternary Rio Grande rift. An integrated geologic and geophysical assessment in the La Bajada constriction allows development of a geologic framework that can provide input for regional ground-water flow models. These models then can provide better estimates of future water supplies in a region that largely subsists on aquifers in Rio Grande rift basins. The combination of surface geologic investigations (stratigraphic and structural studies; chapters A, B, C, and E), airborne geophysics (aeromagnetic and time-domain electromagnetic surveys; chapters D and F), ground geophysical measurements (gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; chapters D and F), and data from the few wells in the area (chapter G) provides new constraints on the hydrogeologic framework of this area. Summary results of our investigations are synthesized in chapter G. Through-going aquifers consisting of ancestral Rio Grande axial-river sand and gravel and of coarse western-piedmont gravel form the predominant ground-water pathways through the partly buried structural trough defining the La Bajada constriction between Espa?ola and Santo Domingo Basins. Thick, clay-rich Cretaceous marine shales of low hydraulic conductivity form a pervasive regional confining unit within the Cerrillos uplift on the southeast flank of the constriction. Numerous, dominantly north-northwest-striking, intrabasin faults that project part way across the La Bajada constriction create a matrix of laterally and vertically variable hydrogeologic compartments that locally partition and deflect ground-water flow parallel to faults.

  6. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Espírito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics.

    PubMed

    Santos Pacheco, Karina Tonini dos; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Meireles, Naiara Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO-Code of Dental Ethics), this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Espírito Santo (CRO/ES-Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Espírito Santo). The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%), followed by technical error (18.7%), irregular registration (16.8%), patient/professional relationship (11.3%) tax lien foreclosure (6.6%), professional/professional relationship (4.0%), irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%), consumer relations (0.8%), failure to provide care (0.6%), false certification (0.4%), and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%). Most (59.2%) of the dental surgeons (DSs) involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5) years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2%) cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4%) acquittals and 14 (63.6%) convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning+pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%). It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare.

  7. Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Berglund, Staffan; Contreras, Mariela; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-01-01

    In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom-up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need for multi-dimensional local interventions to break the cycles of

  8. Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2014

    PubMed Central

    Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Berglund, Staffan; Contreras, Mariela; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Methods: Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. Results: A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. Conclusions: The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom-up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need

  9. A new species of Anacroneuria Klapálek 1909 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil and comments on additional species.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras DA Conceição; Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho

    2016-12-14

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State in southeastern Brazil were studied. A new species, Anacroneuria ruschii n. sp. is described. Brief remarks on A. debilis (Pictet) and Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson & Bianchi) are also presented.

  10. Characterization of organic matter in sediment cores of the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, by elemental analysis and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Costa, A B; Novotny, E H; Bloise, A C; de Azevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Zucchi, M R; Santos, V L C S; Azevedo, A E G

    2011-08-01

    The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by elemental analysis and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions of Todos os Santos Bay. The elemental profiles of cores collected on the eastern side of Frades Island suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) analysis corroborates this result. The range of depths of the cores corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects in the region. Principal Component Analysis of the 13C NMR spectra clearly differentiates sediment samples closer to the Subaé estuary, which have high contents of terrestrial organic matter, from those closer to a local oil refinery. The results presented in this article illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay.

  11. Relationship between metal enrichments and a biological adverse effects index in sediments from Todos Santos Bay, northwest coast of Baja California, México.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barbosa, A; Gutiérrez-Galindo, E A; Daesslé, L W; Orozco-Borbón, M V; Segovia-Zavala, J A

    2012-02-01

    In 1992 and 2004, heavy metals concentrations were measured in surficial sediments from Todos Santos Bay, located in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. The aim was to search for relationships between metal enrichment factors and a biological adverse effects index. Unlike Ni, the elements Cd, Cu and Zn showed significant correlations (p<0.05) between enrichment factors and the biological adverse effects index. Cu showed a 0.74:1 relationship, which means that any enrichment above 0.74 could represent biological adverse effects. On the other hand, Cd and Zn enrichments must be >5.5 and >1.5, respectively, in order for the sediments to be considered toxic. In general, data showed that most of the metal concentrations in Todos Santos Bay sediments could not cause adverse effects to biota. Only Ensenada's harbor and the zone next to a dredging dumping site showed metal enrichments that could be toxic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new species of Phylloicus Müller 1880 (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae) from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barcelos-Silva, Patrik; Desidério, Gleison Robson; Pes, Ana Maria

    2017-03-02

    The worldwide caddisfly family Calamoceratidae comprises about 175 extant species in eight genera (Holzenthal et al. 2007). Among these, two are exclusively recorded from the Neotropics: Banyallarga Navás with 18 described species (Prather 2004) and Phylloicus Müller with 57 described species (Prather 2003, Dumas & Nessimian 2010, Santos & Nessimian 2010, Quinteiro et al. 2011), both genera recently reviewed by Prather (2003, 2004).

  13. Numerical simulation of the tidal propagation in the coastal region of Santos (Brazil, 24°S 46°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harari, Joseph; de Camargo, Ricardo

    2003-10-01

    A sigma vertical co-ordinate model was implemented for the coastal region of Santos (Brazil, 24°S 46°W), aiming at high-resolution barotropic tidal simulations. On a grid of 120×80 cells and spacing of about 1 km, tidal elevations due to the nine principal constituents were specified at the open boundaries, based on a model of the shelf. The coastal model results were compared to observations and harmonic predictions in the Port of Santos. Tidal analyses of time series relative to 5527 wet points, with 696 hourly results of elevations and surface currents each, generated maps of the co-tidal lines and axes of the current ellipses, which numerical values were compared to harmonic constants of some coastal stations. The obtained maps indicate the main characteristics of the tides in the coastal region of Santos, such as the areas of amplification and main propagation directions. The model results generated maps of the potential, kinetic and total energies associated to the tides. Residual depth-mean currents show tidal eddies related to coastal geometry and bottom topography. Vertical profiles of the tidal currents have nearly constant intensities and directions along the vertical, from the surface to the top of the bottom layer. The implemented modeling may be used for operational predictions of tides and tidal currents in the study area, especially when considering grid nestings in the shallow inner regions.

  14. Modern sedimentation processes in a wave-dominated coastal embayment: Espírito Santo Bay, southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Costa Moscon, Daphnne Moraes; Carmo, Dannilo; Neto, José Antonio Baptista; da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    2015-02-01

    Sediment dynamics in wave-dominated coastal embayments are generally controlled by seasonal meteorological conditions, storms having a particularly strong influence. In the present study, such hydrodynamic processes and associated deposits have been investigated in a coastal embayment located along the southeast coast of Brazil, i.e. Espírito Santo Bay, in the winter (June/July) of 2008. The bay has undergone a series of human interventions that have altered the local hydrodynamic processes and, consequently, the sediment transport patterns. Facies distribution and sediment dynamics were examined by acoustic seabed mapping, sediment and core sampling, hydrodynamic measurements and sand transport modelling. The results show that sediment distribution can be described in terms of nearshore and offshore zones. The offshore bay sector is predominantly composed of "palimpsest" lithoclastic medium-coarse sands deposited in the course of the early Holocene transgression that peaked about 5,000 years ago. In the inner bay or nearshore zone (up to depths of 4-8 m), these older transgressive deposits are today overlain by a thin (up to 30-cm-thick) and partly patchy blanket of younger regressive fine sand/muddy fine sands. Both coarse- and fine-grained facies are being reworked during high-energy events (Hs>1.5 m) when fine sediment is resuspended, weak tide-induced drift currents causing the sand patches to be displaced. The coarser sediment, by contrast, is mobilized as bedload to produce wave ripples with spacings of up to 1.2 m. These processes lead to a sharp spatial delimitation between a fine sand/mud facies and a rippled coarse sand facies. The fine sand patches have a relief of about 20-30 cm and reveal a typical internal tempestite depositional sequence. Fair-weather wave-induced sediment transport (Hs<1 m), supported by weak tidal currents, seems to only affect the fine sediment facies. Sediment dynamics in Espírito Santo Bay is thus essentially controlled by

  15. Stratigraphy of the Pleistocene, phonolitic Cão Grande Formation on Santo Antão, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisele, S.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Ramalho, R. S.; Kwasnitschka, T.; Wang, K.-L.; Hemming, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    The Cão Grande Formation (CGF) on the western plateau of Santo Antão Island is part of the younger volcanic sequence that originated from both, basanitic and nephelinitic magmatic suites, respectively called COVA and COROA suites. Based on our detailed revised stratigraphy of the CGF, including two yet unknown tephra units, we can show that both suites produced multiple, highly differentiated eruptions over a contemporaneous period. Correlations of CGF tephras with marine ash layers provide distal dispersal data for Cão Grande I (CG I) and also identify two highly explosive, phonolitic eruptions that pre-date the CGF tephra deposits known on land. Within the CGF, the lowermost, 220 ± 7 ka old unit Canudo Tephra (CT; COVA suite) comprises phonolitic fall deposits and ignimbrites; it is partly eroded and overlain by debris flow deposits marking a hiatus in highly differentiated eruptions. The phonolitic CG I Tephra (COROA suite) consists of an initial major Plinian fall deposit and associated ignimbrite and terminal surge deposits. This is immediately overlain by the phonolitic to phono-tephritic Cão Grande II (CG II; COVA suite), a complex succession of numerous fallout layers and density-current deposits. CG I and CG II have radiometric ages of 106 ± 3 ka and 107 ± 15 ka, respectively, that are identical within their error limits. The youngest CGF unit, the Furninha Tephra (FT; COROA suite), consists of three foidic-phonolitic fall deposits interbedded with proximal scoria deposits from a different vent. The phonolitic eruptions switched to and fro between both magmatic suites, in each case with a stronger first followed by a weaker second eruption. Each eruption evolved from stable to unstable eruption columns. During their terminal phases, both magma systems also leaked evolved dome-forming lavas next to the tephras. Distal ashes increase the CG I tephra volume to 10 km3, about twice the previously published estimate. The tephra volume of CG II is 3 km3

  16. Evolution of the Phreatomagmatic Cova de Paul Eruption, Santo Antao, Cape Verde Islands: Links Between Eruption Development and Crater Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarff, R.; Day, S. J.; Downes, H.; Seghedi, I.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of phreatomagmatic explosive activity that excavate large deep craters occur at high-elevation vents on many oceanic island volcanoes. The water driving these explosions is sourced from freshwater aquifers within the volcanic edifices, whose location and other characteristics will influence crater growth and final geometry. Here we describe phreatomagmatic deposits from the single eruption that formed the large Cova de Paul crater on the island of Santo Antao, Cape Verde Islands. These deposits, emplaced after an initial Strombolian phase of activity, record wide fluctuations in the intensity of phreatomagmatic explosivity. The largest explosions produced low-temperature, indurated lithic-rich phreatomagmatic ignimbrites and surge deposits; these occur as isolated and often erosive-based units in more distal areas but are interbedded in proximal outcrops with airfall to mixed fall and flow breccia and ash beds containing varying proportions of lithic and juvenile clasts, pointing to a series of climactic explosions within an extended period of milder phreatomagmatic explosive activity. We find that whereas the lithic clasts in the mixed units can be matched with the varied rock units in the exposed crater walls, the ignimbrite and surge units also contain hydrothermally altered clasts that appear to have originated from deeper in the volcanic edifice. They imply that during the climactic explosions the crater was excavated to several hundred meters depth below the surface. The phreatomagmatic explosive phase of the CDPC eruption was initiated by shattering of the chilled margins of the eruptive conduit, which had formed during the early Strombolian activity. The remains of these chilled margins form a distinctive bed of large flow-banded angular sub-glassy juvenile clasts that separates the Strombolian deposits from the later phreatomagmatic deposits. At this point water inflow from pressurized aquifers into the conduit attained a critical coolant input

  17. Weapons of mass destruction preparedness and response for the XIV Pan-American Games, Santo Domingo, 2003.

    PubMed

    Báez, Amado Alejandro; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Giráldez, Ediza M; Comprés, Hugo Pérez

    2006-01-01

    The Pan-American Games are considered to be the fourth most important international athletic event in the world. Hosted by the city of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the XIV Pan-American Games lasted from 11-17 August 2003. In preparation for the Games, the Security Directorate developed and deployed a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Unit. For operational support, two strike teams (Alpha and Bravo) were active at any given time. Each team consisted of five members including a team leader, field physician, explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) officer, and two tactical officers. Three hospitals-two military and one civilian--were designated as primary medical centers for the event. With the assistance of the WMD Unit, emergency department staff were trained in the medical management of a WMD event, response protocols for WMD were created, and special decontamination areas were designated. Syndromic surveillance was performed by means of direct communications between the hospitals and units, as well as use of an electronic, Web-based surveillance tool.

  18. Circulating Strains of Brucella abortus in Cattle in Santo Domingo De Los Tsáchilas Province – Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar Ivan; Contreras-Zamora, Javier; Benitez Ortiz, Washington; Guerrero-Viracocha, Karina; Salcan-Guaman, Holger; Minda, Elizabeth; Ron Garrido, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    The Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas in Ecuador represents the largest informal cattle market. Because of its strategic position, cattle movement is very high and therefore we selected this region, to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp. Part of the study aimed at the isolation, biotyping, and genotyping of Brucella species from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines, using selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays, and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR, and HOOF-Prints techniques. In total, 656 animals from 12 sero-positive dairy herds and from the provincial slaughterhouse were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright’s Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. Amongst these animals, 50 animals were sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were transferred to culture medium. Isolation was possible from 4 (16%) lymph nodes and 9 (36%) milk samples; out of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All four isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, showed biochemically a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%. PMID:25806363

  19. Geochemical and biostratigraphic characterization of an upper Cretaceous organic-rich condensed section in the Santos Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, L.A.F., Porsche, E.; Penteado, H.L.B. )

    1996-01-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian section is worldwide recognized as an organic- rich interval associated with a widespread anoxic event. Samples from this interval, representing proximal sedimentary conditions have been well characterized in the Santos Basin, Brazil, where it reaches 300m thickness. The main objective of this study is to characterize the geochemical and paleoecological attributes as well as to ascertain the biostratigraphic position of this organic-rich section in a more distal location, at ODP Site 356. Biostratigraphic analyses identify die interval at ODP Site 356 as a condensed section ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian (11 m), deposited under anoxic conditions associated with a warm, and climate in the adjacent continental areas. Geochemical analyses indicate high total organic carbon contents (up tp 6.7%), dominance of algal derived material, high relative abundances of homohopanes and methylsteranes, [delta][sup 13]C around -27[per thousand], indicating a typical marine anoxic section. Despite the high content of oil-prone organic matter, this section has not attained thermal evolution appropriated for hydrocarbon generation due to its shallow burial. In proximal areas of the basin, this section is interpreted as a transgressive system tract which is composed by a series of sequences, that are enriched in organic material at their bases. Basinward the interval is thinner, but presents higher organic carbon contents according to geochemical data of ODP Site 356, typical of a condensed section.

  20. Geochemical and biostratigraphic characterization of an upper Cretaceous organic-rich condensed section in the Santos Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, L.A.F., Porsche, E.; Penteado, H.L.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Cenomanian-Turonian section is worldwide recognized as an organic- rich interval associated with a widespread anoxic event. Samples from this interval, representing proximal sedimentary conditions have been well characterized in the Santos Basin, Brazil, where it reaches 300m thickness. The main objective of this study is to characterize the geochemical and paleoecological attributes as well as to ascertain the biostratigraphic position of this organic-rich section in a more distal location, at ODP Site 356. Biostratigraphic analyses identify die interval at ODP Site 356 as a condensed section ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian (11 m), deposited under anoxic conditions associated with a warm, and climate in the adjacent continental areas. Geochemical analyses indicate high total organic carbon contents (up tp 6.7%), dominance of algal derived material, high relative abundances of homohopanes and methylsteranes, {delta}{sup 13}C around -27{per_thousand}, indicating a typical marine anoxic section. Despite the high content of oil-prone organic matter, this section has not attained thermal evolution appropriated for hydrocarbon generation due to its shallow burial. In proximal areas of the basin, this section is interpreted as a transgressive system tract which is composed by a series of sequences, that are enriched in organic material at their bases. Basinward the interval is thinner, but presents higher organic carbon contents according to geochemical data of ODP Site 356, typical of a condensed section.

  1. [The genera of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) in four areas of Atlantic Rain Forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mugrabi, Daniele F; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Barreto, Francisco C C; Azevedo, Celso O

    2008-01-01

    The generic richness and abundance of Bethylidae collected in four different hillside areas of Atlantic rain forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil were studied. The sites are Santa Maria de Jetibá (SMJ), Domingos Martins (DM), Pancas (P) and Atílio Vivacqua (AV). A total of 2,840 specimens of 12 genera were collected. Lepidosternopsis Ogloblin and Bakeriella Kieffer are first recorded from the State. Richness of taxa was calculated using first-order Jackknife richness with EstimateS program. Genera accumulation curves were ran to evaluate the samples. Abundance data were adjusted to the geometric distribution. Parameter k was used to compare areas. The generic profile was not equal for the sites we studied. The areas were considered disturbed. SMJ and DM presented genera richness bigger than in P and AV. The differences in the sites reflect the different preservation of each environment. Pseudisobrachium Kieffer and Dissomphalus Ashmead are most dominant genera in SMJ, DM and P, and Anisepyris Kieffer in AV. This study emphasizes the fact of Dissomphalus as the most abundant genus in rain forests. The generic profile found in AV is similar to that of some areas of Brazilian savannah.

  2. Rovearinids (stemless crinoids) in the Albian carbonates of the offshore Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil: stratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic and palaeoceanographic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias-Brito, D.; Ferré, B.

    2001-06-01

    Microfacies analysis of marine carbonates cored by Petrobras well 1-SPS-6 in the offshore Santos Basin (southeastern Brazil) has revealed a remarkable fossil assemblage of calpionellids (colomiellids), favusellids, hedbergellids, globigerinelloidids, buliminids, radiolarians, inoceramid prisms, roveacrinids, and saccocomids(?) preserved in lower Albian calcimudstones-wackestones of the lower part of the Guarujá Formation. This assemblage represents an allochtonous accumulation in a deep neritic to shallow bathyal hypoxic environment. Besides 'saccocomid-like' sections, the only determinable sections of roveacrinids are thecal plates of Poecilocrinus dispandus elongatus Peck, 1943. This species was previously only known from the Weno Formation of Texas. The Brazilian material extends its records farther south from at least the lower Albian, which then represents the earliest occurrence of this peculiar family in the South Atlantic region. Taking into account their Albian global distribution and the location of their oldest representative (Hauterivian near Alicante, Spain), the Roveacrinidae dispersed westward throughout all of Cretaceous Tethys. The Tethyan origin of Roveacrinidae is further evidence that, during late Aptian-Albian times, the northern South Atlantic (north of the Walvis-São Paulo Ridge) was supplied by a Tethyan water mass.

  3. Bathymetry, Chirp and Deep Crustal Structure of the Santos Basin SÃO Paulo Ridge Complex (sbspr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanian, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Moulin, M.; Schnurle, P.; Rabineau, M.; Afilhado, A.; Roest, W. R.; Feld, A.; Evain, M.; Rochat, A.; Rousic, D.; Rigoti, C. A.; Capechi, E.; Bochenek, G.; Viana, A. R.; Magnavita, L. P.; Szatmari, P.; Neto, M.; Soares, J. P.; Fuck, R. A.; Paula Ribas, M.; De Lima, M.; Corela, C.; Duarte, J.; Matias, L. M.; OBS Team of Sanba Cruise

    2011-12-01

    The SanBa (Santos Basin- Seismic Research experiment) research experiment is a joint project of the Department of Marine Geosciences (IFREMER: Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la MER, France), the Laboratory of "Oceanic Domain" (Institut Universitaire et Européen de la Mer, France), the Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Lattex and CGUL, Portugal), the Universidade de Brasilia (Brazil) and PETROBRAS. Its aim is to test hypotheses that have been proposed such as the existence of failed rift and a micro-block (Moulin et al., GSL submitted) or the presence of exhumed mantle on its south-eastern part (Zalan et al., AAPG 2009). Six wide-angle seismic data were acquired together with coincident deep frequency reflection seismic data during the SanBa cruise in Dec 2010 - Jan. 2011 (total > 850 Nm). Chirp and Bathymetry were also acquired during the cruise. The preliminary results suggest a very thin crust (< 5km) in the center and in the south-eastern part of the SBSPR. Both refraction and reflection data present a clear signal of the Moho in the distalmost part of the study area, which seems to preclude the exhumed mantle hypothesis."

  4. All different, all equal: Evidence of a heterogeneous Neolithic population at the Bom Santo Cave necropolis (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Granja, R; Alves-Cardoso, F; Carvalho, A F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to contribute to the discussion regarding the socio-political organization of south-western Iberian Middle Neolithic populations. To that end, the preservation and distribution of human remains and the dispersion of grave goods within two rooms of the Bom Santo Cave (Rooms A and B) were investigated and combined with genetic and isotopic data previously published. Grave goods distribution and skeletal analyses highlighted an important diversity in terms of funerary practices thus corroborating data from ancient DNA and Sr/O isotopic analyses that suggested a great genetic and geographic diversity. Grave goods presented an uneven spatial distribution and were made of raw materials from different sources and using different pottery manufacturing styles albeit typologically homogeneous. The preservation and distribution of human remains suggested that Room A was mainly used for secondary depositions while Room B was used for both primary and secondary depositions. No link between the two rooms was found since remains from the same individuals were apparently exclusive of one room or another. The results suggest that this society presented substantial inner genetic, social and geographical heterogeneity. Most probably, this was due to the presence of distinct but coeval groups in the cave that shared a larger-scale social identity (as in "segmentary societies") or, less likely, to the presence of one single, but internally heterogeneous society (as in fully sedentary societies) that assimilated foreigners.

  5. Applying GIS to develop a model for forest fire risk: A case study in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Guido Assunção; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Áureo Banhos; Paneto, Greiciane Gaburro; Schettino, Vitor Roberto

    2016-05-15

    A forest fire risk map is a basic element for planning and protecting forested areas. The main goal of this study was to develop a statistical model for preparing a forest fire risk map using GIS. Such model is based on assigning weights to nine variables divided into two classes: physical factors of the site (terrain slope, land-use/occupation, proximity to roads, terrain orientation, and altitude) and climatic factors (precipitation, temperature, water deficit, and evapotranspiration). In regions where the climate is different from the conditions of this study, the model will require an adjustment of the variables weights according to the local climate. The study area, Espírito Santo State, exhibited approximately 3.81% low risk, 21.18% moderate risk, 30.10% high risk, 41.50% very high risk, and 3.40% extreme risk of forest fire. The areas classified as high risk, very high and extreme, contemplated a total of 78.92% of heat spots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental analyses of the parasitic profile found in the sandy soil from the Santos municipality beaches, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Silvana; Pinto, Rosa Maria Ferreiro; Floriano, Aline Petrollini; Teixeira, Lais Helena; Bassili, Bianca; Martinez, Araceles; Costa, Sergio Olavo Pinto da; Caseiro, Marcos Montani

    2011-01-01

    The environmental contamination by geohelminths represents a world public health problem and has been well documented by several authors. However, few papers describe the presence of such contamination in saline soils of coastal beaches. A study was performed on the beaches of the municipality of Santos in the period between May 2004 to April 2005 with the aim of determining the degree of contamination, and the correlation between contamination level and seasonal conditions and characteristics of the environment. Of the 2,520 samples analyzed, 18.2% (458) were contaminated, 32.3% (148) of which were localized in children's recreational areas (playgrounds). The parasite profile found in the analyzed samples indicated the presence of several zoonotic parasites: Ancylostoma larvae (82.5%), Toxocara sp. eggs (59.4%), Ancylostomidae-like eggs (37.1%), coccid oocysts (13.5%), Trichostrongylus sp. eggs and larvae, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, (11.6%), Entamoeba sp. cysts (10.0%), Strongyloides sp. (4.8%), several free nematoids and some non-identified parasitic structures (3.3%). It was established that the highest frequency of parasitic structures occurred in the months between May and October 2004, and from February to March 2005. An increase in the diversity of parasitic forms was documented in the months between February to December 2004 and from January to April 2005, these periods having the highest rainfall.

  7. Evaluation of the water genotoxicity from Santos Estuary (Brazil) in relation to the sediment contamination and effluent discharges.

    PubMed

    Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A; Kummrow, Fábio; Roubicek, Deborah A; Tominaga, Maria Y

    2006-04-01

    The genotoxic activity of water samples collected in 9 different sites within the area of the Santos estuary was preliminary evaluated, and related to previous data on the genotoxicity of sediments and the contents of PAHs in both water and sediment samples. The liquid discharge of a steel mill (coke plant), known to be mutagenic, was chemically analyzed to determine its PAH content. For the water evaluation we employed the Salmonella/microsome assay with the strains TA98 and TA100 with and without S9 mix in the plate incorporation method. The water was filtered with an AP20 membrane before being extracted with XAD4 at natural and acidic pH. The industrial effluent was filtered in 0.45 microm membranes before being extracted with the liquid/liquid method. Both membranes containing the particulate material were extracted using ultrasonication. PAHs were found associated with the suspended particles present in the industrial effluent in accordance with mutagenicity data previously reported. In relation to the estuarine waters, sites 1 and 5 presented low levels of mutagenic activity only in the filtered water (liquid fraction) extracts. At site 3, both the filtered water and particulate solids presented also low mutagenicity. Results show that the mutagenic activity observed in water could not be directly related to the genotoxic activity and PAHs contents of the bottom sediments.

  8. Circulating Strains of Brucella abortus in Cattle in Santo Domingo De Los Tsáchilas Province - Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar Ivan; Contreras-Zamora, Javier; Benitez Ortiz, Washington; Guerrero-Viracocha, Karina; Salcan-Guaman, Holger; Minda, Elizabeth; Ron Garrido, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    The Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas in Ecuador represents the largest informal cattle market. Because of its strategic position, cattle movement is very high and therefore we selected this region, to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp. Part of the study aimed at the isolation, biotyping, and genotyping of Brucella species from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines, using selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays, and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR, and HOOF-Prints techniques. In total, 656 animals from 12 sero-positive dairy herds and from the provincial slaughterhouse were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright's Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. Amongst these animals, 50 animals were sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were transferred to culture medium. Isolation was possible from 4 (16%) lymph nodes and 9 (36%) milk samples; out of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All four isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, showed biochemically a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  9. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Costa, Fernanda do N; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated with endoparasitosis of dogs and cats in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Diefrey Ribeiro; Oliveira, Luanna Castro; de Siqueira, Daniele Fassina; Perin, Lívia Reisen; Campos, Nayara Camatta; Aptekmann, Karina Preising; Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for the occurrence of endoparasitosis in dogs and cats in Espírito Santo, Brazil. For the study, 345 dogs and 160 cats were examined. Faecal samples from the animals were collected, and owners were interviewed about their handling of their animals. For the diagnosis of the infections, the Willis-Molley, simple centrifugal flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques were performed. The data found in the tests were tabulated and analysed with a chi-square test (p <0.05), and calculation of odds ratios (OR) with confidence intervals of 95% were then performed to determine the association between the variables and the outcome of stool examinations. The prevalence of parasites was 59% for dogs and 54% for cats. The genus Ancylostoma was the most prevalent (45%). Supplying filtered water, not feeding raw foods, standardisation of a defecation site and cleaning up the faeces reduced the chances of developing intestinal parasites. An increased frequency of deworming was also shown to be a protective factor; specifically animals which received anthelmintic more than once a year had a lower predisposition for intestinal parasites.

  11. Prevalence and factors related to mouth breathing in school children at the Santo Amaro project-Recife, 2005.

    PubMed

    De Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida; Leal, Rossana Barbosa; Pessoa, Rebecca Souza; Pontes, Ruty Mara E Silva

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mouth breathing children at the santo amaro project/ esef/ upe, and study their main facial and behavior alterations. transversal study. there were 150 children in the sample, with ages ranging from 8 to 10 years. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire and clinical examinations. As for their breathing assessment, two tests were carried out: test 1- breath steam against a mirror; and test 2 -water remains in the mouth with lips closed for 3 minutes. mouth breathing prevalence was of 53.3%. There was no significant difference between gender, age and type of breathing. Facial alterations were:incomplete lip closure ( 58.8%X5,7%), fallen eyes ( 40.0%X1.4%), High palate ( 38.8%X2.9%), Anterior open bite ( 60.0% Versus 30.0%), Hypotonic lips ( 3.8%X0.0%), Circles under the eyes (97.5% Versus 77.1%). high mouth breathing prevalence without significant statistical difference between genders,age and type of mouth breathing. There was no association between behavior characteristics and type of breathing. There were significant differences between physical traits and breathing pattern.

  12. Levels and spatial distribution of trace elements in macroalgae species from the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Bressy, Fernanda C; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) were determined in ten species of macroalgae collected from six sites in the Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, between May and July of 2010. An optimized microwave-assisted digestion procedure was used to digest the samples. The elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A wide range of metal concentrations were observed between the species analysed. Somewhat higher concentrations of Cd (5.99μg g(-1)), Co (372μg g(-1)), Mn (640μg g(-1)), Ni (17.2μg g(-1)) and Zn (51.4μg g(-1)) were found in the brown macroalgae species Padina spp., whereas elements, such as As (19.7μg g(-1)) and Pb (8.27μg g(-1)), were mainly concentrated in the species Sargassum spp. and Bostrychia montagnei, respectively. Statistical analyses (ANOVA) of the Padina data showed significant inter-site differences for all metals examined except nickel.

  13. A numerical modeling analysis of the phytoplankton and nutrients dynamics for Todos Santos Bay and northwestern Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Rico, J. E., Sr.; Rivas, D.

    2015-12-01

    A tridimensional physical-biological numerical model is implemented for the Todos Santos Bay and the northwest of Baja California to investigate the mechanics and ecological processes associated with the regional plankton dynamics. An NPZD (Nitrate, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Detritus) ecosystem simple model is used to describe the distribution and evolution of the lower trophic levels in the area of study. The model adequately reproduces the spatial distribution of the concentration of chlorophyll for the different seasons of the year. In general, the distribution of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) depends primarily on the seasonal circulation patterns, the total solar irradiance, and the vertical flux of nutrients. Interannual variability shows two extreme years in the analyzed period: 2006 and 2007. Year 2006 was an anomalous warm year, with a weak upwelling activity and low chlorophyll concentrations compared to year 2011. These anomalies are related to the activity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the El Niño+3, and the regional Outgoing Longwave Radiation. Thus, in spite of the simplicity of the NPZD model, both temporal and spatial patterns of distribution of chlorophyll and nutrients are generally reproduced.

  14. Assessment of occupational stress and associated factors among bank employees in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Zandonade, Eliana; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2015-12-01

    Occupational stress has become a major cause of illness and a major risk to the psychological and social well-being of workers. In this context, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational stress in employees of a banking network in the municipal region of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, and its association with sociodemographic variables and work characteristics. This cross-sectional study involved 525 bank employees. Occupational stress was evaluated using the short version of the Job Stress Scale. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the Karasek quadrants and the independent variables. It was found that most bank employees belonged to the "passive jobs" quadrant (34.4%, n = 179) and were considered to have an intermediate risk of occupational stress. Considering the "low demand jobs" category as the standard, the increased risk of stress was associated with low education levels (odds ratio, 3.69, 95% CI, 1.64-8.28), working in bank agencies (odds ratio, 2.55, 95% CI, 1.36-4.77), a length of employment at the bank of more than five years (odds ratio, 3.32, 95% CI, 1.89-5.81), a daily work period of six hours (odds ratio, 2.72, 95% CI, 1.27-5.81), and, mainly, low social support (odds ratio, 2.57, 95% CI 1.45- 4.56).

  15. A Paradigm Shift: From Paper-and-Pencil Tests to Performance-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puppin, Leni

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how The Language Center at the Espirito Santo Federal University changed from using traditional pencil-andpaper tests to performance testing, based on authentic tasks. The change was prompted because people thought that their testing did not reflect a communicative approach to language teaching. The Assessment Project lasted…

  16. An Interactive Computer Aided Electrical Engineering Education Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavati, Cicero Romao

    This paper describes an educational package to help the learning process. A case study is presented of an energy distribution course in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES). The advantages of the developed package are shown by comparing it with the traditional academic book. This package presents…

  17. Broad band and long period magnetotellurics for imaging the onshore portion of Santos basin and orogenic belts of southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, F. F.; Fontes, S. L.; Miquelutti, L. G.; La Terra, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    Between October 2011 and April 2012, we carried out 81 broad band and 40 long period magnetotelluric soundings covering the frequency range 1000 Hz - 0.0001 Hz. These soundings are distributed into two parallel 210km long profiles, approximately 50 km apart, spaced 5 km with EM field components oriented to the magnetic north and east directions. Both ADU07 (Metronix) and LEMI 417 (Lviv) systems were used. Typically, three to four MT soundings were measured simultaneously for this study. Both profiles initiate at the coast and continues to the continent direction. These profiles crossed two major Neoproterozoic Orogenic Belts, Brasilia and Ribeira, as well as several geosutures in the basement of the marginal basins of southeastern Brazil. The geophysical survey associated with the available geological information brought important contributions to the understanding of the main geosutures presents in the area. One located at the southeast end of the MT profiles, separating the tectonic domains of Ribeira Belt from the Pre-cambrian lands of Santos Basin. The other one situated in the extreme northwest of the MT profiles, limiting the Ribeira and Brasilia Belts. Data were processed using a robust remote-reference technique. Strike and dimensionality analysis along with G-B decomposition support a general 2-D regional character of the conductivity distribution in the area, allowing us to create a 2-D inversion model. Good misfit can be observed between the measured and calculated transfer functions projected onto the profile direction. Very preliminary results imaged the two main suture zones between the orogenics belts and allow inferences about the geographic position of their lateral limits.

  18. Prevalence of liver diseases as referred by people living in the Santos and São Vicente Estuary.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes Pena; Guimarães, M T; Ribeiro, T S; Campina, N N; Lobarinhas, M R; Lopes, A L J; Cunha, M G; Souza, I B; Oliveira, V L F; Braga E Braga, L; Martins, L C; Gomes, A; Pereira, L A A; Braga, A L F

    2015-10-01

    The Santos and São Vicente Estuary has suffered extensively over the years from irregular industrial deposits. The present study aimed to evaluate liver disease prevalence and potential associated risk factors in four of the Estuary's areas (Pilões and Água-Fria, Cubatão Center, Continental São Vicente, and Guarujá) and a reference area (Bertioga). This study consisted of a cross-sectional study design, in which a questionnaire was used to collect information in 820 households at each of the study areas. The proportion of total liver diseases, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer (liver, biliary tract, and pancreas) per area were estimated. Pearson's chi-square test and two proportion differences test were applied in order to evaluate associations between disease occurrence and areas and to test differences between two proportions, respectively. Single and multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess associations between disease prevalence and the different study areas. Liver disease prevalence was 1.5 % among all inhabitants and 1.4 % among those without any type of exposure. Among those who reported the presence of liver disease, a higher percentage of the participants that reported hepatitis (27.7 %) or other liver disease (48.7 %) did not report occupational or alcohol exposures. Hepatitis (77.8 %) was the most reported disease, and a statistical association between living in Pilões and Água-Fria and the occurrence of hepatitis was observed (Pearson's χ (2): z = 18.1; p = 0.001). The consumption of locally-produced groceries (2.88; CI: 1.24-6.70) and water (5.88; CI: 2.24-15.45) were shown to be risk factors for the occurrence of liver disease. Thus, environmental exposure is still a public health problem present in the estuary region.

  19. Seroprevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens from Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, M A V; Pena, H F J; Ton, N C; Lino, A J B; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Pereira, F E L

    2012-09-10

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 510 free-range (FR) chickens (380 from 33 small farms, and 130 from a slaughter house for FR chickens) from Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil, was investigated. Antibodies to T. gondii were sought using commercial indirect haemagglutination (IHAT, Imuno-HAI Toxo(®), Wama Diagnóstica, São Paulo, Brazil, cut-off 1:16) and the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25) tests. Attempts were made to isolate viable T. gondii from seropositive chickens by bioassay in mice. Pooled samples of brain, heart and quadriceps muscle of one thigh (total 40 g) from 64 chickens with IHAT titers of ≥ 1:16 were minced, digested in pepsin and bioassayed in mice. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 40.4% (206/510) FR chickens by IHAT (titer ≥ 1:16) and 38.8% (198/510) by MAT (titer ≥ 1:25); concordance between IHAT and MAT was 81.6% (kappa index=0.614). Viable T. gondii was isolated (designated TgCkBr234-281) from 48 of 64 (75%) seropositive (IHAT titers ≥ 1:32) FR chickens. Most isolates of T. gondii were virulent for mice; 100% of mice inoculated with 44 of 48 isolates died of toxoplasmosis within 30 days post inoculation (p.i). An epidemiological investigation revealed that people living in rural areas have little knowledge about the parasite and about the risk of acquiring it from raw meat. Results indicated that the locally available IHAT was useful for screening of chicken sera for T. gondii antibodies.

  20. Geological setting and paleomagnetism of the Eocene red beds of Laguna Brava Formation (Quebrada Santo Domingo, northwestern Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizán, H.; Geuna, S.; Melchor, R.; Bellosi, E. S.; Lagorio, S. L.; Vásquez, C.; Japas, M. S.; Ré, G.; Do Campo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The red bed succession cropping out in the Quebrada Santo Domingo in northwestern Argentina had been for long considered as Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic in age based on weak radiometric and paleontological evidence. Preliminary paleomagnetic data confirmed the age and opened questions about the nature of fossil footprints with avian features discovered in the section. Recently the stratigraphic scheme was reviewed with the identification of previously unrecognized discontinuities, and a radiometric dating obtained in a tuff, indicated an Eocene age for the Laguna Brava Formation and the fossil bird footprints, much younger than the previously assigned. We present a detailed paleomagnetic study interpreted within a regional tectonic and stratigraphic framework, looking for an explanation for the misinterpretation of the preliminary paleomagnetic data. The characteristic remanent magnetizations pass a tilt test and a reversal test. The main magnetic carrier is interpreted to be low Ti titanomagnetites and to a lesser extent hematite. The characteristic remanent magnetization would be essentially detrital. The obtained paleomagnetic pole (PP) for the Laguna Brava Formation has the following geographic coordinates and statistical parameters: N = 29, Lon. = 184.5° E, Lat. = 75.0° S, A95 = 5.6° and K = 23.7. When this PP is compared with another one with similar age obtained in an undeformed area, a declination anomaly is recognized. This anomaly can be interpreted as Laguna Brava Formation belonging to a structural block that rotated about 16° clockwise along a vertical axis after about 34 Ma. This block rotation is consistent with the regional tectonic framework, and would have caused the fortuitous coincidence of the PP with Early Jurassic poles. According to the interpreted magnetostratigraphic correlation, the Laguna Brava Formation would have been deposited during the Late Eocene with a mean sedimentation rate of about 1.4 cm per thousand years, probably in

  1. Climate Patterns Governing the Presence and Permanence of Salmonellae in Coastal Areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico▿

    PubMed Central

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment. PMID:18708509

  2. Climate patterns governing the presence and permanence of salmonellae in coastal areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment.

  3. Seismic Site Characterization through Joint Modeling of Complementary Data Functionals, with Applications to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwed, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.; Willemann, R. J.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Moschetti, M. P.; Schmitz, M.; Louie, J. N.; Polanco, E.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Pasyanos, M.

    2013-12-01

    New approaches suggest that it may be possible to determine ground shaking during earthquakes through low-cost, non-invasive seismic surveys that make use of ambient noise, and that the results can be used for 'shake-casting' to produce scenarios for the purposes of urban planning, improving community resilience, and emergency response. We will present a strategy for determining seismic 'site characterization' through joint modeling of and horizontal to vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) and surface wave dispersion, determined via spatial autocorrelation (SPAC), refraction microtremor (ReMi), and/or multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Fitting of data functionals by synthetics is driven by global optimization and the models are assessed quantitatively. The products of this approach are shear wave velocity profiles for the shallow subsurface, accompanied by posterior probability distributions and parameter correlation matrices that allow for the assessment of model reliability. Optimization strategies for solving nonlinear problems in geophysics have several advantages over linearized inversions. Jointly fitting dispersion curves and HVSR functionals via global optimization allows us to characterize the space of possible models, assess model reliability, identify parts of the 'best-fit' model that are poorly constrained, and guide us toward new data that might improve constraints on the model. Tools such as the posterior probability distribution and the parameter correlation matrix allow us to assess the relative contribution of both types of data to model constraints and how to choose the optimal weights between data types. The joint modeling technique is applied to data acquired in an NSF-funded Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, entitled 'New Frontiers in Geophysical Research: Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation', as a proof-of-concept survey in a highly built

  4. New species of tree cricket Oecanthus Serville, 1831 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae) from Reserva Natural Vale, Espírito Santo, Brazil, with chromosome complement.

    PubMed

    Milach, Elisa Machado; Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti Da; Martins, Luciano De Pinho; Nunes, Lorena Andrade; Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello; Oliveira, Elliott Centeno De; Zefa, Edison

    2016-10-04

    A new species of the genus Oecanthus Serville, 1831 from Reserva Natural Vale, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is described. The new species differs from other of this genus in characteristics of the pseudepiphallus main lobe, endophallic sclerites, posterior median lobe of the metanotal gland and black spots on the femora and tibiae. The chromosome number is 2n=16+XY♂=18 and 2n=16+XX♀=18, and this complement present one pair of autosomes less than the other five cytological studied species.

  5. A new turtle from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group of Brazil, updated phylogeny and implications for age of the Santo Anastácio Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegazzo, Mirian Costa; Bertini, Reinaldo José; Manzini, Flávio Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A new Podocnemidinura specimen from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Paraná Basin) of southeastern Brazil was described. The Bauru Group provided an important portrait of the Brazilian Mesozoic terrestrial biota, which boasts a vertebrate fauna formed from fishes, frogs, lacertilians, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs and mammals; records of palynomorphs; and invertebrate fauna consisted of gastropods, bivalves, ostracods and conchostracans. Nevertheless, the age of these continental deposits is not precisely estimated, which prevents global correlations, and its fauna is argued to be endemic. The new specimen described is the first turtle from the Santo Anastácio Formation, and its morphological comparison with other South American forms provided a significant advancement in the understanding of the age of this unit (Late Cretaceous). This study permitted a revision of the turtle taxa of the Bauru Group. As a result, some taxa were considered synonym, including the new Santo Anastácio form. The specimen is still unnamed due to the absence of skull characters that preclude its accurate positioning within the Bauru Group skull-based taxa. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon were analyzed into Podocnemidinura clade.

  6. Spatial distribution and concentration assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; Moreira, Icaro T A; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Queiroz, Antonio F S; Garcia, Karina S; Falcão, Brunno A; Escobar, Narayana F C; Rios, Mariana Cruz

    2014-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, to assess the distribution and degree of contamination by TPHs, measure the level of TPH degradation in the surface sediment, and identify the organic matter sources. The surface sediment used in this study was collected in 50 stations, and TPHs, isoprenoid alkanes (pristane and phytane), and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The total concentrations ranged from 0.22 to 40,101 μg g(-1) dry weight and showed a strong correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The highest TPH concentrations were observed in samples from the mangrove sediments of a river located near a petroleum refinery. Compared with other studies in the world, the TPH concentrations in the intertidal surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay were below average in certain stations and above average in others. An analysis of the magnitude of UCM (0.11 to 17,323 μg g(-1) dry weight) and the ratios nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph suggest that an advanced state of oil weathering, which indicates previous contamination. The molar C/N ratios varied between 5 and 43, which indicate organic matter with a mixed origin comprising marine and continental contributions.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis TP53 mutation analysis reflects a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; de Almeida Pereira, Thiago; Gonçalves, Patrícia Lofego; Jarske, Robson Dettmann; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Louro, Iuri Drumond

    2013-08-01

    The close relationship between aflatoxins and 249ser TP53 gene mutation (AGG to AGT, Arg to Ser) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes this mutation an indirect indicator of dietary contamination with this toxin. We have examined the prevalence of codon 249 TP53 mutation in 41 HCC and 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases diagnosed at the HUCAM University Hospital in Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. DNA was extracted from paraffin sections and from plasma. The mutation was detected by DNA amplification, followed by restriction endonuclease digestion and confirmed by direct sequencing. DNA restriction showed 249ser mutation in 16 HCC and 13 liver cirrhosis, but sequencing confirmed mutations in only 6 HCC and 1 liver cirrhosis. In addition, sequencing revealed 4 patients with mutations at codon 250 (250ser and 250leu) in HCC cases. The prevalence of TP53 mutation was 10/41 (24.3%) in HCC and 1/74 (1.4%) in liver cirrhosis. No relationship between the presence of mutations and the etiology of HCC was observed. TP53 exon 7 mutations, which are related to aflatoxins exposure, were found at 14.6% (249ser), 7.3% (250leu) and 2.4% (250ser) in 41 cases of HCC and 1.4% in 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases, suggesting a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

  8. Comparative study of cardiovascular and cancer mortality of Adventists and non-Adventists from Espírito Santo State, in the period from 2003 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Velten, Ana Paula Costa; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Populations with healthier habits have been investigated regarding their pattern of disease occurrence. This study aims at evaluating mortality patterns (all-cause, cardiovascular diseases) among members of the Seventh-day Adventists Church in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and to compare those with the mortality rates in the State population. The study investigated 14.519 living Adventists and 995 deaths among those aged ≥ 30 years old from 2003 to 2009. A total of 896 deaths were confirmed by the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated utilizing the indirect method, with the state population ≥ 30 years old as the standard population. Adventists presented all-cause mortality rate 42.5% lower than the Espírito Santo population (SMR = 57.5; 95%CI 47.8 - 68.2), 52.2% lower by ischemic heart disease (SMR = 48; 95%CI 25.02 - 82,75) and 46.3% less by stroke (SMR = 54; 95%CI 30.4 - 87.8). The Adventists' healthier lifestyle in relation to diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption may have influenced their lower mortality rates.

  9. Thermotectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin: Evidence from apatite fission track data of the offshore Santos Basin and continental basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann de Oliveira, Christie Helouise; Jelinek, Andréa Ritter; Chemale, Farid; Cupertino, José Antônio

    2016-08-01

    The Santos Basin is the largest offshore sedimentary basin in the southeastern Brazilian margin and originated by breakup of West Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous. We carried out a new thermochronological study by apatite fission track analysis from borehole samples of the Santos Basin and its continental basement to constrain the tectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin. Apatite fission track central ages of the basement and borehole samples vary from 21.0 ± 1.8 to 157.0 ± 35.0 Ma and from 6.5 ± 1.1 to 208.0 ± 11.0 Ma, respectively. From thermal modeling, the basement samples reached the maximum paleotemperatures during the final breakup of South America and Africa. The onshore basement and offshore basin record an early thermotectonic event during the Late Cretaceous linked to the uplift and denudation of the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. Maturation of the organic matter in the offshore basin is related with the progressive increase of the geothermal gradient due to burial. The thermal modeling indicates that the oil generation window started at 55-25 Ma. The basement samples experienced the final cooling during the Cenozoic, with an estimated amount of denudation linked to the sedimentary influx in the offshore basin. A rapid cooling during the Neogene becomes evident and it is linked to the reactivation along Precambrian shear zones and change of the Paraíba do Sul drainage system.

  10. 10Be dating of river terraces of Santo Domingo river, on Southeastern flank of the Mérida Andes, Venezuela: Tectonic and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Oswaldo; Vassallo, Riccardo; Audemard, Franck; Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Oropeza, Javier; Yepez, Santiago; Carcaillet, Julien; Alvarado, Miguel; Carrillo, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the first cosmogenic 10Be dating of river terraces located in the lower reaches of the Santo Domingo river (Southeastern flank of the Mérida Andes, Western Venezuela). The geomorphic observations and dating allowed the restoration of the temporal evolution of incision rate, which was analysed in terms of tectonic, climatic and geomorphic processes. The long-term incision rate in the area has been constantly around 1.1 mm/a over the last 70 ka. Taking into account the geologic and geomorphologic setting, this value can be converted into the Late Pleistocene uplift rate of the Southeastern flank of the Mérida Andes. Our results show that the process of terraces formation in the lower reaches of the Santo Domingo river occurred at a higher frequency (103-104 years) than a glacial/interglacial cycle (104-105 years). According to the global and local climate curve, these terraces were abandoned during warm to cold transitions.

  11. PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in crabs Hepatus pudibundus and Callinectes danae from Santos Bay, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, C A; Taniguchi, S; Cascaes, M J; Montone, R C

    2012-03-01

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in crabs Hepatus pudibundus and Callinectesdanae was assessed from two different places inside of the Santos Bay and Moela Island near one of the most economically important metropolitan areas in Southern Brazil. Among POPs analyzed, ∑PCBs (222-923 ng g(-1)lipid weight) and ∑DDTs (154-410 ng g(-1)lw) exhibited the highest concentrations in the crabs. ∑HCHs ranged from 10.3 to 30.9 ng g(-1)lw and were found in all individuals. Other OCPs found in lower concentration was Mirex (7.6-41.6 ng g(-1)lw) and HCB (5.83-16.9 ng g(-1)lw). ∑PBDEs (24.1 ng g(-1)lw) were only found in one male individual from the species C. danae collected near to the submarine sewage of Santos. Male crabs showed higher POP concentrations than female crabs for those two species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Lagrangian Physical-Biological Model to Study Water Parcels Associated with Algal Blooms from Southern California Bight to Todos Santos Bay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas Téllez, I. E.; Rivas, D.

    2015-12-01

    Lagrangian ocean circulation and biological dynamics are numerically studied in Todos Santos Bay during the spring of 2007. This period is particularly interesting after an intense toxic algal bloom occurred in April 2007 in this area, which was associated with the wind-driven upwelling in the region. High resolution, numerical model simulations were carried out to study dynamical features along of the Southern California Bight (SCB), the coast of the northern Baja California (BC), and the interior of Todos Santos Bay (TSB). These simulations are used in a three-dimensional Lagrangian (particle tracking) analysis which provides information about the origin and distribution of the waters present in the Bay during the occurrence of the toxic bloom. After the selection of trajectories of particles showing coherent patterns, a Nitrate-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) lower trophic model is implemented to study the influence of the environmental conditions that occur during the particle advection, solving the NPZD equations at every time-varying position of the advected particles. The model is also modified for phytoplankton growth as a function of the environmental temperature to somehow emulate the life cycle of Pseudo-nitzschia. The analysis of the trajectories shows that particles mainly come from two regions: from the north, in the southern portion of SCB and from regions west of the TSB. Knowing the regional circulation patterns and their phytoplankton dynamics can help to understand and even predict the origin and destination of the harmful algal blooms that occur in TSB and its surroundings.

  13. Cadmium and phosphate variability during algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Mejia, E; Lares, M L; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F

    2016-01-15

    Dinoflagellate algal blooms (DABs), with Lingulodinium polyedrum as the dominant species, have increased over the past few years in coastal areas off Baja California, Mexico. Vertical and temporal variability of particulate cadmium (Cdp), dissolved Cd (Cdd), PO4(3-) and Cdd/PO4(3-) were investigated during two intense DABs of L. polyedrum that occurred during the fall of 2011 and 2012 in Todos Santos Bay. Results were then, compared with data gathered in the absence of algal blooms during the autumn of 2013. In both algal blooms, L. polyedrum tended to be concentrated near the surface throughout the duration; however, during DAB 2011 the number of cells was twice as abundant ([10.0 ± 8.0] × 10(5) cells L(-1)) as in DAB 2012 ([5.0 ± 4.4] × 10(5) cells L(-1)). During DAB 2011, Cdp increased significantly (up to 1.02 ± 0.99 nmol kg(-1)) and was positively correlated with the cell abundance of L. polyedrum, suggesting that this dinoflagellate is able to assimilate and concentrate Cdd. Likewise, Cdd (up to 0.71 ± 0.17 nM) increased in the days of highest cell abundance, which could be attributed to uptake and subsequent regeneration of Cdd resulting from the remineralization of organic particulate matter produced during the bloom, as well as with the presence of organic ligands secreted by L. polyedrum that could keep Cdd in solution. During DAB 2011, dissolved Cdd/PO4(3-) ratios exhibited high vertical and temporal variability in the upper 5 m of the water column, but remained virtually constant near the bottom, suggesting a depth-dependent decoupling between these two dissolved components during the bloom development. Given the observed differences in the vertical and temporal variability of Cdd, Cdp, and PO4(3-) between these two intense DABs, we propose the existence of an abundance threshold of approximately 10(6) cells L(-1) of L. polyedrum above which Cd and PO4(3-) significantly increased due to remineralization in coastal waters during the bloom

  14. Applications of radon and radium isotopes to determine submarine groundwater discharge and flushing times in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Vanessa; Attisano, Karina Kammer; de Souza, Marcelo Friederichs Landim; Mazzilli, Barbara; de Oliveira, Joselene; de Araújo Mora, Tamires; Burnett, William C

    2017-08-16

    Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD. A time-series mooring over a tidal cycle at Marina do Bonfim showed a systematic enrichment of the short-lived radium isotopes (223)Ra and (224)Ra during the falling tide. Assuming that the elevated radium isotopes were related to SGD and using measured radium activities from a shallow well at the site, we estimated groundwater seepage at about 70 m(3)/day per unit width of shoreline. Extrapolating to an estimated total shoreline length provided a first approximation of total (fresh + saline) SGD into BTS of 300 m(3)/s, about 3 times the average river discharge into the bay. Just applying the shoreline lengths from areas identified with high radon and reduced salinity results in a lower SGD estimate of 20 m(3)/s. Flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary were estimated at about 3-4 days based on changing radium isotope ratios from low to high salinities. The flushing time for the entire BTS was also attempted using the same approach and resulted in a surprisingly low value of only 6-8 days. Although physical oceanographic models have proposed flushing times on the order of months, a simple tidal prism calculation provided results in the range of 4-7 days, consistent with the radium approach. Based on these initial results, we recommend a strategy for refining both SGD and flushing time estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure, Kinematics and Origin of Radial Faults: 3D Seismic Observations from the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Alexander; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Salt stock growth is typically accompanied by the development of geometrically and kinematically complex fault networks in the surrounding country rock. The most common networks comprise radial faults; these are characterised by low displacement (<100 m) normal faults that extend radially outwards from the salt stock into flanking strata. Radial faults are commonly observed in an arched, unpierced roof developed above a rising salt stock; in these cases, the faults are typically well-imaged seismically and likely form due to outer-arc extension during overburden stretching. Radial faults are also found at deeper structural levels, in strata flanking the diapir stem; in these cases, they are typically less well-imaged, thus their structure, kinematics and origin are less well understood. Furthermore, understanding the growth of radial faults may provide insights into hydrocarbon reservoir compartmentalisation and the evolution of neighbouring salt stocks. Here, we use high-quality 3D seismic reflection data from the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil to determine the structure and kinematics, and infer the likely origin of exceptionally well-imaged radial faults overlying and flanking a mature salt stock. Furthermore, we compare the geometric (e.g. throw, geometry, spacing, distribution etc.) and kinematic (e.g. timing of formation and duration of activity) characteristics of radial faults at both structural levels, allowing us to infer their temporal relationship and likely origins. We show that radial faults regardless of their structural level typically have aspect ratios of c. 1.8 - 2, are laterally-restricted in the vicinity of the salt, and have lengths of <3 km that vary with depth. Expansion indices of c. 1, with low throw gradients of 0.05 - 0.1 at the upper tip indicate that radial faults were likely blind. Throws range from 5 - 80 ms, with throw-maxima within 1 - 2 radii of the salt diapir. However, we note that the position of the throw maxima is not at the

  16. Comparing progress toward the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. Methods The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (León) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Results Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban León showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural León (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural León and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. Conclusions All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings. PMID:24428933

  17. Comparing progress toward the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Wilton; Eriksson, Leif; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo

    2014-01-15

    Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (León) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban León showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural León (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural León and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings.

  18. [Porto and the construction of the modern city: the case of Hospital Geral de Santo António in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Helena

    2014-01-01

    During a period of demographic and urban growth of the city of Porto, the need arose for a new hospital. The Santa Casa da Misericórdia of Porto, in charge of erecting the new health facility, appointed the British architect John Carr to design the project. By means of the analysis of a set of archival sources and sundry literature on the topic, we examine the criteria chosen for the design and construction of Hospital Geral de Santo António and if it fulfilled expectations, becoming a special space in the city. This article opens up a perspective on the study of the development of the city and the creation of this health facility, contributing to the historical trajectory of hospital architecture.

  19. Spatial and vertical distribution of metals in sediment cores from Río Espíritu Santo estuary, Puerto Rico, United States.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nekesha; Block, Karin A

    2015-11-15

    The concentration and distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated in three sediment cores representing 100-150years of accumulation in upriver, midriver, and estuarine environments in Río Espíritu Santo (RES), Puerto Rico. Grain-size distribution, organic matter and carbonate content were determined to assess their influence on metal concentrations. Minimum biotoxicity levels of Ni and Cu were exceeded in the upriver and midriver sites, while the minimum biotoxicity level of Cu was exceeded in the estuarine location. Pb concentration decreased by ~35% in the upper portion of the midriver and estuarine cores compared to downcore concentrations as a consequence of leaded gasoline regulation. Enrichment Factors and Geoaccumulation Indices were calculated for each metal revealing high levels of Cu in all three cores, likely from an igneous source. Our results provide a baseline for metal contamination in an area facing further land use change.

  20. Comment to Santos et al., "hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome: a new MVK mutation (p.R277G) associated with a severe phenotype".

    PubMed

    Santos, Ruda de Luna Almeida; Crovella, Sergio; Celsi, Fulvio

    2015-03-15

    We performed molecular modeling analysis onto a novel mutation in the gene MVK, described by Santos et al., found to be causative of a severe form of Hyper-IgD/Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency. The mutation p.R277G, in our analysis, lowers the binding affinity for some enzyme's substrates. Interestingly, we found that p.R277G mutation inhibits binding of Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate (IPP) (binding free energy=0 kcal/mol), one of isoprenoids responsible for feedback-inhibition of MVK. IPP is known to be an activator of a specific class of T-cells and we can hypothesize that increased levels of this metabolite generate an aberrant immune system response. Indeed other experiments are needed to verify this hypothesis; however, this work demonstrates usefulness of molecular modeling in generating novel pathogenic hypothesis.

  1. Feeding ecology and trophic relationships of fish species in the lower Guadiana River Estuary and Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, Rita; Bexiga, Constança; Veiga, Pedro; Vieira, Lina; Erzini, Karim

    2006-10-01

    In this study we analyze the feeding ecology and trophic relationships of some of the main fish species (Soleidae, Moronidae, Mullidae, Sparidae, Mugilidae, and Batrachoididae) of the lower Estuary of the Guadiana River and the Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António Salt Marsh. We examined the stomachs of 1415 fish caught monthly between September 2000 and August 2001. Feeding indices and coefficients were determined and used along with the results of multivariate analysis to develop diagrams of trophic interactions (food webs). Results show that these species are largely opportunistic predators. The most important prey items are amphipods, gobies (Gobiidae), shrimps ( Palaemon serratus and Crangon crangon), and polychaete worms. The lower Estuary and associated salt marshes are important nurseries and feeding grounds for the species studied. In this area, it is therefore important to monitor the effects of changes in river runoff, nutrient input, and temperature that result from construction of the Alqueva Dam upstream.

  2. Spatial and vertical distribution of metals in sediment cores from Río Espíritu Santo estuary, Puerto Rico, United States

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nekesha; Block, Karin A.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated in three sediment cores representing 100–150 years of accumulation in upriver, midriver, and estuarine environments in Río Espíritu Santo (RES), Puerto Rico. Grain-size distribution, organic matter and carbonate content were determined to assess their influence on metal concentrations. Minimum biotoxicity levels of Ni and Cu were exceeded in the upriver and midriver sites, while the minimum biotoxicity level of Cu was exceeded in the estuarine location. Pb concentration decreased by ~35 % in the upper portion of the midriver and estuarine cores compared to downcore concentrations as a consequence of leaded gasoline regulation. Enrichment Factors and Geoaccumulation Indices were calculated for each metal revealing high levels of Cu in all three cores, likely from an igneous source. Our results provide a baseline for metal contamination in an area facing further land use change. PMID:26337229

  3. High frequency of resistance to the drugs isoniazid and rifampicin among tuberculosis cases in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, an urban area in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baliza, Marcilio; Bach, Artur Henrique; Queiroz, Gabriel Lobo de; Melo, Inês Cardoso; Carneiro, Maria Madileuza; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Suffys, Philip; Rodrigues, Laura; Ximenes, Ricardo; Lucena-Silva, Norma

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors for developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE. This was a prospective study conducted from 2000 to 2003, in which suspected cases were investigated using bacilloscopy and culturing. Out of 232 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, culturing and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on 174. Thirty-five of the 174 cultures showed resistance to all drugs. The frequencies of primary and acquired resistance to any drug were 14% and 50% respectively, while the frequencies of primary and acquired multidrug resistance were 8.3% and 40%. Previous tuberculosis treatment and abandonment of treatment were risk factors for drug resistance. The high levels of primary and acquired resistance to the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin contributed towards the difficulties in controlling tuberculosis transmission in the city.

  4. Chronology of anthropogenic impacts reconstructed from sediment records of trace metals and Pb isotopes in Todos os Santos Bay (NE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Andrade, R L B; Hatje, V; Masqué, P; Zurbrick, C M; Boyle, E A; Santos, W P C

    2017-08-08

    The evolution of the impacts of anthropogenic activities in Todos os Santos Bay was evaluated by profiles of trace metals and Pb isotopes determined in sediment cores. Fluxes of metals increased up to 12, 4 and 2 times for Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively, compared to those recorded in the beginning of the 20(th) century. Stable Pb isotopes identified a decommissioned lead smelter and burning of fossil fuels as the main sources of Pb. Most metals showed minor to moderate enrichment factors (EF<4), but Cu and Pb were highly enriched (EF=28 and 6, respectively) at the Aratu harbor. Temporal changes in sediments were associated to different activities, namely Pb smelting, burning of fossil fuels, maritime traffic, petroleum related activities, inputs of domestic effluents, and changes in land uses. The effects of the implementation of environmental policies to improve the waters of the bay could not be identified in the evaluated cores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Overview of the 20th century impact of trace metal contamination in the estuaries of Todos os Santos Bay: past, present and future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Vanessa; Barros, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses the distribution patterns of trace metals in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the three main estuaries of the Todos os Santos Bay (BTS), Brazil, during dry and rainy seasons. Data available up to 2012 was also reviewed to assess the status of contamination. For most elements, metal concentrations in sediments decreased from the tidal limits to the lower estuary. Metals in SPM presented more complex distributions along the salinity gradient. Metal variability between rainy and dry conditions was only significant for SPM data. Of the BTS estuaries, the levels of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu are highest in the Subaé estuary, and they seem to be promoting harmful biological effects in macrofauna, and also may pose potential human health risks. Despite the evidence of important localized contamination, much of the data compiled indicates that the bay and its estuaries are still relatively preserved.

  6. Reactional state and nutritional profile among leprosy patients in the primary health care system, Greater Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Rosa Maria Natalli; Zandonade, Eliana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Diniz, Lúcia Martins

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy may present acute/subacute inflammatory processes (leprosy reactions). The study characterized the reactional states of patients at health clinics in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and associated them with sociodemographic factors and clinical/nutritional variables. between January and December 2009, longitudinal follow-up of patients with leprosy continued until leprosy reactions occurred or patients completed 6 months of multidrug therapy. Of the 151 patients participating, 78 (51.7%) were females, 48 (31.8%) had 5 to 8 years schooling, 93 (61.6%) worked and earned from 1 to 3 minimum wages, and 55 (36.4 %) had leprosy reactions, but with no statistical association to socioeconomic characteristics or nutritional status. However, absence of reaction was more common in the low-weight group, suggesting a trend in this group to protection from the reaction (p = 0.0906). The study found no association between nutritional status and leprosy reaction.

  7. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  8. Integration of the PSI technique and conventional ground-based methods for landslide characterization and monitoring: the case study of Santo Stefano d'Aveto; Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofani, Veronica; Pancioli, Valeria; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Santo Stefano village is located in the Northern Apennines (Italy) and is built up on an ancient landslide, defined as a complex phenomenon that is an earth rotational slide evolving into a flow. The landslide has an extension of 1,3 km2 and a volume of about 10 million of m3. The landslide can be defined as active and according to Cruden & Varnes (1996) nomenclature the velocity range from very slow to extremely slow. The landslide poses and high risk to the buildings and infrastructures causing extensive direct damages. The Santo Stefano d'Aveto village is located inside a glacial valley made mainly of ophliotic rocks, sandstones and marls and filled with glacial deposits. The landslide occurred in the glacial deposits composed of debris in a sandy-clayey matrix. Santo Stefano d'Aveto landslide has been monitored through radar interferometry, in particular with the PS-InSAR technique (Ferretti et al., 2001) and through ground-based instruments such as inclinometers and piezometers. The PS-InSAR analysis has been performed using ascending SAR scenes and descending SAR scenes from ERS-1/-2 (1992-2001), and ascending and descending SAR scenes from ENVISAT (2002-2008). All the datasets have been processed in the advanced mode APSA that means for each PS has been provided deformation time series relative to a reference date (zero). The target points within the Santo Stefano landslide have a high density. In general for all the analysed datasets it has been observed a decrease of velocity from upslope portion to the downslope one of the landslide. The maximum velocity recorded in the ERS dataset is around 38 mm/y, while the maximum velocity recorded in the ENVISAT dataset is around 20 mm/y. The APSA analysis has provided information about the temporal evolution of target points. Both the majority of ERS and ENVISAT time series have shown a seasonal trend related to the variation of the water table level, which rises during rainfall season and decreases during dry

  9. Treated wastewater effluent as a source of pyrethroids and fipronil at Todos Santos Bay, Mexico: Its impact on sediments and organisms.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Félix Augusto; Macías-Zamora, José Vinicio; Ramírez-Álvarez, Nancy; Alvarez-Aguilar, Arturo; Quezada-Hernández, Cristina; Fonseca, Ana Paula

    2017-06-03

    Pyrethroids are insecticides widely used to control pests and disease vectors in residential areas and agricultural lands. Pyrethroids are emerging pollutants, and their use is a growing concern because of their toxicity potential to aquatic organisms. Todos Santos Bay and the Punta Banda estuary, 2 coastal bodies located to the south of the Southern California Bight, were studied to establish a baseline of the current conditions of pollution by pyrethroids and fipronil. Eight pyrethroids, along with fipronil and its 2 metabolites, were determined in effluents from wastewater-treatment plants (n = 3), surface sediments (n = 32), and 3 locations with mussels (Mytilus californianus, n = 9). Bifenthrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin were the most common pyrethroids found in the study areas and were widespread in sediments, mussels, and wastewater-treated effluents. Fipronil and its metabolites were detected in mussels and wastewater-treated effluents only. Total pyrethroid concentrations in sediments ranged from 0.04 to 1.95 ng/g dry weight in the Punta Banda estuary (n = 13) and from 0.07 to 6.62 ng/g dry weight in Todos Santos Bay (n = 19). Moreover, total pyrethroids in mussels ranged from 1.19 to 6.15 ng/g wet weight. Based on the toxic unit data calculated for pyrethroids and fipronil for Eohaustorius estuarius and Hyalella azteca, little to no impact is expected to the benthic population structure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-8. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Water prospection in volcanic islands by Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) surveying: The case study of the islands of Fogo and Santo Antão in Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Madeira, J.; Bernardo, I.; Soares, A.; Esteves, M.; Adão, F.

    2016-11-01

    Water demand in islands, focused in agriculture, domestic use and tourism, is usually supplied by groundwater. Thus the information about groundwater distribution is an important issue in islands water resources management. Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) provides underground resistivity distribution at greater depths and is of easier application than other methods. In this study TDEM technique was used for groundwater prospection in two volcanic islands with water supply problems, the islands of Fogo and Santo Antão in the Republic of Cape Verde. The 10 islands of Cape Verde Archipelago, located off the coast of Senegal (W Africa), present a semi-arid climate and thus suffer from irregular and scarce precipitation. In the Island of Fogo 26 TDEM soundings, presenting an area distribution, were performed on the SW flank of the volcanic edifice. These allowed obtaining a 3D model composed of 5 layers parallel to the topographic surface separated by 50 m depth down to - 250 m. The results indicate the presence of the water-table at a depth of 150 m in the lower ranges of the W flank of the island, and at > 200 m depth in the area above 250 m above sea level (a.s.l.). In the Island of Santo Antão 32 TDEM soundings, distributed along 5 linear profiles, were obtained on the north-eastern half of the island. The profiles are located in two regions exposed to different humidity conditions to the N and S of the main water divide. The northern flank receives the dominant trade winds first and most of the precipitation and, therefore, the water-table is shallower ( 50 m depth) than in the S ( 100 m depth). Our study demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the TDEM method for groundwater prospection in high resistivity contexts such as in volcanic islands.

  11. Enigmatic structures within salt walls of the Santos Basin-Part 1: Geometry and kinematics from 3D seismic reflection and well data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Hudec, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Clara R.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding intrasalt structure may elucidate the fundamental kinematics and, ultimately, the mechanics of diapir growth. However, there have been relatively few studies of the internal structure of salt diapirs outside the mining industry because their cores are only partly exposed in the field and poorly imaged on seismic reflection data. This study uses 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the São Paulo Plateau, Santos Basin, offshore Brazil to document the variability in intrasalt structural style in natural salt diapirs. We document a range of intrasalt structures that record: (i) initial diapir rise; (ii) rise of lower mobile halite through an arched and thinned roof of denser, layered evaporites, and emplacement of an intrasalt sheet or canopy; (iii) formation of synclinal flaps kinematically linked to emplacement of the intrasalt allochthonous bodies; and (iv) diapir squeezing. Most salt walls contain simple internal anticlines. Only a few salt walls contain allochthonous bodies and breakout-related flaps. The latter occur in an area having a density inversion within the autochthonous salt layer, such that upper, anhydrite-rich, layered evaporites are denser than lower, more halite-rich evaporites. We thus interpret that most diapirs rose through simple fold amplification of internal salt stratigraphy but that locally, where a density inversion existed in the autochthonous salt, Rayleigh-Taylor overturn within the growing diapir resulted in the ascent of less dense evaporites into the diapir crest by breaching of the internal anticline. This resulted in the formation of steep salt-ascension zones or feeders and the emplacement of high-level intrasalt allocthonous sheets underlain by breakout-related flaps. Although regional shortening undoubtedly occurred on the São Paulo Plateau during the Late Cretaceous, we suggest this was only partly responsible for the complex intrasalt deformation. We suggest that, although based on the Santos Basin, our

  12. Local Site Characterization Using HVSR, ReMi, and SPAC, Study Case: Soccer Field At Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upegui Botero, F. M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake effects are frequently quantified by the energy liberated at the source, and the degree of damage produced in urban areas. The damage of historic events such as the Mw=8.3, September 19, 1985 Mexico City Earthquake was dominated by the amplification of seismic waves due to local site conditions. The assessment of local site effects can be carried out with site response analyses in order to determine the properties of the subsoil such as the dominant period, and the Vs30. The evaluation of the aforementioned properties is through the analysis of ground motion. However, in locations with low seismicity, the most convenient method to assess the site effect is the analysis of ambient vibration measurements. The Spatial Auto Correlation method (SPAC) can be used to determine a Vs30 model from ambient vibration measurements using a triangular array of sensors. Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) considers the phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves can be separated of apparent velocities; the aim of the ReMI method is to obtain the Vs30 model. The HVSR technique or Nakamura's method has been adopted to obtain the resonant frequency of the site from the calculation of ratio between the Fourier amplitude spectra or PSD spectrum of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibration. The aim of this work is to compare the results using different techniques to assess local site conditions in the urban area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The data used was collected during the Pan-American Advance Studies Institute (PASI), Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from July 14 to 25, 2013. The PASI was sponsored by IRIS Consortium, NSF and DOE. Results obtained using SPAC, and ReMi, show a comparable model of surface waves velocities. In addition to the above, the HVSR method is combined with the stiffness matrices method for layered soils to calculate a model of velocities and the predominant period on the site. As part of this work a comparison with

  13. Evolution of magma chambers generating the phonolitic Cão Grande Formation on Santo Antão, Cape Verde Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisele, S.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Klügel, A.; Irion, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    The Cão Grande Formation (CGF) on the western plateau of Santo Antão is a sequence of four phonolitic tephras (Canudo Tephra, Cão Grande I Tephra, Cão Grande II Tephra and Furninha Tephra) produced by highly explosive eruptions that alternatingly originated from a basanitic - phonolitic and a nephelinitic - phonolitic magmatic system. Detailed stratigraphy and petrological investigations of each unit are used to demonstrate the unusual situation that two distinct highly evolved magmas differentiated contemporaneously in separate magmatic systems. Chemical thermobarometry suggests that both magmatic systems not only temporally co-existed, but also that their magma chambers resided close to each other at 7 to 16 km depth, beneath the western plateau of Santo Antão. However, the distinct melt and magma compositions indicate that both systems evolved independently. The only interaction between both magmatic systems was an injection of magma from the nephelinitic - phonolitic magmatic system into the Cão Grande II Tephra (CG II) phonolitic reservoir, which is associated to the basanitic - phonolitic magmatic system. Compositional zonations in the tephra deposits indicate that the eruptions of the CGF tapped stratified magma reservoirs that mainly resulted from crystal accumulation generating downward increasing magma density. However, the CG II tephras also show a significant gradient in melt (glass) compositions. Magmas of the Canudo Tephra (CT) and the Cão Grande I Tephra (CG I) were H2O-saturated and their eruptions were probably triggered by fluid overpressure in the magma chamber. On the other hand, the CG II magma was H2O-undersaturated; we therefore assume that the injection of the hot nephelinitic - phonolitic magma system-type melt/magma triggered the eruption. The zoned deposit of the Furninha Tephra (FT) indicates mafic magma replenishment into a phonolitic reservoir directly prior to the eruption, thus providing a probable triggering mechanism. The

  14. Ecological scenario and Trypanosoma cruzi DTU characterization of a fatal acute Chagas disease case transmitted orally (Espírito Santo state, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Dario, Maria Augusta; Rodrigues, Marina Silva; Barros, Juliana Helena da Silva; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2016-08-31

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection via oral route results in outbreaks or cases of acute Chagas disease (ACD) in different Brazilian regions and poses a novel epidemiological scenario. In the Espírito Santo state (southeastern Brazil), a fatal case of a patient with ACD led us to investigate the enzootic scenario to avoid the development of new cases. At the studied locality, Triatoma vitticeps exhibited high T. cruzi infection rates and frequently invaded residences. Sylvatic and domestic mammals in the Rio da Prata locality, where the ACD case occurred, and in four surrounding areas (Baia Nova, Buenos Aires, Santa Rita and Todos os Santos) were examined and underwent parasitological and serological tests. Triatomines were collected for a fecal material exam, culturing and mini-exon gene molecular characterization, followed by RFLP-PCR of H3/Alul. Paraffin-embedded cardiac tissue of a patient was washed with xylene to remove paraffin and DNA was extracted using the phenol-chloroform method. For genotype characterization, PCR was performed to amplify the 1f8, GPI and 18S rRNA genes. In the case of V7V8 SSU rRNA, the PCR products were molecularly cloned. PCR products were sequenced and compared to sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood method with 1000 bootstrap replicates was performed. None of the animals showed positive hemocultures. Three rodents and two dogs showed signs of infection, as inferred from borderline serological titers. T. vitticeps was the only triatomine species identified and showed T. cruzi infection by DTUs TcI and TcIV. The analysis of cardiac tissue DNA showed mixed infection by T. cruzi (DTUs I, II, III and IV) and Trypanosoma dionisii. Each case or outbreak of ACD should be analyzed as a particular epidemiological occurrence. The results indicated that mixed infections in humans may play a role in pathogenicity and may be more common than is currently recognized. Direct molecular characterization from biological

  15. The Response of Sediments and Dissolved Organic Matter to Rapid Rainfall in the Santa Maria da Vitoria Watershed, Espírito Santo, BR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, N. D.; Firme de Almeida, L.; Dias, G.; Gould, R.; Tan, A.; Bianchi, T. S.; Krusche, A. V.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Santa Maria da Vitória River supplies over 30% of the water for the greater Vitória, Espírito Santo, BR metropolitan area, which has a population of roughly 1.6 million people. The availability of clean freshwater is severely limited during periods of heavy rainfall because water sanitation facilities are "clogged" by high sediment discharge. The headwaters of the Santa Maria da Vitória River are characterized by relatively pristine forested environments, transitioning into primarily agricultural and rural land uses, and finally reaching the large urban center of Vitória near its marine receiving waters. The discharge of suspended sediments and dissolved organic matter (DOM) was examined at a 3 hour frequency during heavy storm flows from October 2013 to May 2015 in the Santa Maria da Vitória River main channel and a small tributary, the Mangaraí River. Bulk isotopic analyses were used to determine potential sediment sources and whether specific landscape/land use features were functionalized during periods of high runoff. Likewise, time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-ToF-MS) was used to identify a broad suite of DOM compounds that responded positively with river discharge in an effort to determine the influence of land use on the delivery of dissolved components to the river. For example, the abundance of compounds related to specific agricultural settings increased during storm flow along with anthropogenic DOM sources such as plasticizer and pesticide-derived compounds. Suspended sediment concentrations increased by as much as 70 times during peak river discharge relative to base flow several days earlier with similar increases in particulate organic carbon and nitrogen observed. Results from this study and previous field measurements were integrated into a coupled hydrology-sediment transport model, DHSVM, as part of a dynamic information framework with the goal of predicting water/sediment discharge to inform management and policy sectors of the

  16. Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2014-05-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity.

  17. Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

  18. [Access to the diagnosis of tuberculosis in health services in the municipality of Vitoria, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Rafaela Borges; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Ruffino-Netto, Antônio; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Braga, Jose Ueleres; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to assess the accessibility to the diagnosis of tuberculosis in health services in Victoria, state of Espírito Santo. It featured a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 of patients with tuberculosis using the Primary Care Assessment Tool and statistical analysis with the Chi-square test (p <0,05). In relation to initial access to care, it was seen that the health service of first access most sought was Primary Care (37.6%), with most diagnoses occurring in the Tuberculosis Control Program Reference Units (61.3%). There was evidence of association between first health service accessed and the factors of time delay in: obtaining consultation at the first health service sought (p = 0.0182); diagnosis made by the first health service sought (p = 0.0001); request for sputum exam (p = 0,0003); request for X-ray exams (p = 0.0159); referral for X-rays at another institution (p = 0.0001); diagnosis by the same health service (p = 0.0001); exams conducted by the same health service that initially diagnosed tuberculosis (p = 0.0018); and proximity to the home (p = 0.0001). Therefore, the identification of important gaps in accessibility to diagnosis of tuberculosis seems to be related to the operational difficulties of organization of health care.

  19. [Comparison between the quality of life and nutritional status of nutrition students and those of other university careers at the Santo Thomas University in Chile].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, S; Bazaez Díaz, G; Figueroa Velásquez, K; Berlanga Zúñiga, Ma del R; Encina Vega, C; Rodríguez Noel, M P

    2012-01-01

    To determine and compare the quality of life, nutritional status, and self-perceived body image between nutrition students and students from other careers from the University Santo Tomás-Viña del Mar. We evaluated 200 student volunteers (100 nutrition students and 100 students from other careers) with a quality of life survey, a nutritional evaluation, and a survey of body image perception. The group of nutritional students perceived a lower quality of life, consumed less tobacco, and was less sedentary. Women of the nutritional group had a lower BMI and showed a lower hip circumference. Men of the nutritional group also showed a lower hip circumference. The nutritional group consumed more milk, chicken, and fish in their diet. Both groups presented an elevated consumption of alcohol. The concordance between BMI and body image was low, 34% in the nutritional group and 38% in the other careers group (Kappa 0.04 and 0.02). With respect to perception of quality of life, students from other careers perceived a better quality of life, however students from the nutritional group presented better nutritional status and selection of food.

  20. Risk factors to incidental leptospirosis and its role on the reproduction of ewes and goats of Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, Priscilla; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Martins, Gabriel; do Rodrigues, Patrícia Rosário; Faria, Braulio Pego; Lilenbaum, Walter; Deminicis, Bruno Borges

    2015-01-01

    Ovine and caprine stockbreeding have been gaining attention in developing countries as an attractive investment. On these animals, infectious diseases of the reproductive tract, such as leptospirosis, can compromise the production leading to economic losses. The present study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with incidental leptospirosis and its influence on the reproductive parameters of ewes and goats of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. A total of 737 animals distributed on 24 herds/flocks were studied, and an overall prevalence of 10.9% seroreactive animals was observed. Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was the most frequent in goats (97.0%) as well as in ewes (78.3%). Regarding risk factors related to leptospirosis, the presence of waterholes and the semi-intensive breeding system were the most important associated to seroreactivity. Besides, there was an observed association between seroreactivity and reproductive failures (P < 0.05). Moreover, seroreactive ewes (relative risk (RR) = 1.3) and goats (RR = 1.9) presented more chances to have abortions than seronegative animals. Furthermore, seroreactive ewes presented 11.6 more chances of having premature births when compared to the seronegative ones. It can be concluded that Leptospira infection, mainly those caused incidental strains (such as Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup), is a significant factor to reduce the productivity of small ruminants' herds/flocks in the studied region, and environmental measures must be considered on control programs.

  1. [Effects of the installation of the Rosal hydroelectric power station, Itabapoana River, States of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, on anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae].

    PubMed

    Rezende, Helder Ricas; Sessa, Paulo Augusto; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2009-01-01

    The construction of dams usually changes the composition of the fauna within their areas of influence. In the area where the Rosal hydroelectric power station has been installed, in the States of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, changes to the abundance of anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae were evaluated before (1998-2000) and after (2000-2005) the damming. Nine sample collection points were defined, each represented by a home and its outbuildings, shelters for domestic animals and water collection points within a radius of 150m. One hundred and three adult anophelinae were collected before the damming and 313 afterwards; 200 immature anophelinae before and 708 afterwards; 868 planorbidae before and 486 afterwards; and 2,979 phlebotominae before and 912 afterwards. The vector record, consisting of anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae, shows the potential of this area for transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, the environmental changes did not increase the risk of the occurrence of these diseases.

  2. Ossification Pattern of Estuarine Dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) Forelimbs, from the Coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Silvina; de Queiroz, Fábio Ferreira; Campos, Adélia Sepúlveda

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is one of the most abundant cetacean species in Brazil. Determination of age and of aspects associated with the development of this species is significant new studies. Counts of growth layer groups in dentin are used to estimate age of these animals, though other ways to evaluate development are also adopted, like the measurement of total length (TL). This study presents a procedure to evaluate the development of the estuarine dolphin based on the ossification pattern of forelimbs. Thirty-seven estuarine dolphins found in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Age was estimated, TL was measured and ossification of epiphyses was examined by radiography. We analyzed results using the Spearman correlation. Inspection of radiographs allowed evaluation of the significance of the correlation between age and development of the proximal (r = 0.9109) and distal (r = 0.9092) radial epiphyses, and of the distal ulnar epiphyses (r = 0.9055). Radiographic analysis of forelimbs proved to be an appropriate method to evaluate physical maturity, and may be a helpful tool to estimate age of these animals in ecological and population studies. PMID:26017269

  3. Environmental assessment of dredged sediment in the major Latin American seaport (Santos, São Paulo-Brazil): an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Cesar, A; Lia, L R B; Pereira, C D S; Santos, A R; Cortez, F S; Choueri, R B; De Orte, M R; Rachid, B R F

    2014-11-01

    This work offers an environmental assessment of a dredged sediment disposal area in Santos bay, situated on the central coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Sediment quality was evaluated through physicochemical analysis and toxicity tests of sediments collected in the disposal site and adjacent area. The physicochemical characterization of the sediments involved grain size distribution, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, metals and nutrients. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were employed, using amphipods (Tiburonella viscana) and sea urchins (Lythechinus variegatus), respectively. Results revealed toxicity by all the methods applied here, suggesting that the area of disposal of dredged material is significantly altered with respect to sediment quality and probably capable of generating deleterious effects on the local biota. Aiming to elucidate the association between the distinct environmental variables and the biological effects measured in laboratory, Factor Analysis was performed. Results revealed that despite most contaminant concentrations were found below the limits established by Brazilian legislation, biological effects were related to metals (chronic toxicity) and organic compounds (acute toxicity). The application of multivariate analysis proved to be particularly useful to assess and interpret the results in an integrated way, particularly due to the large number of parameters analyzed in environmental assessments, and should be applied in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chilled margin fragmentation as a trigger for transition from Strombolian to phreatomagmatic explosive activity at Cova de Paul Crater, Santo Antao, Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarff, R. W.; Day, S. J.

    2013-07-01

    Sudden transitions from effusive or mildly explosive eruptions to violent phreatomagmatic explosive activity can occur at high-elevation vents on oceanic island volcanoes. Here, we describe near-vent deposits around the large Cova de Paul crater on Santo Antao, Cape Verde Islands, which provide insights into the transition from Strombolian magmatic to violently explosive phreatomagmatic activity during one such eruption. The Strombolian deposits change from welded spatter to bedded clinkery scoria to angular blocky scoria, and contain a distinct population of strongly banded, low-vesicularity angular sub-glassy clasts with strongly prolate vesicles. These sub-glassy clasts also form a discrete layer of larger blocks at the transition to the overlying phreatomagmatic deposits. They are compositionally identical to the Strombolian scoria and are interpreted to be fragments of flow-banded chilled margins from the walls of the eruptive conduit. The layer of large sub-glassy blocks records disintegration and expulsion of the chilled margins at the transition to phreatomagmatic activity. We interpret the sequence from spatter through clinkery scoria to blocky scoria as recording an increase in groundwater inflow into the conduit from pressurised aquifers, but at coolant input ratios below those required for explosions. The shattering of the chilled margins to produce the bed of large sub-glassy blocks appears to have allowed a much greater water flow into the conduit, leading to the phreatomagmatic explosive phase of the eruption.

  5. Morphological, genotypic, and physiological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from keratitis patients and the domestic environment in Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Juliana L; Furst, Cinthia; Klisiowicz, Débora R; Klassen, Giseli; Costa, Adriana O

    2013-09-01

    Amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are free-living protozoa that can cause granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis in humans. In this study, four clinical and three household dust isolates obtained in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil were characterized by their morphological, genotypic, and physiological properties. All isolates belonged to group II according to Pussard and Pons' cyst morphology. Analysis of their 18S rDNA sequence identified one isolate from household dust as genotype T11 and the others six samples as genotype T4. Five T4 isolates presented a highly variable region (DF3) in 18S rDNA identical to those previously described. Physiological assays carried out with trophozoites in co-culture with bacteria or in axenic conditions showed all samples tolerated temperatures up to 37°C, regardless of culture method. One keratitis isolate grew at 42°C in co-culture with bacteria. Most isolates in co-culture survived at 1.0M, except a T11 isolate, which tolerated up to 0.5M. The isolates did not grow at 42°C and did not tolerate 0.5M and 1.0M under axenic condition. This is the first report of 18S rRNA gene genotyping applied to Acanthamoeba isolated from keratitis patients in Brazil. The results also indicated that osmo-tolerance is dependent on the culture system.

  6. [Outbreak of nephritis by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus: case-control study in the municipality of Monte Santo de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2013].

    PubMed

    Soares, Patricia de Almeida; Duarte, Heloísa Helena Pelluci; Oliveira, Junara Viana de; Faúla, Leandro Leão; Torres, Rosângela Stadnick Lauth de Almeida; Penkal, Margareth Leonor; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2017-01-01

    to investigate an outbreak of nephritis by Streptococcus zooepidemicus in Monte Santo de Minas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. a case-control study and attempt to isolate the bacterial agent were carried out from January to April 2013, using clinical and laboratory data, interviews and inspections. 417 suspected cases were reported, of which 175 (42.0%) were confirmed; 90.9% lived in that municipality, of which 67.4% were female, with median age of 36 years; 24% of cases were hospitalized; three ice cream shops in the municipality used type A milk; there was significant association between the illness and the consumption of type A milk (odds ratio [OR]=4.16/95%CI: 1.55;11.18), one of the ice cream made with this milk (OR=3.09/95%CI: 1.39;6.86) and milk shake of non-processed milk (OR=3.25/95%CI: 1.13;9.36); the bacterium was not detected in rural properties. the outbreak of nephritis by Streptococcus zooepidemicus was associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products.

  7. [Prenatal patient cards and quality of prenatal care in public health services in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the completeness of prenatal care information on the patients' prenatal care cards, according to coverage by various public health services: Family Health Strategy (FHS), Community-Based Health Workers' Program (CBHWP), and traditional Primary Care Units (PCU) in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study, 1,006 prenatal cards were randomly selected from postpartum women at maternity hospitals in the metropolitan area. Completeness of the cards was assessed according to the criteria proposed by Romero & Cunha, which measure the quality on a scale from excellent (< 5% incomplete cards) to very bad (> 50% incomplete cards). In general, completion of information on the cards was bad (> 20% incomplete), but cards were filled out better in the FHS than in the CBHWP and PCU, especially for tetanus vaccination (p = 0.016) and gestational weight (p = 0.039). In conclusion, the quality of prenatal care in the public health system in Greater Metropolitan Vitória fails to meet the Brazilian national guidelines for maternal and child health.

  8. Review of Dissomphalus Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil, with description of twenty-one new species.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Wesley D; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-07-25

    Forty-two species of Dissomphalus Ashmead, 1893 are reviewed, 21 of them are described and illustrated: Dissomphalus botocudus sp. nov., D. fredi sp. nov., D. tupinikim sp. nov., D. guarani sp. nov., D. congo sp. nov., D. rosangelae sp. nov., D. w-aedeagus sp. nov., D. amana sp. nov., D. potyra sp. nov., D. pyata sp. nov., D. clovisi sp. nov., D. kuara sp. nov., D. miriamae sp. nov., D. cacirus sp. nov., D. mirim sp. nov., D. secretus sp. nov., D. caparao sp. nov., D. capixaba sp. nov., D. ibirapitanga sp. nov., D. purius sp. nov. and D. taiabocu sp. nov. Six species are registered for the first time from Espírito Santo: D. brasiliensis Kieffer, D. bahiensis Redighieri & Azevedo, D. dumosus Evans, D. incomptus Evans, D. refertus Alencar & Azevedo and D. umbilicus Azevedo. Three species were reidentified: D. napo Evans, D. truncatus Azevedo and D. vallensis Azevedo. Among fifteen species-groups which recognized in the genus, amana species-group; amplus species-group and secretus species-group are newly proposed.

  9. Spatial distribution of suicide incidence rates in municipalities in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil), 2003-2007: spatial analysis to identify risk areas.

    PubMed

    Macente, Luciene Bolzam; Zandonade, Eliana

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the spatial distribution of suicide incidence rate in a residential municipality of the state of Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil, from 2003 to 2007. Ecologic study of the exploratory kind, based on secondary data. Deaths per suicide, which took place in each municipality of ES, were included in the data according to information provided by the Mortality Information System. For the spatial data analysis, a Bayesian approach was used (Global empirical and Local Bayesian ones) to correct epidemiological rates. Moran's I index was calculated to a worldwide spatial level dependence, and Local Moran (LISA) to a local spatial correlation. The following software applications were used: Excel; R 2.6.2; SPSS 11.5 and TerraView 3.3.1. The geographical localization of the municipalities that showed an incidence rate characterized as the average for suicide after adjustment (EBest Global) forms a corridor in the countryside. Some common characteristics among these municipalities are: a) immigration (Italians, Pomeranians/ Germans); b) rural population (average of 53%); c) supporting economy (agriculture, husbandry and livestock). A global and local spatial correlation was found among the municipalities (p < 0.05). The study identified the spatial context where the greatest death incidence rate per suicide occurred in the state of ES, during the mentioned period.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of HFE gene polymorphic variants (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, L N R; Santos, E V W; Stur, E; Silva Conforti, A M A; Louro, I D

    2016-04-27

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to progressive iron accumulation and may cause cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes, and heart failure. Most cases of HH have been linked to mutations in genes associated with iron homeostasis. There have been three major variants in the high Fe (HFE) gene associated with the disease: C282Y, H63D and S65C. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the polymorphic variants (C282Y, H63D and S65C) of the HFE gene in the population of the Espírito Santo State (ES), Brazil by analyzing three different groups: general population (N = 120), Pomeranian descendants (N = 59), and patients with HH (N = 20). Using genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood, polymorphic variant identification was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistically significant differences were observed for genotype distribution of C282Y (P < 0.001) and H63D (P = 0.013) between the general population and the patients diagnosed with HH. This is the first study to analyze HFE gene allele frequencies for the general population, Pomeranian subpopulation, and patients with HH of ES, Brazil.

  11. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter in surface sediments of an estuary under petroleum activity influence, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Almeida, Marcos; Escobar, Narayana C F; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Mortatti, Jefferson; Queiroz, Antônio F S

    2017-06-30

    The present study evaluated the origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the organic matter (OM) in the surface sediment of the São Paulo River estuary, Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazil. The samples were collected in the rainy (CP1) and the dry (CP2) seasons. We analyzed the 16 PAHs from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), and stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 11.45±1.28 to 1825.35±107.96ngg(-1), while TOC ranged from 3.8 to 27.7gkg(-1). CP1 showed the highest concentrations for all parameters. The δ(13)C ratio indicated terrigenous OM (-23.81 to -26.63‰). The TOC/N ratio (C/N) indicated transitional OM (12.32 to 24.39), in addition to the continental origin. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs origin revealed only pyrolytic source, although close to areas with a history of petroleum contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Uranium content and dose assessment for sediment and soil samples from the estuarine system of Santos and Sao Vicente, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, L P; Serafim, R A M; Corrêa, B A M; Yamazaki, I M; Primi, M C

    2010-06-01

    In this work, the uranium (U) content in sediment and soil samples collected near the Santos and São Vicente estuaries was determined using the fission track registration technique (SSNTD). The sediment and soil samples after oven-dried and pulverised were prepared in the solution form. About 10 microl of this solution was deposited on a plastic detector and irradiated at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor. After the irradiation and chemical etching of the plastic foils, the fission tracks were counted with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and a PC. The U content in the analysed samples ranged from 3.12 +/- 0.55 to 18.3 +/- 1.2 ppm for sediments and from 3.21 +/- 0.63 to 11.5 +/- 1.1 ppm for soils or in terms of (238)U equivalent activity from 38.5 +/- 6.8 to 226 +/- 15 and 39.6 +/- 7.8 to 142 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) for sediments and soils, respectively. These results were compared with other values reported in the literature for sediments and soils collected in environments similar to the ones studied in this work. Most of the values obtained in this work are higher than the world mean and are in reasonable agreement with results found by other authors for sediments and soils from regions considered as polluted or with a high level of radioactivity.

  13. Evolutionary escape from the climate dilemma. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavoni, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Jorge M. Pacheco, Vítor V. Vasconcelos and Francisco C. Santos take stock of a growing body of research they have produced in recent years, with the aim of shedding light on whether bottom-up agreements can suffice in promoting the high levels of cooperation needed to avert dangerous climate change [1]. The current state of affairs leave little reason for optimism, given the steady rise in CO2 emissions [2]. The UNFCCC approach to seeking universal participation has thus been called into question, both by some policy makers and by academics who have established pessimistic theoretical predictions concerning the limited ability of international environmental agreements to improve upon what nation states would do in the absence of an agreement. Game theorists have predicted that self-enforcing agreements are likely to comprise only a handful of countries committing to unambitious emission abatement targets [3]. Clearly, this is incompatible with stabilizing CO2 concentrations at levels that significantly constrain the likelihood of dangerous climate change. The question than arises as to whether we can deliver on ambitious abatement targets by leveraging on unilateral action by countries or other sub- or supra-national entities (e.g. cities or blocs). This has recently been analyzed in game-theoretic contexts [4,5], as well as in the governance literature [6], with more optimistic predictions compared to traditional models focusing on overarching agreements.

  14. Palynological analysis of a late Holocene core from Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Renato B; Souza, Paulo A; Bauermann, Soraia G; Bordignon, Sérgio A L

    2010-09-01

    A sedimentar core collected at Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul State, southmost Brazil, was submitted to pollen analysis to provide the vegetational history of this region, and the paleoecological and paleoclimatic changes. A total of 98 taxa of palynomorphs was identified from 35 subsamples. Three radiocarbonic datings were obtained along a section of 115 cm depth, including the basal age of 4730 ± 50 yr BP. Pollen diagrams and cluster analysis were performed based on palynomorphs frequencies, demonstrating five distinct phases (SAP-I to SAP-V), which reflected different paleoecological conditions. The predominance of plants associated with grasslands in the phase SAP-I suggests warm and dry climate conditions. A gradual increasing of humidity conditions was observed mainly from the beginning of the phase SAP-III, when the vegetation set a mosaic of grasslands and Atlantic rainforest. Furthermore, the presence of some forest taxa ( Acacia-type, Daphnopsis racemosa, Erythrina-type and Parapiptadenia rigida-type), from the phase SAP-IV, is interpreted as an influence of the seasonal semideciduous forest in the study region. From the phase SAP-V (ca. 4000 yrs BP), the vegetation became similar to the modern one (extant Atlantic rainforest Biome), especially after 2000 yrs BP (calibrated age).

  15. Blue rayon-anchored technique/Salmonella microsome microsuspension assay as a tool to monitor for genotoxic polycyclic compounds in Santos estuary.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia M; Coimbrão, Carlos A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2006-10-10

    The most important harbor of Brazil is located in Santos Estuary. In the 1970s, this area was one of the major examples of coastal degradation and although the quality of the environment has improved, the sediment is still contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mutagenic activity. Because of sediment dredging and consequently contaminants resuspension, it is useful to have reliable methods to monitor the water quality. Considering that blue rayon (BR) has been successfully used in evaluation of mutagenicity and PAHs content the objective of this work was to verify the applicability and adapt the methodology to monitor the water for mutagenic activity using the BR associated with the Salmonella assay. Analysis of three sites with different levels of contamination was performed using a modification of the BR hanging method denominated in this work BR anchored technique. The microsuspension protocol of the Salmonella/microsome assay was employed with the strain YG1041. The water from the site 1 the most contaminated and under influence of the steel mill discharge presented the highest potency reaching 36,000 revertants/g of BR with S9. Sites 2 and 3 showed less mutagenicity than site 1 with values approximately 1000 revertants/g of BR. We conclude that the BR anchored technique associated with Salmonella assay using YG1041 is a reliable alternative to monitor estuarine waters, especially in regions where sediment resuspension or acute pollution episodes can occur.

  16. Capability of Paraguaçu estuary (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil) to form oil-SPM aggregates (OSA) and their ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic organisms.

    PubMed

    Rios, Mariana C; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Pereira, Taís S; de Almeida, Marcos; Trindade, Maria Clara L F; Menezes, Leonardo; Caldas, Alex S

    2017-01-15

    For experiments concerning the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA), oil and sediment samples were collected from Campos Basin and six stations of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, respectively. The sediments samples were analyzed for organic matter determined by the EMBRAPA method, nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus determined by the method described by Aspila. The oil trapped in OSA was extracted following the method described by Moreira. The experiment showed a relationship between the amount of organic matter and OSA formation and consequently the dispersion of the studied oil. On the basis of the buoyancy of OSA and the ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic community, the priority areas for application of remediation techniques are Cachoeira, Maragogipe, and Salinas da Margarida because of the large amount of oil that accumulated at the bottom of the experiment flask (5.85%, 27.95%, and 38,98%; 4.2%, 17.66%, and 32.64%; and 11.82%, 8.07%, and 10.91% respectively).

  17. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  18. Dolines in Sierra de Quemado and their relationship with the development of the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomàs, Vinales, Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan Gonzalez, Hermes; Diaz Guanche, Carlos; Aldana Vilas, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Dolines are the most representative landforms of karst territories, and have a very significant development in the tropical karst. In the Sierra de los Órganos (West Cuba), the doline development in size and depth has been taken in consideration in several papers, especially after the classic works of Herbert Lehman in the 50's. Recent studies have revealed that horizontal and vertical development of doline is conditioned by tectonics, their spatial location, and is strongly controlled by the local base level. In the Sierra de Quemado, about 30 dolines were recognized with a remarkable variability in shape, size and depth. They are mainly collapsed dolines with different deepening phases, clearly marking the various evolutionary stages of the system, and working as individual entities to control the surface erosion, notably influencing the configuration of the main karst system such as the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomás. Collapse dolines originate as a consequence of the loss of mass, due to speleogenetic processes and the likely fall of the roofs of caves that developed below the dolines. The successive evolution of dolines often took place for the proximity of a cave (active or not), evolving parallelly. When doline deepening reached this level, the retraction of the walls began, which also had an influence on the hypodermic cavities observed in the dolines, and on some foot-caves ("marginal caves" or "füsshölen") that acted as important recharge points. Instability of part of the slope will cause its final collapse. Vertical jointing and faulting, together with the high values in the angles of internal friction, thoroughly contribute to the process of slope recession. Because of their different phases and evolutionary stages, the ranges in the morphometric values of dolines are high: some dolines have dimensions similar to "Tiankeng", with more than 100 metres in diameter and depth. As a rule, the different deepening phases that mark the evolutionary stages of

  19. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  20. Bioavailability assessment of toxic metals using the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)" in marine sediments collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jucelino B; Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Oliva, Sergio T; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the bioavailability of the metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in sediment samples collected in seven stations from the São Paulo Estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The bioavailability was determined by employing the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)". The elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), while nickel was quantified utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). The accuracy of these methods was confirmed using a certified reference material of estuarine sediment (NIST 1646). The sulfide was quantified using potentiometry with selective electrode and the organic matter determination employing an indirect volumetric method using potassium dichromate and iron(II) sulfate solutions. The bioavailability of the metals was estimated by relationship between the concentration of AVS and the sum of the concentrations of the simultaneously extracted metals (ΣSEM), considering a significant toxicity when (ΣSEM)/(AVS) is higher than 1. The bioavailability values in the seven stations studied varied from 0.93 to 1.31 (June, 2014) and from 0.34 to 0.58 (September, 2014). These results demonstrated a critical condition of toxicity (bioavailability >1) in six of the seven sediment samples collected during the rainy season (June, 2014). In the other period (September, 2014), the bioavailability was always lower than 1 for all sediment samples collected in the seven stations. The individual values of the concentrations of the five metals were compared with the parameters PEL (probable effects level) and TEL (threshold effects level), which are commonly employed for characterization of ecological risk in environmental systems. This comparison revealed that all metals have concentrations lower than the PEL and only zinc and lead in some stations have contents higher than the TEL. The

  1. Analysis of marine bivalve shellfish from the fish market in Santos city, São Paulo state, Brazil, for Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Esmerini, Patrícia O; Gennari, Solange M; Pena, Hilda F J

    2010-05-28

    The aim of this study was to determine if Toxoplasma gondii are present in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and mussels (Mytella guyanensis) under natural conditions using a bioassay in mice and molecular detection methods. We first compared two standard protocols for DNA extraction, phenol-chloroform (PC) and guanidine-thiocyanate (GT), for both molluscs. A total of 300 oysters and 300 mussels were then acquired from the fish market in Santos city, São Paulo state, Brazil, between March and August of 2008 and divided into 60 groups of 5 oysters and 20 groups of 15 mussels. To isolate the parasite, five mice were orally inoculated with sieved tissue homogenates from each group of oysters or mussels. For molecular detection of T. gondii, DNA from mussels was extracted using the PC method and DNA from oysters was extracted using the GT method. A nested-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) based on the amplification of a 155 bp fragment from the B1 gene of T. gondii was then performed. Eleven PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, CS3 and Apico, were used to genotype positive samples. There was no isolation of the parasite by bioassay in mice. T. gondii was not detected in any of the groups of mussels by nested-PCR. DNA of T. gondii was apparently detected by nested-PCR in 2 groups of oysters (3.3%). Genotyping of these two positive samples was not successful. The results suggest that oysters of the species C. rhizophorae, the most common species from the coast of São Paulo, can filter and retain T. gondii oocysts from the marine environment. Ingestion of raw oysters as a potential transmission source of T. gondii to humans and marine mammals should be further investigated. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of gravitational collapse in controlling the evolution of crestal fault systems (Espírito Santo Basin, SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ze, Tao; Alves, Tiago M.

    2016-11-01

    A high-quality 3D seismic volume from offshore Espírito Santo Basin (SE Brazil) is used to assess the importance of gravitational collapse to the formation of crestal faults above salt structures. A crestal fault system is imaged in detail using seismic attributes such as curvature and variance, which are later complemented by analyses of throw vs. distance (T-D) and throw vs. depth (T-Z). In the study area, crestal faults comprise closely spaced arrays and are bounded by large listric faults, herein called border faults. Two episodes of growth are identified in two opposite-dipping fault families separated by a transverse accommodation zone. Statistical analyses for eighty-four (84) faults show that fault spacing is < 250 m, with border faults showing the larger throw values. Fault throw varies between 8 ms and 80 ms two-way time for crestal faults, and 60-80 ms two-way time for border faults. Fault length varies between ∼410 m and 1750 m, with border faults ranging from 1250 m to 1750 m. This work shows that border faults accommodated most of the strain associated with salt growth and collapse. The growth history of crestal faults favours an isolated fault propagation model with fault segment linkage being associated with the lateral propagation of discrete fault segments. Importantly, two episodes of fault growth are identified as synchronous to two phases of seafloor erosion, rendering local unconformities as competent markers of fault reactivation at a local scale. This paper has crucial implications for the understanding of fault growth as a means to assess drilling risk and oil and gas migration on continental margins. As a corollary, this work demonstrates that: 1) a certain degree of spatial organisation occurs in crestal fault systems; 2) transverse accommodation zones can form regions in which fault propagation is enhanced and regional dips of faults change in 4D.

  3. Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Patients with Established HIV Type 1 Infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and Review of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barbara S.; Rojas Fermín, Rita A.; Reyes, Emily Virginia; Vaughan, Catherine; José, Lina; Javier, Carmen; Franco Estévez, Ramona; Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy; Batista, Arelis; Lie, Yolanda; Coakley, Eoin; Hammer, Scott M.; Brudney, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean. PMID:21851324

  4. CUTANEOUS TUBERCULOSIS: A 26-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF TUBERCULOSIS, VITÓRIA, ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    SPELTA, Karla; DINIZ, Lucia M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: Tuberculosis is a serious health problem in Brazil so that the knowledge on the aspects of cutaneous tuberculosis is medically important. Objective: To assess the characteristics of patients with cutaneous tuberculosis treated at the Cassiano Antonio Moraes University Hospital, located in the city of Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study using the medical records of 29 patients with cutaneous tuberculosis treated at the Dermatology and Pulmonology services of the hospital from 1986 to 2011. The inclusion criterion was the confirmation of cutaneous tuberculosis taking into account clinical, epidemiological, immunological, and bacteriological findings, as well as the response to specific treatment. Results: Of the 29 studied patients; 18 (62%) were women with average age of 37 years; the predominant clinical condition was erythema induratum of Bazin in 12 (41.4%) cases; and the cutaneous lesions were in the lower limbs in 19 (65.8%) patients. Extra-cutaneous involvement occurred in eight (27.6%) cases. The tuberculin tests were positive in 15 (79%) individuals and the assessment of the infectious agent was negative in most of the investigated cases. Conclusion: The study found a low frequency (0.44%) of cutaneous tuberculosis in an endemic area of tuberculosis. There was a predominance of infection in women aged thirty to forty years. Erythema induratum was the most common clinical condition, affecting mainly the lower limbs, in contrast to other Brazilian studies that found scrofuloderma as the most common manifestation, predominating in the cervical region of male children and adolescents. PMID:27410909

  5. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  6. Non-Spatial Analysis of Relative Risk of Dengue Disease in Bandung Using Poisson-gamma and Log-normal Models: A Case Study of Dengue Data from Santo Borromeus Hospital in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irawan, R.; Yong, B.; Kristiani, F.

    2017-02-01

    Bandung, one of the cities in Indonesia, is vulnerable to dengue disease for both early-stage (Dengue Fever) and severe-stage (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome). In 2013, there were 5,749 patients in Bandung and 2,032 of the patients were hospitalized in Santo Borromeus Hospital. In this paper, there are two models, Poisson-gamma and Log-normal models, that use Bayesian inference to estimate the value of the relative risk. The calculation is done by Markov Chain Monte Carlo method which is the simulation using Gibbs Sampling algorithm in WinBUGS 1.4.3 software. The analysis results for dengue disease of 30 sub-districts in Bandung in 2013 based on Santo Borromeus Hospital’s data are Coblong and Bandung Wetan sub-districts had the highest relative risk using both models for the early-stage, severe-stage, and all stages. Meanwhile, Cinambo sub-district had the lowest relative risk using both models for the severe-stage and all stages and BojongloaKaler sub-district had the lowest relative risk using both models for the early-stage. For the model comparison using DIC (Deviance Information Criterion) method, the Log-normal model is a better model for the early-stage and severe-stage, but for the all stages, the Poisson-gamma model is a better model which fits the data.

  7. GIS applied to agriclimatological zoning and agrotoxin residue monitoring in tomatoes: A case study in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Teixeira, Luciano José Quintão; Saraiva, Sérgio Henriques; Freitas, Deivid França; Pereira, Olavo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Neves, Antônio Augusto; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2016-01-15

    Searches related to global warming have provided important insights into the response of terrestrial ecosystems, but few have examined the impacts on agricultural crops, particularly those associated with the monitoring of agrotoxin residues. In this context, the agriclimatological zoning is an important tool in the planning and consolidation of crops and should be considered in any initiative that involves such planning. This tool is particularly important in the analysis of agrotoxin residues and may be applied by the Program Analysis of Agrotoxin Residues in Food (PARA) created by the National Health Vigilance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA), which enables greater food security and contributes to the improvement of human health. The aim of this study was to elaborate the current and future agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, relating it with the monitoring of samples collected by PARA in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The results indicate that a temperature increase of 5 °C creates a decrease in apt areas from 37.3% to 4.3%, for a total reduction of 33 percentage points (-88.5%). It is noted that of the 41 producing municipalities, only 26 have apt areas greater than 50%, highlighting the municipalities with apt areas greater than 90%, represented by Mantenópolis (100%), Guaçuí (98.5%), São José do Calçado (97.8%), Irupi (94.4%), Santa Teresa (92.3%), and Marechal Floriano (91.4%). The veracity of agriclimatological zoning is proved by a Kendall rank correlation coefficient of 0.876, indicating that the distribution of the variables of apt areas and productivity are similar at the significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval 95%. After validation of the agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, it is recommended that the PARA should monitor 36 municipalities rather than the current 18, representing an increase of 100%. The methodology can be adjusted to agricultural crops of other countries.

  8. Assessment of Mass-Transport Deposits occurrence offshore Espírito Santo Basin (SE Brazil) using a bivariate statistical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedade, Aldina; Alves, Tiago; Luís Zêzere, José

    2016-04-01

    Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) are one of the most important process shaping passive and active margins. It is frequently happening and its characteristics, features and processes has been very well documented from diverse approaches and methodologies. In this work a methodology for evaluation of MTDs occurrence is tested in an area offshore Espírito Santo Basin, SE Brazil. MTDs inventory was made on three-dimensional (3D) seismic volume interpreting a high amplitude reflection which correspond to the top and base of the MTDs. The inventory consists of four MTDs which were integrated into a GIS database. MTDs favourability scores are computed using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Information Value Method) over unique condition terrain units in a raster basis. Terrain attributes derived from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) are interpreted as proxies of driving factors of MTDs and are used as predictors in our models which are based on a set of different MTDs inventories. Three models are elaborated independently according to the area of the MTDs body (Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3). The final result is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel favourability value in descending order. The robustness and accuracy of the MTDs favourability models are evaluated by the success-rate curves, which are used for the quantitative interpretation of the models expressing the goodness of fit of the MTDs. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the predisposing factors which have highest prediction performance on MTDs occurrence were identified. The obtained results allow to conclude the method is valid to apply to submarine slopes as it is demonstrated by the highest obtained goodness of fit (0.862). This work is very pioneer, the methodology used was never applied to submarine environment. It is a very promising and valid methodology within the prediction of submarine slopes regarding failing and instability to the industry. In

  9. Variation of age and total length in Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae), on the coast of Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, J Y; Carvalho, A P M; Azevedo, C T; Barbosa, L A; Silveira, L S

    2017-01-01

    Variations of age and total length of Sotalia guianensis from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were evaluated. Specimens were found stranded. Age and total length of 44 Guiana dolphins were assessed based on tooth analysis. Age varied between 0.5 year and 33 years (mean = 8.23 years). Most specimens were between zero and 6 years old (47%). Total length varied from 119 cm to 198 cm, with mean of 172.52 cm. Asymptotic length was reached at 185 cm and approximately 5-6 years of age. Mean total length and age were higher than in other regions of the distribution range of the species. Nevertheless, more studies have to be carried out to evaluate the morphological variations in S. guianensis populations in the study area and Brazil.

  10. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts.

  11. [Malaria and hematological aspects among residents to be impacted by reservoirs for the Santo Antônio and Jirau Hydroelectric Power Stations, Rondônia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Cunha, Roberto Penna de Almeida; de Souza, Daniele Cristina Apoluceno; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Cruz, Rafael Bastos; Silva, Alexandre de Almeida E; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira

    2009-07-01

    In Rondônia State, Brazil, two new hydroelectric plants, Santo Antônio and Jirau, are scheduled for construction on the Madeira River, upriver from the State capital, Porto Velho. The current study analyzes malaria prevalence before the construction and provides information on the possible impacts of malaria burden related to the influx of thousands of persons attracted by direct and indirect employment opportunities. According to the findings, malaria is present throughout the region, with varying prevalence rates. The existence of potential asymptomatic malaria carriers among the local population may be epidemiologically relevant and should be considered in the malaria control programs organized by public authorities and companies responsible for building the power plants, aimed at early diagnosis and treatment, vector control, water supply, and infrastructure in the urban areas.

  12. Conduit Wall Failure as a Trigger for Transition From Strombolian to Phreatomagmatic Explosive Activity in the Cova de Paúl Crater Eruption on Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarff, R. W.; Day, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Episodes of hazardous phreatomagmatic explosive activity, including Surtseyan activity, occur within otherwise less dangerous effusive to mildly explosive magmatic eruptions at high-elevation vents on many oceanic island volcanoes. The water driving these explosions is sourced from freshwater aquifers within the volcanic edifices. Understanding volcanic and geophysical precursors to, and mechanisms of, the (frequently abrupt) transitions to explosive activity is required as a basis for effective warning and mitigation of the resulting hazards. Here we describe near-vent deposits around the large Cova de Paúl crater on the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands, which provide some insights into a transition from mild magmatic to violently explosive phreatomagmatic activity in one such eruption. This pre-historic but well-preserved crater formed in a single eruption that produced extensive low-temperature, lithic-rich phreatomagmatic pyroclastic flows and surge deposits; these are interbedded in proximal outcrops with airfall breccia and ash beds containing varying proportions of lithic and juvenile clasts, pointing to a series of climactic explosions within an extended period of milder explosive activity of broadly Surtseyan type. Prior to the transition to phreatomagmatic activity, the eruption had been characterized by mild Strombolian activity that produced scoria and spatter deposits of broadly tephritic composition. The Strombolian deposits contain a distinct population of strongly banded, low-vesicularity angular clasts with strongly prolate vesicles and a notably glassy appearance. These became markedly larger and more abundant just below the transition to the phreatomagmatic deposits. Comparisons of these clasts with the Strombolian scoria suggest that they are fragments of flow-banded chilled margins from the walls of the eruptive conduit. Thermal shattering of these margins to produce the angular glassy clasts may record the onset of groundwater flow

  13. [The prevalence of anemia and its association with socio-demographic and anthropometric aspects in children living in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Della Nina; Pascoal, Mariana Nunes; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Justino, Liusani Elizia Honório; Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Kitoko, Pedro Makumbundu

    2013-11-01

    The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the population is widely acknowledged, but there are not yet sufficient studies that explain the reasons for this problem at local and national level. Thus, the scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia and its relation with socio-demographic and anthropometric aspects of children living in Vitoria, Espírito Santo. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 12- to 72-month-old children. Data were collected in Primary Healthcare Units and involved the hemoglobin dosage, height and weight measurement, in addition to the application of a semi-structured questionnaire to gather socio-demographic information. The evaluation included 980 children, 51.1% of which were female with a median age of 46.00 (95%CI: 45.52 - 48.09) months. Anemia was found in 37%, with a hemoglobin median of 11.4 (95%CI: 11.15 - 11.36) g/dL. The children's' height/age ratio (p = 0.049) and the number of people in the family (p < 0.001) were found to be determinants of anemia, and age was a factor of protection for this deficiency (p = 0.010). The high prevalence of anemia and its strong relation with demographic and anthropometric data suggest the need for more effective public policies than just food fortification and supplementation.

  14. [Family Health Strategy: evaluating the access to SUS from the perception of the users of the health unit Resistência, in the region of São Pedro, Vitória, Espírito Santo State].

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Talita Dourado; Ferreira, Josilda Terezinha Bertulozo; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Lima, Rita de Cássia Duarte

    2010-07-01

    Family Health is a re-orientation strategy of the assistance model. One of its guiding principles is the establishment of a link between the health teams and the SUS users. The purpose of this research is to evaluate user access to the Family Health Unit (FHU) and the local problems faced. It is an exploratory, qualitative research, developed at the FHU Resistencia of São Pedro, located in the Greater Vitória, Espírito Santo State, with data collected individually through a semi-structured survey. It was found that the main needs of the population are incorporated in the services provided by the FHU, and the users face many difficulties with access. The main criticism is related to access to the specialized services. The majority of the participants of the survey showed satisfaction with the access to the services, and were not intimidated to express the difficulties faced. The work developed by the Family Heath Strategy (FHS) at FHU Resistência has been contributing to the improvement of the quality of the services offered by FHS to the users served, although many problems have been identified, which demonstrates the great challenge in redefining the assistance model, as proposed by this public policy.

  15. [Evaluation of the quality of data in the Live Birth Information System and the Information System on Mortality during the neonatal period in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Laura Pedroza; Moreira, Claudia Maria Marques; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; de Castro, Denise Silveira; Zandonade, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    Health information systems make it possible to be aware of health problems and often represent the sole source of information, thereby making it essential to assess their quality. The scope of this paper was to evaluate the quality of data about live births and deaths in the neonatal period in the Live Births Information System (SINASC) and Mortality Information System (SIM) in the state of Espírito Santo during the period from 2007 to 2009. Descriptive methodology with secondary data obtained from the electronic address of the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System was used to analyze the dimensions of quality of information, namely accessibility, timeliness and completeness. The results indicate that the information is accessible and timely, with a lag of three years compared to the beginning of the study. The completeness of the variables analyzed in SINASC was predominantly classified as excellent. SIM revealed a high percentage of missing data on the number of the Live Birth Declaration, mother's education, age and reproductive history. The conclusion reached is that SINASC is an excellent source of information about births, though SIM reveals a marked need for improvements in the completeness of its information.

  16. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): potential vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the area associated with the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric System in Western Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Galardo, Clícia Denis; Silveira, Guilherme Abbad; Ribeiro, Kaio Augusto Nabas; Hijjar, Andréa Valadão; Oliveira, Liliane Leite; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    An entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the Santo Antônio hydroelectric system in State of Rondônia, Western Amazonian Brazil. Fourteen sampling sites were surveyed to obtain data on the potential vectors of Leishmania spp. in the area. Sand flies were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the months of January/February (rainy season), May/June (dry season), and September/October (intermediary season) using light traps arranged in three vertical strata (0.5, 1, and 20m). A total of 7,575 individuals belonging to 62 species/subspecies were collected. The five most frequently collected sand flies were Psychodopygus davisi (Root) (36.67%), Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira) (8.51%), Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha) (6.14%), Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira) (5.74%), and Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira) (5.25%). These species have been implicated in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region and described as potential vectors of this disease in the study area. Additional surveillance is needed, especially in areas where these five species of sand fly are found.

  17. A possible Echinococcus granulosus calcified cyst found in a medieval adult female from the churchyard of Santo Domingo de Silos (Prádena del Rincón, Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Monge Calleja, Álvaro M; Sarkic, Natasa; López, Jesus Herrerín; Antunes, Wilson D T; Pereira, Manuel F C; Matos, António Pedro Alves de; Santos, Ana Luísa

    2017-03-01

    Calcification, or mineralisation, can occur as part of a natural process, or by pathological processes. The purpose of this work is to examine an unidentified semi-spherical and perforate hollow mass, found near the pelvis of an adult female, dated 12th-13th century AD, exhumed of the Church of Santo Domingo de Silos (Prádena del Ricón, Madrid, Spain). The mass was examined by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. These procedures revealed a heterogeneous inner surface with both smooth and irregular areas. A larger spherical and several smaller crescent-shaped perforations were noticed. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of the elements C, K, P, Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Mg. The co-localisation of Ca and P suggests that they may be combined in a mineral matrix, likely formed in vivo. Other minerals probably came from the soil, although Fe could be related to the presence of blood. The macroscopic and microscopic appearances, chemical composition, and location of the calcified mass point to a possible hydatid cyst from Echinococcus granulosus, common in agricultural populations. This study used a suite of analytical techniques that are useful in the diagnosis of unknown calcified masses and can, therefore, be recommended for use in future analytical work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Considerations on the effects of tidal regimes in the movement of floating litter in an estuarine environment: Case study of the estuarine system of Santos-São Vicente, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Gerson; Elliff, Carla Isobel; Frutuoso, Gabriela Amado; Silva, Eric Vinícius Nascimento Malaquias da; Gama, Guilherme Santiago; Sousa, João Henrique de Oliveira; Silva, Iracema Reimão

    2016-09-15

    Floating litter in the estuarine system of Santos-São Vicente is common and is part of day-to-day activities of various users of the area. The objective of the present study was to carry out a quali-quantitative evaluation of the occurrence of floating litter, to infer their sources, and to identify environmental factors that are likely to control occurrence and distribution, with particular emphasis on the effects of tidal regimes. Six sampling stations were selected along the aforementioned estuary and visited monthly between July 2010 and January 2012. Floating litter was counted from a fixed sampling station. Plastics prevailed (89.64%) and their main source was domestic activities (55.41%). More litter was found during ebb spring tides, with higher concentrations obeying confluence patterns of the estuary's channels. Results indicated that occurrence can be attributed to the deficiency in basic sewage system in the area and the deliberate disposal into the estuary by the local population.

  19. Influence of demographics on clinical outcome of dengue: a cross-sectional study of 6703 confirmed cases in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vicente, C R; Cerutti Junior, C; Fröschl, G; Romano, C M; Cabidelle, A S A; Herbinger, K-H

    2017-01-01

    Dengue presents a wide clinical spectrum of signs and symptoms, with characteristics of the host potentially influencing the disease evolution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of gender and age on dengue clinical outcomes in a recent outbreak situation in Brazil, applying a cross-sectional design and including 6703 dengue cases with laboratory confirmation, occurring in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, between 2007 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases. Overall, 11·3% of the sample presented with severe dengue, which affected 13·0% of males, 10·0% of females, 8·8% of children, 12·5% of adolescents, 10·5% of adults and 15·5% of the elderly. Age was higher in the severe dengue group (P = 0·03). Severe dengue was associated with males and the elderly (P < 0·01); however, considering only severe cases, children presented haemorrhage and plasma leakage more frequently than older age groups. The results emphasize the importance of a differentiated protocol for management of dengue cases, taking into consideration host factors like age. These findings also suggest the elderly and children as priority groups for immunization in a future implementation of a vaccine.

  20. [Analysis of motor performance associated with the nutritional status of the elderly enrolled in the Family Health Program in the municipality of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco].

    PubMed

    Soares, Lisandra Delfino de Albuquerque; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares; Lima, Bruna Rafaela Dornelas de Andrade; Siqueira, Danielle Ferreira de; Fittipaldi, Etiene Oliveira da Silva; Arruda, Silvana Gonçalves Brito de; Faro, Zelyta Pinheiro de

    2012-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and the motor skills of the elderly registered in the Family Health Program in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco, by means of a transversal epistemological descriptive-analytical field study. The participants of this survey were 235 elders, both male and female of 60-years-old and over registered in the family health program in the urban area of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index and the circumference of the calf. Four motor tests were used to evaluate motor performance: Time Up&Go, Tinetti's Index, Functional Reach and Unipodal Support. The associations were checked using Spearman's correlation. The association of the nutritional status with the motor tests was statistically significant among males* or females**: (Time Up&Go rho = 0.290* / 350**; Functional Reach rho = 0.232* / 352**; Tinetti's Index rho = 243* / 363** and Unipodal Support rho = 221* / 475**. The evaluation of the results revealed an association between nutritional status and functional capacity of the elders no matter what gender; with obesity being a limiting nutritional condition to adequate performance in the tests.

  1. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  2. Redescription and first genetic characterisation of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), including re-evaluation of the species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) from marine fishes off Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Carla J; Pereira, Felipe B; Luque, José L

    2017-07-01

    Newly collected specimens of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 from the intestine of Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are redescribed and genetically characterised. Additionally, all congeners deposited in the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC) parasitic in marine fishes of the South Atlantic, including types of P. (S.) macaensis, were re-evaluated. The following features are described for the first time in P. (S.) macaensis: morphology and arrangement of cephalic structures, shape of deirids and location of phasmids. The position of the excretory pore, the number and arrangement of caudal papillae in males, the structure of the spicules and of tail end in both males and females are rectified. Most specimens deposited in the CHIOC identified as P. (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 were transferred to P. (S.) macaensis and others were designated as Procamallanus (S.) sp. Procamallanus (S.) cruzi Guimarães, Cristófaro & Rodrigues, 1976 is considered a species inquirenda due to its poor description and the lack of match of its original description with the type-material re-examined. Moreover, several taxonomic problems were noted after observations of the specimens (mostly poorly preserved), including inadequate morphological reports as well as misidentifications. Phylogenies inferred using sequences of the SSU rDNA from camallanids (Nematoda: Camallanidae) mostly generated weakly supported clades; however, Camallanus Railliet & Henry, 1915 and Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 do not seem to be monophyletic. Based on the present results and the lack of molecular data, it would be pertinent to adopt the widely-used classification for the subgenera of Procamallanus.

  3. Linking environmental heavy metal concentrations and salinity gradients with metal accumulation and their effects: A case study in 3 mussel species of Vitória estuary and Espírito Santo bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rodrigues, Paulo Pinheiro; Mubiana, Valentine K; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to link the heavy metal load in three species of mussels (Perna perna, Mytella falcata and Mytella guyanensis) from the estuaries and bays around Vitória island, south-east of Brazil, with the salinity gradient and the heavy metal levels in the abiotic environment (including water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment). Primarily based on the salinity gradient, a total of 26 sites around Vitória Island were selected for sampling of water, SPM, sediments and organisms. Besides tissue metal levels, the condition index and energy stores (glycogen, lipid and protein) were quantified as an indicator of fitness in response to metal pollution. Dissolved metals in water indicate that Cd and Mn content was higher along Espírito Santo Bay, while Al, Co, Cu, Cr and Fe were elevated in the sites with low salinity such as river mouths, estuarine and sewage canals. Likewise, suspended matter sampled from low salinity sites showed a higher heavy metal load compared to moderate and high salinity sites. Though mussels were sampled from different sites, the contamination for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn was higher in mussels inhabiting low salinity sites (M. guyanensis and M. falcata) compared to P. perna, a high saline water inhabitant. However, a higher Zn body burden was observed for P. perna compared to Mytella species. Tissue Fe accumulation (but not Mn and Zn) correlated with heavy metal levels in suspended material for all three species, and for M. falcata this correlation also existed for Cd and Cu. Energy store and condition index in all mussels varied depending on the sampling sites and correlated with salinity gradient rather than tissue metal concentration. Overall, metal concentration in mussels did not exceed the safe levels as per the international standards for metals, and would be of no risk for human consumption.

  4. Family size and malnutrition in Santo Domingo.

    PubMed

    MacCorquodale, D W; de Nova, H R

    1977-01-01

    A case-control study of 82 urban Dominican women with a malnourished child and 82 women with a well-nourished child of the same age, sex, and neighborhood of residence revealed that the women of the control group had significantly lower parity and also had fewer living children. More women in the case group had used contraception at one time. Nevertheless, the prevalence of current contraceptive use was identical in the two groups. More women in the control group had undergone one or more spontaneous or induced abortions. Although the women in both groups were selected from the same neighborhoods, there is evidence to suggest that the the women in the control group may have had higher family incomes. The higher incomes could well account, at least in part, for the difference in parity between the two groups as well as for the difference in nutritional status in the preschool children of the mothers of these groups.

  5. Funding boost for Santos Dumont supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite Vieira, Cássio

    2016-09-01

    The fastest supercomputer in Latin America returned to full usage last month following two months of minimal operations after Gilberto Kassab, Brazil's new science minister, agreed to plug a R4.6m (1.5m) funding gap.

  6. Family size and malnutrition in Santo Domingo.

    PubMed Central

    MacCorquodale, D W; de Nova, H R

    1977-01-01

    A case-control study of 82 urban Dominican women with a malnourished child and 82 women with a well-nourished child of the same age, sex, and neighborhood of residence revealed that the women of the control group had significantly lower parity and also had fewer living children. More women in the case group had used contraception at one time. Nevertheless, the prevalence of current contraceptive use was identical in the two groups. More women in the control group had undergone one or more spontaneous or induced abortions. Although the women in both groups were selected from the same neighborhoods, there is evidence to suggest that the the women in the control group may have had higher family incomes. The higher incomes could well account, at least in part, for the difference in parity between the two groups as well as for the difference in nutritional status in the preschool children of the mothers of these groups. PMID:910022

  7. Santos: A Digital Human in the Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    this kinematic skeleton has been used to produce highly realistic gross human motion and posture for the past two years. Recent efforts at VSR ...various aspects of a virtual human. Acknowledgements This research is funded partly by VSR partners. They include US Army TACOM, Caterpillar Inc...Natick Soldier Research Center, Honda R&D Americas Inc., and USCAR. We would like to thank all other research members within VSR for their

  8. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation.

  9. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  10. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanumamorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanumfilirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanumpsilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanumverticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanumapiahyense Witasek and Solanumlacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

  11. Research regarding anti-PGL-I antibodies by ELISA in wild armadillos from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deps, Patrícia D; Antunes, João Marcelo A P; Faria, Carlos; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Camargo, Zoilo P; Opromola, Diltor V; Tomimori, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Armadillos have been involved in leprosy transmission and are considered a source of Mycobacterium leprae in numerous reports. Clinicians from certain areas of the USA consider contact with armadillos a risk factor for leprosy. However, there is a challenge associated with the role of wild armadillos perpetuating human leprosy in the American Continent. The presence of anti-PGL-I antibodies was investigated in wild nine-banded armadillos from leprosy-endemic areas in State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, by ELISA performed on serum samples from 47 armadillos. Positive ELISA was obtained from 5 (10.6%) armadillos. Infected armadillos may play some role in leprosy transmission, disseminating bacilli in the environment, perhaps making it more difficult to interrupt transmission and reduce the number of new leprosy cases. ELISA is an efficient tool for seroepidemiological investigations of Mycobacterium leprae in armadillos.

  12. Taxonomic revision of the genus Stenocyphus Marshall (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guadalupe del Río, M.; Lanteri, Analía A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stenocyphus Marshall, 1922 (Entiminae, Naupactini) includes three species: the type species S. bituberosus (Gyllenhal, 1833), S. tuberculatus (Hustache, 1938), comb. n. herein transferred from Neoericydeus Hustache, 1938, and S. sextuberosus sp. n. The genus is endemic to the Atlantic forests of the states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil andis mainly characterized by the presence of humped elytra bearing large conical tubercles on the intervals 5, or 3 and 5, or 3, 5 and 7. It shares some external morphological characters with Hadropus Schoenherr, 1826 and the Brazilian species of Cyrtomon Schoenherr 1823, but its phylogenetic position is uncertain. Herein we provide a diagnostic key to separate Stenocyphus from those genera, generic and species redescriptions or descriptions, a key to species, habitus photographs, line drawings of genitalia, and a discussion of the patterns of elytral tubercles in unrelated genera of Neotropical broad-nosed weevils. PMID:24363577

  13. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Fernandez, Marcos A S; Vidal, Lara G; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Fragoso, Ana B L; Torres, João P M; Malm, Olaf

    2008-12-01

    In Brazil, there is no restriction to the use of organotins (OTs). Previous investigations have shown that hepatic SigmaSn in cetaceans is predominantly organic. Hepatic SigmaSn concentrations were determined by GFAAS in 67 cetaceans (13 species) that stranded on Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES) states. Concentrations (in ng/g wet wt.) of marine tucuxis (n=20) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied from 1703 to 9638. Concentrations of three marine tucuxi foetuses and one newborn calf (all from Guanabara Bay) varied between 431 and 2107. Contrastingly, the maximum level among 19 oceanic dolphins was 346, and 15 out of these 19 specimens presented concentrations below detection limit. The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs.

  14. Spatial organization of the Brazilian states with respect to human migration.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, N

    1986-01-01

    "Multidimensional scaling technique was applied to the Brazilian migration matrix in order to identify the functional regions of the nation, using the 1970 census data for males. The results obtained from three types of proximity matrices confirmed the key roles of Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso as the core states in addition to Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Substantial circulation of migrants among the core states runs counter to the popular notion about the Northeastern states as the major source of labor in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. The Northeast [was] found to consist of three groups of states: Maranhao, Piaui and Ceara showed a stable clustering, but peripherally located, in all configurations; and, the other two groups failed to form persistent regions across configurations. Though limited in scope, the observed attraction of Espirito Santo and Goias violated the widely held negative effect of distance and deserves further investigation."

  15. 77 FR 39725 - Land Acquisitions: Pueblo of Santo Domingo

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Sandoval and Santa Fe Counties, New Mexico, and are described as follows: New Mexico Principal Meridian... East, NMPM, Sandoval and Santa Fe Counties, New Mexico A parcel of land described as follows: beginning... Pueblo Grant (as originally established by Wendell V. Hall in 1907), on the south boundary of the Santa...

  16. Infant feeding practices in a poor district of Santo Domingo.

    PubMed

    Mclennan, J D; Spady, D W

    1994-01-01

    During August-December 1989, in the Dominican Republic, local health promoters interviewed 103 primary caretakers and took anthropometric measurements from 103 children aged 3 years and under during home visits in three poor neighborhoods of Los Alcarrizos (Alto de Chavon, Barrio Landia, and Pueblo Nuevo) to examine infant feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had started breast feeding. The median duration of breast feeding was 7.5 months. Almost 33% had quit breast feeding by 3 months. Perception of insufficient milk was the leading reason for early discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. The local pharmacies in all three communities offered powdered milk. About 25% of mothers began using breast milk substitutes within the first week. A non-infant formula milk powder was the most commonly used breast milk substitute. 30% of mothers stored prepared milk for later feeds, as long as half a day. Only 13% of households had a refrigerator. The most frequently used first weaning foods were orange juice, lime juice, and beans. 76% of mothers had used or were currently using baby bottles. 95% of them reported washing the bottle in boiling water. The median age of introducing the baby bottle was 3 days. Only 44% of mother covered prepared food during storage. The most commonly eaten foods among children aged at least 1 year were milk, beans, rice, and citrus fruits. Yet the children did not eat all these foods daily. 18% of 1-2 year olds and 13% of 2-3 year olds did not eat meats and alternatives regularly. 7% of 1-2 year olds and 10% of 2-3 year olds did not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. 4% of 1-2 year olds and 3% of 2-3 year olds did not eat breads and cereals regularly. About 14% of all children were not consuming any milk at the time of the survey. These findings will be used to refine nutrition education programs in the district to make them more effective.

  17. New Capabilities for the Virtual-Human Santos (trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    posture prediction based on psychophysical discomfort”, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , Vol. 18, pp. 173-179. 11. Jung, E.S., Kee, D...for ergonomic evaluation models”, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , Vol. 16, pp. 95-107. 13. Kee, D., Jung, E.S., and Chang, S., 1994

  18. Astronomy and "Azulejo" Panels in Portuguese Jesuit Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Rosário Salema; Gessner, Samuel; Tirapicos, Luís

    2015-05-01

    In Portugal the Jesuits used tiles (azulejos) for parietal decoration of various areas of their colleges, especially in the second quarter of the 18th century. Various tile panels are still conserved in the important colleges of Lisbon and Évora. The iconographies address a variety of philosophical, historical and mathematical topics and scenes evoking the gentry's life; but they are to some extent illustrative of the subject matters taught by the different chairs. Astronomy is a major subject in the Aula da Esfera of the Santo Antão College in Lisbon, which was not destroyed during the great earthquake of 1755. In the Espirito Santo College in Évora there is also a hall preserved with astronomy and geometry topics. In this paper we will analyze the iconographical program for these parietal decorations in the context of the Jesuits' activities of teaching and practical astronomy. In particular, we will identify various printed sources from which the compositions on these panels derive.

  19. Astronomy and "Azulejo" Panels in Portuguese Jesuit Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Rosário Salema de; Gessner, Samuel; Tirapicos, Luís

    2015-05-01

    In Portugal the Jesuits used tiles (azulejos) for parietal decoration of various areas of their colleges, especially in the second quarter of the 18th century. Various tile panels are still conserved in the important colleges of Lisbon and Évora. The iconographies address a variety of philosophical, historical and mathematical topics and scenes evoking the gentry's life; but they are to some extent illustrative of the subject matters taught by the different chairs. Astronomy is a major subject in the Aula da Esfera of the Santo Antão College in Lisbon, which was not destroyed during the great earthquake of 1755. In the Espirito Santo College in Évora there is also a hall preserved with astronomy and geometry topics. In this paper we will analyze the iconographical program for these parietal decorations in the context of the Jesuits' activities of teaching and practical astronomy. In particular, we will identify various printed sources from which the compositions on these panels derive.

  20. The petroleum habitat in the post-rift sequences in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    De Figueiredo, A.M.F.D.; Fernandes, G.J.F.; Guimaraes, P.T.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The post-rift sedimentary strata of the Brazilian coastal basins are made of two main sequences: the evaporite and carbonatic Albian-Aptian sequence, and the open-marine Late Albian to Recent sequence, both related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. More than 40 billion barrels of oil-equivalent in place has been found in these sequences, mostly in siliciclastic reservoirs above and below the Aptian salt beds. The productive basins are Campos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe-Alagoas, Potiguar, Ceara, and Santos, but the first one is responsible for more than 60% of the original oil in place discovered in these basins. The hydrocarbon origin, migration, and accumulation models in these sequences are discussed and exemplified by some giant oil fields of Campos and Sergipe-Alagoas basins, where oil is trapped in Aptian conglomerates, Albian carbonates, and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary turbidite sandstones. The cumulative production in these sequences reaches 958.6 million barrels and the proved exploitable reserve amounts reach 2.7 billion barrels of oil-equivalent. Petrobras' exploratory forecast indicates that the post-rift sequences are the most prolific ones in the Brazilian marginal basins. The oil-equivalent that is expected to be discovered, particularly in deep water areas, where giant oil fields (as the Marlim field) have been found, exceeds the amount that has been discovered until now.

  1. Intensive Eucalyptus plantation management in Brazil: Long-term effects on soil carbon dynamics across 300 sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, R. L.; Stape, J.; Binkley, D.

    2011-12-01

    Intensively managed forest plantations now cover more than 6 million hectares in Brazil, and another 20 million hectares in other tropical regions. Although aboveground biomass, and therefore carbon, is well monitored due to commercial interest, the belowground carbon dynamics and site sustainability remain poorly understood. So, how does intensive silviculture change the storage of carbon in soils? Trends in soil organic carbon from land-use change indicate that conversion from pastures to Eucalyptus plantations should maintain soil carbon stocks. However, comprehensive, long-term studies are needed to understand the variability in these trends to better manage these systems for sustainable productivity across a highly variable landscape, as well as to understand the role that soils may play in sequestering carbon for climate change mitigation. In this unique, long-term soil study, soil samples were collected in the 1980s/90s, 2001, and 2010 across 300 intensively managed Eucalyptus plantation sites located in the states of Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Natural ecosystems for these states include Savannah-Dry Forest, Atlantic Forest, and Savanna, respectively. The sampling covered at least three complete rotations of Eucalyptus at each site; climate, past land use, productivity, and soil characteristics vary across this geographic gradient. Across the two periods, both Espirito Santo (P<0.001) and Bahia (P=0.05) showed a decrease in soil carbon concentrations, while Sao Paulo saw no change over time. For the 0-30 cm layer, plantations in Espirito Santo state had the largest decrease in soil carbon concentration up to 2001, decreasing soil carbon stocks at an average rate of 1.3 Mg C ha-1 year-1. This, however, was followed by no significant change from 2001 to 2010 which may indicate stabilization of soil carbon stocks under the new land use. The Eucalyptus in Bahia created no change in the first sampling period, but saw a decline of 0.35 Mg C ha-1

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Members of the Stafford-Covey Return to Flight Task Group (SCTG) look over equipment in the Orbiter Processing Facility. At left (back to camera), Fernando Santos, with NASA, and Paul Ogletree (at monitor), with United Space Alliance, describe how flash thermography is used to inspect the structure of Reinforced Carbon Carbon panels and establish a baseline on panels before flight. Chairing the task group are Richard O. Covey (far right), former Space Shuttle commander, and Thomas P. Stafford, Apollo commander. Chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe, the task group will perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-06

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Members of the Stafford-Covey Return to Flight Task Group (SCTG) look over equipment in the Orbiter Processing Facility. At left (back to camera), Fernando Santos, with NASA, and Paul Ogletree (at monitor), with United Space Alliance, describe how flash thermography is used to inspect the structure of Reinforced Carbon Carbon panels and establish a baseline on panels before flight. Chairing the task group are Richard O. Covey (far right), former Space Shuttle commander, and Thomas P. Stafford, Apollo commander. Chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe, the task group will perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  3. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  4. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  5. Factors Associated with Intubation Time and ICU Stay After CABG

    PubMed Central

    Flegler, Suzanny; Paro, Flavia Marini

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with intubation time and intensive care unit stay after coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS This was a retrospective study, whose data collection was performed in the hospital charts of 160 patients over 18 years, who underwent surgery from September 2009 to July of 2013 in a hospital in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 61.44±8.93 years old and 68.8% were male. Subjects had a mean of 5.17±8.42 days of intensive care unit stay and mean intubation time of 10.99±8.41 hours. We observed statistically significant positive correlation between the following variables: patients' age and intubation time; patients' age and intensive care unit stay; intubation time and intensive care unit stay. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the study showed that older patients had longer intubation time and increased intensive care unit stay. Furthermore, patients with longer intubation time had increased intensive care unit stay. PMID:26934403

  6. Dengue virus RNA purification from human plasma: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2011-11-01

    Dengue virus RNA purification from human plasma is useful for research and clinical purposes. Dengue is endemic in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, and it is progressively becoming a hard-to-control public health problem. Dengue virus types 1, 2 and 3 are currently found in Brazilian territory, and recently Dengue virus type 4 has been reported to enter Brazilian borders. This virus spreads rapidly during epidemic outbreaks, and thousands of patients are infected annually, with an underestimated number of deaths in consequence of hemorrhagic Dengue. Because this disease affects mainly developing countries, it is imperative that a robust, rapid and low cost method for viral nucleic acid purification is found. In this manuscript we compare two RNA extraction methods from serum/plasma of patients with clinical diagnosis of dengue. The QIAamp(®) UltraSens Virus Kit (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, USA) and the less expensive Chomczynski-Sacchi method were used to analyze a total of 47 samples. After nucleic acid purification, reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with dengue virus type 2 specific primers were performed. This subtype is the most prevalent in our geographical location. Thirty-four samples were positive when RNA was extracted by the Chomczynski-Sacchi technique, whereas only 27 of these were positive when the QIAamp(®) UltraSens Virus Kit was used. These results favor the utilization of the more affordable technique for the purification of viral RNA, which is especially important for developing countries.

  7. Primary human herpesvirus-6 and -7 infections, often coinciding, misdiagnosed as measles in children from a tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, S. A.; Turner, D. J.; Knowles, W.; Nascimento, J. P.; Brown, D. W. G.; Ward, K. N.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated primary human herpesvirus-6 and -7 (HHV-6, HHV-7) infections as a cause of rashes incorrectly diagnosed as measles in Brazilian children. Sera from 124 patients, aged 4 months to 17 years, from the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo, in whom measles, rubella and parvovirus B19 infections had been excluded, were studied using indirect immunofluorescence antibody avidity tests; 38 (31%) had evidence of primary HHV-6 and/or HHV-7 infections. Twenty four children had primary HHV-6 infection, either recent or coincident with the rash, and similarly 31 had primary HHV-7 infection. Remarkably, almost half (17) of primary infections were dual HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections with the majority, 12 (71%), in children less than 1 year old. HHV-7 infection occurred earlier than previously reported, perhaps due to socioeconomic and tropical conditions in this region of Brazil, and thus coincided with the HHV-6 infections. This study also highlights the difficulties of diagnosing a rash illness on clinical grounds alone. PMID:14596528

  8. Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and their relationship to socio-economic status in Vitoria, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maciel, E L N; Pan, W; Dietze, R; Peres, R L; Vinhas, S A; Ribeiro, F K; Palaci, M; Rodrigues, R R; Zandonade, E; Golub, J E

    2010-11-01

    To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economic status in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselin's local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economic status and TB incidence. A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100,000 population. Moran's I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.0001), and four areas of high incidence were identified by LISA and Gi* statistics. Smoothed spatial empirical Bayes estimates demonstrate that two of these areas range from 70 to 90 cases/100,000, while the other two range from 40 to 70 cases/100,000. TB incidence and socio-economic status had a significant curvilinear relationship (P = 0.02). Data derived from these spatial statistical tools will help TB control programs to allocate TB resources to those populations most at risk of increasing TB rates and to target areas where TB control efforts need to be concentrated.

  9. Fugitive particulate emission measurements at two industrial facilities at the Port of Tubarao

    SciTech Connect

    Muleski, G.E.; Arantes, J.V.; Lyrio, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes a series of field tests of particulate matter (PM) from two industrial facilities located at the Port of Tubarao, Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Tests occurred at both an integrated iron and steel plant operated by Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST) and large facility operated by Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD). The CVRD facility includes iron ore pelletizing and marine shipping operations. The principal objectives of the study were to develop site-specific emission factors for several PM emission sources at the two facilities and to determine the control efficiency of currently applied emission control measures. Two emission source measurement techniques were employed. The first -- known as the portable wind tunnel method -- allowed the accurate determination of wind erosion potential of erodible surfaces. This technique was applied to approximately 30 different erodible surfaces between the two facilities. The second test method is known as the exposure profiling technique and is applicable to a wide variety of anthropogenic (man-made) dust sources. The exposure profiling method was used to generate emission measurements from approximately 40 material transfer operations at the two facilities.

  10. Quality Evaluation of Cone Biopsy Specimens Obtained by Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Ramos, Aristoteles Mauricio; Garcia Ramos, Erika Souza; dos Reis, Helena Lucia Barroso; de Rezende, Ricardo Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Background Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions, and it is the first choice of treatment in the majority of cervical pathology services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of thermal artifacts, the need for serial sections, the percentage of clear and involved resection margins and the relationship between endocervical gland involvement and the severity of the lesion in samples resected using LLETZ. Methods A retrospective study was performed at Santa Casa de Misericordia School of Science (HSCMV), Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil with a sample of 52 histopathology slides from patients submitted to conization because of abnormal cytology findings and a biopsy result of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2, CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test. Results Serial sections were required to confirm diagnosis in four of 52 cases. Thermal artifacts were present in all cases, with grade I being the most common (94.2% of cases). Clear margins were found in 96.2% of cases. No association was found between glandular involvement and CIN 1 (P > 0.05); however, there was an association with CIN 2 and CIN 3 (P < 0.05). Conclusion The amount of excised tissue was sufficient, thermal artifacts were slight, resection margins were clear in most of cases, and a possible association was found between glandular involvement and the severity of the lesion. PMID:25699117

  11. Nematode assemblages associated with the parthenogenetic lizard Ameivula nativo in six restinga areas along the eastern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, V A; Mascarenhas, J C; Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D

    2017-10-04

    We surveyed the nematode assemblages associated with populations of the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Ameivula nativo from six coastal restinga areas in eastern Brazil: Setiba, Comboios and Guriri (State of Espirito Santo) and Guaratiba, Prado and Maraú (State of Bahia). A total of five nematode species (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Skrjabinelazia intermedia, Subulura lacertilia and Parapharyngodon sp.) were recorded from the six different populations of A. nativo. There was considerable variation in overall prevalence of infection (1-42%) among study sites, but geographical distance among areas did not influence similarity in the composition of nematode assemblages. Overall intensity of infection was not affected by lizard body size and did not seem to affect host body condition, based on pooled data of all populations. The studied populations of the unisexual A. nativo had relatively low prevalences and intensities of infection compared to some bisexual congeners and to sympatric lizards from other families for which such data are available. We believe that the low richness of the nematode fauna associated with A. nativo, both locally and regionally, may reflect its narrow geographic distribution and the low diversity of habitats it occupies.

  12. Hydrological Investigations of the Santo Domingo Basin, New Mexico Using ýElectromagnetic Soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, T.; Dlubac, K.; Feigelson, L.; Fisher, J.; Haber, S.; Rust, G.; Woodworth, J.; Jiracek, G.; Pellerin, L.

    2007-12-01

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) soundings made during the ýSAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program in 2006-2007 to assess the ýhydrologic environment in the arid environment of the Santa Domingo Basin, northern ýNew Mexico. Water wells in the upper 600 m allowed the comparison of the field data ýwith synthetic soundings derived from borehole resistivity logs. Conductive, clay-rich ýlayers of less than 20 ohm-m dominate the upper basin fill except where resistive, ýpresumably sand, layers of several hundred ohm-m are present. Only where the thickness ýof the resistive layers exceeds their depths can they be resolved by the electromagnetic ýý(EM) methods. Consequently, delineation of the highest quality aquifers is only possible ýusing EM if resistive layers are relatively thick. One- and two-dimensional inversion of ýthe TEM and MT data, respectively, allowed some estimates of the salinity and/or ýporosity of the thick, predominantly sand, resistive zones using Archie's law. Forward ýand inverse modeling facilitated sensitivity analyses to evaluate which modeled ýsubsurface features were required by the field data and which features were supported by ýborehole logs. EM imaging of thick, water-saturated resistive zones, where confined and ýlaterally extensive, reveal aquifers valuable both for their potable water and storage ýcapacity. ý

  13. [Spanish influenza in the Bahia de Todos os Santos: between science rituals and faith rituals].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Christiane Maria Cruz

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze responses of the population to the influenza epidemic that struck Salvador, capital of Bahia state, Brazil, in early September 1918. From this perspective, we discuss the measures taken by health authorities, the defensive actions of ordinary people, and the adoption of religion-based practices to confront a disease hitherto considered benign and seasonal, which appeared with a surprising virulence at an unusual time of year. We used newspapers published in Salvador during the influenza epidemic as a privileged source for this research.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SWEETCat I. Stellar parameters for host stars (Santos+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Mortier, A.; Neves, V.; Adibekyan, V.; Tsantaki, M.; Delgado Mena, E.; Bonfils, X.; Israelian, G.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.

    2013-07-01

    The file sweetcat.dat contains the spectroscopic parameters for all the planet hosts compiled for this work (data as of July 2013). Up to date tables can be found at http://www.astro.up.pt/resources/sweet-cat . The spectra were gathered through observations, made by our team, and by the use of the ESO archive. In total, six different spectrographs were used: FEROS (2.2m ESO/MPI telescope, La Silla, Chile), FIES (Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, Spain), HARPS (3.6m ESO telescope, La Silla, Chile), SARG (TNG Telescope, La Palma, Spain), SOPHIE (1.93m telescope, OHP, France), and UVES (VLT Kueyen telescope, Paranal, Chile). (2 data files).

  15. "Being Present in the World": A Conversation with Professor Jose Marques dos Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.; Dodds, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The University of Porto was awarded the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Elite Award for its innovative application of information technology to a European university. This university--nearly one hundred years old--is pressing hard, on a number of fronts, to place itself in the top rank of European universities. The Rector of the…

  16. [Outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Follador, I; Araujo, C; Cardoso, M A; Tavares-Neto, J; Barral, A; Miranda, J C; Bittencourt, A; Carvalho, E M

    1999-01-01

    An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was detected in the village of Canoa in 1993. A prospective observational study was outlined to determine the frequency rates and to clinically characterize the disease. A total of 555 people were followed up. There were 29 cases of ACL, 11 cases of probably previous ACL (scars) and 529 healthy individuals. Of these 529 individuals, 65 had a positive Montenegro reaction without any present or past evidence of leishmaniasis. The prevalence of ACL during the two years was 5.2% (29/555). The leishmania involved was Leishmania braziliensis and the vector, Lutzomyia intermedia. Evidence of infection was detected in dogs and horses. The high frequency of the disease among children under ten years, the similar sex distribution of cases and a component of familial aggregation suggest a peri- or intra-domiciliary transmission.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  18. Source-rock evaluation of outcrop samples from Vanuatu (Malakula, Espiritu Santo, Maewo, and Pentecost)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchbinder, Binyamin; Halley, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    The samples collected for the present study represent only a portion of the sedimentary column in the various sedimentary basins of Vanuatu.  The characterize only the outer margins of the sedimentary basins and do not necessarily reflect the source-rock potential of the deeper (offshore) parts of the basins.

  19. [Adequacy process of prenatal care according to the criteria of humanizing of prenatal care and childbirth program and stork network].

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Katrini Guidolini; Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro Dos; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of the process of prenatal care according to the parameters of the Program for the Humanization of Prenatal Care (PHPN) and of the procedures provided by the Stork Network of Unified Health System (SUS) in the microregion of Espirito Santo state, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2013 by interviewing and analyzing the records of 742 women during the postpartum period and of their newborns in 7 hospitals in the region chosen for the research. The information was collected, processed and analyzed by the χ² and Fisher's exact test to determine the difference in proportion between the criteria adopted by the PHPN and the Stork Network and the place of residence, family income and type of coverage of prenatal service. The level of significance was set at 5%. The parameters showing the lowest adequacy rate were quick tests and repeated exams, with frequencies around 10 and 30%, respectively, in addition to educational activities (57.9%) and tetanus immunization (58.7%). In contrast, risk management (92.6%) and the fasting plasma glucose test (91.3%) showed the best results. Adequacy was 7.4% for the PHPN, 0.4% for the Stork Network, with respect to the parameters of normal risk pregnancies, and 0 for high risk pregnancies. There was a significant difference between puerperae according to housing location regarding the execution of serology for syphilis (VDRL), anti-HIV and repeated fasting glucose tests, and monthly income influenced the execution of blood type/Rh factor tests, VDRL, hematocrit and anti-HIV test. Prenatal care in the SUS proved to be inadequate regarding the procedures required by the PHPN and Stork Network in the micro-region of a state in southeastern Brazil, especially for women of lower income, PACS users and residents of rural areas.

  20. Rainfall Variability under the South Pacific Convergence Zone as Reconstructed from a Speleothem Record (1670-2005) from Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Maupin, C. R.; Lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Sinclair, D. J.; Banner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The tropical Pacific exhibits known climate changes on interannual timescales during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events causing global socio-economic impacts. On decadal timescales, climate changes associated with oscillations in the tropical Pacific have been postulated, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the instrumental record is too short and too sparse to allow reliable and convincing evaluation of such decadal-scale oscillations. A fast-growing speleothem (~1-3 mm/year) collected from the island of Espirito Santo, Vanuatu (15.5°S, 167°E), which is located under the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) yields a record of rainfall variability spanning ~1670 - 2005 Common Era (CE), as dated by U-Th disequilibrium techniques. Close agreement between speleothem stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) and the amount of rainfall from nearby Pekoa Airport demonstrates the ability of the speleothem to record hydrologic changes above-ground. While the speleothem grows fast enough to capture the annual cycle, mixing of rain and groundwaters in the overlying bedrock dampens this δ18O signal. However, interannual changes in speleothem δ18O, or reconstructed rainfall, of ~0.6 ‰ appear to capture events associated with ENSO and subsequent reorganizations of the SPCZ. The speleothem sample offers the opportunity to record local expressions of ENSO-related changes in rainfall for the last several hundred years. The speleothem record complements previously published coral records from Vanuatu of oceanic changes to provide a broader picture of pre-instrumental ENSO variability in the region. The speleothem δ18O record also exhibits concentrations of variance on the decadal scale, which correlate with variations associated with the PDO. The amplitude of this decadal signal is large (~1.5 ‰), which serves to highlight the sensitivity of SPCZ rainfall to decadal-scale changes in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system.

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus in Brazil’s inmate population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Pinto, Walkyria Pereira; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Tengan, Fátima Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population. METHODS Systematic review on hepatitis C virus infection in the inmate population. Brazilian studies published from January 1, 1989 to February 20, 2014 were evaluated. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a scale of 0 to 8 points. RESULTS Eleven eligible studies were analyzed and provided data on hepatitis C virus infection among 4,375 inmates from seven states of Brazil, with a mean quality classification of 7.4. The overall hepatitis C virus prevalence among Brazilian inmates was 13.6% (ranging from 1.0% to 41.0%, depending on the study). The chances of inmates being seropositive for hepatitis C virus in the states of Minas Gerais (MG), Sergipe (SE), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Goiás (GO) and Espirito Santo (ES) were 84.0% (95%CI 0.06;0.45), 92.0% (95%CI 0.04;0.13), 88.0% (95%CI 0.09;0.18), 74.0% (95%CI 0.16;0.42), 84.0% (95%CI 0.08;0.31) and 89.0% (95%CI 0.01;0.05) respectively, lower than that observed in the Sao Paulo state (seroprevalence of 29.3%). The four studies conducted in the city of Sao Paulo revealed a lower prevalence in more recent studies compared to older ones. CONCLUSIONS The highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population was found in Sao Paulo, which may reflect the urban diversity of the country. Despite Brazilian studies having good methodological quality to evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus, they are scarce and lack data on risk factors associated with this infection, which could support decisions on prevention and implementation of public health policies for Brazilian prisons. PMID:26247383

  2. Source apportionment of settleable particles in an impacted urban and industrialized region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jane Meri; Reis, Neyval Costa; Galvão, Elson Silva; Silveira, Alexsander; Goulart, Elisa Valentim; Lima, Ana Teresa

    2017-08-07

    Settleable particulate matter (SPM), especially coarser particles with diameters greater than 10 μm, has been found culprit of high deposition rates in cities affected by hinterland industrial activities. This is the case of Metropolitan Region of Vitoria (MRV), Espirito Santo, Brazil where industrial facilities are located within the urban sprawl and building constructions are intense. Frequent population complaints to the environmental protection agency (IEMA) throughout the years have triggered monitoring campaigns to determine SPM deposition rates and source apportionment. Eight different locations were monitored throughout the MRV, and SPM was quantified and chemically characterized. Sources profiles were defined either by using US EPA SPECIATE data or by experimental analysis. Atmospheric fallout in the MRV ranged between 2 and 20g/(m(2) 30-day), with only one monitoring station ranging from 6-10 g/(m(2) 30-day). EC, OC, Fe, Al, and Si were found the main constituents of dry deposition in the region. Source apportionment by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model determined that steel and iron ore pelletizing industries were the main contributor to one of the eight locations whereas resuspension, civil construction, and vehicular sources were also very important contributors to the other stations. Quarries and soil were also considered expressive SPM sources, but at the city periphery. CMB model could differentiate contributions from six industrial source groups: thermoelectric; iron ore, pellet, and pellet furnaces; coal coke and coke oven; sintering, blast furnace, and basic oxygen furnace; and soil, resuspension, and vehicles. However, the CMB model was unable to differentiate between iron ore and pellet stockpiles which are present in both steel and iron ore pelletizing industries. Further characterization of source and SPM might be necessary to aid local authorities in decision-making regarding these two industrial sources.

  3. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  4. Decadal changes in a polluted bay as seen from its seaweed flora: the case of Santos Bay in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eurico C; Qi, Yaobin

    2003-09-01

    The first comprehensive seaweed flora of a Brazilian region was published by Joly in 1957, describing and illustrating 105 taxa. Twenty years later Oliveira and Berchez resurveyed the area and found only 69 taxa, with a strong reduction in the number of brown algae. In another survey, performed in 1991 at the 3 studied stations with the largest species richness, the same reduction trend was found and no brown algae were observed. This reduction in biodiversity was attributed to increased pollution. Here we present the results of a new survey made in 1998-1999. This shows the return of some species recorded in the 1950s, including 7 species of brown algae. This increase in species number is thought to be a consequence of the efforts made by the local government to reduce pollution and the building of a submarine sewage terminal.

  5. The Future Subjunctive in Galician-Portuguese: A Review of "Cantigas de Santa Maria" and "A Demanda do Santo Graal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Maria Luiza Carrano

    2009-01-01

    The usage and disappearance of the Central Ibero-Romance future subjunctive have been extensively researched through Old Spanish texts. Studies on the future subjunctive as it evolved in the farther Western Ibero-Romance languages, represented by Galician and Portuguese, have been scarce, if not incomplete. This dissertation partially fills the…

  6. A new species of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) from the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tonini, João F. R.; Forlani, Maurício C.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Among Neotropical microhylids, the genus Chiasmocleis is exceptionally diverse. Most species of Chiasmocleis were described in recent years based on external morphology, but recent studies using molecular data did not support the monophyly of the species groups clustered based on feet webbing. Furthermore, a phylogeographic study of C. lacrimae estimated high genetic divergence and low gene flow among populations across small geographic ranges. Increasing the molecular and geographic sampling, and incorporating morphological data, we identified new cryptic species. Herein, we used novel genetic and morphological data to describe a new species of Chiasmocleis. PMID:25161370

  7. Are there general spatial patterns of mangrove structure and composition along estuarine salinity gradients in Todos os Santos Bay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Patrícia; Dórea, Antônio; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Barros, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution and structural patterns of mangrove fringe forests along three tropical estuaries were evaluated in northeast of Brazil. Interstitial water salinity, percentage of fine sediments and organic matter content were investigated as explanatory variables. In all estuaries (Jaguaripe, Paraguaçu and Subaé estuaries), it was observed similar distribution patterns of four mangrove species and these patterns were mostly related with interstitial water salinity. Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia schaueriana tended to dominate sites under greater marine influence (lower estuary), while Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa dominated areas under greater freshwater influence (upper estuary), although the latter showed a wider distribution over these tropical estuarine gradients. Organic matter best explained canopy height and mean height. At higher salinities, there was practically no correlation between organic matter and density, but at lower salinity, organic matter was related to decreases in abundances. The described patterns can be related to interspecific differences in salt tolerance and competitive abilities and they are likely to be found at other tropical Atlantic estuaries. Future studies should investigate anthropic influences and causal processes in order to further improve the design of monitoring and restoration projects.

  8. The University of Santo Tomas Viewed from the Lens of Total Quality Management: Implications to Total Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Torres, Josefina R.

    2004-01-01

    Considered as a major management approach for improving organizational performance and competitive advantage, Total Quality Management (TQM) poses a challenge to dynamic institutions to adopt a systemic philosophy that places emphasis on customer needs and a commitment to a culture of excellence. Higher education institutions (HEIs) as learning…

  9. LDL apheresis in the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia: experience of Hospital Santo António, Porto.

    PubMed

    Palma, Isabel; Caldas, Ana Rita; Palma, Isabel Mangas; Queirós, José Alexandre; Madureira, Anselmo; Oliveira, José Carlos; Palma, Paulo; Correia, Carlos; Ramos, Maria Helena

    2015-03-01

    High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a risk factor for the development of premature atherosclerosis. Direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) is an apheresis technique by which LDL cholesterol is selectively removed from whole blood. The present study describes our experience with DALI LDL apheresis in severely hypercholesterolemic patients. Three hypercholesterolemic patients suffering from atherosclerotic complications were treated fortnightly by DALI apheresis, in a total of 308 sessions between December 2008 and January 2013. All patients were on the highest tolerated dose of statins and other lipid-lowering drugs. The sessions were essentially uneventful, adverse events being recorded in only 3.6% of them. A mean 63.3% acute reduction in LDL cholesterol was obtained. DALI apheresis proved to be a simple, safe and efficient method of lipid apheresis in hypercholesterolemic patients refractory to conservative lipid-lowering therapy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Keys to the Larval and Adult Mosquitoes of Espiritu Santo (New Hebrides) with Notes on Their Bionomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-01-01

    probability never be found. A total of eighteen species was collected during the time spent by the author in the New Hebrides. Limited collections were...greatly facilitated by the generous assistance of Dr. S. C. Bruner of the Estacion Ex- perimental Agronomica at Santiago de las Vegas and Dr. J. M

  11. L'Astronomia del Venerdí Santo, l'eclissi di Luna e l'ora della Sindone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Dating the crucifixion on friday 3 April 33, when, at sunset a partially eclipsed Moon rised allows to interprete the speech of Saint Peter (Acts 2:20=Joel 3:4) on the day of Pentecost as including an account of this eclipse, as fulfillment of the Scriptures. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. The observations of the equinoctial moonrise from the Mount of Olives on September 2013 are strongly in favour of the hypotehsis of possible observation of the lunar eclipse of 33 AD by Jewish people, as well as the sunrises observed from the Temple Institute terrace in Southern-East Jerusalem demonstrated that this eclipse could have been seen from Jerusalem. The depression of the horizon and the refraction allow to see Sun and Moon more than 1 degree below the geometrical horizon in the azimuthal direction ranging from 90 to 116, prologing to 16 minutes the duration of the partial lunar eclipse observed in 33AD. Texts of Matthew, Mark and Cyrillus of Jerusalem are also commented.

  12. Comparison of Ground and Aerial Ultra-Low Volume Applications of Malathion against Aedes aegypti in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    number] x I00. bed in the front bedroom and another placed in Ovitrap collections: Each of the 25 houses used the open area of the living room in each of...the for adult collections in the 3 treatment areas 5 homes in which spinners and filter papers had also had an ovitrap placed outside in an area been...activity as an indicator of adult gravid used for adult collections in the control area. female densities. An ovitrap consisted of 150 ml Two additional

  13. The Future Subjunctive in Galician-Portuguese: A Review of "Cantigas de Santa Maria" and "A Demanda do Santo Graal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Maria Luiza Carrano

    2009-01-01

    The usage and disappearance of the Central Ibero-Romance future subjunctive have been extensively researched through Old Spanish texts. Studies on the future subjunctive as it evolved in the farther Western Ibero-Romance languages, represented by Galician and Portuguese, have been scarce, if not incomplete. This dissertation partially fills the…

  14. Integrated assessment for establishing an oil environmental vulnerability map: case study for the Santos Basin region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Romero, A F; Abessa, D M S; Fontes, R F C; Silva, G H

    2013-09-15

    The growth of maritime transport and oil exploitation activities may increase the risk of oil spills. Thus, plans and actions to prevent or mitigate impacts are needed to minimize the effects caused by oil. However, tools used worldwide to support contingency plans have not been integrated, thus leading to failure in establishing priority areas. This investigation aimed to develop indices of environmental vulnerability to oil (IEVO), by combining information about environmental sensibility to oil and results of numerical modeling of spilled oil. To achieve that, a case study concerning to oil spills scenarios in a subtropical coastal area was designed, and IEVOs were calculated and presented in maps, in order to make the information about the areas' vulnerability more easily visualized. For summer, the extension of coastline potentially affected by oil was approximately 150 km, and most of the coastline presented medium to high vulnerability. For winter, 230 km coastline would be affected, from which 75% were classified as medium to high vulnerability. Thus, IEVO maps allowed a rapid and clearer interpretation of the vulnerability of the mapped region, facilitating the planning process and the actions in response to an oil spill.

  15. Groundwater resources of Ribeira Paúl basin, island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  16. The power of games. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Cooperators are those who contribute to a common pool while Defectors just exploit the formers' investments. If we follow the most rational individual choice then no one should contribute hence there would be nothing to exploit. This dilemma is at the heart of every conflict which is summarized as the problem of cooperation and provides the natural setting for the occurrence of the tragedy of the commons. It emerges in a wild variety of fields and systems ranging from the smallest, such as viruses and bacteria, to the largest ones which are formed by countries with partly conflicting interests [1]. The present study [2] focuses on the latter end of this spectrum by considering the global warming problem, which importance cannot be exaggerated. Traditionally, Game Theory is supposed to describe the mathematical framework of conflicts. These problems could be especially challenging when we analyze the competition of several participants whose collective behavior elevates the difficulty to a higher level. This complexity, however, provides an attractive hunting field for scientists with a statistical physics background: concepts familiar to them, such as phase transitions, pattern formation, scaling and universal behaviors have allowed this field to flourish in the last two decades. The present work is a beautiful example of this research avenue.

  17. Updating the Seismic Hazard Determination in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This job presents an update of research by Berrocal in 1996 in the determination of seismic hazard for the Southeast of Brazil, based on the earthquake catalog compiled at the Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo and bulletin of Seismological Observatory, Universidade de Brasilia, during the period between 1767 until May 2012. The southeastern Brazil has a level of seismic activity is considered low, typical of intraplate regions. Our database has a total of 3726 events, however 1242 events do not have the magnitude estimated, 1638 events are between magnitudes 0.1 to 1.9 and from 2.0 to 3.9 are 819 events. The largest earthquake in the region occurred on February 28, 1955 with magnitude 6.1 mb (Assumpção, 2000), with its epicenter about 400 km from the coast, this was felt in small cities, especially in Espirito Santo State. The intensity VIII-IX MM was estimated by Berrocal et al. (1984). The database also has four events with magnitude above 5.0 mb in the region that occurred during the past 215 years and a little more than a twenty earthquakes with magnitude between 4.0 and 5.0 mb. Instrumental data are available since the 1970s when the station network was installed in Brasilia. Several other short-period vertical stations have been installed in the region. We used data from the same area defined in the previous survey, located between parallels 15S-32S degree and longitudes 35W-52W degree. It contains the most developed area of Brazil, and the major cities and industrial centers of the country (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte). Major engineering works, hydroelectric and nuclear power plant (Angra dos Reis) are also in this area. Therefore, the results can be applied to the planning and construction of large engineering within that region. With GIS and seismology tools was calculated relative frequency/magnitude for earthquakes mb > 3.0, the value of b with the maximum likelihood method, and so curves of recurrence was

  18. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    are associated with high- and above normal winter precipitation. As an example; during negative MOI phases the probability of below average precipitation is 78%. During positive MOI phases the probability is 41%. These findings can be considered valuable for the purpose of forecasting drought within the Jordan River region. References: Black, E. (2011). The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and European circulation regimes on the daily to interannual variability of winter precipitation in Israel. International Journal of Climatology, 1-11. doi:10.1002/joc.2383 Palutikof, J. P., Conte, M., Casimiro Mendes, J., Goodess, C. M., & Espirito Santo, F. (1996). Climate and climate change. In C. J. Brandt & J. B. Thornes (Eds.), Mediterranean desertification and land use. London, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

  19. Mutation analysis of GJB2 and GJB6 genes in Southeastern Brazilians with hereditary nonsyndromic deafness.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Silva, Melissa de Freitas; Barbosa, Andressa; Santiago, Marília; Provetti, Mariana; Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Tovar, Thais Tristão; Rabbi-Bortolini, Eliete; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2011-02-01

    In developed countries deafness has a genetic cause in over 60% of the cases. Contrastingly, in Brazil, it is estimated that only 16% of all deafnesses are caused by genetic factors. Among hereditary hearing deficiencies, approximately half is caused by mutations in the Gap Junction Protein Beta-2 (GJB2) gene, which encodes the protein Connexin 26 (Cx26). There are four mutations in this gene that present high prevalence in specific ethnical groups, namely, 35delG, 167delT, 235delC, and W24X. The 35delG mutation is the most frequent one, occurring in homozygosity or in compound heterozygosity with mutations in the GJB2 and GJB6 genes. This study aims to determine the prevalence of GJB2-35delG, GJB2-167delT, GJB2-235delC, GJB2-W24X, del (GJB6-D13S1830), and del (GJB6-D13S1854) mutations in patients with nonsyndromic deafness in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil. A total of 77 individuals were evaluated, from which 88.3% presented normal genotypes for all analyzed mutations, 1.3% were compound heterozygotes for 35delG-GJB2/D13S1830-GJB6, 1.3% were compound heterozygotes for 35delG/D13S1854-GJB6, 3.9% were homozygotes for the 35delG mutation and 5.2% were heterozygotes for 35delG/GJB2. The frequency of mutant alleles 35delG/GJB2, del (D13S1830/GJB6), and del (D13S1854/GJB6) was 7.8, 0.65, and 0.65%, respectively. Mutations 167delT, 235delC, and W24X were not detected. Determining the prevalence of specific mutations related to inherited deafness in a population can contribute to the development of more efficient and affordable molecular diagnostic protocols, and help in the genetic counseling of patients and their families.

  20. Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

    1987-03-01

    Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from

  1. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m(2) per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  2. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  3. Rift-zone magmatism: Petrology of basaltic rocks transitional from CFB to MORB, southeastern Brazil margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, R. V.; Vetter, S. K.

    1984-12-01

    Compositions of basaltic samples from the southeastern Brazil passive margin (18° 24° S) depict the change from continental to oceanic lithosphere during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Samples studied range from 138 to 105 m.y. old and are from 12 Petrobrás drill cores recovered from the coastline to about 150 km offshore in the Espirito Santo, Campos, and Santos basins. Compositions vary, ranging, for example, from 49 54 wt.% SiO2, 0.5 3.0 wt.% TiO2, 0.6 5.0 FeO*/MgO, and <1->6 La/ Yb(n), but can be grouped: (i) basalts enriched in incompatible elements, such as K (some K2O>2.0 wt.%), Rb (>18 ppm), Zr (>120 ppm), and LREE (some FeO* 16 wt.%; most with SiO2 51 54 wt.%), and resembling Serra Geral continental flood basalts (SG-CFB) of southern Brazil; (ii) basalts less enriched, or transitional, in incompatible elements, having K2O <0.40 wt.% and flat REE patterns, and resemble N. Atlantic diabases and FAMOUS basalts; and (iii) one depleted sample, Ce/Yb(n)=0.7, where Ce(n)=4. Expressed in oceanic-basalt terminology and Zr-Nb-Y abundances, ‘enriched’ samples are P- and T-type MORB (e.g., Zr/Nb ˜4 25), ‘transitional’ samples are T-type (Zr/ Nb ˜8 27), and the ‘depleted’ sample is N-type MORB (Zr/Nb>30). Trace-element ratios (e.g., Zr/Nb, Zr/Y) link the Brazil margin basalts to a heterogeneous mantle (attributed to metasomatic veining) of variably proportioned mixtures of depleted-mantle (N-MORB) and plume (P-MORB, e.g., Tristan hotspot) materials. The various compositions therefore reflect, in part, different zones of melting during the separation of Gondwanaland, where gradual decompression during rifting enabled concurrent melting of upper, more depleted (non- or sparsely-veined) mantle and enriched (densely-veined) mantle. Within the time represented, melting produced enriched, transitional, and depleted magmas that were emplaced subaerially, hypabyssally, and subaqueously; they mark the transition from CFB before rifting and separation

  4. A Lagrangian identification of major sources of moisture for Southeastern Brazil during anomalous dry periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L. A.; Ambrizzi, T.; Gimeno, L.; Drumond, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil (SEB) comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. Its rainy season occurs in the Austral summer.. Although less rain is registered during the winter, spring and autumn, there are years that negative precipitation anomalies were recorded in these seasons. In preliminary studies, the SEB was divided into homogenous regions with respect to precipitation. Five regions were determined: R1 (south-central state of São Paulo), R2 (north of São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais), R3 (central Minas Gerais and south-central state of Rio de Janeiro), R4 (north of the state of Minas Gerais) and R5 (north of Rio de Janeiro, the central-eastern Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). For each region, extreme dry events were identified based on the method of consecutive dry periods. In this study, the method developed by Stohl and James (2004,2005), which use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al.,1998), was applied with the objective to calculate and track the air particles and the atmospheric moisture backward in time to produce information on the spatial distribution of moisture sources. In this approach, the atmosphere is divided homogeneously into a large number of particles that are transported by the model which register their positions and specific humidity (q) every 6h. Increases and decreases in moisture along the trajectory can be calculated through changes in (q) with time. Adding thes changes for all particles residing in the atmospheric column over an area, we obtain (E-P) (E is the evaporation an P the precipitation per unit area).Where (E-P) is positive, the particles gain humidity and these are sources regions. For (E-P) negative, the particles lose humidity and these are sink regions. We analyzed the winter, autumn and spring from 1982 to 2009. FLEXPART were forced by ERA Interim dataset available every 6h with a 1 degree resolution. For each homogenous region in SEB (E

  5. Construction and Evaluation of a Diagnostic Examination in College Algebra for Freshmen of the College of Science, University of Santo Tomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mark Louie F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate an instrument for determining student preparedness in College Algebra. A 73-item instrument covering prerequisite arithmetic and high school Algebra knowledge for College Algebra was constructed. The instrument was pilot-tested on a freshman population of 595 students. Results of reliability…

  6. Distribution and ecotoxicology of bioavailable metals and As in surface sediments of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Taís de S; Moreira, Ícaro T A; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Rios, Mariana C; Filho, Wilton A C S; de Almeida, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gilson Correia

    2015-10-15

    Surface sediments collected in the intertidal zone of Paraguaçu estuary in July, 2013, were analyzed for organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, grain size fractions and partial concentrations of 16 metals. The USEPA 3051A method and ICP-OES and CV-AAS techniques were chosen to metal analysis. Pollution indices (EF, Igeo and PIN) and a comparison with sediment quality guidelines (UET, ERL, ERM, TEL and PEL of NOAA) were conducted in order to evaluate the potential metal impacts over the area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation results showed the importance of organic matter content and the fine-grained fraction of sediments on the control of the bioavailable metals distribution. The Paraguaçu estuary already has anthropogenic enrichment relative to the background level, especially for Mn, whose values exceeded almost 30 times the background at one site (Mn: 1197.30 mg kg(-1)). However, metal levels are still below the reference values with the exception of Hg at one site (Hg: 0.25 mg kg(-1), exceeded TEL and ERL).

  7. The role of gravitational collapse in controlling the evolution of crestal fault systems (Espírito Santo Basin, SE Brazil) - Reply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ze, Tao; Alves, Tiago M.

    2017-05-01

    This reply concerns Jackson et al. discussion, which queries the interpretation of fault propagation styles provided in Ze and Alves (2016). Emphasis will be placed on the way throw-distance (T-D) and throw-depth (T-Z) plots were compiled, after we recognised a series of large faults on vertical seismic profiles, time-structure maps and variance slices. In our work, T-D and T-Z plots were used to highlight the presence of small-scale segments in discrete, curved faults (compare Fig. 3, and the start of Section 6 in Page 87, with Fig. 15 in Fossen and Rotevatn, 2016), which reveal geometries typical of 'fault-linkage' (Kim and Sanderson, 2005) or 'isolated' (Walsh et al., 2003) growth models. However, we partly disregarded the latter observations to support our interpretations on the mapping of the 'trace length in map view' or 'longest horizontal dimension' of imaged faults (Cartwright et al., 1995; Schultz and Fossen, 2002; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), a scale of analysis: a) greater than that assumed by Jackson et al. in their discussion, b) larger than the component segments of discrete faults, c) deemed appropriate for the sizes and geometries of salt structures investigated in SE Brazil. Jackson et al. discussion lead us to invoke an important paradigm concerning the use of T-D and T-Z data in fault analyses; the scale(s) at which structural geologists acquire and interpret fault throw (or displacement) data is variable, depending on data resolution and pre-defined structural criteria (e.g. Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Walsh et al., 2002; Walsh et al., 2003; Kim and Sanderson, 2005; Torabi and Berg, 2011).

  8. Critical Issues and Key Points from the Survey to the Creation of the Historical Building Information Model: the Case of Santo Stefano Basilica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnetti, C.; Dubbini, M.; Ricci, P. C.; Rivola, R.; Giannini, M.; Capra, A.

    2017-05-01

    The new era of designing in architecture and civil engineering applications lies in the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach, based on a 3D geometric model including a 3D database. This is easier for new constructions whereas, when dealing with existing buildings, the creation of the BIM is based on the accurate knowledge of the as-built construction. Such a condition is allowed by a 3D survey, often carried out with laser scanning technology or modern photogrammetry, which are able to guarantee an adequate points cloud in terms of resolution and completeness by balancing both time consuming and costs with respect to the request of final accuracy. The BIM approach for existing buildings and even more for historical buildings is not yet a well known and deeply discussed process. There are still several choices to be addressed in the process from the survey to the model and critical issues to be discussed in the modeling step, particularly when dealing with unconventional elements such as deformed geometries or historical elements. The paper describes a comprehensive workflow that goes through the survey and the modeling, allowing to focus on critical issues and key points to obtain a reliable BIM of an existing monument. The case study employed to illustrate the workflow is the Basilica of St. Stefano in Bologna (Italy), a large monumental complex with great religious, historical and architectural assets.

  9. New species of Cerambycinae from the Neotropical Region, and nomen novum for Anelaphus maculatus Galileo, Martins, and Santos-Silva, 2014 (Elaphidiini).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-17

    Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established.

  10. Volume balance of a submarine landslide in the Espírito Santo Basin, offshore Brazil: Quantifying seafloor erosion, sediment accumulation and depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Cartwright, Joseph A.

    2009-11-01

    Degrees of seafloor erosion, sediment accumulation and depletion are quantified using a 3D seismic volume of a small submarine landslide offshore Brazil. In the study area, the upper boundaries of large remnant blocks — kept in situ during the main instability event — and the interpreted non-failed margins of the landslide comprise a reliable estimate for the position of the seafloor at the time the submarine landslide was generated. Remnant blocks of strata show little internal deformation, particularly at their base, and were kept upright during a principal instability event triggered in response to regional halokinesis and associated overburden faulting. They are laterally bounded by a mixed succession of mass-wasted chaotic strata, rafted blocks and post-slide sub-horizontal units. Despite the thin accumulation of failed strata now visible, the interpreted data indicate that submarine landslides of small areal dimensions can erode substantial volumes of seafloor sediment. Consequently, the more than 300 m of eroded seafloor strata offshore Brazil is of a similar scale to the largest failures recorded on continental margins (e.g. Storegga Slide; Amazon Fan complex; Cape Fear slide). The scale relationships presented in this paper indicate that the magnitude of seafloor erosion experienced during instability events may not be recorded by distal mass-wasted strata, which can be demonstrably thinner than the original volume of failed sediment. Thus, we conclude that the relative expression of accumulated slide strata is not directly related to the original volume of failed material. In addition, small-scale landslides can be responsible for the erosion of thick seafloor deposits, a factor that can potentially cause significant losses of seal capacity in overburden successions due to the sudden release of confining pressures in a vertical direction.

  11. Modeling a polycentric approach to the problem of climate change. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos & Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is a global problem. Because of unlimited use of fossil energy and resulting greenhouse gas emissions the global temperature is rising causing floods, draughts and storms in all parts of the world with increasing frequency and strength. Dangerous climate change will occur with high probability after the global temperature has passed a certain threshold [1]. To avoid dangerous climate change global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced to a level of 50% or less of the year-2000 emissions by 2050 [2-4]. All people on earth take part in this global target public goods game, "a game that we cannot afford to loose" [5]. Simulating this scenario in a nutshell a collective risk social dilemma game has shown that a small group of subjects can achieve a collective goal by sequential individual contributions but only when the risk of loosing their not invested money is high, e.g. 90% [6]. Cooperation in public goods games usually decreases with increasing group size [7]. Thus, does this mean that the global game will be lost?

  12. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  13. Hantavirus Public Health Outreach Effectiveness in Three Populations: An Overview of Northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Marjorie S.

    2014-01-01

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS. PMID:24584027

  14. Reply to the comment by Cabello and Santos on “Experimental demonstration of the violation of local realism without Bell inequalities”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgerson, J. R.; Branning, D.; Monken, C. H.; Mandel, L.

    1996-05-01

    We respond to the Commenth [Phys. Lett. A 214 (1996)] on our paper [Phys. Lett. A 204 (1995) 323] by pointing out that we have made no claims about performing an experiment that avoids the fair sampling assumption, and we derive the relation used in the final part of the paper that was criticized.

  15. Telecommunication Policy in the Caribbean: A Comparison of Telecommunications in the Dominican Republic and Haiti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Publishers. Morrison, H. (2009). Las telecomunicaciones en republica Dominicana: Origen, evolucion e impacto en el desarrollo economico. Santo Domingo...Pellerano & Herrera Abogados. (2001). Ley general de telecomunicaciones no. 153-98 de la Republica Dominicana. Santo Domingo: Pellerano & Herrera

  16. 76 FR 54791 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... general partner of the Santos/Alviso Partnership), the Estate of Dorothy Santos (a former owner of the...) days from the date of this publication comments relating to the Consent Decree. Comments should be...

  17. Tales from the South (and West) Pacific in the Common Era: A Climate Proxy Perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Partin, J. W.; Maupin, C. R.; Hereid, K. A.; Gorman, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    , the amplitude of individual ENSO warm phase events in the LIA record is reduced, relative to that of the 1941/1942 ENSO warm phase events observed in a near modern coral record from Misima. Speleothem climate records have been generated from Espirito Santo, Vanuatu (15.5°S, 167°E) and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (~9°S, 160°E). The Vanuatu record of δ18O variations is from a fast-growing speleothem (~1-3 mm/year), which yields a record of rainfall variability spanning ~1670-2005 CE, as dated by U-Th disequilibrium techniques. Interannual changes in speleothem δ18O appear to capture ENSO events and subsequent reorganizations of the SPCZ. The Vanuatu speleothem δ18O record also exhibits concentrations of variance on the decadal scale. The Guadalcanal record of δ18O variations is also from a fast-growing speleothem (~1-4 mm/year), which yields a record of rainfall variability spanning ~1650-2010 CE, as dated by U-Th disequilibrium techniques. The δ18O records from both of these stalagmites provide evidence for changes in convection in the equatorial WPWP region of the SPCZ: the rising limb of the Pacific Walker Circulation.

  18. Relationship Between South Atlantic Subtropical High and South Atlantic SST Anomalies during Extreme Precipitation Events on Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. It occupies 10.85% of Brazilian territory and is highly urbanized. The Southeast Brazil is the biggest geoeconomic region of the country having a strong and diverse economy. Agriculture dominates in all states of the region. The main agricultural products are sugar cane, coffee, cotton, maize, cassava, rice, beans and fruits. Livestock farming is also practiced in the region. The largest herd of cattle is found in the state of Minas Gerais. These activities are highly dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall. Studies of extreme precipitation events over Brazil have been well emphasized in the literature over the years and their relationship with anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in both the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean have been analyzed. This paper investigates the extreme events occurring in southeastern Brazil from 1982 to 2004 using the technique of quantiles. The composite technique was applied to precipitation, sea level pressure anomaly (SLP) and sea surface temperature anomaly (SST) data in order to investigate the characteristics of rainfall patterns, the position and intensity of South Atlantic subtropical high (SASH) and SST anomalies in the Southern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) in the occurrence of these events and to make a distinction between dry and wet extremes. Analyzing the precipitation patterns, it was noticed that the composition of dry events throughout the Southeast Brazil has negative precipitation anomalies. Particularly, in the southern part of the region there is a large precipitation deficit, having an average of 50mm in the winter months. The composition for the wet events shows that, on average, positive precipitation anomalies with the southern region containing the highest cumulative average, reaching a positive anomaly of 100mm. The composition of SLP in the case of dry events indicates a positive anomaly

  19. Philippine Counterinsurgency during the Presidencies of Magsaysay, Marcos, and Ramos: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    and Paz Verdades Santos, Primed and Purposeful: Armed Groups and Human Security Efforts in the Philippines (Geneva, Switzerland: Small Arms Survey...NPA Trend from 1978 to 2006 Source: Soliman Santos Jr. and Paz Verdades Santos, Primed and Purposeful: Armed Groups and Human Security Efforts in...and Paz Verdades Santos. Primed and Purposeful: Armed Groups and Human Security Efforts in the Philippines. Geneva, Switzerland: Small Arms Survey

  20. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-31

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15.

  1. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    Summary President Juan Manuel Santos took office in August 2010 in Colombia after winning 69% of the vote in a runoff election held in June 2010. Santos...continuing into the election of President Juan Manuel Santos and his first months in office. The report then provides background on the long- standing... Manuel Santos extended a state of emergency originally declared in early December 2010 to cope with severe flooding that killed more than 300

  2. The Brazilian Air Force Uniform Distribution Process: Using Lean Thinking, Statistical Process Control and Theory of Constraints to Address Improvement Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    CONTROL AND THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS TO ADDRESS IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES THESIS MARCH 2015 Luciano Antonio Araujo dos Santos, Major, Brazilian...of Master of Science in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Luciano Antonio Araujo dos Santos Major, Brazilian Air Force March 2015... Araujo dos Santos Major, Brazilian Air Force Committee Membership: Dr. Jeffrey Ogden Chair Dr. Alan Johnson Member iv

  3. Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Late Aptian of São Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Francisco J DE; Ribeiro, Douglas R M

    2016-09-01

    †Codoichthys carnavalii is a clupeomorph fish only found in calcareous concretions of Codó Formation, State of Maranhão. It is known based on three specimens housed in the paleontological collection of the Museu de Ciências da Terra of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro. It was omitted in most of recent cladistic analyses about clupeomorphs. We revisited its anatomy furnishing new data and additional restorations. Furthermore we explored the relationships of †Codoichthys with the computer program TNT based on a matrix with 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. Elops was used to root the tree. The strict consensus was obtained from three shortest trees (L=181; CI=0.387; RI=0.632). The monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is supported by a sigmoid cleithrum and an uniquely derived predorsal scute series. Most of subgroups showed low support indices. †Sorbinichthyidae and †Horseshoeichthys appear in the most basal position, and not closely related to †Armigatus or †Diplomystus. A †Diplomystus clade is more advanced than †Armigatus and sister-group of remaining †ellimmichthyiforms. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines). Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and all other †ellimmichthyiform taxa.

  4. Stakeholder Choices in Adaptation and Public Finance Planning for Coastal Hazard Mitigation in a Changing World: Highlights from Case Studies in Santos, Brazil, Broward County, FL, US and Selsey, UK (The METROPOLE Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Merrill, S.; Pelling, M.; Marengo, J. A.; Reynolds, C. J.; Langbehn, K.; Paterson, S.; Nunes, L. H.; Kartez, J.; Lockman, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Better integration of the human dimensions (values, beliefs, cultural identity, place, risk perceptions, communications, decision making) with scientific, technical, and economic data is required to advance effective municipal planning for adaptation to changes that can be expected to occur based on a changing climate. The international METROPOLE project offers practical insights and a path forward for coastal communities around the world with results from applied research carried out by social scientists, natural scientists, and practitioners working in coastal municipalities in Brazil, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Decision makers were interviewed to assess the Adaptive Capacity of their communities, and stakeholders were engaged in workshops to discuss the risks due to projected sea level rise (SLR) in terms of impacts and costs to property. The team investigated the social, cultural, and governance factors that shape decision making. Municipal leaders and local experts selected the SLR scenarios and adaptation options to be modelled using COAST, a state-of-the-art tool. The visualizations and risk maps integrated scientific and local economic data, and illustrated the potential impacts on 10,000 properties in each study area. Stakeholders voted on parameters to determine the cost-benefit ratio of potential adaptation options. Stakeholder priorities for local adaption planning, agreement with the need for increased fees/taxes, and acceptability of possible public finance mechanisms were evaluated with pre- and post-workshop surveys. The research identified similar patterns of adaptation "priorities" and new insight into how stakeholders consider public finance mechanisms for local action, in the context of "fiscal benefits and burdens." The research suggests implications for small towns, land-use policy changes, implementing adaptation options which deliver short and long-term benefits, and, for state and local governments to develop finance policy/mechanisms. Findings will be incorporated into new programs through our partnership with the Florida chapter of the American Planning Association.

  5. An Integrated Framework to Analyze Local Decision Making and Adaptation to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Regions in Santos-Brazil, Broward County-USA and Selsey-UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, J. A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Pelling, M.; Reynolds, C. J.; Merril, S. B.; Nunes, L. H.; Paterson, S.; Gray, A.; Lockman, J. T.; Kartez, J.; Moreira, F.; Greco, R.; Harari, J.; Souza, C. G.; Alves, L. M.; Hosokawa, E.; Tabuchi, E.

    2016-12-01

    One of the clear signals of present climate change is sea level rise (SLR). There is mounting evidence of other changes, including warmer temperatures in many localities, and changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme meteorological events, including wind, rain, and waves. A rising sea level combined with these factors and tides is expected to affect coastal communities through a number of processes, including increased risk of flooding and contamination of water sources. An international collaboration between Brazil, the United Kingdom, and the United States was designed to evaluate local decision making processes and to open convening space for local urban managers to reflect on possible actions toward adaption to SLR and the constraints imposed by framing administrative and institutional structures. The overall goal of the project is to help coastal communities better understand factors that facilitate or hinder their intrinsic, local decision-making processes related to planning for adaptation to risk. The project carried out these tests in 2014 and 2015 in one coastal city in each partnering nation. The framework was designed by an interdisciplinary team that incorporated social and natural scientists from these three nations, and which included local government officials. To support the overall goal, this paper 1) discusses some aspects of adaptive capacity and participant survey research conducted through the project, 2) presents technical modelling results for adaptation options that may reduce the potential damages of SLR and storm surge in each location, and 3) identifies project design considerations for similar transnational adaptation projects.

  6. [Project Learning Health in School: the experience of positive impact on the quality of life and health determinants of members of a community school in Vitória, Espírito Santo State].

    PubMed

    Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Oliveira, Carla Braga; Frechiani, Janaína Menezes; Sales, Carolina Maia Martins; Brotto, Léia Damasceno de Aguiar; Araújo, Maristela Dalbello

    2010-03-01

    A descriptive study, using a quantitative approach to evaluate the strategies carried through by nurses in a school environment of a Municipal Center of Children Education, through the Project of Extension Learning Health in the School, and still to analyze the profile of the children attended. The research was carried through with a sample of 350 nursing attendances. We verify that in 10 pupils had been found suggestive corporal lesions of family violence/negligence. They were registered educative activities, involving the following subjects: dengue, personal hygiene, parasitosis and the destination of the solid residues. We evidence that 4.6% of the children attended were unfed, and that 6.4% were in nutritional risk, and that 80% of children did not presented an adequate oral hygiene, demonstrated through the presence of caries. In the evaluation of the professors about the performance of the project it was possible to identify stories on the reduction of the episodes of domestic violence against the child. The Project has provided to the action of the Interdisciplinary work favoring the health promotion activities having the school as a space of the Basic Attention, and need to be understood as a motivator nucleus of the participatory performance of the health professionals in the pertaining to school community.

  7. A diet enriched with mackerel (Scomber scombrus)-derived products improves the endothelial function in a senior population (Prevención de las Enfermedades Cardiovasculares: Estudio Santoña--PECES project).

    PubMed

    de Berrazueta, J R; Gómez de Berrazueta, J M; Amado Señarís, J A; Peña Sarabia, N; Fernández Viadero, C; García-Unzueta, M T; Sáez de Adana, M; Sanchez Ovejero, C J; Llorca, J

    2009-03-01

    Regular consumption of fish reduces cardiovascular risks. Here, we investigate if the consumption of products with mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with 8.82 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content per 100 g of product improves parameters of endothelial function in a controlled population. Subjects maintained a 12-week diet with products with mackerel. The population consisted of 58 senior subjects (12 withdrawals, 25 women), aged 82.08 +/- 8.13 years (Group A). Twenty-three senior subjects (13 women) on a regular diet were used as the control group (Group B). Subjects of Group A received 57 portions throughout 12 weeks (four to five portions a week of products with a mean EPA + DHA content of 2.5 g a day). A continuous follow-up and a final evaluation were performed to determine the level of consumption. Plasma samples were stored at -70 degrees C for a biochemical study. Endothelial function was analysed by reactive hyperemia with a mercury strain gauge plethysmography with measurement of blood flow in the forearm, both baseline and at the end of the 12-week diet. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation significantly increased in Group A subjects (P < 0.001). No changes were found in Group B. The subgroup analyses showed that improvements were produced in Group A subjects without cardiovascular disease (P < 0.001). Nitrites/nitrates and von Willebrand factor plasma concentrations were higher in participants after the 12-week diet. The consumption of mackerel meat products improves endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilatation in a senior population. This finding might explain some of the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

  8. [Evaluation of methods commonly used in laboratories to determine the susceptibility to oxacillin among Staphylococcus sp samples isolated from a hospital in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Thais Dias Lemos; Pacheco, Flavia Casseli; Lima, Alessandra Avelino de; Pereira, Eliezer Menezes; Santos, Katia Regina Netto Dos; Nunes, Ana Paula Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    The genus Staphylococcus is of great importance because of its high prevalence in hospital infections and because it presents high rates of resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials. Thus, evaluation of the accuracy of the phenotypic methods that are used to determine the profile of antimicrobial resistance is essential to ensure that the most appropriate therapy is chosen. One hundred and fourteen strains of Staphylococcus sp (53 S. aureus and 61 CNS) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the methods of disk diffusion, agar microdilution, oxacillin screening agar and automated systems, in comparison with PCR for investigating resistance to oxacillin. The mecA gene was detected in 48 strains (42.1%), and 27 strains (23.7%) showed discrepant results in at least one of the methods (74.1% of CNS, 25.9% of S. aureus). For S. aureus, with the exception of the Microscan Walkaway, all the methods showed 100% specificity and sensitivity. In relation to CNS, the automated system and cefoxitin disk had lower accuracy. Use of two methods should be the best option for improved accuracy, especially when the diagnostic laboratory only uses an automated system or oxacillin disk diffusion test. Combination of these methods with others presented almost 100% sensitivity and specificity in our study.

  9. A Comprehensive Approach to Countersurgency: The U.S. Military Occupation of the Dominican Republic, 1916-1924

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Wilson Plan. The U.S. Senate’s Select Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo offered additional support by downplaying the political rhetoric related to...throughout Latin America.9 Thus, when Captain Frederick M. Wise (USMC) landed in Santo Domingo City with 150 Marines in May 1916, his duty went far... Santo Domingo City. He retreated north to Santiago where he finally disbanded his army in July 1916. Arias’ capitulation ended the conventional phase of

  10. JPRS Report, Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-29

    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Report on Imports, Foreign Trade Deficit 32480066c Santo Domingo LISTIN DIARIO in Spanish 26 Dec 87 pp 1, 21 [Article by Jose...Government Revenues Total 2.85 Billion Pesos 32480066a Santo Domingo LISTIN DIARIO in Spanish 25 Dec 87 p 1 [Article by Jose Romero] [Text] The...GNP 32480066b Santo Domingo LISTIN D1ARIO in Spanish 28 Dec 87 pp 1, 17 [Article by Jose Romero] [Text] According to the official Central Bank

  11. The Quest for Cognitive Justice: Towards a Pluriversal Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2017-01-01

    This paper turns to the work of the Portuguese sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos and explores how a set of concepts he developed over the years may constitute valuable tools in the task of decolonising and pluriversalising Human Rights Education (HRE). Informed by decolonial theory, Santos highlights that the struggle for global social…

  12. From Comparison to Translation: Extending the Research Imagination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses Appadurai's challenge to expand the research imagination. It follows Boaventura de Sousa Santos in suggesting a need to separate analytically the trajectories of capitalism and modernity. For Santos, this involves the recognition that we cannot solve the problems of postmodernity with the tools of modernity. The paper…

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Branan Sanders, Photographer March 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Branan Sanders, Photographer March 1934 FRONT This picture also reproduce in 'Garden History of Georgia', opp. p. 1. - Santo Domingo Mission (Ruins), Near Altamaha Canal (River), Broadfield, Glynn County, GA

  14. 77 FR 19689 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... and all of the Chocolate Mountains, the territory extends southward to Todos Santos Bay, Laguna Salada... a line from just below Borrego Springs to the north end of the Salton Basin and the Chocolate...

  15. 76 FR 17460 - SUNSHINE FEDERAL REGISTER NOTICE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Tuesday, March 29, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting); (Contact: Stephanie... Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) (Public Meeting) (Contact: Tanny Santos, 301-415-7270...

  16. 78 FR 29159 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels.... Cayetano Santos, Chief, Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING...

  17. 78 FR 24161 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... California, at least as far south as Isla Asuncion, which is about 100 miles south of Punta Eugenia. Animals... Santo Domingo (28 N) south to Isla Creciente (24 N) (Urb n et al. 2003). Main calving sites are Laguna...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Page Bras J, Guerreiro R, Santo GC. Mutant ADA2 in vasculopathies. N Engl J Med. 2014 ... M, Anikster Y, King MC, Levy-Lahad E. Mutant adenosine deaminase 2 in a polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy. ...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus Strain AF1, a High Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa A; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2014-07-24

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagatabaeicter rhaeticus strain AF1, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing high levels of cellulose. Copyright © 2014 dos Santos et al.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: moyamoya disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... indicating that the condition can be passed through generations in families; however, the inheritance pattern is unknown. ... Citation on PubMed Cecchi AC, Guo D, Ren Z, Flynn K, Santos-Cortez RL, Leal SM, Wang ...

  1. Phylogeny of Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 and taxonomic revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae), with description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Junior, José N A; Silveira, Orlando T; Carpenter, James M

    2015-05-08

    A first phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed for Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 based on cladistic analysis of 31 species. New evidence in support of monophyly of the genus is presented. A revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group is also presented. Protopolybia diligens (Smith, 1857), stat. resurr. is revalidated. Four new species are described: P. collombiana Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. clypeata Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. similis Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., and P. potiguara Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov. Protopolybia holoxantha (Ducke, 1904) and P. rubrithorax Bequaert, 1944 are redescribed. New synonymy is proposed for P. bituberculata Silveira & Carpenter, 1995 =Polybia nana Cameron, 1912 (nom. praeocc., nec de Saussure 1863), syn. nov. New records and description of the male genitalia are provided for some of the species of the P. exigua species-group.

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August 1936 VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CAMPO SANTO WALL (RESTORED) - Chapel of Padre Antonio Jose Martinez, Garden of Irving Couse, Taos, Taos County, NM

  3. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  4. Beaked Whale Presence, Habitat, and Sound Production in the North Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    squid species vary geographically ( Santos et al. 2001), with no apparent prey preference for muscular versus ammoniacal species. The preferred...Experimental Biology 209:5038-5050. MacLeod, C. D., M. B. Santos , and G. J. Pierce. 2003. Review of data on diets of beaked whales: evidence of niche...years. Scientific reports of the Whales Research Institute 24:35-41. Pierce, G., V. Valavanis, A. Guerra , P. Jereb, L. Orsi-Relini, J. Bellido, I

  5. CTC Sentinel. Volume 7, Issue 6, June 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Economist, May 17, 2014. 5 Katalina Vásquez Guzmán, “‘Este es el momento de la paz ,’ dijo Santos,” Pagina 12, June 2014. JUNE 2014 . VoL 7. IssUE 6 14...the peace agreements were signed. See Ivan Marquez, “Juan Manuel Santos habla de paz vomi- tando fuego,” FARC-EP.co, May 26, 2014. 18 Indeed, some

  6. The Rajah Solaiman Islamic Movement (RSIM) and the Rise of Radical Islamic Converts in the Philippines: A Major Security Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Ahmed Santos (Debriefing Report on De Vera, 2005, p. 2). After the capture of Santos and De Vera in 2005, Dino Amor Pareja filled the leadership...vacuum within the RSIM. Pareja focused his efforts on consolidating the remaining RSIM networks for reorganization and building up the organization for...future operations. A demolition expert, Pareja is a graduate of the University of the Philippines in Cebu City (a major city in Central Philippines

  7. Adversarial Intent Inference for Predictive Battlespace Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    CUSACK , Chief Information Systems Division Information Directorate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No...AeroSense 2003, Vol. 5091, 182-193, Orlando, FL, 2003. 6. Revello, Timothy , McCartney, Robert, and Santos, Eugene, Jr., “Multiple Strategy Generation...for War Gaming Timothy Revello17, Robert McCartney28, Eugene Santos39 Computer Science and Engineering Dept., Univ. of Connecticut, 371 Fairfield

  8. Direct correlation function from the consistent fundamental-measure free energies for hard-sphere mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lutsko, James F

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 86, 040102(R) (2012)], Santos presented a self-consistency condition that can be used to limit the possible forms of fundamental measure theory. Here, the direct correlation function, resulting from the Santos functional, is derived, and it is found to be very close to the result of the White Bear density functional, except near the origin where it diverges.

  9. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    motion capture sequences was provided by MPL to CCAD and OGAL. CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the SantosTM digital human avatar ...manipulating the avatar image. These manipulations are accomplished in the context of reinforcing what is the more ideal position and relating...focus on the visual environment by asking users to manipulate a static image of the Santos avatar to represent their perception of what they observe

  10. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    capture sequences was provided by MPL to CCAD and OGAL. CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the SantosTM digital human avatar . An...capture sequences was provided by MPL to CCAD and OGAL. CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the Santos digital human avatar . An initial...levels of the patients. In addition, the differences in ability to detect variations in gait conditions for skinned avatar vs. line-skeletal avatar

  11. Population Structure of the Primary Malaria Vector in South America, Anopheles darlingi, Using Isozyme, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 2, and Morphologic Markers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    derscoring some congruence, in this case, between two dif- ferent molecular markers. Intraspecific variation in the ITS2 region of 21 members of...morphism in the salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles darlingi. Mosq News 32: 555-565. 29. Tadei WP, Santos JMN, Rabbani MG, 1982. Biologia de ano...Contel EPB, dos Santos JMM, Tadei Wp, 1984. Biologia de Anophelinos Amazonicos. VI. Enzimatica em Anopheles dar- lingi Root (Dipt.: Culicidae). Acta

  12. Disrupting Cocaine Trafficking Networks: Interdicting a Combined Social-Functional Network Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    TRAFFICKING NETWORKS: INTERDICTING A COMBINED SOCIAL-FUNCTIONAL NETWORK MODEL by Christopher P. Santos March 2016 Thesis Advisor: W...NETWORKS: INTERDICTING A COMBINED SOCIAL-FUNCTIONAL NETWORK MODEL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher P. Santos 7. PERFORMING...working. Furthermore, the U.S. “rebalance” toward Asia and a worsening shortfall of interdiction assets signal a new strategic and operational

  13. Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wingenter, Suzanne

    2005-01-12

    The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

  14. DNA barcoding reveals species level divergence between populations of the microhylid frog genus Arcovomer (Anura: Microhylidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jennings, W Bryan; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos; Salles, Rodrigo de O L; Buckup, Paulo A

    2016-09-01

    The microhylid frogs belonging to the genus Arcovomer have been reported from lowland Atlantic Rainforest in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Here, we use DNA barcoding to assess levels of genetic divergence between apparently isolated populations in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Our mtDNA data consisting of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences reveals 13.2% uncorrected and 30.4% TIM2 + I + Γ corrected genetic divergences between these two populations. This level of divergence exceeds the suggested 10% uncorrected divergence threshold for elevating amphibian populations to candidate species using this marker, which implies that the Espírito Santo population is a species distinct from Arcovomer passarellii. Calibration of our model-corrected sequence divergence estimates suggests that the time of population divergence falls between 12 and 29 million years ago.

  15. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camilo D Seabra; Maranho, Luciane A; Cortez, Fernando S; Pusceddu, Fabio H; Santos, Aldo R; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Cesar, Augusto; Guimarães, Luciana L

    2016-04-01

    The present study determined environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals, cocaine, and the main human metabolite of cocaine in seawater sampled from a subtropical coastal zone (Santos, Brazil). The Santos Bay is located in a metropolitan region and receives over 7367m(3) of wastewater per day. Five sample points under strong influence of the submarine sewage outfall were chosen. Through quantitative analysis by LC-MS/MS, 33 compounds were investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals (atenolol, acetaminophen, caffeine, losartan, valsartan, diclofenac, and ibuprofen), an illicit drug (cocaine), and its main human metabolite (benzoylecgonine) were detected at least once in seawater sampled from Santos Bay at concentrations that ranged from ng·L(-1) to μg·L(-1). In light of the possibility of bioaccumulation and harmful effects, the high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and cocaine found in this marine subtropical ecosystem are of environmental concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Exponential Stability Result of a Timoshenko System with Thermoelasticity with Second Sound and in the Presence of Delay

    SciTech Connect

    Apalara, Tijani A.; Messaoudi, Salim A.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we consider a one-dimensional linear thermoelastic system of Timoshenko type with a delay, where the heat flux is given by Cattaneo’s law. We prove an exponential decay result under a smallness condition on the delay and a stability number introduced first in Santos et al. (J Diff Eqs 253:2715–2733, 2012), using a method different from that of Santos et al. (J Diff Eqs 253:2715–2733, 2012). We also reproduce the polynomial decay of Santos et al. (J Diff Eqs 253:2715–2733, 2012) using the multiplier method in the case of absence of delay. The polynomial decay issue in the presence of a small delay is an open question.

  17. Swift/XRT monitoring of the long outburst of the Very Faint X-ray Transient XMMU J174716.1-281048

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Santo, Melania; Romano, Patrizia; Sidoli, Lara

    2011-07-01

    The Very Faint X-ray Transient (VFXT) XMMU J174716.1-281048, discovered in 2003 by XMM-Newton (ATel #147; Sidoli et al., 2006, A&A 456, 287), has been unveiled by INTEGRAL as type I X-ray burster (ATel #970; #972; Del Santo et al., 2007, A&A 468, L17) lying in the Galactic Centre region (ATel #1207). XMMU J174716.1-281048 is the first VFXT classified as ``quasi persistent", due to the fact that it appears to have been continuously active since its discovery (Del Santo et al., 2007; ATel #1078).

  18. (Energy projects in the Dominican Republic): Foreign trip report, May 14--26, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-06-21

    On May 14, the traveler left for Santo Domingo to gather data and negotiate the terms of a project agreement with the Asociacion de la Desarrollo de la Provincia Duarte in San Francisco de Macoris, Dominican Republic. Interviews with Asociacion management, local vendors and others involved in dissemination of small energy systems in the rural areas in the Dominican Republic, were held over a one week period. The terms of the project were discussed at length, concerns noted and an agreement was reached on a number of key items. A strategy and schedule were determined. The traveler left Santo Domingo on May 19, 1989 and arrived in Oak Ridge the following day.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Manaus Road AM010 Km30 1 0 0 North Road BR174 Km10 0 1 0 West Coari 0 1 0 Other city Col. Santo Antonio 0 0 1 North Florestal 1 0 0 North...infection 20,862 4.32 160 137 ADMITTED I COL. SANTO ANTONIO Female 21 First infection 156 2.19 107 54 ADMITTED J TARUMA Male 18 First infection 4,284...Malária cerebral no Ceará: relato de caso . Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop., 37: 53-55. Carlton, J. (2003) The Plasmodium vivax genome sequencing project

  20. Introversion/Extroversion & Teachers' Perception on Dominican EFL College Students' Performance = La Introversion/Extroversion vs. La Percepcion Profesoral en el Desempeno de Estudiantes Universitarios Dominicanos de Ingles como Lengua Extranjera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavarez Da Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between introversion/extroversion and a student's performance (academic achievement) as perceived by Teachers of English as a Foreign Language in three regional centers of the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo. There have been a great number of international studies already published to try to explain…

  1. Enabling a Collaborative Problem-Solving Framework Through User Intent Modeling of the Analytic Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Nguyen, Eugene Santos Jr., Russell Jacob, and Nathan Smith. In Proceedings of 2008 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence. Sydney...of Social Cognition. • McDoland, D. W., and Ackerman , M. S. 2000. Expertise Recommender: A plexible recom- mendation system and architecture. In

  2. Intersecting Poverty and Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Lussier, Kattie

    2009-01-01

    Higher education policy and research tend to be dominated by the messaging systems of the North. De Sousa Santos argues that we need to start listening to the South and that we need to develop a sociology of absences. This paper attempts to engage with some of these absences by deconstructing participation in higher education, in quantitative and…

  3. The Effects of Stress on Reading: A Comparison of First-Language versus Intermediate Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how resource-demanding reading tasks and stressful conditions affect 1st-language (L1) and intermediate 2nd-language (L2) reading comprehension. Using the attentional control theory framework (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we investigated the roles of central executive working memory (WM) resources,…

  4. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... room. Dated: June 7, 2011 Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee...

  5. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy And Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor...: March 15, 2011. Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee on...

  6. The Hybrid Threat: Crime, Terrorism and Insurgency in Mexico. Proceedings of the Joint Policy and Research Forum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    9 President Santos had me down there a year ago to witness the change. The last time I was there in public office in 2001 there were a couple of...Militares en la Guerra .” Air and Space Power Journal (3d Trimestre, 2009), pp 48–58. The Hybrid Threat: Crime, Terrorism and Insurgency in Mexico 29

  7. Conceptual Model Development for Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat: Support for USACE Navigation Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    mortality rates (Dickerson et al. 2007; Santos et al. 2006; Landry and Hughes 2008; Varela-Acevedo et al. 2009; Salmon 2003). Artificial lightning may...Atmospheric Administration Technical Report NMFS-53, 33–44. NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service. Salmon , M. 2003. Artificial night lighting and sea

  8. Voice and Valency in San Luis Potosi Huasteco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz Ledo Yanez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the system of transitivity, voice and valency alternations in Huasteco of San Luis Potosi (Mayan) within a functional-typological framework. The study is based on spoken discourse and elicited data collected in the municipalities of Aquismon and Tancanhuitz de Santos in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The…

  9. First report of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 in Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Ecuador, where pineapple represents one of the most important export commodities, virus testing has been neglected. In July 2014, a total of twenty MD2 hybrid pineapple plants showing virus-like symptoms (Fig. 1) were collected from a commercial planting located at the border of Santo Domingo and...

  10. 77 FR 43414 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... California; Case No. SACR 08-00322-CJC; December, 1954. (11) Santos Isidro de la Paz; May 11, 2012; U.S.... (19) Stephen Glen Guerra; February 6, 2012; U.S. District Court, Western District of Texas; Case No. W...

  11. Decoding the Voluntourism Process: A Case Study of the Pay It Forward Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Fernando, Irene K.

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntourism" refers to the use of "discretionary time and income to travel out of the sphere of regular activity to assist others in need" (McGehee & Santos, 2005, p. 760). These experiences have been shown to raise consciousness and increase interest in activism (McGehee, 2002; Wearing, 2001) and to build pro-social…

  12. Accommodating Student Swirl: When Traditional Students Are No Longer the Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The term "student swirl" was coined by Alfredo de los Santos and Irene Wright in 1990, along with the term "double-dipping" (concurrent enrollment at two institutions), to characterize the back-and-forth, multi-institutional attendance pattern common among students attending community colleges. However, traditional…

  13. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-14

    wing) of the -late Alejo Santos failed to get a 10 per cent votes in the 1980 presidential polls. The ruling Kiln- sang Bagong lipunan (KBL) is...college education. About two-thirds of respondent» do net own any land. Most of them are carpenters , masons, or fishermen who desire to engage

  14. Serving the Undocumented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major…

  15. Accommodating Student Swirl: When Traditional Students Are No Longer the Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The term "student swirl" was coined by Alfredo de los Santos and Irene Wright in 1990, along with the term "double-dipping" (concurrent enrollment at two institutions), to characterize the back-and-forth, multi-institutional attendance pattern common among students attending community colleges. However, traditional…

  16. New Mexico Pueblos Confront the Atomic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    While mineral development in Indian Country offers economic benefits, it can also pollute the air and water and destroy the land itself. Article describes three different approaches that Laguna, Acoma and Santo Domingo Pueblos are using to deal with exploitation of their natural resources. (DS)

  17. Human Rights Education and Student Self-Conception in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…

  18. On-the-Spot Workshop Seminar on Early Childhood Education in the Philippines: Report (Manila, Philippines, January 6-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasik, Lynn Sperber

    The College of Education of the University of Santo Tomas and the Kapit-Bahay Community Center, Incorporated, approached the Israeli Embassy in Manila, Philippines, with a request for expertise in the area of early childhood. As a result of this request, the Mount Carmel International Training Centre, located in Haifa, Israel, submitted a proposal…

  19. Warning: potential problems for taxonomy on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Fabio; Bartolozzi, Luca

    2016-07-19

    Whether or not a species might reasonably be described without the preservation of a type specimen is a matter of ongoing discussion among taxonomists (Dubois & Nemésio 2007; Minteer et al. 2014; Krell & Wheeler 2014; Löbl et al. 2016; Marshall & Evenhuis 2016; Santos et al. 2016). Here, we attempt to make our own contribution to the topic.

  20. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  1. Challenges and Opportunities for Language Learning in the Context of the CCSS and the NGSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakuta, Kenji; Santos, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this column, Kenji Hakuta and Mario Santos described the challenges and opportunities the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards present for language development in the context of English language arts/literacy, mathematics, and science. They heightened educators' awareness of the critical role language plays…

  2. Activity Analysis in Wide-Area Aerial Surveillance Video

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    and areas at the bottom end of the “J” shaped road (the right end of Fig. 9(j)), corre - spond to areas where poor tracking data was collected due...to stereo vision. In IJCAI, volume 2, 1981. [8] J. Melo , A. Naftel, A. Bernardino, and J. Santos- Victor. Detection and classification of highway

  3. Serving the Undocumented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major…

  4. Epiphytes and the National Wetland Plant List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    del Castillo, and M. del Castillo Mayda. 1992. The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Editorial UPR, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Albert...Moreira, A.S.F.P. and R.M. dos Santos Isaias. 2008. Comparative anatomy of the absorption roots of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids . Brazil

  5. Plasmonic Coupling on Dielectric Nanowire Core-Metal Sheath Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    sensitizer solution ‘#93’: 20 wt% propyl alcohol , 5 wt% hydrochloric acid and 5 wt% stannous chloride in water. To meet the needs for the formation of...Fleischmann M, Hendra P J and McQuillan A 1974 J. Chem. Phys. Lett. 26 163 [13] Alvarez- Puebla R A, Contreras-Caceres R, Pastoriza-Santos I, Perez-Juste J

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (20th, Raleigh, NC, October 31-November 3, 1998). Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Sarah, Ed.; Dawkins, Karen, Ed.; Blanton, Maria, Ed.; Coulombe, Wendy, Ed.; Kolb, John, Ed.; Norwood, Karen, Ed.; Stiff, Lee, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains three plenary session reports, 12 working group and 79 research reports, 35 short oral reports, 60 poster session reports, and two discussion group reports. Major papers (excluding "short orals" and "posters") include: (1) "Semantical Obstacles in Mathematics Understanding" (Carlos Arteaga and Manuel Santos);…

  7. Lives, Learning and Liberty: The Impact and Responsibilities of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I draw out themes that run through the three plenary panel papers for PME28 (Johnsen Hoines, 2004; Santos, 2004; Vithal, 2004). The linking themes for me are children's lives, their learning of mathematics and their right to liberty. [For complete proceedings, see ED489178.

  8. Drug Trafficking, Violence, and Instability in Mexico, Colombia, and the Caribbean: Implications for U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Jorge Chabat, Professor/Investigator, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE), who discussed... moral concerns to achieve pragmatic results. A second participant asked how states rebound when their decline results in the shift of...Discussant; (2) Lilian Bobea, Latin American Social Science Faculty, Santo Domingo, “Private Vices, Without Public Benefit: The

  9. Decoding the Voluntourism Process: A Case Study of the Pay It Forward Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Fernando, Irene K.

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntourism" refers to the use of "discretionary time and income to travel out of the sphere of regular activity to assist others in need" (McGehee & Santos, 2005, p. 760). These experiences have been shown to raise consciousness and increase interest in activism (McGehee, 2002; Wearing, 2001) and to build pro-social…

  10. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae infection in wild nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) using the rapid ML Flow test.

    PubMed

    Deps, Patrícia Duarte; Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula; Tomimori-Yamashita, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Mycobaterium leprae infection was investigated in armadillos from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The ML Flow test was performed on 37 nine-banded armadillos and positive results were found in 11 (29.7%). The ML Flow test may be used to identify possible sources of Mycobaterium leprae among wild armadillos.

  12. Intonation as an Encoder of Speaker Certainty: Information and Confirmation Yes-No Questions in Catalan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanrell, Maria del Mar; Mascaro, Ignasi; Torres-Tamarit, Francesc; Prieto, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the field of intonational phonology have shown that information-seeking questions can be distinguished from confirmation-seeking questions by prosodic means in a variety of languages (Armstrong, 2010, for Puerto Rican Spanish; Grice & Savino, 1997, for Bari Italian; Kugler, 2003, for Leipzig German; Mata & Santos, 2010, for…

  13. Combined Quarterly Technical Report Number 36. Pluribus Satellite IMP (Interface Message Processors) Development Mobile Access Terminal Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Wideband Network and was actually robbing power from the Wideband Network. .... .................... ... . ........... . .~.’... %.*. .* Report No...McKenzie D. Melone W. Milliken R. Quiros R. Rettberg H. Rising .1. Robinson E. Rosen P. Santos S. Starch R. Thomas -t.. C. Topolcic R. Waters B

  14. The Impact of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Typical and Atypical Emerging Lexicons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Extended Statistical Learning account (ExSL; Stokes, Kern & dos Santos, 2012) late talkers (LTs) continue to use neighborhood density (ND) as a cue for word learning when their peers no longer use a density learning mechanism. In the current article, LTs expressive ("active") lexicon ND values differed from those of…

  15. Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    High in the hills south of Santa Fe, New Mexico, stands a greenhouse that Luke Reed hopes will help American Indians eat healthier. Reed also recently used the structure, completed in August, to teach a course on greenhouse management to representatives of the nearby Santo Domingo, Cochiti and Santa Clara pueblos. Near the greenhouse, fruit trees…

  16. Learning (and Researching) as Participation in Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Madalena Pinto

    2004-01-01

    In my contribution to this panel I will bring elements from recent research I conducted (Santos, 2004) in Cape Verde aiming to clarify the meaning of learning as participation in social practices--"learning as participation in the social world" (Lave and Wenger, 1991, p. 42). But as my main interest is learning in compulsory education…

  17. Youths' Perspective on Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona: The Socio-Emotional Effects of Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Carlos; Menjivar, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This article builds on previous research conducted by Santos, Menjivar & Godfrey (2013) and draws on a study conducted with racially and ethnically diverse early adolescents.This research explores youths' awareness of Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona, and how affected they are by the passage of this bill. Wave I (N = 726; Mage = 12.4 years; SD =…

  18. Voice and Valency in San Luis Potosi Huasteco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz Ledo Yanez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the system of transitivity, voice and valency alternations in Huasteco of San Luis Potosi (Mayan) within a functional-typological framework. The study is based on spoken discourse and elicited data collected in the municipalities of Aquismon and Tancanhuitz de Santos in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The…

  19. A Sociolinguistic Survey of Araki: A Dying Language of Vanuatu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vari-Bogiri, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    Araki is one of around a hundred languages of the Republic of Vanuatu. It is a language spoken by the people of Araki, an islet situated near the south western part of Santo, in the north of Vanuatu. Linguistic statistics have shown a gradual decline in the number of speakers. This study presents evidence to show that Araki is a declining language…

  20. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  1. Transfer Students: Trends and Issues. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 114. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laanan, Frankie Santos, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The summer 2001 issue of New Directions for Community Colleges evaluates recent research and policy discussions about transfer students and addresses the critical issues facing students moving through the educational pipeline. Chapters include: (1) "Transfer Student Adjustment" (Frankie Santos Laanan); (2) "Institutional Responses…

  2. New species of Zygoclistron Rehn, 1905 (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae: Copiocerinae) in the central corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2016-06-17

    Herein we describe a new species of Copiocerinae, Zygoclistron ruschii Silva n. sp., from Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil, collected from the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi in the Santa Teresa municipality, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diagnosis of this new species is based on phallic complex and terminalia characters.

  3. Teaching How to Listen. Blended Learning for the Development and Assessment of Listening Skills in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Marinella; Gadd Colombi, Anna; Tebbit, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the integration and effectiveness of blended learning for the development and assessment of listening skills in a second language. The development of oral abilities (listening and speaking) is one of the most challenging and neglected aspects of second language learning (Vandergrift & Goh 2012, Graham & Santos 2015).…

  4. Shikimic Acid Monitoring by HPLC with Diode Array Detector in Citrus sinensis Orchard with Glyphosate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of weed control with glyphosate on shikimic acid levels in citrus, “Pêra” cultivar. The experimental plots were set in Santo Antônio de Posse county, Sao Paulo State, Brazil with the following treatments: glyphosate at 1,440 g.ha-1 a.e. between citrus ...

  5. Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    High in the hills south of Santa Fe, New Mexico, stands a greenhouse that Luke Reed hopes will help American Indians eat healthier. Reed also recently used the structure, completed in August, to teach a course on greenhouse management to representatives of the nearby Santo Domingo, Cochiti and Santa Clara pueblos. Near the greenhouse, fruit trees…

  6. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-12

    repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan . Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were...report to Congress that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of U.S. forces into northern Iraq for

  7. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-14

    place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan . Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen...stated in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of U.S. forces into northern

  8. Can We Really Make a Difference? Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Experience with Socio-Scientific Issues Aiming for Democratic Participation in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kristin Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Responding to calls for an empirical glimpse into a socioscientific issues (SSI)-based curriculum that aims to promote democratic participation, enhance students' connections to science, and empower students for the betterment of society (Dos Santos, 2008; Sadler, Barab, & Scott, 2007; Tal & Kedmi, 2006; Fusco & Barton, 2001; Hodson, 2003), this…

  9. Curriculum Counter-Strokes and Strokes: Swimming in Non-Existent Epistemological Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Elizabeth E.; Paraskeva, João M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how Boaventura de Sousa Santos' "Epistemologies of the South" speaks to a needed dialogue on US educational and curriculum policy in which capitalism and colonialism produce youth and teachers as nonbeings--another insidious form of nonexistence. We analyze (a) the construction of the dichotomy of Western and…

  10. The Amuesha People of Central Peru: Their Struggle to Survive. IWGIA Document No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard Chase

    In 1742, the national liberation movement led by Juan Santos Atahualpa forced the Franciscan missionaries, their military back-up, and the Spanish colonists they brought, out of central Peru and allowed the Amuesha and Campa peoples of the area to continue determining their own destinies independent of the Spanish and later Peruvian occupational…

  11. 1988 Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. Volume 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbyshire, Desmond C., Ed.

    Six working papers in linguistics are presented. "The Semantics and Morphology of Mixtec Mood and Aspect" (J. Albert Bickford and Stephen A. Marlett) presents a relatively detailed description of the following grammatical categories in three Mixtec languages: Santiago Nuyoo, Santo Domingo Nuxaa, and Municipio of Tezoatlan.…

  12. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING - WHERE ARE WE NOW AND WHERE ARE WE GOING?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial Source Tracking ? Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?

    J. W. Santo-Domingo1, J. M. Simpson1, G. Scott2 and D. J. Reasoner1
    1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268
    2National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC 29412...

  13. Curriculum Counter-Strokes and Strokes: Swimming in Non-Existent Epistemological Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Elizabeth E.; Paraskeva, João M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how Boaventura de Sousa Santos' "Epistemologies of the South" speaks to a needed dialogue on US educational and curriculum policy in which capitalism and colonialism produce youth and teachers as nonbeings--another insidious form of nonexistence. We analyze (a) the construction of the dichotomy of Western and…

  14. 75 FR 69160 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... De Terra Magnolia Degunzburg Marc David Dempfle Carl-Erik Hartmut Dimingo Tatiana Santo Djeu Tuck... Johnson Patricia Margaret Jung Manfred F. Justice Rose Ong Kadoorie Phillip Lawrence Kaizuka Atsuko... Peckford Louise Adele Peet Sylvia Peet William Edward Peterson Nancy L. Pethe Ellen Nmi Petith Howard...

  15. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  16. Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Vol. 47, No. RR-6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    America Gordon R. Douglas, Jr., M.D. Whitehouse Station, New Jersey Secretario de Prevencion y Control de Enfermedades , Mexico Jose J. Santos...Preciado, M.D. Mexico City, Mexico iv MMWR May 1,1998 The following CDC staff members prepared this report: Nancy H.Arden, M.N. Hector S. Izurieta

  17. Nanostructured Ceramics Obtained Under Extreme Conditions of Pressure and Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-20

    Alessandro Bof Oliveira, Patrícia Rodrigues da Silva, Pâmela Andréa Mantey Dos Santos, Tania Maria Haas Costa, Marcia Russman Gallas. An Approach for...Portuguese), 32:1926-1933, 2009. 15. Mesquita, Alexandra ; Bernardi , Maria Inês B. ; Mastelaro, Valmor R. ; Lente, Manuel H. ; Eiras, José A

  18. Is There a Semiperipheral Type of Schooling? State, Social Movements and Education in Spain, 1970-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonal, Xavier; Rambla, Xavier

    1996-01-01

    Applies to the Spanish educational system, the theory of semiperipheral societies developed by B. de Souza Santos. Spanish schooling is described as semiperipheral in that it entails a significant gap between aspirations and provision. Implications for the analysis of other Mediterranean school systems are discussed. (SLD)

  19. The Impact of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Typical and Atypical Emerging Lexicons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Extended Statistical Learning account (ExSL; Stokes, Kern & dos Santos, 2012) late talkers (LTs) continue to use neighborhood density (ND) as a cue for word learning when their peers no longer use a density learning mechanism. In the current article, LTs expressive ("active") lexicon ND values differed from those of…

  20. A new species of Neomida Latreille from Colombia, with additional records and a complementary description for Neomidasuilla (Champion) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Diaperini).

    PubMed

    Aloquio, Sergio; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Neomidadiminuta sp. n. is described, based on a single male specimen from Colombia, and a redescription of Neomidasuilla (Champion) is given. Data on the morphology of the aedeagus for both species, and on the female abdominal terminalia for Neomidasuilla are provided. New records of Neomidasuilla from Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, Brazil are given.

  1. Marine Seismic System Deployment (MSS). Phase 2. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Triaxial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-09

    FL ST. CROIX, VI SANTO DOMINGO , DR (904) 354-0352 (809) 773-3119 (809) 565-6661 * LAKE CHARLES, LA ST. THOMAS, VI (318) 439-6147 (809) 774-2933 ST...Offlcilai-Military authorities, Vice-Admiral Pedro Espanol del Atlantico SA; (3) Frigoriflcos Salvador Vasquesl: Iglesias : Pont Commandants, H. S

  2. A Sociolinguistic Survey of Araki: A Dying Language of Vanuatu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vari-Bogiri, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    Araki is one of around a hundred languages of the Republic of Vanuatu. It is a language spoken by the people of Araki, an islet situated near the south western part of Santo, in the north of Vanuatu. Linguistic statistics have shown a gradual decline in the number of speakers. This study presents evidence to show that Araki is a declining language…

  3. New Mexico Pueblos Confront the Atomic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    While mineral development in Indian Country offers economic benefits, it can also pollute the air and water and destroy the land itself. Article describes three different approaches that Laguna, Acoma and Santo Domingo Pueblos are using to deal with exploitation of their natural resources. (DS)

  4. The Holy See and the Middle East: The Public Diplomacy of Pope John Paul II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    nature. These dealt with intra- church, ecumenical, and interfaith matters. The Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches, 95 See Herminio Rico , S.J., John......Rights and Population.” Population and Development Review 5, no. 4 (December 1979): 747-754. ________. Telegrama di Cordoglio del Santo Padre per

  5. Cooperative Education: An International Collaborative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Raymond C.

    In 1993, the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo (UASD), in the Dominican Republic, and New York's LaGuardia Community College (LaGCC) entered into a partnership to establish a series of community colleges in the Dominican Republic. The colleges were designed to foster economic growth, prepare graduates for transfer to the UASD to complete…

  6. NASA Image Captures Emily Trek Toward Hispaniola

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-03

    Tropical Storm Emily continues its march toward Hispaniola, which it is expected to reach later on Aug. 3. NASA Aqua spacecraft captured this infrared image 1:53 p.m. EDT on Aug. 3, with the storm located south of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

  7. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  8. Numerical Modeling of Inverse Problems for Damage Detection in Aircraft Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    e de fadiga em reparos de materiais compósitos em chapas trincadas. X Encontro de Modelagem Computacional , Nova Friburgo. 11. Santos, RR, Sollero...P, Useche, J, Albuquerque, EL (2007). Análise estática de chapas trincadas com reparo de material compósito. X Encontro de Modelagem Computacional

  9. A Specific Construction of a Conic from an Ellipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    The interesting construction of a conic from an ellipse given by Manuel Santos-Trigo is evaluated. The validity of the conclusion that the locus is a conic section, the nature of which is determined in a simple way by the location of the variable point R relative to its center point O and the major vertices of the ellipse are proved.

  10. 75 FR 12807 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending March 6.... Docket Number: DOT-OST-2000-6796. Date Filed: March 1, 2010. Due Date for Answers, Conforming Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: March 22, 2010. Description: Application of Aerolineas Santo Domingo...

  11. Human Rights Education and Student Self-Conception in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…

  12. Lotus alianus, a new species from Cabo Verde and nomeenclatural notes on Lotus section Pedrosia (Fabaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antao and Sao Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotyp...

  13. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Pereira wa.;^-,ssed as minister of finance, apparently at the IMF’s insistence, and that Manuel Santos Manecas? currently minister of trade, has been...Simbine as governor of Cabo Delgado Province, and Carlos Agostinho do Rosario as governor of Zambezia Province. [Text] [Maputo Domestic Service in

  14. The Leadership Orientations and Effectiveness of College and University Career Services Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Jacob Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Career service directors lead the third most common division within student affairs departments, but the leadership of a collegiate career services office has not been represented in higher education research. Obtaining a "good job" has consistently been noted as a main reason to attend college (Pryor, Hurtado, Saenz, Santos & Korn,…

  15. Life and Death--A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Describes the celebration of death in Mexico and gives an alternative perspective from which to examine current U.S. attitudes and practices concerning death. Discusses the role that children play in the Todos Santos, or Day of the Dead, festival and the imagery and ceremonies of the festival. (LB)

  16. A Specific Construction of a Conic from an Ellipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    The interesting construction of a conic from an ellipse given by Manuel Santos-Trigo is evaluated. The validity of the conclusion that the locus is a conic section, the nature of which is determined in a simple way by the location of the variable point R relative to its center point O and the major vertices of the ellipse are proved.

  17. The Leadership Orientations and Effectiveness of College and University Career Services Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Jacob Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Career service directors lead the third most common division within student affairs departments, but the leadership of a collegiate career services office has not been represented in higher education research. Obtaining a "good job" has consistently been noted as a main reason to attend college (Pryor, Hurtado, Saenz, Santos & Korn,…

  18. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING - WHERE ARE WE NOW AND WHERE ARE WE GOING?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial Source Tracking ? Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?

    J. W. Santo-Domingo1, J. M. Simpson1, G. Scott2 and D. J. Reasoner1
    1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268
    2National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC 29412...

  19. Corynespora cassiicola f. sp. schinii, a potential biocontrol agent for the weed Schinus terebinthifolius in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An isolate of Corynespora cassiicola was found in Brazil (state of Espírito Santo) causing a severe leaf spot and foliage blight on Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae, Brazilian peppertree or ‘aroeira’) which is a major environmental weed in many tropical and sub-tropical areas of the globe, in...

  20. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-05

    April 1 last year Port of Manila manager Eduardo Santos wrote PPA general manager Primitivo Solis itemizing MIPSI’s and MIPTI’s failure to pay large...gether. Eva Estrada-Kalaw. A runaway winner in 1971; also a Plaza Miranda survivor. Ran for Vice President last year and wound up third. She was

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-11-03

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter.

  2. Taxonomic notes on Holcobunus Roewer, 1910, with descriptions of three new species, and new records for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 (Opiliones: Eupnoi: Sclerosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Bragagnolo, Cibele

    2015-10-05

    Three new Brazilian species of Holcobunus Roewer, 1910 are described, thus increasing the total number of species in the genus to five: Holcobunus bicornutus Mello-Leitão, 1940, H. nigripalpis Roewer, 1910, Holcobunus dissimilis sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa, Reserva Biologia Augusto Ruschi), Holcobunus ibitirama sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Ibitirama, Santa Marta, close to Parque Nacional Caparaó), and Holcobunus uaisoh sp. nov. (type locality: Minas Gerais, Fervedouro, Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro). A new record for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 from Minas Gerais is also provided and the morphological variation in both penis and somatic morphology in the genus are presented and discussed. These observations enhance our understanding of both the diversity and distribution of Holcobunus.

  3. Underwater soundscape of marine protected areas in the south Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gendriz, I; Padovese, L R

    2016-04-15

    The Laje de Santos Marine State Park (LSMSP) and Xixová-Japuí State Park (XJSP) are two protected areas (PA), close to the Santos Bay in the south Brazilian coast. The region encompasses both important biodiversity and anthropogenic activities. This study aims to serve as a first reference survey of the underwater soundscape of these PAs. Additionally it evaluates the presence of the anthropogenic and biological sound in these areas. One month of continuous recorded underwater sound, at selected locations in XJSP and LSMSP, is used in this study. The data were characterized by its spectral content and by the temporal evolution of Sound Pressure Levels (SPL). Both locations showed sound events with daily periodicities, mainly related with boats and fish chorus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dating earthquakes with high-precision thorium-230 ages of very young corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, R. Lawrence; Wasserburg, G. J.; Taylor, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Three corals from Vanuatu Islands, whose ages were known from counting annual growth bands, were analyzed by Th-230 age analysis to asses the accuracy of the Th-230 method. The comparison of Th-230 ages with the growth-band ages showed that the Th-230 ages were accurate within an error of + or - 3-5 y. Th-230 dates were then determined for two adjacent emerged heads from Santo Island; the dates were the same, indicating that the heads died at the same time, and consistent with the theory that they were killed by coseismic emergence around 1865 AD. The difference between this data and the data of the only major historically documented earthquake that caused an uplift (1973) suggests a seismic recurrence interval of 108 + or - 4 y for Santo. It is suggested that this approach may be extended back in time and to other localities.

  5. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter. PMID:26540067

  7. Expansion of an invasive coral species over Abrolhos Bank, Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Thiago J F; Pinheiro, Hudson T; Teixeira, João Batista; Mazzei, Eric F; Bueno, Leonardo; Hora, Mike S C; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto; Sampaio, Claudio L S; Rocha, Luiz A

    2014-08-15

    Invasive coral species of the genus Tubastraea have been increasingly recorded in Southwestern Atlantic waters since the 1980s. Their invasion and infestation are mainly related to port and oil exploration activities. For the first time the presence of Tubastraea tagusensis colonies is reported in Espírito Santo State, colonizing a port shore area, and incrusting oil/gas platform structures situated in the southern Abrolhos Bank, which is part of the most important coral reef system of the South Atlantic Ocean. Tubastraea colonies exhibit fast growth and high recruitment rates, and colonized 40% of the analyzed structures in just four years. The projection of port and oil/gas industry growth for the Espírito Santo State (more than 300%) highlights an alert to the dispersal of this alien species to natural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mansonia dyari, Mansonia flaveola and Aedeomyia squamipennis in the Dominican Republic, three new country records.

    PubMed

    Pena, Carlos J; Chadee, Dave D

    2004-12-01

    We report the first collection of 3 mosquito species representing 2 genera in the Dominican Republic. The collections of adults and larvae of Mansonia dyari Belkin, Heinemann, and Page and Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett) from Santo Domingo City represent 2 additional mosquito species to the mosquito fauna of the Dominican Republic. Larvae were collected in the Quitasueno and Puerta de Hierro lagoons (covered with the Pistia stratiotes plants) in Santo Domingo. The associated species Aedeomyia squamipennis Lynch Arribalzaga was also collected for the first time and is the only representative of the genus Aedeomyia Theobald in the Dominican Republic. These collections increase the number of mosquito species belonging to the Genus Mansonia from 1 to 3 and total species from 45 to 48 in the Dominican Republic.

  9. New species of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, Jindřiška

    2015-03-09

    To date, no mayflies have been described from Cape Verde, an archipelago of volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Based on the material collected on two islands, Santo Antão and Santiago, two species of the genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) are described based on larvae and imagines. Cloeon morna sp. n., collected in Santo Antão, and C. sidadi sp. n., collected in Santiago, have 3-segmented maxillary palps and tapered labial palps of larvae. The new species can be distinguished from each other and from other West-African species of the genus mainly according to details of the lateral spines on larval abdominal segments and characteristic colourations of vitta and terga in female imagines and colours of male turbinate eyes. Affinities to the West African species of the genus are discussed.

  10. Mugil curema as a PAH bioavailability monitor for Atlantic west sub-tropical estuaries.

    PubMed

    de Albergaria-Barbosa, Ana Cecília Rizzatti; Patire, Vinicius Faria; Taniguchi, Satie; Fernandez, Wellington Silva; Dias, June Ferraz; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2017-01-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the use of Mugil curema as a biomonitor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability. Fish biliary metabolites from low-contaminated (Cananéia) and contaminated (Santos) Brazilian estuaries were analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography apparatus coupled to fluorescence detectors connected in a series. In the Cananéia and Santos estuaries, total metabolite levels ranged from 0.85 to 34.4μgg(-1) of bile and from 4.06 to 528μgg(-1) of bile, respectively. Metabolite levels were not influenced by feeding status or sexual hormones (p<0.05), thus suggesting that M. curema is a good biomonitor for PAH bioavailability. In estuarine regions, it is possible to sample both the male and female genders of this species in any reproductive period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dating earthquakes with high-precision thorium-230 ages of very young corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, R. Lawrence; Wasserburg, G. J.; Taylor, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Three corals from Vanuatu Islands, whose ages were known from counting annual growth bands, were analyzed by Th-230 age analysis to asses the accuracy of the Th-230 method. The comparison of Th-230 ages with the growth-band ages showed that the Th-230 ages were accurate within an error of + or - 3-5 y. Th-230 dates were then determined for two adjacent emerged heads from Santo Island; the dates were the same, indicating that the heads died at the same time, and consistent with the theory that they were killed by coseismic emergence around 1865 AD. The difference between this data and the data of the only major historically documented earthquake that caused an uplift (1973) suggests a seismic recurrence interval of 108 + or - 4 y for Santo. It is suggested that this approach may be extended back in time and to other localities.

  12. Deriving Optimal Solutions from Incomplete Knowledge Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    this work to my parents Jack and Sandra Northrop, my sister Debra Nissen and her husband Andrew , whose constant encouragement allowed me to make it...through the many tough times (and to this day still don’t know what artificial intelligence is). Many thanks are extended to: Committee members Dr . Eugene...Santos, Dr . Richard Deckro, and Dr . Henry Potoczny, and also professors Lt Col James Moore and Maj Price Smith. Howard "Duck" Gleason and Stan

  13. Determining Exchange Splitting in a Magnetic Semiconductor by Spin-Filter Tunneling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-20

    the DOE under DE-AC06-76RL01830, and by NSF under DMR- 0210915. [1] P. Wachter , in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, edited by K...Lett. 70, 853 (1993). [4] T. S. Santos and J. S. Moodera, Phys. Rev. B 69, 241203(R) (2004). [5] G. Busch, P. Junod, and P. Wachter , Phys. Lett. 12, 11

  14. New Treatments for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy that Target Presynaptic Transmitter Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    fiber sprouting. Epilepsia 34, 985-995 (1993). Miesenbock G, De Angelis DA, Rothman JE. Visualizing secretion and synaptic transmission with pH...Turski L. Long-term effects of pilocarpine in rats: structural damage of the brain triggers kindling and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Epilepsia 1991...32: 778–82. Cavalheiro EA, Santos NF, Priel MR. The pilocarpine model of epilepsy in mice. Epilepsia 1996; 37: 1015–9. Cavazos JE, Zhang P, Qazi R

  15. New Treatments for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy that Target Presynaptic Transmitter Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Epilepsia 34, 985-995 (1993). Miesenbock G, De Angelis DA, Rothman JE. Visualizing secretion and synaptic transmission with pH- sensitive green...term effects of pilocarpine in rats: structural damage of the brain triggers kindling and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Epilepsia 1991; 32: 778–82...Cavalheiro EA, Santos NF, Priel MR. The pilocarpine model of epilepsy in mice. Epilepsia 1996; 37: 1015–9. Cavazos JE, Zhang P, Qazi R, Sutula TP

  16. National Strategy of Defense: Peace and Security for Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    to control the maritime access to Brazil: the strip that goes from Santos to Vitória, and the area around the mouth of the Amazon River. National...reestablish the tradition of the Tiros de Guerra [military training school for reserves]. In principle, all of the country’s town halls should be able...to take part in the renovation of the Tiros de Guerra , when the legal restrictions that still limit the list of qualified townships are eliminated

  17. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Adjunct Professor of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland 2009-2010 Chief, Division of Hematology /Oncology...Davis JM, Kennedy J, Wiley JM, Wingard J, Yeager AM and Santos GW. Analysis of factors predicting speed of hematologic recovery after transplantation...Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014, pp 1- 943. 48. Jankowitz RC, Davidson NE. Breast Cancer IN: Hematology -Oncology

  18. Mechanism of Action of Botulinum Neurotoxin and Overview of Medical Countermeasures for Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies 398 B. Prophylaxis 399 C. Pharmacological Intervention 399 1. Potassium Channel Blockers 400 2. Inhibitors for Specific Stages of...antibiotics and tetracycline may exacerbate the BoNT-induced inhibi- tion of neuromuscular transmission (Santos et aI., 1981). There is also concern that if...intoxication. 1. Potassium Channel Blockers Potassium channel blockers were found to be more effective in antagonizing the paralytic action ofBoNT than were the

  19. Naval Reserve Medicine: Recruitment Difficulties in the Medical Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    MEDICINE : RECRUITMENT DIFFICULTIES IN THE MEDICAL CORPS by Christopher Santos March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Chad W. Seagren Co-Advisor...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAVAL RESERVE MEDICINE : RECRUITMENT DIFFICULTIES IN THE MEDICAL CORPS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This thesis analyzes the effect of Naval Reserve Medicine (NRM) policies and procedures on the

  20. Neuroprotective Mechanisms Activated in Non-seizing Rats Exposed to Sarin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-04

    expression levels of genes that generally suppress inflammation or apoptosis. Importantly, the early transcrip- tional response for inflammation - and...difference between the two groups was the large number of KEGG pathways asso- ciated with inflammation activated in the seizing group (Fig. 2). The...Inhibits interleukin-1 production Contributes to control neuronal cell death and inflammation (Borish et al., 1992; Santos et al., 2010) -5 -2 1 4 0.2 2

  1. The New Roles of the Dominican Armed Forces in the Dominican Republic National Security Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Salazar, Seguridad Nacional Hoy: El reto de las Democracias (México: Editora Aguilar, August 2002), 155. 3Francisco R. Betancourt, The Role of Civil...Army War College, March 2003). 13José Miguel Soto Jiménez, Defensa, Seguridad, y Democracia . (Santo Domingo: Editora Taller C. por A. 1998...his book Defensa, Seguridad, y Democracia , is very clear about the effect of the new functions of the Armed Forces to the government and to the

  2. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

    2013-09-01

    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards, and the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression and widely-separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological time scales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that in Fogo the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  3. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

    2014-02-01

    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde Archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards as well as the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression of eruptive activity as widely separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological timescales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo Island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions, including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that on Fogo, the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium-frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  4. An Assessment of Cultural Resources in Cochiti Reservoir.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    Cochiti Dam Quad IC Assessment-Trijoles Quad ID Assessuent-Santo Domingo Pueblo Quad 19 Assessment-Tetilla Peak Quad IF White Rock Quad 2 Archeological...Section IV, A and B), the litial phase of assessment was to assamble the various manuscripts and publications available and to make aimaries or copies of...mesa top, on the west side of the canyon, to the canyon bottom and the Rio Grande. Bad ice and snow conditions prevented access and, hence, foot

  5. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    In Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, pages 398–406, 1997. [23] Emilio Frazzoli. Maneuver-based motion planning...Evolutionary approaches to neural control of rolling, walking, swimming and flying animats or robots. In Richard J. Duro, Jose Santos, and Manuel Grana...objective genetic programming. In Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Portland, OR, June 2004. [66] Peter Pacheco . Parallel

  6. Stability Operations and the Colombian Army: A Case for Implementation of New Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    internal conflict since 1949 following the assassination of the popular liberal political leader, Jorge Eliecer Gaitan. Afterward, the two radical...an internal conflict since 1949 following the assassination of the popular liberal political leader, Jorge Eliecer Gaitan. Afterward, the two radical...ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: Juan Manuel Santos, "Consolidation Strategy" 2 Figure 2: Logros De La Politica De Consolidacion De La Seguridad Democratica 5

  7. Remote Sensing Application of the Geophysical Changes in the Coastlines and Rivers of Zambales, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sison, Melissa Joy M.; Bulaong, Edmark Pablo; Pakaigue, Marietta A.

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical changes in river outlet, river upstream and coastlines near the rivers of Bucao and Santo Tomas in Zambales, Philippines were analyzed using the Google Earth's historical satellite imageries from 2004 to 2013. Data in 2015 were gathered from in situ field measurements ground validation. The study aimed to measure and determine changes in the width of river outlet, width of river bank upstream and shifting of coastline. Results revealed that there was a decrease and increase in the width size of the Bucao and Santo Tomas river outlets, respectively during the study period. Geophysical changes occurred in the two rivers due to the continuous supply of lahar as an after effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Coastline positions near the two rivers also changed. The highest rate of erosion along the coastal area was prevalently observed near the river outlet of both rivers. Moreover, accretion was observed in the coastline of Santo Tomas and erosion phenomenon was observed in the North and South coastlines of Bucao River. The shifting was caused by natural processes such as erosion, sedimentation and natural calamities as well as anthropogenic processes such as reclamation/quarrying. Occurrence of erosion and sedimentation played active roles in the changes of coastlines during the study period. Furthermore, the upstream of the Bucao river changed physically due to deposits of lahar present in the upstream which are being discharged directly and continuously going down to the river. Generally, the width of the Bucao River upstream decreased its size because of the accumulated sediment in the riverbank. On the other hand, the observed erosion is caused by high velocity of river during heavy rains and typhoons. The width of the Santo Tomas river bank upstream did not change due to the construction of concrete dikes which prevent the lahar-filled river from breaching the embankment and flooding the agricultural, residential and commercial areas near

  8. NATO-Advances Study Institute, Diamond and Diamond-Like Films and Coatings, Held in Il Ciocco, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Italy on July 22-August 3, 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    Coimbra P-3000 Coimbra, Portugal Phone: FAX: 351-39-29158 Dr. Jean - Jacques Dubray Ccrarnic Science & Engineering Department 217, Steidle Building...Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 10129 Torino, Italy Phone: 39-11-3358240 FAX: 39-11-5567399 Ms. Filomena Pinto DosSantos Physics Department University of...474223 Mr. Jean Mercier IEPES BP 166 38092 Grenoble Cedex, France Phone: 33-76-881183 FAX: 33-76-887988 Dr. Koichi Miyata Kobe Steel Research

  9. Information Operations and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    Santos 24 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A – Unclassified, Unlimited Distribution Suspicion Detection- Keystroke Dynamics  Correlation has been found... dynamic , reconfigurable architectures (e.g., IP hoping, multilevel polymorphism) CV25 S&T Themes (1/2) 13 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...between keystroke timings and changes to mental state, such as cognitive workload and deception under the Deny and Disrupt (DnD) effort o Traditional

  10. Lipoprotein secretion: It takes two to TANGO.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2016-05-09

    An unsolved mystery in cell biology is how unusually large secretory cargoes are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. In this issue, Santos et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201603072) report the function of a Mia2/cTAGE5 transcript fusion, named TALI, in the endoplasmic reticulum export of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins, but not collagen XII.

  11. [Coccus species affecting Coffea arabica in Brazil (Coccoideae: Coccidae) and the redescription of two species].

    PubMed

    de Willink, Maria C Granara; Pirovani, Victor D; Ferreira, Paulo S F

    2010-01-01

    Five Coccus on Coffea arabica from the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais were studied. Females were prepared and mounted in Canada balsam. Coccus brasiliensis Fonseca and Coccus lizeri (Fonseca) were redescribed and Coccus alpinus De Lotto, Coccus celatus De Lotto and Coccus viridis (Green) were characterized. A key to species and illustration of all of them are included. Coccus alpinus and C. celatus are new records for Brazil and the Neotropical Region.

  12. Private Military Companies: Analyzing the Use of Armed Contractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    These intellectual arguments were reinforced by the economic arguments of Milton Friedman, who expounded on the virtues of free markets and limited...1999), 361-67. 27 Ibid., 336-414. 28 Ibid., 368-70. 29 Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962), 2...government, led by MPLA president, Jose Eduardo dos Santos , was on the verge of defeat at the hands of UNITA rebels led by Jonas Savimbi.45 It hired

  13. Surface and Defect Excitations in Covalently Bonded Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    Pseudopotentials for highly 5 Electronegative /rirst Row Elements’, C. Monte Carlo Study of the Quantum Heisenberg 7 Antiferromagnet D .- Magnetic ,Properties of...1989). 19. G. Gomez-Santos, J.D. Joannopoulos, and T. Negele, " Monte Carlo Study of the Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet", Phys. Rev. B39, 4435...approaches. This paves the way for future studies of a variety of complex and important material systems. C. Monte Carlo Study of the Quantum

  14. New species and records of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Robin E.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eight new species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela are described: Acostatrichia digitata sp. n., Hydroptila cressae sp. n., Metrichia botrychion sp. n., Ochrotrichia spira sp. n., Oxyethira bettyae sp. n., Oxyethira quiramae sp. n., Oxyethira redunca sp. n., and Rhyacopsyche shorti sp. n.New country records for Venezuela of 2 additional species, Neotrichia feolai Santos & Nessimian, 2009 and Oxyethira picita Harris & Davenport, 1999, are also provided. Illustrations of male genitalia are provided with each description. PMID:22577311

  15. Imaging proto-oceanic crust off the Brazilian Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Evain, M.; Afilhado, A.; Rigoti, C.; Loureiro, A.; Alves, D.; Leprêtre, A.; Moulin, M.; Schnurle, P.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.; Rabineau, M.; Feld, A.; Viana, A.; Aslanian, D.

    2015-01-01

    During the Sanba (Santos basin seismic transect) experiment in 2010-2011, a 380-km-long combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profile has been acquired using 30 ocean-bottom seismometers, a 4.5 km seismic streamer and a 8900 in.3 airgun array. The Sanba 3 profile crosses the southern flank of the Sao Paulo Plateau, the Sao Paulo Ridge and the easternmost Santos Basin in an east-west direction. Its eastern end is located on undisturbed oceanic crust. Tomographic and forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data reveals that the sedimentary thickness is variable with only 1-2 km on top of the ridge and thickening to 4-5 km in the basin. Crustal thickness at the ridge is about 18 km and the relative layer thickness and velocity gradients indicate a continental origin of this ridge. The eastern Santos Basin is underlain by crust of only 5 km thickness, characterized by high seismic velocities between 6.20 km s-1 in the upper crust and 7.40 km s-1 in the lower crust. Three hypotheses for the nature of the crust in this region are tested here: (i) thinned continental crust, (ii) serpentinized upper mantle material, (iii) thin oceanic crust. As seismic velocity gradients seem to rule out a continental origin of this region, and clear Moho reflections argue against serpentinized upper mantle, we propose that the crust underlying the easternmost Santos Basin is of oceanic origin. Deviations from normal oceanic crustal velocities in the lower crust (6.70-7.00 km s-1) can be explained by accretion at slow spreading rates leading to the inclusion of serpentinite into the lower crust at the onset of organized seafloor spreading.

  16. Survival in Cold Waters: Staying Alive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    John Murray from the Marine Safety Directorate. They with Victor Santos- Pedro conceived the necessity of such a report. It could not have been...Herald, November 27, 1999) Ten people died and another 11 were missing and feared drowned after an ultra -modern Norwegian ferry sank in chilly, rough...with this, the Royal Air Force developed the Mk 1 through Mk 8 aircrew constant wear immersion suit. The first six Mks were made from neoprene nylon

  17. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain harboring blaOXA-72 from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Tavares E Oliveira, Thamirys Rachel; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    In this study, we report the isolation of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter pittii in Brazil. A carbapenem-resistant A. pittii strain was recovered from a hospitalized female patient from Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. PCR screening and DNA sequencing allowed us to identify the presence of blaOXA-72. We observed blaOXA-72 in a ~11kb plasmid and flanked by XerC/XerD-binding sites.

  18. REDIR: Automated Static Detection of Obfuscated Anti-Debugging Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Expert Systems with Applications , vol. 36, no. 3, Part 1, pp. 5264–5271, 2009. [Online]. Available: http...Scripts,” Expert Systems with Applications , vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 555–568, 2003. [40] S. Gutierrez-Santos, M. Cocea, and G. Magoulas, “A Case-Based Reasoning...Prentzas, “Integrating (Rules, Neural Networks) and Cases for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Expert Systems,” Expert Systems with Applications ,

  19. HARPS: ESO's coming planet searcher. Chasing exoplanets with the La Silla 3.6-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, F.; Mayor, M.; Rupprecht, G.; Avila, G.; Ballester, P.; Beckers, J.-L.; Benz, W.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bouchy, F.; Buzzoni, B.; Cavadore, C.; Deiries, S.; Dekker, H.; Delabre, B.; D'Odorico, S.; Eckert, W.; Fischer, J.; Fleury, M.; George, M.; Gilliotte, A.; Gojak, D.; Guzman, J.-C.; Koch, F.; Kohler, D.; Kotzlowski, H.; Lacroix, D.; Le Merrer, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lo Curto, G.; Longinotti, A.; Megevand, D.; Pasquini, L.; Petitpas, P.; Pichard, M.; Queloz, D.; Reyes, J.; Richaud, P.; Sivan, J.-P.; Sosnowska, D.; Soto, R.; Udry, S.; Ureta, E.; van Kesteren, A.; Weber, L.; Weilenmann, U.; Wicenec, A.; Wieland, G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Dravins, D.; Hatzes, A.; Kürster, M.; Paresce, F.; Penny, A.

    2002-12-01

    An extensive review of past, present and future research on extrasolar planets is given in the article “Extrasolar Planets” by N. Santos et al. in the present issue of The Messenger. Here we want to mention only that the search for extrasolar planets and the interpretation of the scientific results have evolved in recent years into one of the most exciting and dynamic research topics in modern astronomy.

  20. The Army in Support of Political Objectives: The 1965 Dominican Republic Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Strategic Studies, Dominican Action-- 1965: Intervention or Cooperation (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, Jul 66), p 27; Office of the Joint Chiefs of...Staff, ’Chronology of the Crisis in the Dominican Republic* (Washington, D.C.: Historical Division, Joint Secretariat, 30 Sep 66), p. 14. =Department...Wheeler, the chairman of the joint chiefs. The president wanted the situation in Santo Domingo brought under control quickly and with no doubt about

  1. West Europe Report No. 2139

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-09

    Enrique de Diego; ABC, 3 Apr 83) 141 Municipals as Center-Right Testing Ground for 1986 (Salustiano del Campo; YA, 3 Apr 83) 144 Iglesias ...the Restructuring Plan Monitoring Commission (trade unions and companies), and subsequently with the press, which was also attended by Eduardo Santos ...general of CCOO [Workers Commissions], a post that he resigned to take his current job when Gerardo Iglesias went to Madrid, will be the Communist

  2. The US Dominican Intervention: Success Story

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Johnson publicly compared the situation to "another Cuba ," or when the American Embassy in Santo Domingo released an ill-prepared list of communist...6 May 1965), pp. 1-2; Luis Iturralde Chinel, La O.E.A. y la Revolucion Dominicana(Washington: Union Panamericana, 1967), p. 59. 19. Oral history...Colonel Caamano was killed while attempting to return to the island secretly with a small band of conspirators from Cuba . Palmer, oral history, p

  3. ARC-2007-ACD07-0050-109

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-21

    Memorial services for Ames Security Guard Johnny Green. funeral services on the NRP parade ground. Eugolies presented b Chris Christensen, Deputy Center Director, Ames Research Center, Robert Dlci, Cief, Protective Services, Roger Higby, Lt., Ames Protectives serices, Cynthia Green, Daughter, Sloan Thompson, Granddaughter - Awarding of California Commendation Medal, Col. Amos Bagdasarian 129th Rescue Wing, CA Ang, Military Shadow Box, CPO Mike Di Santo, USN, Presentation of American Flags, Robert Dolci

  4. ARC-2007-ACD07-0050-108

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-21

    Memorial services for Ames Security Guard Johnny Green. funeral services on the NRP parade ground. Eugolies presented b Chris Christensen, Deputy Center Director, Ames Research Center, Robert Dlci, Cief, Protective Services, Roger Higby, Lt., Ames Protectives serices, Cynthia Green, Daughter, Sloan Thompson, Granddaughter - Awarding of California Commendation Medal, Col. Amos Bagdasarian 129th Rescue Wing, CA Ang, Military Shadow Box, CPO Mike Di Santo, USN, Presentation of American Flags, Robert Dolci

  5. ARC-2007-ACD07-0050-117

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-21

    Memorial services for Ames Security Guard Johnny Green. funeral services on the NRP parade ground. Eugolies presented b Chris Christensen, Deputy Center Director, Ames Research Center, Robert Dlci, Cief, Protective Services, Roger Higby, Lt., Ames Protectives serices, Cynthia Green, Daughter, Sloan Thompson, Granddaughter - Awarding of California Commendation Medal, Col. Amos Bagdasarian 129th Rescue Wing, CA Ang, Military Shadow Box, CPO Mike Di Santo, USN, Presentation of American Flags, Robert Dolci

  6. A Study of the Operator Expansion Method and its Application to Scattering from Randomly Rough Dirichlet Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    integrated optics [ Marcuse , 19821, as well as in ocean acoustics [DeSanto, 1979]. I Many applications emphasize the solution of the inverse problem: the...Berlin, 1980. Carsey, F. D. ed., Microwave Sensing of Sea Ice, Geophysical Monograph 68 , Amer- ican Geophysical Union, 1992. Chen, J. S., and A... Marcuse , D., Light Transmission Optics, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982. 3 McDaniel, S.T., "Sea surface reverberation: A review," J. Acoust. Soc

  7. [Prehospital care to multiple victims with simulated trauma].

    PubMed

    Simões, Romeo Lages; Duarte Neto, Caio; Maciel, Gustavo Sasso Benso; Furtado, Tatiana Piotz; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão

    2012-01-01

    To assess the quality of prehospital care agencies conducted in Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. We conducted a retrospective study in the archives of the League of Academic Surgery and Trauma Care of Espírito Santo (Lacates) regarding 40 victims of a simulated crash between a bus and two cars. The patients were treated by four teams: Military Fire Department of Espírito Santo, Samu 192, County Guard and Civil Defense. The performance of these teams was evaluated by Lacates, through analysis of a check-list with pre-established guidelines for each victim. The Fire Department of Espírito Santo (CBMES), which extricated victims, outlined the danger zones and carried out the screening by the method START, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases. The Samu 192 victims, which attended victims by the mnemonic method (ABCDE) in medical outposts, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases in the category Airway; 97.5% in breathing, 92.5% in circulation, 90% in Neurological Assessment, and 50% in the Exhibition and Environmental Control. The analysis showed that the ABCDE care was correct in 42.5% of cases. The transport of patients was performed correctly in 95% of cases. The County Guard secured the patency of the avenues for transportation of patients and Civil Defense successfully coordinated the work of teams involved in the command post. The triage and transport of victims have been performed satisfactorily. However, more attention should be given to exposure and hypothermia protection of victims, since this item compromised treatment.

  8. U.S. Strategic Communication Policy Toward the South American Andean Ridge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-17

    Morales, the U.S. Ambassador to La Paz Manuel Rocha warned Bolivians that electing a candidate who would lead the country to become a major cocaine...Ecuador have had some difficulties since President Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado took office in January 2007. The U.S. was concerned 15 that...is the strongest among Andean Ridge countries. Shortly after taking office in 2010, President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón made adjustments to

  9. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo.

  10. [The arrival of the plague in São Paulo in 1899].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    In October 1899, the bubonic plague arrived in Brazil through the port of Santos. A city of intensive port activity, Santos was the gateway for a plague epidemic that devastated several cities in Brazil in the early 20th century and prompted joint action by several states to fight it. More importantly, given the difficulties and delays in importing anti-plague serum from Europe, it led to the creation of the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo (in 1899) and the Municipal Serotherapeutic Institute in Rio de Janeiro (in 1900), which developed and standardized anti-plague serum and vaccines according to the particular conditions of the country. Until then, public health efforts had been isolated and had not reached the whole country. Oswaldo Cruz, newly arrived after three years of specialization at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, worked with scientists Adolfo Lutz and Vital Brazil on identifying the plague in Santos. This article analyzes the arrival of the bubonic plague epidemic in the state of Sao Paulo and the public health measures taken to combat the disease and provide patient care in the early part of the 20th century. The primary sources for this analysis were the São Paulo newspapers, especially O Estado de Sao Paulo, and reports from the Ministry of Justice and the President of the State of Sao Paulo.

  11. Determination of Geochemically Important Sterols and Triterpenols in Sediments Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Meurer, Eduardo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Ana Cecília Rizzatti; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Weber, Rolf Roland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2015-08-04

    A fast, sensitive, and selective ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method that is able to quantify geochemical biomarkers in sediment is described. A pool of 10 sterols, which can be used as biomarkers of autochthonous (cholesterol, cholestanol, brassicasterol, ergosterol), allochthonous (stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmastanol) and anthropogenic (coprostanol and epicoprostanol) organic matter (OM), and three triterpenols (lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin) were chosen as the analytes. The method showed excellent analytical parameters, and, compared with the traditional GC-MS methods that are commonly applied for the analysis of sterols, this method requires no sample cleanup or derivatization and presents improved values for the LOD and LOQ. UHPLC can separate the diastereoisomers (epicoprostanol, coprostanol, and cholestanol) and the isomers (lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin). The method was successfully applied for the quantification of the biomarkers, and thus, it was applied to assess the OM sources and the impacts of anthropogenic activities in sediments from different environments, such as Antarctica and other Brazilian systems (Continental Shelf, São Sebastião Channel, and Santos Estuary). Unique profiles of the biomarkers were observed for the contrasting environments, and β-amyrin and cholesterol were more predominant in the Santos Estuary and Antarctica samples, respectively. The sterol ratios indicated a higher level of sewage contamination in the Santos Estuary.

  12. Ecological relevance of Sentinels' biomarker responses: a multi-level approach.

    PubMed

    Seabra Pereira, Camilo D; Abessa, Denis M S; Choueri, Rodrigo B; Almagro-Pastor, Victor; Cesar, Augusto; Maranho, Luciane A; Martín-Díaz, María Laura; Torres, Ronaldo J; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma K; Almeida, João E; Cortez, Fernando S; Mozeto, Antonio A; Silbiger, Helcy L N; Sousa, Eduinetty C P M; Del Valls, Tommas Angel; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2014-05-01

    In response to the need for more sensitive and rapid indicators of environmental quality, sublethal effects on the lowest levels of biological organization have been investigated. The ecological relevance of these responses assumes a prevailing role to assure effectiveness as indicator of ecological status. This study aimed to investigate the linkages between biomarker responses of caged bivalves and descriptive parameters of macrobenthic community structure. For this purpose a multi-level environmental assessment of marine and estuarine zones was performed in São Paulo coast, Brazil. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify linkages between biological responses and ecological indices, as well as to characterizing the studied stations. Individuals of the marine mussel Perna perna caged along Santos Bay showed signs of oxidative stress, lysosomal membrane destabilization, histological alterations and reduced embryonic development. The estuarine oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae caged along Santos Port Channel showed alterations on biotransformation enzymes and antioxidant system, DNA damage and lysosomal membrane destabilization. The benthic community analysis showed reduced richness and diversity in the same areas of the Santos bay and estuary where biomarker responses were altered. Our results revealed that xenobiotics are inducing physiological stress, which may lead to changes of the benthic community structure and deterioration of the ecological status over time. Integrating biomarker responses and ecological indexes improved certainty that alterations found at community level could be related to xenobiotic as stressors, which was very useful to improve the discriminatory power of the environmental assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The application of biochemical responses to assess environmental quality of tropical estuaries: field surveys.

    PubMed

    Maranho, Luciane Alves; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Cesar, Augusto; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Torres, Ronaldo José; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza; Morais, Rodofley Davino; Mozeto, Antônio Aparecido; DelValls, Tomás Angel; Martín-Díaz, María Laura

    2012-10-26

    A battery of biomarkers of exposure (EROD, DBF, GST and GPx) and effect (lipid peroxidation and DNA damage - strand breaks) were analyzed in gill tissues from caged and native oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae exposed to two tropical estuarine systems in SW Brazil: Santos (S1, S2, S3, S4) and Paranaguá (P1 - control, P2, P3, P4). The exposure lasted 28 days. Native oysters were sampled in the same areas where caged systems were exposed. Significant induction of biomarkers of exposure to organic compounds and oxidative stress (p < 0.05) were observed in all transplanted individuals from Santos resulting in DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Biological adverse effects were more evident in oysters transplanted in the Santos Estuarine System, a recognized contaminated area, than in the Paranaguá Estuarine System, surrounded by urban areas and Environmental Protected Areas. Native specimens from both estuaries showed adaption to the impacts of several contamination sources affecting the ecosystem. The use of transplanted C. rhizophorae proved to be a suitable tool for assessing and monitoring the environmental quality in mangrove ecosystems. This integrated approach employing multi-biomarker responses under field conditions could be incorporated as a descriptor of health status in tropical estuarine systems.

  14. Carbonate reservoir plays in the South Atlantic and worldwide analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a summary of the geological, geophysical and petrophysical challenges for interpretation of post-salt and presalt carbonate rocks that constitute one of the main reservoirs in the hydrocarbon accumulations in the South Atlantic, particularly in the Campos and Santos basins offshore Brazil and in the Angola -Gabon conjugate margins. Carbonate rocks associated with salt tectonics constitute one of the main exploratory plays in several basins worldwide, and recently have yielded large petroleum discoveries in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin (Santos Basin) and also in Angola (Kwanza Basin) . The presalt microbialite reservoirs are sealed by evaporites and the origin of these rocks is still controversial. One current of interpretation assumes they are associated with reefs and carbonate buildups formed during periods of sea-level rises in a desiccating basin. Other currents of interpretation assume that these rocks might be associated with hydrothermal fluids and chemical precipitation of carbonates in a basin affected by volcanic episodes, resulting in travertine deposits with secondary biogenic growth. We present examples of post-salt oil fields involving Albian carbonates in the South Atlantic, and also discuss the presalt plays recently drilled in ultradeep waters. The presalt carbonate reservoirs are compared with possible microbialite analogs in the sedimentary basins of Brazil dating from Neoproterozoic to Recent, and their similarities and differences in terms of depositional setting and petrophysical parameters from the Late Aptian presalt carbonate rocks that have been sampled in the Santos and Kwanza basins.

  15. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  16. Evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus detection by PCR in tissues from experimentally infected cows with the 2308 strain.

    PubMed

    Vejarano, M P; Matrone, M; Keid, L B; Rocha, V C M; Ikuta, C Y; Rodriguez, C A R; Salgado, V R; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Telles, E O; Ferreira Neto, J S

    2013-04-01

    This study compared 4 protocols for DNA extraction from homogenates of 6 different organs of cows infected with the Brucella abortus 2308 strain. The extraction protocols compared were as follows: GT (guanidine isothiocyanate lysis), Boom (GT lysis with the carrying suspension diatomaceous earth), PK (proteinase K lysis), and Santos (lysis by boiling and freezing with liquid nitrogen). Positive and negative gold standard reference groups were generated by classical bacteriological methods. All samples were processed with the 4 DNA extraction protocols and amplified with the B4 and B5 primers. The number of positive samples in the placental cotyledons was higher than that in the other organs. The cumulated results showed that the Santos protocol was more sensitive than the Boom (p=0.003) and GT (p=0.0506) methods and was similar to the PK method (p=0.2969). All of the DNA extraction protocols resulted in false-negative results for PCR. In conclusion, despite the disadvantages of classical bacteriological methods, the best approach for direct diagnosis of B. abortus in organs of infected cows includes the isolation associated with PCR of DNA extracted from the cotyledon by the Santos or PK methods.

  17. An environmental forensic approach for tropical estuaries based on metal bioaccumulation in tissues of Callinectes danae.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Andrade, Nathalia P; Hortellani, Marcos A; Favaro, Deborah I T; Kakazu, Mauricio H; Cotrim, Marycel E B; Lavradas, Raquel T; Moreira, Isabel; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab Callinectes danae is distributed throughout the Atlantic coast and this study aimed to evaluate a environmental forensics approach that could be applied at tropical estuarine systems where this species is distributed, based on the metal concentrations in its tissues. For this purpose, blue crab samples were collected in 9 sites (distributed in 3 areas) along the Santos Estuarine System, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in gills, hepatopancreas and muscle tissues. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed in these same sites. A data distribution pattern was identified during both sampling periods (August and December 2011). In order to validate this model, a new sampling campaign was performed in March 2013 at the Santos Estuarine System and also at Ilha Grande (state of Rio de Janeiro). These data were added to the previous database (composed of the August and December 2011 samples) and a discriminant analysis was applied. The results confirmed an environmental fingerprint for the Santos Estuarine System.

  18. Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

  19. Biochemical changes in the liver and gill of Cathorops spixii collected seasonally in two Brazilian estuaries under varying influences of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, J S; Braga, E S; Silva de Assis, H C; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

    2013-10-01

    In order to understand environmental health by the use of a bioindicator species in estuaries, biochemical responses observed in the catfish Cathorops spixii such as catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in liver and muscle. Furthermore, histological changes were also verified in liver and gills preparations. Fish were collected in three sites of the Santos-São Vicente estuary located at São Paulo (Brazil), subjected to varying levels of inputs of pollutants. For a reference site, specimens were sampled at Cananéia estuary at southern coast of São Paulo, a region with low anthropogenic influence. In general, no significant seasonal differences in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation responses were found in the organisms from the Cananéia estuary. However, in the polluted estuary (Santos-São Vicente), biochemical responses were observed by increases in GST hydroperoxides and decreases in AChE activities in the summer. Inhibition of AChE expression in fish from different areas of the Santos-São Vicente estuary in the summer was also found and can indicate neurotoxic effects in these organisms. Histopathological observation of gill and liver showed severe lesions, such as lamellar fusion and necrosis.

  20. Genetic diversity of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Y; Cunha-Machado, A S; Gontijo, A B P L; Favoreto, F C; Soares, T B C; Miranda, F D

    2017-04-20

    The Bromeliaceae family includes a range of species used for many purposes, including ornamental use and use as food, medicine, feed, and fiber. The state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is a center of diversity for this family in the Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the genetic diversity of five populations of the Bromeliaceae family, including specimens of the genera Aechmea, Billbergia (subfamily Bromelioideae), and Pitcairnia (subfamily Pitcairnioidea), all found in the Atlantic Forest and distributed in the state of Espírito Santo. The number of alleles per locus in populations ranged from two to six and the fixation index (F), estimated for some simple sequence repeats in bromeliad populations, was less than zero in all populations. All markers in the Pitcairnia flammea population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). Moreover, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed at some loci in populations of the five bromeliad species. In most cases, this can be attributed to the presence of inbreeding or the Wahlund effect. The genetic diversity indices of five species showed greater allelic richness in P. flammea (3.55). Therefore, we provide useful information for the characterization of genetic diversity in natural populations of Aechmea ramosa, Aechmea nudicaulis, Billbergia horrid, Billbergia euphemia, and P. flammea in Atlantic Forest remnants in the south of Espírito Santo state.