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Sample records for espirito santo afluente

  1. Male-specific contributions to the Brazilian population of Espirito Santo.

    PubMed

    de F Figueiredo, Raquel; Ambrosio, Isabela B; Braganholi, Danilo F; Chemale, Gustavo; Martins, Joyce A; Gomes, Veronica; Gusmão, Leonor; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2016-05-01

    Y chromosome markers have been widely studied due to their various applications in the fields of forensic and evolutionary genetics. In this study, 35 Y-SNPs and 17 Y-STRs were genotyped in 253 males from the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. A total of 18 haplogroups and 243 haplotypes were detected; the haplogroup and haplotype diversities were 0.7794 and 0.9997, respectively. Genetic distance analysis using the Y-STR data showed no statistically significant differences between Espirito Santo and other admixed populations from Brazil. The classification of paternal lineages based on haplogroups showed a predominant European contribution (85.88%), followed by African (11.37%) and Amerindian (2.75%) contributions.

  2. Survey for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the State of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Spolidorio, Mariana G.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Zago, Augusto M.; Donatele, Dirlei M.; Pinheiro, Sônia R.; Silveira, Iara; Caliari, Késia M.; Yoshinari, Natalino H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome. PMID:20595502

  3. Air pollution and its impacts on health in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; de Leon, Antonio Ponce; Juger, Washington; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity of children and adults in the city of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo. METHODS A study was carried out using time-series models via Poisson regression from hospitalization and pollutant data in Vitoria, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. Fine particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were tested as independent variables in simple and cumulative lags of up to five days. Temperature, humidity and variables indicating weekdays and city holidays were added as control variables in the models. RESULTS For each increment of 10 µg/m3 of the pollutants PM10, SO2, and O3, the percentage of relative risk (%RR) for hospitalizations due to total respiratory diseases increased 9.67 (95%CI 11.84-7.54), 6.98 (95%CI 9.98-4.17) and 1.93 (95%CI 2.95-0.93), respectively. We found %RR = 6.60 (95%CI 9.53-3.75), %RR = 5.19 (95%CI 9.01-1.5), and %RR = 3.68 (95%CI 5.07-2.31) for respiratory diseases in children under the age of five years for PM10, SO2, and O3, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases showed a significant relationship with O3, with %RR = 2.11 (95%CI 3.18-1.06). CONCLUSIONS Respiratory diseases presented a stronger and more consistent relationship with the pollutants researched in Vitoria. A better dose-response relationship was observed when using cumulative lags in polynomial distributed lag models. PMID:26982960

  4. Rainfall erosivity and rainfall return period in the experimental watershed of Aracruz, in the Coastal Plain of Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The knowledge of the factors influencing water erosion is relevant to land management practices. Rainfall, expressed by rainfall erosivity, is very important among the factors affecting water erosion. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity and return period for the Coa...

  5. Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espírito Santo

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Patricia Lofego; da Penha Zago-Gomes, Maria; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonça, Ana Tereza; Gonçalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2±12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1%), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1%), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001) with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis) and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.052). CONCLUSION: Alcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis. PMID:23644846

  6. Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalea, Roger; Robertson, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Boaventura de Sousa Santos is Professor of Sociology, School of Economics, University of Coimbra and Distinguished Legal Scholar, Law School, University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is also director of the Center for Social Studies at the University of Coimbra. Santos is one of the outstanding theorists whose work is engaged with pressing social and…

  7. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  8. [Haitian migration to Santo Domingo].

    PubMed

    Latortue, P R

    1985-01-01

    This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has

  9. Interview to Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Manuela; Dietz, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    In this interview, Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos addresses, on the one hand, the process of transnationalisation of universities and the neoliberalisation of the classical model of the European university. On the other hand, he stresses that the recognition of difference and internal pluralism of science, which have pervaded the…

  10. A survey of adulterants used to cut cocaine in samples seized in the Espírito Santo State by GC-MS allied to chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lindamara M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Santos, Heloá; Costa, Helber B; Merlo, Bianca B; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Poppi, Ronei J; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug of the central nervous system (CNS) extracted from the leaves of Erytroxylum coca. It is defined as a tropane alkaloid containing 1R-(exo,exo)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esther. However, despite its defined composition, a wide variety of chemical additives are present in cocaine found in the illicit market, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, caffeine, procaine and phenacetin. In this work, 512 cocaine samples seized by the Civil Police of Espirito Santo state (PC-ES, Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allied to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to classify the samples as a function of seizure year (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) and location (metropolitan, north, south and central). The cocaine content (wt.%) and its adulterants were also estimated. Analyzing the samples seized between 2008 and 2011, three sample sets are clearly grouped according to the degree of adulteration with caffeine and lidocaine: 100-50 wt.% of cocaine; 50-20 wt.% of cocaine; and 20-80 wt.% of lidocaine and 60-80 wt.% of caffeine, simultaneously. The last group is formed by samples seized between 2008 and 2009, which proves the higher degree of adulteration during this period. In 2012, higher cocaine content was observed for the 191 analyzed samples than in samples from previous years. The PCA data also suggests that the metropolitan region samples had a higher degree of adulteration than the state countryside samples.

  11. Izabel dos Santos and the training of the health workers.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses the career of Izabel dos Santos (1927-2010) as a means of examining the connections between health schools and agendas in contemporary Brazil. The article highlights dos Santos's training and her work in the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP- Special Public Health Service), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and in the formulation and implementation of national training programs for human resources within the area of health from the late 1970s onwards. The article highlights dos Santos's central role in the formulation and implementation of training policies for health workers, especially nursing technicians and assistants, and demonstrates how she occupies an important place in the history of Brazilian public health.

  12. SantosTM: A New Generation of Virtual Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Generation of Virtual Humans Jingzhou Yang, Tim Marler , HyungJoo Kim, Kimberly Farrell, Anith Mathai, Steven Beck, Karim Abdel-Malek and Jasbir Arora...2005-01-1407 SantosTM: A New Generation of Virtual Humans Jingzhou Yang, Tim Marler , HyungJoo Kim, Kimberly Farrell

  13. Santo Domingo School: A Rural Schoolwide Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    C de Baca, Mary Rose; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The schoolwide project option of the 1988 Hawkins Stafford Amendments to Chapter 1 allowed a rural school serving a disadvantaged Native American population to restructure its compensatory and regular education services. Santo Domingo school (New Mexico) illustrates the ways modifications of federal law and policy benefit children. (SLD)

  14. Continuous Mantle Exhumation at the Outer Continental Margin of the Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, P. V.; Severino, M. G.; Rigoti, C. A.; Magnavita, L. P.; Oliveira, J. B.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of 12,000 km of very deep (PSTM to 16 sec., PSDM to 25 km) 2D seismic sections, coupled with gravimetric and magnetometric modeling line-by-line, and the integration of the results with the regional data bank of Petrobras, all together viewed in terms of the recent tectonic models developed for the rupturing and separation of mega-plates, led to a regional (500,000 km2), first-time ever, 3D-view of the deep structure underlying the prolific sedimentary basins of Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil. The three basins are situated onto a continental margin that narrows gradually, from south to north, from a very wide (Santos), through an intermediate (Campos), and then to a narrow (Espírito Santo) passive margin. The seismic sections shows very well the dual rheological behavior of the continental crust, consisting of a deeper and plastic lower crust (with numerous short and strong reflections that display sub-horizontal ductile flow) and a shallower and brittle upper crust (represented by a mostly transparent and faulted seismic facies topped by the sedimentary sections of the rift and thermal subsidence phases). The crustal structure of the Santos Basin shows a zonation from west to east of alternating bands of NE-SW-trending thin (plastic basement terrains) and thick (resistant basement terrains) stretched continental crust. In vertical section this zonation is displayed as a series of necking zones, leading to a highly irregular, low to moderate crustal taper. Such zonation is less developed in the Campos Basin, where the crustal taper is moderate and regular, and practically non-existent in the Espírito Santo Basin, where the crustal taper is high. The most outstanding crustal feature shared in common by the three basins is the exhumation of mantle between the tip of the hyper-extended continental crust and the tabular-shaped oceanic crust. Although the crustal taper varies significantly from basin to basin their

  15. The Role of Rhetoric in the Judicial Opinion: The Rhetoric of Boaventura De Sousa Santos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    Boaventura De Sousa Santos, a Portuguese law professor, appears to be the first legal scholar and theorist who works with rhetorical theories and who is accepted by the legal profession. Santos's major works have centered on the legal system of Pasargada, a Brazilian favela (squatter village) whose residents try to settle disputes outside the…

  16. Other Worlds Are Possible: An Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Santos is a professor of Sociology at the University of Coimbra, where he is the director of the internationally renowned Centro de Estudos Sociais. He offers a rich vein of theoretical reflection and translation for language(s) and intercultural communication.

  17. Forbidden therapies: Santo Daime, ayahuasca, and the prohibition of entheogens in Western society.

    PubMed

    Blainey, Marc G

    2015-02-01

    Santo Daime, a Brazilian religion organized around a potent psychoactive beverage called ayahuasca, is now being practiced across Europe and North America. Deeming ayahuasca a dangerous "hallucinogen," most Western governments prosecute people who participate in Santo Daime. On the contrary, members of Santo Daime (called "daimistas") consider ayahuasca a medicinal sacrament (or "entheogen"). Empirical studies corroborate daimistas' claim that entheogens are benign and can be beneficial when employed in controlled contexts. Following from anthropology's goal of rendering different cultural logics as mutually explicable, this article intercedes in a misunderstanding between policies of prohibition and an emergent subculture of entheogenic therapy.

  18. HIV infection and risk behaviors among male port workers in Santos, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Larcerda, R; Stall, R; Gravato, N; Tellini, R; Hudes, E S; Hearst, N

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper measured the extent to which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has spread among the male working-class population of Santos, Brazil. METHODS. Questionnaires on risk behaviors and blood tests were administered to a random sample (n = 395) of male port workers employed by the Santos Port Authority. RESULTS. Although the rate of HIV infection among these men- the working-class male population of Santos-remains low (1.1%), self-reported behavioral risks for HIV infection are common. CONCLUSIONS. There is still time to prevent a widespread outbreak of HIV infection among the hetero-sexual population of Santos and of the transportation corridors emanating from that city. PMID:8712280

  19. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive development and cognitive evolution. Laurie R. Santos links many branches of psychological inquiry in her research, including animal behavior, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, judgment and decision making, and social psychology. In particular, her studies of biases, irrationalities, and errors- where rational decision making fails, rather than succeeds-are providing remarkable insights into how cognitive biases evolved and how decision making operates at a fundamental level. Her accomplishments beautifully illustrate the power of comparative studies of animal learning and behavior to help us understand the human mind. Santos' Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented here.

  20. Three new species of Bertolonia (Melastomataceae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, André M.; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We describe and illustrate three new species of Bertolonia, all endemic to the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Bertolonia duasbocaensis and B. macrocalyx occur close to each other, in the municipalities of Cariacica and Viana. Bertolonia ruschiana has a wider distribution, occurring in the municipalities of Santa Leopoldina, Santa Maria de Jetibá and Santa Teresa. The first two species are classified as critically endangered (CR), and the latter as endangered (EN). We also present an identification key for the species of Bertolonia that occur in Espírito Santo. PMID:28028482

  1. [The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].

    PubMed

    Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations.

  2. Three new species of Bertolonia (Melastomataceae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Lucas F; Amorim, André M; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We describe and illustrate three new species of Bertolonia, all endemic to the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Bertolonia duasbocaensis and B. macrocalyx occur close to each other, in the municipalities of Cariacica and Viana. Bertolonia ruschiana has a wider distribution, occurring in the municipalities of Santa Leopoldina, Santa Maria de Jetibá and Santa Teresa. The first two species are classified as critically endangered (CR), and the latter as endangered (EN). We also present an identification key for the species of Bertolonia that occur in Espírito Santo.

  3. Control design of Santo Tome back-to-back HVDC link

    SciTech Connect

    Rostamkolai, N.; Wegner, C.A.; Piwko, R.J.; Elahi, H.; Eitzmann, M.A. ); Garzi, G.; Tietz, P. )

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the control design of the Santo tome' back-to-back HVDC link. The Santo Tome' HVDC converter will be the second dc link asynchronously connecting the Argentina and Brazil power systems. This paper focuses on the design of the reactive power control, automatic power control, load frequency control, power modulation control, automatic frequency control, and automatic synchronizing control functions of the 50 MW dc link. Time simulation and frequency domain results are included to illustrate the system response and verify the adequacy of the controllers performance in achieving stable operating conditions.

  4. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  5. [The city of Santos and the expansion of Brazilian public health services in homeopathy].

    PubMed

    Justo, Célia Maria Patriani; Gomes, Mara H de Andréa

    2007-01-01

    In consonance with the principles of comprehensiveness, equity, and universality that underlie Brazil's sanitary reform and creation of its Unified Health System, some municipalities have begun offering homeopathy as a treatment option. The article explores the context in which homeopathic treatment was introduced and gained ground in the city of Santos, São Paulo, down through its incorporation as an alternative in the public healthcare network. Homeopathy was introduced in Santos not only by doctors and pharmacists but also by prescribing mediums from spiritist centers. The request that the municipality's primary-care services offer this alternative was possible thanks to the presence of all these players. The present analysis was based on interviews with the professionals who took part in the process, on technical reports, newspaper articles, and scientific journals, and on a book about the city's first spiritist society.

  6. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil).

    PubMed

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.

  7. Dental caries at Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil: An Early Holocene archaeological site.

    PubMed

    DA-Gloria, Pedro; Oliveira, Rodrigo E; Neves, Walter A

    2017-02-06

    The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses. The results show a high prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition (5.50%, n=327 teeth; 69.23%, n=13 individuals) compared to other samples of hunter-gatherers worldwide. In addition, dental caries in deciduous teeth start occurring as early as 3 to 4 years old, suggesting an early start to caries. Compared with other samples from Lagoa Santa, Lapa do Santo shows statistically similar prevalence of overall caries but different caries location pattern. We believe that a subsistence adaptation to a tropical environment rich in sources of carbohydrates, such as fruits, is the best explanation for the overall caries prevalence.

  8. Complex intrasalt deformation in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil: the role of density inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Tim; Jackson, Chris; Jackson, Martin; Hudec, Mike; Rodriguez, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Understanding intrasalt structure may elucidate the fundamental kinematics and, ultimately, the mechanics of diapir growth. However, there have been relatively few studies of the internal structure of salt diapirs outside the mining industry because their cores are only partly exposed in the field and poorly imaged in seismic reflection data. 3D seismic reflection from the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil reveal enigmatic allochthonous salt sheets of older evaporites emplaced above an overlying stratified evaporite sequence. Seismic-stratigraphic observations form the basis for a kinematic model invoking: (i) initial inward flow and thickening of the lower mobile salt within the rising wall, and arching of stratified overburden; (ii) breaching of the overburden, ascent of mobile lower evaporites along single or multiple feeders, and emplacement of upper-wall sheets or canopies; and (iii) later diapir squeezing due to regional shortening. We designed and ran physical models to explain how and why these structures occur, and to provide a mechanical basis for our kinematic model. Our first two models simulated salt having uniform internal density, with walls growing by (i) initially symmetric differential loading; and (ii) initially symmetric differential loading plus shortening. These models reproduced anticlines and injection folds seen in the simpler deformed walls in the Santos Basin. However, neither model reproduced the most complex structures (e.g. allochthonous intrusions, steep feeders, recumbent synclines) seen within the Santos evaporites. Thus, we argue differential loading and shortening alone are insufficient to generate these complex structures. In our third model, a less-dense lower evaporite was overlain by denser upper evaporites, similar to the density structure found in Santos Basin wellbores. In this model the wall rose solely by differential loading, with the lower mobile unit breaching the overlying stratified evaporites to form vertical diapirs

  9. Entropies of kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite: additional constraints on the pressure and temperature of the Al2SiO5 triple point.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The low-T heat capacities of kyanite (Minas Gerais, Brazil), andalusite (Espirito Santo, Brazil), and sillimanite (Reinbolt Hills, Antarctica) were measured with an automatic, adiabatically shielded calorimeter between approx 10 and 380 K. -J.A.Z.

  10. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  11. Gravity and Seismic Investigations of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Boucher, C.; Novitsky, C. G.; O'Shea, P. M.; Daves, J.; Marzen, R.; Mendoza, K.; Rasmussen, T.; Wei, W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Claytor, J. M.; Bischoff, S. H.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Corredor, A.

    2014-12-01

    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new gravity, seismic, electromagnetic and down-hole temperature data in 2014 in the Santo Domingo Basin and adjacent areas of the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) area of northern New Mexico. The SAGE 2014 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2010 and adds data and interpretations to a W to E transect of the RGR. The transect includes previous SAGE seismic refraction and CMP reflection profiles recorded in 2010 and 2011, some industry seismic reflection data, and detailed gravity observations. Seismic data consisted of a 4.8 km NW to SE profile (120 three-component stations in four overlapping deployments, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) along the Borrego Canyon road with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. About 50,000 seismograms were recorded. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated sediments) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of reflection arrivals although some wide-angle reflections with two-way times as great as 1.8 s were visible. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods and mainly helped identify the velocity and minimum thickness of the Tertiary Santa Fe group sedimentary rocks in the Santo Domingo Basin. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data along the transect was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. Gravity modeling, with significant control on depths of interfaces and densities from the seismic and drill hole data, indicates that the Santo Domingo sedimentary basin has a total depth of about 6 km.

  12. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7–12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1–9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26’s isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo’s inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. PMID:26397983

  13. [Caregivers of alcohol addicted patients in the city of Santos, SP, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Elizama Cabral Vasconcelos Dos; Martin, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study is to assess the meaning of alcoholism to alcoholic's patient's caregivers. Fieldwork involved comprehensive ethnographic observation and in depth interviews with ten female caregivers of alcoholic patients undergoing treatment in health mental care in Santos. The study showed that family relationships were unstable and conflicting. It was difficult to recognize addiction. Women accepted addiction as illness when the patient was hospitalized. Addiction to alcohol had been hidden by social value of intake and by unequal gender relationships. There has been a social restraint of the caregivers. Women have assumed the care and were organizers of an unstable and painful everyday life.

  14. Phylogenetic characterization of Dengue virus type 2 in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, the Espírito Santo State, Brazil has become an endemic Dengue fever location with annual outbreaks of varying magnitude. It is still unclear which geographical route allowed the virus entry in the state and how it has genetically changed since then. Therefore we have set out to study the local molecular constitution of the virus and determine phylogenetic similarities and differences with other Brazilian locations, as well as locations worldwide. Viral envelope genes were partially sequenced from Dengue patients during the 2009 epidemic. We were able to determine that local strains were of American/Asian genotype and closely related to viruses circulating in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states during the 2007, 2008 and 2009 epidemics. Genetic divergence analysis showed that the American/Asian genotype is evolutionarily closer to the Asian II genotype and distant from the Sylvatic genotype. Sequenced strains were not 100% similar and showed a high evolutionary conservation of the fusion peptide in the dimerization domain of E protein. This is the first molecular description of circulating Dengue virus strains in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil and should help monitor and control local Dengue outbreaks.

  15. A 4D-variational ocean data assimilation application for Santos Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha Fragoso, Mauricio; de Carvalho, Gabriel Vieira; Soares, Felipe Lobo Mendes; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Toste, Raquel; Sancho, Lívia Maria Barbosa; Passos, Elisa Nóbrega; Böck, Carina Stefoni; Reis, Bruna; Landau, Luiz; Arango, Hernan G.; Moore, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to achieve systematic ocean forecasting for the southeastern Brazilian coast, an incremental 4D-Var data assimilation system is applied to a regional ocean model focused mainly in the Santos Basin region. This implementation is performed within the scope of The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System (or Project Azul), a pilot project designed to collect oceanographic data with enough frequency and spatial coverage so to improve regional forecasts through data assimilation. The ocean modeling and data assimilation system of Project Azul is performed with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The observations used in the assimilation cycles include the following: 1-day gridded, 0.1° resolution SST from POES AVHRR; 1-day gridded, 0.3° composite of the MDT SSH from AVISO; and surface and subsurface hydrographic measurements of temperature and salinity collected with gliders and ARGO floats from Project Azul and from UK Met-Office EN3 project dataset. The assimilative model results are compared to forward model results and independent observations, both from remote sensing and in situ sources. The results clearly show that 4D-Var data assimilation leads to an improvement in the skill of ocean hindcast in the studied region.

  16. [Lead poisoning: Zinc protoporphyrin in blood of children from Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F M; Neto, A M; Peres, M F; Gonçalves, H R; Guimarães, G C; Amorim, C J; Silva, J A; Tavares, T M

    1996-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study has investigated lead poisoning among all the 101 children aged 1 to 5 years, living at less then 500 m from a lead smelter which has been operating since 1960 in Santo Amaro da Purificação, State of Bahia, Brazil. Lead poisoning was evaluated by determining the concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in whole blood. Results were compared with those obtained from 98 children of the same age range, in a nursery from Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. In Santo Amaro, ZPP geometric mean was 65.5 mg/dl (geometric S.D. = 1.7), much higher, therefore, than the normal threshold of 30 microg/dl recommended by the CDC-USA. A child was excluded from statistical analyses because of very high ZPP level: 789 mg/dl. In Salvador, ZPP geometric mean was 31.0 mg/dl (geometric SD = 1.6). "Extremely elevated" ZPP levels (above 156 mg/dl) were observed in 8% of the children from Santo Amaro and in none (0%) of the children from Salvador, this statistical difference being highly significant. Anaemia was present among 35.0% of the children from Santo Amaro and among 25.5% of those from Salvador. One year-old children showed the highest levels of ZPP and anaemia. No marked statistical association was found between ZPP levels and anaemia. Lead contamination of this children population remained in a permanently high level during, at least, the period from 1980 to 1992. In December, 1993 the lead smelter has definitively ceased its industrial activities in Santo Amaro da Purificação.

  17. Metal concentration in muscle of two species of flatfish from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, M. L. F.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Santos, C. E. I.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metals in muscles of two species of flatfish, using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Specimens were caught monthly throughout the year 2005. Sampling was done at six points in the Santos Bay under different anthropogenic influences. Analysis of 56 samples of muscle showed detectable amounts of Al, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Sr, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se and Zn. Except Cu, there were no correlations with the levels of sediment contamination by metals and those found in muscles. Moreover, there were significant differences between juveniles and adults concerning the concentration of Al, Mn and As. According to Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, some elements detected in the samples of muscle were above of permitted by law for consumption: Hg and Pb (in samples from the internal area), As (from the west side) and Se and Cr (from east side of the bay).

  18. [The Hospital Real de Todos-os-Santos and its healing agents].

    PubMed

    Silva, Priscila Aquino

    2015-12-01

    The article explores the actions of king Dom João II (1481-1495), who spearheaded a major assistance reform in Portugal during the late fifteenth century, when charitable institutions were grappling with a serious crisis. The king and his queen, Dona Leonor, ordered two large, modern hospitals to be built, centralizing assistance work and cementing a new assistance model. Relying on chronicles and royal decrees from the period, the article focuses on the main hospital that was built then: Hospital Real de Todos-os-Santos, located in Lisbon. The king and queen also intervened heavily in the practice of health agents by regulating, overseeing, and inspecting the work of doctors and apothecaries.

  19. Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs) via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value) and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media. Methodology Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011–2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists’ reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics. Principal Findings Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms. Conclusions Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing

  20. Gravity and Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Santo Domingo Basin, Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, K. D.; Keithline, N.; Blum, C.; Cunningham, E.; Fromont, A.; Jorgensen, M.; Lee, R.; McBride, K.; Saez Berrios, P.; Harper, C.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Santo Domingo Basin, one of a series of basins within the Rio Grande Rift, is located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, NM, and has been the focus of research by the Summer of Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program since 2000. Gravity, magnetotelluric (MT), and seismic data have been collected throughout the region, although we are concentrating on gravity and MT data collected during SAGE 2014 and 2015. The study area is located in the center of the Santo Domingo basin, an extensional, Miocene age, rift basin, in an area that was minimally involved in the preceding local Laramide orogenic activity. Rift sediments (~3.5 km thick) are underlain by Eocene age sediments that were shed from adjacent uplifts. Up to 3 km of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are preserved above the Precambrian basement. Geologic outcrop, borehole and seismic reflection data, and known density values were used in the construction of a ~100 km-long, generalized geologic cross section from which a gravity response was calculated. The modeled gravity response makes fairly definitive predictions about the geometry of the basin as well as the stratigraphy and faulting within and bounding the basin. MT data was collected at ten stations within the basin. The MT sounding curves exhibit one-dimensional behavior at short periods (<10 s), not surprisingly considering the relatively flat local structure in the area. Layered-earth MT models, without geologic constraints, show a conductive (<10 ohm-m) layer at ~1.5 km above a more resistive layer (>1000 ohm-m) at ~ 3.5-4 km. Conductivities of the major stratigraphic units have been determined from well logs and previous MT modeling. Forward and inverse MT models constrained by the gravity-modeled geologic cross section are used to develop a conductivity model consistent with the geology, and are a step towards a better unified treatment of MT, seismic and gravity data.

  1. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  2. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): sources and depositional history.

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Mahiques, Michel M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Tessler, Moyses G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2011-01-01

    Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatão industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  4. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea.

  5. Human sporotrichosis beyond the epidemic front reveals classical transmission types in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Mariceli L; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Fernandes, Geisa F; de Camargo, Zoilo P; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-08-01

    Sporotrichosis has emerged as the main subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals around the world. With particular differences in frequency, the major species includes Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. In Brazil, the main aspect of this epidemic is based on the zoonotic transmission through the scratches and bites of diseased cats contaminated with S. brasiliensis. Areas free of feline sporotrichosis are poorly characterised in Brazil. We investigated by molecular tools the epidemiology of human sporotrichosis in the Espírito Santo (ES) state, an area adjacent to Rio de Janeiro where is the epicentre of the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. The human cases in the ES state reveal the prevalence of classical transmission types where subjects are mainly infected by accidental traumatic inoculation during manipulation of contaminated plant material. In agreement with an environmental source, Sporothrix schenckii was the major aetiological agent in the classical transmission. Unlike Rio de Janeiro, this study shows that cat-transmitted epidemic in Espírito Santo is still scanty, although the geographic proximity and similar climatic features. Sporothrix brasiliensis was the agent in the feline-transmitted cases. Sporothrix globosa was isolated from a patient with fixed cutaneous lesions that did not report any contact with diseased animals. In conclusion, beyond the borders of Rio de Janeiro epidemic, agents of sporotrichosis in Espírito Santo show a scattered occurrence with high species diversity.

  6. Comment on "Possible source of ancient carbon in phytolith concentrates from harvested grasses" by G. M. Santos et al. (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, L. A.; Parr, J. F.

    2013-02-01

    Santos et al. (2012) address the important issue that 14C dating of the carbon occluded in silica phytoliths (PhytOC) isolated from contemporary plant materials can produce ages that are incompatible, being often several kyr older, with both their known recent origin and the 14C age of the bulk plant material. In their article, Santos et al. (2012) propose that the anomalously old 14C carbon dates of PhytOC from harvested plant materials are based on plants taking up "old" dissolved soil carbon to the plant by roots during nutrient uptake. They then propose that this old soil-derived carbon is subsequently partitioned from the general plant biomass into either the silica phytoliths they produce or as recalcitrant organic matter elsewhere in the plant. We suggest that the full data available for PhytOC 14C dating do not support this hypothesis. Santos et al. (2012) also address the important issue of contamination of PhytOC by general plant biomass material that can occur with procedures that incompletely extract phytoliths. Whilst we agree that such contamination needs to be avoided when examining the nature of PhytOC, we also point out that the converse problem, i.e. removal of PhytOC by over-vigorous extraction procedures, can also have important adverse consequences.

  7. Comment on: "Possible source of ancient carbon in phytolith concentrates from harvested grasses" by G. M. Santos et al. (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, L. A.; Parr, J. F.

    2012-10-01

    Santos et al. (2012) address the important issue that 14C dating of the carbon occluded in silica phytoliths (PhytOC) isolated from contemporary plant materials can produce ages that are incompatible, being often several kyr older, with both their known recent origin and the 14C age of the bulk plant material. In their article, Santos et al. (2012) propose that the anomalously old 14C carbon dates of PhytOC from harvested plant materials are based on plants taking up "old" dissolved soil carbon to the plant by roots during nutrient uptake. They then propose that this old soil-derived carbon is subsequently partitioned from the general plant biomass into either the silica phytoliths they produce, or as recalcitrant organic matter elsewhere in the plant. We suggest that the full data available for PhytOC 14C dating does not support this hypothesis. Santos et al. (2012) also address the important issue of contamination of PhytOC by general plant biomass material that can occur with procedures that incompletely extract phytoliths. Whilst we agree that such contamination needs to be avoided when examining the nature of PhytOC, we also point out that the converse problem, i.e. removal of PhytOC by over-vigorous extraction procedures, can also have important adverse consequences.

  8. Enrichment Factors (EF) on Superficial Sediments of Santos Estuarine System, Southeasthern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. S. M.; Salaroli, A. B.; Mahiques, M.; Figueira, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Baixada Santista, located at southeastern Brazilian coast, hosts the largest harbor of South America, it is also the third most heavily populated region in São Paulo state. Many industries and domestic sewage have been contaminating the environment with heavy metals and arsenic since industrial revolution. This has been a major concern worldwide due to its toxicity and persistence. Levels of metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sc, V) and As were determinated on 180 samples of surface sediments, by acid digestion and quantified by ICP-OES to assess enrichment factors in order to know the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. The levels of metals indicated absence of contamination, but a higher enrichment of As (approximately 9.5) near Bertioga city. Ni and Cr had values between 0.5 - 2.0, Cu and Zn between 0.6 - 4.0 and 0.9 - 7.5 for Pb. Despite As, all others metals showed higher enrichment in Santos - São Vicente Estuary, especially near Cubatão. The analysis of the enrichment factor of As indicate that these values could be due to natural processes of weathering and sedimentation, meanwhile the other metals could be from antropogenic sources, since thoses values were found near industrial area.

  9. Dynamic changes in microbiota and mycobiota during spontaneous 'Vino Santo Trentino' fermentation.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Cavazza, Agostino; Franciosi, Elena; De Filippo, Carlotta; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-03-01

    Vino Santo is a sweet wine produced from late harvesting and pressing of Nosiola grapes in a small, well-defined geographical area in the Italian Alps. We used metagenomics to characterize the dynamics of microbial communities in the products of three wineries, resulting from spontaneous fermentation with almost the same timing and procedure. Comparing fermentation dynamics and grape microbial composition, we show a rapid increase in a small number of wine yeast species, with a parallel decrease in complexity. Despite the application of similar protocols, slight changes in the procedures led to significant differences in the microbiota in the three cases of fermentation: (i) fungal content of the must varied significantly in the different wineries, (ii) Pichia membranifaciens persisted in only one of the wineries, (iii) one fermentation was characterized by the balanced presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora osmophila during the later phases. We suggest the existence of a highly winery-specific 'microbial-terroir' contributing significantly to the final product rather than a regional 'terroir'. Analysis of changes in abundance during fermentation showed evident correlations between different species, suggesting that fermentation is the result of a continuum of interaction between different species and physical-chemical parameters.

  10. Geology and mineralogy of the Santo Nino Ag-Pb-Zn vein, Fresnillo District, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, J.B.; Zantop, H.; Birnie, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Santo Nino Ag-Pb-Zn vein is the major producer of the Fresnillo District, located 750 km NW of Mexico City. It is over 2.4 km long, more than 480 m in vertical extent, more than 2.5 m wide overall, and has average grades of >600 gm/t Ag and <2% combined Pb and Zn. The vein is hosted by a tilted sequence of Cretaceous graywackes, shales and andesitic volcanics and extends upward into a Lower Tertiary conglomerate. Up to 5 separate opening events occurred along the vein, resulting in discontinuous stages of brecciation and crustiform banding. Ore mineral zonation is well developed both vertically and laterally and closely reflects metal and metal ratio distributions. Ore minerals are sphalerite, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, acanthite, native silver, and three coexisting solid solution series, pyrargyrite-proustite, polybasite-arsenopolybasite, and tetrahedrite-tennantite in a gangue of quartz, calcite, clay, sericite,and chlorite. A 5-stage paragenetic sequence can be established: 1) pyrite, arsenopyrite, quartz, 2) sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, quartz, 3) tetrahedrite, pyrargyrite, polybasite, quartz, 4) acanthite, native silver, calcite, quartz, and 5) calcite. Preliminary microprobe analyses indicate that the Ag-rich solid solution series are Sb-rich in the central and upper portions of the vein and As-rich at deeper levels.

  11. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.

  12. Inorganic As speciation and bioavailability in estuarine sediments of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hatje, V; Macedo, S M; de Jesus, R M; Cotrim, G; Garcia, K S; de Queiroz, A F; Ferreira, S L C

    2010-12-01

    The spatial distribution of As (total As, As (III) and As (V)) in estuarine sediments from the main tributaries of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil, was evaluated under high and low flow conditions. The concentrations of As were determined using a slurry sampling procedure with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The highest concentrations were observed at estuary mouths, and exceeded conservative lower threshold value (Threshold Effects Level; TEL). Due to the oxic conditions and abundance of Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides in the sediments, most inorganic arsenic in the Subaé and Paraguaçu estuaries was present as As (V). Nevertheless, the concentration of As (III) at several locations along the Jaguaripe River were also above the TEL value, suggesting that As may be toxic to biota. In the Subaé estuary, antropogenic activities are the main source of As. At the Jaguaripe and at Paraguaçu estuaries, nevertheless, natural sources of As need to be considered to explain the distribution patterns.

  13. Trace elements in muscle of three fish species from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, William Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an analysis was performed on the concentrations of the trace elements Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in muscle of two carnivorous and one planktivorous fish species collected at Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The accumulation order of the trace elements in Lutjanus analis was Al >Zn >Fe >Cr >Ba >Ni. In Cetengraulis edentulus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >As. In the species Diapterus rhombeus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >Cd. To determine the risk related to the consumption of fish, toxicity guidelines were used as standard references. It was observed that the species C. edentulus contained concentrations of As exceeding WHO limits, but these concentrations were acceptable according to the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) guidelines. Cd levels were found only in D. rhombeus and in low concentrations according to the determinations of WHO and ANVISA. Pb levels were not detected in any of the three fish species. The analyzed elements did not differ statistically according to the species and feeding habits. The results point to possible risks of human contamination by As related to the consumption of the fish species C. edentulus from the BTS.

  14. [Psychoactive substance use among Espírito Santo Federal University odontology students].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renata Frossard; Souza, Renata Santos de; Buaiz, Vitor; Siqueira, Marluce Miguel de

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to trace the psychoactive substance use profile among odontology college students from the Espírito Santo Federal University Health Sciences Center. It is an explorative, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study developed with first to last year college students of the odontology course. The instrument used for data collection was an adaptation of one proposed by WHO and developed by WHO - Research and Reporting Project on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Data were listed and analyzed through the Statistical Package Program for the Social Science. The results showed that 60.3% colleges student are female, 48.9% age between 20 and 22 years, 41.3% and 43.7% belong to A and B social class, respectively. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs use reported at least once in lifetime was 72.4% except for alcohol and tobacco; 25.9% used inhaled drugs, 13.2% marijuana, 10.9% amphetamines , 27% tobacco and 87.9% alcohol. It could be concluded that is necessary to prevent improper drug use among college students by inserting this subject on the college curriculum as well as establishing drug use prevention programs for students.

  15. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; ten Brink, U.; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353-865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  16. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; Brink, Uri ten; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353–865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  17. Biplot analysis of strawberry genotypes recommended for the State of Espírito Santo.

    PubMed

    Costa, A F; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Leal, N R; Tardin, F D; Daher, R F

    2016-08-26

    Most strawberry genotypes grown commercially in Brazil originate from breeding programs in the United States, and are therefore not adapted to the various soil and climatic conditions found in Brazil. Thus, quantifying the magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interactions serves as a primary means for increasing average Brazilian strawberry yields, and helps provide specific recommendations for farmers on which genotypes meet high yield and phenotypic stability thresholds. The aim of this study was to use AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and GGE biplot (genotype main effects + genotype x environment interaction) analyses to identify high-yield, stable strawberry genotypes grown at three locations in Espírito Santo for two agricultural years. We evaluated seven strawberry genotypes (Dover, Camino Real, Ventana, Camarosa, Seascape, Diamante, and Aromas) at three locations (Domingos Martins, Iúna, and Muniz Freire) in agricultural years 2006 and 2007, totaling six study environments. Joint analysis of variance was calculated using yield data (t/ha), and AMMI and GGE biplot analysis was conducted following the detection of a significant genotypes x agricultural years x locations (G x A x L) interaction. During the two agricultural years, evaluated locations were allocated to different regions on biplot graphics using both methods, indicating distinctions among them. Based on the results obtained from the two methods used in this study to investigate the G x A x L interaction, we recommend growing the Camarosa genotype for production at the three locations assessed due to the high frequency of favorable alleles, which were expressed in all localities evaluated regardless of the agricultural year.

  18. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches.

  19. Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

  20. Mountain-Block Recharge in the Santo Tomas Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. M.; Kretzschmar, T.

    2009-12-01

    Mountain block recharge (MBR) to adjacent basin aquifers can be a significant source of groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions. Unfortunately, geologic complexities within the mountain block often limit our understanding of this indirect form of recharge. Secondary permeability, resulting from faults and fractures, allows rainwater to infiltrate crystalline mountain rock, ultimately recharging the basin aquifer. Therefore, it is essential to consider mountain block geological features, especially faults, in recharge studies. We attempt to better understand MBR by creating a detailed fracture-trace map and by sampling springs and groundwater throughout the Santo Tomas valley, located in Northern Baja California, Mexico. Bounded by active faults, the valley is heavily fractured. These fractures enable fluid flow within the mountain block. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data show two distinct types of spring water within the watershed, possibly representing local and regional flow paths. Thermal springs, believed to be regional flow, display a -1.9‰ δ18O depletion when compared to all other spring water, indicative of recharge from higher elevations or older waters; both of the latter would be less affected under local drought conditions. This distinct isotopic signal was found 15 km downstream in the alluvial aquifer, indicating a significant amount of water is recharging the basin aquifer via the mountain block along this flow regime. A quantitative permeability value for the faults and fracture zones is difficult to attain due to their heterogeneous nature. However, the thermal system and most cold-water springs surface along active faults, which appear to transmit more water than undifferentiated fractures. Stable isotope (O and H) data. An isotopic distinction can be seen between the hot and cold springs within the watershed. Note that all the spring samples are taken between 400 - 550 m elevation, which includes the hot springs.

  1. Prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life in the city of Santo André, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel Cristina C.; Wandalsen, Neusa Falbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and the severity of wheezing in the first year of life for infants who live in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Cross sectional study with the administration of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL), which is a standardized and validated written questionnaire applied to parents and/or guardians of infants aged 12-24 months treated at primary health units, vaccination centers, day care centers, or kindergartens. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding demographic characteristics, presence of wheezing, respiratory infections, and risk factors. Results were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows, 20.0 (SPSS Inc. - Chicago, Il, United States). Logistic regression was applied to verify variables associated to recurrent wheezing. Results: Among the 1,028 infants studied, 48.5% had one or more episodes of wheezing during the first 12 months of life (wheezing once), and 23.9% had three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Nocturnal symptoms, severe breathing difficulty, and visits to the emergency room were observed in 67.3%, 42.4%, and 60.7% of infants, respectively. Among the studied infants, 19.4% were hospitalized, and 11.0% had a medical diagnosis of asthma in the first year of life. Use of β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists were observed in 88.8%, 21.0%, 54.9%, and 3.2% of children with wheezing, respectively. Use of oral corticosteroids, perception of breathlessness by parents, diagnosis of asthma, pneumonia, and hospitalization for pneumonia were more frequent among infants with recurrent wheezing (p<0.001). Conclusions: In the city of Santo André, approximately half of infants had at least one episode of wheezing in the first year of life, and almost 25% had recurrent wheezing. Wheezing disorders in Santo André have early onset and high morbidity. PMID:25479844

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Santo Domingo Pueblo in Sandoval County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Pueblo of Santo Domingo in Sandoval County, New Mexico, for a renewable energy production feasibility study. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess specific areas on the Pueblo for potential installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. The report also recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of these PV systems.

  3. [Record of Dasypus novemcinctus (Mammalia: Xenarthra) parasited by Tunga terasma (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Alegre, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Antunes, João Marcelo A P; Demoner, Larissa de C; Martins, Isabella V F; Zanini, Marcos S; Deps, Patrícia D; Pujol-Luz, José R

    2006-01-01

    During a survey of Mycobacterium leprae in wild armadillos in the State of Espírito Santo, thirty-four armadillos were captured in the municipality of Alegre (20 degrees 45'S, 41 degrees 29'W, 150m). The armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus were examined by clinical and macroscopic examination. In four armadillos (11.7%), were found nodes in the abdomen. The nodules were identified as Tunga terasma. This is the first report of T. terasma in D. novemcinctus armadillos in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  4. Owned dog demography in Todos Santos Cuchumatán, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Pulczer, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Waltner-Toews, David; Dewey, Cate E

    2013-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the dog demography should be an integral element in the planning, implementation and evaluation of dog population control measures. In May 2008, a door-to-door household census of human and owned canine populations was conducted in 12 contiguous neighbourhoods in the town of Todos Santos Cuchumatán, Guatemala. During the census, household and footpath data were recorded using a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS), and used to create digital census route maps, and perimeter and area estimates of the study region. Approximately 99% of all households (472/476) participated in the census, representing 2461 people in the overall estimated study region area of 80 hectares (ha). A total of 382 dogs were owned by 50.8% (240/472) of households, yielding means of 0.8 (382/472) owned dogs per household and 1.6 (382/240) dogs per dog-owning household. Of the total 382 owned dogs, 88.2% (337/382) were aged three months or older; of these, 68.5% (231/337) were reported as not normally being confined on the household property during the average day, and 9.7% (24/247) of the males and none of the females (0/81) were reported to be neutered. Of the households that owned female dogs, 89.7% (52/58) and 91.4% (53/58) reported that they would have females surgically or non-surgically neutered, respectively, if these services were available. Of the households that owned male dogs, 90.3% (176/195) and 92.3% (180/195) reported that they would have males surgically or non-surgically neutered, respectively, if these services were available. Approximately 72% (238/330) of owned dogs were vaccinated for rabies, and 80% (187/238) of these were males. The owned dog male:female ratio was 2.6:1 (275/107), the owned dog:human ratio was 1:6.4 (382/2461), and the absolute density was 478 (382/0.80) owned dogs/km(2). This knowledge of the owned dog demography was generated using simple means and has been of direct use in support of, and as baseline data for the planning

  5. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (<18 years). However, there was no significant difference in cumulative incidence of dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and

  6. A study of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in risk groups in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Andréa Gobetti Vieira; Zamarioli, Liliana Aparecida; Telles, Maria Alice; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring the extent of and trends in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a priority of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The current study aimed to estimate the incidence of MDR-TB, describe the profile of TB drug resistance in risk groups and examine whether screening for MDR-TB adhered to the recommended guidelines. A descriptive study that examined diagnosed cases of pulmonary TB was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil, between 2000-2004. Of the 2,176 pulmonary TB cases studied, 671 (30.8%) met the criteria for drug sensitivity testing and, of these cases, 31.7% (213/671) were tested. Among the tested cases, 9.4% were resistant to one anti-TB drug and 15% were MDR. MDR was observed in 11.6% of 86 new TB cases and 17.3% of 127 previously treated cases. The average annual incidence of MDR-TB was 1.9 per 100,000 inhabitants-years. The extent of known MDR-TB in the city of Santos is high, though likely to be underestimated. Our study therefore indicates an inadequate adherence to the guidelines for MDR-TB screening and suggests the necessity of alternative strategies of MDR-TB surveillance.

  7. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in the cities of the northern region of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontes, André M; Ardisson, Juliana S; Souza, Marco A A; Freitas, Rodrigo R; Pancoto, João A T

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 2 billion people worldwide have already had contact with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 373 million have become chronic carriers. Hepatitis B is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to a large number of deaths annually. Both viral factors and the host immune response have been implicated in the pathogenesis and clinical result of HBV infection. Many Brazilian cities, including the cities of the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo are located in regions with little health infrastructure. Our study performed an epidemiological analysis of cases of Hepatitis B in São Mateus, using methodology of Geographic Information System (GIS), aiming to raise the number of disease cases, establishing preventive measures to control the disease, improving the quality of life of people affected by this pathology. The city of São Mateus had the largest number of reported cases of hepatitis B northern region of Espírito Santo. The age group with the highest number of hepatitis B notifications was 20-49 years, mostly females. The major forms of contact with HBV in these cities were dental treatment, use of injectable medications, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners.

  8. Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members.

    PubMed

    Santos, R G; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Strassman, R J; Motta, V; Cruz, A P M

    2007-07-25

    The use of the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca, obtained from infusing the shredded stalk of the malpighiaceous plant Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of other plants such as Psychotria viridis, is growing in urban centers of Europe, South and North America in the last several decades. Despite this diffusion, little is known about its effects on emotional states. The present study investigated the effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in members of the Santo Daime, an ayahuasca-using religion. Standard questionnaires were used to evaluate state-anxiety (STAI-state), trait-anxiety (STAI-trait), panic-like (ASI-R) and hopelessness (BHS) in participants that ingested ayahuasca for at least 10 consecutive years. The study was done in the Santo Daime church, where the questionnaires were administered 1h after the ingestion of the brew, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure. While under the acute effects of ayahuasca, participants scored lower on the scales for panic and hopelessness related states. Ayahuasca ingestion did not modify state- or trait-anxiety. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of ayahuasca in alleviating signs of hopelessness and panic-like related symptoms.

  9. A Future for the Excluded. Job Creation and Income Generation by the Poor: Clodomir Santos de Morais and the Organization Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmen, Raff, Ed.; Sobrado, Miguel, Ed.

    This book, translated from Spanish, contains 20 chapters by various authors examining and expanding on the work of Clodomir Santos de Morais in educating and empowering the poor, mostly in Latin America, for entrepreneurship. One of the chapters is by de Morais. The following are included, organized in four sections: "Those Who Don't Eat and Those…

  10. Style and pattern of salt diapirs due to thin-skinned gravitational gliding, Campos and Santos basins, offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demercian, S.; Szatmari, P.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1993-12-01

    Portions of seismic lines and a structure-contour map illustrate the patterns and shapes of salt diapirs and related structures in the Campos and Santos areas, off the Atlantic coast of Brazil. We interpret the structures both kinematically and mechanically, drawing on our experience with similar salt structures worldwide, with the results of recent physical modelling and with geometric restorations in section and in plan. Salt diapirs and related structures have a variety of structural styles, distributed in domains and provinces. Near the coast, there is an upper domain, 100-200 km wide, with a suite of structures that we attribute to horizontal downdip extension: these are salt rollers, in the footwalls of listric normal growth faults; salt walls of triangular cross section, beneath intersecting conjugate normal faults; turtle anticlines; and salt welds. Downslope extension started in the Albian and has continued to the present day. In the Campos area, from simple line balancing, the accumulated downslope displacement is about 100 km. Seawards of this, there is a lower domain, 100-400 km wide, with a different suite of structures, that we attribute to downdip contraction: these are growth folds of various wavelengths, in sedimentary sequences of various thicknesses; asymmetric salt walls, emplaced above reverse faults; deep basins, wedged down between conjugate reverse faults; and salt tongues above thrusts. For Campos, we estimate the total downslope contraction, accumulated since the Albian, to be about 100 km. From the balance between extension and contraction, we infer that the thin-skinned salt tectonics are gravitationally driven and independent of any basement tectonics. The structure-contour map on the top of the salt shows that structural style is variable also along strike. Seismic sections along regional contours indicate differing amounts of strain. On this basis, we distinguish five provinces, separated by NW-SE-trending lines. For the Northern

  11. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (<33.4) and with low stability. During spring and summer a hydrographic structure of three layers is noticed. The deepest layer is composed of the southern California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The

  12. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    elements provide a hint at a prevailing subsidence regime and effective sediment supply into the basin that clearly contrast with the conveyed idea of a sediment-starved and tectonic stable shelf. They naturally raise questions about the nature and origin of sediment supply, since no significant point siliciclastic fluvial source flows directly into the shelf. Stemming from that, we are forced to speculate about: (A) the role of neotectonic movements involving the Serra do Mar coastal mountain ranges to potentially source clastic influx into the basin during the Quaternary, or about the real importance of secondary drainage basins debouching today; and (B) the mechanical nature of a supposed subsidence during the Pliocene and the Quaternary time span (overloading ? sediment compaction ? thermal cooling ?). The interpretation of industrial seismic lines can provide the answers of many of these questions. The next step of this work is to make a stratigraphy model of the sedimentary systems of Santos basin to understand how the ancient creation of accommodation space can influence the recent sedimentary architecture and how is the change in sedimentary influx and the sedimentary records of different orders of cyclicity.

  13. Low sensitivity of NS1 protein tests evidenced during a dengue type 2 virus outbreak in Santos, Brazil, in 2010.

    PubMed

    Felix, Alvina Clara; Romano, Camila Malta; Centrone, Cristiane de Campos; Rodrigues, Célia Lima; Villas-Boas, Lucy; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau; de Matos, Andréia Manso; Carvalho, Karina Inácio; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Kallas, Esper Georges; Pannuti, Claúdio Sérgio; Levi, José Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of dengue occurred in Santos, Brazil. The detection of the NS1 antigen was used for diagnosis in addition to the detection of IgG, IgM, and RNA. A large number of NS1 false-negative results were obtained. A total of 379 RNA-positive samples were selected for thorough evaluation. NS1 was reactive in 37.7% of cases. Most of the cases were characterized as a secondary infection by dengue 2 virus. Sequencing of NS1 positive and negative isolates did not reveal any mutation that could justify the diagnostic failure. Use of existing NS1 tests in the Brazilian population may present a low negative predictive value, and they should be used with caution, preferentially after performing a validation with samples freshly obtained during the ongoing epidemic.

  14. Assessment of health risk related to the ingestion of trace metals through fish consumption in Todos os Santos Bay.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, Willian Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle of carnivorous fish species from three different areas of Todos os Santos Bay (BTS), Bahia State, Brazil. Trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. As concentrations in fish samples from Jiribatuba were higher than legal limits set by FAO, and Cd concentrations in fish from Iguape Bay were high in comparison with FAO and EC. This study provides information about the fish consumption limits, considering the elements concentrations observed in the analyses, in particular As and Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks.

  15. FPGA implementation of Santos-Victor optical flow algorithm for real-time image processing: an useful attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos Arribas, Pedro; Monasterio Huelin Macia, Felix

    2003-04-01

    A FPGA based hardware implementation of the Santos-Victor optical flow algorithm, useful in robot guidance applications, is described in this paper. The system used to do contains an ALTERA FPGA (20K100), an interface with a digital camera, three VRAM memories to contain the data input and some output memories (a VRAM and a EDO) to contain the results. The system have been used previously to develop and test other vision algorithms, such as image compression, optical flow calculation with differential and correlation methods. The designed system let connect the digital camera, or the FPGA output (results of algorithms) to a PC, throw its Firewire or USB port. The problems take place in this occasion have motivated to adopt another hardware structure for certain vision algorithms with special requirements, that need a very hard code intensive processing.

  16. Ant and termite mound coinhabitants in the wetlands of Santo Antonio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diehl, E; Junqueira, L K; Berti-Filho, E

    2005-08-01

    This paper reports on ant and termite species inhabiting the mounds (murundus) found in three wetland sites in Santo Antonio da Patrulha. Ants and termites were found in 100% of the mounds of two sites and in 20% of those in the third site. Colonies of Camponotus fastigatus were found inhabiting all the mounds, while colonies of Brachymyrmex sp., Linepithema sp., Pheidole sp., and/or Solenopsis sp. were collected in less than 30% of the mounds. In the mounds of the three sites, colonies of Anoplotermes sp. and/or Aparatermes sp. termites were found together with the ant colonies. Another cohabiting termite species, Cortaritermes sp., was found only in the mounds of one site. The results suggest that C. fastigatus is the species building the mounds, with the other species, whether ants or termites, being the inquilines.

  17. The role of research in coastal westlands management: Salt Marshes of Santoña and Noja (Spain).

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, Elena; Valle, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Coastal environments, such as marshes, dunes, or estuaries, are characterized by their high natural values that usually cause them to be subjected to high protection levels, affecting activities taking place within them. This is why the action in these spaces must be based on the use of proper techniques and approaches, which integrate ecology with practical engineering necessities. In this context, the Department of Sciences and Techniques of the Water and Environment of the University of Cantabria, through methods developed in the natural reserve of the Salt Marshes of Santoña and Noja, proposes the use of a working methodology based on the discipline of "ecosystem management" combined with the "adaptive management" methodologies; the application of mathematical, statistical, and specific predictive instruments; and the utilization of an "ecologic niche" as a union between the scientific knowledge of the littoral environments and the true actuation scale of the projects and activities carried out within them.

  18. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Mahiques, Michel M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Tessler, Moyses G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by (137)Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area.

  19. Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2014

    PubMed Central

    Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Berglund, Staffan; Contreras, Mariela; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Methods: Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. Results: A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. Conclusions: The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom-up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need

  20. The Cerrillos Uplift, the La Bajada Constriction, and Hydrogeologic Framework of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic, geophysical, and hydrogeologic properties of the La Bajada constriction and Santo Domingo Basin, northern New Mexico, result from tectonic and volcanic processes of the late Tertiary and Quaternary Rio Grande rift. An integrated geologic and geophysical assessment in the La Bajada constriction allows development of a geologic framework that can provide input for regional ground-water flow models. These models then can provide better estimates of future water supplies in a region that largely subsists on aquifers in Rio Grande rift basins. The combination of surface geologic investigations (stratigraphic and structural studies; chapters A, B, C, and E), airborne geophysics (aeromagnetic and time-domain electromagnetic surveys; chapters D and F), ground geophysical measurements (gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; chapters D and F), and data from the few wells in the area (chapter G) provides new constraints on the hydrogeologic framework of this area. Summary results of our investigations are synthesized in chapter G. Through-going aquifers consisting of ancestral Rio Grande axial-river sand and gravel and of coarse western-piedmont gravel form the predominant ground-water pathways through the partly buried structural trough defining the La Bajada constriction between Espa?ola and Santo Domingo Basins. Thick, clay-rich Cretaceous marine shales of low hydraulic conductivity form a pervasive regional confining unit within the Cerrillos uplift on the southeast flank of the constriction. Numerous, dominantly north-northwest-striking, intrabasin faults that project part way across the La Bajada constriction create a matrix of laterally and vertically variable hydrogeologic compartments that locally partition and deflect ground-water flow parallel to faults.

  1. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Espírito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics.

    PubMed

    Santos Pacheco, Karina Tonini dos; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Meireles, Naiara Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO-Code of Dental Ethics), this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Espírito Santo (CRO/ES-Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Espírito Santo). The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%), followed by technical error (18.7%), irregular registration (16.8%), patient/professional relationship (11.3%) tax lien foreclosure (6.6%), professional/professional relationship (4.0%), irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%), consumer relations (0.8%), failure to provide care (0.6%), false certification (0.4%), and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%). Most (59.2%) of the dental surgeons (DSs) involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5) years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2%) cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4%) acquittals and 14 (63.6%) convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning+pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%). It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare.

  2. Characterization of organic matter in sediment cores of the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, by elemental analysis and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Costa, A B; Novotny, E H; Bloise, A C; de Azevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Zucchi, M R; Santos, V L C S; Azevedo, A E G

    2011-08-01

    The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by elemental analysis and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions of Todos os Santos Bay. The elemental profiles of cores collected on the eastern side of Frades Island suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) analysis corroborates this result. The range of depths of the cores corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects in the region. Principal Component Analysis of the 13C NMR spectra clearly differentiates sediment samples closer to the Subaé estuary, which have high contents of terrestrial organic matter, from those closer to a local oil refinery. The results presented in this article illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay.

  3. A new species of Phylloicus Müller 1880 (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae) from Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barcelos-Silva, Patrik; Desidério, Gleison Robson; Pes, Ana Maria

    2017-03-02

    The worldwide caddisfly family Calamoceratidae comprises about 175 extant species in eight genera (Holzenthal et al. 2007). Among these, two are exclusively recorded from the Neotropics: Banyallarga Navás with 18 described species (Prather 2004) and Phylloicus Müller with 57 described species (Prather 2003, Dumas & Nessimian 2010, Santos & Nessimian 2010, Quinteiro et al. 2011), both genera recently reviewed by Prather (2003, 2004).

  4. Stratigraphy of the Pleistocene, phonolitic Cão Grande Formation on Santo Antão, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisele, S.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Ramalho, R. S.; Kwasnitschka, T.; Wang, K.-L.; Hemming, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    The Cão Grande Formation (CGF) on the western plateau of Santo Antão Island is part of the younger volcanic sequence that originated from both, basanitic and nephelinitic magmatic suites, respectively called COVA and COROA suites. Based on our detailed revised stratigraphy of the CGF, including two yet unknown tephra units, we can show that both suites produced multiple, highly differentiated eruptions over a contemporaneous period. Correlations of CGF tephras with marine ash layers provide distal dispersal data for Cão Grande I (CG I) and also identify two highly explosive, phonolitic eruptions that pre-date the CGF tephra deposits known on land. Within the CGF, the lowermost, 220 ± 7 ka old unit Canudo Tephra (CT; COVA suite) comprises phonolitic fall deposits and ignimbrites; it is partly eroded and overlain by debris flow deposits marking a hiatus in highly differentiated eruptions. The phonolitic CG I Tephra (COROA suite) consists of an initial major Plinian fall deposit and associated ignimbrite and terminal surge deposits. This is immediately overlain by the phonolitic to phono-tephritic Cão Grande II (CG II; COVA suite), a complex succession of numerous fallout layers and density-current deposits. CG I and CG II have radiometric ages of 106 ± 3 ka and 107 ± 15 ka, respectively, that are identical within their error limits. The youngest CGF unit, the Furninha Tephra (FT; COROA suite), consists of three foidic-phonolitic fall deposits interbedded with proximal scoria deposits from a different vent. The phonolitic eruptions switched to and fro between both magmatic suites, in each case with a stronger first followed by a weaker second eruption. Each eruption evolved from stable to unstable eruption columns. During their terminal phases, both magma systems also leaked evolved dome-forming lavas next to the tephras. Distal ashes increase the CG I tephra volume to 10 km3, about twice the previously published estimate. The tephra volume of CG II is 3 km3

  5. Modern sedimentation processes in a wave-dominated coastal embayment: Espírito Santo Bay, southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Costa Moscon, Daphnne Moraes; Carmo, Dannilo; Neto, José Antonio Baptista; da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    2015-02-01

    Sediment dynamics in wave-dominated coastal embayments are generally controlled by seasonal meteorological conditions, storms having a particularly strong influence. In the present study, such hydrodynamic processes and associated deposits have been investigated in a coastal embayment located along the southeast coast of Brazil, i.e. Espírito Santo Bay, in the winter (June/July) of 2008. The bay has undergone a series of human interventions that have altered the local hydrodynamic processes and, consequently, the sediment transport patterns. Facies distribution and sediment dynamics were examined by acoustic seabed mapping, sediment and core sampling, hydrodynamic measurements and sand transport modelling. The results show that sediment distribution can be described in terms of nearshore and offshore zones. The offshore bay sector is predominantly composed of "palimpsest" lithoclastic medium-coarse sands deposited in the course of the early Holocene transgression that peaked about 5,000 years ago. In the inner bay or nearshore zone (up to depths of 4-8 m), these older transgressive deposits are today overlain by a thin (up to 30-cm-thick) and partly patchy blanket of younger regressive fine sand/muddy fine sands. Both coarse- and fine-grained facies are being reworked during high-energy events (Hs>1.5 m) when fine sediment is resuspended, weak tide-induced drift currents causing the sand patches to be displaced. The coarser sediment, by contrast, is mobilized as bedload to produce wave ripples with spacings of up to 1.2 m. These processes lead to a sharp spatial delimitation between a fine sand/mud facies and a rippled coarse sand facies. The fine sand patches have a relief of about 20-30 cm and reveal a typical internal tempestite depositional sequence. Fair-weather wave-induced sediment transport (Hs<1 m), supported by weak tidal currents, seems to only affect the fine sediment facies. Sediment dynamics in Espírito Santo Bay is thus essentially controlled by

  6. Circulating Strains of Brucella abortus in Cattle in Santo Domingo De Los Tsáchilas Province – Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar Ivan; Contreras-Zamora, Javier; Benitez Ortiz, Washington; Guerrero-Viracocha, Karina; Salcan-Guaman, Holger; Minda, Elizabeth; Ron Garrido, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    The Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas in Ecuador represents the largest informal cattle market. Because of its strategic position, cattle movement is very high and therefore we selected this region, to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp. Part of the study aimed at the isolation, biotyping, and genotyping of Brucella species from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines, using selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays, and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR, and HOOF-Prints techniques. In total, 656 animals from 12 sero-positive dairy herds and from the provincial slaughterhouse were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright’s Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. Amongst these animals, 50 animals were sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were transferred to culture medium. Isolation was possible from 4 (16%) lymph nodes and 9 (36%) milk samples; out of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All four isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, showed biochemically a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%. PMID:25806363

  7. Weapons of mass destruction preparedness and response for the XIV Pan-American Games, Santo Domingo, 2003.

    PubMed

    Báez, Amado Alejandro; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Giráldez, Ediza M; Comprés, Hugo Pérez

    2006-01-01

    The Pan-American Games are considered to be the fourth most important international athletic event in the world. Hosted by the city of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the XIV Pan-American Games lasted from 11-17 August 2003. In preparation for the Games, the Security Directorate developed and deployed a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Unit. For operational support, two strike teams (Alpha and Bravo) were active at any given time. Each team consisted of five members including a team leader, field physician, explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) officer, and two tactical officers. Three hospitals-two military and one civilian--were designated as primary medical centers for the event. With the assistance of the WMD Unit, emergency department staff were trained in the medical management of a WMD event, response protocols for WMD were created, and special decontamination areas were designated. Syndromic surveillance was performed by means of direct communications between the hospitals and units, as well as use of an electronic, Web-based surveillance tool.

  8. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Costa, Fernanda do N; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium.

  9. Environmental analyses of the parasitic profile found in the sandy soil from the Santos municipality beaches, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Silvana; Pinto, Rosa Maria Ferreiro; Floriano, Aline Petrollini; Teixeira, Lais Helena; Bassili, Bianca; Martinez, Araceles; Costa, Sergio Olavo Pinto da; Caseiro, Marcos Montani

    2011-01-01

    The environmental contamination by geohelminths represents a world public health problem and has been well documented by several authors. However, few papers describe the presence of such contamination in saline soils of coastal beaches. A study was performed on the beaches of the municipality of Santos in the period between May 2004 to April 2005 with the aim of determining the degree of contamination, and the correlation between contamination level and seasonal conditions and characteristics of the environment. Of the 2,520 samples analyzed, 18.2% (458) were contaminated, 32.3% (148) of which were localized in children's recreational areas (playgrounds). The parasite profile found in the analyzed samples indicated the presence of several zoonotic parasites: Ancylostoma larvae (82.5%), Toxocara sp. eggs (59.4%), Ancylostomidae-like eggs (37.1%), coccid oocysts (13.5%), Trichostrongylus sp. eggs and larvae, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, (11.6%), Entamoeba sp. cysts (10.0%), Strongyloides sp. (4.8%), several free nematoids and some non-identified parasitic structures (3.3%). It was established that the highest frequency of parasitic structures occurred in the months between May and October 2004, and from February to March 2005. An increase in the diversity of parasitic forms was documented in the months between February to December 2004 and from January to April 2005, these periods having the highest rainfall.

  10. [The genera of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) in four areas of Atlantic Rain Forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mugrabi, Daniele F; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Barreto, Francisco C C; Azevedo, Celso O

    2008-01-01

    The generic richness and abundance of Bethylidae collected in four different hillside areas of Atlantic rain forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil were studied. The sites are Santa Maria de Jetibá (SMJ), Domingos Martins (DM), Pancas (P) and Atílio Vivacqua (AV). A total of 2,840 specimens of 12 genera were collected. Lepidosternopsis Ogloblin and Bakeriella Kieffer are first recorded from the State. Richness of taxa was calculated using first-order Jackknife richness with EstimateS program. Genera accumulation curves were ran to evaluate the samples. Abundance data were adjusted to the geometric distribution. Parameter k was used to compare areas. The generic profile was not equal for the sites we studied. The areas were considered disturbed. SMJ and DM presented genera richness bigger than in P and AV. The differences in the sites reflect the different preservation of each environment. Pseudisobrachium Kieffer and Dissomphalus Ashmead are most dominant genera in SMJ, DM and P, and Anisepyris Kieffer in AV. This study emphasizes the fact of Dissomphalus as the most abundant genus in rain forests. The generic profile found in AV is similar to that of some areas of Brazilian savannah.

  11. Applying GIS to develop a model for forest fire risk: A case study in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Guido Assunção; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Áureo Banhos; Paneto, Greiciane Gaburro; Schettino, Vitor Roberto

    2016-05-15

    A forest fire risk map is a basic element for planning and protecting forested areas. The main goal of this study was to develop a statistical model for preparing a forest fire risk map using GIS. Such model is based on assigning weights to nine variables divided into two classes: physical factors of the site (terrain slope, land-use/occupation, proximity to roads, terrain orientation, and altitude) and climatic factors (precipitation, temperature, water deficit, and evapotranspiration). In regions where the climate is different from the conditions of this study, the model will require an adjustment of the variables weights according to the local climate. The study area, Espírito Santo State, exhibited approximately 3.81% low risk, 21.18% moderate risk, 30.10% high risk, 41.50% very high risk, and 3.40% extreme risk of forest fire. The areas classified as high risk, very high and extreme, contemplated a total of 78.92% of heat spots.

  12. All different, all equal: Evidence of a heterogeneous Neolithic population at the Bom Santo Cave necropolis (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Granja, R; Alves-Cardoso, F; Carvalho, A F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to contribute to the discussion regarding the socio-political organization of south-western Iberian Middle Neolithic populations. To that end, the preservation and distribution of human remains and the dispersion of grave goods within two rooms of the Bom Santo Cave (Rooms A and B) were investigated and combined with genetic and isotopic data previously published. Grave goods distribution and skeletal analyses highlighted an important diversity in terms of funerary practices thus corroborating data from ancient DNA and Sr/O isotopic analyses that suggested a great genetic and geographic diversity. Grave goods presented an uneven spatial distribution and were made of raw materials from different sources and using different pottery manufacturing styles albeit typologically homogeneous. The preservation and distribution of human remains suggested that Room A was mainly used for secondary depositions while Room B was used for both primary and secondary depositions. No link between the two rooms was found since remains from the same individuals were apparently exclusive of one room or another. The results suggest that this society presented substantial inner genetic, social and geographical heterogeneity. Most probably, this was due to the presence of distinct but coeval groups in the cave that shared a larger-scale social identity (as in "segmentary societies") or, less likely, to the presence of one single, but internally heterogeneous society (as in fully sedentary societies) that assimilated foreigners.

  13. Rovearinids (stemless crinoids) in the Albian carbonates of the offshore Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil: stratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic and palaeoceanographic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias-Brito, D.; Ferré, B.

    2001-06-01

    Microfacies analysis of marine carbonates cored by Petrobras well 1-SPS-6 in the offshore Santos Basin (southeastern Brazil) has revealed a remarkable fossil assemblage of calpionellids (colomiellids), favusellids, hedbergellids, globigerinelloidids, buliminids, radiolarians, inoceramid prisms, roveacrinids, and saccocomids(?) preserved in lower Albian calcimudstones-wackestones of the lower part of the Guarujá Formation. This assemblage represents an allochtonous accumulation in a deep neritic to shallow bathyal hypoxic environment. Besides 'saccocomid-like' sections, the only determinable sections of roveacrinids are thecal plates of Poecilocrinus dispandus elongatus Peck, 1943. This species was previously only known from the Weno Formation of Texas. The Brazilian material extends its records farther south from at least the lower Albian, which then represents the earliest occurrence of this peculiar family in the South Atlantic region. Taking into account their Albian global distribution and the location of their oldest representative (Hauterivian near Alicante, Spain), the Roveacrinidae dispersed westward throughout all of Cretaceous Tethys. The Tethyan origin of Roveacrinidae is further evidence that, during late Aptian-Albian times, the northern South Atlantic (north of the Walvis-São Paulo Ridge) was supplied by a Tethyan water mass.

  14. Bathymetry, Chirp and Deep Crustal Structure of the Santos Basin SÃO Paulo Ridge Complex (sbspr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanian, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Moulin, M.; Schnurle, P.; Rabineau, M.; Afilhado, A.; Roest, W. R.; Feld, A.; Evain, M.; Rochat, A.; Rousic, D.; Rigoti, C. A.; Capechi, E.; Bochenek, G.; Viana, A. R.; Magnavita, L. P.; Szatmari, P.; Neto, M.; Soares, J. P.; Fuck, R. A.; Paula Ribas, M.; De Lima, M.; Corela, C.; Duarte, J.; Matias, L. M.; OBS Team of Sanba Cruise

    2011-12-01

    The SanBa (Santos Basin- Seismic Research experiment) research experiment is a joint project of the Department of Marine Geosciences (IFREMER: Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la MER, France), the Laboratory of "Oceanic Domain" (Institut Universitaire et Européen de la Mer, France), the Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Lattex and CGUL, Portugal), the Universidade de Brasilia (Brazil) and PETROBRAS. Its aim is to test hypotheses that have been proposed such as the existence of failed rift and a micro-block (Moulin et al., GSL submitted) or the presence of exhumed mantle on its south-eastern part (Zalan et al., AAPG 2009). Six wide-angle seismic data were acquired together with coincident deep frequency reflection seismic data during the SanBa cruise in Dec 2010 - Jan. 2011 (total > 850 Nm). Chirp and Bathymetry were also acquired during the cruise. The preliminary results suggest a very thin crust (< 5km) in the center and in the south-eastern part of the SBSPR. Both refraction and reflection data present a clear signal of the Moho in the distalmost part of the study area, which seems to preclude the exhumed mantle hypothesis."

  15. Circulating Strains of Brucella abortus in Cattle in Santo Domingo De Los Tsáchilas Province - Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar Ivan; Contreras-Zamora, Javier; Benitez Ortiz, Washington; Guerrero-Viracocha, Karina; Salcan-Guaman, Holger; Minda, Elizabeth; Ron Garrido, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    The Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas in Ecuador represents the largest informal cattle market. Because of its strategic position, cattle movement is very high and therefore we selected this region, to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp. Part of the study aimed at the isolation, biotyping, and genotyping of Brucella species from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines, using selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays, and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR, and HOOF-Prints techniques. In total, 656 animals from 12 sero-positive dairy herds and from the provincial slaughterhouse were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright's Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. Amongst these animals, 50 animals were sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were transferred to culture medium. Isolation was possible from 4 (16%) lymph nodes and 9 (36%) milk samples; out of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All four isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, showed biochemically a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  16. Levels and spatial distribution of trace elements in macroalgae species from the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Bressy, Fernanda C; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) were determined in ten species of macroalgae collected from six sites in the Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, between May and July of 2010. An optimized microwave-assisted digestion procedure was used to digest the samples. The elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A wide range of metal concentrations were observed between the species analysed. Somewhat higher concentrations of Cd (5.99μg g(-1)), Co (372μg g(-1)), Mn (640μg g(-1)), Ni (17.2μg g(-1)) and Zn (51.4μg g(-1)) were found in the brown macroalgae species Padina spp., whereas elements, such as As (19.7μg g(-1)) and Pb (8.27μg g(-1)), were mainly concentrated in the species Sargassum spp. and Bostrychia montagnei, respectively. Statistical analyses (ANOVA) of the Padina data showed significant inter-site differences for all metals examined except nickel.

  17. A numerical modeling analysis of the phytoplankton and nutrients dynamics for Todos Santos Bay and northwestern Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Rico, J. E., Sr.; Rivas, D.

    2015-12-01

    A tridimensional physical-biological numerical model is implemented for the Todos Santos Bay and the northwest of Baja California to investigate the mechanics and ecological processes associated with the regional plankton dynamics. An NPZD (Nitrate, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Detritus) ecosystem simple model is used to describe the distribution and evolution of the lower trophic levels in the area of study. The model adequately reproduces the spatial distribution of the concentration of chlorophyll for the different seasons of the year. In general, the distribution of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) depends primarily on the seasonal circulation patterns, the total solar irradiance, and the vertical flux of nutrients. Interannual variability shows two extreme years in the analyzed period: 2006 and 2007. Year 2006 was an anomalous warm year, with a weak upwelling activity and low chlorophyll concentrations compared to year 2011. These anomalies are related to the activity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the El Niño+3, and the regional Outgoing Longwave Radiation. Thus, in spite of the simplicity of the NPZD model, both temporal and spatial patterns of distribution of chlorophyll and nutrients are generally reproduced.

  18. A Paradigm Shift: From Paper-and-Pencil Tests to Performance-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puppin, Leni

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how The Language Center at the Espirito Santo Federal University changed from using traditional pencil-andpaper tests to performance testing, based on authentic tasks. The change was prompted because people thought that their testing did not reflect a communicative approach to language teaching. The Assessment Project lasted…

  19. An Interactive Computer Aided Electrical Engineering Education Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavati, Cicero Romao

    This paper describes an educational package to help the learning process. A case study is presented of an energy distribution course in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES). The advantages of the developed package are shown by comparing it with the traditional academic book. This package presents…

  20. Geological setting and paleomagnetism of the Eocene red beds of Laguna Brava Formation (Quebrada Santo Domingo, northwestern Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizán, H.; Geuna, S.; Melchor, R.; Bellosi, E. S.; Lagorio, S. L.; Vásquez, C.; Japas, M. S.; Ré, G.; Do Campo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The red bed succession cropping out in the Quebrada Santo Domingo in northwestern Argentina had been for long considered as Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic in age based on weak radiometric and paleontological evidence. Preliminary paleomagnetic data confirmed the age and opened questions about the nature of fossil footprints with avian features discovered in the section. Recently the stratigraphic scheme was reviewed with the identification of previously unrecognized discontinuities, and a radiometric dating obtained in a tuff, indicated an Eocene age for the Laguna Brava Formation and the fossil bird footprints, much younger than the previously assigned. We present a detailed paleomagnetic study interpreted within a regional tectonic and stratigraphic framework, looking for an explanation for the misinterpretation of the preliminary paleomagnetic data. The characteristic remanent magnetizations pass a tilt test and a reversal test. The main magnetic carrier is interpreted to be low Ti titanomagnetites and to a lesser extent hematite. The characteristic remanent magnetization would be essentially detrital. The obtained paleomagnetic pole (PP) for the Laguna Brava Formation has the following geographic coordinates and statistical parameters: N = 29, Lon. = 184.5° E, Lat. = 75.0° S, A95 = 5.6° and K = 23.7. When this PP is compared with another one with similar age obtained in an undeformed area, a declination anomaly is recognized. This anomaly can be interpreted as Laguna Brava Formation belonging to a structural block that rotated about 16° clockwise along a vertical axis after about 34 Ma. This block rotation is consistent with the regional tectonic framework, and would have caused the fortuitous coincidence of the PP with Early Jurassic poles. According to the interpreted magnetostratigraphic correlation, the Laguna Brava Formation would have been deposited during the Late Eocene with a mean sedimentation rate of about 1.4 cm per thousand years, probably in

  1. Seroprevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens from Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, M A V; Pena, H F J; Ton, N C; Lino, A J B; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Pereira, F E L

    2012-09-10

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 510 free-range (FR) chickens (380 from 33 small farms, and 130 from a slaughter house for FR chickens) from Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil, was investigated. Antibodies to T. gondii were sought using commercial indirect haemagglutination (IHAT, Imuno-HAI Toxo(®), Wama Diagnóstica, São Paulo, Brazil, cut-off 1:16) and the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25) tests. Attempts were made to isolate viable T. gondii from seropositive chickens by bioassay in mice. Pooled samples of brain, heart and quadriceps muscle of one thigh (total 40 g) from 64 chickens with IHAT titers of ≥ 1:16 were minced, digested in pepsin and bioassayed in mice. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 40.4% (206/510) FR chickens by IHAT (titer ≥ 1:16) and 38.8% (198/510) by MAT (titer ≥ 1:25); concordance between IHAT and MAT was 81.6% (kappa index=0.614). Viable T. gondii was isolated (designated TgCkBr234-281) from 48 of 64 (75%) seropositive (IHAT titers ≥ 1:32) FR chickens. Most isolates of T. gondii were virulent for mice; 100% of mice inoculated with 44 of 48 isolates died of toxoplasmosis within 30 days post inoculation (p.i). An epidemiological investigation revealed that people living in rural areas have little knowledge about the parasite and about the risk of acquiring it from raw meat. Results indicated that the locally available IHAT was useful for screening of chicken sera for T. gondii antibodies.

  2. Climate Patterns Governing the Presence and Permanence of Salmonellae in Coastal Areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico▿

    PubMed Central

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment. PMID:18708509

  3. Broad band and long period magnetotellurics for imaging the onshore portion of Santos basin and orogenic belts of southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, F. F.; Fontes, S. L.; Miquelutti, L. G.; La Terra, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    Between October 2011 and April 2012, we carried out 81 broad band and 40 long period magnetotelluric soundings covering the frequency range 1000 Hz - 0.0001 Hz. These soundings are distributed into two parallel 210km long profiles, approximately 50 km apart, spaced 5 km with EM field components oriented to the magnetic north and east directions. Both ADU07 (Metronix) and LEMI 417 (Lviv) systems were used. Typically, three to four MT soundings were measured simultaneously for this study. Both profiles initiate at the coast and continues to the continent direction. These profiles crossed two major Neoproterozoic Orogenic Belts, Brasilia and Ribeira, as well as several geosutures in the basement of the marginal basins of southeastern Brazil. The geophysical survey associated with the available geological information brought important contributions to the understanding of the main geosutures presents in the area. One located at the southeast end of the MT profiles, separating the tectonic domains of Ribeira Belt from the Pre-cambrian lands of Santos Basin. The other one situated in the extreme northwest of the MT profiles, limiting the Ribeira and Brasilia Belts. Data were processed using a robust remote-reference technique. Strike and dimensionality analysis along with G-B decomposition support a general 2-D regional character of the conductivity distribution in the area, allowing us to create a 2-D inversion model. Good misfit can be observed between the measured and calculated transfer functions projected onto the profile direction. Very preliminary results imaged the two main suture zones between the orogenics belts and allow inferences about the geographic position of their lateral limits.

  4. Climate patterns governing the presence and permanence of salmonellae in coastal areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment.

  5. Prevalence of liver diseases as referred by people living in the Santos and São Vicente Estuary.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes Pena; Guimarães, M T; Ribeiro, T S; Campina, N N; Lobarinhas, M R; Lopes, A L J; Cunha, M G; Souza, I B; Oliveira, V L F; Braga E Braga, L; Martins, L C; Gomes, A; Pereira, L A A; Braga, A L F

    2015-10-01

    The Santos and São Vicente Estuary has suffered extensively over the years from irregular industrial deposits. The present study aimed to evaluate liver disease prevalence and potential associated risk factors in four of the Estuary's areas (Pilões and Água-Fria, Cubatão Center, Continental São Vicente, and Guarujá) and a reference area (Bertioga). This study consisted of a cross-sectional study design, in which a questionnaire was used to collect information in 820 households at each of the study areas. The proportion of total liver diseases, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer (liver, biliary tract, and pancreas) per area were estimated. Pearson's chi-square test and two proportion differences test were applied in order to evaluate associations between disease occurrence and areas and to test differences between two proportions, respectively. Single and multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess associations between disease prevalence and the different study areas. Liver disease prevalence was 1.5 % among all inhabitants and 1.4 % among those without any type of exposure. Among those who reported the presence of liver disease, a higher percentage of the participants that reported hepatitis (27.7 %) or other liver disease (48.7 %) did not report occupational or alcohol exposures. Hepatitis (77.8 %) was the most reported disease, and a statistical association between living in Pilões and Água-Fria and the occurrence of hepatitis was observed (Pearson's χ (2): z = 18.1; p = 0.001). The consumption of locally-produced groceries (2.88; CI: 1.24-6.70) and water (5.88; CI: 2.24-15.45) were shown to be risk factors for the occurrence of liver disease. Thus, environmental exposure is still a public health problem present in the estuary region.

  6. New species of tree cricket Oecanthus Serville, 1831 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae) from Reserva Natural Vale, Espírito Santo, Brazil, with chromosome complement.

    PubMed

    Milach, Elisa Machado; Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti Da; Martins, Luciano De Pinho; Nunes, Lorena Andrade; Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello; Oliveira, Elliott Centeno De; Zefa, Edison

    2016-10-04

    A new species of the genus Oecanthus Serville, 1831 from Reserva Natural Vale, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is described. The new species differs from other of this genus in characteristics of the pseudepiphallus main lobe, endophallic sclerites, posterior median lobe of the metanotal gland and black spots on the femora and tibiae. The chromosome number is 2n=16+XY♂=18 and 2n=16+XX♀=18, and this complement present one pair of autosomes less than the other five cytological studied species.

  7. Cadmium and phosphate variability during algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Mejia, E; Lares, M L; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F

    2016-01-15

    Dinoflagellate algal blooms (DABs), with Lingulodinium polyedrum as the dominant species, have increased over the past few years in coastal areas off Baja California, Mexico. Vertical and temporal variability of particulate cadmium (Cdp), dissolved Cd (Cdd), PO4(3-) and Cdd/PO4(3-) were investigated during two intense DABs of L. polyedrum that occurred during the fall of 2011 and 2012 in Todos Santos Bay. Results were then, compared with data gathered in the absence of algal blooms during the autumn of 2013. In both algal blooms, L. polyedrum tended to be concentrated near the surface throughout the duration; however, during DAB 2011 the number of cells was twice as abundant ([10.0 ± 8.0] × 10(5) cells L(-1)) as in DAB 2012 ([5.0 ± 4.4] × 10(5) cells L(-1)). During DAB 2011, Cdp increased significantly (up to 1.02 ± 0.99 nmol kg(-1)) and was positively correlated with the cell abundance of L. polyedrum, suggesting that this dinoflagellate is able to assimilate and concentrate Cdd. Likewise, Cdd (up to 0.71 ± 0.17 nM) increased in the days of highest cell abundance, which could be attributed to uptake and subsequent regeneration of Cdd resulting from the remineralization of organic particulate matter produced during the bloom, as well as with the presence of organic ligands secreted by L. polyedrum that could keep Cdd in solution. During DAB 2011, dissolved Cdd/PO4(3-) ratios exhibited high vertical and temporal variability in the upper 5 m of the water column, but remained virtually constant near the bottom, suggesting a depth-dependent decoupling between these two dissolved components during the bloom development. Given the observed differences in the vertical and temporal variability of Cdd, Cdp, and PO4(3-) between these two intense DABs, we propose the existence of an abundance threshold of approximately 10(6) cells L(-1) of L. polyedrum above which Cd and PO4(3-) significantly increased due to remineralization in coastal waters during the bloom

  8. A Lagrangian Physical-Biological Model to Study Water Parcels Associated with Algal Blooms from Southern California Bight to Todos Santos Bay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas Téllez, I. E.; Rivas, D.

    2015-12-01

    Lagrangian ocean circulation and biological dynamics are numerically studied in Todos Santos Bay during the spring of 2007. This period is particularly interesting after an intense toxic algal bloom occurred in April 2007 in this area, which was associated with the wind-driven upwelling in the region. High resolution, numerical model simulations were carried out to study dynamical features along of the Southern California Bight (SCB), the coast of the northern Baja California (BC), and the interior of Todos Santos Bay (TSB). These simulations are used in a three-dimensional Lagrangian (particle tracking) analysis which provides information about the origin and distribution of the waters present in the Bay during the occurrence of the toxic bloom. After the selection of trajectories of particles showing coherent patterns, a Nitrate-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) lower trophic model is implemented to study the influence of the environmental conditions that occur during the particle advection, solving the NPZD equations at every time-varying position of the advected particles. The model is also modified for phytoplankton growth as a function of the environmental temperature to somehow emulate the life cycle of Pseudo-nitzschia. The analysis of the trajectories shows that particles mainly come from two regions: from the north, in the southern portion of SCB and from regions west of the TSB. Knowing the regional circulation patterns and their phytoplankton dynamics can help to understand and even predict the origin and destination of the harmful algal blooms that occur in TSB and its surroundings.

  9. A new turtle from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group of Brazil, updated phylogeny and implications for age of the Santo Anastácio Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegazzo, Mirian Costa; Bertini, Reinaldo José; Manzini, Flávio Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A new Podocnemidinura specimen from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Paraná Basin) of southeastern Brazil was described. The Bauru Group provided an important portrait of the Brazilian Mesozoic terrestrial biota, which boasts a vertebrate fauna formed from fishes, frogs, lacertilians, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs and mammals; records of palynomorphs; and invertebrate fauna consisted of gastropods, bivalves, ostracods and conchostracans. Nevertheless, the age of these continental deposits is not precisely estimated, which prevents global correlations, and its fauna is argued to be endemic. The new specimen described is the first turtle from the Santo Anastácio Formation, and its morphological comparison with other South American forms provided a significant advancement in the understanding of the age of this unit (Late Cretaceous). This study permitted a revision of the turtle taxa of the Bauru Group. As a result, some taxa were considered synonym, including the new Santo Anastácio form. The specimen is still unnamed due to the absence of skull characters that preclude its accurate positioning within the Bauru Group skull-based taxa. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon were analyzed into Podocnemidinura clade.

  10. 10Be dating of river terraces of Santo Domingo river, on Southeastern flank of the Mérida Andes, Venezuela: Tectonic and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Oswaldo; Vassallo, Riccardo; Audemard, Franck; Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Oropeza, Javier; Yepez, Santiago; Carcaillet, Julien; Alvarado, Miguel; Carrillo, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the first cosmogenic 10Be dating of river terraces located in the lower reaches of the Santo Domingo river (Southeastern flank of the Mérida Andes, Western Venezuela). The geomorphic observations and dating allowed the restoration of the temporal evolution of incision rate, which was analysed in terms of tectonic, climatic and geomorphic processes. The long-term incision rate in the area has been constantly around 1.1 mm/a over the last 70 ka. Taking into account the geologic and geomorphologic setting, this value can be converted into the Late Pleistocene uplift rate of the Southeastern flank of the Mérida Andes. Our results show that the process of terraces formation in the lower reaches of the Santo Domingo river occurred at a higher frequency (103-104 years) than a glacial/interglacial cycle (104-105 years). According to the global and local climate curve, these terraces were abandoned during warm to cold transitions.

  11. Thermotectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin: Evidence from apatite fission track data of the offshore Santos Basin and continental basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann de Oliveira, Christie Helouise; Jelinek, Andréa Ritter; Chemale, Farid; Cupertino, José Antônio

    2016-08-01

    The Santos Basin is the largest offshore sedimentary basin in the southeastern Brazilian margin and originated by breakup of West Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous. We carried out a new thermochronological study by apatite fission track analysis from borehole samples of the Santos Basin and its continental basement to constrain the tectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin. Apatite fission track central ages of the basement and borehole samples vary from 21.0 ± 1.8 to 157.0 ± 35.0 Ma and from 6.5 ± 1.1 to 208.0 ± 11.0 Ma, respectively. From thermal modeling, the basement samples reached the maximum paleotemperatures during the final breakup of South America and Africa. The onshore basement and offshore basin record an early thermotectonic event during the Late Cretaceous linked to the uplift and denudation of the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. Maturation of the organic matter in the offshore basin is related with the progressive increase of the geothermal gradient due to burial. The thermal modeling indicates that the oil generation window started at 55-25 Ma. The basement samples experienced the final cooling during the Cenozoic, with an estimated amount of denudation linked to the sedimentary influx in the offshore basin. A rapid cooling during the Neogene becomes evident and it is linked to the reactivation along Precambrian shear zones and change of the Paraíba do Sul drainage system.

  12. Spatial distribution and concentration assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; Moreira, Icaro T A; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Queiroz, Antonio F S; Garcia, Karina S; Falcão, Brunno A; Escobar, Narayana F C; Rios, Mariana Cruz

    2014-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, to assess the distribution and degree of contamination by TPHs, measure the level of TPH degradation in the surface sediment, and identify the organic matter sources. The surface sediment used in this study was collected in 50 stations, and TPHs, isoprenoid alkanes (pristane and phytane), and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The total concentrations ranged from 0.22 to 40,101 μg g(-1) dry weight and showed a strong correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The highest TPH concentrations were observed in samples from the mangrove sediments of a river located near a petroleum refinery. Compared with other studies in the world, the TPH concentrations in the intertidal surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay were below average in certain stations and above average in others. An analysis of the magnitude of UCM (0.11 to 17,323 μg g(-1) dry weight) and the ratios nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph suggest that an advanced state of oil weathering, which indicates previous contamination. The molar C/N ratios varied between 5 and 43, which indicate organic matter with a mixed origin comprising marine and continental contributions.

  13. Comparing progress toward the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. Methods The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (León) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Results Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban León showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural León (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural León and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. Conclusions All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings. PMID:24428933

  14. Feeding ecology and trophic relationships of fish species in the lower Guadiana River Estuary and Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, Rita; Bexiga, Constança; Veiga, Pedro; Vieira, Lina; Erzini, Karim

    2006-10-01

    In this study we analyze the feeding ecology and trophic relationships of some of the main fish species (Soleidae, Moronidae, Mullidae, Sparidae, Mugilidae, and Batrachoididae) of the lower Estuary of the Guadiana River and the Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António Salt Marsh. We examined the stomachs of 1415 fish caught monthly between September 2000 and August 2001. Feeding indices and coefficients were determined and used along with the results of multivariate analysis to develop diagrams of trophic interactions (food webs). Results show that these species are largely opportunistic predators. The most important prey items are amphipods, gobies (Gobiidae), shrimps ( Palaemon serratus and Crangon crangon), and polychaete worms. The lower Estuary and associated salt marshes are important nurseries and feeding grounds for the species studied. In this area, it is therefore important to monitor the effects of changes in river runoff, nutrient input, and temperature that result from construction of the Alqueva Dam upstream.

  15. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  16. Overview of the 20th century impact of trace metal contamination in the estuaries of Todos os Santos Bay: past, present and future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Vanessa; Barros, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses the distribution patterns of trace metals in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the three main estuaries of the Todos os Santos Bay (BTS), Brazil, during dry and rainy seasons. Data available up to 2012 was also reviewed to assess the status of contamination. For most elements, metal concentrations in sediments decreased from the tidal limits to the lower estuary. Metals in SPM presented more complex distributions along the salinity gradient. Metal variability between rainy and dry conditions was only significant for SPM data. Of the BTS estuaries, the levels of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu are highest in the Subaé estuary, and they seem to be promoting harmful biological effects in macrofauna, and also may pose potential human health risks. Despite the evidence of important localized contamination, much of the data compiled indicates that the bay and its estuaries are still relatively preserved.

  17. Reactional state and nutritional profile among leprosy patients in the primary health care system, Greater Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Rosa Maria Natalli; Zandonade, Eliana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Diniz, Lúcia Martins

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy may present acute/subacute inflammatory processes (leprosy reactions). The study characterized the reactional states of patients at health clinics in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and associated them with sociodemographic factors and clinical/nutritional variables. between January and December 2009, longitudinal follow-up of patients with leprosy continued until leprosy reactions occurred or patients completed 6 months of multidrug therapy. Of the 151 patients participating, 78 (51.7%) were females, 48 (31.8%) had 5 to 8 years schooling, 93 (61.6%) worked and earned from 1 to 3 minimum wages, and 55 (36.4 %) had leprosy reactions, but with no statistical association to socioeconomic characteristics or nutritional status. However, absence of reaction was more common in the low-weight group, suggesting a trend in this group to protection from the reaction (p = 0.0906). The study found no association between nutritional status and leprosy reaction.

  18. Spatial and vertical distribution of metals in sediment cores from Río Espíritu Santo estuary, Puerto Rico, United States

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nekesha; Block, Karin A.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated in three sediment cores representing 100–150 years of accumulation in upriver, midriver, and estuarine environments in Río Espíritu Santo (RES), Puerto Rico. Grain-size distribution, organic matter and carbonate content were determined to assess their influence on metal concentrations. Minimum biotoxicity levels of Ni and Cu were exceeded in the upriver and midriver sites, while the minimum biotoxicity level of Cu was exceeded in the estuarine location. Pb concentration decreased by ~35 % in the upper portion of the midriver and estuarine cores compared to downcore concentrations as a consequence of leaded gasoline regulation. Enrichment Factors and Geoaccumulation Indices were calculated for each metal revealing high levels of Cu in all three cores, likely from an igneous source. Our results provide a baseline for metal contamination in an area facing further land use change. PMID:26337229

  19. Spatial and vertical distribution of metals in sediment cores from Río Espíritu Santo estuary, Puerto Rico, United States.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nekesha; Block, Karin A

    2015-11-15

    The concentration and distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated in three sediment cores representing 100-150years of accumulation in upriver, midriver, and estuarine environments in Río Espíritu Santo (RES), Puerto Rico. Grain-size distribution, organic matter and carbonate content were determined to assess their influence on metal concentrations. Minimum biotoxicity levels of Ni and Cu were exceeded in the upriver and midriver sites, while the minimum biotoxicity level of Cu was exceeded in the estuarine location. Pb concentration decreased by ~35% in the upper portion of the midriver and estuarine cores compared to downcore concentrations as a consequence of leaded gasoline regulation. Enrichment Factors and Geoaccumulation Indices were calculated for each metal revealing high levels of Cu in all three cores, likely from an igneous source. Our results provide a baseline for metal contamination in an area facing further land use change.

  20. High frequency of resistance to the drugs isoniazid and rifampicin among tuberculosis cases in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, an urban area in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baliza, Marcilio; Bach, Artur Henrique; Queiroz, Gabriel Lobo de; Melo, Inês Cardoso; Carneiro, Maria Madileuza; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Suffys, Philip; Rodrigues, Laura; Ximenes, Ricardo; Lucena-Silva, Norma

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors for developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE. This was a prospective study conducted from 2000 to 2003, in which suspected cases were investigated using bacilloscopy and culturing. Out of 232 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, culturing and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on 174. Thirty-five of the 174 cultures showed resistance to all drugs. The frequencies of primary and acquired resistance to any drug were 14% and 50% respectively, while the frequencies of primary and acquired multidrug resistance were 8.3% and 40%. Previous tuberculosis treatment and abandonment of treatment were risk factors for drug resistance. The high levels of primary and acquired resistance to the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin contributed towards the difficulties in controlling tuberculosis transmission in the city.

  1. Comment to Santos et al., "hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome: a new MVK mutation (p.R277G) associated with a severe phenotype".

    PubMed

    Santos, Ruda de Luna Almeida; Crovella, Sergio; Celsi, Fulvio

    2015-03-15

    We performed molecular modeling analysis onto a novel mutation in the gene MVK, described by Santos et al., found to be causative of a severe form of Hyper-IgD/Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency. The mutation p.R277G, in our analysis, lowers the binding affinity for some enzyme's substrates. Interestingly, we found that p.R277G mutation inhibits binding of Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate (IPP) (binding free energy=0 kcal/mol), one of isoprenoids responsible for feedback-inhibition of MVK. IPP is known to be an activator of a specific class of T-cells and we can hypothesize that increased levels of this metabolite generate an aberrant immune system response. Indeed other experiments are needed to verify this hypothesis; however, this work demonstrates usefulness of molecular modeling in generating novel pathogenic hypothesis.

  2. [Porto and the construction of the modern city: the case of Hospital Geral de Santo António in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Helena

    2014-01-01

    During a period of demographic and urban growth of the city of Porto, the need arose for a new hospital. The Santa Casa da Misericórdia of Porto, in charge of erecting the new health facility, appointed the British architect John Carr to design the project. By means of the analysis of a set of archival sources and sundry literature on the topic, we examine the criteria chosen for the design and construction of Hospital Geral de Santo António and if it fulfilled expectations, becoming a special space in the city. This article opens up a perspective on the study of the development of the city and the creation of this health facility, contributing to the historical trajectory of hospital architecture.

  3. Integration of the PSI technique and conventional ground-based methods for landslide characterization and monitoring: the case study of Santo Stefano d'Aveto; Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofani, Veronica; Pancioli, Valeria; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Santo Stefano village is located in the Northern Apennines (Italy) and is built up on an ancient landslide, defined as a complex phenomenon that is an earth rotational slide evolving into a flow. The landslide has an extension of 1,3 km2 and a volume of about 10 million of m3. The landslide can be defined as active and according to Cruden & Varnes (1996) nomenclature the velocity range from very slow to extremely slow. The landslide poses and high risk to the buildings and infrastructures causing extensive direct damages. The Santo Stefano d'Aveto village is located inside a glacial valley made mainly of ophliotic rocks, sandstones and marls and filled with glacial deposits. The landslide occurred in the glacial deposits composed of debris in a sandy-clayey matrix. Santo Stefano d'Aveto landslide has been monitored through radar interferometry, in particular with the PS-InSAR technique (Ferretti et al., 2001) and through ground-based instruments such as inclinometers and piezometers. The PS-InSAR analysis has been performed using ascending SAR scenes and descending SAR scenes from ERS-1/-2 (1992-2001), and ascending and descending SAR scenes from ENVISAT (2002-2008). All the datasets have been processed in the advanced mode APSA that means for each PS has been provided deformation time series relative to a reference date (zero). The target points within the Santo Stefano landslide have a high density. In general for all the analysed datasets it has been observed a decrease of velocity from upslope portion to the downslope one of the landslide. The maximum velocity recorded in the ERS dataset is around 38 mm/y, while the maximum velocity recorded in the ENVISAT dataset is around 20 mm/y. The APSA analysis has provided information about the temporal evolution of target points. Both the majority of ERS and ENVISAT time series have shown a seasonal trend related to the variation of the water table level, which rises during rainfall season and decreases during dry

  4. Water prospection in volcanic islands by Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) surveying: The case study of the islands of Fogo and Santo Antão in Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Madeira, J.; Bernardo, I.; Soares, A.; Esteves, M.; Adão, F.

    2016-11-01

    Water demand in islands, focused in agriculture, domestic use and tourism, is usually supplied by groundwater. Thus the information about groundwater distribution is an important issue in islands water resources management. Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) provides underground resistivity distribution at greater depths and is of easier application than other methods. In this study TDEM technique was used for groundwater prospection in two volcanic islands with water supply problems, the islands of Fogo and Santo Antão in the Republic of Cape Verde. The 10 islands of Cape Verde Archipelago, located off the coast of Senegal (W Africa), present a semi-arid climate and thus suffer from irregular and scarce precipitation. In the Island of Fogo 26 TDEM soundings, presenting an area distribution, were performed on the SW flank of the volcanic edifice. These allowed obtaining a 3D model composed of 5 layers parallel to the topographic surface separated by 50 m depth down to - 250 m. The results indicate the presence of the water-table at a depth of 150 m in the lower ranges of the W flank of the island, and at > 200 m depth in the area above 250 m above sea level (a.s.l.). In the Island of Santo Antão 32 TDEM soundings, distributed along 5 linear profiles, were obtained on the north-eastern half of the island. The profiles are located in two regions exposed to different humidity conditions to the N and S of the main water divide. The northern flank receives the dominant trade winds first and most of the precipitation and, therefore, the water-table is shallower ( 50 m depth) than in the S ( 100 m depth). Our study demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the TDEM method for groundwater prospection in high resistivity contexts such as in volcanic islands.

  5. Enigmatic structures within salt walls of the Santos Basin-Part 1: Geometry and kinematics from 3D seismic reflection and well data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Hudec, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Clara R.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding intrasalt structure may elucidate the fundamental kinematics and, ultimately, the mechanics of diapir growth. However, there have been relatively few studies of the internal structure of salt diapirs outside the mining industry because their cores are only partly exposed in the field and poorly imaged on seismic reflection data. This study uses 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the São Paulo Plateau, Santos Basin, offshore Brazil to document the variability in intrasalt structural style in natural salt diapirs. We document a range of intrasalt structures that record: (i) initial diapir rise; (ii) rise of lower mobile halite through an arched and thinned roof of denser, layered evaporites, and emplacement of an intrasalt sheet or canopy; (iii) formation of synclinal flaps kinematically linked to emplacement of the intrasalt allochthonous bodies; and (iv) diapir squeezing. Most salt walls contain simple internal anticlines. Only a few salt walls contain allochthonous bodies and breakout-related flaps. The latter occur in an area having a density inversion within the autochthonous salt layer, such that upper, anhydrite-rich, layered evaporites are denser than lower, more halite-rich evaporites. We thus interpret that most diapirs rose through simple fold amplification of internal salt stratigraphy but that locally, where a density inversion existed in the autochthonous salt, Rayleigh-Taylor overturn within the growing diapir resulted in the ascent of less dense evaporites into the diapir crest by breaching of the internal anticline. This resulted in the formation of steep salt-ascension zones or feeders and the emplacement of high-level intrasalt allocthonous sheets underlain by breakout-related flaps. Although regional shortening undoubtedly occurred on the São Paulo Plateau during the Late Cretaceous, we suggest this was only partly responsible for the complex intrasalt deformation. We suggest that, although based on the Santos Basin, our

  6. Evolution of magma chambers generating the phonolitic Cão Grande Formation on Santo Antão, Cape Verde Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisele, S.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Klügel, A.; Irion, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    The Cão Grande Formation (CGF) on the western plateau of Santo Antão is a sequence of four phonolitic tephras (Canudo Tephra, Cão Grande I Tephra, Cão Grande II Tephra and Furninha Tephra) produced by highly explosive eruptions that alternatingly originated from a basanitic - phonolitic and a nephelinitic - phonolitic magmatic system. Detailed stratigraphy and petrological investigations of each unit are used to demonstrate the unusual situation that two distinct highly evolved magmas differentiated contemporaneously in separate magmatic systems. Chemical thermobarometry suggests that both magmatic systems not only temporally co-existed, but also that their magma chambers resided close to each other at 7 to 16 km depth, beneath the western plateau of Santo Antão. However, the distinct melt and magma compositions indicate that both systems evolved independently. The only interaction between both magmatic systems was an injection of magma from the nephelinitic - phonolitic magmatic system into the Cão Grande II Tephra (CG II) phonolitic reservoir, which is associated to the basanitic - phonolitic magmatic system. Compositional zonations in the tephra deposits indicate that the eruptions of the CGF tapped stratified magma reservoirs that mainly resulted from crystal accumulation generating downward increasing magma density. However, the CG II tephras also show a significant gradient in melt (glass) compositions. Magmas of the Canudo Tephra (CT) and the Cão Grande I Tephra (CG I) were H2O-saturated and their eruptions were probably triggered by fluid overpressure in the magma chamber. On the other hand, the CG II magma was H2O-undersaturated; we therefore assume that the injection of the hot nephelinitic - phonolitic magma system-type melt/magma triggered the eruption. The zoned deposit of the Furninha Tephra (FT) indicates mafic magma replenishment into a phonolitic reservoir directly prior to the eruption, thus providing a probable triggering mechanism. The

  7. The Response of Sediments and Dissolved Organic Matter to Rapid Rainfall in the Santa Maria da Vitoria Watershed, Espírito Santo, BR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, N. D.; Firme de Almeida, L.; Dias, G.; Gould, R.; Tan, A.; Bianchi, T. S.; Krusche, A. V.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Santa Maria da Vitória River supplies over 30% of the water for the greater Vitória, Espírito Santo, BR metropolitan area, which has a population of roughly 1.6 million people. The availability of clean freshwater is severely limited during periods of heavy rainfall because water sanitation facilities are "clogged" by high sediment discharge. The headwaters of the Santa Maria da Vitória River are characterized by relatively pristine forested environments, transitioning into primarily agricultural and rural land uses, and finally reaching the large urban center of Vitória near its marine receiving waters. The discharge of suspended sediments and dissolved organic matter (DOM) was examined at a 3 hour frequency during heavy storm flows from October 2013 to May 2015 in the Santa Maria da Vitória River main channel and a small tributary, the Mangaraí River. Bulk isotopic analyses were used to determine potential sediment sources and whether specific landscape/land use features were functionalized during periods of high runoff. Likewise, time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-ToF-MS) was used to identify a broad suite of DOM compounds that responded positively with river discharge in an effort to determine the influence of land use on the delivery of dissolved components to the river. For example, the abundance of compounds related to specific agricultural settings increased during storm flow along with anthropogenic DOM sources such as plasticizer and pesticide-derived compounds. Suspended sediment concentrations increased by as much as 70 times during peak river discharge relative to base flow several days earlier with similar increases in particulate organic carbon and nitrogen observed. Results from this study and previous field measurements were integrated into a coupled hydrology-sediment transport model, DHSVM, as part of a dynamic information framework with the goal of predicting water/sediment discharge to inform management and policy sectors of the

  8. Local Site Characterization Using HVSR, ReMi, and SPAC, Study Case: Soccer Field At Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upegui Botero, F. M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake effects are frequently quantified by the energy liberated at the source, and the degree of damage produced in urban areas. The damage of historic events such as the Mw=8.3, September 19, 1985 Mexico City Earthquake was dominated by the amplification of seismic waves due to local site conditions. The assessment of local site effects can be carried out with site response analyses in order to determine the properties of the subsoil such as the dominant period, and the Vs30. The evaluation of the aforementioned properties is through the analysis of ground motion. However, in locations with low seismicity, the most convenient method to assess the site effect is the analysis of ambient vibration measurements. The Spatial Auto Correlation method (SPAC) can be used to determine a Vs30 model from ambient vibration measurements using a triangular array of sensors. Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) considers the phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves can be separated of apparent velocities; the aim of the ReMI method is to obtain the Vs30 model. The HVSR technique or Nakamura's method has been adopted to obtain the resonant frequency of the site from the calculation of ratio between the Fourier amplitude spectra or PSD spectrum of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibration. The aim of this work is to compare the results using different techniques to assess local site conditions in the urban area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The data used was collected during the Pan-American Advance Studies Institute (PASI), Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from July 14 to 25, 2013. The PASI was sponsored by IRIS Consortium, NSF and DOE. Results obtained using SPAC, and ReMi, show a comparable model of surface waves velocities. In addition to the above, the HVSR method is combined with the stiffness matrices method for layered soils to calculate a model of velocities and the predominant period on the site. As part of this work a comparison with

  9. Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2014-05-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity.

  10. Evolutionary escape from the climate dilemma. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavoni, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Jorge M. Pacheco, Vítor V. Vasconcelos and Francisco C. Santos take stock of a growing body of research they have produced in recent years, with the aim of shedding light on whether bottom-up agreements can suffice in promoting the high levels of cooperation needed to avert dangerous climate change [1]. The current state of affairs leave little reason for optimism, given the steady rise in CO2 emissions [2]. The UNFCCC approach to seeking universal participation has thus been called into question, both by some policy makers and by academics who have established pessimistic theoretical predictions concerning the limited ability of international environmental agreements to improve upon what nation states would do in the absence of an agreement. Game theorists have predicted that self-enforcing agreements are likely to comprise only a handful of countries committing to unambitious emission abatement targets [3]. Clearly, this is incompatible with stabilizing CO2 concentrations at levels that significantly constrain the likelihood of dangerous climate change. The question than arises as to whether we can deliver on ambitious abatement targets by leveraging on unilateral action by countries or other sub- or supra-national entities (e.g. cities or blocs). This has recently been analyzed in game-theoretic contexts [4,5], as well as in the governance literature [6], with more optimistic predictions compared to traditional models focusing on overarching agreements.

  11. Palynological analysis of a late Holocene core from Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Renato B; Souza, Paulo A; Bauermann, Soraia G; Bordignon, Sérgio A L

    2010-09-01

    A sedimentar core collected at Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul State, southmost Brazil, was submitted to pollen analysis to provide the vegetational history of this region, and the paleoecological and paleoclimatic changes. A total of 98 taxa of palynomorphs was identified from 35 subsamples. Three radiocarbonic datings were obtained along a section of 115 cm depth, including the basal age of 4730 ± 50 yr BP. Pollen diagrams and cluster analysis were performed based on palynomorphs frequencies, demonstrating five distinct phases (SAP-I to SAP-V), which reflected different paleoecological conditions. The predominance of plants associated with grasslands in the phase SAP-I suggests warm and dry climate conditions. A gradual increasing of humidity conditions was observed mainly from the beginning of the phase SAP-III, when the vegetation set a mosaic of grasslands and Atlantic rainforest. Furthermore, the presence of some forest taxa ( Acacia-type, Daphnopsis racemosa, Erythrina-type and Parapiptadenia rigida-type), from the phase SAP-IV, is interpreted as an influence of the seasonal semideciduous forest in the study region. From the phase SAP-V (ca. 4000 yrs BP), the vegetation became similar to the modern one (extant Atlantic rainforest Biome), especially after 2000 yrs BP (calibrated age).

  12. Morphological, genotypic, and physiological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from keratitis patients and the domestic environment in Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Juliana L; Furst, Cinthia; Klisiowicz, Débora R; Klassen, Giseli; Costa, Adriana O

    2013-09-01

    Amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are free-living protozoa that can cause granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis in humans. In this study, four clinical and three household dust isolates obtained in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil were characterized by their morphological, genotypic, and physiological properties. All isolates belonged to group II according to Pussard and Pons' cyst morphology. Analysis of their 18S rDNA sequence identified one isolate from household dust as genotype T11 and the others six samples as genotype T4. Five T4 isolates presented a highly variable region (DF3) in 18S rDNA identical to those previously described. Physiological assays carried out with trophozoites in co-culture with bacteria or in axenic conditions showed all samples tolerated temperatures up to 37°C, regardless of culture method. One keratitis isolate grew at 42°C in co-culture with bacteria. Most isolates in co-culture survived at 1.0M, except a T11 isolate, which tolerated up to 0.5M. The isolates did not grow at 42°C and did not tolerate 0.5M and 1.0M under axenic condition. This is the first report of 18S rRNA gene genotyping applied to Acanthamoeba isolated from keratitis patients in Brazil. The results also indicated that osmo-tolerance is dependent on the culture system.

  13. [Access to the diagnosis of tuberculosis in health services in the municipality of Vitoria, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Rafaela Borges; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Ruffino-Netto, Antônio; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Braga, Jose Ueleres; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to assess the accessibility to the diagnosis of tuberculosis in health services in Victoria, state of Espírito Santo. It featured a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 of patients with tuberculosis using the Primary Care Assessment Tool and statistical analysis with the Chi-square test (p <0,05). In relation to initial access to care, it was seen that the health service of first access most sought was Primary Care (37.6%), with most diagnoses occurring in the Tuberculosis Control Program Reference Units (61.3%). There was evidence of association between first health service accessed and the factors of time delay in: obtaining consultation at the first health service sought (p = 0.0182); diagnosis made by the first health service sought (p = 0.0001); request for sputum exam (p = 0,0003); request for X-ray exams (p = 0.0159); referral for X-rays at another institution (p = 0.0001); diagnosis by the same health service (p = 0.0001); exams conducted by the same health service that initially diagnosed tuberculosis (p = 0.0018); and proximity to the home (p = 0.0001). Therefore, the identification of important gaps in accessibility to diagnosis of tuberculosis seems to be related to the operational difficulties of organization of health care.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of HFE gene polymorphic variants (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, L N R; Santos, E V W; Stur, E; Silva Conforti, A M A; Louro, I D

    2016-04-27

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to progressive iron accumulation and may cause cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes, and heart failure. Most cases of HH have been linked to mutations in genes associated with iron homeostasis. There have been three major variants in the high Fe (HFE) gene associated with the disease: C282Y, H63D and S65C. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the polymorphic variants (C282Y, H63D and S65C) of the HFE gene in the population of the Espírito Santo State (ES), Brazil by analyzing three different groups: general population (N = 120), Pomeranian descendants (N = 59), and patients with HH (N = 20). Using genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood, polymorphic variant identification was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistically significant differences were observed for genotype distribution of C282Y (P < 0.001) and H63D (P = 0.013) between the general population and the patients diagnosed with HH. This is the first study to analyze HFE gene allele frequencies for the general population, Pomeranian subpopulation, and patients with HH of ES, Brazil.

  15. [Effects of the installation of the Rosal hydroelectric power station, Itabapoana River, States of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, on anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae].

    PubMed

    Rezende, Helder Ricas; Sessa, Paulo Augusto; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2009-01-01

    The construction of dams usually changes the composition of the fauna within their areas of influence. In the area where the Rosal hydroelectric power station has been installed, in the States of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, changes to the abundance of anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae were evaluated before (1998-2000) and after (2000-2005) the damming. Nine sample collection points were defined, each represented by a home and its outbuildings, shelters for domestic animals and water collection points within a radius of 150m. One hundred and three adult anophelinae were collected before the damming and 313 afterwards; 200 immature anophelinae before and 708 afterwards; 868 planorbidae before and 486 afterwards; and 2,979 phlebotominae before and 912 afterwards. The vector record, consisting of anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae, shows the potential of this area for transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, the environmental changes did not increase the risk of the occurrence of these diseases.

  16. Blue rayon-anchored technique/Salmonella microsome microsuspension assay as a tool to monitor for genotoxic polycyclic compounds in Santos estuary.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia M; Coimbrão, Carlos A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2006-10-10

    The most important harbor of Brazil is located in Santos Estuary. In the 1970s, this area was one of the major examples of coastal degradation and although the quality of the environment has improved, the sediment is still contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mutagenic activity. Because of sediment dredging and consequently contaminants resuspension, it is useful to have reliable methods to monitor the water quality. Considering that blue rayon (BR) has been successfully used in evaluation of mutagenicity and PAHs content the objective of this work was to verify the applicability and adapt the methodology to monitor the water for mutagenic activity using the BR associated with the Salmonella assay. Analysis of three sites with different levels of contamination was performed using a modification of the BR hanging method denominated in this work BR anchored technique. The microsuspension protocol of the Salmonella/microsome assay was employed with the strain YG1041. The water from the site 1 the most contaminated and under influence of the steel mill discharge presented the highest potency reaching 36,000 revertants/g of BR with S9. Sites 2 and 3 showed less mutagenicity than site 1 with values approximately 1000 revertants/g of BR. We conclude that the BR anchored technique associated with Salmonella assay using YG1041 is a reliable alternative to monitor estuarine waters, especially in regions where sediment resuspension or acute pollution episodes can occur.

  17. Ossification Pattern of Estuarine Dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) Forelimbs, from the Coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Silvina; de Queiroz, Fábio Ferreira; Campos, Adélia Sepúlveda

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is one of the most abundant cetacean species in Brazil. Determination of age and of aspects associated with the development of this species is significant new studies. Counts of growth layer groups in dentin are used to estimate age of these animals, though other ways to evaluate development are also adopted, like the measurement of total length (TL). This study presents a procedure to evaluate the development of the estuarine dolphin based on the ossification pattern of forelimbs. Thirty-seven estuarine dolphins found in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Age was estimated, TL was measured and ossification of epiphyses was examined by radiography. We analyzed results using the Spearman correlation. Inspection of radiographs allowed evaluation of the significance of the correlation between age and development of the proximal (r = 0.9109) and distal (r = 0.9092) radial epiphyses, and of the distal ulnar epiphyses (r = 0.9055). Radiographic analysis of forelimbs proved to be an appropriate method to evaluate physical maturity, and may be a helpful tool to estimate age of these animals in ecological and population studies. PMID:26017269

  18. Risk factors to incidental leptospirosis and its role on the reproduction of ewes and goats of Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, Priscilla; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Martins, Gabriel; do Rodrigues, Patrícia Rosário; Faria, Braulio Pego; Lilenbaum, Walter; Deminicis, Bruno Borges

    2015-01-01

    Ovine and caprine stockbreeding have been gaining attention in developing countries as an attractive investment. On these animals, infectious diseases of the reproductive tract, such as leptospirosis, can compromise the production leading to economic losses. The present study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with incidental leptospirosis and its influence on the reproductive parameters of ewes and goats of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. A total of 737 animals distributed on 24 herds/flocks were studied, and an overall prevalence of 10.9% seroreactive animals was observed. Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was the most frequent in goats (97.0%) as well as in ewes (78.3%). Regarding risk factors related to leptospirosis, the presence of waterholes and the semi-intensive breeding system were the most important associated to seroreactivity. Besides, there was an observed association between seroreactivity and reproductive failures (P < 0.05). Moreover, seroreactive ewes (relative risk (RR) = 1.3) and goats (RR = 1.9) presented more chances to have abortions than seronegative animals. Furthermore, seroreactive ewes presented 11.6 more chances of having premature births when compared to the seronegative ones. It can be concluded that Leptospira infection, mainly those caused incidental strains (such as Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup), is a significant factor to reduce the productivity of small ruminants' herds/flocks in the studied region, and environmental measures must be considered on control programs.

  19. Review of Dissomphalus Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil, with description of twenty-one new species.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Wesley D; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-07-25

    Forty-two species of Dissomphalus Ashmead, 1893 are reviewed, 21 of them are described and illustrated: Dissomphalus botocudus sp. nov., D. fredi sp. nov., D. tupinikim sp. nov., D. guarani sp. nov., D. congo sp. nov., D. rosangelae sp. nov., D. w-aedeagus sp. nov., D. amana sp. nov., D. potyra sp. nov., D. pyata sp. nov., D. clovisi sp. nov., D. kuara sp. nov., D. miriamae sp. nov., D. cacirus sp. nov., D. mirim sp. nov., D. secretus sp. nov., D. caparao sp. nov., D. capixaba sp. nov., D. ibirapitanga sp. nov., D. purius sp. nov. and D. taiabocu sp. nov. Six species are registered for the first time from Espírito Santo: D. brasiliensis Kieffer, D. bahiensis Redighieri & Azevedo, D. dumosus Evans, D. incomptus Evans, D. refertus Alencar & Azevedo and D. umbilicus Azevedo. Three species were reidentified: D. napo Evans, D. truncatus Azevedo and D. vallensis Azevedo. Among fifteen species-groups which recognized in the genus, amana species-group; amplus species-group and secretus species-group are newly proposed.

  20. Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

  1. Capability of Paraguaçu estuary (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil) to form oil-SPM aggregates (OSA) and their ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic organisms.

    PubMed

    Rios, Mariana C; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Pereira, Taís S; de Almeida, Marcos; Trindade, Maria Clara L F; Menezes, Leonardo; Caldas, Alex S

    2017-01-15

    For experiments concerning the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA), oil and sediment samples were collected from Campos Basin and six stations of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, respectively. The sediments samples were analyzed for organic matter determined by the EMBRAPA method, nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus determined by the method described by Aspila. The oil trapped in OSA was extracted following the method described by Moreira. The experiment showed a relationship between the amount of organic matter and OSA formation and consequently the dispersion of the studied oil. On the basis of the buoyancy of OSA and the ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic community, the priority areas for application of remediation techniques are Cachoeira, Maragogipe, and Salinas da Margarida because of the large amount of oil that accumulated at the bottom of the experiment flask (5.85%, 27.95%, and 38,98%; 4.2%, 17.66%, and 32.64%; and 11.82%, 8.07%, and 10.91% respectively).

  2. Dolines in Sierra de Quemado and their relationship with the development of the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomàs, Vinales, Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan Gonzalez, Hermes; Diaz Guanche, Carlos; Aldana Vilas, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Dolines are the most representative landforms of karst territories, and have a very significant development in the tropical karst. In the Sierra de los Órganos (West Cuba), the doline development in size and depth has been taken in consideration in several papers, especially after the classic works of Herbert Lehman in the 50's. Recent studies have revealed that horizontal and vertical development of doline is conditioned by tectonics, their spatial location, and is strongly controlled by the local base level. In the Sierra de Quemado, about 30 dolines were recognized with a remarkable variability in shape, size and depth. They are mainly collapsed dolines with different deepening phases, clearly marking the various evolutionary stages of the system, and working as individual entities to control the surface erosion, notably influencing the configuration of the main karst system such as the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomás. Collapse dolines originate as a consequence of the loss of mass, due to speleogenetic processes and the likely fall of the roofs of caves that developed below the dolines. The successive evolution of dolines often took place for the proximity of a cave (active or not), evolving parallelly. When doline deepening reached this level, the retraction of the walls began, which also had an influence on the hypodermic cavities observed in the dolines, and on some foot-caves ("marginal caves" or "füsshölen") that acted as important recharge points. Instability of part of the slope will cause its final collapse. Vertical jointing and faulting, together with the high values in the angles of internal friction, thoroughly contribute to the process of slope recession. Because of their different phases and evolutionary stages, the ranges in the morphometric values of dolines are high: some dolines have dimensions similar to "Tiankeng", with more than 100 metres in diameter and depth. As a rule, the different deepening phases that mark the evolutionary stages of

  3. CUTANEOUS TUBERCULOSIS: A 26-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF TUBERCULOSIS, VITÓRIA, ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    SPELTA, Karla; DINIZ, Lucia M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: Tuberculosis is a serious health problem in Brazil so that the knowledge on the aspects of cutaneous tuberculosis is medically important. Objective: To assess the characteristics of patients with cutaneous tuberculosis treated at the Cassiano Antonio Moraes University Hospital, located in the city of Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study using the medical records of 29 patients with cutaneous tuberculosis treated at the Dermatology and Pulmonology services of the hospital from 1986 to 2011. The inclusion criterion was the confirmation of cutaneous tuberculosis taking into account clinical, epidemiological, immunological, and bacteriological findings, as well as the response to specific treatment. Results: Of the 29 studied patients; 18 (62%) were women with average age of 37 years; the predominant clinical condition was erythema induratum of Bazin in 12 (41.4%) cases; and the cutaneous lesions were in the lower limbs in 19 (65.8%) patients. Extra-cutaneous involvement occurred in eight (27.6%) cases. The tuberculin tests were positive in 15 (79%) individuals and the assessment of the infectious agent was negative in most of the investigated cases. Conclusion: The study found a low frequency (0.44%) of cutaneous tuberculosis in an endemic area of tuberculosis. There was a predominance of infection in women aged thirty to forty years. Erythema induratum was the most common clinical condition, affecting mainly the lower limbs, in contrast to other Brazilian studies that found scrofuloderma as the most common manifestation, predominating in the cervical region of male children and adolescents. PMID:27410909

  4. The role of gravitational collapse in controlling the evolution of crestal fault systems (Espírito Santo Basin, SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ze, Tao; Alves, Tiago M.

    2016-11-01

    A high-quality 3D seismic volume from offshore Espírito Santo Basin (SE Brazil) is used to assess the importance of gravitational collapse to the formation of crestal faults above salt structures. A crestal fault system is imaged in detail using seismic attributes such as curvature and variance, which are later complemented by analyses of throw vs. distance (T-D) and throw vs. depth (T-Z). In the study area, crestal faults comprise closely spaced arrays and are bounded by large listric faults, herein called border faults. Two episodes of growth are identified in two opposite-dipping fault families separated by a transverse accommodation zone. Statistical analyses for eighty-four (84) faults show that fault spacing is < 250 m, with border faults showing the larger throw values. Fault throw varies between 8 ms and 80 ms two-way time for crestal faults, and 60-80 ms two-way time for border faults. Fault length varies between ∼410 m and 1750 m, with border faults ranging from 1250 m to 1750 m. This work shows that border faults accommodated most of the strain associated with salt growth and collapse. The growth history of crestal faults favours an isolated fault propagation model with fault segment linkage being associated with the lateral propagation of discrete fault segments. Importantly, two episodes of fault growth are identified as synchronous to two phases of seafloor erosion, rendering local unconformities as competent markers of fault reactivation at a local scale. This paper has crucial implications for the understanding of fault growth as a means to assess drilling risk and oil and gas migration on continental margins. As a corollary, this work demonstrates that: 1) a certain degree of spatial organisation occurs in crestal fault systems; 2) transverse accommodation zones can form regions in which fault propagation is enhanced and regional dips of faults change in 4D.

  5. Bioavailability assessment of toxic metals using the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)" in marine sediments collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jucelino B; Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Oliva, Sergio T; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the bioavailability of the metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in sediment samples collected in seven stations from the São Paulo Estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The bioavailability was determined by employing the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)". The elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), while nickel was quantified utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). The accuracy of these methods was confirmed using a certified reference material of estuarine sediment (NIST 1646). The sulfide was quantified using potentiometry with selective electrode and the organic matter determination employing an indirect volumetric method using potassium dichromate and iron(II) sulfate solutions. The bioavailability of the metals was estimated by relationship between the concentration of AVS and the sum of the concentrations of the simultaneously extracted metals (ΣSEM), considering a significant toxicity when (ΣSEM)/(AVS) is higher than 1. The bioavailability values in the seven stations studied varied from 0.93 to 1.31 (June, 2014) and from 0.34 to 0.58 (September, 2014). These results demonstrated a critical condition of toxicity (bioavailability >1) in six of the seven sediment samples collected during the rainy season (June, 2014). In the other period (September, 2014), the bioavailability was always lower than 1 for all sediment samples collected in the seven stations. The individual values of the concentrations of the five metals were compared with the parameters PEL (probable effects level) and TEL (threshold effects level), which are commonly employed for characterization of ecological risk in environmental systems. This comparison revealed that all metals have concentrations lower than the PEL and only zinc and lead in some stations have contents higher than the TEL. The

  6. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  7. Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Patients with Established HIV Type 1 Infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and Review of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barbara S.; Rojas Fermín, Rita A.; Reyes, Emily Virginia; Vaughan, Catherine; José, Lina; Javier, Carmen; Franco Estévez, Ramona; Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy; Batista, Arelis; Lie, Yolanda; Coakley, Eoin; Hammer, Scott M.; Brudney, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean. PMID:21851324

  8. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  9. Study of the Engine Bird Ingestion Experience of the Boeing 737 Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    YES 1218 0 62 0 0 0 1280 0 LNK LINCOLN, NB, USA N YES 5816 0 5847 0 4201 0 15864 0 LNZ LONZ, AUSTRIA N FGN 768 1 704 0 683 0 2155 1 LOS LAGOS , NIGERIA...DAKHLA, MOROCCO N FGN 8 0 58 0 78 0 144 0 VIX VITORIA , ESPIRITO SANTO, BRAZIL S FGN 2878 0 3794 0 4160 0 10832 0 VLC VALENCIA, SPAIN N FGN 206 0 342 0

  10. Assessment of Mass-Transport Deposits occurrence offshore Espírito Santo Basin (SE Brazil) using a bivariate statistical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedade, Aldina; Alves, Tiago; Luís Zêzere, José

    2016-04-01

    Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) are one of the most important process shaping passive and active margins. It is frequently happening and its characteristics, features and processes has been very well documented from diverse approaches and methodologies. In this work a methodology for evaluation of MTDs occurrence is tested in an area offshore Espírito Santo Basin, SE Brazil. MTDs inventory was made on three-dimensional (3D) seismic volume interpreting a high amplitude reflection which correspond to the top and base of the MTDs. The inventory consists of four MTDs which were integrated into a GIS database. MTDs favourability scores are computed using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Information Value Method) over unique condition terrain units in a raster basis. Terrain attributes derived from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) are interpreted as proxies of driving factors of MTDs and are used as predictors in our models which are based on a set of different MTDs inventories. Three models are elaborated independently according to the area of the MTDs body (Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3). The final result is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel favourability value in descending order. The robustness and accuracy of the MTDs favourability models are evaluated by the success-rate curves, which are used for the quantitative interpretation of the models expressing the goodness of fit of the MTDs. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the predisposing factors which have highest prediction performance on MTDs occurrence were identified. The obtained results allow to conclude the method is valid to apply to submarine slopes as it is demonstrated by the highest obtained goodness of fit (0.862). This work is very pioneer, the methodology used was never applied to submarine environment. It is a very promising and valid methodology within the prediction of submarine slopes regarding failing and instability to the industry. In

  11. GIS applied to agriclimatological zoning and agrotoxin residue monitoring in tomatoes: A case study in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Teixeira, Luciano José Quintão; Saraiva, Sérgio Henriques; Freitas, Deivid França; Pereira, Olavo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Neves, Antônio Augusto; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2016-01-15

    Searches related to global warming have provided important insights into the response of terrestrial ecosystems, but few have examined the impacts on agricultural crops, particularly those associated with the monitoring of agrotoxin residues. In this context, the agriclimatological zoning is an important tool in the planning and consolidation of crops and should be considered in any initiative that involves such planning. This tool is particularly important in the analysis of agrotoxin residues and may be applied by the Program Analysis of Agrotoxin Residues in Food (PARA) created by the National Health Vigilance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA), which enables greater food security and contributes to the improvement of human health. The aim of this study was to elaborate the current and future agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, relating it with the monitoring of samples collected by PARA in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The results indicate that a temperature increase of 5 °C creates a decrease in apt areas from 37.3% to 4.3%, for a total reduction of 33 percentage points (-88.5%). It is noted that of the 41 producing municipalities, only 26 have apt areas greater than 50%, highlighting the municipalities with apt areas greater than 90%, represented by Mantenópolis (100%), Guaçuí (98.5%), São José do Calçado (97.8%), Irupi (94.4%), Santa Teresa (92.3%), and Marechal Floriano (91.4%). The veracity of agriclimatological zoning is proved by a Kendall rank correlation coefficient of 0.876, indicating that the distribution of the variables of apt areas and productivity are similar at the significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval 95%. After validation of the agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, it is recommended that the PARA should monitor 36 municipalities rather than the current 18, representing an increase of 100%. The methodology can be adjusted to agricultural crops of other countries.

  12. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  13. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts.

  14. [Analysis of motor performance associated with the nutritional status of the elderly enrolled in the Family Health Program in the municipality of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco].

    PubMed

    Soares, Lisandra Delfino de Albuquerque; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares; Lima, Bruna Rafaela Dornelas de Andrade; Siqueira, Danielle Ferreira de; Fittipaldi, Etiene Oliveira da Silva; Arruda, Silvana Gonçalves Brito de; Faro, Zelyta Pinheiro de

    2012-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and the motor skills of the elderly registered in the Family Health Program in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco, by means of a transversal epistemological descriptive-analytical field study. The participants of this survey were 235 elders, both male and female of 60-years-old and over registered in the family health program in the urban area of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index and the circumference of the calf. Four motor tests were used to evaluate motor performance: Time Up&Go, Tinetti's Index, Functional Reach and Unipodal Support. The associations were checked using Spearman's correlation. The association of the nutritional status with the motor tests was statistically significant among males* or females**: (Time Up&Go rho = 0.290* / 350**; Functional Reach rho = 0.232* / 352**; Tinetti's Index rho = 243* / 363** and Unipodal Support rho = 221* / 475**. The evaluation of the results revealed an association between nutritional status and functional capacity of the elders no matter what gender; with obesity being a limiting nutritional condition to adequate performance in the tests.

  15. Considerations on the effects of tidal regimes in the movement of floating litter in an estuarine environment: Case study of the estuarine system of Santos-São Vicente, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Gerson; Elliff, Carla Isobel; Frutuoso, Gabriela Amado; Silva, Eric Vinícius Nascimento Malaquias da; Gama, Guilherme Santiago; Sousa, João Henrique de Oliveira; Silva, Iracema Reimão

    2016-09-15

    Floating litter in the estuarine system of Santos-São Vicente is common and is part of day-to-day activities of various users of the area. The objective of the present study was to carry out a quali-quantitative evaluation of the occurrence of floating litter, to infer their sources, and to identify environmental factors that are likely to control occurrence and distribution, with particular emphasis on the effects of tidal regimes. Six sampling stations were selected along the aforementioned estuary and visited monthly between July 2010 and January 2012. Floating litter was counted from a fixed sampling station. Plastics prevailed (89.64%) and their main source was domestic activities (55.41%). More litter was found during ebb spring tides, with higher concentrations obeying confluence patterns of the estuary's channels. Results indicated that occurrence can be attributed to the deficiency in basic sewage system in the area and the deliberate disposal into the estuary by the local population.

  16. A possible Echinococcus granulosus calcified cyst found in a medieval adult female from the churchyard of Santo Domingo de Silos (Prádena del Rincón, Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Monge Calleja, Álvaro M; Sarkic, Natasa; López, Jesus Herrerín; Antunes, Wilson D T; Pereira, Manuel F C; Matos, António Pedro Alves de; Santos, Ana Luísa

    2017-03-01

    Calcification, or mineralisation, can occur as part of a natural process, or by pathological processes. The purpose of this work is to examine an unidentified semi-spherical and perforate hollow mass, found near the pelvis of an adult female, dated 12th-13th century AD, exhumed of the Church of Santo Domingo de Silos (Prádena del Ricón, Madrid, Spain). The mass was examined by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. These procedures revealed a heterogeneous inner surface with both smooth and irregular areas. A larger spherical and several smaller crescent-shaped perforations were noticed. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of the elements C, K, P, Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Mg. The co-localisation of Ca and P suggests that they may be combined in a mineral matrix, likely formed in vivo. Other minerals probably came from the soil, although Fe could be related to the presence of blood. The macroscopic and microscopic appearances, chemical composition, and location of the calcified mass point to a possible hydatid cyst from Echinococcus granulosus, common in agricultural populations. This study used a suite of analytical techniques that are useful in the diagnosis of unknown calcified masses and can, therefore, be recommended for use in future analytical work.

  17. [Evaluation of the quality of data in the Live Birth Information System and the Information System on Mortality during the neonatal period in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Laura Pedroza; Moreira, Claudia Maria Marques; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; de Castro, Denise Silveira; Zandonade, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    Health information systems make it possible to be aware of health problems and often represent the sole source of information, thereby making it essential to assess their quality. The scope of this paper was to evaluate the quality of data about live births and deaths in the neonatal period in the Live Births Information System (SINASC) and Mortality Information System (SIM) in the state of Espírito Santo during the period from 2007 to 2009. Descriptive methodology with secondary data obtained from the electronic address of the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System was used to analyze the dimensions of quality of information, namely accessibility, timeliness and completeness. The results indicate that the information is accessible and timely, with a lag of three years compared to the beginning of the study. The completeness of the variables analyzed in SINASC was predominantly classified as excellent. SIM revealed a high percentage of missing data on the number of the Live Birth Declaration, mother's education, age and reproductive history. The conclusion reached is that SINASC is an excellent source of information about births, though SIM reveals a marked need for improvements in the completeness of its information.

  18. [Family Health Strategy: evaluating the access to SUS from the perception of the users of the health unit Resistência, in the region of São Pedro, Vitória, Espírito Santo State].

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Talita Dourado; Ferreira, Josilda Terezinha Bertulozo; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Lima, Rita de Cássia Duarte

    2010-07-01

    Family Health is a re-orientation strategy of the assistance model. One of its guiding principles is the establishment of a link between the health teams and the SUS users. The purpose of this research is to evaluate user access to the Family Health Unit (FHU) and the local problems faced. It is an exploratory, qualitative research, developed at the FHU Resistencia of São Pedro, located in the Greater Vitória, Espírito Santo State, with data collected individually through a semi-structured survey. It was found that the main needs of the population are incorporated in the services provided by the FHU, and the users face many difficulties with access. The main criticism is related to access to the specialized services. The majority of the participants of the survey showed satisfaction with the access to the services, and were not intimidated to express the difficulties faced. The work developed by the Family Heath Strategy (FHS) at FHU Resistência has been contributing to the improvement of the quality of the services offered by FHS to the users served, although many problems have been identified, which demonstrates the great challenge in redefining the assistance model, as proposed by this public policy.

  19. Linking environmental heavy metal concentrations and salinity gradients with metal accumulation and their effects: A case study in 3 mussel species of Vitória estuary and Espírito Santo bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rodrigues, Paulo Pinheiro; Mubiana, Valentine K; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to link the heavy metal load in three species of mussels (Perna perna, Mytella falcata and Mytella guyanensis) from the estuaries and bays around Vitória island, south-east of Brazil, with the salinity gradient and the heavy metal levels in the abiotic environment (including water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment). Primarily based on the salinity gradient, a total of 26 sites around Vitória Island were selected for sampling of water, SPM, sediments and organisms. Besides tissue metal levels, the condition index and energy stores (glycogen, lipid and protein) were quantified as an indicator of fitness in response to metal pollution. Dissolved metals in water indicate that Cd and Mn content was higher along Espírito Santo Bay, while Al, Co, Cu, Cr and Fe were elevated in the sites with low salinity such as river mouths, estuarine and sewage canals. Likewise, suspended matter sampled from low salinity sites showed a higher heavy metal load compared to moderate and high salinity sites. Though mussels were sampled from different sites, the contamination for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn was higher in mussels inhabiting low salinity sites (M. guyanensis and M. falcata) compared to P. perna, a high saline water inhabitant. However, a higher Zn body burden was observed for P. perna compared to Mytella species. Tissue Fe accumulation (but not Mn and Zn) correlated with heavy metal levels in suspended material for all three species, and for M. falcata this correlation also existed for Cd and Cu. Energy store and condition index in all mussels varied depending on the sampling sites and correlated with salinity gradient rather than tissue metal concentration. Overall, metal concentration in mussels did not exceed the safe levels as per the international standards for metals, and would be of no risk for human consumption.

  20. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  1. Study of the Engine Bird Ingestion Experience of the Boeing 737 Aircraft (October 1986- September 1988)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    5816 S847 LUZ LONZ, AUSTRIA N FGN 78 704 LOS LAGOS , NIGERIA N FGN 16716 14969 LPA GRN CANARIA, CANARY ISLANDS M FGN 293 1439 LIPSI LA PAZ, BOLIVIA S FG...5820 6195 VIL DAKHLA, MOROCCO N FGN 8 58 VIX VITORIA , ESPIRITO SANTO, BRAZIL S FGN 2878 3794 VLC VALENCIA, SPAIN N FGN 206 342 VLG VILLA GESELL...VARANASI, INDIA NO 1 XFO NO ATB YES CATTLE EGRET 1135 1 16. LOS LAGOS , NIGERIA NO SCATTERED 1 ELS EAST LONDON, SOUTH AFRICA NO CLEAR ONE SPARROW 1 3

  2. Santos: A Digital Human in the Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Kim, Yujiang Xiang, Matthew K. Rasmussen, Chris Murphy, Andrea Laake, Anith Mathai, Timothy Marler , and Jingzhou Yang* Virtual Soldier Research...2006a; Abdel-Malek et al., 2006b; Kim et al., 2006; Man et al., 2006 Marler , 2005; Patrick, 2005; Yang et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2006a; Yang et...authorized documents. References 1. Abdel-Malek, K., Yang, J., Marler , T., Beck, S., Mathai, A., Patrick, A., and Arora, J. (2006a) “Towards a new

  3. Funding boost for Santos Dumont supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite Vieira, Cássio

    2016-09-01

    The fastest supercomputer in Latin America returned to full usage last month following two months of minimal operations after Gilberto Kassab, Brazil's new science minister, agreed to plug a R4.6m (1.5m) funding gap.

  4. Taxonomic revision of the genus Stenocyphus Marshall (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guadalupe del Río, M.; Lanteri, Analía A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stenocyphus Marshall, 1922 (Entiminae, Naupactini) includes three species: the type species S. bituberosus (Gyllenhal, 1833), S. tuberculatus (Hustache, 1938), comb. n. herein transferred from Neoericydeus Hustache, 1938, and S. sextuberosus sp. n. The genus is endemic to the Atlantic forests of the states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil andis mainly characterized by the presence of humped elytra bearing large conical tubercles on the intervals 5, or 3 and 5, or 3, 5 and 7. It shares some external morphological characters with Hadropus Schoenherr, 1826 and the Brazilian species of Cyrtomon Schoenherr 1823, but its phylogenetic position is uncertain. Herein we provide a diagnostic key to separate Stenocyphus from those genera, generic and species redescriptions or descriptions, a key to species, habitus photographs, line drawings of genitalia, and a discussion of the patterns of elytral tubercles in unrelated genera of Neotropical broad-nosed weevils. PMID:24363577

  5. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation.

  6. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanumamorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanumfilirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanumpsilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanumverticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanumapiahyense Witasek and Solanumlacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

  7. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  8. Spatial organization of the Brazilian states with respect to human migration.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, N

    1986-01-01

    "Multidimensional scaling technique was applied to the Brazilian migration matrix in order to identify the functional regions of the nation, using the 1970 census data for males. The results obtained from three types of proximity matrices confirmed the key roles of Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso as the core states in addition to Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Substantial circulation of migrants among the core states runs counter to the popular notion about the Northeastern states as the major source of labor in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. The Northeast [was] found to consist of three groups of states: Maranhao, Piaui and Ceara showed a stable clustering, but peripherally located, in all configurations; and, the other two groups failed to form persistent regions across configurations. Though limited in scope, the observed attraction of Espirito Santo and Goias violated the widely held negative effect of distance and deserves further investigation."

  9. Infant feeding practices in a poor district of Santo Domingo.

    PubMed

    Mclennan, J D; Spady, D W

    1994-01-01

    During August-December 1989, in the Dominican Republic, local health promoters interviewed 103 primary caretakers and took anthropometric measurements from 103 children aged 3 years and under during home visits in three poor neighborhoods of Los Alcarrizos (Alto de Chavon, Barrio Landia, and Pueblo Nuevo) to examine infant feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had started breast feeding. The median duration of breast feeding was 7.5 months. Almost 33% had quit breast feeding by 3 months. Perception of insufficient milk was the leading reason for early discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. The local pharmacies in all three communities offered powdered milk. About 25% of mothers began using breast milk substitutes within the first week. A non-infant formula milk powder was the most commonly used breast milk substitute. 30% of mothers stored prepared milk for later feeds, as long as half a day. Only 13% of households had a refrigerator. The most frequently used first weaning foods were orange juice, lime juice, and beans. 76% of mothers had used or were currently using baby bottles. 95% of them reported washing the bottle in boiling water. The median age of introducing the baby bottle was 3 days. Only 44% of mother covered prepared food during storage. The most commonly eaten foods among children aged at least 1 year were milk, beans, rice, and citrus fruits. Yet the children did not eat all these foods daily. 18% of 1-2 year olds and 13% of 2-3 year olds did not eat meats and alternatives regularly. 7% of 1-2 year olds and 10% of 2-3 year olds did not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. 4% of 1-2 year olds and 3% of 2-3 year olds did not eat breads and cereals regularly. About 14% of all children were not consuming any milk at the time of the survey. These findings will be used to refine nutrition education programs in the district to make them more effective.

  10. New Capabilities for the Virtual-Human Santos (trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    posture prediction based on psychophysical discomfort”, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , Vol. 18, pp. 173-179. 11. Jung, E.S., Kee, D...for ergonomic evaluation models”, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , Vol. 16, pp. 95-107. 13. Kee, D., Jung, E.S., and Chang, S., 1994

  11. 77 FR 39725 - Land Acquisitions: Pueblo of Santo Domingo

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...-4, SCS'', thence a distance of 99.8 feet along the arc of a curve to the left having a radius of... ``AP-2, SCS'', thence a distance of 212.3 feet along the arc of a curve to the right having a radius of... determination to take land into trust. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs, made a final...

  12. The petroleum habitat in the post-rift sequences in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    De Figueiredo, A.M.F.D.; Fernandes, G.J.F.; Guimaraes, P.T.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The post-rift sedimentary strata of the Brazilian coastal basins are made of two main sequences: the evaporite and carbonatic Albian-Aptian sequence, and the open-marine Late Albian to Recent sequence, both related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. More than 40 billion barrels of oil-equivalent in place has been found in these sequences, mostly in siliciclastic reservoirs above and below the Aptian salt beds. The productive basins are Campos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe-Alagoas, Potiguar, Ceara, and Santos, but the first one is responsible for more than 60% of the original oil in place discovered in these basins. The hydrocarbon origin, migration, and accumulation models in these sequences are discussed and exemplified by some giant oil fields of Campos and Sergipe-Alagoas basins, where oil is trapped in Aptian conglomerates, Albian carbonates, and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary turbidite sandstones. The cumulative production in these sequences reaches 958.6 million barrels and the proved exploitable reserve amounts reach 2.7 billion barrels of oil-equivalent. Petrobras' exploratory forecast indicates that the post-rift sequences are the most prolific ones in the Brazilian marginal basins. The oil-equivalent that is expected to be discovered, particularly in deep water areas, where giant oil fields (as the Marlim field) have been found, exceeds the amount that has been discovered until now.

  13. Astronomy and "Azulejo" Panels in Portuguese Jesuit Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Rosário Salema de; Gessner, Samuel; Tirapicos, Luís

    2015-05-01

    In Portugal the Jesuits used tiles (azulejos) for parietal decoration of various areas of their colleges, especially in the second quarter of the 18th century. Various tile panels are still conserved in the important colleges of Lisbon and Évora. The iconographies address a variety of philosophical, historical and mathematical topics and scenes evoking the gentry's life; but they are to some extent illustrative of the subject matters taught by the different chairs. Astronomy is a major subject in the Aula da Esfera of the Santo Antão College in Lisbon, which was not destroyed during the great earthquake of 1755. In the Espirito Santo College in Évora there is also a hall preserved with astronomy and geometry topics. In this paper we will analyze the iconographical program for these parietal decorations in the context of the Jesuits' activities of teaching and practical astronomy. In particular, we will identify various printed sources from which the compositions on these panels derive.

  14. Intensive Eucalyptus plantation management in Brazil: Long-term effects on soil carbon dynamics across 300 sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, R. L.; Stape, J.; Binkley, D.

    2011-12-01

    Intensively managed forest plantations now cover more than 6 million hectares in Brazil, and another 20 million hectares in other tropical regions. Although aboveground biomass, and therefore carbon, is well monitored due to commercial interest, the belowground carbon dynamics and site sustainability remain poorly understood. So, how does intensive silviculture change the storage of carbon in soils? Trends in soil organic carbon from land-use change indicate that conversion from pastures to Eucalyptus plantations should maintain soil carbon stocks. However, comprehensive, long-term studies are needed to understand the variability in these trends to better manage these systems for sustainable productivity across a highly variable landscape, as well as to understand the role that soils may play in sequestering carbon for climate change mitigation. In this unique, long-term soil study, soil samples were collected in the 1980s/90s, 2001, and 2010 across 300 intensively managed Eucalyptus plantation sites located in the states of Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Natural ecosystems for these states include Savannah-Dry Forest, Atlantic Forest, and Savanna, respectively. The sampling covered at least three complete rotations of Eucalyptus at each site; climate, past land use, productivity, and soil characteristics vary across this geographic gradient. Across the two periods, both Espirito Santo (P<0.001) and Bahia (P=0.05) showed a decrease in soil carbon concentrations, while Sao Paulo saw no change over time. For the 0-30 cm layer, plantations in Espirito Santo state had the largest decrease in soil carbon concentration up to 2001, decreasing soil carbon stocks at an average rate of 1.3 Mg C ha-1 year-1. This, however, was followed by no significant change from 2001 to 2010 which may indicate stabilization of soil carbon stocks under the new land use. The Eucalyptus in Bahia created no change in the first sampling period, but saw a decline of 0.35 Mg C ha-1

  15. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  16. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  17. Factors Associated with Intubation Time and ICU Stay After CABG

    PubMed Central

    Flegler, Suzanny; Paro, Flavia Marini

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with intubation time and intensive care unit stay after coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS This was a retrospective study, whose data collection was performed in the hospital charts of 160 patients over 18 years, who underwent surgery from September 2009 to July of 2013 in a hospital in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 61.44±8.93 years old and 68.8% were male. Subjects had a mean of 5.17±8.42 days of intensive care unit stay and mean intubation time of 10.99±8.41 hours. We observed statistically significant positive correlation between the following variables: patients' age and intubation time; patients' age and intensive care unit stay; intubation time and intensive care unit stay. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the study showed that older patients had longer intubation time and increased intensive care unit stay. Furthermore, patients with longer intubation time had increased intensive care unit stay. PMID:26934403

  18. Dengue virus RNA purification from human plasma: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2011-11-01

    Dengue virus RNA purification from human plasma is useful for research and clinical purposes. Dengue is endemic in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, and it is progressively becoming a hard-to-control public health problem. Dengue virus types 1, 2 and 3 are currently found in Brazilian territory, and recently Dengue virus type 4 has been reported to enter Brazilian borders. This virus spreads rapidly during epidemic outbreaks, and thousands of patients are infected annually, with an underestimated number of deaths in consequence of hemorrhagic Dengue. Because this disease affects mainly developing countries, it is imperative that a robust, rapid and low cost method for viral nucleic acid purification is found. In this manuscript we compare two RNA extraction methods from serum/plasma of patients with clinical diagnosis of dengue. The QIAamp(®) UltraSens Virus Kit (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, USA) and the less expensive Chomczynski-Sacchi method were used to analyze a total of 47 samples. After nucleic acid purification, reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with dengue virus type 2 specific primers were performed. This subtype is the most prevalent in our geographical location. Thirty-four samples were positive when RNA was extracted by the Chomczynski-Sacchi technique, whereas only 27 of these were positive when the QIAamp(®) UltraSens Virus Kit was used. These results favor the utilization of the more affordable technique for the purification of viral RNA, which is especially important for developing countries.

  19. Quality Evaluation of Cone Biopsy Specimens Obtained by Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Ramos, Aristoteles Mauricio; Garcia Ramos, Erika Souza; dos Reis, Helena Lucia Barroso; de Rezende, Ricardo Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Background Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions, and it is the first choice of treatment in the majority of cervical pathology services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of thermal artifacts, the need for serial sections, the percentage of clear and involved resection margins and the relationship between endocervical gland involvement and the severity of the lesion in samples resected using LLETZ. Methods A retrospective study was performed at Santa Casa de Misericordia School of Science (HSCMV), Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil with a sample of 52 histopathology slides from patients submitted to conization because of abnormal cytology findings and a biopsy result of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2, CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test. Results Serial sections were required to confirm diagnosis in four of 52 cases. Thermal artifacts were present in all cases, with grade I being the most common (94.2% of cases). Clear margins were found in 96.2% of cases. No association was found between glandular involvement and CIN 1 (P > 0.05); however, there was an association with CIN 2 and CIN 3 (P < 0.05). Conclusion The amount of excised tissue was sufficient, thermal artifacts were slight, resection margins were clear in most of cases, and a possible association was found between glandular involvement and the severity of the lesion. PMID:25699117

  20. Source-rock evaluation of outcrop samples from Vanuatu (Malakula, Espiritu Santo, Maewo, and Pentecost)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchbinder, Binyamin; Halley, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    The samples collected for the present study represent only a portion of the sedimentary column in the various sedimentary basins of Vanuatu.  The characterize only the outer margins of the sedimentary basins and do not necessarily reflect the source-rock potential of the deeper (offshore) parts of the basins.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  2. [Outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Follador, I; Araujo, C; Cardoso, M A; Tavares-Neto, J; Barral, A; Miranda, J C; Bittencourt, A; Carvalho, E M

    1999-01-01

    An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was detected in the village of Canoa in 1993. A prospective observational study was outlined to determine the frequency rates and to clinically characterize the disease. A total of 555 people were followed up. There were 29 cases of ACL, 11 cases of probably previous ACL (scars) and 529 healthy individuals. Of these 529 individuals, 65 had a positive Montenegro reaction without any present or past evidence of leishmaniasis. The prevalence of ACL during the two years was 5.2% (29/555). The leishmania involved was Leishmania braziliensis and the vector, Lutzomyia intermedia. Evidence of infection was detected in dogs and horses. The high frequency of the disease among children under ten years, the similar sex distribution of cases and a component of familial aggregation suggest a peri- or intra-domiciliary transmission.

  3. "Being Present in the World": A Conversation with Professor Jose Marques dos Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.; Dodds, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The University of Porto was awarded the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Elite Award for its innovative application of information technology to a European university. This university--nearly one hundred years old--is pressing hard, on a number of fronts, to place itself in the top rank of European universities. The Rector of the…

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SWEETCat I. Stellar parameters for host stars (Santos+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Mortier, A.; Neves, V.; Adibekyan, V.; Tsantaki, M.; Delgado Mena, E.; Bonfils, X.; Israelian, G.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.

    2013-07-01

    The file sweetcat.dat contains the spectroscopic parameters for all the planet hosts compiled for this work (data as of July 2013). Up to date tables can be found at http://www.astro.up.pt/resources/sweet-cat . The spectra were gathered through observations, made by our team, and by the use of the ESO archive. In total, six different spectrographs were used: FEROS (2.2m ESO/MPI telescope, La Silla, Chile), FIES (Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, Spain), HARPS (3.6m ESO telescope, La Silla, Chile), SARG (TNG Telescope, La Palma, Spain), SOPHIE (1.93m telescope, OHP, France), and UVES (VLT Kueyen telescope, Paranal, Chile). (2 data files).

  5. [Spanish influenza in the Bahia de Todos os Santos: between science rituals and faith rituals].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Christiane Maria Cruz

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze responses of the population to the influenza epidemic that struck Salvador, capital of Bahia state, Brazil, in early September 1918. From this perspective, we discuss the measures taken by health authorities, the defensive actions of ordinary people, and the adoption of religion-based practices to confront a disease hitherto considered benign and seasonal, which appeared with a surprising virulence at an unusual time of year. We used newspapers published in Salvador during the influenza epidemic as a privileged source for this research.

  6. Hydrological Investigations of the Santo Domingo Basin, New Mexico Using ýElectromagnetic Soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, T.; Dlubac, K.; Feigelson, L.; Fisher, J.; Haber, S.; Rust, G.; Woodworth, J.; Jiracek, G.; Pellerin, L.

    2007-12-01

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) soundings made during the ýSAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program in 2006-2007 to assess the ýhydrologic environment in the arid environment of the Santa Domingo Basin, northern ýNew Mexico. Water wells in the upper 600 m allowed the comparison of the field data ýwith synthetic soundings derived from borehole resistivity logs. Conductive, clay-rich ýlayers of less than 20 ohm-m dominate the upper basin fill except where resistive, ýpresumably sand, layers of several hundred ohm-m are present. Only where the thickness ýof the resistive layers exceeds their depths can they be resolved by the electromagnetic ýý(EM) methods. Consequently, delineation of the highest quality aquifers is only possible ýusing EM if resistive layers are relatively thick. One- and two-dimensional inversion of ýthe TEM and MT data, respectively, allowed some estimates of the salinity and/or ýporosity of the thick, predominantly sand, resistive zones using Archie's law. Forward ýand inverse modeling facilitated sensitivity analyses to evaluate which modeled ýsubsurface features were required by the field data and which features were supported by ýborehole logs. EM imaging of thick, water-saturated resistive zones, where confined and ýlaterally extensive, reveal aquifers valuable both for their potable water and storage ýcapacity. ý

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus in Brazil’s inmate population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Pinto, Walkyria Pereira; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Tengan, Fátima Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population. METHODS Systematic review on hepatitis C virus infection in the inmate population. Brazilian studies published from January 1, 1989 to February 20, 2014 were evaluated. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a scale of 0 to 8 points. RESULTS Eleven eligible studies were analyzed and provided data on hepatitis C virus infection among 4,375 inmates from seven states of Brazil, with a mean quality classification of 7.4. The overall hepatitis C virus prevalence among Brazilian inmates was 13.6% (ranging from 1.0% to 41.0%, depending on the study). The chances of inmates being seropositive for hepatitis C virus in the states of Minas Gerais (MG), Sergipe (SE), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Goiás (GO) and Espirito Santo (ES) were 84.0% (95%CI 0.06;0.45), 92.0% (95%CI 0.04;0.13), 88.0% (95%CI 0.09;0.18), 74.0% (95%CI 0.16;0.42), 84.0% (95%CI 0.08;0.31) and 89.0% (95%CI 0.01;0.05) respectively, lower than that observed in the Sao Paulo state (seroprevalence of 29.3%). The four studies conducted in the city of Sao Paulo revealed a lower prevalence in more recent studies compared to older ones. CONCLUSIONS The highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population was found in Sao Paulo, which may reflect the urban diversity of the country. Despite Brazilian studies having good methodological quality to evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus, they are scarce and lack data on risk factors associated with this infection, which could support decisions on prevention and implementation of public health policies for Brazilian prisons. PMID:26247383

  8. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  9. Rainfall Variability under the South Pacific Convergence Zone as Reconstructed from a Speleothem Record (1670-2005) from Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Maupin, C. R.; Lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Sinclair, D. J.; Banner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The tropical Pacific exhibits known climate changes on interannual timescales during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events causing global socio-economic impacts. On decadal timescales, climate changes associated with oscillations in the tropical Pacific have been postulated, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the instrumental record is too short and too sparse to allow reliable and convincing evaluation of such decadal-scale oscillations. A fast-growing speleothem (~1-3 mm/year) collected from the island of Espirito Santo, Vanuatu (15.5°S, 167°E), which is located under the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) yields a record of rainfall variability spanning ~1670 - 2005 Common Era (CE), as dated by U-Th disequilibrium techniques. Close agreement between speleothem stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) and the amount of rainfall from nearby Pekoa Airport demonstrates the ability of the speleothem to record hydrologic changes above-ground. While the speleothem grows fast enough to capture the annual cycle, mixing of rain and groundwaters in the overlying bedrock dampens this δ18O signal. However, interannual changes in speleothem δ18O, or reconstructed rainfall, of ~0.6 ‰ appear to capture events associated with ENSO and subsequent reorganizations of the SPCZ. The speleothem sample offers the opportunity to record local expressions of ENSO-related changes in rainfall for the last several hundred years. The speleothem record complements previously published coral records from Vanuatu of oceanic changes to provide a broader picture of pre-instrumental ENSO variability in the region. The speleothem δ18O record also exhibits concentrations of variance on the decadal scale, which correlate with variations associated with the PDO. The amplitude of this decadal signal is large (~1.5 ‰), which serves to highlight the sensitivity of SPCZ rainfall to decadal-scale changes in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system.

  10. The Future Subjunctive in Galician-Portuguese: A Review of "Cantigas de Santa Maria" and "A Demanda do Santo Graal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Maria Luiza Carrano

    2009-01-01

    The usage and disappearance of the Central Ibero-Romance future subjunctive have been extensively researched through Old Spanish texts. Studies on the future subjunctive as it evolved in the farther Western Ibero-Romance languages, represented by Galician and Portuguese, have been scarce, if not incomplete. This dissertation partially fills the…

  11. Keys to the Larval and Adult Mosquitoes of Espiritu Santo (New Hebrides) with Notes on Their Bionomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-01-01

    probability never be found. A total of eighteen species was collected during the time spent by the author in the New Hebrides. Limited collections were...greatly facilitated by the generous assistance of Dr. S. C. Bruner of the Estacion Ex- perimental Agronomica at Santiago de las Vegas and Dr. J. M

  12. L'Astronomia del Venerdí Santo, l'eclissi di Luna e l'ora della Sindone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Dating the crucifixion on friday 3 April 33, when, at sunset a partially eclipsed Moon rised allows to interprete the speech of Saint Peter (Acts 2:20=Joel 3:4) on the day of Pentecost as including an account of this eclipse, as fulfillment of the Scriptures. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. The observations of the equinoctial moonrise from the Mount of Olives on September 2013 are strongly in favour of the hypotehsis of possible observation of the lunar eclipse of 33 AD by Jewish people, as well as the sunrises observed from the Temple Institute terrace in Southern-East Jerusalem demonstrated that this eclipse could have been seen from Jerusalem. The depression of the horizon and the refraction allow to see Sun and Moon more than 1 degree below the geometrical horizon in the azimuthal direction ranging from 90 to 116, prologing to 16 minutes the duration of the partial lunar eclipse observed in 33AD. Texts of Matthew, Mark and Cyrillus of Jerusalem are also commented.

  13. A new species of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) from the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tonini, João F. R.; Forlani, Maurício C.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Among Neotropical microhylids, the genus Chiasmocleis is exceptionally diverse. Most species of Chiasmocleis were described in recent years based on external morphology, but recent studies using molecular data did not support the monophyly of the species groups clustered based on feet webbing. Furthermore, a phylogeographic study of C. lacrimae estimated high genetic divergence and low gene flow among populations across small geographic ranges. Increasing the molecular and geographic sampling, and incorporating morphological data, we identified new cryptic species. Herein, we used novel genetic and morphological data to describe a new species of Chiasmocleis. PMID:25161370

  14. Are there general spatial patterns of mangrove structure and composition along estuarine salinity gradients in Todos os Santos Bay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Patrícia; Dórea, Antônio; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Barros, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution and structural patterns of mangrove fringe forests along three tropical estuaries were evaluated in northeast of Brazil. Interstitial water salinity, percentage of fine sediments and organic matter content were investigated as explanatory variables. In all estuaries (Jaguaripe, Paraguaçu and Subaé estuaries), it was observed similar distribution patterns of four mangrove species and these patterns were mostly related with interstitial water salinity. Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia schaueriana tended to dominate sites under greater marine influence (lower estuary), while Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa dominated areas under greater freshwater influence (upper estuary), although the latter showed a wider distribution over these tropical estuarine gradients. Organic matter best explained canopy height and mean height. At higher salinities, there was practically no correlation between organic matter and density, but at lower salinity, organic matter was related to decreases in abundances. The described patterns can be related to interspecific differences in salt tolerance and competitive abilities and they are likely to be found at other tropical Atlantic estuaries. Future studies should investigate anthropic influences and causal processes in order to further improve the design of monitoring and restoration projects.

  15. The University of Santo Tomas Viewed from the Lens of Total Quality Management: Implications to Total Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Torres, Josefina R.

    2004-01-01

    Considered as a major management approach for improving organizational performance and competitive advantage, Total Quality Management (TQM) poses a challenge to dynamic institutions to adopt a systemic philosophy that places emphasis on customer needs and a commitment to a culture of excellence. Higher education institutions (HEIs) as learning…

  16. Decadal changes in a polluted bay as seen from its seaweed flora: the case of Santos Bay in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eurico C; Qi, Yaobin

    2003-09-01

    The first comprehensive seaweed flora of a Brazilian region was published by Joly in 1957, describing and illustrating 105 taxa. Twenty years later Oliveira and Berchez resurveyed the area and found only 69 taxa, with a strong reduction in the number of brown algae. In another survey, performed in 1991 at the 3 studied stations with the largest species richness, the same reduction trend was found and no brown algae were observed. This reduction in biodiversity was attributed to increased pollution. Here we present the results of a new survey made in 1998-1999. This shows the return of some species recorded in the 1950s, including 7 species of brown algae. This increase in species number is thought to be a consequence of the efforts made by the local government to reduce pollution and the building of a submarine sewage terminal.

  17. The power of games. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Cooperators are those who contribute to a common pool while Defectors just exploit the formers' investments. If we follow the most rational individual choice then no one should contribute hence there would be nothing to exploit. This dilemma is at the heart of every conflict which is summarized as the problem of cooperation and provides the natural setting for the occurrence of the tragedy of the commons. It emerges in a wild variety of fields and systems ranging from the smallest, such as viruses and bacteria, to the largest ones which are formed by countries with partly conflicting interests [1]. The present study [2] focuses on the latter end of this spectrum by considering the global warming problem, which importance cannot be exaggerated. Traditionally, Game Theory is supposed to describe the mathematical framework of conflicts. These problems could be especially challenging when we analyze the competition of several participants whose collective behavior elevates the difficulty to a higher level. This complexity, however, provides an attractive hunting field for scientists with a statistical physics background: concepts familiar to them, such as phase transitions, pattern formation, scaling and universal behaviors have allowed this field to flourish in the last two decades. The present work is a beautiful example of this research avenue.

  18. Groundwater resources of Ribeira Paúl basin, island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  19. Integrated assessment for establishing an oil environmental vulnerability map: case study for the Santos Basin region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Romero, A F; Abessa, D M S; Fontes, R F C; Silva, G H

    2013-09-15

    The growth of maritime transport and oil exploitation activities may increase the risk of oil spills. Thus, plans and actions to prevent or mitigate impacts are needed to minimize the effects caused by oil. However, tools used worldwide to support contingency plans have not been integrated, thus leading to failure in establishing priority areas. This investigation aimed to develop indices of environmental vulnerability to oil (IEVO), by combining information about environmental sensibility to oil and results of numerical modeling of spilled oil. To achieve that, a case study concerning to oil spills scenarios in a subtropical coastal area was designed, and IEVOs were calculated and presented in maps, in order to make the information about the areas' vulnerability more easily visualized. For summer, the extension of coastline potentially affected by oil was approximately 150 km, and most of the coastline presented medium to high vulnerability. For winter, 230 km coastline would be affected, from which 75% were classified as medium to high vulnerability. Thus, IEVO maps allowed a rapid and clearer interpretation of the vulnerability of the mapped region, facilitating the planning process and the actions in response to an oil spill.

  20. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  1. Updating the Seismic Hazard Determination in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This job presents an update of research by Berrocal in 1996 in the determination of seismic hazard for the Southeast of Brazil, based on the earthquake catalog compiled at the Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo and bulletin of Seismological Observatory, Universidade de Brasilia, during the period between 1767 until May 2012. The southeastern Brazil has a level of seismic activity is considered low, typical of intraplate regions. Our database has a total of 3726 events, however 1242 events do not have the magnitude estimated, 1638 events are between magnitudes 0.1 to 1.9 and from 2.0 to 3.9 are 819 events. The largest earthquake in the region occurred on February 28, 1955 with magnitude 6.1 mb (Assumpção, 2000), with its epicenter about 400 km from the coast, this was felt in small cities, especially in Espirito Santo State. The intensity VIII-IX MM was estimated by Berrocal et al. (1984). The database also has four events with magnitude above 5.0 mb in the region that occurred during the past 215 years and a little more than a twenty earthquakes with magnitude between 4.0 and 5.0 mb. Instrumental data are available since the 1970s when the station network was installed in Brasilia. Several other short-period vertical stations have been installed in the region. We used data from the same area defined in the previous survey, located between parallels 15S-32S degree and longitudes 35W-52W degree. It contains the most developed area of Brazil, and the major cities and industrial centers of the country (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte). Major engineering works, hydroelectric and nuclear power plant (Angra dos Reis) are also in this area. Therefore, the results can be applied to the planning and construction of large engineering within that region. With GIS and seismology tools was calculated relative frequency/magnitude for earthquakes mb > 3.0, the value of b with the maximum likelihood method, and so curves of recurrence was

  2. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m(2) per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  3. Mutation analysis of GJB2 and GJB6 genes in Southeastern Brazilians with hereditary nonsyndromic deafness.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Silva, Melissa de Freitas; Barbosa, Andressa; Santiago, Marília; Provetti, Mariana; Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Tovar, Thais Tristão; Rabbi-Bortolini, Eliete; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2011-02-01

    In developed countries deafness has a genetic cause in over 60% of the cases. Contrastingly, in Brazil, it is estimated that only 16% of all deafnesses are caused by genetic factors. Among hereditary hearing deficiencies, approximately half is caused by mutations in the Gap Junction Protein Beta-2 (GJB2) gene, which encodes the protein Connexin 26 (Cx26). There are four mutations in this gene that present high prevalence in specific ethnical groups, namely, 35delG, 167delT, 235delC, and W24X. The 35delG mutation is the most frequent one, occurring in homozygosity or in compound heterozygosity with mutations in the GJB2 and GJB6 genes. This study aims to determine the prevalence of GJB2-35delG, GJB2-167delT, GJB2-235delC, GJB2-W24X, del (GJB6-D13S1830), and del (GJB6-D13S1854) mutations in patients with nonsyndromic deafness in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil. A total of 77 individuals were evaluated, from which 88.3% presented normal genotypes for all analyzed mutations, 1.3% were compound heterozygotes for 35delG-GJB2/D13S1830-GJB6, 1.3% were compound heterozygotes for 35delG/D13S1854-GJB6, 3.9% were homozygotes for the 35delG mutation and 5.2% were heterozygotes for 35delG/GJB2. The frequency of mutant alleles 35delG/GJB2, del (D13S1830/GJB6), and del (D13S1854/GJB6) was 7.8, 0.65, and 0.65%, respectively. Mutations 167delT, 235delC, and W24X were not detected. Determining the prevalence of specific mutations related to inherited deafness in a population can contribute to the development of more efficient and affordable molecular diagnostic protocols, and help in the genetic counseling of patients and their families.

  4. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    are associated with high- and above normal winter precipitation. As an example; during negative MOI phases the probability of below average precipitation is 78%. During positive MOI phases the probability is 41%. These findings can be considered valuable for the purpose of forecasting drought within the Jordan River region. References: Black, E. (2011). The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and European circulation regimes on the daily to interannual variability of winter precipitation in Israel. International Journal of Climatology, 1-11. doi:10.1002/joc.2383 Palutikof, J. P., Conte, M., Casimiro Mendes, J., Goodess, C. M., & Espirito Santo, F. (1996). Climate and climate change. In C. J. Brandt & J. B. Thornes (Eds.), Mediterranean desertification and land use. London, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

  5. Adult mastocytosis: a review of the Santo António Hospital 's experience and an evaluation of World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of systemic disease*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Iolanda Conde; Teixeira, Maria dos Anjos; Freitas, Inês; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário; Lima, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal mast cells in the skin and/or in extracutaneous organs. OBJECTIVES To present all cases of mastocytosis seen in the Porto Hospital Center and evaluate the performance of World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for systemic disease. METHODS The cases of twenty-four adult patients with mastocytosis were reviewed. Their clinical and laboratorial characteristics were assessed, and the properties of the criteria used to diagnose systemic mastocytosis were evaluated. RESULTS The age of disease onset ranged from 2 to 75 years. Twenty-three patients had cutaneous involvement and 75% were referred by dermatologists. Urticaria pigmentosa was the most common manifestation of the disease. One patient with severe systemic mast cell mediator-related symptoms showed the activating V560G KIT mutation. The bone marrow was examined in 79% of patients, and mast cell immunophenotyping was performed in 67% of the participants. Systemic disease was detected in 84% of cases, and 81% of the sample had elevated serum tryptase levels. All the diagnostic criteria for systemic mastocytosis had high specificity and positive predictive value. Bone marrow biopsy had the lowest sensitivity, negative predictive value and efficiency, while the highest such values were observed for mast cell immunophenotyping. Patients were treated with regimens including antihistamines, sodium cromoglycate, alpha-interferon, hydroxyurea and phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS Cutaneous involvement is often seen in adult mastocytosis patients, with most individuals presenting with indolent systemic disease. Although serum tryptase levels are a good indicator of mast cell burden, bone marrow biopsy should also be performed in patients with normal serum tryptase, with flow cytometry being the most adequate method to diagnose systemic disease. PMID:24626649

  6. Volume balance of a submarine landslide in the Espírito Santo Basin, offshore Brazil: Quantifying seafloor erosion, sediment accumulation and depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Cartwright, Joseph A.

    2009-11-01

    Degrees of seafloor erosion, sediment accumulation and depletion are quantified using a 3D seismic volume of a small submarine landslide offshore Brazil. In the study area, the upper boundaries of large remnant blocks — kept in situ during the main instability event — and the interpreted non-failed margins of the landslide comprise a reliable estimate for the position of the seafloor at the time the submarine landslide was generated. Remnant blocks of strata show little internal deformation, particularly at their base, and were kept upright during a principal instability event triggered in response to regional halokinesis and associated overburden faulting. They are laterally bounded by a mixed succession of mass-wasted chaotic strata, rafted blocks and post-slide sub-horizontal units. Despite the thin accumulation of failed strata now visible, the interpreted data indicate that submarine landslides of small areal dimensions can erode substantial volumes of seafloor sediment. Consequently, the more than 300 m of eroded seafloor strata offshore Brazil is of a similar scale to the largest failures recorded on continental margins (e.g. Storegga Slide; Amazon Fan complex; Cape Fear slide). The scale relationships presented in this paper indicate that the magnitude of seafloor erosion experienced during instability events may not be recorded by distal mass-wasted strata, which can be demonstrably thinner than the original volume of failed sediment. Thus, we conclude that the relative expression of accumulated slide strata is not directly related to the original volume of failed material. In addition, small-scale landslides can be responsible for the erosion of thick seafloor deposits, a factor that can potentially cause significant losses of seal capacity in overburden successions due to the sudden release of confining pressures in a vertical direction.

  7. Distribution and ecotoxicology of bioavailable metals and As in surface sediments of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Taís de S; Moreira, Ícaro T A; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Rios, Mariana C; Filho, Wilton A C S; de Almeida, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gilson Correia

    2015-10-15

    Surface sediments collected in the intertidal zone of Paraguaçu estuary in July, 2013, were analyzed for organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, grain size fractions and partial concentrations of 16 metals. The USEPA 3051A method and ICP-OES and CV-AAS techniques were chosen to metal analysis. Pollution indices (EF, Igeo and PIN) and a comparison with sediment quality guidelines (UET, ERL, ERM, TEL and PEL of NOAA) were conducted in order to evaluate the potential metal impacts over the area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation results showed the importance of organic matter content and the fine-grained fraction of sediments on the control of the bioavailable metals distribution. The Paraguaçu estuary already has anthropogenic enrichment relative to the background level, especially for Mn, whose values exceeded almost 30 times the background at one site (Mn: 1197.30 mg kg(-1)). However, metal levels are still below the reference values with the exception of Hg at one site (Hg: 0.25 mg kg(-1), exceeded TEL and ERL).

  8. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  9. Modeling a polycentric approach to the problem of climate change. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos & Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is a global problem. Because of unlimited use of fossil energy and resulting greenhouse gas emissions the global temperature is rising causing floods, draughts and storms in all parts of the world with increasing frequency and strength. Dangerous climate change will occur with high probability after the global temperature has passed a certain threshold [1]. To avoid dangerous climate change global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced to a level of 50% or less of the year-2000 emissions by 2050 [2-4]. All people on earth take part in this global target public goods game, "a game that we cannot afford to loose" [5]. Simulating this scenario in a nutshell a collective risk social dilemma game has shown that a small group of subjects can achieve a collective goal by sequential individual contributions but only when the risk of loosing their not invested money is high, e.g. 90% [6]. Cooperation in public goods games usually decreases with increasing group size [7]. Thus, does this mean that the global game will be lost?

  10. 78 FR 14547 - Praxedes E. Alverez Santiago, M.D., Daniel Perez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Garcia Nieves, M.D., Francis M. Vazques Roura, M.D., Angel B. Rivera Santos, M.D., Cosme D. Santos Torres... M. V zquez Roura, M.D., Angel B. Rivera Santos, M.D., Cosme D. Santos Torres, M.D., and Juan...

  11. Rift-zone magmatism: Petrology of basaltic rocks transitional from CFB to MORB, southeastern Brazil margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, R. V.; Vetter, S. K.

    1984-12-01

    Compositions of basaltic samples from the southeastern Brazil passive margin (18° 24° S) depict the change from continental to oceanic lithosphere during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Samples studied range from 138 to 105 m.y. old and are from 12 Petrobrás drill cores recovered from the coastline to about 150 km offshore in the Espirito Santo, Campos, and Santos basins. Compositions vary, ranging, for example, from 49 54 wt.% SiO2, 0.5 3.0 wt.% TiO2, 0.6 5.0 FeO*/MgO, and <1->6 La/ Yb(n), but can be grouped: (i) basalts enriched in incompatible elements, such as K (some K2O>2.0 wt.%), Rb (>18 ppm), Zr (>120 ppm), and LREE (some FeO* 16 wt.%; most with SiO2 51 54 wt.%), and resembling Serra Geral continental flood basalts (SG-CFB) of southern Brazil; (ii) basalts less enriched, or transitional, in incompatible elements, having K2O <0.40 wt.% and flat REE patterns, and resemble N. Atlantic diabases and FAMOUS basalts; and (iii) one depleted sample, Ce/Yb(n)=0.7, where Ce(n)=4. Expressed in oceanic-basalt terminology and Zr-Nb-Y abundances, ‘enriched’ samples are P- and T-type MORB (e.g., Zr/Nb ˜4 25), ‘transitional’ samples are T-type (Zr/ Nb ˜8 27), and the ‘depleted’ sample is N-type MORB (Zr/Nb>30). Trace-element ratios (e.g., Zr/Nb, Zr/Y) link the Brazil margin basalts to a heterogeneous mantle (attributed to metasomatic veining) of variably proportioned mixtures of depleted-mantle (N-MORB) and plume (P-MORB, e.g., Tristan hotspot) materials. The various compositions therefore reflect, in part, different zones of melting during the separation of Gondwanaland, where gradual decompression during rifting enabled concurrent melting of upper, more depleted (non- or sparsely-veined) mantle and enriched (densely-veined) mantle. Within the time represented, melting produced enriched, transitional, and depleted magmas that were emplaced subaerially, hypabyssally, and subaqueously; they mark the transition from CFB before rifting and separation

  12. A Lagrangian identification of major sources of moisture for Southeastern Brazil during anomalous dry periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L. A.; Ambrizzi, T.; Gimeno, L.; Drumond, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil (SEB) comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. Its rainy season occurs in the Austral summer.. Although less rain is registered during the winter, spring and autumn, there are years that negative precipitation anomalies were recorded in these seasons. In preliminary studies, the SEB was divided into homogenous regions with respect to precipitation. Five regions were determined: R1 (south-central state of São Paulo), R2 (north of São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais), R3 (central Minas Gerais and south-central state of Rio de Janeiro), R4 (north of the state of Minas Gerais) and R5 (north of Rio de Janeiro, the central-eastern Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). For each region, extreme dry events were identified based on the method of consecutive dry periods. In this study, the method developed by Stohl and James (2004,2005), which use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al.,1998), was applied with the objective to calculate and track the air particles and the atmospheric moisture backward in time to produce information on the spatial distribution of moisture sources. In this approach, the atmosphere is divided homogeneously into a large number of particles that are transported by the model which register their positions and specific humidity (q) every 6h. Increases and decreases in moisture along the trajectory can be calculated through changes in (q) with time. Adding thes changes for all particles residing in the atmospheric column over an area, we obtain (E-P) (E is the evaporation an P the precipitation per unit area).Where (E-P) is positive, the particles gain humidity and these are sources regions. For (E-P) negative, the particles lose humidity and these are sink regions. We analyzed the winter, autumn and spring from 1982 to 2009. FLEXPART were forced by ERA Interim dataset available every 6h with a 1 degree resolution. For each homogenous region in SEB (E

  13. 75 FR 50813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Bird Species From Latin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    .......... B/NB Shallow lagoon in a Aparejos. larger lagoon system that is lacking in aquatic vegetation... associated with Rio Lauca system, receives input from external afluents and underground waters. Chile Lago... Unlimited 2007a, pp. 1-4). The Vilama wetlands system (Lagunas de Vilama) is comprised of 12 lakes:...

  14. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-31

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15.

  15. Tales from the South (and West) Pacific in the Common Era: A Climate Proxy Perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Partin, J. W.; Maupin, C. R.; Hereid, K. A.; Gorman, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    , the amplitude of individual ENSO warm phase events in the LIA record is reduced, relative to that of the 1941/1942 ENSO warm phase events observed in a near modern coral record from Misima. Speleothem climate records have been generated from Espirito Santo, Vanuatu (15.5°S, 167°E) and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (~9°S, 160°E). The Vanuatu record of δ18O variations is from a fast-growing speleothem (~1-3 mm/year), which yields a record of rainfall variability spanning ~1670-2005 CE, as dated by U-Th disequilibrium techniques. Interannual changes in speleothem δ18O appear to capture ENSO events and subsequent reorganizations of the SPCZ. The Vanuatu speleothem δ18O record also exhibits concentrations of variance on the decadal scale. The Guadalcanal record of δ18O variations is also from a fast-growing speleothem (~1-4 mm/year), which yields a record of rainfall variability spanning ~1650-2010 CE, as dated by U-Th disequilibrium techniques. The δ18O records from both of these stalagmites provide evidence for changes in convection in the equatorial WPWP region of the SPCZ: the rising limb of the Pacific Walker Circulation.

  16. Relationship Between South Atlantic Subtropical High and South Atlantic SST Anomalies during Extreme Precipitation Events on Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. It occupies 10.85% of Brazilian territory and is highly urbanized. The Southeast Brazil is the biggest geoeconomic region of the country having a strong and diverse economy. Agriculture dominates in all states of the region. The main agricultural products are sugar cane, coffee, cotton, maize, cassava, rice, beans and fruits. Livestock farming is also practiced in the region. The largest herd of cattle is found in the state of Minas Gerais. These activities are highly dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall. Studies of extreme precipitation events over Brazil have been well emphasized in the literature over the years and their relationship with anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in both the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean have been analyzed. This paper investigates the extreme events occurring in southeastern Brazil from 1982 to 2004 using the technique of quantiles. The composite technique was applied to precipitation, sea level pressure anomaly (SLP) and sea surface temperature anomaly (SST) data in order to investigate the characteristics of rainfall patterns, the position and intensity of South Atlantic subtropical high (SASH) and SST anomalies in the Southern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) in the occurrence of these events and to make a distinction between dry and wet extremes. Analyzing the precipitation patterns, it was noticed that the composition of dry events throughout the Southeast Brazil has negative precipitation anomalies. Particularly, in the southern part of the region there is a large precipitation deficit, having an average of 50mm in the winter months. The composition for the wet events shows that, on average, positive precipitation anomalies with the southern region containing the highest cumulative average, reaching a positive anomaly of 100mm. The composition of SLP in the case of dry events indicates a positive anomaly

  17. Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Late Aptian of São Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Francisco J DE; Ribeiro, Douglas R M

    2016-09-01

    †Codoichthys carnavalii is a clupeomorph fish only found in calcareous concretions of Codó Formation, State of Maranhão. It is known based on three specimens housed in the paleontological collection of the Museu de Ciências da Terra of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro. It was omitted in most of recent cladistic analyses about clupeomorphs. We revisited its anatomy furnishing new data and additional restorations. Furthermore we explored the relationships of †Codoichthys with the computer program TNT based on a matrix with 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. Elops was used to root the tree. The strict consensus was obtained from three shortest trees (L=181; CI=0.387; RI=0.632). The monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is supported by a sigmoid cleithrum and an uniquely derived predorsal scute series. Most of subgroups showed low support indices. †Sorbinichthyidae and †Horseshoeichthys appear in the most basal position, and not closely related to †Armigatus or †Diplomystus. A †Diplomystus clade is more advanced than †Armigatus and sister-group of remaining †ellimmichthyiforms. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines). Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and all other †ellimmichthyiform taxa.

  18. A Comprehensive Approach to Countersurgency: The U.S. Military Occupation of the Dominican Republic, 1916-1924

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Wilson Plan. The U.S. Senate’s Select Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo offered additional support by downplaying the political rhetoric related to...throughout Latin America.9 Thus, when Captain Frederick M. Wise (USMC) landed in Santo Domingo City with 150 Marines in May 1916, his duty went far... Santo Domingo City. He retreated north to Santiago where he finally disbanded his army in July 1916. Arias’ capitulation ended the conventional phase of

  19. From Comparison to Translation: Extending the Research Imagination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses Appadurai's challenge to expand the research imagination. It follows Boaventura de Sousa Santos in suggesting a need to separate analytically the trajectories of capitalism and modernity. For Santos, this involves the recognition that we cannot solve the problems of postmodernity with the tools of modernity. The paper…

  20. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ..., Colombia; c/o INDUSTRIAS DEL ESPIRITU SANTO S.A., Malambo, Atlantico, Colombia; c/o JOSAFAT S.A., Tulua..., Colombia; c/o HEBRON S.A., Tulua, Valle, Colombia; c/o INDUSTRIAS DEL ESPIRITU SANTO S.A.,...

  1. Pediatric Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profile Patient Rating 4.4 out of 5 stars Make an Appointment Carah B. Santos, MD + × Carah ... Profile Patient Rating 4.8 out of 5 stars Make an Appointment Jordan Abbott, MA, MD + × Jordan ...

  2. 78 FR 29159 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels.... Cayetano Santos, Chief, Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING...

  3. Phylogeny of Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 and taxonomic revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae), with description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Junior, José N A; Silveira, Orlando T; Carpenter, James M

    2015-05-08

    A first phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed for Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 based on cladistic analysis of 31 species. New evidence in support of monophyly of the genus is presented. A revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group is also presented. Protopolybia diligens (Smith, 1857), stat. resurr. is revalidated. Four new species are described: P. collombiana Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. clypeata Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. similis Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., and P. potiguara Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov. Protopolybia holoxantha (Ducke, 1904) and P. rubrithorax Bequaert, 1944 are redescribed. New synonymy is proposed for P. bituberculata Silveira & Carpenter, 1995 =Polybia nana Cameron, 1912 (nom. praeocc., nec de Saussure 1863), syn. nov. New records and description of the male genitalia are provided for some of the species of the P. exigua species-group.

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August 1936 VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CAMPO SANTO WALL (RESTORED) - Chapel of Padre Antonio Jose Martinez, Garden of Irving Couse, Taos, Taos County, NM

  5. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Page Bras J, Guerreiro R, Santo GC. Mutant ADA2 in vasculopathies. N Engl J Med. 2014 ... M, Anikster Y, King MC, Levy-Lahad E. Mutant adenosine deaminase 2 in a polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy. ...

  7. 77 FR 43414 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... California; Case No. SACR 08-00322-CJC; December, 1954. (11) Santos Isidro de la Paz; May 11, 2012; U.S.... (19) Stephen Glen Guerra; February 6, 2012; U.S. District Court, Western District of Texas; Case No....

  8. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    capture sequences was provided by MPL to CCAD and OGAL. CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the SantosTM digital human avatar . An...capture sequences was provided by MPL to CCAD and OGAL. CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the Santos digital human avatar . An initial...levels of the patients. In addition, the differences in ability to detect variations in gait conditions for skinned avatar vs. line-skeletal avatar

  9. Population Structure of the Primary Malaria Vector in South America, Anopheles darlingi, Using Isozyme, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 2, and Morphologic Markers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    derscoring some congruence, in this case, between two dif- ferent molecular markers. Intraspecific variation in the ITS2 region of 21 members of...morphism in the salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles darlingi. Mosq News 32: 555-565. 29. Tadei WP, Santos JMN, Rabbani MG, 1982. Biologia de ano...Contel EPB, dos Santos JMM, Tadei Wp, 1984. Biologia de Anophelinos Amazonicos. VI. Enzimatica em Anopheles dar- lingi Root (Dipt.: Culicidae). Acta

  10. The Rajah Solaiman Islamic Movement (RSIM) and the Rise of Radical Islamic Converts in the Philippines: A Major Security Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Ahmed Santos (Debriefing Report on De Vera, 2005, p. 2). After the capture of Santos and De Vera in 2005, Dino Amor Pareja filled the leadership...vacuum within the RSIM. Pareja focused his efforts on consolidating the remaining RSIM networks for reorganization and building up the organization for...future operations. A demolition expert, Pareja is a graduate of the University of the Philippines in Cebu City (a major city in Central Philippines

  11. Beaked Whale Presence, Habitat, and Sound Production in the North Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    squid species vary geographically ( Santos et al. 2001), with no apparent prey preference for muscular versus ammoniacal species. The preferred...Experimental Biology 209:5038-5050. MacLeod, C. D., M. B. Santos , and G. J. Pierce. 2003. Review of data on diets of beaked whales: evidence of niche...years. Scientific reports of the Whales Research Institute 24:35-41. Pierce, G., V. Valavanis, A. Guerra , P. Jereb, L. Orsi-Relini, J. Bellido, I

  12. DNA barcoding reveals species level divergence between populations of the microhylid frog genus Arcovomer (Anura: Microhylidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jennings, W Bryan; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos; Salles, Rodrigo de O L; Buckup, Paulo A

    2016-09-01

    The microhylid frogs belonging to the genus Arcovomer have been reported from lowland Atlantic Rainforest in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Here, we use DNA barcoding to assess levels of genetic divergence between apparently isolated populations in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Our mtDNA data consisting of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences reveals 13.2% uncorrected and 30.4% TIM2 + I + Γ corrected genetic divergences between these two populations. This level of divergence exceeds the suggested 10% uncorrected divergence threshold for elevating amphibian populations to candidate species using this marker, which implies that the Espírito Santo population is a species distinct from Arcovomer passarellii. Calibration of our model-corrected sequence divergence estimates suggests that the time of population divergence falls between 12 and 29 million years ago.

  13. A Novel Field Deployable Point of Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    evaluate our RPA-LF diagnostic tool. Maxy de Los Santos, PhD from NAMRU-6 received training in RPA-LF diagnosis upon the technical visit of Alejandro...PhD1, Alejandro Castellanos, PhD1, Gerald C. Baldeviano, PhD2, Maxy B. De los Santos, PhD2, Peter C. Melby, MD1, Andrés G. Lescano, PhD2 1University...PhD1, Gerald C. Baldeviano, PhD2, Maxy B. De los Santos, PhD2, Peter C. Melby, MD1, Andrés G. Lescano, PhD2. 1University of Texas Medical Branch

  14. An Exponential Stability Result of a Timoshenko System with Thermoelasticity with Second Sound and in the Presence of Delay

    SciTech Connect

    Apalara, Tijani A.; Messaoudi, Salim A.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we consider a one-dimensional linear thermoelastic system of Timoshenko type with a delay, where the heat flux is given by Cattaneo’s law. We prove an exponential decay result under a smallness condition on the delay and a stability number introduced first in Santos et al. (J Diff Eqs 253:2715–2733, 2012), using a method different from that of Santos et al. (J Diff Eqs 253:2715–2733, 2012). We also reproduce the polynomial decay of Santos et al. (J Diff Eqs 253:2715–2733, 2012) using the multiplier method in the case of absence of delay. The polynomial decay issue in the presence of a small delay is an open question.

  15. Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wingenter, Suzanne

    2005-01-12

    The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

  16. The Leadership Orientations and Effectiveness of College and University Career Services Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Jacob Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Career service directors lead the third most common division within student affairs departments, but the leadership of a collegiate career services office has not been represented in higher education research. Obtaining a "good job" has consistently been noted as a main reason to attend college (Pryor, Hurtado, Saenz, Santos & Korn,…

  17. The Effects of Stress on Reading: A Comparison of First-Language versus Intermediate Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how resource-demanding reading tasks and stressful conditions affect 1st-language (L1) and intermediate 2nd-language (L2) reading comprehension. Using the attentional control theory framework (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we investigated the roles of central executive working memory (WM) resources,…

  18. Enabling a Collaborative Problem-Solving Framework Through User Intent Modeling of the Analytic Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Nguyen, Eugene Santos Jr., Russell Jacob, and Nathan Smith. In Proceedings of 2008 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence. Sydney...of Social Cognition. • McDoland, D. W., and Ackerman , M. S. 2000. Expertise Recommender: A plexible recom- mendation system and architecture. In

  19. Intersecting Poverty and Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Lussier, Kattie

    2009-01-01

    Higher education policy and research tend to be dominated by the messaging systems of the North. De Sousa Santos argues that we need to start listening to the South and that we need to develop a sociology of absences. This paper attempts to engage with some of these absences by deconstructing participation in higher education, in quantitative and…

  20. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  1. Youths' Perspective on Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona: The Socio-Emotional Effects of Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Carlos; Menjivar, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This article builds on previous research conducted by Santos, Menjivar & Godfrey (2013) and draws on a study conducted with racially and ethnically diverse early adolescents.This research explores youths' awareness of Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona, and how affected they are by the passage of this bill. Wave I (N = 726; Mage = 12.4 years; SD =…

  2. Voice and Valency in San Luis Potosi Huasteco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz Ledo Yanez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the system of transitivity, voice and valency alternations in Huasteco of San Luis Potosi (Mayan) within a functional-typological framework. The study is based on spoken discourse and elicited data collected in the municipalities of Aquismon and Tancanhuitz de Santos in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The…

  3. Warning: potential problems for taxonomy on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Fabio; Bartolozzi, Luca

    2016-07-19

    Whether or not a species might reasonably be described without the preservation of a type specimen is a matter of ongoing discussion among taxonomists (Dubois & Nemésio 2007; Minteer et al. 2014; Krell & Wheeler 2014; Löbl et al. 2016; Marshall & Evenhuis 2016; Santos et al. 2016). Here, we attempt to make our own contribution to the topic.

  4. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joaquim Varela Rangel, Joao Manuel Martins, Joao Ernesto dos Santos, Jose Cesar Augusto Joao Ernesto Saraiva de Carvalho, Jose Teixeira de Matos...Moises Justine) Pedro de Castro van Dunem, Paulo Miguel Junior, Roberto Leal Ramos Monteiro Rui Guilherme Cardoso de Matos, Rafael Sapilinha

  5. A Sociolinguistic Survey of Araki: A Dying Language of Vanuatu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vari-Bogiri, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    Araki is one of around a hundred languages of the Republic of Vanuatu. It is a language spoken by the people of Araki, an islet situated near the south western part of Santo, in the north of Vanuatu. Linguistic statistics have shown a gradual decline in the number of speakers. This study presents evidence to show that Araki is a declining language…

  6. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    30, 2010, at http://www.lasillavacia.com/ historia /14953. 22 Camila Osorio, “Esta Es la Cara de la Legislatura que Se Posesiona Hoy,” La Silla Vacía...website, July 19, 2010, at http://www.lasillavacia.com/ historia /16740; “New Congress Grants Santos Huge Majority,” Latin American Weekly Report

  7. The Impact of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Typical and Atypical Emerging Lexicons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Extended Statistical Learning account (ExSL; Stokes, Kern & dos Santos, 2012) late talkers (LTs) continue to use neighborhood density (ND) as a cue for word learning when their peers no longer use a density learning mechanism. In the current article, LTs expressive ("active") lexicon ND values differed from those of…

  8. Transfer Students: Trends and Issues. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 114. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laanan, Frankie Santos, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The summer 2001 issue of New Directions for Community Colleges evaluates recent research and policy discussions about transfer students and addresses the critical issues facing students moving through the educational pipeline. Chapters include: (1) "Transfer Student Adjustment" (Frankie Santos Laanan); (2) "Institutional Responses…

  9. New species of Zygoclistron Rehn, 1905 (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae: Copiocerinae) in the central corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2016-06-17

    Herein we describe a new species of Copiocerinae, Zygoclistron ruschii Silva n. sp., from Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil, collected from the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi in the Santa Teresa municipality, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diagnosis of this new species is based on phallic complex and terminalia characters.

  10. Drug Trafficking, Violence, and Instability in Mexico, Colombia, and the Caribbean: Implications for U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Jorge Chabat, Professor/Investigator, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE), who discussed... moral concerns to achieve pragmatic results. A second participant asked how states rebound when their decline results in the shift of...Discussant; (2) Lilian Bobea, Latin American Social Science Faculty, Santo Domingo, “Private Vices, Without Public Benefit: The

  11. Invading Sicily: A Tale of Branches and Sequels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Enna Nicosia Troina San Fratello Santo Stefano Reggio di Calabria Corleone Trapani MOUNT ETNA C A R O N I E M O U N T A I N S VizziniNiscemi Ragusa...British gliders landed near their objectives. At 0600 hours on July 11, General Alfredo Guzzoni, who commanded Sixth Italian Army, mounted a counterattack

  12. Learning (and Researching) as Participation in Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Madalena Pinto

    2004-01-01

    In my contribution to this panel I will bring elements from recent research I conducted (Santos, 2004) in Cape Verde aiming to clarify the meaning of learning as participation in social practices--"learning as participation in the social world" (Lave and Wenger, 1991, p. 42). But as my main interest is learning in compulsory education…

  13. Intonation as an Encoder of Speaker Certainty: Information and Confirmation Yes-No Questions in Catalan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanrell, Maria del Mar; Mascaro, Ignasi; Torres-Tamarit, Francesc; Prieto, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the field of intonational phonology have shown that information-seeking questions can be distinguished from confirmation-seeking questions by prosodic means in a variety of languages (Armstrong, 2010, for Puerto Rican Spanish; Grice & Savino, 1997, for Bari Italian; Kugler, 2003, for Leipzig German; Mata & Santos, 2010, for…

  14. 75 FR 9574 - Caribbean Trade Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... enable U.S. companies to familiarize themselves with these important markets, to conduct market research.... Monday June 14, Santo Business Breakfast Domingo. Briefing. One-on-One Business Meetings. Luncheon... June 17 Business Breakfast Briefing. One-on-One Business Meetings. Luncheon organized by the...

  15. Is There a Semiperipheral Type of Schooling? State, Social Movements and Education in Spain, 1970-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonal, Xavier; Rambla, Xavier

    1996-01-01

    Applies to the Spanish educational system, the theory of semiperipheral societies developed by B. de Souza Santos. Spanish schooling is described as semiperipheral in that it entails a significant gap between aspirations and provision. Implications for the analysis of other Mediterranean school systems are discussed. (SLD)

  16. Decoding the Voluntourism Process: A Case Study of the Pay It Forward Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Fernando, Irene K.

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntourism" refers to the use of "discretionary time and income to travel out of the sphere of regular activity to assist others in need" (McGehee & Santos, 2005, p. 760). These experiences have been shown to raise consciousness and increase interest in activism (McGehee, 2002; Wearing, 2001) and to build pro-social…

  17. Cooperative Education: An International Collaborative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Raymond C.

    In 1993, the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo (UASD), in the Dominican Republic, and New York's LaGuardia Community College (LaGCC) entered into a partnership to establish a series of community colleges in the Dominican Republic. The colleges were designed to foster economic growth, prepare graduates for transfer to the UASD to complete…

  18. Targeting Ligand-Dependent and Ligand-Independent Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Pugh M, Raj GV, Brown GD, D’Santos C, Robinson JL, Silva G, Launchbury R, Perou CM, Stingl J, Caldas C, Tilley WD, Carroll JS. Progesterone receptor... Peng Y, Raj GV, Yee D, Lange CA. Progesterone receptor-B enhances estrogen responsiveness of breast cancer cells via scaffolding PELP1- and estrogen

  19. 75 FR 38211 - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., Peru; Av. Tumbes 217, Tumbes, Peru; Av. 27 De Febrero No. 102, Edif Miguel Mejia Urr. El Vergel, Santo... Martin, Lima, Peru; Bogota, Colombia; Leon Velarde 584, Puerto Maldonado, Peru; Jr. Moyobamba 101..., Peru; C.C. San Miguel Shopping Center, TDA. 50-Av. La Mar 2291, San Miguel, Lima, Peru; 8940 NW...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Tumbes, Peru; Av. 27 De Febrero No. 102, Edif Miguel Mejia Urr. El Vergel, Santo Domingo, Dominican...; Bogota, Colombia; Leon Velarde 584, Puerto Maldonado, Peru; Jr. Moyobamba 101, Tarapoto, Peru; Jr...., Mexico City D.F. 065000, Mexico; Av. Enrique Llosa 395-A, Magdalena, Lima, Peru; C.C. San Miguel...

  1. Curriculum Counter-Strokes and Strokes: Swimming in Non-Existent Epistemological Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Elizabeth E.; Paraskeva, João M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how Boaventura de Sousa Santos' "Epistemologies of the South" speaks to a needed dialogue on US educational and curriculum policy in which capitalism and colonialism produce youth and teachers as nonbeings--another insidious form of nonexistence. We analyze (a) the construction of the dichotomy of Western and…

  2. Shikimic Acid Monitoring by HPLC with Diode Array Detector in Citrus sinensis Orchard with Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of weed control with glyphosate on shikimic acid levels in citrus, “Pêra” cultivar. The experimental plots were set in Santo Antônio de Posse county, Sao Paulo State, Brazil with the following treatments: glyphosate at 1,440 g.ha-1 a.e. between citrus ...

  3. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Language Learning in the Context of the CCSS and the NGSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakuta, Kenji; Santos, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this column, Kenji Hakuta and Mario Santos described the challenges and opportunities the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards present for language development in the context of English language arts/literacy, mathematics, and science. They heightened educators' awareness of the critical role language plays…

  5. The Holy See and the Middle East: The Public Diplomacy of Pope John Paul II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    nature. These dealt with intra- church, ecumenical, and interfaith matters. The Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches, 95 See Herminio Rico , S.J., John......Rights and Population.” Population and Development Review 5, no. 4 (December 1979): 747-754. ________. Telegrama di Cordoglio del Santo Padre per

  6. New Mexico Pueblos Confront the Atomic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    While mineral development in Indian Country offers economic benefits, it can also pollute the air and water and destroy the land itself. Article describes three different approaches that Laguna, Acoma and Santo Domingo Pueblos are using to deal with exploitation of their natural resources. (DS)

  7. First report of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 in Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Ecuador, where pineapple represents one of the most important export commodities, virus testing has been neglected. In July 2014, a total of twenty MD2 hybrid pineapple plants showing virus-like symptoms (Fig. 1) were collected from a commercial planting located at the border of Santo Domingo and...

  8. Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    High in the hills south of Santa Fe, New Mexico, stands a greenhouse that Luke Reed hopes will help American Indians eat healthier. Reed also recently used the structure, completed in August, to teach a course on greenhouse management to representatives of the nearby Santo Domingo, Cochiti and Santa Clara pueblos. Near the greenhouse, fruit trees…

  9. 75 FR 12807 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending March 6.... Docket Number: DOT-OST-2000-6796. Date Filed: March 1, 2010. Due Date for Answers, Conforming Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: March 22, 2010. Description: Application of Aerolineas Santo...

  10. Epiphytes and the National Wetland Plant List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    del Castillo, and M. del Castillo Mayda. 1992. The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Editorial UPR, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Albert...Moreira, A.S.F.P. and R.M. dos Santos Isaias. 2008. Comparative anatomy of the absorption roots of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids . Brazil

  11. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... room. Dated: June 7, 2011 Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee...

  12. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy And Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor...: March 15, 2011. Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee on...

  13. Lives, Learning and Liberty: The Impact and Responsibilities of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I draw out themes that run through the three plenary panel papers for PME28 (Johnsen Hoines, 2004; Santos, 2004; Vithal, 2004). The linking themes for me are children's lives, their learning of mathematics and their right to liberty. [For complete proceedings, see ED489178.

  14. 78 FR 2433 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fort Collins Museum of Discovery, Fort Collins, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Tribe of Arizona; Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico; Kewa Pueblo, New Mexico (previously listed as the Pueblo of Santo Domingo); Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma; Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero... the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota); Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico (previously listed as the...

  15. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  16. Maintenance of Paraoxonase 2 Activity as a Strategy to Attenuate P. Aeruginosa Virulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2011) Beyond reduction of atherosclerosis : PON2 provides apoptosis resistance and stabilizes tumor cells. Cell Death and Disease 2, doi:10.1038/cddis...of atherosclerosis . Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 14, 341-351 40. Santo-Domingo, J., and Demaurex, N. (2012) Perspectives on: SGP symposium on

  17. 1988 Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. Volume 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbyshire, Desmond C., Ed.

    Six working papers in linguistics are presented. "The Semantics and Morphology of Mixtec Mood and Aspect" (J. Albert Bickford and Stephen A. Marlett) presents a relatively detailed description of the following grammatical categories in three Mixtec languages: Santiago Nuyoo, Santo Domingo Nuxaa, and Municipio of Tezoatlan.…

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (20th, Raleigh, NC, October 31-November 3, 1998). Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Sarah, Ed.; Dawkins, Karen, Ed.; Blanton, Maria, Ed.; Coulombe, Wendy, Ed.; Kolb, John, Ed.; Norwood, Karen, Ed.; Stiff, Lee, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains three plenary session reports, 12 working group and 79 research reports, 35 short oral reports, 60 poster session reports, and two discussion group reports. Major papers (excluding "short orals" and "posters") include: (1) "Semantical Obstacles in Mathematics Understanding" (Carlos Arteaga and Manuel Santos);…

  19. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  20. Examination of Multi-Core Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Core Chip Architecture,” Intel Corporation, 2006. 2. Manferdelli, John, Govinfaraju, Naga and Crall, Chris , “Challenges and Opportunities in Many...Micro, 28, 2, 2008, pp 39-55. 7. Clemente, Carmine, di Bisceglie, Maurizio, Di Santo, Michele, Ranaldo, Nadia and Spinelli , Marcello “Processing of

  1. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING - WHERE ARE WE NOW AND WHERE ARE WE GOING?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial Source Tracking ? Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?

    J. W. Santo-Domingo1, J. M. Simpson1, G. Scott2 and D. J. Reasoner1
    1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268
    2National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC 29412...

  2. Introversion/Extroversion & Teachers' Perception on Dominican EFL College Students' Performance = La Introversion/Extroversion vs. La Percepcion Profesoral en el Desempeno de Estudiantes Universitarios Dominicanos de Ingles como Lengua Extranjera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavarez Da Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between introversion/extroversion and a student's performance (academic achievement) as perceived by Teachers of English as a Foreign Language in three regional centers of the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo. There have been a great number of international studies already published to try to explain…

  3. Sand Fly Surveillance and Control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as Part of a Leishmaniasis Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Santos De-Marco et al. 2002). Moon illumination and other environmental factors, such as temperature and wind speed, also affect sand fly behavior...the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. REFERENCES CITED Alexander, B. 2000. Sampling methods for phlebotomine sandflies . Med

  4. Life and Death--A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Describes the celebration of death in Mexico and gives an alternative perspective from which to examine current U.S. attitudes and practices concerning death. Discusses the role that children play in the Todos Santos, or Day of the Dead, festival and the imagery and ceremonies of the festival. (LB)

  5. The Hybrid Threat: Crime, Terrorism and Insurgency in Mexico. Proceedings of the Joint Policy and Research Forum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    9 President Santos had me down there a year ago to witness the change. The last time I was there in public office in 2001 there were a couple of...Militares en la Guerra .” Air and Space Power Journal (3d Trimestre, 2009), pp 48–58. The Hybrid Threat: Crime, Terrorism and Insurgency in Mexico 29

  6. Accommodating Student Swirl: When Traditional Students Are No Longer the Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The term "student swirl" was coined by Alfredo de los Santos and Irene Wright in 1990, along with the term "double-dipping" (concurrent enrollment at two institutions), to characterize the back-and-forth, multi-institutional attendance pattern common among students attending community colleges. However, traditional…

  7. Human Rights Education and Student Self-Conception in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…

  8. Serving the Undocumented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major…

  9. Lotus alianus, a new species from Cabo Verde and nomeenclatural notes on Lotus section Pedrosia (Fabaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antao and Sao Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotyp...

  10. A Specific Construction of a Conic from an Ellipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    The interesting construction of a conic from an ellipse given by Manuel Santos-Trigo is evaluated. The validity of the conclusion that the locus is a conic section, the nature of which is determined in a simple way by the location of the variable point R relative to its center point O and the major vertices of the ellipse are proved.

  11. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  12. Numerical Modeling of Inverse Problems for Damage Detection in Aircraft Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    e de fadiga em reparos de materiais compósitos em chapas trincadas. X Encontro de Modelagem Computacional , Nova Friburgo. 11. Santos, RR, Sollero...P, Useche, J, Albuquerque, EL (2007). Análise estática de chapas trincadas com reparo de material compósito. X Encontro de Modelagem Computacional

  13. Corynespora cassiicola f. sp. schinii, a potential biocontrol agent for the weed Schinus terebinthifolius in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Corynespora cassiicola was found in Brazil (state of Espírito Santo) causing a severe leaf spot and foliage blight on Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae, Brazilian peppertree or ‘aroeira’) which is a major environmental weed in many tropical and sub-tropical areas of the globe, in...

  14. Mansonia dyari, Mansonia flaveola and Aedeomyia squamipennis in the Dominican Republic, three new country records.

    PubMed

    Pena, Carlos J; Chadee, Dave D

    2004-12-01

    We report the first collection of 3 mosquito species representing 2 genera in the Dominican Republic. The collections of adults and larvae of Mansonia dyari Belkin, Heinemann, and Page and Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett) from Santo Domingo City represent 2 additional mosquito species to the mosquito fauna of the Dominican Republic. Larvae were collected in the Quitasueno and Puerta de Hierro lagoons (covered with the Pistia stratiotes plants) in Santo Domingo. The associated species Aedeomyia squamipennis Lynch Arribalzaga was also collected for the first time and is the only representative of the genus Aedeomyia Theobald in the Dominican Republic. These collections increase the number of mosquito species belonging to the Genus Mansonia from 1 to 3 and total species from 45 to 48 in the Dominican Republic.

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter. PMID:26540067

  16. Taxonomic notes on Holcobunus Roewer, 1910, with descriptions of three new species, and new records for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 (Opiliones: Eupnoi: Sclerosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Bragagnolo, Cibele

    2015-10-05

    Three new Brazilian species of Holcobunus Roewer, 1910 are described, thus increasing the total number of species in the genus to five: Holcobunus bicornutus Mello-Leitão, 1940, H. nigripalpis Roewer, 1910, Holcobunus dissimilis sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa, Reserva Biologia Augusto Ruschi), Holcobunus ibitirama sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Ibitirama, Santa Marta, close to Parque Nacional Caparaó), and Holcobunus uaisoh sp. nov. (type locality: Minas Gerais, Fervedouro, Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro). A new record for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 from Minas Gerais is also provided and the morphological variation in both penis and somatic morphology in the genus are presented and discussed. These observations enhance our understanding of both the diversity and distribution of Holcobunus.

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-11-03

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter.

  18. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research.

  19. Dating earthquakes with high-precision thorium-230 ages of very young corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, R. Lawrence; Wasserburg, G. J.; Taylor, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Three corals from Vanuatu Islands, whose ages were known from counting annual growth bands, were analyzed by Th-230 age analysis to asses the accuracy of the Th-230 method. The comparison of Th-230 ages with the growth-band ages showed that the Th-230 ages were accurate within an error of + or - 3-5 y. Th-230 dates were then determined for two adjacent emerged heads from Santo Island; the dates were the same, indicating that the heads died at the same time, and consistent with the theory that they were killed by coseismic emergence around 1865 AD. The difference between this data and the data of the only major historically documented earthquake that caused an uplift (1973) suggests a seismic recurrence interval of 108 + or - 4 y for Santo. It is suggested that this approach may be extended back in time and to other localities.

  20. New species of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, Jindřiška

    2015-03-09

    To date, no mayflies have been described from Cape Verde, an archipelago of volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Based on the material collected on two islands, Santo Antão and Santiago, two species of the genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) are described based on larvae and imagines. Cloeon morna sp. n., collected in Santo Antão, and C. sidadi sp. n., collected in Santiago, have 3-segmented maxillary palps and tapered labial palps of larvae. The new species can be distinguished from each other and from other West-African species of the genus mainly according to details of the lateral spines on larval abdominal segments and characteristic colourations of vitta and terga in female imagines and colours of male turbinate eyes. Affinities to the West African species of the genus are discussed.

  1. Designing the Bayous: The Control of Water in the Atchafalaya Basin 1800-1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    for indigo was sugar cane. Jesuits from Santo Domingo had brought sugar cane into Louisiana in Early Flood Control Efforts, Louisiana Style 23 1751...Memphis 372 Notes to pages 63-67 District: A Documentary Chronicle (Memphis: Memphis District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1982), p. xv. 57. Elliott...Martin. Army Engineers in Memphis District: A Documentary Chronicle. Memphis: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Memphis District, 1982. ---. Reshaping

  2. JPRS Report Africa (Sub-Sahara).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Town’s Growth Rate Seen as ’Poor’ (THE ARGUS, 6 Aug 87) 77 Growing Strength of Black Purchasing Power Noted (Gerald Reilly; BUSINESS DAY, 5 Aug...agreement. During his three-day visit in Angola, which ended on Tuesday, Schaefer met with Angolan president Jose Eduardo Dos Santos and a number of high ...financial problems as the other units that engage in the extraction of salt. The low price for salt; the high production costs; and the expense of

  3. [Coccus species affecting Coffea arabica in Brazil (Coccoideae: Coccidae) and the redescription of two species].

    PubMed

    de Willink, Maria C Granara; Pirovani, Victor D; Ferreira, Paulo S F

    2010-01-01

    Five Coccus on Coffea arabica from the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais were studied. Females were prepared and mounted in Canada balsam. Coccus brasiliensis Fonseca and Coccus lizeri (Fonseca) were redescribed and Coccus alpinus De Lotto, Coccus celatus De Lotto and Coccus viridis (Green) were characterized. A key to species and illustration of all of them are included. Coccus alpinus and C. celatus are new records for Brazil and the Neotropical Region.

  4. The Army in Support of Political Objectives: The 1965 Dominican Republic Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Strategic Studies, Dominican Action-- 1965: Intervention or Cooperation (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, Jul 66), p 27; Office of the Joint Chiefs of...Staff, ’Chronology of the Crisis in the Dominican Republic* (Washington, D.C.: Historical Division, Joint Secretariat, 30 Sep 66), p. 14. =Department...Wheeler, the chairman of the joint chiefs. The president wanted the situation in Santo Domingo brought under control quickly and with no doubt about

  5. Information Operations and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    Santos 24 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A – Unclassified, Unlimited Distribution Suspicion Detection- Keystroke Dynamics  Correlation has been found... dynamic , reconfigurable architectures (e.g., IP hoping, multilevel polymorphism) CV25 S&T Themes (1/2) 13 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...between keystroke timings and changes to mental state, such as cognitive workload and deception under the Deny and Disrupt (DnD) effort o Traditional

  6. Scoping Report: AI-Driven Wargame Replicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Ozyilmaz & Yildirim, 2003; Ahmed, 2005; He et al.2009), computer vision , speech recognition, biometrics, handwriting recognition, portfolio...Sensing and Perception” module in the architecture acquires the environment data via models of vision , hearing or perception, and then sends the data to a...and Computers. Puebla , Mexico. [239] Santos, J.R., Barker, K. and Zelinke IV, P.J. (2008). Sequential Decision-making in Interdependent Sectors

  7. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    In Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, pages 398–406, 1997. [23] Emilio Frazzoli. Maneuver-based motion planning...Evolutionary approaches to neural control of rolling, walking, swimming and flying animats or robots. In Richard J. Duro, Jose Santos, and Manuel Grana...objective genetic programming. In Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Portland, OR, June 2004. [66] Peter Pacheco . Parallel

  8. Lipoprotein secretion: It takes two to TANGO.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2016-05-09

    An unsolved mystery in cell biology is how unusually large secretory cargoes are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. In this issue, Santos et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201603072) report the function of a Mia2/cTAGE5 transcript fusion, named TALI, in the endoplasmic reticulum export of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins, but not collagen XII.

  9. Survival in Cold Waters: Staying Alive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    John Murray from the Marine Safety Directorate. They with Victor Santos- Pedro conceived the necessity of such a report. It could not have been...Herald, November 27, 1999) Ten people died and another 11 were missing and feared drowned after an ultra -modern Norwegian ferry sank in chilly, rough...with this, the Royal Air Force developed the Mk 1 through Mk 8 aircrew constant wear immersion suit. The first six Mks were made from neoprene nylon

  10. Aluminum Alloys Reinforced by Nano-Particles Dispersion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez Collaborator M. Sc. Ivanovich Estrada Guel Collaborator Eng. Wilber Antiinez Flores Collaborator Students: 1. Raul...Lucero, I. Estrada-Guel, D.C. Mendoza-Ruiz, M. Jose " Yacaman, Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminum Reinforced with Carbon...9. Santos Beltran, V. Gallegos Orozco, F. Alvarado Hernandez, S. Haro Rodriguez, A. Lopez Ibarra and R. Martinez Sanchez. Synthesis and

  11. Laterally Vibrating Resonator Based Elasto-Optic Modulation in Aluminum Nitride

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-15

    acoustic wavelength of 20 µm (top) and 8 µm (bottom). Colored features include ground (blue) and signal ( red ) electrodes, photonic racetrack resonator...M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, Appl . Phys. Lett. 89, 121104 (2006). 13 S. A. Tadesse and M. Li, Nat. Commun. 5, 5402 (2014). 14 D...Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 38 (2010). 17 S. Y. Davydov, Semiconductors 36, 41 (2002). 18 S. Ghosh and G. Piazza, J. Appl . Phys. 113, 016101 (2013). 19 C

  12. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    occupation" of Santo Thome de Guayana by the Spaniards (Daly. 1985: 44-48). I II 10 The Spanish continued to monitor Dutch activities and interests in...territory by continuously opposing efforts by Guyana to obtain financial. support. for the implementation of projects vital to her economic development. The...order to accurately evaluate this U decision it is vital to understand which issues were consuming the Venezuelan people during that time. It would be

  13. An Assessment of Cultural Resources in Cochiti Reservoir.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    Cochiti Dam Quad IC Assessment-Trijoles Quad ID Assessuent-Santo Domingo Pueblo Quad 19 Assessment-Tetilla Peak Quad IF White Rock Quad 2 Archeological...Section IV, A and B), the litial phase of assessment was to assamble the various manuscripts and publications available and to make aimaries or copies of...mesa top, on the west side of the canyon, to the canyon bottom and the Rio Grande. Bad ice and snow conditions prevented access and, hence, foot

  14. The Use of rLH, HMG and hCG in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-21

    De Santo M, Sterzik K. Impact of recombinant follicle- stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropins on in vitro fertilization outcome ... hormone antagonist cycles and its relationship with in vitro fertilization outcome . Fertility and Sterility. 2003 Dec;80(6):1444-9. [48] Fanchin R...Retzloff MG. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin may improve in vitro fertilization cycle outcomes in patients with low luteinizing hormone levels

  15. HARPS: ESO's coming planet searcher. Chasing exoplanets with the La Silla 3.6-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, F.; Mayor, M.; Rupprecht, G.; Avila, G.; Ballester, P.; Beckers, J.-L.; Benz, W.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bouchy, F.; Buzzoni, B.; Cavadore, C.; Deiries, S.; Dekker, H.; Delabre, B.; D'Odorico, S.; Eckert, W.; Fischer, J.; Fleury, M.; George, M.; Gilliotte, A.; Gojak, D.; Guzman, J.-C.; Koch, F.; Kohler, D.; Kotzlowski, H.; Lacroix, D.; Le Merrer, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lo Curto, G.; Longinotti, A.; Megevand, D.; Pasquini, L.; Petitpas, P.; Pichard, M.; Queloz, D.; Reyes, J.; Richaud, P.; Sivan, J.-P.; Sosnowska, D.; Soto, R.; Udry, S.; Ureta, E.; van Kesteren, A.; Weber, L.; Weilenmann, U.; Wicenec, A.; Wieland, G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Dravins, D.; Hatzes, A.; Kürster, M.; Paresce, F.; Penny, A.

    2002-12-01

    An extensive review of past, present and future research on extrasolar planets is given in the article “Extrasolar Planets” by N. Santos et al. in the present issue of The Messenger. Here we want to mention only that the search for extrasolar planets and the interpretation of the scientific results have evolved in recent years into one of the most exciting and dynamic research topics in modern astronomy.

  16. A Hundred Osamas: Islamist Threats and the Future of Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    tried in connection with the Bali bombings and the 2003 bombing of the Jakarta Marriot hotel . He also was charged in connection with a foiled...the October 2004 hotel bombing at Taba, close to Eilat in the Sinai. • bombings in December of 2004 in General Santos and February 2005... hotel in the area off Edgeware Road/Marble Arches which has a large Muslim population. 48. S.a.w.s. stands for salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam, or peace

  17. Imaging proto-oceanic crust off the Brazilian Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Evain, M.; Afilhado, A.; Rigoti, C.; Loureiro, A.; Alves, D.; Leprêtre, A.; Moulin, M.; Schnurle, P.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.; Rabineau, M.; Feld, A.; Viana, A.; Aslanian, D.

    2015-01-01

    During the Sanba (Santos basin seismic transect) experiment in 2010-2011, a 380-km-long combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profile has been acquired using 30 ocean-bottom seismometers, a 4.5 km seismic streamer and a 8900 in.3 airgun array. The Sanba 3 profile crosses the southern flank of the Sao Paulo Plateau, the Sao Paulo Ridge and the easternmost Santos Basin in an east-west direction. Its eastern end is located on undisturbed oceanic crust. Tomographic and forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data reveals that the sedimentary thickness is variable with only 1-2 km on top of the ridge and thickening to 4-5 km in the basin. Crustal thickness at the ridge is about 18 km and the relative layer thickness and velocity gradients indicate a continental origin of this ridge. The eastern Santos Basin is underlain by crust of only 5 km thickness, characterized by high seismic velocities between 6.20 km s-1 in the upper crust and 7.40 km s-1 in the lower crust. Three hypotheses for the nature of the crust in this region are tested here: (i) thinned continental crust, (ii) serpentinized upper mantle material, (iii) thin oceanic crust. As seismic velocity gradients seem to rule out a continental origin of this region, and clear Moho reflections argue against serpentinized upper mantle, we propose that the crust underlying the easternmost Santos Basin is of oceanic origin. Deviations from normal oceanic crustal velocities in the lower crust (6.70-7.00 km s-1) can be explained by accretion at slow spreading rates leading to the inclusion of serpentinite into the lower crust at the onset of organized seafloor spreading.

  18. Surface and Defect Excitations in Covalently Bonded Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    Pseudopotentials for highly 5 Electronegative /rirst Row Elements’, C. Monte Carlo Study of the Quantum Heisenberg 7 Antiferromagnet D .- Magnetic ,Properties of...1989). 19. G. Gomez-Santos, J.D. Joannopoulos, and T. Negele, " Monte Carlo Study of the Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet", Phys. Rev. B39, 4435...approaches. This paves the way for future studies of a variety of complex and important material systems. C. Monte Carlo Study of the Quantum

  19. Latin America Report No. 2691.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-14

    Residents in New York ( Saul Pimentel; LISTIN DIARIO, 2 May 83) ••• Briefs 34 Vega Praises Reagan Speech ^ Fishermen Harassed # 3...DOMINICAN REPUBLIC POLITICAL CAMPAIGNING AMONG RESIDENTS IN NEW YORK Santo Domingo LISTIN DIARIO in Spanish 2 May 83 p 9-A [Article by Saul Pimentel...70,000 tons of its raw product to the San Antonio Mill. Other mills, such as the Javier Guerra and the Julio Buitrago , were not able to meet their

  20. New species and records of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Robin E.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eight new species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela are described: Acostatrichia digitata sp. n., Hydroptila cressae sp. n., Metrichia botrychion sp. n., Ochrotrichia spira sp. n., Oxyethira bettyae sp. n., Oxyethira quiramae sp. n., Oxyethira redunca sp. n., and Rhyacopsyche shorti sp. n.New country records for Venezuela of 2 additional species, Neotrichia feolai Santos & Nessimian, 2009 and Oxyethira picita Harris & Davenport, 1999, are also provided. Illustrations of male genitalia are provided with each description. PMID:22577311

  1. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain harboring blaOXA-72 from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Tavares E Oliveira, Thamirys Rachel; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    In this study, we report the isolation of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter pittii in Brazil. A carbapenem-resistant A. pittii strain was recovered from a hospitalized female patient from Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. PCR screening and DNA sequencing allowed us to identify the presence of blaOXA-72. We observed blaOXA-72 in a ~11kb plasmid and flanked by XerC/XerD-binding sites.

  2. China’s Expansion Into and U.S. Withdrawal from Argentina’s Telecommunications and Space Industries and the Implications for U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    network along Brazil’s developed coastal states, including Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Caterina.20 In mid... Blanco disclosed one known case where, after a day of sightseeing, the Chinese left photos of their guests taken while touring in their hotel rooms...According to Blanco , such behavior is frowned upon by Argentine businessmen and is seen as a form of extortion.37 Blanco views Huawei as the more

  3. Necessity for Consistent and Understandable Engagement Policies with Non-State Actors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    and Conservative dissidents overthrew the Conservative government in 1893 and within four months Jose Santos Zelaya assumed dictatorial powers. Zelaya...maneuvered positions of power for his sons, Luis and Anastasio, effectively constructing the conditions for dynastic dictatorships after his death...Anastasio Somoza Debayle was appointed head of the Guardia in 1955. Luis Somoza Debayle was president of the Nicaraguan Congress at the time of his father’s

  4. Guerrilla Warfare in Nicaragua, 1975-1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    ruthless caudillo, Jose Santos Zelaya 4 seized power and established a despotic regime which endured for more than a decade and a half until 1909. The end...Group. The second founding member, Tomgs Borge Martinez, also was born in Matagalpa and studied law at the university in Le6n before joining a...In 1978, however, Borge appeared amng the prisoners released by Somoza following the FSLN assault on the Nicaraguan National Palace. The final

  5. Remote Sensing Application of the Geophysical Changes in the Coastlines and Rivers of Zambales, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sison, Melissa Joy M.; Bulaong, Edmark Pablo; Pakaigue, Marietta A.

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical changes in river outlet, river upstream and coastlines near the rivers of Bucao and Santo Tomas in Zambales, Philippines were analyzed using the Google Earth's historical satellite imageries from 2004 to 2013. Data in 2015 were gathered from in situ field measurements ground validation. The study aimed to measure and determine changes in the width of river outlet, width of river bank upstream and shifting of coastline. Results revealed that there was a decrease and increase in the width size of the Bucao and Santo Tomas river outlets, respectively during the study period. Geophysical changes occurred in the two rivers due to the continuous supply of lahar as an after effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Coastline positions near the two rivers also changed. The highest rate of erosion along the coastal area was prevalently observed near the river outlet of both rivers. Moreover, accretion was observed in the coastline of Santo Tomas and erosion phenomenon was observed in the North and South coastlines of Bucao River. The shifting was caused by natural processes such as erosion, sedimentation and natural calamities as well as anthropogenic processes such as reclamation/quarrying. Occurrence of erosion and sedimentation played active roles in the changes of coastlines during the study period. Furthermore, the upstream of the Bucao river changed physically due to deposits of lahar present in the upstream which are being discharged directly and continuously going down to the river. Generally, the width of the Bucao River upstream decreased its size because of the accumulated sediment in the riverbank. On the other hand, the observed erosion is caused by high velocity of river during heavy rains and typhoons. The width of the Santo Tomas river bank upstream did not change due to the construction of concrete dikes which prevent the lahar-filled river from breaching the embankment and flooding the agricultural, residential and commercial areas near

  6. Options for In Situ Capping of Palos Verdes Shelf Contaminated Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    shelf and slope shown in Figure 2. The Palos Verdes shelf and slope are located off the Palos Verdes peninsula which separates Santa Monica and San...to the sheltering effects of the offshore islands, with Santa Catalina and San Clemente providing protection from waves approaching from the south...California. The Santa Monica Bay area is also being evaluated for sites for medium- to coarse-grained sand for a capping project in Marina del Rey

  7. The International Nexus Between Drugs and Terror: Lessons in Conflict and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    and one ravaged by violent conflict is a challenging scenario for any country to face. Colombia’s newly inaugurated President, Juan Manuel Santos...Party during la Violencia. Its leader, Manuel "Tirofijo" ("Sureshot") Marulanda, took up arms in 1949 at the age of 19. The ELN was organized by...selected mayoral , governor, and council representatives in regions they had strong influence, claimed in 2006 to have control of 30% of the

  8. Thermal Barrier Coatings (les Revetements anti-mur de chaleur)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Clemens, P. G., Thermophysical Properties of Solids, 2, Y. S. Touloukian and C. Y. Ho, ed., Plenum Press, New York (1970) 18. Santos, W. N. D. and...Vidal-Setif SESSION III: TBC PROPERTIES AND DESIGN Thermal Sprayed Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings 12 by L.T. Kabacoff Modelling the...damage mechanisms in connexion with properties and microstructure. 4. Modeling the behaviour and the lifetime of the coatings with special reference

  9. Determining Exchange Splitting in a Magnetic Semiconductor by Spin-Filter Tunneling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-20

    the DOE under DE-AC06-76RL01830, and by NSF under DMR- 0210915. [1] P. Wachter , in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, edited by K...Lett. 70, 853 (1993). [4] T. S. Santos and J. S. Moodera, Phys. Rev. B 69, 241203(R) (2004). [5] G. Busch, P. Junod, and P. Wachter , Phys. Lett. 12, 11

  10. National Strategy of Defense: Peace and Security for Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    to control the maritime access to Brazil: the strip that goes from Santos to Vitória, and the area around the mouth of the Amazon River. National...reestablish the tradition of the Tiros de Guerra [military training school for reserves]. In principle, all of the country’s town halls should be able...to take part in the renovation of the Tiros de Guerra , when the legal restrictions that still limit the list of qualified townships are eliminated

  11. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

    2014-02-01

    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde Archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards as well as the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression of eruptive activity as widely separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological timescales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo Island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions, including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that on Fogo, the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium-frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  12. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

    2013-09-01

    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards, and the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression and widely-separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological time scales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that in Fogo the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  13. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  14. An environmental forensic approach for tropical estuaries based on metal bioaccumulation in tissues of Callinectes danae.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Andrade, Nathalia P; Hortellani, Marcos A; Favaro, Deborah I T; Kakazu, Mauricio H; Cotrim, Marycel E B; Lavradas, Raquel T; Moreira, Isabel; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab Callinectes danae is distributed throughout the Atlantic coast and this study aimed to evaluate a environmental forensics approach that could be applied at tropical estuarine systems where this species is distributed, based on the metal concentrations in its tissues. For this purpose, blue crab samples were collected in 9 sites (distributed in 3 areas) along the Santos Estuarine System, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in gills, hepatopancreas and muscle tissues. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed in these same sites. A data distribution pattern was identified during both sampling periods (August and December 2011). In order to validate this model, a new sampling campaign was performed in March 2013 at the Santos Estuarine System and also at Ilha Grande (state of Rio de Janeiro). These data were added to the previous database (composed of the August and December 2011 samples) and a discriminant analysis was applied. The results confirmed an environmental fingerprint for the Santos Estuarine System.

  15. Biochemical changes in the liver and gill of Cathorops spixii collected seasonally in two Brazilian estuaries under varying influences of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, J S; Braga, E S; Silva de Assis, H C; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

    2013-10-01

    In order to understand environmental health by the use of a bioindicator species in estuaries, biochemical responses observed in the catfish Cathorops spixii such as catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in liver and muscle. Furthermore, histological changes were also verified in liver and gills preparations. Fish were collected in three sites of the Santos-São Vicente estuary located at São Paulo (Brazil), subjected to varying levels of inputs of pollutants. For a reference site, specimens were sampled at Cananéia estuary at southern coast of São Paulo, a region with low anthropogenic influence. In general, no significant seasonal differences in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation responses were found in the organisms from the Cananéia estuary. However, in the polluted estuary (Santos-São Vicente), biochemical responses were observed by increases in GST hydroperoxides and decreases in AChE activities in the summer. Inhibition of AChE expression in fish from different areas of the Santos-São Vicente estuary in the summer was also found and can indicate neurotoxic effects in these organisms. Histopathological observation of gill and liver showed severe lesions, such as lamellar fusion and necrosis.

  16. Ecological relevance of Sentinels' biomarker responses: a multi-level approach.

    PubMed

    Seabra Pereira, Camilo D; Abessa, Denis M S; Choueri, Rodrigo B; Almagro-Pastor, Victor; Cesar, Augusto; Maranho, Luciane A; Martín-Díaz, María Laura; Torres, Ronaldo J; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma K; Almeida, João E; Cortez, Fernando S; Mozeto, Antonio A; Silbiger, Helcy L N; Sousa, Eduinetty C P M; Del Valls, Tommas Angel; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2014-05-01

    In response to the need for more sensitive and rapid indicators of environmental quality, sublethal effects on the lowest levels of biological organization have been investigated. The ecological relevance of these responses assumes a prevailing role to assure effectiveness as indicator of ecological status. This study aimed to investigate the linkages between biomarker responses of caged bivalves and descriptive parameters of macrobenthic community structure. For this purpose a multi-level environmental assessment of marine and estuarine zones was performed in São Paulo coast, Brazil. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify linkages between biological responses and ecological indices, as well as to characterizing the studied stations. Individuals of the marine mussel Perna perna caged along Santos Bay showed signs of oxidative stress, lysosomal membrane destabilization, histological alterations and reduced embryonic development. The estuarine oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae caged along Santos Port Channel showed alterations on biotransformation enzymes and antioxidant system, DNA damage and lysosomal membrane destabilization. The benthic community analysis showed reduced richness and diversity in the same areas of the Santos bay and estuary where biomarker responses were altered. Our results revealed that xenobiotics are inducing physiological stress, which may lead to changes of the benthic community structure and deterioration of the ecological status over time. Integrating biomarker responses and ecological indexes improved certainty that alterations found at community level could be related to xenobiotic as stressors, which was very useful to improve the discriminatory power of the environmental assessment.

  17. Carbonate reservoir plays in the South Atlantic and worldwide analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a summary of the geological, geophysical and petrophysical challenges for interpretation of post-salt and presalt carbonate rocks that constitute one of the main reservoirs in the hydrocarbon accumulations in the South Atlantic, particularly in the Campos and Santos basins offshore Brazil and in the Angola -Gabon conjugate margins. Carbonate rocks associated with salt tectonics constitute one of the main exploratory plays in several basins worldwide, and recently have yielded large petroleum discoveries in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin (Santos Basin) and also in Angola (Kwanza Basin) . The presalt microbialite reservoirs are sealed by evaporites and the origin of these rocks is still controversial. One current of interpretation assumes they are associated with reefs and carbonate buildups formed during periods of sea-level rises in a desiccating basin. Other currents of interpretation assume that these rocks might be associated with hydrothermal fluids and chemical precipitation of carbonates in a basin affected by volcanic episodes, resulting in travertine deposits with secondary biogenic growth. We present examples of post-salt oil fields involving Albian carbonates in the South Atlantic, and also discuss the presalt plays recently drilled in ultradeep waters. The presalt carbonate reservoirs are compared with possible microbialite analogs in the sedimentary basins of Brazil dating from Neoproterozoic to Recent, and their similarities and differences in terms of depositional setting and petrophysical parameters from the Late Aptian presalt carbonate rocks that have been sampled in the Santos and Kwanza basins.

  18. Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

  19. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo.

  20. Neotectonics across an active oblique-divergent plate margin, SW Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umhoefer, P.; Arrowsmith, R.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, G.; Malservisi, R.; Plattner, C.; Busch, M.; Maloney, S.; Buchanan, B.

    2008-12-01

    Onshore and offshore paleoseismology provides new constraints on late Quaternary to present deformation rates across the SW margin of the Gulf of California plate boundary at the latitude of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The paleoseismology is being conducted in an innovative approach using traditional onshore techniques and CHIRP seismic data in the immediate offshore area on the same fault systems; the CHIRP survey was completed in August, 2008. From west to east the Carrizal, San Juan de los Planes (SJP), and La Gata faults are being studied in detail, and to date the San Jose del Cabo (SJC) fault is being studied in reconnaissance. GPS results suggest rates of motion across the whole array (including the offshore Espiritu Santo and Cerralvo faults) of 1-2 mm/year. Estimated slip rates in the late Quaternary on the Carrizal fault from uplifted marine terraces, mapping, dating units, and two trenches are 0.1 - 0.2 mm/yr. Estimated slip rates from the Los Planes fault is 0.1 to possibly as much as 1 mm/yr. Modern bathymetric data and earthquakes in 1969 (M=5.6) and 1995 (M=6.2) on the Cerralvo and Espiritu Santo faults, respectively, suggest that those faults are much more active than the Carrizal and Los Planes faults. Reconnaissance on the Cabo fault suggests that it was, and possibly remains, a more active fault, perhaps in the range of 0.5 mm/yr. We conclude from the ongoing project that the faulting pattern across the SW margin of the Gulf of California is dominated by a large step from the major Cerralvo and Cabo faults in the south to the NW to the Espiritu Santo fault on the east side of Espiritu Santo Island; these faults define the eastern edge of the narrow shallow marine shelf and the highest onshore mountain range in the southern Baja California peninsula suggesting that they were the major faults that produced the edge of the oblique rift for most or all of its history. The Los Planes - La Gata faults would be the southern splays of the

  1. Holocene late Pleistocene non-tropical carbonate sediments and tectonic history of the western rift basin margin of the southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, Jochen; Godinez-Orta, Lucio; Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Mucciarone, David A.; Ingle, James C.; Holden, Peter

    2001-10-01

    Using high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and dating of (1) shallow marine vibracores and (2) sediments collected from uplifted marine terraces we reconstruct the tectonic history and sediment accumulation patterns of Holocene to late Pleistocene warm-temperate to subtropical carbonates in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. The study was conducted in the vicinity of La Paz where carbonates form along the fault bounded narrow western shelf of the tectonically active Gulf of California rift basin. The non-tropical nature of the setting is responsible for (1) poor cementation of the bioclastic carbonates, and (2) a composition which is dominated by rhodoliths (coralline red algae), corals and mollusks. Unrimmed carbonate flats forming in small pocket bays and a rhodolith bioherm, which has a surface area of more than 20 km 2 and is up to 16 m thick, constitute the major carbonate factories. Holocene carbonate accumulation rates were deduced from seismic and core data and are highest on the rhodolith bioherm (260 cm/ka) and in subtidal zones of pocket bays (210 cm/ka), and lowest on the inner and middle shelf (100 cm/ka). Taken together, rates of carbonate accumulation are intermediate in magnitude between higher rates recorded in fully tropical carbonate settings and lower rates typical of cool-water carbonates. Seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that Isla Espiritu Santo in the center of the study area is a west dipping fault block, which is tectonically influenced by two distinct faults, the La Paz and Espiritu Santo faults. The latter fault accommodates at least 700 m of east-side down normal offset, and forms a steep eastern escarpment leading into the La Paz slope basin. Some of the sediments produced in the shallow carbonate factories of the narrow La Paz shelf are transported across this escarpment and are redeposited in the slope basin at a water depth of 750 m. Uranium-series dates of marine terraces exposed on Isla Espiritu Santo indicate

  2. Wave and tidal level analysis, maritime climate change, navigation's strategy and impact on the costal defences - Study case of São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Areas (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredini, P.; Pezzoli, A.; Cristofori, E. I.; Dovetta, A.; Arasaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Area concentrates around of 40% of Brazilian GNP, Santos Harbour is the America South Atlantic Hub Port and São Sebastião Oil Maritime Terminal is the most important oil and gas facility of PETROBRAS, the Brazilian National Petroleum Company. Santos Harbour had in the last decade increased rapidly the container handling rate, being the first in Latin America. In the last decade important oil and gas reserves were discovered in the Santos Oceanic Basin and São Paulo Coastline received a big demand for supplier ships harbours for the petroleum industry. Santos Metropolitan Region is one of the most important of Brazilian Coastline, also considering the turism. For that great economic growth scenario it is very important to have the main maritime hydrodynamics forcing processes, wave climate and tidal levels, well known, considering the sea hazards influence in ship operations. Since the hindcast just represents the deep water wave climate, to make time-series of the waves parameters in coastal waters, for evaluation of sea hazards and ship operations, it is necessary to take into acount the variations of those parameters in shallow waters with coastal instrumental data. Analysis of long term wave data-base (1957-2002) generated by a comparison between wave's data modeled by a "deep water model" (ERA40-ECMWF) and measured wave's data in the years 1982-1984 by a coastal buoy in Santos littoral (São Paulo State, Brazil) was made. Calibration coefficients according to angular sectors of wave's direction were obtained by the comparison of the instrument data with the modeled ones, and applied to the original scenarios. Validation checking procedures with instrumental measurements of storm surges made in other years than 1982-1984 shows high level of confidence. The analysis of the wave climate change on the extreme storm surge wave's conditions, selecting cases of Hs > 3,0 m, using that virtual data-base shows an increase in the Hs

  3. Oblique transfer of extensional strain between basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: fault kinematic and paleostress constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Thompson, Ren A.

    2013-01-01

    The structural geometry of transfer and accommodation zones that relay strain between extensional domains in rifted crust has been addressed in many studies over the past 30 years. However, details of the kinematics of deformation and related stress changes within these zones have received relatively little attention. In this study we conduct the first-ever systematic, multi-basin fault-slip measurement campaign within the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico to address the mechanisms and causes of extensional strain transfer associated with a broad accommodation zone. Numerous (562) kinematic measurements were collected at fault exposures within and adjacent to the NE-trending Santo Domingo Basin accommodation zone, or relay, which structurally links the N-trending, right-stepping en echelon Albuquerque and Española rift basins. The following observations are made based on these fault measurements and paleostresses computed from them. (1) Compared to the typical northerly striking normal to normal-oblique faults in the rift basins to the north and south, normal-oblique faults are broadly distributed within two merging, NE-trending zones on the northwest and southeast sides of the Santo Domingo Basin. (2) Faults in these zones have greater dispersion of rake values and fault strikes, greater dextral strike-slip components over a wide northerly strike range, and small to moderate clockwise deflections of their tips. (3) Relative-age relations among fault surfaces and slickenlines used to compute reduced stress tensors suggest that far-field, ~E-W–trending σ3 stress trajectories were perturbed 45° to 90° clockwise into NW to N trends within the Santo Domingo zones. (4) Fault-stratigraphic age relations constrain the stress perturbations to the later stages of rifting, possibly as late as 2.7–1.1 Ma. Our fault observations and previous paleomagnetic evidence of post–2.7 Ma counterclockwise vertical-axis rotations are consistent with increased

  4. The next chapter of direct phytolith 14C dating: debunking the myth of occluded photosynthetic carbon exclusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, G.; Harutyunyan, A.; Alexandre, A. E.; Reyerson, P. E.; Gallagher, K. L.; Isabelle, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon dating of carbon (C) encapsulated in phytoliths (phytC) is currently used in many Earth Science disciplines for absolute chronologies and paleoclimatic reconstructions; however, the usefulness of phytC has been hampered by inadequate extraction methods[1] and uncertainties regarding its origin as purely photosynthetic [2,3,4]. An early investigation measuring isotopes from Gramineae spp. grown in free-air C enrichment experiments (FACE), showed that part of of its phytC is from a non-photosynthetic source, thus indicating a dual origin[5]. To demonstrate that non-photosynthetic sources within phytC could be from soil C stocks, we measured 14C-AMS phytC extracted from a set of Sorghum bicolor growing on known 14C and d13C bulk substrates and hydroponic solutions. The phytolith concentrates and a silica blank were extracted at UCI, CEREGE and Wisconsin using an improved protocol [1,2]. We also measured CO2 fluxes and isotopic signatures of microbial respiration, percentage of biomass and phytolith extracts produced, and isotopic signatures of the local air and bulk-plant during the growing season of 2012. This allowed comparison of the belowground substrate and nutrient C contributions to phytC 14C results. Meanwhile, NanoSIMS analyses of phytolith polished sections was used to locate phytC in the phytolith siliceous structure [6]. These results will be shown and discussed. [1] Corbineau et al. 2013 R. Paleobot. Palyn. 197: 179 [2] Santos et al. 2010 T. Radiocarbon 52:113 [3] Santos et al. 2012a Biogeosci. 9:1873 [4] Santos et al. 2012b Biogeosci. Discussion 9:C6114 [5] Reyerson et al. 2013 AGU Fall meeting 2013 (Abstract ID: 1803125). [6] Alexandre, et al., submitted.

  5. The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

  6. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

  7. Retesting The Validity Of A Specific Field Test For Judo Training

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis; González, Vicente; Iscar, Marta; Brime, Juan I.; Fernández-Río, Javier; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montoliu, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this research project was to retest the validity of a specifically designed judo field test (Santos Test) in a different group of judokas. Eight (n=8) national-level male judokas underwent laboratory and field testing. The mean data (mean +/− SD) obtained in the laboratory tests was: HRmax: 200 ± 4.0 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 52.8 ± 7.9 ± ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 12 ± 2.5 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 174.2 ± 9.4 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 87 ± 3.6 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 17.2 ± 1.0. The mean data obtained in the field test (Santos) was: HRmax: 201.3 ± 4.1 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 55.6 ± 5.8 ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 15.6 ± 2.8 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 173.2 ± 4.3 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 86 ± 2.5 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 16.7 ± 1.0. There were no significant differences between the data obtained on both tests in any of the parameters, except for maximum lactate concentration. Therefore, the Santos test can be considered a valid tool specific for judo training. PMID:23486994

  8. Comparison between the 6-minute walk tests performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at different altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Squassoni, Selma Denis; Machado, Nadine Cristina; Lapa, Mônica Silveira; Cordoni, Priscila Kessar; Bortolassi, Luciene Costa; de Oliveira, Juliana Nascimento; Tavares, Cecilia Melo Rosa; Fiss, Elie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of the altitude on the 6-minute walking test in patients with moderate to severe pulmonary disease. Methods Twenty-nine patients performed the 6-minute walk test at a pulmonary rehabilitation clinic in Santo André (above sea level), in São Paulo State, and at the Enseada Beach, in Guarujá (at sea level), also in São Paulo State. Of these 29 patients, 8 did the test both on hard sand and on asphalt to analyze if there were differences in performance during the tests. Data such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, test distance, and Borg scale were compared. Results We found no statistical difference in relation to oxygen saturation at rest before the beginning of the walking test in Santo André 94.67±2.26% and at sea level 95.56±2% (p=0.71). The minimum saturation measured during the test was 87.27±6.54% in Santo André and 89.10±5.41% in Guarujá (p=0.098). There were no differences in the performed distance between the different kinds of terrains; the distance on sand was 387.75±5.02m and on asphalt it was 375.00±6.54m (p=0.654). Regarding oxygen saturation during walking, the pulse oximetry on sand was 95.12±1.80% and on asphalt it was 96.87±1.64% (p=1.05). Conclusion Altitude did not affect the performance of the walking test in patients with moderate to severe pulmonary disease and the results were similar in both cases, on sand and on asphalt. PMID:25628195

  9. [Hospitals' evolution through the ages].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The predecessor institutions of modern hospitals--Byzantine nosocómeion, European hospitale and Islamic maristan--were dissimilar both in their patients and their aims. The first charitable organizations in West Europe (Rome) and in the East (Cesarea in Cappadocia) were rather hospices. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (476 A.D.), some monastic centers were prepared to provide medical assistance to religious and secular patients. Since the XI and XII Centuries in all of Christian Europe the charitable institutions, designated as hospitale, multiplied. Among the Italian ones, the Roman Santo Spirito (Holy Ghost) Hospital, built in the 1201-1204 period, reached a preeminet position. This one soon became the most important of the entire Christendom (archihospital), with a lot of affiliated hospitals in Europe and later in America. The first American hospital, Saint Nicholas Hospital, opened on December 29, 1503 in Santo Domingo, obtained in 1541 its affiliation to the Santo Spirito archihospital. Regarding continental America, the first health centers were established in Mexico: the Immaculate Conception Hospital and the Saint Lazarus Hospital, both established by Hernán Cortés. For its part, clinical teaching was systematized at the Saint Francis Hospital in Padua and by there moved to Leyden. In Mexico, the chair of medical clinics or practical medicine was established in 1806 at the Saint Andrew Hospital. During the XX century, Dr. Ignacio Chávez was the driving force behind the creation of the modern Mexican Health Institutes. These ones are dedicated to the treatment of poor patients, as well as to medical teaching and research.

  10. Taxonomic implications of morphological variation in three species of Trinomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae) from eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dalapicolla, Jeronymo; Leite, Yuri L R

    2015-02-16

    Trinomys is a genus of terrestrial spiny rats from the Atlantic Forest, and three species occur in the state of Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil: T. gratiosus, T. paratus, and T. setosus. The levels of morphological variation within and among these species are virtually unknown, and their geographic ranges have not been properly assessed. These three species are externally very similar, hampering their identification in surveys and ecological studies that are not based on voucher specimens. We evaluated 162 specimens of Trinomys spp. from eastern Brazil, especially from the state of Espírito Santo, and used data from skulls, skins, and bacula to examine morphological variation and its taxonomic implications. We found extensive morphological variation in the skins and skulls even when diagnostic characters were examined, such as the number of dental lophs and bones contributing to the postorbital process. We also found variation in bacular shape among and within species, including polymorphism among individuals from the same population. The geographic range of each species in Espírito Santo was well defined: T. setosus occurred on the left (north) bank of the Doce River, and the other two species, T. gratiosus and T. paratus, occurred on the right (south) bank of this river; however, T. gratiosus was found at altitudes above 500 m, whereas T. paratus occurred below 580 m. Despite difficulties in species identification, the results of morphological and morphometric analyses are compatible with the current classification of these three species. In addition, the level of morphological variation found in specimens identified as T. g. panema--including types--falls within the range of T. g. gratiosus, confirming the taxonomic status of the former as a junior synonym of the latter.

  11. Controls of asymmetrical opening on rift and sag basins of South Atlantic conjugate margins: Insights from gravity transects and mapping using grids of seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, P.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    A recent model by Brune et al. (2014) explains the asymmetrical, conjugate margins of the South Atlantic as the result of passive rift migration with sequential normal faulting during early continental breakup. The onset of continental rifting in the South Atlantic began in the Valanginian about 138 Ma. Flood basalts - originating from the eruption of the Tristan Da Cunha plume on both conjugate margins - have been dated between 138-128 Ma and indicating a transition from passive rifting controlled by plate motions to active rifting controlled by a mantle plume. Using seven 2D gravity transects ranging from 200-1000 km in length, we identify variations in crustal thickness and depth to Moho for conjugate margins in Brazil and Angola. Low pass filters applied to a regional satellite derived gravity grid reveal now inactive, sequential normal faults. The modeled gravity transects refine the extent of hyperextended continental crust and allow for the identification of hanging-wall/ footwall relationships. For the Santos-Namibe conjugate margin, we propose that the Santos basin is the footwall of an asymmetrical rift system spanning a 200-km-wide zone and that the Namibe basin is the hanging wall with a 125-km-wide rift. For the Campos-Benguela conjugate margin 400 km to the north, we propose the Campos basin is the hanging wall with a 150-km-wide rift zone. Well data shows that a thicker carbonate sag basin (135- 325 m) and overlying salt basin (up to 2 km) are associated with the footwall blocks of Kwanza and Santos while thinner carbonate sag basins (15-75 m) and overlying salt (up to 1.5 km) are associated with hanging wall blocks in accord with model predictions for early opening.

  12. Gravity and Seismic Investigations of the Northern Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Harper, C.; Bartz, R.; Donnelly, W.; Haga, L.; Keithline, N.; McBride, K.; Miller, D.; Oberle, J.; Wahl, J.; Castrejon-Martinez, R.; Lee, R. F.; Saez Berrios, P.; Ferguson, J. F.; Baldridge, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program have collected gravity data at over 7000 locations in the northern Rio Grande rift (RGR) area of New Mexico in the past thirty-three years. In recent years, the SAGE program has focused on the western edge of the Española basin and the transition into the Santo Domingo basin of the RGR. During this time, we have collected about 40 km of seismic reflection and refraction data along approximately East-West profiles using a 120 channel data acquisition system with a 20 m station interval and a Vibroseis source. Refraction travel time modeling and Common Midpoint (CMP) stacked reflection sections have imaged basin boundary faults and stratigraphy. We also have access to several energy-industry seismic reflection record sections from the 1970s in the study area. These data and some deep drill hole information have allowed detailed interpretation of basin structures along segments of three regional transects across the RGR in northern New Mexico. The interpreted seismic velocities and fault images from the seismic record sections, and lithologies and well logs from drill holes, have also provided important constraints on modeling and interpretation of the regional gravity data along the three transects. The gravity modeling along these transects reveals key structures within the basin including the eastern bounding fault of the Los Alamos graben, eastern boundary faults of the Santo Domingo basin, the Agua Fria fault system near the eastern boundary of the Española basin and interpreted depths to basement of the Española and Santo Domingo basins. Boundary fault offsets are as large as 3 km and maximum basin depths range from 3 to 6 km.

  13. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Palmeira Wanderley, Vivianni; Affonso Fonseca, Fernando Luiz; Vala Quiaios, André; Nuno Domingues, José; Paixão, Susana; Figueiredo, João; Ferreira, Ana; de Almeida Pinto, Cleonice; da Silva, Odair Ramos; Alvarenga, Rogério; Machi Junior, Amaury; Luiz Savóia, Eriane Justo; Daminello Raimundo, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil). The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill. PMID:28085053

  14. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  15. Spray and Combustion of Gelled Hypergolic Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-20

    Anderson Postdoc tlnu 2/09 Ast:I·ium Mau DeRidder Anderson Postdoc tlnu 5110 Spacex Chenzhou Lian Merkle Postdoc tlnu 8/10 IBM Watson Labs Changjin Yoon...Heister PhD, 1211 1 GE Global Research Center - 5 - - 6 - Erik Dambach Heister/Pourpoint PhD, 5/11 SpaceX Paulo Santos Campanella PhD, 8/11...Yair Solomon Anderson MS, 8/12 Technion Jordan Forness Heister/Pourpoint MS, 5/13 SpaceX Jennifer Mallory Sojka PhD, 5/12 Western New England

  16. The Battle of the Coral Sea, May 1 to May 11 Inclusive, 1942. Strategical and Tactical Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-01-01

    Supplemental Report-Truk-Naval & Naval Air Field Team #5, USSBS. CRISTOBAL Island and ESPIRITU SANTO Island in a southwesterly direction and would then head...from the eastward around SAN CRISTOBAL Island or through any of the pass-ages to the north of this Island. Had this search been conducted from EFATE or...with two full task forces. As it happened, these two task forces were roughly in the me lati~tude and but SO miles apart at 2000 on S Kay , and, yet

  17. [Visitation of orchid by Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bee threatened with extinction].

    PubMed

    Resende, Helder C; Barros, Fábio de; Campos, Lúcio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2008-01-01

    The stingless bee Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo is a species restricted to the Atlantic forest in the Domingos Martins, Conceição do Castelo, Venda Nova do Imigrante and Afonso Cláudio County, in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Despite its cological importance as pollinator few studies have examined the ecology and biology of this bee. This note relates a case of the M. capixaba workers carrying pollinarium attached to the scuttellum. The pollinaria were identified as belonging to the orchid subtribe Maxillariinae species possibly of the genus Maxillaria sensu lato or Xylobium.

  18. Fundamental Molecular Data to Support CARS Diagnostics of Temperature, Pressure, and Species Concentration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-10

    Robert, B. Lavorel, R. Saint-Loup, R. Chaux , J. F :os, and H. Berger, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5568(1988). R2. S.G. Rautian and I.I. Sobelman, Sov. Phys...Chem. Phys. 71 (1979) 850. 14 17. B. Lavorel, R. Chaux , R. Saint-Loup and H. Berger, Opt. Commun. 62 (1987) 25. 18. L. Bonamy, J. Bonamy, D. Robert...B. Lavorel, R. Saint-Loup, R. Chaux , J. Santos and H. Berger, J. Chem. Phys. 89 (1988) 5568. 19. L.A. Rahn, R.E. Palmer, M.L. Koszkowski and D.A

  19. Steady flow for shear thickening fluids in domains with unbounded sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Gilberlandio J.

    2017-02-01

    We solve the stationary Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations for non-Newtonian incompressible fluids with shear dependent viscosity in domains with outlets containing unbounded cross sections, in the case of shear thickening viscosity. The flux assumes arbitrary given values and the growth of the cross sections are analyzed under different convergence hypotheses, inclusive the growth of Dirichlet's integral of the velocity field is deeply related the convergence hypotheses of such sections. We extend the results of the section 4 of [12, Ladyzhenskaya and Solonnikov] (for Newtonian fluids) to non-Newtonian fluids using the techniques found in [3, Dias and Santos].

  20. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.

  1. Advances in the Location and Identification of Hidden Explosive Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    detector box. The rat is trained to press a touch bar when it smells explosives. It must be noted, however, that the mechanism for mammalian olfac...and Bi- ology", Clarendon Press , Oxford, U.K., 1986. [45] J.D.King, \\ .L.Rollwitz and A.De Los Santos, "Applications of nucle- ar magnetic resonance...butlion (beyont tre audience specified 1, 11) is possible, a wider anouncement audience may be selected I’n i rni ePd JN CASSIF iD SECTJF41TY

  2. Pleistocene glaciation of volcano Ajusco, central Mexico, and comparison with the standard Mexican glacial sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Sidney E.; Valastro, Salvatore

    1984-01-01

    Three Pleistocene glaciations and two Holocene Neoglacial advances occurred on volcano Ajusco in central Mexico. Lateral moraines of the oldest glaciation, the Marqués, above 3250 m are made of light-gray indurated till and are extensively modified by erosion. Below 3200 m the till is dark red, decomposed, and buried beneath volcanic colluvium and tephra. Very strongly to strongly developed soil profiles (Inceptisols) have formed in the Marqués till and in overlying colluvia and tephra. Large sharp-crested moraines of the second glaciation, the Santo Tomás, above 3300 m are composed of pale-brown firm till and are somewhat eroded by gullies. Below 3250 m the till is light reddish brown, cemented, and weathered. Less-strongly developed soil profiles (Inceptisols) have formed in the Santo Tomás till and in overlying colluvia and tephra. Narrow-crested moraines of yellowish-brown loose till of the third glaciation, the Albergue, are uneroded. Weakly developed soil profiles (Inceptisols) in the Albergue till have black ash in the upper horizon. Two small Neoglacial moraines of yellowish-brown bouldery till on the cirque floor of the largest valley support weakly developed soil profiles with only A and Cox horizons and no ash in the upper soil horizons. Radiocarbon dating of organic matter of the B horizons developed in tills, volcanic ash, and colluvial volcanic sand includes ages for both the soil-organic residue and the humic-acid fraction, with differences from 140 to 660 yr. The dating provides minimum ages of about 27,000 yr for the Marqués glaciation and about 25,000 yr for the Santo Tomás glaciation. Dates for the overlying tephra indicate a complex volcanic history for at least another 15,000 yr. Comparison of the Ajusco glacial sequence with that on Iztaccíhuatl to the east suggests that the Marqués and Santo Tomás glaciations may be equivalent to the Diamantes glaciation First and Second advances, the Albergue to the Alcalican glaciations, and the

  3. Molecular Targets for Organophosphates in the Central Nervous System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    471-493, 1997. * Camara , A.L., Braga, M.F.M., Rocha, E.S., Santos, M.D., Cortes, W.S., Cintra, W.M., Aracava, Y., Maelicke, A., and Albuquerque, E.X... paciente . (Galantamine in the treatment of Alzheimer=s disease: from research to patient). Revista Brasileira de Neurologia 37:6-17, 2001. Wang, Y...494, 2004. Almeida, L.E.F., Pereira, E.F.R., Camara , A.L., Maelicke, A., and Albuquerque, E.X. Sensitivity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine

  4. Physical Sciences in Lisbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Carneiro, Ana

    2012-09-01

    We provide a two-day tour of Lisbon, Portugal, focusing on sites of scientific and technological importance, setting them within their historical contexts. On the first day we visit the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, the building that successively housed the College of Nobles, the Polytechnic School, and the University of Lisbon Faculty of Sciences, and then go on to the Arpad Szenes-Vieira da Silva Museum and the Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon. On the second day we visit the Industrial Institute and Museum, the Geographical Society of Lisbon, the Jesuit College of Santo Antão, and the Technical Institute.

  5. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Study on a Droplet of a Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Stabilized by Quantum Fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hiroki

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by recent experiments [H. Kadau et al., http://doi.org/10.1038/nature16485, Nature (London) 530, 194 (2016); I. Ferrier-Barbut et al., http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.03318, arXiv:1601.03318] and theoretical prediction (F. Wächtler and L. Santos, http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.04501, arXiv:1601.04501), the ground state of a dysprosium Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interaction is studied by the path-integral Monte Carlo method. It is shown that quantum fluctuation can stabilize the condensate against dipolar collapse.

  6. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Rodolpho S. T.; Andena, Sergio R.; Carvalho, Antonio F.; Costa, Marco A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State. PMID:22368453

  7. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Andena, Sergio R; Carvalho, Antonio F; Costa, Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State.

  8. A Provenance-based Trust Model for Delay Tolerant Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-21

    data derivation, and data annotation [10]. Since then, OPM has been widely adopted and extended by various research groups [8]. Freire et al. [5...VLDB Workshop on Secure Data Management, LNCS, vol. 5159, pp. 82–98, Auckland, New Zealand, Aug. 24, 2008. 5. J. Freire , D. Koop, E. Santos, and C.T... Freire , J. Futrelle, R.E. McGrath, J. Myers, and P. Paulson, “The open provenance model: an overview,” Int’l Provenance and Annotation Workshop, Salt Lake

  9. Molecular dynamics and theory for the contact values of the radial distribution functions of hard-disk fluid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Luding, Stefan; Santos, Andrés

    2004-11-01

    We report molecular dynamics results for the contact values of the radial distribution functions of binary additive mixtures of hard disks. The simulation data are compared with theoretical predictions from expressions proposed by Jenkins and Mancini [J. Appl. Mech. 54, 27 (1987)] and Santos et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 5785 (2002)]. Both theories agree quantitatively within a very small margin, which renders the former still a very useful and simple tool to work with. The latter (higher-order and self-consistent) theory provides a small qualitative correction for low densities and is superior especially in the high-density domain.

  10. First Report of Aprostocetus asthenogmus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in South America and Parasitizing Eggs of Triatominae Vectors of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Rocha, Leonardo de Souza; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time the parasitism of eggs of two triatomine Chagas disease vectors, Triatoma infestans and T. vitticeps, by the microhymenopterous parasitoid Aprostocetus asthenogmus. We also describe the first identification of this parasitoid in South America. A. asthenogmus were captured near unparasitized triatomine colonies in the municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and placed into pots with recently laid triatomine eggs. After 24 days, we observed wasps emerging from T. infestans and T. vitticeps eggs. Several characteristics of this parasitoid species suggest that it could be a potential biological control agent of triatomine species. PMID:24575298

  11. Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army Personnel: Methods and Summary Statistics 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    and Richard H. Osborne. 1986. Interobserver Measurement Reliability in Anthiopometry. Human Biology 58(5):751-759. 18. Branson , R.S., Y.E Vaucher...Janini, Julie Janini, Anne Kaminski, Sara Kelly, Shirley Kristensen, Lisa Love, Jill Parks, Lisa Prenger, Amy Pulse, Lisa Richards , Robyn Tebbetts...Barbadian 1 .0 2 .1 Cuban 1 .0 2 .1 Dominican 2 .1 0 .0 Jamaican 11 .5 4 .2 Puerto Rican 19 .9 27 1.5 Santo Domingan 1 .0 0 .0 Trinidadian 2 .1 0 .0 Virgin

  12. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from northeastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine.

  13. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from northeastern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine. PMID:28228682

  14. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (Santos Estuarine System (where the Sao Vicente Channel is included) would be important to confirm if this pattern of bioaccumulation can be extended to the population of C. danae of this estuary.

  15. Consumption of ayahuasca by children and pregnant women: medical controversies and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labate, Beatriz Caiuby

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Brazilian Government agency responsible for drug-related issues formulated official Resolutions that categorized the consumption of ayahuasca by pregnant women and children in the Santo Daime and União do Vegetal ayahuasca-based religions as an "exercise of parental rights." Although ayahuasca groups do enjoy a relative degree of social legitimacy and formal legal recognition in Brazil, the participation of pregnant women and children nevertheless continues to provoke heated discussion. This article raises the main issues involved in the public debate over this subject. In the first part, a diverse group of biomedical and health specialists was consulted, and their opinions were briefly analyzed. In the second, a full interview with a follower of one branch of Santo Daime, mother of four children who took ayahuasca during all her pregnancies, and whose children all drink ayahuasca, is presented. Her interview reveals important cultural parameters of ayahuasca consumption. The article explores common themes and contradictions found between the biomedical, anthropological, and ayahuasca-users' discourses. It raises central issues regarding the limits of freedom of religion and the state's right to interfere in family matters. The following analysis also has implications regarding the role of science in influencing policy decisions on drug use.

  16. Discovery of an alien species of mayfly in South America (Ephemeroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Frederico F.; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Kamila B.; De-Souza, Márcia R.; Gonçalves, Inês C.; Nessimian, Jorge L.; Sartori, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite its wide, almost worldwide distribution, the mayfly genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is restricted in the Western hemisphere to North America, where a single species is reported. In the Neotropics, except for some species wrongly attributed to the genus in the past, there are no records of Cloeon. Recently, however, specimens of true Cloeon were collected along the coast of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. In order to verify the hypothesis that this species was recently introduced to Brazil, our aim was to identify the species based on morphological and molecular characters and to confirm the presence of true representatives of the genus in the Neotropics. Our results revealed that the specimens found in Brazil belong to the Afrotropical species C. smaeleni Lestage, 1924. The identity of the species, its distribution, along with its previous absence in regularly sampled sites, is a clear sign that the specimens of C. smaeleni found in Espírito Santo are introduced, well established, and that the colonization took place very recently. PMID:24843249

  17. A new brachypterous genus of Brazilian stag beetle (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae) with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paschoal Coelho

    2016-02-09

    Montesinus gen. nov. is described from Brazil, along with three new species, Montesinus monnei sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in MNRJ: Brazil, Espírito Santo State, Parque Nacional do Caparaó, 2500 m a.s.l., 13.IV.2001, F.O. Correia leg.), M. tatula sp. nov. (Holotype female deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Corinto, 900 m a.s.l., I.1998, E. Antunes leg.), and M. machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype female deposited in MNRJ: Brazil, Espírito Santo State, Serra do Caparaó, Ibitirama, 2600 m a.s.l., 10-12.IV.2012, M.V.P. Simões leg.). This unusual genus is related to Altitatiayus Weinreich, with which it shares the brachypterous condition and also some characters of the male genitalia, being distinguished from it mainly by its punctate flat head and indistinct elytral striae. The three new species are distinguished by their general color, shape of posterior margin of pronotum, tibial armature and elytral punctures. The new species are from two isolated mountain formations, called Serra do Caparaó and Serra do Espinhaço formations. This is the third brachypterous genus of stag beetle found in Brazil, but it occurs in mountains isolated from the Serra da Mantiqueira where the other two genera are found. The habitus, male genitalia and maxillae of the new species are illustrated.

  18. Royal Dutch/Shell unit to start gas flow off Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    Pecten do Brazil, a unit of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group, plans a September start-up of Merluza, the only natural gas field discovered off Brazil by a foreign operator. This paper reports that plans call for initial production of 17.7 MMcfd from a single fixed platform in 130 m of water in the Santos basin 180 km off Sao Paulo state. Production is expected to build to 53 MMcfd 1 year later and stay at that volume for 12 years. Total investment in the project is pegged at $439 million. Although Pecten discovered and developed the field, stat oil company Petroleos Brasileiro SA earlier was scheduled to assume operator ship in spring 1992. Pecten found Merluza in 1979 and has drilled six high angle development wells. The field holds and estimated 388.5 bcf of reserves, almost 1/10 of the nation's total 4.06 tcf, plus 11 million bbl of condensate. Merluza gas will move though a 186 km, 16 in. subsea pipeline to shore at Praia Grande, Santos, where is will link with a 28 km, 16 in. pipeline to the Presidente Bernardes refinery at Cubatao, Sao Paulo State. The refinery will take some of the gas, with the rest to be distributed in Sao Paulo state by Comgas, the state's gas distribution company.

  19. On the diagnosis and conservation of the poorly known bromeligenous Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002 (Amphibia; Anura; Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Lacerda, João Victor A; Ferreira, Rodrigo B; De Souza, Geisa Alves; Da Silva, Hélio Ricardo; Feio, Renato N

    2015-09-28

    Since Scinax arduous description, many other populations belonging to the Scinax perpusillus group have been recorded for the States of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Both in collections and publications most of these new specimens are identified as S. arduous, Scinax cf. arduous, Scinax cf. perpusillus, Scinax gr. perpusillus, S. perpusillus and S. v-signatus. Such state of affairs may be due to the lack of information on the original description of S. arduous. Only two individuals [the holotype (female) and the paratype (male)] were used in the original description and diagnosis, therefore, information on variation and distribution were not available. Furthermore, in S. arduous description, the section on coloration in life was based only on two juveniles raised in laboratory. Herein we redefine Scinax arduous based on 44 males and 17 females from the type locality, the Municipality of Santa Teresa, in the State of Espírito Santo. In addition, we provide information on its conservation status, distribution, natural history, vocalization, tadpoles, and detailed photographs of both adults and larvae.

  20. Éponges filantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles

    Domingues Dos Santos et Ondarçuhu (1995) ont découvert les « gouttes filantes » contenant une solution de molécules réactives (chlorosilanes). Si une telle goutte est posée sur une surfae solide (verre, silice) comportant des groupes OH qui réagissent avec le silane, la goutte fuit les régions réagies de faible mouillabilité et se met en marche. Nous discutons ici le remplacement de la goutte par une « éponge » : particule de latex, ou caoutchouc, gonflée par le solvant. Deux cas sont envisagés : a) glissement d'une pastille donnant des vitesses 1 μm/s; b) roulement d'une sphère (donnant des vitesses comparables pour des particules de latex, mais plus élevées pour des sphères millimétriques de caoutchouc). Domingues Dos Santos and Ondarçuhu have discovered that certain droplets, containing a reactive solute (chlorosilane) move spontaneously on a glass surface. We discuss here the replacement of the drop by a "sponge": swollen latex or rubber particule. Two cases are considered: a) sliding of a flat sponge leading to velocities of order 1 μ/sec.; b) rolling of a sphere, giving comparable velocities for a latex particle, and larger velocities for millimetric rubber spheres.

  1. Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Metal(Oid)s in Soils Around an Abandoned Pb-Smelter Plant.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Nielson Machado; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Matschullat, Jörg; de Olinda, Ricardo Alves

    2017-03-01

    Todos os Santos (All Saints) Bay area, NE-Brazil, is known for one of the most important cases of urban lead (Pb) contamination in the world. The main objective of this work was to assess and interpret the spatial distribution of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn in "background" soils of this environmentally impacted bay area, using a combination of geostatistical and multivariate analytical methods to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of those metal(oid)s in soils. We collected 114 topsoil samples (0.0-0.2 m depth) from 38 sites. The median values for trace metal concentrations in soils (mg kg(-1)) followed the order Pb (33.9) > Zn (8.8) > As (1.2) > Cd (0.2) > Hg (0.07), clearly reflecting a Pb-contamination issue. Principal component analysis linked Cd, Pb, and Zn to the same factor (F1), chiefly corroborating their anthropogenic origin; yet, both Pb and Zn are also influenced by natural lithogenic sources. Arsenic and Hg concentrations (F2) are likely related to the natural component alone; their parent material (igneous-metamorphic rocks) seemingly confirm this hypothesis. The heterogeneity of sources and the complexity of the spatial distribution of metals in large areas such as the Todos os Santos Bay warrant, the importance of multivariate and geostatistical analyses in the interpretation of environmental data.

  2. Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Metal(Oid)s in Soils Around an Abandoned Pb-Smelter Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Nielson Machado; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Matschullat, Jörg; de Olinda, Ricardo Alves

    2017-03-01

    Todos os Santos (All Saints) Bay area, NE-Brazil, is known for one of the most important cases of urban lead (Pb) contamination in the world. The main objective of this work was to assess and interpret the spatial distribution of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn in "background" soils of this environmentally impacted bay area, using a combination of geostatistical and multivariate analytical methods to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of those metal(oid)s in soils. We collected 114 topsoil samples (0.0-0.2 m depth) from 38 sites. The median values for trace metal concentrations in soils (mg kg-1) followed the order Pb (33.9) > Zn (8.8) > As (1.2) > Cd (0.2) > Hg (0.07), clearly reflecting a Pb-contamination issue. Principal component analysis linked Cd, Pb, and Zn to the same factor (F1), chiefly corroborating their anthropogenic origin; yet, both Pb and Zn are also influenced by natural lithogenic sources. Arsenic and Hg concentrations (F2) are likely related to the natural component alone; their parent material (igneous-metamorphic rocks) seemingly confirm this hypothesis. The heterogeneity of sources and the complexity of the spatial distribution of metals in large areas such as the Todos os Santos Bay warrant, the importance of multivariate and geostatistical analyses in the interpretation of environmental data.

  3. Collection-based analysis of selected medical libraries in the Philippines using Doody’s Core Titles

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Efren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the book collection of five selected medical libraries in the Philippines, based on Doodys’ Essential Purchase List for basic sciences and clinical medicine, to compare the match and non-match titles among libraries, to determine the strong and weak disciplines of each library, and to explore the factors that contributed to the percentage of match and non-match titles. Method List checking was employed as the method of research. Results Among the medical libraries, De La Salle Health Sciences Institute and University of Santo Tomas had the highest percentage of match titles, whereas Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health had the lowest percentage of match titles. University of the Philippines Manila had the highest percentage of near-match titles. Conclusion De La Salle Health Sciences Institute and University of Santo Tomas had sound medical collections based on Doody’s Core Titles. Collectively, the medical libraries shared common collection development priorities, as evidenced by similarities in strong areas. Library budget and the role of the library director in book selection were among the factors that could contribute to a high percentage of match titles. PMID:28096742

  4. CO2 fluid inclusion barometry in mantle xenoliths from central Mexico: A detailed record of magma ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levresse, Gilles; Cervantes-de la Cruz, Karina Elizabeth; Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Dávalos-Elizondo, María Guadalupe; Jiménez-Sandoval, Sergio; Rodríguez-Melgarejo, Francisco; Alba-Aldave, Leticia Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium and CO2 fluid inclusion barometry are complementary techniques, as they register different geological processes. Chemical equilibrium barometry records the pressure at the site where the xenoliths were incorporated into the transporting magma, but it is not a sensible technique to document magma ascent. CO2 fluid inclusion pore pressure in xenoliths does not register the P-T conditions in the source area, but it allows illustrating a fairly detailed record of different geological processes that occurred during the magma transport to the surface and as the eruption proceeded. Mantle xenoliths from Ventura-Espíritu Santo and Santo Domingo volcanic fields contain dominant CO2 pseudosecondary and secondary fluid inclusions trapped in cpx and ol. Cpx chemical equilibrium pressures indicate a maximum pressure of 10 kbar for the source area. Pore pressures obtained in CO2 pseudosecondary and secondary fluid inclusions show a distribution with three maximum peaks at ca. 8, 5-7, and less than 3 kbar. A comparison with geophysical models for the area where the xenoliths-bearing volcanoes are located shows that the three peaks in the pore pressures correspond to three physico-chemical transitions within the continental crust. Likewise, the pore pressure suggests that rapid magma ascent is momentarily interrupted by these discontinuities, a fact that allows the formation of new fluid inclusions and the re-equilibration of some of the inclusions already present in the primary minerals of the xenoliths.

  5. Contamination of port zone sediments by metals from Large Marine Ecosystems of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buruaem, Lucas M; Hortellani, Marcos A; Sarkis, Jorge E; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Abessa, Denis M S

    2012-03-01

    Sediment contamination by metals poses risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic to dredging operations. In Brazil, there are differences in sedimentology along the Large Marine Ecosystems in relation to the metal distributions. We aimed to assess the extent of Al, Fe, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination in sediments from port zones in northeast (Mucuripe and Pecém) and southeast (Santos) Brazil through geochemical analyses and sediment quality ratings. The metal concentrations found in these port zones were higher than those observed in the continental shelf or the background values in both regions. In the northeast, metals were associated with carbonate, while in Santos, they were associated with mud. Geochemical analyses showed enrichments in Hg, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, and a simple application of international sediment quality guidelines failed to predict their impacts, whereas the use of site-specific values that were derived by geochemical and ecotoxicological approaches seemed to be more appropriate in the management of the dredged sediments.

  6. Body weight and food consumption scores in adolescents from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Augusto Cesar; de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excess weight and analyze eating habits in relation to cardiovascular disease in adolescents from the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with male and female students (10-19 years old) enrolled at public and private schools in Vitória de Santo Antão. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and subsequently converted to monthly intake pattern scores, obtaining the intake distribution for a group of foods associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for a group of protective foods. The significance level for the statistical tests was set at 5.0%. Results: The sample consisted of 2866 students. The female gender accounted for 54.2% of the sample, and median age was 14 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years). The food intake scores showed greater dispersion in the group of protective foods (51.1%). Higher median scores for consumption of risk foods were found among adolescents whose mothers had more than 9 years of schooling (p<0.001). Conclusions: Excess weight was prevalent among the students analyzed. The consumption of risk foods was only associated with maternal schooling, which shows the need for nutritional interventions directed at families, regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:26113308

  7. Differences in richness and composition of gastrointestinal parasites of small rodents (Cricetidae, Rodentia) in a continental and insular area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, V V; Graipel, M E; Pinto, C J C

    2012-08-01

    The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%), E. russatus (62%), O. nigripes (53%) and N. squamipes (20%). From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%), E. russatus (59%), O. nigripes (30%) and N. squamipes (33%) and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7) of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p < 0.01) and different (p = 0.001) from that of the area located on the island (6.9 ± 0.5).

  8. The population density of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Mollusca, Lymnaeidae) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Caparaó microregion, ES, Brazil.

    PubMed

    D'Almeida, S C G; Freitas, D F; Carneiro, M B; Camargo, P F; Azevedo, J C; Martins, I V F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the population density of Lymnaea columella, an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in various aquatic habitats and in drinking water in the area of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, on Caparaó Microregion, municipality of Alegre, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Monthly samplings were performed at certain points between drainage areas and drinking water in cattle and goat production systems during the years 2010 to 2013. The mean temperature, precipitation and the frequency of samples of L. columella were analysed graphically according the monthly average during the study period. A total of 2,038 molluscs were collected, 1558 of which were L. columella, that predominated in all sampled points. The highest average of specimens observed for L. columella was in the years 2010 and 2013 (51.0), and occurred decreased in 2011 (19.8). The temperature and precipitation averaged is 23.7 °C and 141 mm/year, respectively. Rainfall peak occurred in March (2011, 2013) and November (2012), during these periods the population of L. columella growth. There was no significant difference in the relationship between the specimens observed with seasons (dry-wet), thus the population of L. columella remained stable and can be found throughout the year.

  9. Epidemiologic investigation of echinococcosis in American Indians living in Arizona and New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; von Reyn, C F; Welty, T; Andersen, F L; Schultz, M G; Kagan, I G

    1977-01-01

    Ten cases of echinococcosis diagnosed in American Indians in Arizona and New Mexico between 1972 and 1975 were investigated as part of a regional epidemiologic study. Patients were visited at home to discover factors associated with local parasite transmission, to detect possible additional cases among family members, and to perform diagnostic tests on dogs. Six patients were Navajo, 2 Zuni, and 2 Santo Domingo Indians. An additional case in a Navajo man was detected by serologic testing of patients' family members; this was the 20th case diagnosed in the region since 1965. Dogs owned by three of the Navajo patients were infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Arecoline-purge testing of 110 dogs in the Zuni pueblo demonstrated echinococcosis in a single stray dog. The findings at slaughter of Navajo-owned sheep indicate that the infection is enzootic in this intermediate host. The epidemiologic findings suggest that humans were infected from dogs which contracted their infections from two sources. The first was sheep raised locally in rural areas of the Navajo Reservation where the infection is enzootic in the dog-sheep cycle; transmission was apparently facilitated by the widespread practice of home butchering. A second source of human infection was dogs which became infected by eating viscera of sheep of off-reservation origin; these sheep were purchased and butchered by individual families in urban areas of the Navajo Reservation and in the Zuni and Santo Domingo pueblos.

  10. Richness and diversity of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Israel Souza; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to study and evaluate the richness and diversity of Phlebotominae fauna in the Duas Bocas Biological Reserve (DBBR) in the state of Espírito Santo, in southeastern Brazil. Sand fly collections were carried out during four consecutive nights each month between August 2007 and July 2008 at DBBR by using CDC automatic light traps and an illuminated Shannon trap. Specific richness (S) and Shannon diversity index (H) was calculated for each trap. We collected 18,868 sand flies belonging to 29 species and 13 genera. Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli was the most abundant species followed by Psychodopygus ayrozai, Ps. hirsutus, Psathyromyia pascalei, and Ps. matosi. We recorded Brumptomyia cardosoi, Br. troglodytes, and Ps. geniculatus for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo. We discuss the differences in diversity and richness of the sand flies in both traps and in relation to other Brazilian localities and biomes. We also discuss the possibility of wild transmission of Leishmania in the DBBR and the influence of the sand fly species in leishmaniasis transmission to the adjacent areas of the reserve.

  11. Morphological, biological and molecular characterization of three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) isolated from Triatoma sordida (Stal) 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and a domestic cat

    PubMed Central

    RIMOLDI, ALINE; TOMÉ ALVES, RENATA; AMBRÓSIO, DANIELA LUZ; FERNANDES, MARIA ZENAIDE TITA; MARTINEZ, ISABEL; DE ARAÚJO, RENATO FREITAS; CICARELLI, REGINA MARIA BARRETO; DA ROSA, JOÃO ARISTEU

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A study was conducted of the biological, morphological and molecular characters of 3 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (SI5, SI8 and SIGR3) isolated from specimens of Triatoma sordida collected in Santo Inácio and a domestic cat. In order to carry out the study, the following parameters were evaluated: pre-patent period, parasitaemia curves, morphology of the parasites, mortality rates, histopathological lesions and molecular typing. The strains presented variable pre-patent periods, low parasitaemia and no animal mortality. The morphological study of trypomastigotes showed a predominance of intermediate-width and short-length forms, as well as low nuclear index. Epimastigotes presented a low nuclear index, intermediate-width forms in strains SI5 and SI8, and large-width forms in SIGR3. A shorter length could be noted in strains SI8 and SIGR3, whereas SI5 displayed an intermediate length. The histopathological study did not detect amastigote nests in tissues. The amplification of the divergent domain of 24Sα rRNA, HSP60 and GPI genes of strains SI5, SI8 and SIGR3 classified the 3 strains into Group II. Biological parameters made it possible to classify the strains isolated in Santo Inácio (BA) into Biodeme III, Zymodeme 1 and Group II of T. cruzi. PMID:22217619

  12. Umbanda healers as effective AIDS educators: case-control study in Brazilian urban slums (favelas).

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; de Souza, M A

    1997-01-01

    During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in AIDS awareness, knowledge about risky HIV behaviour, information about correct condom use, and acceptance of lower-risk, alternative ritual blood practices and decreases (P < 0.001) in prejudicial attitudes related to HIV transmission were found among mobilized healers as compared to 100 untrained controls. Respected Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS.

  13. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  14. Lorentz-violating effects in three-dimensional QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalo, R.

    2014-08-01

    Inspired in discussions presented lately regarding Lorentz-violating interaction terms in B. Charneski, M. Gomes, R. V. Maluf and A. J. da Silva, Phys. Rev. D86, 045003 (2012); R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira Jr., R. V. Maluf and F. E. P. dos Santos, Phys. Lett. B726, 815 (2013); R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira Jr., E. Passos, F. E. P. dos Santos and E. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D87, 047701 (2013), we propose here a slightly different version for the coupling term. We will consider a modified quantum electrodynamics with violation of Lorentz symmetry defined in a (2+1)-dimensional space-time. We define the Lagrangian density with a Lorentz-violating interaction, where the space-time dimensionality is explicitly taken into account in its definition. The work encompasses an analysis of this model at both zero and finite-temperature, where very interesting features are known to occur due to the space-time dimensionality. With that in mind, we expect that the space-time dimensionality may provide new insights about the radiative generation of higher-derivative terms into the action, implying in a new Lorentz-violating electrodynamics, as well the nonminimal coupling may provide interesting implications on the thermodynamical quantities.

  15. Testing the Rio Doce as a riverine barrier in shaping the Atlantic rainforest population divergence in the rodent Akodon cursor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Akodon cursor occurs in dense rainforest from northern (8° S) to southern (26° S) states along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Previous karyological and molecular data revealed two major clades, one including northern (8-15° S) and the other southern (19-26° S) populations. The center of geographic distribution (15-20° S), which included the state of Espírito Santo, was identified as a potential vicariance region. Since river barriers are among the most discussed models in the study of Neotropical diversification, we examined whether the Rio Doce (19° S) plays an important role in shaping the population genetic divergence of A. cursor by including samples from Espírito Santo in the analysis. Our results showed that the northern-southern division region in Atlantic forest was no coincidence with the presence of the Rio Doce by refuting the hypothesis that this river is an effective barrier to gene flow between populations. Instead, we found evidence that isolation by geographical distance shaped the phylogeographical structure in the southern lineage. However, there is uncertainty about effectiveness of the processes involved and further studies based on wider sampling are needed. PMID:21637592

  16. Employing GPS L5 Carrier-Frequency in Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spits, J.; Santos, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Justine Spits and Marcelo C. Santos Dept. of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada E3B 5A3 Tel: (1-506) 453-4698, Email: msantos@unb.ca, jspits@unb.ca Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a GNSS technique which, in most cases nowadays, makes use of Global Positioning System (GPS) dual-frequency signals. The increasing availability of the new GPS L5 signal brings about the question on how much can PPP benefit if it uses L5 in conjunction with the legacy L1 and L2 signals. This poster discusses this issue. It involves the study of the use of L5 in conjunction with the other GPS signals (L1 and L2) with emphasis on the potentialities associated with the various combinations, such as L1-L5, L2-L5 and L1-L2-L5. These combinations will bring benefits in different ways, for example, for ionospheric delay mitigation, ambiguity resolution, convergence time and accuracy. Simulated L5 data will be used to test the PPP algorithms. Performance will be compared against the current dual-frequency PPP methodology. Justine Spits: Ph.D. (Liège, Belgium); Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of New Brunswick Marcelo. C. Santos: Ph.D. (New Brunswick); Professor, University of New Brunswick

  17. Multivariate analysis in a genetic divergence study of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A M; Ferreira, M F S; Guilhen, J H S; Ferreira, A

    2014-12-18

    The family Myrtaceae is widespread in the Atlantic Forest and is well-represented in the Espírito Santo State in Brazil. In the genus Psidium of this family, guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the most economically important species. Guava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries; however, the widespread cultivation of only a small number of guava tree cultivars may cause the genetic vulnerability of this crop, making the search for promising genotypes in natural populations important for breeding programs and conservation. In this study, the genetic diversity of 66 guava trees sampled in the southern region of Espírito Santo and in Caparaó, MG, Brazil were evaluated. A total of 28 morphological descriptors (11 quantitative and 17 multicategorical) and 18 microsatellite markers were used. Principal component, discriminant and cluster analyses, descriptive analyses, and genetic diversity analyses using simple sequence repeats were performed. Discrimination of accessions using molecular markers resulted in clustering of genotypes of the same origin, which was not observed using morphological data. Genetic diversity was detected between and within the localities evaluated, regardless of the methodology used. Genetic differentiation among the populations using morphological and molecular data indicated the importance of the study area for species conservation, genetic erosion estimation, and exploitation in breeding programs.

  18. [Compared biology of populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) of Paraíba state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Beserra, Eduardo B; Castro, Francisco P de

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims at comparing the life cycle and estimating, based on life tables, the patterns of fertility of populations of A. aegypti (L.). The life cycles were studied at the temperature of 26 +/- 2 degrees C, and 12h photophase. The development period, egg viability and larval and pupal survival were evaluated daily as well as adult longevity and fecundity. Tables of fertility life were built. The durations of egg, larva and pupa stages varied from 3,9 to 4,5 days, from 6,4 to 8,3 days and from 2,0 to 2,5 days, respectively. The life table parameters for A. aegypti from Brejo dos Santos, Boqueirão, Itaporanga and Remígio, being, respectively, Ro = 104,03, 84,58, 113,37 and 91,18; rm = 0,92, 0,78, 0,89 and 0,88; and lambda = 2,50, 2,18, 2,43 and 2,41. The populations of Brejo dos Santos and Itaporanga had the biggest potential of growth in relation to the other populations. The results showed a differentiated pattern of growth and a biotical potential in the populations of A. aegypti originated from different municipal districts of the state of Paraíba.

  19. On L p -Resolvent Estimates and the Density of Eigenvalues for Compact Riemannian Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, Jean; Shao, Peng; Sogge, Christopher D.; Yao, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    We address an interesting question raised by Dos Santos Ferreira, Kenig and Salo (Forum Math, 2014) about regions for which there can be uniform resolvent estimates for , , where is the Laplace-Beltrami operator with metric g on a given compact boundaryless Riemannian manifold of dimension . This is related to earlier work of Kenig, Ruiz and the third author (Duke Math J 55:329-347, 1987) for the Euclidean Laplacian, in which case the region is the entire complex plane minus any disc centered at the origin. Presently, we show that for the round metric on the sphere, S n , the resolvent estimates in (Dos Santos Ferreira et al. in Forum Math, 2014), involving a much smaller region, are essentially optimal. We do this by establishing sharp bounds based on the distance from to the spectrum of . In the other direction, we also show that the bounds in (Dos Santos Ferreira et al. in Forum Math, 2014) can be sharpened logarithmically for manifolds with nonpositive curvature, and by powers in the case of the torus, , with the flat metric. The latter improves earlier bounds of Shen (Int Math Res Not 1:1-31, 2001). The work of (Dos Santos Ferreira et al. in Forum Math, 2014) and (Shen in Int Math Res Not 1:1-31, 2001) was based on Hadamard parametrices for . Ours is based on the related Hadamard parametrices for , and it follows ideas in (Sogge in Ann Math 126:439-447, 1987) of proving L p -multiplier estimates using small-time wave equation parametrices and the spectral projection estimates from (Sogge in J Funct Anal 77:123-138, 1988). This approach allows us to adapt arguments in Bérard (Math Z 155:249-276, 1977) and Hlawka (Monatsh Math 54:1-36, 1950) to obtain the aforementioned improvements over (Dos Santos Ferreira et al. in Forum Math, 2014) and (Shen in Int Math Res Not 1:1-31, 2001). Further improvements for the torus are obtained using recent techniques of the first author (Bourgain in Israel J Math 193(1):441-458, 2013) and his work with Guth (Bourgain and Guth

  20. Quantifying Continental Margin Deformation North and South of the Opening of the Gulf of California—Evidence for Subduction Erosion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, E. M.; Grove, M.; Kimbrough, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    A striking contrast exists in the geology of the continental margin north and south of the opening of the Gulf of California. For 1200km north of the Gulf opening, a reasonably well-preserved forearc region is associated with strongly magnetic 130-100 Ma plutonic rocks, volcanics and ophiolitic basement. This package of rocks is also coupled with a weakly magnetic eastern belt of 100-90 Ma tonalite and trondhjemite. In contrast, the southern continental margin bound by the Acapulco Trench lacks both a forearc basin and the 130-100 Ma plutonic belt. Instead, Late Cretaceous and Early to Middle Cenozoic granitoids crop out both along the coast and in the offshore region east of the Acapulco Trench, extending 1300 km south to 16°N. The geologic contrast between the northern and southern segments has been attributed to Cenozoic subduction erosion of the latter. The transition region between these two regimes occurs ~50 km northwest of the Gulf opening at 23°N along the Pacific coast of Baja California. North of Todos Santos, Late Cretaceous and younger strata depositionally overlie the western margin of the 130-100 Ma plutonic belt. The plutonic rocks are well-expressed in aeromagnetic images, even where buried. South of Todos Santos, 100-90 m.y. granitoids crop out along the coast and underlie the offshore Todos Santos basin; the strongly magnetic basement and undeformed forearc rocks are absent. Near Todos Santos, 94 Ma orthogneiss intercalated with upper amphibolite facies (garnet ± andalusite) Late Triassic(?) wallrocks are structurally juxtaposed above epidote amphibolite calc-schist of the mid-Cretaceous accretionary complex, suggesting significant forearc deformation. Previous 40Ar/39Ar data gathered south of Todos Santos reveal 5-10 m.y. of discordance between hornblende and biotite in the 100-90 m.y. granitoids. The age discordance could be related to either transient heating from 83-68 Ma granitoids located to the east or subduction erosion deformation

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of surface water quality in a Portuguese peri-urban catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    Urban development poses great pressure on water resources, but the impact of different land-uses on streamwater quality in partly urbanized catchments is not well understood. Focussing on a Portuguese peri-urban catchment, this paper explores the impact of a mosaic of different urban and non-urban land-uses on streamwater quality, and the influence of a seasonal Mediterranean climate on pollutant dynamics. The catchment has a 40% urban cover, dispersed amongst patches of woodland (56%) and agricultural fields (4%). Apart from the catchment outlet, streamwater quality was assessed at three sub-catchment sites: (i) Porto Bordalo, encompassing a 39% urban area with a new major road; (ii) Espírito Santo, draining a sub-catchment with 49% urban cover, mostly comprising detached houses surrounded by gardens; and (iii) Quinta, with a 25% urban cover. The Porto Bordalo sub-catchment is underlain by limestone, whereas the Espírito Santo and Quinta sub-catchments overlie sandstone. Water quality variables (notably nutrients, heavy metals and COD) were assessed for samples collected at different stages in the storm hydrograph responses to ten rainfall events occurring between October 2011 and March 2013. Urban areas had great impacts on COD, with highest median concentrations in Espírito Santo (18.0 mg L-1) and lowest in Quinta (9.5 mgL-1). In Espírito Santo, the management of gardens triggered greatest median concentrations of N-NO3 (1.46 mgL-1, p<0.05). Porto Bordalo exhibited the highest median concentrations of Zn (0.14 mgL-1), possibly derived from the major road, and dissolved phosphorus (0.07 mgL-1). The latter may be linked to human activities, such as terrace and car washing, as overland flow from impervious surfaces was observed to discharge directly into the stream, whereas in other sub-catchments it mostly disperses into pervious soils. Pastoral activities in agricultural fields adjacent to the stream led to highest median concentrations of N-Nk and N-NH4

  2. Precipitation thresholds for triggering floods in Corgo hydrographic basin (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Monica; Fragoso, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation is a major cause of natural hazards and is therefore related to the flood events (Borga et al., 2011; Gaál et al., 2014; Wilhelmi & Morss, 2013). The severity of a precipitation event and their potential damage is dependent on the total amount of rain but also on the intensity and duration event (Gaál et al., 2014). In this work, it was established thresholds based on critical combinations: amount / duration of flood events with daily rainfall data for Corgo hydrographic basin, in northern Portugal. In Corgo basin are recorded 31 floods events between 1865 and 2011 (Santos et al., 2015; Zêzere et al., 2014). We determined the minimum, maximum and pre-warning thresholds that define the boundaries so that an event may occur. Additionally, we applied these thresholds to different flood events occurred in the past in the study basin. The results show that the ratio between the flood events and precipitation events that occur above the minimum threshold has relatively low probability of a flood happen. These results may be related to the reduced number of floods events (only those that caused damage reported by the media and produced some type of damage). The maximum threshold is not useful for floods forecasting, since the majority of true positives are below this limit. The retrospective analysis of the thresholds defined suggests that the minimum and pre warning thresholds are well adjusted. The application of rainfall thresholds contribute to minimize possible situations of pre-crisis or immediate crisis, reducing the consequences and the resources involved in emergency response of flood events. References Borga, M., Anagnostou, E. N., Blöschl, G., & Creutin, J. D. (2011). Flash flood forecasting, warning and risk management: the HYDRATE project. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(7), 834-844. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2011.05.017 Gaál, L., Molnar, P., & Szolgay, J. (2014). Selection of intense rainfall events based on intensity thresholds and

  3. Soil organic carbon can be up-taken by plant roots and stored in plant biosilica: NanoSIMS and isotopic labeling evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Anne; Santos, Guaciara M.; balesdent, Jerôme; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Borschneck, Daniel; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Harutyunyan, Araks; Lemee, Laurent; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Reyerson, Paul; Signoret, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Plant biosilica particles called phytoliths contain occluded organic compounds (phytC). Over the last few years, phytC content, nature, origin, paleoenvironmental meaning and impact in the global C cycle has been the subject of increasing debate[1, 2]. Inconsistencies in phytC quantification were fed by the scarcity of in-situ characterization of phytC in phytoliths and by inadequate extraction methods[3]. Very recently, 14C-AMS analyses of soil organic matter (SOM), amendments, plant tissues, atmospheric CO2 and phytolith samples, evidenced that a small but significant pool of phytC is not photosynthetic but derived from old SOM[4,5]. From there, several investigations were started to go further into the characterization of phytC and the mechanisms in play behind old SOM absorption by plant roots and old SOM occlusion in plant biosilica. Here, we first reconstruct at high spatial resolution the 3-dimentional location of phytC and its C/N signature using 3D X-ray microscopy and Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS). A pool of phytC appears homogeneously distributed in the silica structure and its C:N estimate is in the range of amino acid signatures[6]. Then, we use 13C and 15N-labelled amino acids monitored from an hydroponic solution to grass roots, stems, leaves and phytoliths to evidence that amino acids are absorbed as such by the roots and are concentrated in phytC rather than in the plant tissues. These findings strengthen and complement the 14C evidences. Both of them dissuade attempts to use phytC as a proxy of plant C. Further, they open new avenues of investigation regarding the processes which drive SOM mobilization by plant uptake, for a better understanding of soil/plant interactions involved in the terrestrial C cycle. [1] Santos et al. 2010. Radiocarbon 52:113 [2] Santos et al. 2012. Biogeosci. 9:1873 [3] Corbineau et al. 2013 R. Paleobot. Palyn. 197: 179 [4] Reyerson et al. 2013 AGU Fall meeting 2013 (1803125) [5] Santos et al. 2014

  4. ``Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler'' and its Institutional Pedagogical Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Calil, M. R.; Perez, E. R.; Kanashiro, M.; Silva, L. C. P.; Calipo, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work relates the reception of schools, started on August 2012, in the astronomic laboratory of the "Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler", located in the "Sabina - Escola Parque do Conhecimento" in Santo André, São Paulo. The idealization of this project, authorship of Marcos Calil, PhD, consists in four apprenticeship environments disposed around the planetary dome. They make reference to the System Sun - Earth - Moon (Tellurium), Solar System, Astronautic and Stars. On Tuesdays and Wednesdays the astronomic laboratory is used by Santo André municipal schools for focused lessons, being possible on Thursdays scheduling for private and public schools. On weekends and holidays is opened for the visitors. Since the inauguration to the beginning of activities with students, the monitor team was guided and trained on contents of Astronomy and Aeronautic to execute the schools service. This is done in four stages, which are: reception, course trough the astronomic laboratory, dome session and activities closure. During the reception the acquaintance rules are passed on for a better visit. Before starting the course the monitors do a survey about the previous knowledge of the students. On the astronomic laboratory resources of the environment are used to explain the contents of Astronomy and Astronautic, always considering the age group and the curriculum developed in classroom. After the course the students watch a planetary session supporting the contents seen on the astronomic laboratory. At the end a feedback is done with the students about the subject discussed. During the visit the teachers fulfill an evaluation about the place and the service. From August 2012 to November 2012 were attended between municipal, public and private schools. From the 4932 students attended, 92% belonged to the municipal network, 5% to the private network and 3% to the public network. From the 189 evaluations done by the teachers, 97.8% were satisfied, 2.1% partially

  5. Innovative moments and change in narrative therapy.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marlene; Santos, Anita; Gonçalves, Miguel; Martins, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Narrative therapy suggests that change happens by paying close attention in therapy to "unique outcomes," which are narrative details outside the main story (White & Epston, 1990). In this exploratory study, unique outcomes were analyzed in five good-outcome and five poor-outcome psychotherapy cases using the Innovative Moments Coding System (Gonçalves, Matos, & Santos, 2008). Across 127 sessions, innovative moments were coded in terms of salience and type. In accordance with the theory, results suggest that innovative moments are important to therapeutic change. Poor- and good-outcome groups have a global difference in the salience of the innovative moments. In addition, results suggest that two particular types of innovative moments are needed in narrative therapy for therapeutic change to take place: re-conceptualization and new experiences. Implications for future research using this model of analysis are discussed.

  6. Influence of altitude, latitude and season of collection (Bergmann's rule) on the dimensions of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Marcondes, C B; Lozovei, A L; Falqueto, A; Brazil, R P; Galati, E; Aguiar, G; Souza, N

    1999-01-01

    The influence of altitude and latitude on some structure sizes of Lutzomyia intermedia was noted; several structures of insects collected in higher localities were greater, according to Bergmann's rule. This influence was more remarkable in two localities of the State of Espírito Santo, probably due to greater differences in altitude. Comparing insects from different latitudes, more differences were noted in comparisons of insects from low altitude localities than in those of material from higher altitudes. The small number of differences between insects collected in July and in December does not indicate a defined influence of season and temperature on the size of adults. The possible epidemiological implications of these variations are discussed.

  7. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  8. Stroke education in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K

    2013-10-01

    Education is paramount in effectively reducing the significant burden of stroke in the Philippines. Dedicated academic institutions and dynamic professional organizations in the Philippines have collaborated to involve themselves in the plight against stroke through systematic curriculum development for undergraduates, continuous regulation of quality residency and fellowship training program, hosting up-to-date Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities for local and international audience, and active participation in clinical stroke trials. Most recently, the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine & Surgery and the Department of Neurology & Psychiatry offered a 72-hour Certification Course in Stroke Medicine that commenced in 2011 in anticipation of the Master on Health Sciences in Stroke Medicine course being prepared for 2013.

  9. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el

  10. The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, Calliphoridae s. l.)

    PubMed Central

    Prado e Castro, Catarina; Szpila, Krzysztof; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rego; Silva, Isamberto; Serrano, Artur R.M.; Boieiro, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and distribution of blowflies from the Madeira Archipelago is updated. New and interesting findings are reported for poorly studied islands and islets of this archipelago, together with a brief analysis of the diversity of Macaronesian Calliphoridae s. l. Seven blowfly species were collected during this study, including the first records of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794) and Stomorhina lunata (Fabricius, 1805) from Porto Santo, and of Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata and Stomorhina lunata from Desertas Islands. The presence of Calliphora loewi Enderlein, 1903 in Madeira Laurisilva forest is discussed and its first instar larva is redescribed, revealing important differences in relation to its original description. An identification key to the adult Madeiran blowflies is provided for the first time. PMID:27917052

  11. Assessment of the environmental impacts of ocean acidification (OA) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) leaks using the amphipod Hyale youngi.

    PubMed

    Goulding, T A; De Orte, M R; Szalaj, D; Basallote, M D; DelValls, T A; Cesar, A

    2017-03-18

    This study aims to ascertain the effects of CO2 induced water acidification and leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage activities on the South American amphipod Hyale youngi. A 10-day acute toxicity test was performed using sediments from two sites located inside the Santos Estuarine System. They were subjected to five pH treatments (8.1, 7.6, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0). Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn) and the metalloid As were analyzed to determine the influence of their acidification-related mobility on the amphipods mortality. The results showed that mortality becomes significant when compared to control in pH 6.5 in the Canal de Piaçaguera sediment (contaminated) and at pH 6.0 in Ilha das Palmas sediment (reference).

  12. Geomechanical numerical simulations of complex geologic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Arguello, J.G.; Stone, C.M.; Lorenz, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Ability to predict mechanical response of rock in three dimensions over the spatial and time scales of geologic interest would give the oil and gas industry the ability to reduce risk on prospects, improve pre-project initial reserve estimates, and lower operating costs. A program has recently been initiated, under the auspices of the Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI), to achieve such a computational technology breakthrough by adapting the unique advanced quasistatic finite element technology developed by Sandia to the mechanics applications important to exploration and production activities within the oil and gas industry. As a precursor to that program, in an effort to evaluate the feasibility of the approach, several complex geologic structures of interest were analyzed with the existing two-dimensional quasistatic finite element code, SANTOS, developed at Sandia. Examples are presented and discussed.

  13. Five new species of Jaspis (Porifera: Demospongiae: Tetractinellida:
    Astrophorina) from Brazil with redescription of the type species Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862).

    PubMed

    Lira, Juliana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-10-07

    The genus Jaspis comprises 32 valid species, six of which were previously recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Two species have already been recorded from the Brazilian coast: J. johnstonii and J. salvadori (Rio Grande do Sul and Espírito Santo States respectively). Their respective type specimens, deposited at Muséum National d'Historie Naturelle, Paris (Jaspis salvadori, holotype) and at Universalmuseum Joanneum, Zoology Center of Natural History, Austria (Jaspis johnstonii, syntype) were reexamined, but due to differences in spicule composition these records are considered to be invalid. The present paper describes five new species of Jaspis collected on the Brazilian coast (Jaspis atolensis sp. nov., J. iacuitaster sp. nov., J. corticomicroxea sp. nov., J. variaster sp. nov. and J. gigoxea sp. nov.) bringing the total number of species worldwide to 36, all of which were compared in tabular format. The type species, Jaspis johnstonii, was also redescribed.

  14. Proctophantastes nettastomatis (Digenea: Zoogonidae) from Vanuatu deep-sea fish: new morphological features, allometric growth, and phenotypic plasticity aspects.

    PubMed

    Mouahid, Gabriel; Faliex, Elisabeth; Allienne, Jean-François; Cribb, Thomas H; Bray, Rodney A

    2012-05-01

    The present paper deals with Proctophantastes nettastomatis (Digenea: Zoogonidae; Lepidophyllinae) found in the intestine of three species of deep-sea fish, Dicrolene longimana (Ophidiidae, Ophidiiformes), Bathyuroconger sp. (Congridae, Anguilliformes), and Venefica tentaculata (Nettastomatidae, Anguilliformes). The fish were collected near the islands of Espiritu Santo, Erromango, and Epi, respectively, in the archipelago of Vanuatu (Southern Pacific Ocean) at depths ranging from 561 to 990 m. Morphological and histological analyses showed that the Vanuatu specimens differ from Proctophantastes abyssorum, Proctophantastes gillissi, Proctophantastes glandulosum, Proctophantastes infundibulum, and Proctophantastes brayi but are close to P. nettastomatis discovered in Suruga Bay, Japan. P. nettastomatis is redescribed based both on the observations of our specimens and of the Japanese holotype and paratype. The morphological variability of the species is described. Morphometric data allowed the identification of positive allometric growth for the hindbody, negative allometric growth for the ventral sucker, and a growth phenotypic plasticity between Ophidiiformes and Anguilliformes definitive hosts.

  15. Isolations of yellow fever virus from Haemagogus leucocelaenus in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Sperb, Alethéa F; Monteiro, Hamilton A; Torres, Maria A; Sousa, Maria R; Vasconcelos, Helena B; Mardini, Lúcia B; Rodrigues, Sueli G

    2003-01-01

    Following howling monkey (Alouatta caraya) deaths and yellow fever (YF) antigen detection by immunohistochemistry in the liver sample of a dead monkey in April and May 2001 in the municipalities of Garruchos and Santo Antônio das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, epidemiological field investigations were initiated. Two strains of YF virus were isolated in suckling mice from 23 Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon mosquitoes collected from the study sites. The YF virus was isolated from this species in the 1930s in Brazil and in the 1940s in Colombia. No human cases were reported during the current epizootic outbreak. The YF virus isolation and the absence of Hg. (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar from the area suggest that Hg. leucocelaenus may be a secondary YF vector and play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease in the Southern Cone.

  16. Luso-Brazilian Enlightenment and the circulation of Caribbean slavery-related knowledge: the establishment of the Brazilian coffee culture from a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Marquese, Rafael de Bivar

    2009-01-01

    The generation of enlightened Luso-Brazilians saw Caribbean slavery agriculture as the model to be emulated in Portuguese America. To do so, at the turn of the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries, they translated and published some texts originally elaborated in the Antilles. In this reformist environment, the coffee culture occupied a place of prominence. To understand the role of this knowledge in establishing the Brazilian coffee culture, the Brazilian case is compared with the Cuban. The intent is to demonstrate that in the Spanish colony, the productive coffee plan of Santo Domingo was implanted, while in Brazil a plan was created, supported by new standards of agricultural management that were founded on local knowledge.

  17. An atypical, pigment-producing Metschnikowia strain from a leukaemia patient.

    PubMed

    Savini, Vincenzo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Sisti, Maurizio; Masciarelli, Gioviana; Favaro, Marco; Fontana, Carla; Pitzurra, Lucia; Arzeni, Daniela; Astolfi, Daniela; Catavitello, Chiara; Polilli, Ennio; Farina, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico; Stubbe, Dirk

    2013-05-01

    A yeast strain was isolated from the sputum sample of a leukaemia patient in the Spirito Santo Hospital of Pescara, Italy. The fungus produced a pigment that formed a reddish halo around colonies, and was identified and deposited as a Metschnikowia spp. (accession number IHEM 25107-GenBank accession number JQ921016) in the BCCM/IHEM collection of biomedical fungi and yeasts (Bruxelles, Belgium). Although the physiology of the strain was close to that of Metschnikowia sinensis, the D1/D2 sequence did not correspond to any previously described Metschnikowia species. Phylogeny of the genus Metschnikowia is complex and requires far more analysis. We present the first non-M. pulcherrima Metschnikowia spp. isolate recovered from a human, and emphasize the role of man as a transient carrier of environmental yeasts, the pathogenicity of which still needs to be defined.

  18. Identifying recharge from tropical cyclonic storms, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Eastoe, Christopher J; Hess, Greg; Mahieux, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater in the Todos Santos watershed in southern Baja California, and throughout the peninsula south of latitude 28°N, has values of (δ18 O‰, δD‰) ranging between (-8.3, -57) and (-10.9, -78). Such negative values are uncharacteristic of the site latitude near the sea level. Altitude effects do not explain the isotope data. Tropical depressions originating along the Pacific coast of North America yield rain with isotopic depletion; rain from these weather systems in southern Arizona commonly has δ18O values<-10‰ in comparison with amount-weighted mean summer and fall rain at -6‰. Isotope data indicate hurricane rain as the predominant source of recharge in southern Baja California, where named tropical depressions bring large rains (>50 mm) at least once every 2 to 3 years, and along the Pacific coast between Jalisco and Oaxaca.

  19. Phonemic carryover perseveration: word blends.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S

    2004-11-01

    This article will outline and describe the aphasic disorder of recurrent perseveration and will demonstrate how it interacts with the retrieval and production of spoken words in the language of fluent aphasic patients who have sustained damage to the left (dominant) posterior temporoparietal lobe. We will concentrate on the various kinds of sublexical segmental perseverations (the so-called phonemic carryovers of Santo Pietro and Rigrodsky) that most often play a role in the generation of word blendings. We will show how perseverative blends allow the clinician to better understand the dynamics of word and syllable production in fluent aphasia by scrutinizing the "onset/rime" and "onset/superrime" constituents of monosyllabic and polysyllabic words, respectively. We will demonstrate to the speech language pathologist the importance of the trochee stress pattern and the possibility that its metrical template may constitute a structural unit that can be perseverated.

  20. Analysis of partially emerged corals and reef terraces in the central Vanuatu Arc: Comparison of contemporary coseismic and nonseismic with quaternary vertical movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Frederick W.; Frohlich, Cliff; Lecolle, Jean; Strecker, Manfred

    1987-05-01

    takes place as aseismic motion. However, in some areas we find only coseismic emergence. In central Vanuatu, contemporary coseismic vertical deformation, Holocene uplift, and topography have remarkably similar patterns. This suggests that the mechanisms and processes causing vertical deformation have varied little over the last 106years. Apparently, the topography, structure, and seismotectonics are controlled by the subduction of the d'Entrecasteaux ridge, a major bathymetric feature underthrusting this part of the arc. The influence of this ridge may have been especially extensive because it migrates very slowly along the arc trend, and thus it interacts for a long time with a single portion of the arc system. Our previous studies of reef terraces indicated the existence of at least four seismotectonic arc segments or blocks along the Santo-Malekula interval of the arc, and our present results further support this conclusion. Each block has uplifted at different times, by different amounts, at different rates, and tilted in a different direction. Boundaries between the north Santo and the south Santo segment and between the north Malekula and the south Malekula segment correlate with the north and south flanks of the d'Entrecasteaux ridge, as does the absence of a physiographic trench west of Santo.

  1. [The motives for hospitalization at Adauto Botelho Hospital (Cariacica, ES) in the second half of the twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Carrion, Carla Torres Pereira; Margotto, Lilian Rose; Aragão, Elizabeth Maria Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the procedures for referring patients to Adauto Botelho Hospital, in Cariacica, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The research is based on the medical records since its inauguration in 1954 and statements by people who worked there in the second half of the twentieth century. One hundred and two records were analyzed and four people were interviewed. The records revealed the active involvement of the Chief of Police in hospitalizations. The interviews corroborate this, while also showing the long duration of the hospitalizations. The tone of the paper is set by the life stories of the people hospitalized there. The conclusion is that this hospital served not so much for treatment as for confinement.

  2. Bilateral Sertoli Cell Tumors in a Patient with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira da Silva, Janaina; Vieira Balla, Bruno; Neves Ferreira, Rodrigo; Chambô Filho, Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome is the most common cause of male pseudohermaphroditism and the third most common cause of primary amenorrhea. This genetic alteration is a consequence of inherited defects on the X chromosome causing total or partial damage to the intrauterine virilization process due to functional abnormalities in the androgen receptors. The present report describes a 22-year-old patient with a female phenotype and a 46, XY karyotype, presenting with bilateral inguinal tumors. The tumors were surgically removed at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Pathology revealed bilateral testicles with Sertoli cell tumors. According to the international literature, prophylactic gonadectomy following puberty is recommended due to the progressive risk of neoplastic transformation in the residual gonads. PMID:28386495

  3. The thinking ape: the enigma of human consciousness.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Chalmers, David; Kahneman, Daniel; Santos, Laurie; Schiff, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    What is the origin and nature of consciousness? If consciousness is common to humans and animals alike, what are the defining traits of human consciousness? Moderated by Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, Nobel laureate psychologist Daniel Kahneman, philosopher David Chalmers, expert in primate cognition Laurie Santos, and physician-scientist Nicholas Schiff discuss what it means to be conscious and examine the human capacities displayed in cognitive, aesthetic, and ethical behaviors, with a focus on the place and function of the mind within nature. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred October 10, 2012, 7:00-8:15 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.

  4. Terracotta polychrome sculptures examined before and after their conservation work: contributions from non-invasive in situ analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Colombo, C; Bevilacqua, F; Brambilla, L; Conti, C; Realini, M; Striova, J; Zerbi, G

    2011-08-01

    The potential of non-invasive in situ analytical techniques such as portable Raman, portable X-ray fluorescence, portable optical microscope and fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy has been shown studying painted layers of Renaissance terracotta polychrome sculptures belonging to the statuary of Santo Sepolcro Church in Milan. The results obtained allowed pointing out the contribution of these techniques to the compositional diagnostic, providing complete information, in some cases, better than micro-destructive techniques, on the kind of pigments used on the external painted layers. Moreover, a comparison with the results obtained before the last conservation work (2009) with micro-destructive techniques allowed ascertaining the removal of the external painted layers during the conservation operations.

  5. A new species of Iapir Py-Daniel, Fonseca & Barbosa (Coleoptera: Myxophaga: Torridincolidae) from Brazil with key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Brunno Henrique Lanzellotti; Ferreira, Nelson

    2014-01-06

    The genus Iapir is known only from Brazil, currently with five species. This genus is characterized by the lack of a tooth on the hind margin of metatrochanter and a semi-lunar depression prolonged toward apex of the last ventrite on female specimens. Herein we describe an additional species, Iapir vanini sp. nov., collected in southeastern Brazil in Santa Teresa (type locality), Castelo, and Domingos Martins municipalities, in Espírito Santo State. The presence of a fringe of setae on the anterior face of front tibiae and on the posterior face of hind tibiae, and the male genitalia with an oblique apex in lateral view and bearing tufts of seta on distal third, distinguish this species from other Iapir. A key for identification of the species of Iapir is presented. 

  6. Small mammals in a fragment and adjacent matrix in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passamani, M; Ribeiro, D

    2009-05-01

    Between May 2002 and May 2003, we studied a small mammal community from an Atlantic forest fragment surrounded by a coffee plantation in the municipality of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. We obtained a total of 300 captures of 114 individuals belonging to 11 mammal species. Seventy three percent of the species captured in the forest also used the coffee plantation, mainly males (90%) and young (80%) individuals of Marmosops incanus. The exceptionally low recapture rate in the coffee plantation suggests that it functions as a corridor between fragments, rather than as a habitat for these species. Understanding the role of matrix habitat use in fragmented landscapes is an important factor in small mammal conservation, as it asymmetrically affects the rate and mode of individual movements of different species.

  7. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented.

  8. Stereochemical heterogeneity in Verongid sponge metabolites. Absolute stereochemistry of (+)-fistularin-3 and (+)-11-epi-fistularin-3 by microscale LCMS-Marfey's analysis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Evan W; de Oliveira, Maria Fernanda; Berlinck, Roberto G S; König, Gabriele M; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2005-06-01

    The absolute configurations of fistularin-3, 11-epi-fistularin-3, and a related bis-oxazolidinone were determined by microscale hydrolysis followed by derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-l-alaninamide. Samples of fistularin-3 from Verongid marine sponges collected in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), Baía de Todos os Santos (Brazil), and the Key Largo, Florida (USA) varied in configuration at C11, a phenomenon that may be attributed to the involvement of stereochemically promiscuous hydroxylase enzymes. Variability in C11 configuration in fistularin-3 samples may have been overlooked in previously reported encounters due to the similarity of spectroscopic properties of fistularin-3 and 11-epi-fistularin-3 and their coelution under chromatographic conditions. Stereochemical heterogeneity at C11 in fistularin-3 samples suggests a possibility of a native biotransformation of suitable precursor in Verongid sponges by their associated microbial flora.

  9. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.

    PubMed

    Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs.

  10. Analyses of Teaching Strategies and Learning of Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary Education II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Poffo, M. Roberta

    2012-07-01

    The proposed curricular of the State of Sao Paulo suggests for the discipline of Physical and Biological Sciences contents related to Astronomy for the Elementary Education. In 2010, a study was realised in a public school in Santo Andr to examine the pupils' previous knowledge. Only 19% of them reached a satisfactory note. In this year the contents were presented with three different teaching strategies. In the first class an expositive lesson with audiovisual aids was held, in the second one an expositive lesson in dialogue form was used, and in the third class a textbook research. After the approach a clear improvement of the performance was observe, and the class where the contents had been presented in an expositive lesson with dialogue showed the best effectsciency. This study facilitates analyses of the learning procedure and teaching strategies to improve the Astronomy education in the discipline of Science.

  11. Methodology of the interpretation of remote sensing data and applications in geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Veneziani, P.; Dosanjos, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Methods used for interpreting orbital (LANDSAT) data for regional geological mapping in Brazil are examined. Particular attention is given to the levels of analysis used for studying geomorphology, structural geology, lithology, stratigraphy, surface geology, and dynamic processes. Examples of regional mapping described include: (1) rock intrusions in SE Sao Paulo, the southern parts of Minas Gerais, and the states of Rio de Janeiro, and Espiritu Santo; (2) a preliminary survey of Pre-Cambrian geology in the State of Piaui; and (3) the Gondwana Project - surveying Jaguaribe plants. Mineral exploration in Rio Grande do Sul, and the geology of the Alcalino complex of Itatiaia are discussed as well as the use of automatic classifications of rock intrusions and of ilmenite deposits in the Floresta Region. Aerial photography, side looking radar, and thermal infrared scanning are other types of remote sensors also used in prospecting for geothermal anomalies in the city of Caldas Novas-Goias.

  12. [Assessment of pharmaceutical care for pregnant women treated in the public health system in Praia Grande, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marlene Rosimar da Silva; Lorandi, Paulo Angelo; Bousquat, Aylene

    2008-06-01

    The use of medication in primary health care has increased steadily in recent decades, thus highlighting the relevance of assessing the pharmaceutical care provided to patients in the primary care setting. This article aimed to evaluate the pharmaceutical care provided by the public system in Greater Metropolitan Santos, São Paulo State, Brazil, focusing specifically on women during gestation. Methods included secondary data analysis, document analysis, interviews with key players, and visits to health services and to the pharmaceutical supply center. Deficiencies were identified in most stages of pharmaceutical care: selection, planning, purchase, storage, distribution, and dispensing. The results suggest that in order to improve primary health care, with better access, equality, and comprehensiveness, the evaluation of pharmaceutical care should be incorporated as a routine procedure.

  13. Review of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012: description of its female and a new species of Pixodarus Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnstad, Anders; Grobbelaar, Elizabeth; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The original description of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012 included a female that is now recognized as a separate species belonging to the genus Pixodarus and here described as Pixodarus spiniscapus sp. n. The true female of Afraustraloderes rassei has also been obtained recently and is, therefore, here described. The synonymy of Pixodarus exasperatus with Pixodarus nyassae, proposed earlier by Santos Ferreira (1980), is here supported. Conversely, the earlier inclusion of Afraustraloderes rassei in the tribe Hopliderini is rejected, on the basis of a key set of characters established by Quentin and Villiers (1972, 1975). Afraustraloderes rassei appears to be restricted to the Cape Floral Region, exhibiting larval development in trunks and roots of dead Proteaceae plants. Conversely, Pixodarus spiniscapus has so far only been recorded in the eastern part of South Africa and appears to be associated with bushveld vegetation. PMID:27006596

  14. Genetic diversity and structure of Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini), an endangered species endemic to the restinga ecoregion

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; Fernandes Salomão, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of the ant Atta robusta were assessed by ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeats) in 72 colonies collected from 10 localities in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo (48 colonies) and Rio de Janeiro (24 colonies). The ISSR pattern included 67 bands, 51 of them (76.1%) polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high level (57.4%) of inter-population variation, which suggested a high degree of genetic structure that was confirmed by UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method using an arithmetic average) cluster analysis. The significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) indicated isolation that reflected the distance between locations. Overall, the populations were found to be genetically divergent. This finding indicates the need for management plans to preserve and reduce the risk of extinction of A. robusta. PMID:25249782

  15. [Influence of nutritional substrates on the development of Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)].

    PubMed

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Polanczyk, Ricardo A; Holtz, Anderson M; Tamanhoni, Tiago; Celestino, Flávio N; Borges Filho, Raul da C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the biological behaviour of melonworm at different natural and artificial diets. Squash cultivar jacaré, cucumber, summer squash and an artificial diets developed by Hensley & Hammond for the sugarcane borer were tried. The research was carried out in the Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, in climatized room at 25 +/- 1 masculineC, relative humidity of 70 +/- 10% and 14h photofase. The caterpillars fed on each substrate during the whole life cycle. Differences in duration of the larval period, larvae and pupae survival, adult longevity and number of eggs were registered between the substrates. The results show that the best diet for rearing is the artificial one. Between the natural diets the cucumber showed the best results.

  16. Characterization of organic matter in a sediment Core near the Mataripe refinery, Bahia-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; Zucchi, Maria do Rosário; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; de Argollo, Roberto Max

    2016-04-15

    A sediment core was taken from the Todos os Santos Bay, near the Mataripe Bahia-Brazil refinery. The results of dating, (210)Pb and (137)Cs methods, combined with organic indicators, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and total organic carbon (TOC), showed significant change with the start of production of the oil fields of Aratu, Itaparica and Dom João (1939-1947) and the construction of the Mataripe refinery (1949-1950). This event was marked by a series of significant changes, including an abrupt increase in TOC and the growth of PAH concentrations and the presence Unresolved/Resolved ratio (UR/R)>4 in n-alkanes fraction, which indicated that the contamination was of petrogenic origin. The δ(13)C of specific n-alkanes compounds showed gradual deplete with the depth.

  17. Stratus cloud liquid water and turbulence profiles using a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability, and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the ETL cloud sensing Doppler radar and three channel microwave radiometer were deployed on the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a CO{sub 2} Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model which related the three parameters of the model to the first 3 Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, the authors are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  18. Stratus cloud measurements with a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the Environmental Technology Laboratory`s cloud sensing Doppler radar and three-channel microwave radiometer were deployed in the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a carbon dioxide Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model that related the model`s three parameters to the first three Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, we are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water, and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  19. Review of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012: description of its female and a new species of Pixodarus Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae).

    PubMed

    Bjørnstad, Anders; Grobbelaar, Elizabeth; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    The original description of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012 included a female that is now recognized as a separate species belonging to the genus Pixodarus and here described as Pixodarus spiniscapus sp. n. The true female of Afraustraloderes rassei has also been obtained recently and is, therefore, here described. The synonymy of Pixodarus exasperatus with Pixodarus nyassae, proposed earlier by Santos Ferreira (1980), is here supported. Conversely, the earlier inclusion of Afraustraloderes rassei in the tribe Hopliderini is rejected, on the basis of a key set of characters established by Quentin and Villiers (1972, 1975). Afraustraloderes rassei appears to be restricted to the Cape Floral Region, exhibiting larval development in trunks and roots of dead Proteaceae plants. Conversely, Pixodarus spiniscapus has so far only been recorded in the eastern part of South Africa and appears to be associated with bushveld vegetation.

  20. Access to prenatal care: assessment of the adequacy of different indices.

    PubMed

    Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the evaluation of adequate access to prenatal care according to different indices. Data to construct the indices were obtained from 1,006 patient interviews, prenatal cards, and medical charts for postpartum women who had been admitted for childbirth at maternity hospitals in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, from April to September 2010. The various indices for the evaluation of prenatal care were compared to the Kotelchuck index (1994) as the standard reference. Prevalence rates for adequacy were calculated, as were agreement, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and likelihood ratios. The Takeda index showed the highest prevalence of adequacy (55.8%). The highest agreement was between the indices proposed by Villar et al. and Rosen et al. (adjusted kappa = 0.84). The study concludes that the Carvalho & Novaes index and the Brazilian Ministry of Health index are relevant for assessing adequate access to prenatal care.

  1. Probing the Impact of Stellar Duplicity on Planet Occurrence with Spectroscopic and Imaging Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggenberger, Anne; Udry, Stéphane

    Over the past 14 years, Doppler spectroscopy has been very successful in detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets, providing us with a wealth of information on these distant worlds (e.g., Marcy et al. 2005a; Udry and Santos 2007b; Udry et al. 2007a). One important and considerably unexpected fact these new data have taught us is that diversity is the rule in the planetary world. Diversity is found not only in the characteristics and orbital properties of the ˜ 340 planets detected thus far,1 but also in the types of environments in which they reside and are able to form. This observation has prompted a serious revision of the theories of planet formation (e.g., Lissauer and Stevenson 2007; Durisen et al. 2007; Nagasawa et al. 2007), leading to the idea that planet formation may be a richer and more robust process than originally thought.

  2. [Health surveillance and territory: theoretical and methodological possibilities].

    PubMed

    Monken, Maurício; Barcellos, Christovam

    2005-01-01

    Diagnoses of living conditions and health status, the constitutive elements for the reproduction of social life in various places, are listed and treated as contents disconnected from the territory. The recognition of social dynamics, habits, and customs is highly important for the determination of human health vulnerabilities, which originate in the interactions of social groups in given geographic spaces. The full use of the territory as a strategy for analyzing and intervening in health conditions presupposes the identification of geographic objects, their utilization by the population, and their importance for flows of persons and materials. It is thus necessary to develop methodologies for the recognition (both in the field and through secondary data) of objects and their forms, which are a condition for human action and existence. This article presents an approach to the incorporation of concepts from human geography in health practices, in light of two main authors: Milton Santos ("constitution of territory") and Anthony Giddens ("constitution of society").

  3. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  4. Are orchid bees at risk? First comparative survey suggests declining populations of forest-dependent species.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The two largest Atlantic Forest remnants in the state of Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil, namely 'Reserva Biológica de Sooretama' (REBIO Sooretama) and 'Reserva Natural Vale' (RNV), were surveyed for their orchid-bee faunas. Seventeen scent baits were used to attract orchid-bee males. Three-thousand, two hundred and twenty-five males belonging to 24 species were actively collected with insect nets during 100 hours in March, April and December, 2009. In comparison with a previous study in the same area twelve years before, it is evident that the abundance of all forest-dependent orchid bees analysed declined around 50%, and it was statistically significant (P = 0.022) for Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, the most sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances of all Atlantic Forest orchid bees. On the other hand, the abundance of populations of species tolerant to open or disturbed areas rose. Possible explanations are discussed.

  5. Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco, E.; Louie, J. N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Schmitz, M.; Moschetti, M. P.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Pasyanos, M.

    2013-12-01

    During July 2013, IRIS held an Advanced Studies Institute in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, that was designed to enable early-career scientists who already have mastered the fundamentals of seismology to begin collaborating in frontier seismological research. The Institute was conceived of at a strategic planning workshop in Heredia, Costa Rica, that was supported and partially funded by USAID, with a goal of building geophysical capacity to mitigate the effects of future earthquakes. To address this broad goal, we drew participants from a dozen different countries of Middle America. Our objectives were to develop understanding of the principles of earthquake hazard analysis, particularly site characterization techniques, and to facilitate future research collaborations. The Institute was divided into three main sections: overviews on the fundamentals of earthquake hazard analysis and lectures on the theory behind methods of site characterization; fieldwork where participants acquired new data of the types typically used in site characterization; and computer-based analysis projects in which participants applied their newly-learned techniques to the data they collected. This was the first IRIS institute to combine an instructional short course with field work for data acquisition. Participants broke into small teams to acquire data, analyze it on their own computers, and then make presentations to the assembled group describing their techniques and results.Using broadband three-component seismometers, the teams acquired data for Spatial Auto-Correlation (SPAC) analysis at seven array locations, and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) analysis at 60 individual sites along six profiles throughout Santo Domingo. Using a 24-channel geophone string, the teams acquired data for Refraction Microtremor (SeisOptReMi™ from Optim) analysis at 11 sites, with supplementary data for active-source Multi-channel Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis at

  6. Quadruped robots' modular trajectories: Stability issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Carla M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Pinto, Santos, Rocha and Matos [13, 12] study a CPG model for the generation of modular trajectories of quadruped robots. They consider that each movement is composed of two types of primitives: rhythmic and discrete. The rhythmic primitive models the periodic patterns and the discrete primitive is inserted as a perturbation of those patterns. In this paper we begin to tackle numerically the problem of the stability of that mathematical model. We observe that if the discrete part is inserted in all limbs, with equal values, and as an offset of the rhythmic part, the obtained gait is stable and has the same spatial and spatio-temporal symmetry groups as the purely rhythmic gait, differing only on the value of the offset.

  7. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  8. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    or unclothed  avatars ,  stick figures, or even skeletal models to support their analyses. The system will also allow trainees to  isolate specific...CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the Santos digital  human  avatar . An initial user interface for the training application was also...ability to detect variations in gait conditions for  skinned  avatar  vs. line‐skeletal  avatar , concurrent (side‐by‐side) image representation vs

  9. 'We talk, we do not have shame': addressing stigma by reconstructing identity through enhancing social cohesion among female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Barrington, Clare; Kennedy, Caitlin; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-20

    This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity. Among study participants, identity reconstruction happened through the production, repetition and performance of new de-stigmatised narratives that emerged and were solidified through collective interaction. Findings highlight that enabling the collective reconstruction of identity through social cohesion - rather than solely attempting to change individual beliefs - is a successful approach to addressing stigma.

  10. The protease inhibitor chagasin of Trypanosoma cruzi adopts an immunoglobulin-type fold and may have arisen by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Rigden, D J; Monteiro, A C; Grossi de Sá, M F

    2001-08-24

    Chagasin, a protein from Trypanosoma cruzi, is the first member of a new family of tight binding cysteine protease inhibitors [Monteiro, A.C.S., Abrahamson, M., Lima, A.P.C., Vannier-Santos, M.A. and Scharfstein, J. (2001) J. Cell Sci., in press] [corrected]. Despite its lack of significant sequence identity with known proteins, convincing structural models, using variable light chain templates, could be constructed on the basis of threading results. Experimental support for the final structure came from inhibition data for overlapping oligopeptides spanning the chagasin sequence. Chagasin therefore exemplifies a new protease inhibitor structural class and a new natural use for an immunoglobulin-like domain. Limited sequence resemblance suggests that chagasin may represent the result of a rare horizontal gene transfer from host to parasite.

  11. A new Fenestrulina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) commensal with tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) in the tropical southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Stampar, Sergio N

    2014-03-21

    A new species of cheilostome bryozoan, Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp., was collected in December 2008 by scuba at 5-10 meters depth at Guaibura Beach, Guarapari, Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The specimen was found associated with tubes of the cerianthid Pachycerianthus sp., representing the first commensal association between a bryozoan and a tube-dwelling anemone. Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp. is the third species of the genus found in Brazilian waters; it is distinguished from other Atlantic species of Fenestrulina by its small angular orificial condyles, a single oral spine and basal anchoring rhizoids arising from abfrontal pore chambers. Morphological adaptations to encrust the tubes of cerianthids include anchoring rootlets and weakly contiguous zooids. These morphological features allow the colony the flexibility to grow around the tube and feed relatively undisturbed by silt and detritus, being raised well above the soft-sediment substratum in which the tube-anemone grows.

  12. Effects of an 8-month exercise intervention on physical capacity, NT-proBNP, physical activity levels and quality of life data in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension by NYHA class.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanz-Ayan, Paz; González-Saiz, Laura; Quezada-Loaiza, Carlos A; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Flox-Camacho, Angela; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Santalla, Alfredo; Morán, María; Escribano-Subías, Pilar; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    This article provides descriptive detailed (pre and post) values of physical capacity variables, NT-proBNP, physical activity levels and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) (both, intervention and control group) by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class before and after an 8-month exercise intervention. The data are supplemental to our original Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) entitled "Benefits of skeletal-muscle exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension: The WHOLEi+12 trial" (L. González-Saiz, C. Fiuza-Luces, F. Sanchis-Gomar, A. Santos-Lozano, C.A. Quezada-Loaiza, A. Flox-Camacho, D. Munguía-Izquierdo, I. Ara, A. Santalla, M. Morán, P. Sanz-Ayan, P. Escribano-Subías, A. Lucia A, 2017) [1].

  13. The Hole and the Whole: Lessons from Manipulation of Nipbl Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect 2%–3% of newborns and remain challenging clinically. There is an ongoing project to elucidate the causes of CHDs, focusing primarily on genetics as dictated by the epidemiology. In a paper published in this issue, Santos and colleagues describe studies of Cornelia de Lange syndrome-associated secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs) caused by NIPBL mutations, undertaken with a targeted trapping allele in mice. They show that Nipbl haploinsufficiency in either of two cell populations was sufficient to engender ASDs but that expression solely in either one of those populations was sufficient to rescue them. This work provides novel insights into incomplete penetrance and oligogenic effects underlying CHDs. PMID:27606622

  14. Newly discovered reefs in the southern Abrolhos Bank, Brazil: Anthropogenic impacts and urgent conservation needs.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, E F; Bertoncini, A A; Pinheiro, H T; Machado, L F; Vilar, C C; Guabiroba, H C; Costa, T J F; Bueno, L S; Santos, L N; Francini-Filho, R B; Hostim-Silva, M; Joyeux, J-C

    2017-01-15

    The Abrolhos Bank is an area of high ecological, socio-economic importance and harbour the richest and most-extensive coral reefs in the South Atlantic. Here we report the discovery of shallow (12-25m depth) reef complex with ten large biogenic structures, intermediate between the typical mushroom-shaped pinnacles of the northern Abrolhos Bank (17°-18° S) and the small patch reefs found on the central/southern coast of the Espírito Santo State (19°-20° S). The newly discovered reefs harbour a relatively rich and abundant reef community, with 73 fish and 14 benthic cnidarian species, including endangered and commercially important ones. We discuss on urgent needs of properly mapping and understanding the ecological functioning of this reef system. Information provided here is a baseline for future impact evaluations, particularly considering the recent worst environmental disaster of Brazil from a dam collapse in Doce river that affected the region.

  15. An eighteenth century travelling theodolite.

    PubMed

    Malaquias, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    An old topographic compass displayed in a showroom of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, took our curiosity namely because of its resemblance to a theodolite, described by J.H. de Magellan. Not many things were known about its previous history. From the different documents studied, and the characteristics of this singular theodolite, it must have belonged to the collections of instruments acquired for the Brazilian border demarcations undertaken after the Santo Ildefonso Treaty, agreed to by the Portuguese and Spanish courts in 1777. Several instruments were bought in London, and supervised and chosen by Magellan, the Portuguese instruments expert. We present arguments in favour of this conclusion.

  16. Virial theorem in quasi-coordinates and Lie algebroid formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, José F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Martínez, Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the geometric approach to the virial theorem (VT) developed in [J. F. Cariñena, F. Falceto and M. F. Rañada, A geometric approach to a generalized virial theorem, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 (2012) 395210, 19 pp.] is written in terms of quasi-velocities (see [J. F. Cariñena, J. Nunes da Costa and P. Santos, Quasi-coordinates from the point of view of Lie algebroid structures, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 (2007) 10031-10048]). A generalization of the VT for mechanical systems on Lie algebroids is also given, using the geometric tools of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics on the prolongation of the Lie algebroid.

  17. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    PubMed

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles <5mm) is a widespread marine threat and a trigger for biological effects, especially if ingested. The mussel Perna perna, an important food resource, was used as bioindicator to investigate the presence of microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide.

  18. ["Sex-daring games": sexuality and gender socialization in the working-class children's universe].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Jucélia Santos Bispo

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the socialization of children and youth with respect to gender and sexuality, from a socio-anthropological perspective. The work is based on ethnographic research in a group of 5-14-year-old boys and girls in a community in Baia de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brazil. Despite the strong influence of family and school in primary socialization, the children reproduced and re-elaborated norms and practices on appropriate gender and sexual conduct, especially among their peers, and primarily in the context of play. The research analyzes the children s representations and practices in this socializing process, showing how gender and sexuality are socially constructed according to the contexts in which the different social interactions take place.

  19. Quality of housing and allergy to cockroaches in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K C; Brenner, R J

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-one atopic asthmatic and/or allergic rhinitic children and 23 nonatopic control from Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, were skin tested with an extract mix of three cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, and Periplaneta americana). Sixteen percent of the atopics and none of the nonatopics demonstrated positive immediate skin reactions to the cockroach mix (chi 2 = 4.05, p = 0.04). Hypersensitivity was correlated with the quality of the homes; 22% (8/36) of the atopics who lived in a concrete home were skin test positive to the cockroach mix, while none (0/15) of the atopics who lived in a wood home were skin test positive (chi 2 = 4.86, p = 0.03). Although the incidence of cockroach allergy in this study is lower than that found elsewhere, these data support the notion that, in this tropical environment, sensitization to cockroaches is associated with housing quality.

  20. Upper mantle viscosity and dynamic subsidence of curved continental margins.

    PubMed

    Sacek, Victor; Ussami, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Continental rifting does not always follow a straight line. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to the influence of rifting curvature in the evolution of extended margins. Here, using a three-dimensional model to simulate mantle dynamics, we demonstrate that the curvature of rifting along a margin also controls post-rift basin subsidence. Our results indicate that a concave-oceanward margin subsides faster than a convex margin does during the post-rift phase. This dynamic subsidence of curved margins is a result of lateral thermal conduction and mantle convection. Furthermore, the differential subsidence is strongly dependent on the viscosity structure. As a natural example, we analyse the post-rift stratigraphic evolution of the Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil. The differential dynamic subsidence of this margin is only possible if the viscosity of the upper mantle is >2-3 × 10(19) Pa s.

  1. [Human serum hexosamine. Determination in Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus].

    PubMed

    Salum, J; Guerra, H D; Guerra, M V; Salum, M M

    1979-12-01

    The serum hexosamine levels of 39 patients with Pênfigo Foliáceo Brasileiro were determined. The mean value obtained, compared with the mean value found in 30 normal individuals in our laboratory, by Santos et al. (1977), shows that in this disease, the levels of serum glycosamine are higher than in the normal group. The application of Student's test (/t/) indicates a significant difference in the mean values (/t/) = 9,02 P greater than 0,001). Although little is known about the fundamental processes concerned with the increase of serum glycosamines, the authors based on the suggestions of Seibert et al. (1947) reason on the possibility that the essential lesion, i.e., the destruction of the intercellular cement (of glycoprotein nature) is an important factor in the increase of glycoproteins rich in glicosamines.

  2. 'P-cadherin functional role is dependent on E-cadherin cellular context: a proof of concept using the breast cancer model'.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    This article corrects: P-cadherin functional role is dependent on E-cadherin cellular context: a proof of concept using the breast cancer model Volume 229, Issue 5, 705–718, Article first published online: 24 January 2013. By Ana Sofia Ribeiro, Bárbara Sousa, Laura Carreto, Nuno Mendes, Ana Rita Nobre, Sara Ricardo, André Albergaria, Jorge F Cameselle-Teijeiro, Rene Gerhard, Ola Söderberg, Raquel Seruca, Manuel A Santos, Fernando Schmitt and Joana Paredes, J Pathol 2013; 229: 708–718. DOI: 10.1002/path.4143. The above article, published online on 24 January 2013 on Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). The funding information, “This work was also funded by FEDER funds through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors - COMPETE (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-021209).” was omitted from the Acknowledgements section. We apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  3. 9th Caribbean Geological Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Gren

    The ninth in a series of Caribbean Geological Conferences, which are held every 3 or 4 years, took place in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, from the 15th to 26th of August 1980. The conference, which was sponsored by the government of the Dominican Republic and the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, was preceded by 2 days of field trips and was opened by President Antonio Guzman on the evening of the 17th of August. Generous support was provided by Alcoa Exploration Co., Falconbridge Dominicana, and Rosario Dominicana.Geologists and geophysicists from 25 countries presented about 130 papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from geophysics to paleontology. While the whole Caribbean area was discussed, there was special emphasis on the northern Caribbean and Hispaniola, as befitted the site of the conference. The contribution of workers from the Dirección General de Mineriá was particularly notable.

  4. Strategies for recruiting steady male partners of female sex workers for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Steady male partners of female sex workers (FSW) are a key population for HIV prevention, but researchers face challenges finding and recruiting this population. We conducted forty in-depth interviews with FSW and steady male partners of FSW in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic about how to engage steady male partners in HIV research. Participants cautioned that male partners might be unwilling to participate because of discomfort disclosing intimate information and cultural norms of masculinity. They recommended inviting male partners to research offices, instead of venue-based recruitment, because it was more private and trust-promoting. Most participants suggested that FSW could refer their partners or men could refer their friends who have FSW partners. Participants emphasized that referrals could break down trust-related barriers that prevent male partners from participating. Establishing an environment of respect and trust in the research setting can aid referral processes as individuals who participate communicate their positive experiences to their networks. PMID:25192901

  5. [Distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in the Province of Corrientes, 2008].

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Ramos, Ladys K; Quintana, María Gabriela; Acardi, Soraya A; Santini, María Soledad; Schneider, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a relevant parasitic disease in public health, produced by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Since the urbanization and emergence in Southern Brazil and Paraguay, the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in Formosa, 2004, and the first human visceral leishmaniasis case in Misiones, 2006, have been reported in Argentina. Due to the reports of canine VL, a search of the vector in the Province of Corrientes, contiguous to Misiones, was performed during December 2008. Standarized trapping detected 376 Lu. longipalpis in Ituzaingó, Virasoro, Santo Tomé, Garruchos, Riachuelo, Corrientes and Monte Caseros localities. The risk of autochtonous vectorial transmission was then confirmed in the Province of Corrientes. The distribution of vectors in populated urban areas, with intense transit of canine reservoirs from localities with high transmission, and the existence of infected reservoirs, also implies epidemic risk.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources in Central and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The USGS has assessed undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in 128 selected petroleum provinces of the world. Of these 128 provinces, 23 are in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean area. In the USGS 2000 Assessment, the provinces resulted in mean totals for undiscovered resource of 105 billion bbl of oil and 487 tcf of gas. The potential for giant oil and gas fields is greatest in the basins along the Atlantic margin of eastern South America, from the Santos Basin in the south to the Guyana-Suriname Basin in the north. The potential for giant fields is mainly offshore, in water depths up to 3600 m. The South and Central America region ranks third in the world for undiscovered conventional oil and gas behind the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union.

  7. [People taking care of people: the art of caring through radio waves].

    PubMed

    Cunha, I C

    2000-01-01

    The nurse as a primary care provider professional participates actively in health education activities. Within the spoken language, the radio, because of its power of penetration, assumes an important role in the dissemination of health information. Thus, the School of Nursing at Santo Amaro University, in São Paulo, Brazil, initiated a series of community health programs using the services of the university radio. The purpose of this paper is to report on the experience of elaborating and implementing the weekly programs "Healthy Life" and "People taking care of People", in first one implemented in 1996. Due to the positive results obtained, this activity became part of the University Extension Program with the participation of teachers and students.

  8. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-07-11

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b).

  9. Determining the first order perturbation of a polyharmonic operator on admissible manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assylbekov, Yernat M.; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    We consider the inverse boundary value problem for the first order perturbation of the polyharmonic operator L g , X , q, with X being a W 1 , ∞ vector field and q being an L∞ function on compact Riemannian manifolds with boundary which are conformally embedded in a product of the Euclidean line and a simple manifold. We show that the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map determines X and q uniquely. The method is based on the construction of complex geometrical optics solutions using the Carleman estimate for the Laplace-Beltrami operator due to Dos Santos Ferreira, Kenig, Salo and Uhlmann. Notice that the corresponding uniqueness result does not hold for the first order perturbation of the Laplace-Beltrami operator.

  10. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  11. Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro

    2008-10-01

    Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis.

  12. Characteristics of WWTP sludge after drying in greenhouse for agricultural purposes.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcia Regina Pereira; Zandonade, Eliana; Sobrinho, Pedro Alem

    2012-01-01

    The sludge generated by sewage treatment which meets regulatory standards can be used in agriculture. With this understanding, the focus of this study is the evaluation of the agricultural characteristics and inorganic substances in excess activated sludge, which was subjected to drying in a greenhouse. The variables (factor) evaluated during the drying process were: type of sludge (digested or not digested), addition of lime to the sludge, and the physical layout and rotation of sludge in the greenhouse. The parameters monitored for this assessment were moisture, volatile solids and pH. The greenhouse cover and sides were made of translucent plastic to allow the penetration of solar radiation and prevent water from entering. A impermeable floor was used. The sludge was generated in sewage treatment plants located in the metropolitan region of Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The solar drying of wastewater sludge in a greenhouse presented satisfactory results.

  13. Data on prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara spp infection, atopy and asthma development in Northeast Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Márcia B; Amor, Ana L M; Santos, Leonardo N; Galvão, Alana A; Oviedo V, Aida Y; Silva, Eduardo S; Barbosa, Cynara Gomes; Cooper, Philip J; Figueiredo, Camila A; Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2016-12-01

    In the present article, we provide shortly, data on risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and investigate possible associations between this infection with atopy and asthma in school children of a small town and its semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. The data set are composed by demographic, social and home environment variables. The detection of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and specific IgE to aeroallergens was determined by ELISA and ImmunocAP/Phadiatrope systems, respectively. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Risk factors for Toxocara spp. seroprevalence and its association with atopy and asthma phenotypes in school-age children in a small town and semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil" (M.B. Silva, A.L. Amor, L.N. Santos, A.A. Galvão, A.V. Oviedo Vera, E.S. Silva et al., 2016) [1].

  14. Effects of state anxiety on performance using a task-switching paradigm: an investigation of attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Derakshan, Nazanin; Smyth, Sinéad; Eysenck, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Low- and high-anxious participants performed arithmetical tasks under task-switching or nontask-switching conditions. These tasks were low or high in complexity. The task on each trial was either explicitly cued or not cued. We assumed that demands on attentional control would be greater in the task-switching condition than in the nontask-switching condition, and would be greater with high-complexity tasks than with low-complexity ones. We also assumed that demands on attentional control would be greater when cues were absent rather than present. According to attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), anxiety impairs attentional control processes required to shift attention optimally within and between tasks. We predicted that there would be greater negative effects of high state anxiety in the task-switching condition than in the nontask-switching condition. Our theoretical predictions were supported, suggesting that state anxiety reduces attentional control.

  15. Performance of pellets and composites of natural colourless topaz as radiation dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Lima, J F; Valerio, M E G; Caldas, L V E

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility of using the properties of the thermoluminescent emission (TL) of Brazilian natural topaz for dosimetric applications. Topaz is an aluminium fluorsilicate with general composition of Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2 found with relative abundance in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Topaz from Santo Antonio do Jacinto, Minas Gerais. Brazil, was used in this work, in the form of pellets of topaz mixed with Teflon and composites made with topaz embedded in a glass matrix. The TL sensitivity was tested between 10(-4) and 10(4) Gy. The TL peak intensity increases with the dose before saturation, which occurs around 2 kGy. The peak intensity showed a strong dependence with radiation energy. The effect of visible light and the behaviour of the TL signals after successive irradiation-reading-annealing cycles are presented and discussed.

  16. Changes in bioaccumulation and translocation patterns between root and leafs of Avicennia schaueriana as adaptive response to different levels of metals in mangrove system.

    PubMed

    Souza, Iara da C; Rocha, Lívia D; Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina M; Arrivabene, Hiulana P; Duarte, Ian D; Furlan, Larissa M; Monferrán, Magdalena V; Mazik, Krysia; Elliott, Michael; Matsumoto, Silvia T; Milanez, Camilla R D; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2015-05-15

    Espírito Santo estuaries (Brazil) are impacted by industrial activities, resulting in contamination of water and sediments. This raise questions on biological uptake, storage and consequences of metal contamination to mangrove plants. The goal of this work was evaluating accumulation and translocation of metals from sediment to roots and leaves of Avicennia schaueriana, growing in areas with different degrees of contamination, correlating bioaccumulation with changes in its root anatomy. Highest bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were observed in plants growing in less polluted areas. Conversely, highest translocation factors were found in plants from highest polluted area, evidencing an adaptive response of A. schaueriana to less favourable conditions. Namely, the absorption of metals by roots is diminished when facing highest levels of metals in the environment; alternatively, plants seem to enhance the translocation to diminish the concentration of toxic metals in roots. Root also responded to highly polluted scenarios with modifications of its anatomy.

  17. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-04-04

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered.

  18. [The medical rationale category and a new epistemology in health].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Marilene Cabral; de Barros, Nelson Filice; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2013-12-01

    This article is an analytical report on the 20-year trajectory of the 'medical rationale' category that emerged in the early 1990s in the area of Social and Human Sciences in Health in the field of Public Health. Its objective was to study complex and therapeutic medical systems and traditional, complementary and alternative medicines. Based on a critical review of the literature, it presents some aspects of the cultural, political, institutional and social context of its emergence, as well as its main contributions and developments on a theoretical level and on social policies and practices in health. The southern epistemology concept of Boaventura de Sousa Santos is used to reflect upon the contribution of the 'medical rationale' category to the critique of the post-modern scientific rationale and to the creation of a new epistemology in health.

  19. Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans from the South Atlantic Ocean .

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Carolina S; Souza, Facelucia B C

    2014-01-07

    Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil-Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. and Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. Both genera are registered for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Inter alia, Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. is characterized by the presence of dimorphic brooding zooids with relatively small orifices and no perioral tubercles, contrasting with bigger non-brooding zooids having larger orifices surrounded by perioral tubercles. Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. differs from congeners in colony morphology and colour, in details of the ooecium and in zooidal metrics. Specimens were collected on varied substrata, commonly calcareous nodules and shells as well as other bryozoans and sponges. 

  20. Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option.

    PubMed

    Stona, Priscila; da Silva Viana, Elizabete; Dos Santos Pires, Leandro; Blessmann Weber, João Batista; Floriani Kramer, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Recurrent labial herpes simplex is a pathology of viral origin that is frequently observed in children. The signs and symptoms are uncomfortable and, in many cases, the efficacy of treatment is unproven. However, several studies have demonstrated good results from the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), primarily due to acceleration of the healing process and pain relief, which make it a promising resource for use with this pathology. This paper describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old patient affected by this pathology and the therapeutic resolution proposed. How to cite this article: Stona P, da Silva Viana E, dos Santos Pires L, Weber JBB, Kramer PF. Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):140-143.

  1. Seismicity and geodynamics in the central part of the Vanuatu Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillard, C.; Crawford, W. C.; Ballu, V.; Regnier, M. M.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Vanuatu Arc (VA) in the southwest Pacific ocean (167°E, 13-20°S), is highly seismically active, with more than 35 events of magnitude Mw ≥ 7 since 1973 (USGS catalog). The geodynamics are dominated by the east-dipping subduction of the Australian Plate under the North Fiji Basin microplate. Convergence rates are estimated to be between 130 and 170 mm/yr, except in the central part of the VA where convergence slows to 30-40 mm/yr. This slowing appears to be the result of blockage by the subducting d'Entrecastaux ridge. To quantify the tectonics of this blocked section, we deployed 30 seismometers in 2008-2009 and 8 GPS stations since 2008, in the forearc region of the central VA. The seismometers recorded more than 100 events/day. Detailed analysis of the earthquake catalog reveals: 1) a seismic gap between 40 and 60 km deep under the two largest islands of the VA (Santo and Malekula); 2) subduction plane and intraplate faulting within the down-going plate; and 3) reduced activity beneath Malekula island , perhaps indicating a locked patch on the subduction plane. We infer the geometry of the subduction interface by combining our catalog with unpublished data from the 2000 Santo Mw 6.9 earthquake and aftershocks and the USGS and Global CMT catalogs. The subduction interface appears to be composed of two different panels: a shallow one with a small dip angle and a deeper one with higher dip starting at a depth of ~50 km. We compare finite-element modeling of these panels to the geodetic data to test the connectedness of the two panels and their degree of locking.

  2. Intraspecific variation in the venoms of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

    PubMed

    Francischetti, I M; Gombarovits, M E; Valenzuela, J G; Carlini, C R; Guimarães, J A

    2000-08-01

    The venom of eight individual Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in addition to pooled venom from Butantan Institute, were compared. Snakes were captured in distinct locations, some of them 600 km apart: Conselheiro Lafaiete, Entre Rios de Minas, Itauna, Itapecerica, Lavras, Patos de Minas, Paracatu, and Santo Antonio do Amparo. The crude venoms were tested for proteolytic, phospholipase A2, platelet aggregating, and hemagglutinating activities. The venoms were also analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Chromatographic patterns of venom proteins on both gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatographies were also performed. All venoms presented high phospholipase A2 and platelet-aggregating activities, but only minimal hemagglutinating or proteolytic activities were found. Gel-filtration chromatography showed a characteristic profile for most venoms where four main peaks were separated, including the typical ones where convulxin and crotoxin were identified; however, peaks with high amounts of lower molecular weight proteins were found in the venoms from the Santo Antonio do Amparo location and Butantan Institute, characterizing these venoms as crotamine positive. Anion-exchange chromatographies presented a similar protein distribution pattern, although the number of peaks (up to ten) distinguished some venom samples. Consistent with these results, polyacrylamide gels that were silver stained after venom separation by PAGE or IEF presented a similar qualitative band distribution, although a quantitative heterogeneity was detected among venoms. Our results suggest that the variability found in venom components of C. d. terrificus venoms captured in Minas Gerais State may be genetically inherited and/or environmentally induced.

  3. Chronic contamination assessment integrating biomarkers' responses in transplanted mussels--a seasonal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C D S; Martín-Díaz, M L; Catharino, M G M; Cesar, A; Choueri, R B; Taniguchi, S; Abessa, D M S; Bícego, M C; Vasconcellos, M B A; Bainy, A C D; Sousa, E C P M; Delvalls, T A

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to provide the first biomonitoring integrating biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in São Paulo coast, Brazil and, for this purpose, a battery of biomarkers of defense mechanisms was analyzed and linked to contaminants' body burden in a weigh-of-evidence approach. The brown mussel Perna perna was selected to be transplanted from a farming area (Caraguatatuba) to four possibly polluted sites: Engenho D'Água, DTCS (Dutos e Terminais do Centro-Oeste de São Paulo) oil terminal (Sao Sebastiao zone), Palmas Island, and Itaipu (It; Santos Bay zone). After 3 months of exposure in each season, mussels were recollected and the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)- and CYP3A-like activities, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were analyzed in gills. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and nonessential metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg) in whole tissue were also analyzed and data were linked to biomarkers' responses by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis-factor analysis). A representation of estimated factor scores was performed to confirm the factor descriptions and to characterize the studied stations. Biomarkers exhibited most significant alterations all year long in mussels transplanted to It, located at Santos Bay zone, where bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic compounds was detected. This integrated approach using transplanted mussels showed satisfactory results, pointing out differences between sites, seasons, and critical areas, which could be related to land-based contaminants' sources. The influence of natural factors and other contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals) on biomarkers' responses are also discussed.

  4. Biometric, microstructural, and high-resolution trace element studies in Crassostrea gigas of Cantabria (Bay of Biscay, Spain): Anthropogenic and seasonal influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera-Ruiz, R.; Elorza, J.

    2009-04-01

    Living Crassostrea gigas oysters of different ages and sizes were collected in three estuaries of Cantabria (Bay of Biscay, Spain): San Vicente de la Barquera Estuary, Santander Bay, and Marismas de Santoña Estuary. The main objective was to determine different shell responses to variable environmental parameters. A shell morphological study, based on three biometric indices, indicates that oysters of Santander Bay have two significant shell anomalies: abnormal thickening of the right valve and loss of vital cavity volume. These shell abnormalities are related with the presence in these waters of the chemical tributyltin. In the other two estuaries, the oysters show no detectable anomalies. Four shell microstructures have been distinguished: Regular Simple Prismatic, Regular Foliated, cone-Complex Cross Foliated, and Chalk. In Santander Bay oysters, the Chalk forms a "root-type" framework, whereas in the other two estuaries it forms a more compact microstructure. It is proposed that exposure to tributyltin has produced this modification. High-spatial-resolution geochemical transects have been carried out on the Regular Foliated microstructure in the umbo region in order to evaluate the distribution of Mg, Sr, and Na. The elements analysed exhibit clear cyclic variations in San Vicente de la Barquera Estuary and Marismas de Santoña Estuary oysters, related with seasonal periods, and characterised by broad maxima during months in which the waters are warmer and have higher salinity. These patterns are buffered in Santander Bay oysters. Our results demonstrate that biometric, microstructural, and high-resolution trace element studies in oyster shells can provide information about contaminants and seasonal variations in the estuarine environment.

  5. Preliminary assessment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in the Philippines: a second look at published data from four centers

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, Mario Paulus Cesar B.; Mejia, Michael Benedict A.

    2014-01-01

    In endemic regions such as southern China and Southeast Asia, the annual incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) ranges from 3 to 30 per 100,000. In the Philippines, the estimated incidence in 2010 was 1.2 per 100,000. However, this rate is based on data collected from registries covering only two regions in the country. Here, we report the findings from our study to better approximate the incidence of NPC in the Philippines. Between September 1, 2011 and August 31, 2012, data were collected from 49 patients from 4 different institutions—University of Santo Tomas, Makati Medical Center, Philippine Oncology Center Corporation, and Cardinal Santos Memorial Medical Center—using a NPC screening questionnaire. Crude incidence was 0.09 per 100,000. Age-standardized incidences using Segi and WHO standards were 2.08 and 1.79 per 100,000, respectively. Of the 49 patients, 31 were males and 18 were females, and 71% of patients were between 30 and 59 years old. WHO types II and III represented 22% and 78% of the subjects, respectively, and 75.5% of cases were locally advanced (stages III–IVB). Although the age-standardized incidence from the 4 institutions was numerically higher than the published age-standardized incidence (2.07 per 100,000 vs. 1.2 per 100,000), two-proportion z-test showed no significant difference between them (P = 0.68). A more concerted effort is needed for a better approximation of the country's NPC disease burden. PMID:23958058

  6. HIV time hierarchy: winning the war while, loosing all the battles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershberg, Uri; Louzoun, Yoram; Atlan, Henri; Solomon, Sorin

    2001-01-01

    AIDS is the pandemic of our era. A disease that scares us not only because it is fatal but also because its insidious time course makes us all potential carriers long before it hands us our heads in a basket. The strange three stage dynamics of aids is also one of the major puzzles while describing the disease theoretically (Pantaleo et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 328 (1993) 327). Aids starts, like most diseases, in a peak of virus expression [R.M. Zorzenon dos Santos, Immune responses: Getting close to experimental results with cellular automata models, in: D. Stauffer (Ed.), Annual Review of Computational Physics VI, 1999, pp. 159-202; R.M. Zorzenon dos Santos, S.C. Coutinho, On the dynamics of the evolution of HIV infection, cond-mat/0008081], which is practically wiped out by the immune system. However it then remains in the body at a low level of expression until later (some time years later) when there is an outbreak of the disease which terminally cripples the immune system causing death from various common pathogens. In this paper we show, using a microscopic simulation, that the time course of AIDS is determined by the interactions of the virus and the immune cells in the shape space of antigens and that it is the virus's ability to move more rapidly in this space (its high mutability) that causes the time course and eventual “victory” of the disease. These results open the way for further experimental and therapeutic conclusions in the ongoing battle with the HIV epidemic.

  7. High precision thorium-230 ages of corals and the timing of sea level fluctuations in the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Mass spectrometric techniques for the measurement of {sup 230}Th and {sup 234}U have been developed. These techniques have made it possible to reduce the analytical errors in {sup 230}Th dating of corals using very small samples (10{sup 7} to 10{sup 10} atoms). The time range over which useful data on corals can now be obtained ranges from 15 to 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to {sup 14}C dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can not be determined makes it possible to determine the timing of sea level fluctuations in the late Quaternary. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122 to 130 ky. The ages coincide with or slightly postdate the summer solar insolation high at 65{degree}N latitude, which occurred 128 ky ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of orbital forcing. Coral ages may allow us to resolve the ages of individual coseismic uplift events and thereby date prehistoric earthquakes. This possibility has been examined at two localities, northwest Santo Island and north Malekula Island, Vanuatu. The {sup 230}Th growth dates of the surfaces of adjacent emerged coral heads, collected from the same elevation on northwest Santo Island, were, within analytical error, identical (A.D. 1866 {plus minus} 4 and A.D. 1864 {plus minus} 4). This indicates that the corals died at the same time and is consistent with the idea that they were killed by coseismic uplift. Similar adjacent coral heads on north Malekula Island yielded {sup 230}Th growth dates of A.D. 1729 {plus minus} 3 and A.D. 1718 {plus minus} 5. The ages are similar but analytically distinguishable. The difference may be due to erosion of the outer, younger, portion of the latter coral head.

  8. An extensive pockmark field on the upper Atlantic margin of Southeast Brazil: spatial analysis and its relationship with salt diapirism.

    PubMed

    de Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch; Schattner, Uri; Lazar, Michael; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Souza, Luiz Antonio Pereira de

    2017-02-01

    We present new evidence for the existence of a large pockmark field on the continental slope of the Santos Basin, offshore southeast Brazil. A recent high-resolution multibeam bathymetric survey revealed 984 pockmarks across a smooth seabed at water depths of 300-700 m. Four patterns of pockmark arrays were identified in the data: linear, network, concentric, and radial. Interpretation of Two-dimensional multi-channel seismic reflection profiles that crosscut the surveyed area shows numerous salt diapirs in various stages of development (e.g. salt domes, walls, and anticlines). Some diapirs were exposed on the seafloor, whereas the tops of others (diapir heads) were situated several hundreds of meters below the surface. Extensional faults typically cap these diapirs and reach shallow depths beneath the seafloor. Our analysis suggests that these pockmark patterns are linked to stages in the development of underlying diapirs and their related faults. The latter may extend above salt walls, take the form of polygonal extensional faults along higher-level salt anticlines, or concentric faults above diapir heads that reach close to the seafloor. Seismic data also revealed buried pockmark fields that had repeatedly developed since the Middle Miocene. The close spatio-temporal connection between pockmark and diapir distribution identified here suggests that the pockmark field extends further across the Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, offshore Brazil. Spatial overlap between the pockmark field topping a large diapir field and a proliferous hydrocarbon basin is believed to have facilitated the escape of fluid/gas from the subsurface to the water column, which was enhanced by halokinesis. This provides a possible control on fossil gas contribution to the marine system over geological time.

  9. Effect of tropical storms on sexual and asexual reproduction in coral Pocillopora verrucosa subpopulations in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranceta-Garza, F.; Balart, E. F.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Cruz-Hernández, P.

    2012-12-01

    Pocillopora verrucosa is a branching, reef-building coral, and a simultaneous hermaphrodite that reproduces sexually and asexually by fragmentation. In the Gulf of California, local P. verrucosa populations have mixed modes of reproduction which vary in frequency by site. Sexual and asexual reproductions were assessed using multi-locus genotypes deriving from six microsatellite loci at every location. Clone frequencies varied from 0.30 at Loreto to 0.96 in the San Lorenzo Channel. Isla Espíritu Santo and the San Lorenzo Channel were mostly asexual subpopulations, presented the lowest genotypic richness ( N g / N = 0.1-0.12) and genotypic diversity ( G o / G e = 0.04), and were dominated by one or two multi-loci genotypes ( G o / N g = 0.35-0.45). Loreto, El Portugués, and Cabo Pulmo were mostly sexual with high Ng/ N (0.80-0.74) and G o / G e (0.52-0.58) and did not show domination by a single multi-locus genotype ( G o / N g = 0.70-0.74). There was a significant relationship ( P < 0.05) between tropical storm frequency and the genotypic indexes of richness and diversity modeling an inverted U-shape, which indicates that the sites where storm frequencies were the highest had mostly clonal populations; sites exposed to intermediate or low storm frequencies had mostly sexual populations. The study included a restored area (San Lorenzo Channel) where genotypic analyses showed a high level of clonality similar to natural conditions occurring in a nearby subpopulation (Isla Espíritu Santo), which demonstrates the low natural genetic diversity of the area. This study showed that a species with mixed reproduction modes has different maintenance strategies at a regional and even local level among populations indicating the crucial role that storms play in population structure.

  10. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  11. Fuzzy logic applied to prospecting for areas for installation of wood panel industries.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Paterlini, Ewerthon Mattos; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Juvanhol, Ronie Silva; Branco, Elvis Ricardo Figueira; Mota, Pedro Henrique Santos; da Silva, Lilianne Gomes; Pirovani, Daiani Bernardo; de Jesus, Waldir Cintra; Santos, Ana Carolina de Albuquerque; Leite, Helio Garcia; Iwakiri, Setsuo

    2017-02-23

    Prospecting for suitable areas for forestry operations, where the objective is a reduction in production and transportation costs, as well as the maximization of profits and available resources, constitutes an optimization problem. However, fuzzy logic is an alternative method for solving this problem. In the context of prospecting for suitable areas for the installation of wood panel industries, we propose applying fuzzy logic analysis for simulating the planting of different species and eucalyptus hybrids in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The necessary methodological steps for this study are as follows: a) agriclimatological zoning of different species and eucalyptus hybrids; b) the selection of the vector variables; c) the application of the Euclidean distance to the vector variables; d) the application of fuzzy logic to matrix variables of the Euclidean distance; and e) the application of overlap fuzzy logic to locate areas for installation of wood panel industries. Among all the species and hybrids, Corymbia citriodora showed the highest percentage values for the combined very good and good classes, with 8.60%, followed by Eucalyptus grandis with 8.52%, Eucalyptus urophylla with 8.35% and Urograndis with 8.34%. The fuzzy logic analysis afforded flexibility in prospecting for suitable areas for the installation of wood panel industries in the Espírito Santo State can bring great economic and social benefits to the local population with the generation of jobs, income, tax revenues and GDP increase for the State and municipalities involved. The proposed methodology can be adapted to other areas and agricultural crops.

  12. Variability on the Hypoxic Conditions in the Northwestern Region of the Baja California Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.

    2015-12-01

    The NW region of the Baja California peninsula in México is dominated by the California Current System (CCS). Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key variable in water bodies because it is considered as a health in biological processes. Hypoxic conditions (DO 60 to 120 μmol kg-1) occur naturally in large areas of the ocean. In the Eastern Pacific, the DO can be altered by eutrophication, derived from anthropogenic activity, especially in shallow and enclosed seas. Fluctuations in the conditions of hypoxia zones may have significant ecological and economic impact. It is of interest in assessing whether hypoxic conditions in the vicinity of Bahia de Todos Santos (BTS) and Coronado Islands in México are altered by anthropogenic activity (Figs. 1 and 2 respectively). For the present study, we worked with data collected from oceanographic expeditions during the period October 2010 to June 2015. The DO was determined using a CTD (SBE Model 25) and by sea water collection with hydrographic bottles using a modification of the Winkler method. The signs of hypoxia are evident in the area near BTS and in the vicinity of Coronado´s Islands, mainly on locations between the Todos Santos Islands and the peninsula of Punta Banda, which shows that the hypoxic zone begins to occur in shallow water between 50-200 m depth. This particular area corresponds to the point where the Mexican Navy determined as a site for dredging materials from the ports of Ensenada and El Sauzal, it is possible that the anthropogenic activity alters the natural conditions of hypoxia in the area to enlarge. In June 2012 for the first time in that region we obtained sediment samples below 700 m depth, which are mixed terrigenous clastic and oceanic sediments.

  13. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response in Leishmania amazonensis macrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Dias-Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Calegari-Silva, Teresa Cristina; dos Santos, Guilherme R R M; Vitorino Dos Santos, José; Lima, Carolina; Medina, Jorge Mansur; Aktas, Bertal Huseyin; Lopes, Ulisses G

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers the integrated ER-stress response (IERSR) that ensures cellular survival of ER stress and represents a primordial form of innate immunity. We investigated the role of IERSR duringLeishmania amazonensisinfection. Treatment of RAW 264.7 infected macrophages with the ER stress-inducing agent thapsigargin (TG; 1 μM) increasedL. amazonensisinfectivity in an IFN1-α receptor (IFNAR)-dependent manner. In Western blot assays, we showed thatL. amazonensisactivates the inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE1)/ X-box binding protein (XBP)-1-splicing arms of the IERSR in host cells. In chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we showed an increased occupancy of enhancer and promoter sequences for theIfnbgene by XBP1 in infected RAW 264.7 cells. Knocking down XBP1 expression by transducing RAW 264.7 cells with the short hairpin XBP1 lentiviral vector significantly reduced the parasite proliferation associated with impaired translocation of phosphorylated IFN regulatory transcription factor (IRF)-3 to the nucleus and a decrease in IFN1-β expression. Knocking down XBP1 expression also increased NO concentration, as determined by Griess reaction and reduced the expression of antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1, that protect parasites from oxidative stress. We conclude thatL. amazonensisactivation of XBP1 plays a critical role in infection by protecting the parasites from oxidative stress and increasing IFN1-β expression.-Dias-Teixeira, K. L., Calegari-Silva, T. C., Dos Santos, G. R. R. M., Vitorino dos Santos, J., Lima, C., Medina, J. M., Aktas, B. H., Lopes, U. G. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response inLeishmania amazonensismacrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor.

  14. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    PubMed

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.

  15. New insights on the petrology of submarine volcanics from the Western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, A. M.; Perinelli, C.; Bianchini, G.; Natali, C.; Martorelli, E.; Chiocci, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    The Pontine Islands form a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It consists of two edifices, the islands of Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone and the islands of Ventotene and Santo Stefano, respectively. The Archipelago developed during two main volcanic cycles in the Plio-Pleistocene: 1) the Pliocene episode erupted subalkaline, silica-rich volcanic units, which constitute the dominant products in the western edifice (Ponza and Zannone Islands); 2) the Pleistocene episode erupted more alkaline products, represented by evolved rocks (trachytes to peralkaline rhyolites) in the islands of Ponza and Palmarola and by basic to intermediate rocks in the eastern edifice (Ventotene and Santo Stefano Islands). In this paper we present new geochemical and petrological data from submarine rock samples collected in two oceanographic cruises and a scuba diving survey. The main result is the recovery of relatively undifferentiated lithotypes that provide further insights on the magmatic spectrum existing in the Pontine Archipelago, allowing modelling of the whole suite of rocks by fractional crystallization processes. New major and trace element data and thermodynamic constrains (by the software PELE) indicate the existence of three distinct evolutionary trends corresponding to a HK calcalkaline series in the Pliocene, followed by a transitional and then by a shoshonite series in the Pleistocene. In particular, the transitional series, so far overlooked in the literature, is required in order to explain the genesis of several peralkaline felsic rocks recognized in the Archipelago. On the whole, the new geochemical data i) confirm the orogenic signature of the suites, ii) allow to rule out an anatectic origin for both subalkaline and peralkaline rhyolites and iii) indicate highly heterogeneous mantle sources, due to crustal components variously recycled in the mantle via subduction.

  16. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers), and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Agua Fria district and Casca river) were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61%) and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%); of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%); and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%). These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  17. Climate change projections over three metropolitan regions in Southeast Brazil using the non-hydrostatic Eta regional climate model at 5-km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyra, Andre; Tavares, Priscila; Chou, Sin Chan; Sueiro, Gustavo; Dereczynski, Claudine; Sondermann, Marcely; Silva, Adan; Marengo, José; Giarolla, Angélica

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this work is to assess changes in three metropolitan regions of Southeast Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Santos) based on the projections produced by the Eta Regional Climate Model (RCM) at very high spatial resolution, 5 km. The region, which is densely populated and extremely active economically, is frequently affected by intense rainfall events that trigger floods and landslides during the austral summer. The analyses are carried out for the period between 1961 and 2100. The 5-km simulations are results from a second downscaling nesting in the HadGEM2-ES RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations. Prior to the assessment of the projections, the higher resolution simulations were evaluated for the historical period (1961-1990). The comparison between the 5-km and the coarser driver model simulations shows that the spatial patterns of precipitation and temperature of the 5-km Eta simulations are in good agreement with the observations. The simulated frequency distribution of the precipitation and temperature extremes from the 5-km Eta RCM is consistent with the observed structure and extreme values. Projections of future climate change using the 5-km Eta runs show stronger warming in the region, primarily during the summer season, while precipitation is strongly reduced. Projected temperature extremes show widespread heating with maximum temperatures increasing by approximately 9 °C in the three metropolitan regions by the end of the century in the RCP8.5 scenario. A trend of drier climate is also projected using indices based on daily precipitation, which reaches annual rainfall reductions of more than 50 % in the state of Rio de Janeiro and between 40 and 45 % in São Paulo and Santos. The magnitude of these changes has negative implications to the population health conditions, energy security, and economy.

  18. [Environment, crisis, and development: thoughts on the Ozama and Isabela rivers].

    PubMed

    Chantada, A

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between the economic crisis of the 1980s and the problems of economic development and environmental degradation are considered from the local perspective of the Rio Ozama and Rio Isabela and their environs to the north of Santo Domingo. As recently as the 1950s there was little industrial production or population concentration on the banks of the 2 rivers, and the entire north zone of the city contained only an estimated 5000 families. The last 30 years however have seen various ecological changes including rapid urbanization and industrialization, the results of development policies stressing rapid development through concentration of capital. In the 1960s and 1970s the Dominican Republic became open to foreign investment, permitting installation of large enterprises none of which employed antipollution equipment. 71% of industrial establishments and 57% of value added manufacturing were concentrated in Santo Domingo. Industrial plants using obsolete technology and characterized by excessive fuel consumption discharged their untreated wastes into the Ozama and Isabela Rivers, which also received untreated wastes from agroindustrial enterprises located in the Rio Ozama basin. The marginal populations living in the areas of the 2 rivers are almost without potable water, sewage disposal services, environmental sanitation efforts, or trash collection. The time has come to revise the principles by which human beings relate themselves to nature, and to identify the reasons why residents of marginal neighborhoods like those surrounding the Ozama and Isabela Rivers must be twice victimized: once by being poor, and again by having to live in unhealthy and inhospitable areas. An alternative economic development strategy is needed in which the environmental patrimony and natural resources are left intact for future generations. Natural resources must be better managed and available for the benefit of all, not just for the most privileged population sectors.

  19. Climate variability and wine quality over Portuguese regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Gani, Érico A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between the characteristics of wine and its geographic origin is frequently used to explain the hierarchy of high-quality wines. Port wine is produced from grapes grown in selected areas of the Douro valley, in Portugal, the so-called Região Demarcada do Douro, the first wine-producing region of the world (dating from 1758). The Douro region presents distinctive climatic, topographic and soil characteristics. Moreover Portugal possesses a large array of native varietals, producing an abundant diversity of different wines. The most protected wines, produced only with some authorised grape varietals in the demarcated regions, are labelled D.O.C. (Denominação de Origem Controlada, similar to the French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC)) which secures a superior wine quality. Recent warming trends in Portugal are associated with the significant increase in the frequency and duration of heat waves, and the increase in the frequency of hot days and tropical nights, especially in spring and summer, together with a significant decrease in the frequency of cold waves and frost days (Santo et al., 2014). Moreover a predominantly negative tendency in precipitation indices was also found (de Lima et al., 2014). These trends and associated changes in temperature and precipitation regimes may exert strong influences on agriculture systems. In this work we have performed an analysis of the distinct behaviour of several meteorological fields in vintage versus non-vintage years for Port Wine on one hand and Alentejo and Dão/Bairrada DOC regions on the other hand, during the period spanning from 1964-1995. The relative importance of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and frost days is assessed for each individual month of the vegetative cycle and their importance to the wine quality is evaluated. Furthermore, composites of 500 hPa geopotential height and sea level pressure fields over the Euro Atlantic region are also compared for years

  20. Structural Controls on the Evolution of the Southeastern Brazilian Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, David; McCaffrey, Ken; Holdsworth, Bob; Almeida, Julio

    2010-05-01

    The South Atlantic passive margins show considerable variation along strike in terms of both structural style and margin width. Much of this change is thought to be due to variations in basement structure. Previous studies have shown that the influence of pre-existing structures can range from metre-scale local variations in basement fabrics to tens of kilometre-scale lithospheric heterogeneities relating to past deformation events. The Santos basin (offshore Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is an increasingly important target for hydrocarbon exploration. The basin is thought to be underlain by thinned continental crust, possibly part of the Neoproterozoic Ribeira mobile belt, whose structures onshore lie parallel or sub-parallel to the continental margin. The formation of structures in the Santos basin and onshore southeastern Brazil has previously been thought to have been controlled by reactivation of these basement structures. Recent discoveries such as the giant Tupi oil field and recently drilled dry wells in the basin (Guaraní, Corcovado-2), highlight the importance of understanding the sub-salt structure in the basin. A remote sensing- and field-based study of structures formed during Cretaceous and Tertiary rifting events was carried out. We identify two generations of structures: ~120Ma Cretaceous tholeiitic dykes and associated faults; and ~60Ma Tertiary faults, showing silicified breccias associated with further alkaline magmatism. A strong northeast - southwest structural trend is identified from remote sensed imagery. At outcrop scale, sinistral-oblique and normal faults appear to have formed during the Cretaceous and Tertiary, and Cretaceous dykes show sinistral-oblique emplacement kinematics. These datasets are consistent with sinistral transtension during repeated phases of regional east-west extension. Basement fabrics often show strike parallel to the northeast-southwest trend of the brittle structures, but show a wide variation in dip angle. The