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Sample records for essential mitogen-activated protein

  1. p38delta Mitogen-activated protein kinase is essential for skin tumor development in mice.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Eva M; Hindes, Anna; Gribben, Erin L; Burns, Carole J; Yin, Yan; Lin, Meei-Hua; Owen, Robert J; Longmore, Gregory D; Kissling, Grace E; Arthur, J Simon C; Efimova, Tatiana

    2009-06-01

    Activating Ras mutations occur in a large portion of human tumors. Yet, the signaling pathways involved in Ras-induced tumor formation remain incompletely understood. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are among the best studied Ras effector pathways. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms are important regulators of key biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, inflammation, senescence, and tumorigenesis. However, the specific in vivo contribution of individual p38 isoforms to skin tumor development has not been elucidated. Recent studies have shown that p38delta, a p38 family member, functions as an important regulator of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and survival. In the present study, we have assessed the effect of p38delta deficiency on skin tumor development in vivo by subjecting p38delta knockout mice to a two-stage 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate chemical skin carcinogenesis protocol. We report that mice lacking p38delta gene exhibited a marked resistance to development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin papillomas, with increased latency and greatly reduced incidence, multiplicity, and size of tumors compared with wild-type mice. Our data suggest that the underlying mechanism for reduced susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in p38delta-null mice involves a defect in proliferative response associated with aberrant signaling through the two major transformation-promoting pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-activator protein 1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. These findings strongly suggest an in vivo role for p38delta in promoting cell proliferation and tumor development in epidermis and may have therapeutic implication for skin cancer.

  2. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activity Is Not Essential for the First Step of Nuclear Reprogramming in Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Tani, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoko

    2017-03-07

    For reprogramming a somatic nucleus during mammalian cloning, metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII) oocytes has been widely used as recipient cytoplasm. High activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is believed to accelerate the remodeling and/or reprogramming of a somatic nucleus introduced into the ooplasm by somatic cell nuclear transfer. We demonstrated previously that the first step in nuclear reprogramming is not directly regulated by MPF and MAPK because activated oocytes in which MPF activity is diminished and MAPK activity is maintained can develop to the blastocyst stage after receiving an M phase somatic nucleus in bovine cloning. In this study, our aim was to test whether MAPK activity is necessary for the first step in nuclear reprogramming and/or chromatin remodeling (phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser3, trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys 9, and acetylation of histone H3 at Lys14) in bovine somatic cloning. We found that it was not necessary, and neither was MPF activity.

  3. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paul D; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2004-01-01

    The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. PMID:15219238

  4. Cellular reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Scheel, Dierk

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved eukaryote signaling modules where MAPKs, as the final kinases in the cascade, phosphorylate protein substrates to regulate cellular processes. While some progress in the identification of MAPK substrates has been made in plants, the knowledge on the spectrum of substrates and their mechanistic action is still fragmentary. In this focused review, we discuss the biological implications of the data in our original paper (Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana; Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 554) in the context of related research. In our work, we mimicked in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, through transgenic manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana and used phosphoproteomics analysis to identify potential novel MAPK substrates. Here, we plotted the identified putative MAPK substrates (and downstream phosphoproteins) as a global protein clustering network. Based on a highly stringent selection confidence level, the core networks highlighted a MAPK-induced cellular reprogramming at multiple levels of gene and protein expression—including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational (such as protein modification, folding, and degradation) steps, and also protein re-compartmentalization. Additionally, the increase in putative substrates/phosphoproteins of energy metabolism and various secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways coincides with the observed accumulation of defense antimicrobial substances as detected by metabolome analysis. Furthermore, detection of protein networks in phospholipid or redox elements suggests activation of downstream signaling events. Taken in context with other studies, MAPKs are key regulators that reprogram cellular events to orchestrate defense signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:26579181

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W.M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that male reproductive function is modulated via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The MAPK cascade is involved in numerous male reproductive processes, including spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and activation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, before fertilization of the oocyte. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in this rapidly developing field regarding the role of MAPK in male reproduction in animal models and in human spermatozoa in vitro. This research will facilitate the design of future studies in humans, although much work is needed before this information can be used to manage male infertility and environmental toxicant-induced testicular injury in men, such as blood–testis-barrier disruption. PMID:19303360

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  7. Implications of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in glioma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal; Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. Gliomas originate from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells or their precursors. According to WHO classification, gliomas are classified into four different malignant grades ranging from grade I to grade IV based on histopathological features and related molecular aberrations. The induction and maintenance of these tumors can be attributed largely to aberrant signaling networks. In this regard, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network has been widely studied and is reported to be severely altered in glial tumors. Mutations in MAPK pathways most frequently affect RAS and B-RAF in the ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 pathways leading to malignant transformation. Also, it is linked to both inherited and sequential accumulations of mutations that control receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activated signal transduction pathways, cell cycle growth arrest pathways, and nonresponsive cell death pathways. Genetic alterations that modulate RTK signaling can also alter several downstream pathways, including RAS-mediated MAP kinases along with JNK pathways, which ultimately regulate cell proliferation and cell death. The present review focuses on recent literature regarding important deregulations in the RTK-activated MAPK pathway during gliomagenesis and progression.

  8. Dobesilate diminishes activation of the mitogen - activated protein kinase ERK1/2 in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, P; Diaz-González, Diana; Garcia-Martin-Córdova, C; Sánchez, I; Lozano, Rosa Maria; Giménez-Gallego, G; Dujovny, M

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors, regularly expressed at high levels in gliomas, are further upregulated during the transition of the tumor from low- to high-grade malignancy, and are essential for glioma progression. FGFs induce upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in cultured glioma cells, which suggests that MAPK pathway participates in the FGF-dependent glioma development. Recently, it has been shown that dobesilate, an inhibitor of FGF mitogenic activity, shows antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in glioma cell cultures. Accordingly, it should be expected this new synthetic FGF inhibitor to affect the activation levels of MAPK. Here we report that immunocytochemical and Western blot data unequivocally show that treatment of cell cultures with dobesilate causes a significant decrease of the intracellular levels of ERK1/2 activation, one of the components of the MAPK signalling cascade. This finding supports an important role for dobesilate in glioma growth, suggesting that dobesilate should be a treatment to be born in mind for glioma management. PMID:16563234

  9. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanyan; Yu, Tao; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Byong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:24771982

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in signaling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are ubiquitous signaling modules in eukaryotes. Early research of plant MAPKs has been focused on their functions in immunity and stress responses. Recent studies reveal that they also play essential roles in plant growth and development downstream of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). With only a limited number of MAPK components, multiple functional pathways initiated from different receptors often share the same MAPK components or even a complete MAPK cascade. In this review, we discuss how MAPK cascades function as molecular switches in response to spatiotemporal-specific ligand-receptor interactions and the availability of downstream substrates. In addition, we discuss other possible mechanisms governing the functional specificity of plant MAPK cascades, a question central to our understanding of MAPK functions.

  11. Germ cell mitogenic activity is associated with nerve growth factor-like protein(s).

    PubMed

    Onoda, M; Pflug, B; Djakiew, D

    1991-12-01

    The mitogenicity of germ cell proteins released from round spermatids (RS) and pachytene spermatocytes (PS) was investigated. Germ cells were isolated by centrifugal elutriation from 90-day-old rat testes and incubated in a supplement enriched culture media that lacked exogenous proteins. The conditioned culture media of RS and PS were dialysed/concentrated and lyophilized to prepare RS protein (RSP) and PS protein (PSP). Mitogenic activity of RSP and PSP was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation into Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. RSP and PSP stimulated 3H-thymidine incorporation by fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. At a higher concentration of RSP (300 micrograms/ml), fibroblast proliferation was stimulated from 6- to 20-fold of control cultures, whereas PSP (300 micrograms/ml) stimulated fibroblast proliferation 2.5-fold of control cultures. Since RSP exhibited substantially greater mitogenic activity than PSP we further investigated the RSP mitogenic substance(s) by immunoneutralization with antibodies against several growth factors. The mitogenic activity of RSP was significantly reduced by treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) antibody, while neither the treatment of RSP with acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) antibody, nor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) antibody significantly modified the mitogenic activity of RSP. Interestingly, murine NGF-beta, recombinant human NGF-beta, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not exhibit mitogenic activity on 3T3 fibroblasts. Nevertheless, the presence of a NGF-like protein in RS and PS was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence staining with a murine NGF antibody. Subsequently, a Western blot analysis with the NGF antibody identified two immunoreactive bands of 41 +/- 2 kDa and 51 +/- 1 kDa in both RSP and PSP under reduced conditions. These germ cell NGF-like proteins were apparently different from similarly prepared murine and human NGFs (13 kDa) in their molecular weight. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth

  12. Wounding systemically activates a mitogen-activated protein kinase in forage and turf grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage and turf grasses are continually cut and grazed by livestock, however very little is known concerning the perception or molecular responses to wounding. Mechanical wounding rapidly activated a 46 kDa and a 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in six different grass species. In the m...

  13. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 activity during meiosis resumption in mammals.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Radek; Blaha, Milan

    2015-01-01

    In vivo, resumption of oocyte meiosis occurs in large ovarian follicles after the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). The LH surge leads to the activation of a broad signaling network in mural granulosa cells equipped with LH receptors. The signals generated in the mural granulosa cells are further augmented by locally produced peptides or steroids and transferred to the cumulus cell compartment and the oocyte itself. Over the last decade, essential progress has been made in the identification of molecular events associated with the final maturation and ovulation of mammalian oocytes. All new evidence argues for a multiple roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) in the gonadotropin-induced ovulation processes. However, the knowledge of gonadotropin-induced signaling pathways leading to MAPK3/1 activation in follicular cells seems limited. To date, only the LH-induced transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor/MAPK3/1 pathway has been described in granulosa/cumulus cells even though other mechanisms of MAPK3/1 activation have been detected in other types of cells. In this review, we aimed to summarize recent advances in the elucidation of gonadotropin-induced mechanisms leading to the activation of MAPK3/1 in preovulatory follicles and cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes and to point out a specific role of this kinase in the processes accompanying final maturation of the mammalian oocyte.

  14. Genetic analysis of rolled, which encodes a Drosophila mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y M; Nishizawa, K; Nishi, Y; Tsuda, L; Inoue, Y H; Nishida, Y

    1999-01-01

    Genetic and molecular characterization of the dominant suppressors of D-raf(C110) on the second chromosome identified two gain-of-function alleles of rolled (rl), which encodes a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in Drosophila. One of the alleles, rl(Su23), was found to bear the same molecular lesion as rl(Sem), which has been reported to be dominant female sterile. However, rl(Su23) and the current stock of rl(Sem) showed only a weak dominant female sterility. Detailed analyses of the rl mutations demonstrated moderate dominant activities of these alleles in the Torso (Tor) signaling pathway, which explains the weak dominant female sterility observed in this study. The dominant rl mutations failed to suppress the terminal class maternal-effect mutations, suggesting that activation of Rl is essential, but not sufficient, for Tor signaling. Involvement of rl in cell proliferation was also demonstrated by clonal analysis. Branching and integration of signals in the MAP kinase cascade is discussed. PMID:10511556

  15. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  16. Pivotal Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 in Inflammatory Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Deng, Jing; Wang, Gang; Ye, Richard D.; Christman, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase (MK2) is exclusively regulated by p38 MAPK in vivo. Upon activation of p38 MAPK, MK2 binds with p38 MAPK, leading to phosphorylation of TTP, Hsp27, Akt and Cdc25 that are involved in regulation of various essential cellular functions. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of MK2 in regulation of TNF-α production, NADPH oxidase activation, neutrophil migration, and DNA-damage-induced cell cycle arrest which are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and non-small-cell lung cancer. Collectively current and emerging new information indicate that developing MK2 inhibitors and blocking MK2-mediated signal pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases and lung cancer. PMID:26119506

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated AZI1 - an attractive candidate for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Datta, Sneha; Persak, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases and their targets have been in the limelight of plant stress research. Signaling pathways mediating the responses to multiple stresses deserve particular attention. In a recent study, we reported AZI1, a member of the lipid transfer protein family, to play a role in MPK3-mediated responses to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. MPK3 controls AZI1 at the transcriptional and posttranslational level. The AZI1 protein has several properties that make it very attractive for genetic engineering. A model of multi-level control of AZI1 by MPK3 is proposed, and strategies toward optimizing AZI1 protein properties are briefly discussed.

  18. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  19. Zinc differentially regulates mitogen-activated protein kinases in human T cells.

    PubMed

    Hönscheid, Andrea; Dubben, Svenja; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient with remarkable importance for immunity, in particular for T-cell function. This is, at least in part, based on an involvement of zinc ions in immune cell signal transduction; dynamic changes of the intracellular free zinc concentration have recently been recognized as signaling events. Because the molecular targets of zinc signals remain incompletely understood, we investigated the impact of elevated intracellular free zinc on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and MAPK-dependent cytokine production in human T-cells. p38 was activated by treatment with zinc and the ionophore pyrithione, whereas ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases were unaffected. In contrast, after T-cell receptor stimulation with antibodies against CD3, ERK1/2-phosphorylation was selectively suppressed by intracellular zinc. Mechanisms that had been shown to mediate zinc-effects in other cells, such as activation of the Src kinase Lck, inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 or MAPK phosphatases and cyclic nucleotide/protein kinase A signaling were not involved. This indicates that the differential impact of zinc on the MAPK families in T-cells is mediated by mechanisms that differ from the ones observed in other cell types. Further investigation of the activation of p38 by zinc demonstrated that this MAPK is responsible for the zinc-mediated activation of CREB and mRNA expression of the Th1 cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-2. In conclusion, regulation of MAPK activity contributes to the impact of zinc on T-cell function.

  20. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  1. MKP-7, a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein.

    PubMed

    Masuda, K; Shima, H; Watanabe, M; Kikuchi, K

    2001-10-19

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) negatively regulate MAPK activity. In the present study, we have identified a novel MKP, designated MKP-7, and mapped it to human chromosome 12p12. MKP-7 possesses a long C-terminal stretch containing both a nuclear export signal and a nuclear localization signal, in addition to the rhodanese-like domain and the dual specificity phosphatase catalytic domain, both of which are conserved among MKP family members. When expressed in mammalian cells MKP-7 protein was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, but this localization became exclusively nuclear following leptomycin B treatment or introduction of a mutation in the nuclear export signal. These findings indicate that MKP-7 is the first identified leptomycin B-sensitive shuttle MKP. Forced expression of MKP-7 suppressed activation of MAPKs in COS-7 cells in the order of selectivity, JNK p38 > ERK. Furthermore, a mutant form MKP-7 functioned as a dominant negative particularly against the dephosphorylation of JNK, suggesting that MKP-7 works as a JNK-specific phosphatase in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and histological analysis suggested that MKP-7 determines the localization of MAPKs in the cytoplasm.

  2. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling Pathway as a Discovery Target in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Nan, Guangxian

    2016-05-01

    Protein kinases are critical modulators of a variety of intracellular and extracellular signal transduction pathways, and abnormal phosphorylation events can contribute to disease progression in a variety of diseases. As a result, protein kinases have emerged as important new drug targets for small molecule therapeutics. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway transmits signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to a variety of different stimuli. Because this pathway controls a broad spectrum of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and stress responses, it is accepted as a therapeutic target for cancer and peripheral inflammatory disorders. There is also increasing evidence that MAPK is an important regulator of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebral vascular disease, raising the possibility that it might be a drug discovery target for stroke. In this review, we discuss the MAPK signaling pathway in association with its activation in stroke-induced brain injury.

  3. Genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase genes in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqin; Shi, Lanping; Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Qian; Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Cai, Jinsen; Yu, Huanxin; Wang, Rongzhang; Wen, Jiayu; Lin, Youquan; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; He, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been implicated in plant growth, development, and environment adaptation, but a comprehensive understanding of MAPK signaling at genome-wide level is limited in Capsicum annuum. Herein, genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAPKK) were performed in pepper. A total of 19 pepper MAPK (CaMAPKs) genes and five MAPKK (CaMAPKKs) genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaMAPKs and CaMAPKKs could be classified into four groups and each group contains similar exon-intron structures. However, significant divergences were also found. Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper. Additionally, 7 MAPKs in Arabidopsis had either two or three orthologs in the pepper genome, and six pepper MAPKs and one MAPKK differing in sequence were found in three pepper varieties. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPK and MAPKK genes were ubiquitously expressed and transcriptionally modified in pepper leaves after treatments with heat, salt, and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation as well as exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and abscisic acid. The MAPKK-MAPK interactome was tested by yeast two-hybrid assay, the results showed that one MAPKK might interact with multiple MAPKs, one MAPK might also interact with more than one MAPKKs, constituting MAPK signaling networks which may collaborate in transmitting upstream signals into appropriate downstream cellular responses and processes. These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper. PMID:26442088

  4. Evidence for a role of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/mitogen-activated protein kinase in the development of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Antonuccio, Pietro; Romeo, Carmelo; Nicòtina, Piero Antonio; Bitto, Alessandra; Arena, Salvatore; Polito, Francesca; Altavilla, Domenica; Turiaco, Nunzio; Cutrupi, Antonio; Zuccarello, Biagio; Squadrito, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 3/MAPK1 (also known as ERK1/ERK2) plays an important role in the signal transduction pathways. To our knowledge, however, its role in the development of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we studied the pattern of MAPK3/MAPK1 activation in a experimental model of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. We also investigated MAPK8 to understand whether an association exists between these two MAPKs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1 h of testicular ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion or to a sham testicular ischemia-reperfusion. Animals were randomized to receive PD98059, which is an inhibitor of MAPK3/MAPK1 (10 mg/kg i.p. administered immediately after detorsion), or its vehicle. The time course of MAPK3/MAPK1, MAPK8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF; also known as TNF alpha) expression and a histological examination in both the ischemic-reperfused testis and the contralateral one were performed. In both testes, MAPK3/MAPK1 and MAPK8 expression appeared following 10 min of reperfusion and reached their highest activation after 30 min. The MAPK levels slowly decreased, and no significant expression of either kinase was observed following 2 h of reperfusion. Expression of TNF was evident after 1 h of reperfusion and reached its maximum increase after 3 h. PD98059 blunted MAPK3/MAPK1 and MAPK8, reduced TNF expression, and improved the testicular damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury in both testes. These data emphasize that MAPK3/MAPK1 has a role in testicular damage and that its blockade might have a future therapeutic role for the management of patients with unilateral testicular torsion.

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase in Pfiesteria piscicida and its growth rate-related expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan

    2003-01-01

    A full-length cDNA (1,434 bp) of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a key molecule of a signal transduction cascade, was isolated from the estuarine heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. This cDNA (Ppmapk1) encoded a protein (PpMAPK1) of 428 amino acid residues that shared about 30 to 40% amino acid similarity with MAPKs in other organisms. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMAPK1 was tightly clustered with MAPK3 in protozoans. Using reverse transcription-PCR, expression of this gene was evaluated for P. piscicida cultures grown under different conditions. While salinity shock, heat shock, starvation, and a subsequent encounter with prey did not appear to affect expression of this gene, Ppmapk1 expression level was correlated with growth rate, suggesting involvement of this gene in the regulation of cell proliferation in the organism.

  6. Crosstalk and Signaling Switches in Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Dirk; Croucher, David R.; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control cell fate decisions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis by integrating and processing intra- and extracellular cues. However, similar MAPK kinetic profiles can be associated with opposing cellular decisions depending on cell type, signal strength, and dynamics. This implies that signaling by each individual MAPK cascade has to be considered in the context of the entire MAPK network. Here, we develop a dynamic model of feedback and crosstalk for the three major MAPK cascades; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and also include input from protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Focusing on the bistable activation characteristics of the JNK pathway, this model explains how pathway crosstalk harmonizes different MAPK responses resulting in pivotal cell fate decisions. We show that JNK can switch from a transient to sustained activity due to multiple positive feedback loops. Once activated, positive feedback locks JNK in a highly active state and promotes cell death. The switch is modulated by the ERK, p38, and AKT pathways. ERK activation enhances the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) mediated dephosphorylation of JNK and shifts the threshold of the apoptotic switch to higher inputs. Activation of p38 restores the threshold by inhibiting ERK activity via the PP1 or PP2A phosphatases. Finally, AKT activation inhibits the JNK positive feedback, thus abrogating the apoptotic switch and allowing only proliferative signaling. Our model facilitates understanding of how cancerous deregulations disturb MAPK signal processing and provides explanations for certain drug resistances. We highlight a critical role of DUSP1 and DUSP2 expression patterns in facilitating the switching of JNK activity and show how oncogene induced ERK hyperactivity prevents the normal apoptotic switch explaining the failure of certain drugs to

  7. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates sidestream cigarette smoke-induced endothelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Low, Brad; Liang, Mei; Fu, Jian

    2007-07-01

    Second-hand smoke is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. So far, little is known about the signaling mechanisms of second-hand smoke-induced vascular dysfunction. Endothelial junctions are fundamental structures important for maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our study showed that sidestream cigarette smoke (SCS), a major component of second-hand smoke, was able to disrupt endothelial junctions and increase endothelial permeability. Sidestream cigarette smoke stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain (MLC). A selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) prevented SCS-induced loss of endothelial barrier integrity as evidenced by transendothelial resistance measurements. Resveratrol, an antioxidant that was able to inhibit SCS-induced p38 MAPK and MLC phosphorylation, also protected endothelial cells from the damage. Thus, p38 MAPK mediates SCS-induced endothelial permeability. Inhibition of p38 MAPK may have therapeutic potential for second-hand smoke-induced vascular injury.

  8. Sphingosine induces phospholipase D and mitogen activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Taher, M M; Abd-Elfattah, A S; Sholley, M M

    1998-12-01

    The enzymes phospholipase D and diacylglycerol kinase generate phosphatidic acid which is considered to be a mitogen. Here we report that sphingosine produced a significant amount of phosphatidic acid in vascular smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59 949 partially depressed sphingosine induced phosphatidic acid formation, suggesting that activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid produced and that additional pathways such as phospholipase D may contribute to this. Further, we have shown that phosphatidylethanol was produced by sphingosine when vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated in the presence of ethanol. Finally, as previously shown for other cell types, sphingosine stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  9. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Mitogen Kinase Phosphatase 1: A Critical Interplay in Macrophage Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Jorge; Valverde-Estrella, Lorena; Tur, Juan; Vico, Tania; Celada, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are necessary in multiple processes during the immune response or inflammation. This review emphasizes the critical role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mitogen kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in the functional activities of macrophages. While the phosphorylation of MAPKs is required for macrophage activation or proliferation, MKP-1 dephosphorylates these kinases, thus playing a balancing role in the control of macrophage behavior. MKP-1 is a nuclear-localized dual-specificity phosphatase whose expression is regulated at multiple levels, including at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The regulatory role of MKP-1 in the interplay between MAPK phosphorylation/dephosphorylation makes this molecule a critical regulator of macrophage biology and inflammation. PMID:27446931

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in macrophages is controlled by lymphocytes during macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chong; Yang, Xiqiang; Yao, Lan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.

  11. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  12. MsERK1: a mitogen-activated protein kinase from a flowering plant.

    PubMed Central

    Duerr, B; Gawienowski, M; Ropp, T; Jacobs, T

    1993-01-01

    The induction of proliferation and differentiation in cultured mammalian cells is mediated by a cascade of protein phosphorylations. A key enzyme in this signaling pathway is mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (or ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase). We report the recovery of a full-length cDNA clone encoding a MAP kinase from alfalfa. We have named the 44-kD protein encoded by this clone MsERK1. Recombinant MsERK1 (rMsERK1), when overexpressed in Escherichia coli, is recognized by antibodies raised against MAP kinases from rat, Xenopus, and sea star and by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Site-directed mutagenesis of MsERK1 demonstrated that Tyr-215 is either directly or indirectly responsible for recognition of the protein by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Semipurified rMsERK1 phosphorylated itself and a model substrate, myelin basic protein, in vitro, but the Tyr-215 mutant did neither. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis suggested that the gene that encodes MsERK1 is either a member of a small multigene family or a member of a polymorphic allelic series in alfalfa. Because MAP kinase activation has been associated with mitotic stimulation in animal systems, such an enzyme may play a role in the mitogenic induction of symbiotic root nodules on alfalfa by Rhizobium signal molecules. PMID:8439746

  13. Regulation of WRKY46 Transcription Factor Function by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Arsheed H.; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Pecher, Pascal; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Sinha, Alok K.; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are central signaling pathways activated in plants after sensing internal developmental and external stress cues. Knowledge about the downstream substrate proteins of MAPKs is still limited in plants. We screened Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors as potential targets downstream of MAPKs, and concentrated on characterizing WRKY46 as a substrate of the MAPK, MPK3. Mass spectrometry revealed in vitro phosphorylation of WRKY46 at amino acid position S168 by MPK3. However, mutagenesis studies showed that a second phosphosite, S250, can also be phosphorylated. Elicitation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the bacterial flagellin-derived flg22 peptide led to in vivo destabilization of WRKY46 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Mutation of either phosphorylation site reduced the PAMP-induced degradation of WRKY46. Furthermore, the protein for the double phosphosite mutant is expressed at higher levels compared to wild-type proteins or single phosphosite mutants. In line with its nuclear localization and predicted function as a transcriptional activator, overexpression of WRKY46 in protoplasts raised basal plant defense as reflected by the increase in promoter activity of the PAMP-responsive gene, NHL10, in a MAPK-dependent manner. Thus, MAPK-mediated regulation of WRKY46 is a mechanism to control plant defense. PMID:26870073

  14. Manganese modulation of MAPK pathways: effects on upstream mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and mitogen activated kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Patrick L.; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies demonstrate that manganese (Mn) exposure potentiates inflammatory mediator output from activated glia; this increased output is associated with enhanced mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK: p38, ERK, and JNK) activity. We hypothesized that Mn activates MAPK by activating the kinases upstream of MAPK, i.e., MKK-3/6, MKK-1/2, and MKK-4 (responsible for activation of p38, ERK, and JNK, respectively), and/or by inhibiting a major phosphatase responsible for MAPK inactivation, MKP-1. Exposure of N9 microglia to Mn (250μM), LPS (100 ng/ml), or Mn+LPS increased MKK-3/6 and MKK-4 activity at 1 h; the effect of Mn+LPS on MKK-4 activation was greater than the rest. At 4 h, Mn, LPS, and Mn+LPS increased MKK-3/6 and MKK-1/2 phosphorylation, whereas MKK-4 was activated only by Mn and Mn+LPS. Besides activating MKK-4 via Ser257/Thr261 phosphorylation, Mn (4 h) prevented MKK-4’s phosphorylation on Ser80, which negatively regulates MKK-4 activity. Exposure to Mn or Mn+LPS (1 h) decreased both mRNA and protein expression of MKP-1, the negative MAPK regulator. In addition, we observed that at 4 h, but not at 1 h, a time point coinciding with increased MAPK activity, Mn+LPS markedly increased TNF-α , IL-6, and Cox-2 mRNA, suggesting a delayed effect. The fact that all three major groups of MKKs, MKK-1/2, MKK-3/6, and MKK-4 are activated by Mn suggests that Mn-induced activation of MAPK occurs via traditional mechanisms, which perhaps involve the MAPKs farthest upstream, MKKKs (MAP3Ks). In addition, for all MKKs, Mn-induced activation was persistent at least for 4 h, indicating a long-term effect. PMID:20589745

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are required for melatonin-mediated defense responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin enhances pathogen resistance by inducing the expression of a number of plant defense-related genes. To examine whether the melatonin-mediated pathogen resistance is associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves were treated with melatonin and investigated for MAPK activation using an antiphospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) monoclonal antibody. Two MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, were activated rapidly and transiently by 1 μm melatonin treatment in Arabidopsis. Its tobacco ortholog MAPKs were also activated. The activation of MPK3 and MPK6 by 2-hydroxymelatonin and N-acetylserotonin was also observed, albeit to a lesser degree than that by melatonin. Furthermore, MAPK activation by melatonin was uncoupled from G-protein signaling, because melatonin efficiently activated two MAPKs in a G-protein β knockout mutant (agb1). Suppression of both MPK3 and MPK6 in transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited significant decreases in the induction of defense-related gene expression and pathogen resistance relative to wild-type plants. Using an array of MAP kinase kinase (MKK) knockout mutants, we found that four MKKs, namely MKK4, MKK5, MKK7, and MKK9, are responsible for the activation of MPK3 and MPK6 by melatonin, indicating that melatonin-mediated innate immunity is triggered by MAPK signaling through MKK4/5/7/9-MPK3/6 cascades.

  16. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3, and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses) is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phospho)proteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g., WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the "PEN" pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens). Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org).

  17. Acute hypertension activates mitogen-activated protein kinases in arterial wall.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Q; Liu, Y; Gorospe, M; Udelsman, R; Holbrook, N J

    1996-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are rapidly activated in cells stimulated with various extracellular signals by dual phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues. They are thought to play a pivotal role in transmitting transmembrane signals required for cell growth and differentiation. Herein we provide evidence that two distinct classes of MAP kinases, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK), are transiently activated in rat arteries (aorta, carotid and femoral arteries) in response to an acute elevation in blood pressure induced by either restraint or administration of hypertensive agents (i.e., phenylephrine and angiotensin II). Kinase activation is followed by an increase in c-fos and c-jun gene expression and enhanced activating protein 1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity. Activation of ERK and JNK could contribute to smooth muscle cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia during arterial remodeling due to frequent and/or persistent elevations in blood pressure. PMID:8567974

  18. The mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 modulates arsenite transport through the aquaglyceroporin Fps1.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Doryaneh; Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Babazadeh, Roja; Dahal, Sita; Migocka, Magdalena; Andersson, Mikael; Wysocki, Robert; Tamás, Markus J; Hohmann, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Arsenite is widely present in nature; therefore, cells have evolved mechanisms to prevent arsenite influx and promote efflux. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the aquaglyceroporin Fps1 mediates arsenite influx and efflux. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 has previously been shown to restrict arsenite influx through Fps1. In this study, we show that another MAPK, Slt2, is transiently phosphorylated in response to arsenite influx. Our findings indicate that the protein kinase activity of Slt2 is required for its role in arsenite tolerance. While Hog1 prevents arsenite influx via phosphorylation of T231 at the N-terminal domain of Fps1, Slt2 promotes arsenite efflux through phosphorylation of S537 at the C terminus. Our data suggest that Slt2 physically interacts with Fps1 and that this interaction depends on phosphorylation of S537. We hypothesize that Hog1 and Slt2 may affect each other's binding to Fps1, thereby controlling the opening and closing of the channel.

  19. Heat Shock Factor 1 Is a Substrate for p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dayalan Naidu, Sharadha; Sutherland, Calum; Zhang, Ying; Risco, Ana; de la Vega, Laureano; Caunt, Christopher J.; Hastie, C. James; Lamont, Douglas J.; Torrente, Laura; Chowdhry, Sudhir; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Keyse, Stephen M.; Cuenda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) monitors the structural integrity of the proteome. Phosphorylation at S326 is a hallmark for HSF1 activation, but the identity of the kinase(s) phosphorylating this site has remained elusive. We show here that the dietary agent phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) inhibits heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), the main negative regulator of HSF1; activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); and increases S326 phosphorylation, trimerization, and nuclear translocation of HSF1, and the transcription of a luciferase reporter, as well as the endogenous prototypic HSF1 target Hsp70. In vitro, all members of the p38 MAPK family rapidly and stoichiometrically catalyze the S326 phosphorylation. The use of stable knockdown cell lines and inhibitors indicated that among the p38 MAPKs, p38γ is the principal isoform responsible for the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S326 in cells. A protease-mass spectrometry approach confirmed S326 phosphorylation and unexpectedly revealed that p38 MAPK also catalyzes the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S303/307, previously known repressive posttranslational modifications. Thus, we have identified p38 MAPKs as highly efficient catalysts for the phosphorylation of HSF1. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the magnitude and persistence of activation of p38 MAPK are important determinants of the extent and duration of the heat shock response. PMID:27354066

  20. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by ultraviolet A radiation in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Le Panse, Rozen; Dubertret, Louis; Coulomb, Bernard

    2003-08-01

    UVA radiation penetrates deeply into the skin reaching both the epidermis and the dermis. We thus investigated the effects of naturally occurring doses of UVA radiation on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities in human dermal fibroblasts. We demonstrated that UVA selectively activates p38 MAPK with no effect on extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK1-ERK2) or JNK-SAPK (cJun NH2-terminal kinase-stress-activated protein kinase) activities. We then investigated the signaling pathway used by UVA to activate p38 MAPK. L-Histidine and sodium azide had an inhibitory effect on UVA activation of p38 MAPK, pointing to a role of singlet oxygen in transduction of the UVA effect. Afterward, using prolonged cell treatments with growth factors to desensitize their signaling pathways or suramin to block growth factor receptors, we demonstrated that UVA signaling pathways shared elements with growth factor signaling pathways. In addition, using emetine (a translation inhibitor altering ribosome functioning) we detected the involvement of ribotoxic stress in p38 MAPK activation by UVA. Our observations suggest that p38 activation by UVA in dermal fibroblasts involves singlet oxygen-dependent activation of ligand-receptor signaling pathways or ribotoxic stress mechanism (or both). Despite the activation of these two distinct signaling mechanisms, the selective activation of p38 MAPK suggests a critical role of this kinase in the effects of UVA radiation.

  1. Biological significance of nuclear localization of mitogen-activated protein kinase Pmk1 in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mir, Laura; Franco, Alejandro; Madrid, Marisa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Villar-Tajadura, M Antonia; Soto, Teresa; Pérez, Pilar; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2012-07-27

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play a fundamental role in the response of eukaryotic cells to environmental changes. Also, much evidence shows that the stimulus-dependent nuclear targeting of this class of regulatory kinases is crucial for adequate regulation of distinct cellular events. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the cell integrity MAPK pathway, whose central element is the MAPK Pmk1, regulates multiple processes such as cell wall integrity, vacuole fusion, cytokinesis, and ionic homeostasis. In non-stressed cells Pmk1 is constitutively localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and its localization pattern appears unaffected by its activation status or in response to stress, thus questioning the biological significance of the presence of this MAPK into the nucleus. We have addressed this issue by characterizing mutants expressing Pmk1 versions excluded from the cell nucleus and anchored to the plasma membrane in different genetic backgrounds. Although nuclear Pmk1 partially regulates cell wall integrity at a transcriptional level, membrane-tethered Pmk1 performs many of the biological functions assigned to wild type MAPK like regulation of chloride homeostasis, vacuole fusion, and cellular separation. However, we found that down-regulation of nuclear Pmk1 by MAPK phosphatases induced by the stress activated protein kinase pathway is important for the fine modulation of extranuclear Pmk1 activity. These results highlight the importance of the control of MAPK activity at subcellular level.

  2. VIP1 response elements mediate mitogen-activated protein kinase 3-induced stress gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Djamei, Armin; Teige, Markus; Hirt, Heribert

    2009-01-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens transforms plant cells by delivering its T-DNA into the plant cell nucleus where it integrates into the plant genome and causes tumor formation. A key role of VirE2-interacting protein 1 (VIP1) in the nuclear import of T-DNA during Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation has been unravelled and VIP1 was shown to undergo nuclear localization upon phosphorylation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. Here, we provide evidence that VIP1 encodes a functional bZIP transcription factor that stimulates stress-dependent gene expression by binding to VIP1 response elements (VREs), a DNA hexamer motif. VREs are overrepresented in promoters responding to activation of the MPK3 pathway such as Trxh8 and MYB44. Accordingly, plants overexpressing VIP1 accumulate high levels of Trxh8 and MYB44 transcripts, whereas stress-induced expression of these genes is impaired in mpk3 mutants. Trxh8 and MYB44 promoters are activated by VIP1 in a VRE-dependent manner. VIP1 strongly enhances expression from a synthetic promoter harboring multiple VRE copies and directly interacts with VREs in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the MYB44 promoter confirm that VIP1 binding to VREs is enhanced under conditions of MPK3 pathway stimulation. These results provide molecular insight into the cellular mechanism of target gene regulation by the MPK3 pathway. PMID:19820165

  3. Rewiring mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by positive feedback confers potato blight resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamamizo, Chihiro; Kuchimura, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Akira; Katou, Shinpei; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Jones, Jonathan D G; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2006-02-01

    Late blight, caused by the notorious pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and during the 1840s caused the Irish potato famine and over one million fatalities. Currently, grown potato cultivars lack adequate blight tolerance. Earlier cultivars bred for resistance used disease resistance genes that confer immunity only to some strains of the pathogen harboring corresponding avirulence gene. Specific resistance gene-mediated immunity and chemical controls are rapidly overcome in the field when new pathogen races arise through mutation, recombination, or migration from elsewhere. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in plant innate immunity. Here we show that the transgenic potato plants that carry a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase driven by a pathogen-inducible promoter of potato showed high resistance to early blight pathogen Alternaria solani as well as P. infestans. The pathogen attack provoked defense-related MAPK activation followed by induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, which is implicated in reactive oxygen species production, and resulted in hypersensitive response-like phenotype. We propose that enhancing disease resistance through altered regulation of plant defense mechanisms should be more durable and publicly acceptable than engineering overexpression of antimicrobial proteins.

  4. Muscarinic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, J L; Levey, A I

    2000-08-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) activate many downstream signaling pathways, some of which can lead to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and activation. MAPKs play roles in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. Here, the activation of MAPK was examined in PC12 cells endogenously expressing mAChRs. Western blot analysis using a phosphospecific MAPK antibody revealed a dose-dependent and atropine-sensitive increase in MAPK phosphorylation in cells stimulated with carbachol (CCh). The maximal response occurred after 5 min and was rapidly reduced to baseline. To investigate the receptors responsible for CCh activation of MAPK in PC12 cells, the mAChR subtypes present were determined using RT-PCR and immunoprecipitation. RT-PCR was used to amplify fragments of the appropriate sizes for m1, m4, and m5, and the identities of the bands were confirmed with restriction digests. Immunoprecipitation using subtype-specific antibodies showed that approximately 95% of the expressed receptors were m4, whereas the remaining approximately 5% were m1 and m5. A highly specific m1 toxin completely blocked MAPK phosphorylation in response to CCh stimulation. The mAChR-induced MAPK activation was abolished by protein kinase C down-regulation and partially inhibited by pertussis toxin. Although m1 represents a small proportion of the total mAChR population, pharmacological evidence suggests that m1 is responsible for MAPK activation in PC12 cells.

  5. Biological Significance of Nuclear Localization of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pmk1 in Fission Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Mir, Laura; Franco, Alejandro; Madrid, Marisa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Villar-Tajadura, M. Antonia; Soto, Teresa; Pérez, Pilar; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play a fundamental role in the response of eukaryotic cells to environmental changes. Also, much evidence shows that the stimulus-dependent nuclear targeting of this class of regulatory kinases is crucial for adequate regulation of distinct cellular events. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the cell integrity MAPK pathway, whose central element is the MAPK Pmk1, regulates multiple processes such as cell wall integrity, vacuole fusion, cytokinesis, and ionic homeostasis. In non-stressed cells Pmk1 is constitutively localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and its localization pattern appears unaffected by its activation status or in response to stress, thus questioning the biological significance of the presence of this MAPK into the nucleus. We have addressed this issue by characterizing mutants expressing Pmk1 versions excluded from the cell nucleus and anchored to the plasma membrane in different genetic backgrounds. Although nuclear Pmk1 partially regulates cell wall integrity at a transcriptional level, membrane-tethered Pmk1 performs many of the biological functions assigned to wild type MAPK like regulation of chloride homeostasis, vacuole fusion, and cellular separation. However, we found that down-regulation of nuclear Pmk1 by MAPK phosphatases induced by the stress activated protein kinase pathway is important for the fine modulation of extranuclear Pmk1 activity. These results highlight the importance of the control of MAPK activity at subcellular level. PMID:22685296

  6. Secretin induces neurite outgrowth of PC12 through cAMP-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Soo; Yumkham, Sanatombi; Kim, Sun-Hee; Yea, Kyungmoo; Shin, You Chan; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2006-02-28

    The gastrointestinal functions of secretin have been fairly well established. However, its function and mode of action within the nervous system remain largely unclear. To gain insight into this area, we have attempted to determine the effects of secretin on neuronal differentiation. Here, we report that secretin induces the generation of neurite outgrowth in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The expressions of Tau and beta-tubulin, neuronal differentiation markers, are increased upon secretin stimulation. In addition, secretin induces sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and also stimulates the cAMP secretion. Moreover, the neurite outgrowth elicited by secretin is suppressed to a marked degree in the presence of either PD98059, a specific MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, or H89, a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that secretin induces neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells through cAMP- MAPK pathway, and provide a novel insight into the manner in which secretin participates in neuritogenesis.

  7. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating MAPKAPK2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sudo, Tatsuhiko . E-mail: sudo@riken.jp; Kawai, Kayoko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2005-11-18

    One of three major families of the mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK), p38 as well as JNK, has been shown to transduce extracellular stress stimuli into cellular responses by phospho-relay cascades. Among p38 families, p38{alpha} is a widely characterized isoform and the biological phenomena are explained by its kinase activity regulating functions of its downstream substrates. However, its specific contributions to each phenomenon are yet not fully elucidated. For better understanding of the role of MAPKs, especially p38{alpha}, we utilized newly established mouse fibroblast cell lines originated from a p38{alpha} null mouse, namely, a parental cell line without p38{alpha} gene locus, knockout of p38{alpha} (KOP), Zeosin-resistant (ZKOP), revertant of p38{alpha} (RKOP), and Exip revertant (EKOP). EKOP is smaller in size but grows faster than the others. Although comparable amounts of ERK and JNK are expressed in each cell line, ERK is highly phosphorylated in EKOP even in normal culture conditions. Serum stimulation after serum starvation led to ERK phosphorylation in RKOP and ZKOP, but not in EKOP as much. On the contrary, relative phosphorylation level of JNK to total JNK in response to UV was low in RKOP. And its phosphorylation as well as total JNK is slightly lower in EKOP. RKOP is less sensitive to UV irradiation as judged by the survival rate. Stress response upon UV or sorbitol stimuli, leading to mitogen activate protein kinase activated kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) phosphorylation, was only observed in RKOP. Further experiments reveal that MAPKAPK2 expression is largely suppressed in ZKOP and EKOP. Its expression was recovered by re-introduction of p38{alpha}. The loss of MAPKAPK2 expression accompanied by the defect of p38{alpha} is confirmed in an embryonic extract prepared from p38{alpha} null mice. These data demonstrate that p38 signal pathway is regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by modulation of the expression of its component. Together, we have

  8. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Regulates Genes during Proliferation and Differentiation in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Jeffery D.; Fulton, Debra L.; Richard, Stephane; Almazan, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) is important for oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and myelination. However, the precise cellular mechanisms by which p38 regulates OLG differentiation remain largely unknown. To determine whether p38 functions in part through transcriptional events in regulating OLG identity, we performed microarray analysis on differentiating oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) treated with a p38 inhibitor. Consistent with a role in OLG differentiation, pharmacological inhibition of p38 down-regulated the transcription of genes that are involved in myelin biogenesis, transcriptional control and cell cycle. Proliferation assays showed that OLPs treated with the p38 inhibitor retained a proliferative capacity which could be induced upon application of mitogens demonstrating that after two days of p38-inhibition OLGs remained poised to continue mitosis. Together, our results suggest that the p38 pathway regulates gene transcription which can coordinate OLG differentiation. Our microarray dataset will provide a useful resource for future studies investigating the molecular mechanisms by which p38 regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. PMID:26714323

  9. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans causes inflammatory bone loss.

    PubMed

    Dunmyer, J; Herbert, B; Li, Q; Zinna, R; Martin, K; Yu, H; Kirkwood, K L

    2012-10-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative facultative capnophile involved in pathogenesis of aggressive forms of periodontal disease. In the present study, we interrogated the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans to stimulate innate immune signaling and cytokine production and established that A. actinomycetemcomitans causes bone loss in a novel rat calvarial model. In vitro studies indicated that A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulated considerable production of soluble cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 in both primary bone marrow-derived macrophages and NR8383 macrophages. Immunoblot analysis indicated that A. actinomycetemcomitans exhibits sustained activation of all major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as the negative regulator of MAPK signaling, MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), for at least 8 h. In a rat calvarial model of inflammatory bone loss, high and low doses of formalin-fixed A. actinomycetemcomitans were microinjected into the supraperiosteal calvarial space for 1-2 weeks. Histological staining and micro-computed tomography of rat calvariae revealed a significant increase of inflammatory and fibroblast infiltrate and increased bone resorption as measured by total lacunar pit formation. From these data, we provide new evidence that fixed whole cell A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulation elicits a pro-inflammatory host response through sustained MAPK signaling, leading to enhanced bone resorption within the rat calvarial bone.

  10. Flavonoids inhibit iNOS production via mitogen activated proteins in lipoteichoic acid stimulated cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Ventura-Arroyo, Jairo Agustín; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio; Ostoa-Pérez, María Fernanda

    2014-08-01

    Infective endocarditis is caused by oral commensal bacteria which are important etiologic agents in this disease and can induce release of nitric oxide (NO), promoting an inflammatory response in the endocardium. In this study, we investigated the properties of kaempherol, epigallocatechin, apigenin, and naringin in embryonic mouse heart cells (H9c2) treated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) obtained from Streptococcus sanguinis. NO production was measured with the Griess method. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), degradation of IκB, and activity of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). And the effects of these flavonoids on cell viability were also assessed. Our results showed that flavonoids blocked activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in cardiomyocytes treated with LTA. Moreover, the flavonoids showed no cytotoxic effects and blocked NF-κB translocation and IκB degradation and inhibited LTA-induced NF-κB promoter activity, iNOS expression and NO production. In conclusion these effects are consistent with some of the observed anti-inflammatory properties of other flavonoids.

  11. An Inhibition of p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Delays the Platelet Storage Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Skripchenko, Andrey; Awatefe, Helen; Thompson-Montgomery, Dedeene; Myrup, Andrew; Turgeon, Annette; Wagner, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Platelets during storage undergo diverse alterations collectively known as the platelet storage lesion, including metabolic, morphological, functional and structural changes. Some changes correlate with activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Another MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), is involved in PLT activation. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of platelets stored in plasma in the presence or absence of p38 and ERK MAPK inhibitors. Materials and Methods A single Trima apheresis platelet unit (n = 12) was aliquoted into five CLX storage bags. Two aliquots were continuously agitated with or without MAPK inhibitors. Two aliquots were subjected to 48 hours of interruption of agitation with or without MAPK inhibitors. One aliquot contained the same amount of solvent vehicle used to deliver the inhibitor. Platelets were stored at 20–24°C for 7 days and sampled on Days 1, 4, and 7 for 18 in vitro parameters. Results Inhibition of p38 MAPK by VX-702 leads to better maintenance of all platelet in vitro storage parameters including platelet mitochondrial function. Accelerated by interruption of agitation, the platelet storage lesion of units stored with VX-702 was diminished to that of platelets stored with continuous agitation. Inhibition of ERK MAPK did not ameliorate decrements in any in vitro platelet properties. Conclusion Signaling through p38 MAPK, but not ERK, is associated with platelet deterioration during storage. PMID:23967093

  12. Crosstalk between mitogen-activated protein kinases and mitochondria in cardiac diseases: therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Javadov, Sabzali; Jang, Sehwan; Agostini, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases cause more mortality and morbidity worldwide than any other diseases. Although many intracellular signaling pathways influence cardiac physiology and pathology, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family has garnered significant attention because of its vast implications in signaling and cross-talk with other signaling networks. The extensively studied MAPKs ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and ERK5, demonstrate unique intracellular signaling mechanisms, responding to a myriad of mitogens and stressors and influencing the signaling of cardiac development, metabolism, performance, and pathogenesis. Definitive relationships between MAPK signaling and cardiac dysfunction remain elusive, despite 30 years of extensive clinical studies and basic research of various animal/cell models, severities of stress, and types of stimuli. Still, several studies have proven the importance of MAPK cross-talk with mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell that provide over 80% of ATP for normal cardiomyocyte function and play a crucial role in cell death. Although many questions remain unanswered, there exists enough evidence to consider the possibility of targeting MAPK-mitochondria interactions in the prevention and treatment of heart disease. The goal of this review is to integrate previous studies into a discussion of MAPKs and MAPK-mitochondria signaling in cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction (ischemia), hypertrophy and heart failure. A comprehensive understanding of relevant molecular mechanisms, as well as challenges for studies in this area, will facilitate the development of new pharmacological agents and genetic manipulations for therapy of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24924700

  13. Timing of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ho, A K; Price, D M; Terriff, D; Chik, C L

    2006-06-27

    Activation of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of signaling cascades is a tightly controlled event in rat pinealocytes. Cell culture studies indicate that whereas the NE-->cGMP activation of p42/44MAPK is rapid and transient, the NE-->cAMP activation of p38MAPK is slower and more sustained. The decline in the p42/44MAPK response is in part due to the induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 by NE. In comparison, p38MAPK activation is tightly coupled to the synthesis and degradation of an upstream element in its activation cascade. Whole animal studies confirm activation of p42/44MAPK occurring during the early part of night and precedes p38MAPK activation. Studies with selective MAPK inhibitors reveal a modulating effect of MAPKs on arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferse (AA-NAT) activity, with involvement of p42/44MAPK in the induction of AA-NAT and p38MAPK participating in the amplitude and duration of the AA-NAT response. These effects of p42/44MAPK and p38MAPK on AA-NAT activity match their timing of activation. Taken together, our studies on the timing of MAPK activation and regulation of AA-NAT by MAPKs add to the importance of MAPKs in regulating the circadian biology of the pineal gland.

  14. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Schett, G; Zwerina, J; Firestein, G

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory processes are based on a sustained and tightly regulated communication network among different cells types. This network comprises extracellular mediators such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix-degrading proteases, which orchestrate the participation of cells in the chronic inflammatory process. The mirrors of this outside communication world are intracellular transcription factor pathways, which shuttle information about inflammatory stimuli to the cell nucleus. This review examines the function of one key signal transduction pathway of inflammation—the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK). The signalling pathway is considered as crucial for the induction and maintenance of chronic inflammation, and its components thus emerge as interesting molecular targets of small molecule inhibitors for controlling inflammation. This review not only summarises the current knowledge of activation, regulation and function of the p38MAPK pathway but also examines the role of this pathway in clinical disease. It gives an overview of current evidence of p38MAPK activation in inflammatory arthritis and elaborates the key molecular determinants which contribute to p38MAPK activation in joint disease. PMID:17827184

  15. Identification, nomenclature, and evolutionary relationships of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in soybean.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Achal; Nepal, Madhav P; Piya, Sarbottam; Subramanian, Senthil; Rohila, Jai S; Reese, R Neil; Benson, Benjamin V

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in eukaryotes regulate various developmental and physiological processes including those associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Although MAPKs in some plant species including Arabidopsis have been identified, they are yet to be identified in soybean. Major objectives of this study were to identify GmMAPKs, assess their evolutionary relationships, and analyze their functional divergence. We identified a total of 38 MAPKs, eleven MAPKKs, and 150 MAPKKKs in soybean. Within the GmMAPK family, we also identified a new clade of six genes: four genes with TEY and two genes with TQY motifs requiring further investigation into possible legume-specific functions. The results indicated the expansion of the GmMAPK families attributable to the ancestral polyploidy events followed by chromosomal rearrangements. The GmMAPK and GmMAPKKK families were substantially larger than those in other plant species. The duplicated GmMAPK members presented complex evolutionary relationships and functional divergence when compared to their counterparts in Arabidopsis. We also highlighted existing nomenclatural issues, stressing the need for nomenclatural consistency. GmMAPK identification is vital to soybean crop improvement, and novel insights into the evolutionary relationships will enhance our understanding about plant genome evolution.

  16. Identification, Nomenclature, and Evolutionary Relationships of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Genes in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Achal; Nepal, Madhav P.; Piya, Sarbottam; Subramanian, Senthil; Rohila, Jai S.; Reese, R. Neil; Benson, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in eukaryotes regulate various developmental and physiological processes including those associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Although MAPKs in some plant species including Arabidopsis have been identified, they are yet to be identified in soybean. Major objectives of this study were to identify GmMAPKs, assess their evolutionary relationships, and analyze their functional divergence. We identified a total of 38 MAPKs, eleven MAPKKs, and 150 MAPKKKs in soybean. Within the GmMAPK family, we also identified a new clade of six genes: four genes with TEY and two genes with TQY motifs requiring further investigation into possible legume-specific functions. The results indicated the expansion of the GmMAPK families attributable to the ancestral polyploidy events followed by chromosomal rearrangements. The GmMAPK and GmMAPKKK families were substantially larger than those in other plant species. The duplicated GmMAPK members presented complex evolutionary relationships and functional divergence when compared to their counterparts in Arabidopsis. We also highlighted existing nomenclatural issues, stressing the need for nomenclatural consistency. GmMAPK identification is vital to soybean crop improvement, and novel insights into the evolutionary relationships will enhance our understanding about plant genome evolution. PMID:24137047

  17. Cadmium activates a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene and MBP kinases in rice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Hsiao, Lin-June; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2004-09-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are modules involved in the transduction of extracellular signals to intracellular targets in all eukaryotes. In plants, it has been evidenced that MAPKs play a role in the signaling of biotic and abiotic stresses, plant hormones, and cell cycle cues. However, the effect of heavy metals on plant MAPKs has not been well examined. The Northern blot analysis of OsMAPK mRNA levels has shown that only OsMAPK2, but not OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK4, expressed in suspension-cultured cells in response to 100-400 microM Cd treatments. The OsMAPK2 transcripts increased within 12 h upon 400 microM Cd treatment. In addition, we found that 42- and 50-kDa MBP kinases were significantly activated by Cd treatment in rice suspension-cultured cells. And 40-, 42-, 50- and 64-kDa MBP kinases were activated in rice roots. Furthermore, GSH inhibits Cd-induced 40-kDa MBP kinase activation. By immunoblot analysis and immunoprecipitation followed by in-gel kinase assay, we confirmed that Cd-activated 42-kDa MBP kinase is a MAP kinase. Our results suggest that a MAP kinase cascade may function in the Cd-signalling pathway in rice.

  18. Cadmium induces apoptosis in primary rat osteoblasts through caspase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dai, Nannan; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong; Bian, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) induces apoptosis in osteoblasts (OBs); however, little information is available regarding the specific mechanisms of Cd-induced primary rat OB apoptosis. In this study, Cd reduced cell viability, damaged cell membranes and induced apoptosis in OBs. We observed decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, ultrastructure collapse, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and increased concentrations of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 following Cd treatment. Cd also increased the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in OBs. Pretreatment with the caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126), p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) abrogated Cd-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Cd-treated OBs exhibited signs of oxidative stress protection, including increased antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase levels and decreased formation of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, the results of our study clarified that Cd has direct cytotoxic effects on OBs, which are mediated by caspase- and MAPK pathways in Cd-induced apoptosis of OBs. PMID:26425111

  19. Deletion of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 inhibits development and growth of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lili; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Shuchao; Li, Jiping; Wang, Xinglong; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2016-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate key signaling events in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agents of toxoplasmosis, possesses a p38α MAPK homologue, MAPK1, which is an important manipulator of host immunity and virulence in mice. In this work, we showed an increased transcript level of MAPK1 in T. gondii during bradyzoite differentiation induced by alkaline treatment and heat shock in vitro, suggesting that MAPK1 may be associated with bradyzoite differentiation. The biological roles of MAPK1 of T. gondii were investigated by construction of a MAPK1 deletion mutant (Δmapk1) and a complementation mutant with restored MAPK1 expression using a type I strain. Knockout of MAPK1 resulted in markedly defective bradyzoite differentiation, host-cell attachment and parasite replication in vitro, and the inability to cause lethal infection in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis, with lower parasite burden in infected tissues, showing that MAPK1 is associated with the acute virulence of parasite in mice. Complementation of MAPK1-deficient parasites restored bradyzoite development, attachment, replication, and virulence. Our findings demonstrate that MAPK1 is involved in asexual development and growth of T. gondii.

  20. Interaction between two rice mitogen activated protein kinases and its possible role in plant defense

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The canonical mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in carrying out the normal growth and development of the plant. The pathway, connecting the upstreams signal with the downstream target is considered to be linear, mostly starting with a MAPKKK and ending in a MAPK. Results Here we report a novel interaction between two rice MAPKs, OsMPK20-4 and OsMPK3 suggesting the complex nature of the pathway rather than a linear one at individual steps. The interaction between OsMPK20-4 and OsMPK3 found by yeast two-hybrid analysis was confirmed in planta by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays. The interaction is specific and is phosphorylation independent. The results suggest a role of the interaction between OsMPK20-4 and OsMPK3 in basic plant defense. Conclusions The current novel work showing the physical interaction between two plant MAPKs, OsMPK20-4 and OsMPK3 is the diversion from the dogma of a typical MAPK cascade thereby opening a new dimension to the MAPK signal transduction. PMID:23984709

  1. Suppressed expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianliang; Leng, Zhaoting; Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Xia; Yan, Xue; Yu, Li

    2015-05-06

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is involved in many physiological processes. HMGB1 has been showed closely associated with neurulation and NTDs induced by hyperthermia and could activate MAPKs pathway. Since hyperthermia caused increased activation of MAPKs in many systems, the present study aims to investigate whether HMGB1 contributes to hyperthermia induced NTDs through MAPKs pathway. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1 between embryonic day 8.5 and 10 (E8.5-10) in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). By immunofluorescence and western blotting, the expressions of HMGB1 and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) in neural tubes after hyperthermia were studied. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1, as well as the expressions of HMGB1 along with phosphorylated JNK, p38 and ERK, were downregulated in NTDs groups induced by hyperthermia compared with control. The findings suggested that HMGB1 may contribute to hyperthermia induced NTDs formation through decreased cell proliferation due to inhibited phosphorylated ERK1/2 MAPK.

  2. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets. PMID:23822503

  3. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-06-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent routes control shedding of transmembrane growth factors through multiple secretases.

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Juan Carlos; Yuste, Laura; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Esparís-Ogando, Azucena; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2002-01-01

    Solubilization of a number of membrane proteins occurs by the action of cell-surface proteases, termed secretases. Recently, the activity of these secretases has been reported to be controlled by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) routes. In the present paper, we show that shedding of membrane-anchored growth factors (MAGFs) may also occur through MAPK-independent routes. In Chinese-hamster ovary cells, cleavage induced by protein kinase C (PKC) stimulation was largely insensitive to inhibitors of the ERK1/ERK2 and p38 routes. Other reagents such as sorbitol or UV light stimulated MAGF cleavage independent of PKC. The action of sorbitol on cleavage was only partially prevented by the combined action of inhibitors of the p38 and ERK1/ERK2 routes, indicating that sorbitol can also stimulate shedding by MAPK-dependent and -independent routes. Studies in cells devoid of activity of the secretase tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) indicated that this protease had an essential role in PKC- and ERK1/ERK2-mediated shedding. However, secretases other than TACE may also cleave MAGFs since sorbitol could still induce shedding in these cells. These observations suggest that cleavage of MAGFs is a complex process in which multiple secretases, activated through different MAPK-dependent and -independent routes, are involved. PMID:11931648

  5. Sertraline, an antidepressant, induces apoptosis in hepatic cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Xuan, Jiekun; Wan, Liqing; Lin, Haixia; Couch, Letha; Mei, Nan; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei

    2014-02-01

    Sertraline is generally used for the treatment of depression and is also approved for the treatment of panic, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders. Previously, using rat primary hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria, we demonstrated that sertraline caused hepatic cytotoxicity and mitochondrial impairment. In the current study, we investigated and characterized molecular mechanisms of sertraline toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Sertraline decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sertraline activated the intrinsic checkpoint protein caspase-9 and caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol; this process was Bcl-2 family dependent because antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins were decreased. Pretreatment of the HepG2 cells with caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 inhibitors partially but significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, indicating that sertraline-induced apoptosis is mediated by both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, sertraline markedly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the phosphorylation of JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and p38. In sertraline-treated cells, the induction of apoptosis and cell death was shown to be the result of activation of JNK, but not ERK1/2 or p38 in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Furthermore, silencing MAP4K4, the upstream kinase of JNK, attenuated both apoptosis and cell death caused by sertraline. Taken together, our findings suggest that sertraline induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells at least partially via activation of the TNF-MAP4K4-JNK cascade signaling pathway.

  6. Peroxide Sensors for the Fission Yeast Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Vicky; Quinn, Janet; Pino, Teresa Soto; Martin, Humberto; Saldanha, Jose; Makino, Kozo; Morgan, Brian A.; Millar, Jonathan B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe stress-activated Sty1p/Spc1p mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase regulates gene expression through the Atf1p and Pap1p transcription factors, homologs of human ATF2 and c-Jun, respectively. Mcs4p, a response regulator protein, acts upstream of Sty1p by binding the Wak1p/Wis4p MAP kinase kinase kinase. We show that phosphorylation of Mcs4p on a conserved aspartic acid residue is required for activation of Sty1p only in response to peroxide stress. Mcs4p acts in a conserved phospho-relay system initiated by two PAS/PAC domain-containing histidine kinases, Mak2p and Mak3p. In the absence of Mak2p or Mak3p, Sty1p fails to phosphorylate the Atf1p transcription factor or induce Atf1p-dependent gene expression. As a consequence, cells lacking Mak2p and Mak3p are sensitive to peroxide attack in the absence of Prr1p, a distinct response regulator protein that functions in association with Pap1p. The Mak1p histidine kinase, which also contains PAS/PAC repeats, does not regulate Sty1p or Atf1p but is partially required for Pap1p- and Prr1p-dependent transcription. We conclude that the transcriptional response to free radical attack is initiated by at least two distinct phospho-relay pathways in fission yeast. PMID:11179424

  7. Complexes between STE5 and components of the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, S; Polverino, A; Barr, M; Wigler, M

    1994-01-01

    We present genetic evidence for complex formation of STE5 and the STE11, STE7, and FUS3 protein kinases, the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interaction between STE5 and STE11 is not dependent on STE7, and interaction between STE5 and STE7 does not require STE11. The N-terminal regulatory domain of STE11 is both necessary and sufficient for interaction with STE5. Interaction between STE7 and STE11 is bridged by STE5, suggesting the formation of a multiprotein complex. We also demonstrate biochemical interaction between STE5 and STE11 by using a combination of bacterially expressed fusion proteins and extracts prepared from yeast. Our results suggest that STE5 is a scaffolding protein that facilitates interactions between components of the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module. We further propose that such scaffolding proteins serve to inhibit cross-talk between functionally unrelated mitogen-activated protein kinase modules within the same cell. Images PMID:8052657

  8. Modulation of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin activity by a mitogen-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Goutam; Sharma, Mansi; Kruse, Martin; Sander-Juelch, Claudia; Munro, Laura Anne; Wang, Yong; Vilg, Jenny Veide; Tamás, Markus J; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Wiese, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Summary Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin (LmjAQP1) adventitiously facilitates the uptake of antimonite [Sb(III)], an active form of Pentostam® or Glucantime®, which are the first line of defense against all forms of leishmaniasis. The present paper shows that LmjAQP1 activity is modulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase, LmjMPK2. Leishmania parasites co-expressing LmjAQP1 and LmjMPK2 show increased Sb(III) uptake and increased Sb(III) sensitivity. When subjected to a hypo-osmotic stress, these cells show faster volume recovery than cells expressing LmjAQP1 alone. LmjAQP1 is phosphorylated in vivo at Thr197 and this phosphorylation requires LmjMPK2 activity. Lys42 of LmjMPK2 is critical for its kinase activity. Cells expressing altered T197A LmjAQP1 or K42A LmjMPK2 showed decreased Sb(III) influx and a slower volume recovery than cells expressing wild type proteins. Phosphorylation of LmjAQP1 led to a decrease in its turnover rate affecting LmjAQP1 activity. Although LmjAQP1 is localized to the flagellum of promastigotes, upon phosphorylation, it is relocalized to the entire surface of the parasite. L. mexicana promastigotes with an MPK2 deletion showed reduced Sb(III) uptake and slower volume recovery than wild type cells. This is the first report where a parasite aquaglyceroporin activity is post-translationally modulated by a MAP kinase. PMID:22779703

  9. A Fluorescence-Based Thermal Shift Assay Identifies Inhibitors of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Sankar N.; Luan, Chi-Hao; Mishra, Rama K.; Xu, Li; Scheidt, Karl A.; Anderson, Wayne F.; Bergan, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second highest cause of cancer death in United States males. If the metastatic movement of PCa cells could be inhibited, then mortality from PCa could be greatly reduced. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) has previously been shown to activate pro-invasion signaling pathways in human PCa. Recognizing that MAP2K4 represents a novel and validated therapeutic target, we sought to develop and characterize an efficient process for the identification of small molecules that target MAP2K4. Using a fluorescence-based thermal shift assay (FTS) assay, we first evaluated an 80 compound library of known kinase inhibitors, thereby identifying 8 hits that thermally stabilized MAP2K4 in a concentration dependent manner. We then developed an in vitro MAP2K4 kinase assay employing the biologically relevant downstream substrates, JNK1 and p38 MAPK, to evaluate kinase inhibitory function. In this manner, we validated the performance of our initial FTS screen. We next applied this approach to a 2000 compound chemically diverse library, identified 7 hits, and confirmed them in the in vitro kinase assay. Finally, by coupling our structure-activity relationship data to MAP2K4's crystal structure, we constructed a model for ligand binding. It predicts binding of our identified inhibitory compounds to the ATP binding pocket. Herein we report the creation of a robust inhibitor-screening platform with the ability to inform the discovery and design of new and potent MAP2K4 inhibitors. PMID:24339940

  10. Mercuric ions inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation by inducing reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Hajo; Engelhardt, Gabriela; Hebel, Silke; Rink, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    Mercury intoxication profoundly affects the immune system, in particular, signal transduction of immune cells. However, the mechanism of the interaction of mercury with cellular signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), remains elusive. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate three potential ways in which Hg{sup 2+} ions could inhibit MAPK dephosphorylation in the human T-cell line Jurkat: (1) by direct binding to phosphatases; (2) by releasing cellular zinc (Zn{sup 2+}); and (3) by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hg{sup 2+} causes production of ROS, measured by dihydrorhodamine 123, and triggers ROS-mediated Zn{sup 2+} release, detected with FluoZin-3. Yet, phosphatase-inhibition is not mediated by binding of Zn{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. Rather, phosphatases are inactivated by at least two forms of thiol oxidation; initial inhibition is reversible with reducing agents such as Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine. Prolonged inhibition leads to non-reversible phosphatase oxidation, presumably oxidizing the cysteine thiol to sulfinic- or sulfonic acid. Notably, phosphatases are a particularly sensitive target for Hg{sup 2+}-induced oxidation, because phosphatase activity is inhibited at concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} that have only minor impact on over all thiol oxidation. This phosphatase inhibition results in augmented, ROS-dependent MAPK phosphorylation. MAPK are important regulators of T-cell function, and MAPK-activation by inhibition of phosphatases seems to be one of the molecular mechanisms by which mercury affects the immune system.

  11. Control of thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rouyez, M C; Boucheron, C; Gisselbrecht, S; Dusanter-Fourt, I; Porteu, F

    1997-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major regulator of both growth and differentiation of megakaryocytes. We previously showed that both functions can be generated by TPO in the megakaryoblastic cell line UT7, in which murine Mpl was introduced, and are independently controlled by distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl. Particularly, residues 71 to 94 of this domain (deleted in the mutant mpl delta3) were found to be required for megakaryocytic maturation but dispensable for proliferation. We show here that TPO-induced differentiation in UT7 cells is tightly dependent on a strong, long-lasting activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Indeed, (i) in UT7-mpl cells, TPO induced a strong activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) which was persistent until at least 4 days in TPO-containing medium; (ii) a specific MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor inhibited TPO-induced megakaryocytic gene expression; (iii) the Mpl mutant mpl delta3, which displayed no maturation activity, transduced only a weak and transient ERK activation in UT7 cells; and (iv) TPO-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in UT7-mpl delta3 cells was partially restored by expression of a constitutively activated mutant of MEK. The capacity of TPO to trigger a strong and prolonged MAPK signal depended on the cell in which Mpl was introduced. In BAF3-mpl cells, TPO triggered a weak and transient ERK activation, similar to that induced in UT7-mpl delta3 cells. In these cells, no difference in MAPK activation was found between normal Mpl and mpl delta3. Thus, depending on the cellular context, several distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl and signaling pathways may contribute to generate quantitative variations in MAPK activation. PMID:9271377

  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling controls basal and oncostatin M-mediated JUNB gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Mellissa J; Hu, Qiuping; Macrae, Erin; DeWille, James

    2015-05-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is aberrantly activated in many human cancers, including breast cancer. Activation of MAPK signaling is associated with the increased expression of a wide range of genes that promote cell survival, proliferation, and migration. This report investigated the influence of MAPK signaling on the regulation and expression of JUNB in human breast cancer cell lines. JUNB has been associated with tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions, with most reports describing JUNB as an oncogene in breast cancer. Our results indicated that JUNB expression is elevated in MCF10A(met), SKBR3, and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines compared to nontransformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Increased RAS/MAPK signaling in MCF10A(met) cells correlates with the increased association of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) phosphorylated on serine 5 (Pol IIser5p) with the JUNB proximal promoter. Pol IIser5p is the "transcription initiating" form of Pol II. Treatment with U0126, a MAPK pathway inhibitor, reduces Pol IIser5p association with the JUNB proximal promoter and reduces JUNB expression. Oncostatin M (OSM) enhances MAPK and STAT3 signaling and significantly induces JUNB expression. U0126 treatment reduces OSM-induced Pol IIser5p binding to the JUNB proximal promoter and JUNB expression, but does not reduce pSTAT3 levels or the association of pSTAT3 with the JUNB proximal promoter. These results demonstrate that the MAPK pathway plays a primary role in the control of JUNB gene expression by promoting the association of Pol IIser5p with the JUNB proximal promoter.

  13. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat.

  14. Differential induction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in cultured monocytes and astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, S A; Nisen, P D

    1996-01-01

    We recently reported that cyclic AMP (cAMP) specifically inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) transcription initiation in astrocytic cells but enhances the LPS induction of IL-1 beta in monocytic cells. The purpose of this study was to determine how cAMP differentially regulates LPS-induced IL-1 beta transcription in these two cell types. Two essential components of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal-transduction pathway, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK2; p41 mapk) and Raf-1, have been shown to be targets of LPS stimulation in other cell types, and therefore may be linked to the regulation of IL-1 beta transcription. In the human astrocytic cell line, U-373MG, LPS was found to strongly activate (and cAMP to inhibit) both ERK2 and Raf-1. In the human monocytic cell line, THP-1, LPS minimally activated ERK2 and did not activate Raf-1. These findings suggest that, in astrocytic cells, elevated intracellular cAMP levels may negatively regulate LPS activation of IL-1 beta via the MAP kinase signalling pathway. In contrast, this pathway is not significantly activated by LPS in monocytic cells, thus inhibition by elevated intracellular cAMP levels would not affect IL-1 beta transcription. PMID:8573086

  15. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Fleißner, André

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi.

  16. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade modulates T helper type 17 differentiation and functionality in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Mitri, Diletta; Sambucci, Manolo; Loiarro, Maria; De Bardi, Marco; Volpe, Elisabetta; Cencioni, Maria Teresa; Gasperini, Claudio; Centonze, Diego; Sette, Claudio; Akbar, Arne N; Borsellino, Giovanna; Battistini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is required for the induction of a T helper type 17 (Th17) -mediated autoimmune response, which underlies the development and progression of several autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the contribution of p38 phosphorylation to human Th cell differentiation has not been clarified. Here we demonstrate that the p38 signalling pathway is implicated in the generation of Th17 lymphocytes from human CD4+ CD27+ CD45RA+ naive T cells, both in healthy donors and in patients affected by the relapsing–remitting form of MS. Our data also indicate that p38 activation is essential for interleukin-17 release from central memory lymphocytes and committed Th17 cell clones. Furthermore, CD4+ T cells isolated from individuals with relapsing–remitting MS display an altered responsiveness of the p38 cascade, resulting in increased p38 phosphorylation upon stimulation. These findings suggest that the p38 signalling pathway, by modulating the Th17 differentiation and response, is involved in the pathogenesis of MS, and open new perspectives for the use of p38 inhibitors in the treatment of Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:26095162

  17. Differential Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Macrophages in Response to Intestinal Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei Xing; Png, Chin Wen; Tay, Crispina Yan Bing; Teo, Joshua Ding Wei; Jiao, Huipeng; Lehming, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protistan parasite that can cause acute, as well as chronic, infection and is associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the pathogenic status of Blastocystis infection remains unclear. In this study, we found that Blastocystis antigens induced abundant expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in mouse intestinal explants, in mouse colitis colon, and in macrophages. Further investigation utilizing RAW264.7 murine macrophages showed that Blastocystis treatment in RAW264.7 macrophages induced the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38, the three major groups of mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that play essential roles in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. ERK inhibition in macrophages significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and mRNA expression of IL-1β. On the other hand, JNK inhibition resulted in reductions in both c-Jun and ERK activation and significant suppression of all three proinflammatory cytokines at both the mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of p38 suppressed only IL-6 protein expression with no effect on the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Furthermore, we found that serine proteases produced by Blastocystis play an important role in the induction of ERK activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages. Our study thus demonstrated for the first time that Blastocystis could induce the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines via the activation of MAP kinases and that infection with Blastocystis may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory intestinal diseases through the activation of inflammatory pathways in host immune cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25156742

  18. Homology modeling and ligand docking of Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) is involved in one of the major signaling pathways in cells, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. MK5 was discovered in 1998 by the groups of Houng Ni and Ligou New, and was found to be highly conserved throughout the vertebrates. Studies, both in vivo and in vitro, have shown that it is implicated in tumor suppression as well as tumor promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, locomotion, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. Methods In order to obtain a molecular model of MK5 that can be used as a working tool for development of chemical probes, three MK5 models were constructed and refined based on three different known crystal structures of the closely related MKs; MK2 [PDB: 2OZA and PDB: 3M2W] and MK3 [PDB: 3FHR]. The main purpose of the present MK5 molecular modeling study was to identify the best suited template for making a MK5 model. The ability of the generated models to effectively discriminate between known inhibitors and decoys was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results According to the ROC curve analyzes, the refined model based on 3FHR was most effective in discrimination between known inhibitors and decoys. Conclusions The 3FHR-based MK5 model may serve as a working tool for development of chemical probes using computer aided drug design. The biological function of MK5 still remains elusive, but its role as a possible drug target may be elucidated in the near future. PMID:24034446

  19. Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all organisms, and generating iron limiting conditions for pathogens is one of the host defense strategies against microbial infections. Excess of iron can be toxic; therefore, iron uptake is tightly controlled. The high affinity iron uptake system of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been shown to be essential for virulence. Several transcription factors and regulators of iron uptake genes were identified, but the knowledge of signaling pathways is still limited. Gene expression profiling of the Δhog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. However, the function of Hog1p in the response of C. albicans to iron availability was not studied in detail. Thus, we analyzed phenotypic and molecular responses of C. albicans to different iron concentrations particularly with respect to the activity of the Hog1p MAP kinase module. Results We observed flocculation of yeast cells, when the iron ion concentration was equal to or higher than 5 μM. This phenotype was dependent on the MAP kinase Hog1p and the corresponding MAP kinase kinase Pbs2p. Moreover, high extracellular iron ion concentrations led to hyper-phosphorylation of Hog1p. We determined lower amounts of multicopper ferroxidase (MCFO) proteins and lower ferric reductase activity, when the iron ion concentration in the medium was increased. This effect was also observed for the Δhog1 mutant. However, the amounts of MCFO proteins and the cell surface ferric reductase activity were increased in the Δhog1 in comparison to wild type cells. This effect was independent of iron availability in growth media. Conclusions In C. albicans, the MAP kinase Hog1p is part of the network regulating the response of the organism to iron availability. Hog1p was transiently phosphorylated under high iron concentrations and was essential for a flocculent phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of HOG1 led to

  20. Toward a Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Janitza, Philipp; Ullrich, Kristian Karsten; Quint, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a three-tier signaling cascade that transmits cellular information from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm where it triggers downstream responses. The MAPKs represent the last step in this cascade and are activated when both tyrosine and threonine residues in a conserved TxY motif are phosphorylated by MAPK kinases, which in turn are themselves activated by phosphorylation by MAPK kinase kinases. To understand the molecular evolution of MAPKs in the plant kingdom, we systematically conducted a Hidden-Markov-Model based screen to identify MAPKs in 13 completely sequenced plant genomes. In this analysis, we included green algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and several mono- and eudicotyledonous species covering >800 million years of evolution. The phylogenetic relationships of the 204 identified MAPKs based on Bayesian inference facilitated the retraction of the sequence of emergence of the four major clades that are characterized by the presence of a TDY or TEY-A/TEY-B/TEY-C type kinase activation loop. We present evidence that after the split of TDY- and TEY-type MAPKs, initially the TEY-C clade emerged. This was followed by the TEY-B clade in early land plants until the TEY-A clade finally emerged in flowering plants. In addition to these well characterized clades, we identified another highly conserved clade of 45 MAPK-likes, members of which were previously described as Mak-homologous kinases. In agreement with their essential functions, molecular population genetic analysis of MAPK genes in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions reveal that purifying selection drove the evolution of the MAPK family, implying strong functional constraints on MAPK genes. Closely related MAPKs most likely subfunctionalized, a process in which differential transcriptional regulation of duplicates may be involved. PMID:23230446

  1. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A. K.; Dickschat, Jeroen S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi. PMID:25888553

  2. A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor induced compound skin toxicity with oedema in metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C L; Mortimer, P S; Larkin, J M; Basu, T N; Gore, M E; Fearfield, L

    2016-04-01

    We report three cases of skin toxicity associated with oral mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). All three patients developed oedema, and a single patient experienced eyelash trichomegaly. This is the first known report of eyelash trichomegaly secondary to MEK inhibitor use. We also discuss possible mechanisms for MEK inhibitor-associated oedema development. This series supports the role of the dermatologist in the screening and management of patients in the rapidly developing oncology setting, as new targeted agents can give rise to marked skin toxicity.

  3. Corosolic acid protects hepatocytes against ethanol-induced damage by modulating mitogen-activated protein kinases and activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolan; Cui, Ruibing; Zhao, Jianjian; Mo, Rui; Peng, Lei; Yan, Ming

    2016-11-15

    The reactive oxygen species(ROS)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) destroyed autophagy and the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are considered closely related to ethanol-induced hepatocellular injury. Previous work indicated that corosolic acid, the natural extracts of leaves of the banaba tree, Lagerstroemia speciosa L., could protect the liver against ethanol-induced damage, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the study we found that corosolic acid significantly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis, increased level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species accumulation in vitro. Corosolic acid inhibited ethanol-activated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK signaling in BRL-3A and HepG2 cells as well as in experimental rats. Corosolic acid restored the ethanol-suppressed expression of autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3II/I (LC3II/I) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation both in vitro and in vivo. In experimental rats, corosolic acid ameliorated the detrimental histopathological findings. Corosolic acid may protect the liver against ethanol-induced injury by modulation of MAPK signaling and autophagy activation. These findings suggested that corosolic acid might be a promising agent in treatment of alcoholic liver diseases.

  4. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–Activated Protein Kinase 2 in Angiotensin II–Induced Inflammation and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimian, Talin; Li, Melissa Wei; Lemarié, Catherine A.; Simeone, Stefania M.C.; Pagano, Patrick J.; Gaestel, Matthias; Paradis, Pierre; Wassmann, Sven; Schiffrin, Ernesto L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in angiotensin II–induced hypertension, and mitogen-activated protein kinases participate in these processes. We questioned whether mitogen-activated protein kinase–activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a downstream target of p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase, is involved in angiotensin II–induced vascular responses. In vivo experiments were performed in wild-type and Mk2 knockout mice infused intravenously with angiotensin II. Angiotensin II induced a 30 mm Hg increase in mean blood pressure in wild-type that was delayed in Mk2 knockout mice. Angiotensin II increased superoxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in blood vessels of wild-type but not in Mk2 knockout mice. Mk2 knockdown by small interfering RNA in mouse mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells caused a 42% reduction in MK2 protein and blunted the angiotensin II–induced 40% increase of MK2 expression. Mk2 knockdown blunted angiotensin II–induced doubling of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, 2.4-fold increase of nuclear p65, and 1.4-fold increase in Ets-1. Mk2 knockdown abrogated the angiotensin II–induced 4.7-fold and 1.3-fold increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein. Angiotensin II enhanced reactive oxygen species levels (by 29%) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity (by 48%), both abolished by Mk2 knockdown. Reduction of MK2 blocked angiotensin II–induced p47phox translocation to the membrane, associated with a 53% enhanced catalase expression. Angiotensin II–induced increase of MK2 was prevented by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor Nox2ds-tat. Mk2 small interfering RNA prevented the angiotensin II–induced 30% increase of proliferation. In conclusion, MK2 plays a critical role in angiotensin II signaling, leading to hypertension, oxidative stress via activation of p47phox and inhibition of antioxidants, and

  5. Presenilin-2 regulates the degradation of RBP-Jk protein through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Man; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Ann, Eun-Jung; Mo, Jung-Soon; Yoon, Ji-Hye; Park, Hee-Sae

    2012-03-01

    Transcriptional regulation performs a central role in Notch1 signaling by recombining binding protein Suppressor of Hairless (RBP-Jk)--a signaling pathway that is widely involved in determination of cell fate. Our earlier work demonstrated the possible regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jk pathway through protein degradation of RBP-Jk; however, the potential regulator for the degradation of RBP-Jk remains to be determined. Here, we report that the expression of endogenous and exogenous RBP-Jk was increased significantly in cells treated with proteasome- and lysosome-specific inhibitors. The effects of these inhibitors on RBP-Jk occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The level of RBP-Jk protein was higher in presenilin-2 (PS2)-knockout cells than in presenilin-1 (PS1)-knockout cells. Furthermore, the level of RBP-Jk was decreased by expression of PS2 in PS1 and PS2 double-knockout cells. We also found that PS1-knockout cells treated with a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ∂ (MAPK) had significantly increased levels of RBP-Jk. p38 MAPK phosphorylates RBP-Jk at Thr339 by physical binding, which subsequently induces the degradation and ubiquitylation of the RBP-Jk protein. Collectively, our results indicate that PS2 modulates the degradation of RBP-Jk through phosphorylation by p38 MAPK.

  6. Chemerin Stimulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Carotid Neointimal Hyperplasia by Activating Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wei; Luo, Yu; Wu, Lin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Huadong; Li, Jianghua; Liao, Bihong; Dong, Shaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vascular neointimal hyperplasia and remodeling arising from local inflammation are characteristic pathogeneses of proliferative cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and post angioplasty restenosis. The molecular mechanisms behind these pathological processes have not been fully determined. The adipokine chemerin is associated with obesity, metabolism, and control of inflammation. Recently, chemerin has gained increased attention as it was found to play a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of chemerin on the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cells and carotid neointimal formation after angioplasty. We found that circulating chemerin levels increased after carotid balloon injury, and that knockdown of chemerin significantly inhibited the proliferative aspects of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB and pro-inflammatory chemokines in vitro as well as prohibited carotid neointimal hyperplasia and pro-inflammatory chemokines in vivo after angioplasty. Additionally, inhibition of chemerin down-regulated the expression of several proteins, including phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, and proliferation cell nuclear antigen. The novel finding of this study is that chemerin stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and carotid intimal hyperplasia through activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, which may lead to vascular inflammation and remodeling, and is relevant to proliferative cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27792753

  7. Detection of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase in the developing spinal cord of the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Miura, Kenji

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in developing spinal cord. {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs by an improved method. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 were detected in the marginal layer and the dorsal horn. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 might play critical roles in the developing spinal cord. {yields} Constructing phosphoprotein atlases will be possible if expanding this work. -- Abstract: Global understanding of the proteome is a major research topic. The comprehensive visualization of the distribution of proteins in vivo or the construction of in situ protein atlases may be a valuable strategy for proteomic researchers. Information about the distribution of various proteins under physiological and pathological conditions should be extremely valuable for the basic and clinical sciences. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays an essential role in intracellular signaling in organisms. This cascade also regulates biological processes involving development, differentiation, and proliferation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are integral reactions in regulating the activity of MAPKs. Changes in the phosphorylation state of MAPKs are rapid and reversible; therefore, the localizations of physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo are difficult to accurately detect. Furthermore, phosphorylated MAPKs are likely to change phosphorylated states through commonly used experimental manipulations. In the present study, as a step toward the construction of in situ phosphoprotein atlases, we attempted to detect physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo in developing spinal cords of mice. We previously reported an improved immunohistochemical method for detecting unstable phosphorylated MAPKs. The distribution patterns of phosphorylated MAPKs in the spinal cords of embryonic mice from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 were observed with an improved immunohistochemical method. Phosphorylated

  8. Competition between members of the tribbles pseudokinase protein family shapes their interactions with mitogen activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hongtao; Shuaib, Aban; Leon, David Davila De; Angyal, Adrienn; Salazar, Maria; Velasco, Guillermo; Holcombe, Mike; Dower, Steven K.; Kiss-Toth, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal regulation of intracellular signalling networks is key to normal cellular physiology; dysregulation of which leads to disease. The family of three mammalian tribbles proteins has emerged as an important controller of signalling via regulating the activity of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), the PI3-kinase induced signalling network and E3 ubiquitin ligases. However, the importance of potential redundancy in the action of tribbles and how the differences in affinities for the various binding partners may influence signalling control is currently unclear. We report that tribbles proteins can bind to an overlapping set of MAPK-kinases (MAPKK) in live cells and dictate the localisation of the complexes. Binding studies in transfected cells reveal common regulatory mechanisms and suggest that tribbles and MAPKs may interact with MAPKKs in a competitive manner. Computational modelling of the impact of tribbles on MAPK activation suggests a high sensitivity of this system to changes in tribbles levels, highlighting that these proteins are ideally placed to control the dynamics and balance of activation of concurrent signalling pathways. PMID:27600771

  9. Protein Corona of Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Improves Cell Proliferation via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Yang, Qi; Yang, Minggang; Zhan, Xiaohui; Lan, Fang; He, Jing; Gu, Zhongwei; Wu, Yao

    2017-03-21

    The beneficial effect of magnetic scaffolds on the improvement of cell proliferation has been well documented. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms about the magnetic scaffolds stimulating cell proliferation remain largely unknown. Once the scaffold enters into the biological fluids, a protein corona forms and directly influences the biological function of scaffold. This study aimed at investigating the formation of protein coronas on hydroxyapatite (HA) and magnetic hydroxyapatite (MHA) scaffolds in vitro and in vivo, and consequently its effect on regulating cell proliferation. The results demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles (MNP)-infiltrated HA scaffolds altered the composition of protein coronas and ultimately contributed to increased concentration of proteins related to calcium ions, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and MAPK/ERK cascades as compared with pristine HA scaffolds. Noticeably, the enriched functional proteins on MHA samples could efficiently activate of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, resulting in promoting MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, as evidenced by the higher expression levels of the key proteins in the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, including mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases1/2 (MEK1/2) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Artificial down-regulation of MEK expression can significantly down-regulate the MAPK/ERK signaling and consequently suppress the cell proliferation on MHA samples. These findings not only provide a critical insight into the molecular mechanism underlying cellular proliferation on magnetic scaffolds, but also have important implications in the design of magnetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Conformation-selective ATP-competitive inhibitors control regulatory interactions and noncatalytic functions of mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sanjay B; Merritt, Ethan A; Maly, Dustin J

    2014-05-22

    Most potent protein kinase inhibitors act by competing with ATP to block the phosphotransferase activity of their targets. However, emerging evidence demonstrates that ATP-competitive inhibitors can affect kinase interactions and functions in ways beyond blocking catalytic activity. Here, we show that stabilizing alternative ATP-binding site conformations of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38α and Erk2 with ATP-competitive inhibitors differentially, and in some cases divergently, modulates the abilities of these kinases to interact with upstream activators and deactivating phosphatases. Conformation-selective ligands are also able to modulate Erk2's ability to allosterically activate the MAPK phosphatase DUSP6, highlighting how ATP-competitive ligands can control noncatalytic kinase functions. Overall, these studies underscore the relationship between the ATP-binding and regulatory sites of MAPKs and provide insight into how ATP-competitive ligands can be designed to confer graded control over protein kinase function.

  11. High density lipoproteins induce cell cycle entry in vascular smooth muscle cells via mitogen activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Nofer, J R; Junker, R; Pulawski, E; Fobker, M; Levkau, B; von Eckardstein, A; Seedorf, U; Assmann, G; Walter, M

    2001-04-01

    In this study we found that HDL acts as a potent and specific mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by stimulating entry into S-phase and DNA synthesis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, induction of cyclins D1, E, and A, as well as activation of cyclin D-dependent kinases as inferred from phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Moreover, HDL induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway including Raf-, MEK-1, and ERK1/2, as well as the expression of proto-oncogen c-fos, which is controlled by ERK1/2. PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK-1 blocked the mitogenic activity of HDL and cyclin D1 expression. HDL-induced VSMC proliferation, cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 expression, and activation of the Raf-1/MEK-1/ERK1/2 cascade were blocked by preincubation of cells with pertussis toxin indicating involvement of trimeric G-protein. By contrast, none of these responses was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X. The mitogenic effects of native HDL were not mimicked by apo A-I, reconstituted HDL containing apo A-I, or cholesterol-containing liposomes. In conclusion, HDL possesses an intrinsic property to induce G-protein- and MAP-kinase-dependent proliferation and cell cycle progression in VSMC. The strong and specific mitogenic effect of HDL should be taken into account, when therapeutic strategies to elevate the plasma level of these lipoproteins are developed.

  12. p38γ and p38δ Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs), New Stars in the MAPK Galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Escós, Alejandra; Risco, Ana; Alsina-Beauchamp, Dayanira; Cuenda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinases p38γ and p38δ belong to the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. p38MAPK signaling controls many cellular processes and is one of the most conserved mechanisms in eukaryotes for the cellular response to environmental stress and inflammation. Although p38γ and p38δ are widely expressed, it is likely that they perform specific functions in different tissues. Their involvement in human pathologies such as inflammation-related diseases or cancer is starting to be uncovered. In this article we give a general overview and highlight recent advances made in defining the functions of p38γ and p38δ, focusing in innate immunity and inflammation. We consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of MAPK pathways to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:27148533

  13. Stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases interact with the EAR motif of a poplar zinc finger protein and mediate its degradation through the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Benchabane, Meriem; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Major, Ian T; Morency, Marie-Josée; Pelletier, Gervais; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Sheen, Jen; Séguin, Armand

    2011-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) contribute to the establishment of plant disease resistance by regulating downstream signaling components, including transcription factors. In this study, we identified MAPK-interacting proteins, and among the newly discovered candidates was a Cys-2/His-2-type zinc finger protein named PtiZFP1. This putative transcription factor belongs to a family of transcriptional repressors that rely on an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif for their repression activity. Amino acids located within this repression motif were also found to be essential for MAPK binding. Close examination of the primary protein sequence revealed a functional bipartite MAPK docking site that partially overlaps with the EAR motif. Transient expression assays in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts suggest that MAPKs promote PtiZFP1 degradation through the 26S proteasome. Since features of the MAPK docking site are conserved among other EAR repressors, our study suggests a novel mode of defense mechanism regulation involving stress-responsive MAPKs and EAR repressors.

  14. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase disrupts latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael C; Davis, Jennifer A; Gould, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade has been implicated in a variety of associative conditioning tasks. However, the role of the MAPK-ERK cascades in modulating conditioning is less clear. The authors examined the effect of the potent and selective MAPK-ERK inhibitor SL327 on latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. The results demonstrate that 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg SL327 disrupt latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. These data provide evidence for an essential role of the MAPK-ERK cascade in tasks that modulate the strength of associative conditioning. The results are discussed in relation to the molecular mechanisms that support latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning.

  15. The Emerging Role of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Multiple Sclerosis and Its Models

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Dimitry N.; Thornton, Tina M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common disabling neurologic disease of young adults, is considered a classical T cell-mediated disease and is characterized by demyelination, axonal damage, and progressive neurological dysfunction. The currently available disease-modifying therapies are limited in their efficacy, and improved understanding of new pathways contributing to disease pathogenesis could reveal additional novel therapeutic targets. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is known to be triggered by stress stimuli and to contribute to inflammatory responses. Importantly, a number of recent studies have identified this signaling pathway as a central player in MS and its principal animal model, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Here, we review the evidence from mouse and human studies supporting the role of p38 MAPK in regulating key immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and the potential of targeting this pathway as a disease-modifying therapy in MS. PMID:23897428

  16. Context Specificity of Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling: The Story as Told by Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Andrusiak, Matthew G.; Jin, Yishi

    2016-01-01

    Stress-associated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades trigger specific cellular responses and are involved in multiple disease states. At the root of MAP kinase signaling complexity is the differential use of common components on a context-specific basis. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans was developed as a system to study genes required for development and nervous system function. The powerful genetics of C. elegans in combination with molecular and cellular dissections has led to a greater understanding of how p38 and JNK signaling affects many biological processes under normal and stress conditions. This review focuses on the studies revealing context specificity of different stress-activated MAPK components in C. elegans. PMID:26907690

  17. Botulinum Toxin Complex Increases Paracellular Permeability in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    MIYASHITA, Shin-ichiro; SAGANE, Yoshimasa; INUI, Ken; HAYASHI, Shintaro; MIYATA, Keita; SUZUKI, Tomonori; OHYAMA, Tohru; WATANABE, Toshihiro; NIWA, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells, and MAPK activation was estimated from western blots. L-TC of C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 increased paracellular dextran flux and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in IEC-6 cells. The permeability increase induced by L-TC was abrogated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These results indicate that L-TC increases paracellular permeability by activating p38, but not JNK and ERK. PMID:23884081

  18. Thrombopoietin potentiates agonist-stimulated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Ezumi, Y; Nishida, E; Uchiyama, T; Takayama, H

    1999-07-22

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) plays a crucial role in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet production. c-Mpl, a receptor for TPO, is also expressed in terminally differentiated platelets. We investigated the effects of TPO on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human platelets. Thrombin, a thrombin receptor agonist peptide, a thromboxane A(2) analogue, collagen, crosslinking the glycoprotein VI, ADP, and epinephrine, but not phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate activated p38. TPO did not activate p38 by itself, whereas TPO pretreatment potentiated the agonist-induced activation of p38. TPO did not promote phosphorylation of Hsp27 and cytosolic phospholipase A(2) by itself, but enhanced thrombin-induced phosphorylation of them. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 strongly inhibited such phosphorylation. Thus, TPO possesses the priming effect on p38 activation in human platelets and could affect platelet functions through the p38 pathway.

  19. The F-box protein Fbp1 functions in the invasive growth and cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Rojas, Cristina; Hera, Concepcion

    2016-01-01

    F-box proteins determine substrate specificity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous work has demonstrated that the F-box protein Fbp1, a component of the SCF(Fbp1) E3 ligase complex, is essential for invasive growth and virulence of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Here, we show that, in addition to invasive growth, Fbp1 also contributes to vegetative hyphal fusion and fungal adhesion to tomato roots. All of these functions have been shown previously to require the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fmk1. We found that Fbp1 is required for full phosphorylation of Fmk1, indicating that Fbp1 regulates virulence and invasive growth via the Fmk1 pathway. Moreover, the Δfbp1 mutant is hypersensitive to sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and calcofluor white (CFW) and shows reduced phosphorylation levels of the cell wall integrity MAPK Mpk1 after SDS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that Fbp1 contributes to both the invasive growth and cell wall integrity MAPK pathways of F. oxysporum.

  20. Fibroblast growth factors 7 and 10 are involved in ameloblastoma proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Yu; Mitsuyasu, Takeshi; Kawano, Shintaro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kanda, Shiori; Nakamura, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    Ameloblastoma is an epithelial benign tumor of the odontogenic apparatus and its growth mechanisms are not well understood. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 3, FGF7 and FGF10, which are expressed by the neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal cells, induce the proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells during tooth development. Therefore, we examined the expression and function of these FGFs in ameloblastoma. We examined 32 cases of ameloblastoma as well as AM-1 cells (an ameloblastoma cell line) and studied the expression of FGF3, FGF7, FGF10 and their specific receptors, namely, FGF receptor (FGFR) 1 and FGFR2. Proliferation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and PI3K signaling were examined in AM-1 cells after the addition of FGF7, FGF10 and these neutralizing antibodies. The expression of FGF7, FGF10, FGFR1 and FGFR2 was detected in ameloblastoma cells and AM-1 cells, while that of FGF3 was not. FGF7 and FGF10 stimulated AM-1 cell proliferation and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK. However, Akt was not phosphorylated. Blocking the p44/42 MAPK pathway by using a specific mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor (U0126) completely neutralized the effects of FGF7 and FGF10 on AM-1 cell proliferation. However, Anti FGF7 and FGF10 neutralizing antibodies did not decrease cell proliferation and MAPK phosphorylation of AM-1 cells. These results suggested that FGF7 and FGF10 are involved in the proliferation of ameloblastoma cells through the MAPK pathway.

  1. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, J; Carlson, M; Mansour, S J; Chien, K R; Ahn, N G; Thorburn, A

    1995-01-01

    Signaling via the Ras pathway involves sequential activation of Ras, Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK), and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Expression from the c-Fos, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), and myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) promoters during phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy requires activation of this pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Ras or Raf-1 can mimic the action of phenylephrine in inducing expression from these promoters. In this study, we tested whether constitutively active MKK, the molecule immediately downstream of Raf, was sufficient to induce expression. Expression of constitutively active MKK induce ERK2 kinase activity and caused expression from the c-Fos promoter, but did not significantly activate expression of reporter genes under the control of either the ANF or MLC-2 promoters. Expression of CL100, a phosphatase that inactivates ERKs, prevented expression from all of the promoters. Taken together, these data suggest that ERK activation is required for expression from the Fos, ANF, and MLC-2 promoters but MKK and ERK activation is sufficient for expression only from the Fos promoter. Constitutively active MKK synergized with phenylephrine to increase expression from a c-Fos- or an AP1-driven reporter. However, active MKK inhibited phenylephrine- and Raf-1-induced expression from the ANF and MLC-2 promoters. A DNA sequence in the MLC-2 promoter that is a target for inhibition by active MKK, but not CL100, was mapped to a previously characterized DNA element (HF1) that is responsible for cardiac specificity. Thus, activation of cardiac gene expression during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy requires ERK activation but constitutive activation by MKK can inhibit expression by targeting a DNA element that controls the cardiac specificity of gene expression. PMID:8589450

  2. Stimulation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells by Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sangeetha; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Eapen, Asha; George, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontitis can ultimately result in tooth loss. Many natural and synthetic materials have been tried to achieve periodontal regeneration, but the results remain variable and unpredictable. We hypothesized that exogenous treatment with dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) activates specific genes and results in phenotypic and functional changes in human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Methods hPDLSCs were isolated from extracted teeth and cultured in the presence or absence of DMP1. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to analyze the expression of several genes involved in periodontal regeneration. hPDLSCs were also processed for immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis using phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and ERK antibodies. Alkaline phosphatase and von Kossa staining were performed to characterize the differentiation of hPDLSCs into osteoblasts. Field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis of the treated and control cell cultures were also performed. Results Treatment with DMP1 resulted in the upregulation of genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2, alkaline phosphatase, and transforming growth factor β1. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and translocation of pERK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was observed. Overall, DMP1-treated cells showed increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, increased matrix, and mineralized nodule formation when compared with untreated controls. Conclusion DMP1 can orchestrate a coordinated expression of genes and phenotypic changes in hPDLSCs by activation of the ERK signaling pathway, which may provide a valuable strategy for tissue engineering approaches in periodontal regeneration. PMID:22612367

  3. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  4. Prevention of neuronal apoptosis by phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C: blockade of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Behrens, M M; Strasser, U; Koh, J Y; Gwag, B J; Choi, D W

    1999-01-01

    Consistent with previous studies on cell lines and non-neuronal cells, specific inhibitors of protein kinase C induced mouse primary cultured neocortical neurons to undergo apoptosis. To examine the complementary hypothesis that activating protein kinase C would attenuate neuronal apoptosis, the cultures were exposed for 1 h to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, which activated protein kinase C as evidenced by downstream enhancement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Exposure to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, or another active phorbol ester, phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, but not to the inactive ester, 4alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, markedly attenuated neuronal apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate also attenuated neuronal apoptosis induced by exposure to beta-amyloid peptide 1-42, or oxygen-glucose deprivation in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists. The neuroprotective effects of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate were blocked by brief (non-toxic) concurrent exposure to the specific protein kinase C inhibitors, but not by a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 inhibitor. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate blocked the induction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and specific inhibition of this kinase by SB 203580 attenuated serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activity was high at rest and not modified by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment. These data strengthen the idea that protein kinase C is a key modulator of several forms of central neuronal apoptosis, in part acting through inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulated pathways.

  5. Stress-activated protein kinase-mediated down-regulation of the cell integrity pathway mitogen-activated protein kinase Pmk1p by protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Marisa; Núñez, Andrés; Soto, Teresa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2007-11-01

    Fission yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Pmk1p is involved in morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and ion homeostasis as part of the cell integrity pathway, and it becomes activated under multiple stresses, including hyper- or hypotonic conditions, glucose deprivation, cell wall-damaging compounds, and oxidative stress. The only protein phosphatase known to dephosphorylate and inactivate Pmk1p is Pmp1p. We show here that the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway and its main effector, Sty1p MAPK, are essential for proper deactivation of Pmk1p under hypertonic stress in a process regulated by Atf1p transcription factor. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphatases Pyp1p and Pyp2p, and serine/threonine phosphatase Ptc1p, that negatively regulate Sty1p activity and whose expression is dependent on Sty1p-Atf1p function, are involved in Pmk1p dephosphorylation under osmostress. Pyp1p and Ptc1p, in addition to Pmp1p, also control the basal level of MAPK Pmk1p activity in growing cells and associate with, and dephosphorylate Pmk1p both in vitro and in vivo. Our results with Ptc1p provide the first biochemical evidence for a PP2C-type phosphatase acting on more than one MAPK in yeast cells. Importantly, the SAPK-dependent down-regulation of Pmk1p through Pyp1p, Pyp2p, and Ptc1p was not complete, and Pyp1p and Ptc1p phosphatases are able to negatively regulate MAPK Pmk1p activity by an alternative regulatory mechanism. Our data also indicate that Pmk1p phosphorylation oscillates as a function of the cell cycle, peaking at cell separation during cytokinesis, and that Pmp1p phosphatase plays a main role in regulating this process.

  6. Stress-activated Protein Kinase-mediated Down-Regulation of the Cell Integrity Pathway Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pmk1p by Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Marisa; Núñez, Andrés; Soto, Teresa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Cansado, José

    2007-01-01

    Fission yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Pmk1p is involved in morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and ion homeostasis as part of the cell integrity pathway, and it becomes activated under multiple stresses, including hyper- or hypotonic conditions, glucose deprivation, cell wall-damaging compounds, and oxidative stress. The only protein phosphatase known to dephosphorylate and inactivate Pmk1p is Pmp1p. We show here that the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway and its main effector, Sty1p MAPK, are essential for proper deactivation of Pmk1p under hypertonic stress in a process regulated by Atf1p transcription factor. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphatases Pyp1p and Pyp2p, and serine/threonine phosphatase Ptc1p, that negatively regulate Sty1p activity and whose expression is dependent on Sty1p-Atf1p function, are involved in Pmk1p dephosphorylation under osmostress. Pyp1p and Ptc1p, in addition to Pmp1p, also control the basal level of MAPK Pmk1p activity in growing cells and associate with, and dephosphorylate Pmk1p both in vitro and in vivo. Our results with Ptc1p provide the first biochemical evidence for a PP2C-type phosphatase acting on more than one MAPK in yeast cells. Importantly, the SAPK-dependent down-regulation of Pmk1p through Pyp1p, Pyp2p, and Ptc1p was not complete, and Pyp1p and Ptc1p phosphatases are able to negatively regulate MAPK Pmk1p activity by an alternative regulatory mechanism. Our data also indicate that Pmk1p phosphorylation oscillates as a function of the cell cycle, peaking at cell separation during cytokinesis, and that Pmp1p phosphatase plays a main role in regulating this process. PMID:17761528

  7. A Metazoan ATAC Acetyltransferase Subunit That Regulates Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Is Related to an Ancient Molybdopterin Synthase Component*

    PubMed Central

    Suganuma, Tamaki; Mushegian, Arcady; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Molybdopterin (MPT) synthase is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor precursor molybdopterin. The molybdenum cofactor biosynthetic pathway is conserved from prokaryotes to Metazoa. CG10238 is the Drosophila homolog of the MoaE protein, a subunit of MPT synthase, and is found in a fusion with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-upstream protein kinase-binding inhibitory protein (MBIP). This fused protein inhibits the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). dMoaE (CG10238) carries out this function as a subunit of the ATAC histone acetyltransferase complex. In this study, we demonstrate that Drosophila MoaE (CG10238) also interacts with Drosophila MoaD and with itself to form a complex with stoichiometry identical to the MPT synthase holoenzyme in addition to its function in ATAC. We also show that sequence determinants that regulate MAPK signaling are located within the MoaE region of dMoaE (CG10238). Analysis of other metazoan MBIPs reveals that MBIP protein sequences have an N-terminal region that appears to have been derived from the MoaE protein, although it has lost residues responsible for catalytic activity. Thus, intact and modified copies of the MoaE protein may have been conscripted to play a new, noncatalytic role in MAPK signaling in Metazoa as part of the ATAC complex. PMID:22345504

  8. 3pK, a new mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase located in the small cell lung cancer tumor suppressor gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Sithanandam, G; Latif, F; Duh, F M; Bernal, R; Smola, U; Li, H; Kuzmin, I; Wixler, V; Geil, L; Shrestha, S

    1996-01-01

    NotI linking clones, localized to the human chromosome 3p21.3 region and homozygously deleted in small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H740 and NCI-H1450, were used to search for a putative tumor suppressor gene(s). One of these clones, NL1G210, detected a 2.5-kb mRNA in all examined human tissues, expression being especially high in the heart and skeletal muscle. Two overlapping cDNA clones containing the entire open reading frame were isolated from a human heart cDNA library and fully characterized. Computer analysis and a search of the GenBank database to reveal high sequence identity of the product of this gene to serine-threonine kinases, especially to mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2, a recently described substrate of mitogen-activated kinases. Sequence identitiy was 72% at the nucleotide level and 75% at the amino acid level, strongly suggesting that this protein is a serine-threonine kinase. Here we demonstrate that the new gene, referred to as 3pK (for chromosome 3p kinase), in fact encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated protein serine-threonine kinase with a novel substrate specificity. PMID:8622688

  9. Characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene from cucumber required for trichoderma-conferred plant resistance.

    PubMed

    Shoresh, Michal; Gal-On, Amit; Leibman, Diana; Chet, Ilan

    2006-11-01

    The fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum has been recently shown to induce systemic resistance in plants through a mechanism that employs jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins have been implicated in the signal transduction of a wide variety of plant stress responses. Here we report the identification and characterization of a Trichoderma-induced MAPK (TIPK) gene function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Similar to its homologs, wound-induced protein kinase, MPK3, and MPK3a, TIPK is also induced by wounding. Normally, preinoculation of roots with Trichoderma activates plant defense mechanisms, which result in resistance to the leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans. We used a unique attenuated virus vector, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV-AGII), to overexpress TIPK protein and antisense (AS) RNA. Plants overexpressing TIPK were more resistant to pathogenic bacterial attack than control plants, even in the absence of Trichoderma preinoculation. On the other hand, plants expressing TIPK-AS revealed increased sensitivity to pathogen attack. Moreover, Trichoderma preinoculation could not protect these AS plants against subsequent pathogen attack. We therefore demonstrate that Trichoderma exerts its protective effect on plants through activation of the TIPK gene, a MAPK that is involved in signal transduction pathways of defense responses.

  10. Spermine signalling in tobacco: activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by spermine is mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Berberich, Thomas; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Seo, Shigemi; Ohashi, Yuko; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2003-12-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play important roles in cell proliferation, growth and environmental stress responses of all living organisms. In this study, we examine whether these compounds act as signal mediators. Spermine (Spm) specifically activated protein kinases of tobacco leaves, which were identified as salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), using specific antibodies. Upon Spm treatment, upregulation of WIPK, but not SIPK, was observed. Spm-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation and WIPK upregulation were prevented upon pre-treatment with antioxidants and Ca2+ channel blockers. Additionally, Spm specifically stimulated expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene, which was disrupted by these antioxidants and Ca2+ channel blockers. Bongkrekic acid (BK), an inhibitor of the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pores, suppressed MAPKs activation and accumulation of WIPK and AOX mRNA. Our data collectively suggest that Spm causes mitochondrial dysfunction via a signalling pathway in which reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ influx are involved. As a result, the phosphorylation activities of the two MAPK enzymes SIPK and WIPK are stimulated.

  11. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM). E S Roberts1, R Jaskot2, J Richards2, and K L Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC a...

  12. Downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 of Leishmania donovani field isolates is associated with antimony resistance.

    PubMed

    Ashutosh; Garg, Mansi; Sundar, Shyam; Duncan, Robert; Nakhasi, Hira L; Goyal, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials has become a severe obstacle in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the Indian subcontinent. The mechanisms operating in laboratory-generated strains are somewhat known, but the determinants of clinical antimony resistance are not well understood. By utilizing a DNA microarray expression profiling approach, we identified a gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) for the kinetoplast protozoan Leishmania donovani (LdMAPK1) that was consistently downregulated in antimony-resistant field isolates. The expression level of the gene was validated by real-time PCR. Furthermore, decreased expression of LdMAPK1 was also confirmed at the protein level in resistant isolates. Primary structure analysis of LdMAPK1 revealed the presence of all of the characteristic features of MAPK1. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme showed kinase activity with myelin basic protein as the substrate and was inhibited by staurosporine. Interestingly, overexpression of this gene in a drug-sensitive laboratory strain and a resistant field isolate resulted in increased the sensitivity of the transfectants to potassium antimony tartrate, suggesting that it has a role in antimony resistance. Our results demonstrate that downregulation of LdMAPK1 may be in part correlated with antimony drug resistance in Indian VL isolates.

  13. Mitogen activated protein kinase 14-1 regulates serum glucocorticoid kinase 1 during seawater acclimation in Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Notch, Emily G; Chapline, Chris; Flynn, Erin; Lameyer, Tess; Lowell, Alyson; Sato, Denry; Shaw, Joseph R; Stanton, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an environmental sentinel organism used extensively for studies of environmental toxicants and osmoregulation. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that acute acclimation to seawater is mediated by an increase in SGK1. SGK1 promotes the trafficking of CFTR chloride channels from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane of the gill within the first hour in seawater resulting in increased chloride secretion. Although we have shown that the increase in gill SGK1 does not require activation of the glucocorticoid receptor, the mechanisms that mediate the rise SGK1 during acute acclimation is unknown. To test the hypothesis that mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK14) is responsible for the rise in SGK1 we identified the coding sequence of killifish MAPK14-1 and designed a translational blocking vivo-morpholino targeting MAPK14-1. Injection of the MAPK14-1 vivo-morpholino resulted in a 30% reduction of MAPK14-1 and a 45% reduction in phosphorylated-MAPK14-1 protein in the gill of killifish transitioned from freshwater to seawater. Knock down of phosphorlyated-MAPK14-1 completely blocked the rise in SGK1 mRNA and protein in the killifish gill, providing the first direct and in vivo evidence that MAPK14-1 is necessary for acute seawater acclimation.

  14. Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan stimulates an inflammatory response in monocytes through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Langer, Marybeth; Malykhin, Alexander; Maeda, Kenichiro; Chakrabarty, Kaushik; Williamson, Kelly S; Feasley, Christa L; West, Christopher M; Metcalf, Jordan P; Coggeshall, K Mark

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that the peptidoglycan component of B. anthracis may play a critical role in morbidity and mortality associated with inhalation anthrax. To explore this issue, we purified the peptidoglycan component of the bacterial cell wall and studied the response of human peripheral blood cells. The purified B. anthracis peptidoglycan was free of non-covalently bound protein but contained a complex set of amino acids probably arising from the stem peptide. The peptidoglycan contained a polysaccharide that was removed by mild acid treatment, and the biological activity remained with the peptidoglycan and not the polysaccharide. The biological activity of the peptidoglycan was sensitive to lysozyme but not other hydrolytic enzymes, showing that the activity resides in the peptidoglycan component and not bacterial DNA, RNA or protein. B. anthracis peptidoglycan stimulated monocytes to produce primarily TNFalpha; neutrophils and lymphocytes did not respond. Peptidoglycan stimulated monocyte p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p38 activity was required for TNFalpha production by the cells. We conclude that peptidoglycan in B. anthracis is biologically active, that it stimulates a proinflammatory response in monocytes, and uses the p38 kinase signal transduction pathway to do so. Given the high bacterial burden in pulmonary anthrax, these findings suggest that the inflammatory events associated with peptidoglycan may play an important role in anthrax pathogenesis.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P38-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase from Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Guodong; Li, Jing; Zhang, Chuanshan; Li, Liang; Bi, Xiaojuan; Li, Chaowang; Fan, Jinliang; Lu, Xiaomei; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Wen, Hao; Lin, Renyong

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) treatment urgently requires a novel drug. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases, but still have to be characterized in Echinococcus granulosus. We identified a 1,107 bp cDNA encoding a 368 amino acid MAPK protein (Egp38) in E. granulosus. Egp38 exhibits 2 distinguishing features of p38-like kinases: a highly conserved T-X-Y motif and an activation loop segment. Structural homology modeling indicated a conserved structure among Egp38, EmMPK2, and H. sapiens p38α, implying a common binding mechanism for the ligand domain and downstream signal transduction processing similar to that described for p38α. Egp38 and its phosphorylated form are expressed in the E. granulosus larval stages vesicle and protoscolices during intermediate host infection of an intermediate host. Treatment of in vitro cultivated protoscolices with the p38-MAPK inhibitor ML3403 effectively suppressed Egp38 activity and led to significant protoscolices death within 5 days. Treatment of in vitro-cultivated protoscolices with TGF-β1 effectively induced Egp38 phosphorylation. In summary, the MAPK, Egp38, was identified in E. granulosus, as an anti-CE drug target and participates in the interplay between the host and E. granulosus via human TGF-β1. PMID:28095661

  16. Bacillus anthracis Peptidoglycan Stimulates an Inflammatory Response in Monocytes through the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Malykhin, Alexander; Maeda, Kenichiro; Chakrabarty, Kaushik; Williamson, Kelly S.; Feasley, Christa L.; West, Christopher M.; Metcalf, Jordan P.; Coggeshall, K. Mark

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that the peptidoglycan component of B. anthracis may play a critical role in morbidity and mortality associated with inhalation anthrax. To explore this issue, we purified the peptidoglycan component of the bacterial cell wall and studied the response of human peripheral blood cells. The purified B. anthracis peptidoglycan was free of non-covalently bound protein but contained a complex set of amino acids probably arising from the stem peptide. The peptidoglycan contained a polysaccharide that was removed by mild acid treatment, and the biological activity remained with the peptidoglycan and not the polysaccharide. The biological activity of the peptidoglycan was sensitive to lysozyme but not other hydrolytic enzymes, showing that the activity resides in the peptidoglycan component and not bacterial DNA, RNA or protein. B. anthracis peptidoglycan stimulated monocytes to produce primarily TNFα; neutrophils and lymphocytes did not respond. Peptidoglycan stimulated monocyte p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p38 activity was required for TNFα production by the cells. We conclude that peptidoglycan in B. anthracis is biologically active, that it stimulates a proinflammatory response in monocytes, and uses the p38 kinase signal transduction pathway to do so. Given the high bacterial burden in pulmonary anthrax, these findings suggest that the inflammatory events associated with peptidoglycan may play an important role in anthrax pathogenesis. PMID:19002259

  17. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 2 Signaling Shapes Macrophage Plasticity in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-Induced Bone Loss.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Bethany A; Steinkamp, Heidi M; Gaestel, Matthias; Kirkwood, Keith L

    2017-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with aggressive periodontal disease, which is characterized by inflammation-driven alveolar bone loss. A. actinomycetemcomitans activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) stress pathways in macrophages that are involved in host responses. During the inflammatory process in periodontal disease, chemokines are upregulated to promote recruitment of inflammatory cells. The objective of this study was to determine the role of MK2 signaling in chemokine regulation during A. actinomycetemcomitans pathogenesis. Utilizing a murine calvarial model, Mk2(+/+) and Mk2(-/-) mice were treated with live A. actinomycetemcomitans bacteria at the midsagittal suture. MK2 positively regulated the following macrophage RNA: Emr1 (F4/80), Itgam (CD11b), Csf1r (M-CSF Receptor), Itgal (CD11a), Tnf, and Nos2 Additionally, RNA analysis revealed that MK2 signaling regulated chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 in murine calvarial tissue. Utilizing the chimeric murine air pouch model, MK2 signaling differentially regulated CCL3 and CCL4 in the hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic compartments. Bone resorption pits in calvaria, observed by micro-computed tomography, and osteoclast formation were decreased in Mk2(-/-) mice compared to Mk2(+/+) mice after A. actinomycetemcomitans treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that MK2 in macrophages contributes to regulation of chemokine signaling during A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced inflammation and bone loss.

  18. Effects of butyltins on mitogen-activated-protein kinase kinase kinase and Ras activity in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Whalen, Margaret M

    2014-09-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 min of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after 1 h exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT affect the regulation of c-Raf.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Lianzhe; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Xupo; Zeng, Changying; Wei, Yunxie; Zhao, Hongliang; Peng, Ming; Hu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play central roles in plant developmental processes, hormone signaling transduction, and responses to abiotic stress. However, no data are currently available about the MAPK family in cassava, an important tropical crop. Herein, 21 MeMAPK genes were identified from cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MeMAPKs could be classified into four subfamilies. Gene structure analysis demonstrated that the number of introns in MeMAPK genes ranged from 1 to 10, suggesting large variation among cassava MAPK genes. Conserved motif analysis indicated that all MeMAPKs had typical protein kinase domains. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that MeMAPK genes showed differential expression patterns in distinct tissues and in response to drought stress between wild subspecies and cultivated varieties. Interaction networks and co-expression analyses revealed that crucial pathways controlled by MeMAPK networks may be involved in the differential response to drought stress in different accessions of cassava. Expression of nine selected MAPK genes showed that these genes could comprehensively respond to osmotic, salt, cold, oxidative stressors, and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. These findings yield new insights into the transcriptional control of MAPK gene expression, provide an improved understanding of abiotic stress responses and signaling transduction in cassava, and lead to potential applications in the genetic improvement of cassava cultivars. PMID:27625666

  20. Genetic Complementation Screen Identifies a Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase, MKP3, as a Regulator of Dopamine Transporter Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Mads Breum; Prasad, Balakrishna M.; Amara, Susan G.

    2008-01-01

    The antidepressant and cocaine sensitive plasma membrane monoamine transporters are the primary mechanism for clearance of their respective neurotransmitters and serve a pivotal role in limiting monoamine neurotransmission. To identify molecules in pathways that regulate dopamine transporter (DAT) internalization, we used a genetic complementation screen in Xenopus oocytes to identify a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase, MKP3/Pyst1/DUSP6, as a molecule that inhibits protein kinase C–induced (PKC) internalization of transporters, resulting in enhanced DAT activity. The involvement of MKP3 in DAT internalization was verified using both overexpression and shRNA knockdown strategies in mammalian cell models including a dopaminergic cell line. Although the isolation of MKP3 implies a role for MAP kinases in DAT internalization, MAP kinase inhibitors have no effect on internalization. Moreover, PKC-dependent down-regulation of DAT does not correlate with the phosphorylation state of several well-studied MAP kinases (ERK1/2, p38, and SAPK/JNK). We also show that MKP3 does not regulate PKC-induced ubiquitylation of DAT but acts at a more downstream step to stabilize DAT at the cell surface by blocking dynamin-dependent internalization and delaying the targeting of DAT for degradation. These results indicate that MKP3 can act to enhance DAT function and identifies MKP3 as a phosphatase involved in regulating dynamin-dependent endocytosis. PMID:18434601

  1. Endothelial Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 Is Critical for Lymphatic Vascular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-An; Danai, Laura V.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Gujja, Sharvari; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vascular development and function are not well understood. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that constitutive loss of EC Map4k4 in mice causes postnatal lethality due to chylothorax, suggesting that Map4k4 is required for normal lymphatic vascular function. Mice constitutively lacking EC Map4k4 displayed dilated lymphatic capillaries, insufficient lymphatic valves, and impaired lymphatic flow; furthermore, primary ECs derived from these animals displayed enhanced proliferation compared with controls. Yeast 2-hybrid analyses identified the Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasa1, a known regulator of lymphatic development and lymphatic endothelial cell fate, as a direct interacting partner for Map4k4. Map4k4 silencing in ECs enhanced basal Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activities, and primary ECs lacking Map4k4 displayed enhanced lymphatic EC marker expression. Taken together, these results reveal that EC Map4k4 is critical for lymphatic vascular development by regulating EC quiescence and lymphatic EC fate. PMID:27044870

  2. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J.

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 activates apoptosis during testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a nuclear factor-kappaB-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Antonuccio, Pietro; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Squadrito, Francesco; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Fazzari, Carmine; Maisano, Daniele; Romeo, Carmelo; Altavilla, Domenica

    2009-02-14

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase3/MAPK1 and MAPK8 are involved in testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (testicular-I/R). NF-kappaB knock-out mice (KO) subjected to testicular-I/R have a reduced testicular damage, blunted MAPK8 activation and enhanced MAPK3/MAPK1 activity. To better understand the role of MAPK3/MAPK1 up-regulation during testicular-I/R, we investigated the effects of PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK3/MAPK1, in KO mice during testicular-I/R. KO and wild-type (WT) animals underwent 1 h testicular ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion or a sham testicular-I/R. Animals received either PD98059 (5 mg/kg/ip) or its vehicle. MAPK3/MAPK1, BAX, caspase-3 and -9 and TNF-alpha expression were assessed along with histological examination and an immunostaining for protein of apoptosis. Testicular-I/R caused a greater increase in MAPK3/MAPK1 in KO than in WT animals in both testes. KO mice had a lower expression of the apoptotic proteins and TNF-alpha as well as reduced histological damage compared to WT. Immunostaining confirmed the lower expression of BAX in the Leydig cells of KO mice. Administration of PD98059, abrogated MAPK3/MAPK1 expression and slightly reduced TNF-alpha but did not improve or reverse the histological damage in KO. PD98059 significantly reduced the histological damage in WT mice and markedly reduced the apoptotic proteins in KO and WT mice. These results suggest that testicular-I/R triggers also a pathway of organ damage involving MAPK3/MAPK1, TNF-alpha, BAX, caspase-3 and -9 that activates an apoptotic machinery in an NF-kappaB independent manner. These findings should contribute to better understand testicular torsion-induced damage.

  4. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways used by interleukin 1 in tissues in vivo: activation of hepatic c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 4 and 7.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, A; Davis, W; Carter, W G; Saklatvala, J

    2001-01-01

    The effects of interleukin 1 (IL-1) are mediated by the activation of protein kinase signalling pathways, which have been well characterized in cultured cells. We have investigated the activation of these pathways in rabbit liver and other tissues after the systemic administration of IL-1alpha. In liver there was 30-40-fold activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and 5-fold activation of both JNK kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MKK)4 and MKK7. IL-1alpha also caused 2-3-fold activation of p38 MAPK and degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB ('IkappaB'), although no activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) (p42/44 MAPK) was observed. The use of antibodies against specific JNK isoforms showed that, in liver, short (p46) JNK1 and long (p54) JNK2 are the predominant forms activated, with smaller amounts of long JNK1 and short JNK2. No active JNK3 was detected. A similar pattern of JNK activation was seen in lung, spleen, skeletal muscle and kidney. Significant JNK3 activity was detectable only in the brain, although little activation of the JNK pathway in response to IL-1alpha was observed in this tissue. This distribution of active JNK isoforms probably results from a different expression of JNKs within the tissues, rather than from a selective activation of isoforms. We conclude that IL-1alpha might activate a more restricted set of signalling pathways in tissues in vivo than it does in cultured cells, where ERK and JNK3 activation are often observed. Cultured cells might represent a 'repair' phenotype that undergoes a broader set of responses to the cytokine. PMID:11139391

  5. Transcriptional Regulation of the SMK1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene during Meiotic Development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Michael; Wagner, Marisa; Xie, Jianxin; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Six, John; Vershon, Andrew K.; Winter, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Meiotic development (sporulation) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by an ordered pattern of gene expression, with sporulation-specific genes classified as early, middle, mid-late, or late depending on when they are expressed. SMK1 encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase required for spore morphogenesis that is expressed as a middle sporulation-specific gene. Here, we identify the cis-acting DNA elements that regulate SMK1 transcription and characterize the phenotypes of mutants with altered expression patterns. The SMK1 promoter contains an upstream activating sequence (UASS) that specifically interacts with the transcriptional activator Abf1p. The Abf1p-binding sites from the early HOP1 and the middle SMK1 promoters are functionally interchangeable, demonstrating that these elements do not play a direct role in their differential transcriptional timing. Timing of SMK1 expression is determined by another cis-acting DNA sequence termed MSE (for middle sporulation element). The MSE is required not only for activation of SMK1 transcription during middle sporulation but also for its repression during vegetative growth and early meiosis. In addition, the SMK1 MSE can repress vegetative expression in the context of the HOP1 promoter and convert HOP1 from an early to a middle gene. SMK1 function is not contingent on its tight transcriptional regulation as a middle sporulation-specific gene. However, promoter mutants with different quantitative defects in SMK1 transcript levels during middle sporulation show distinct sporulation phenotypes. PMID:9742114

  6. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is crucial for bovine papillomavirus type-1 transformation of equine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yuan, ZhengQiang; Gault, Elizabeth A; Campo, M Saveria; Nasir, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    Equine sarcoids represent the most common skin tumours in equids worldwide, characterized by extensive invasion and infiltration of lymphatics, rare regression and high recurrence after surgical intervention. Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1) and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of the diseases. It has been demonstrated that BPV-1 viral gene expression is necessary for maintaining the transformation phenotype. However, the underlying mechanism for BPV-1 transformation remains largely unknown, and the cellular factors involved in transformation are not fully understood. Previously mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway has been shown to be important for cellular transformation. This study investigated the role of p38 MAPK (p38) in the transformation of equine fibroblasts by BPV-1. Elevated expression of phosphorylated p38 was observed in BPV-1 expressing fibroblasts due to the expression of BPV-1 E5 and E6. The phosphorylation of the MK2 kinase, a substrate of p38, was also enhanced. Inhibition of p38 activity by its selective inhibitor SB203580 changed cell morphology, reduced the proliferation of sarcoid fibroblasts and inhibited cellular invasiveness, indicating the indispensable role of p38 in BPV-1 transformation of equine fibroblasts. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of equine sarcoids and suggest that p38 could be a potential target for equine sarcoid therapy.

  7. Gene-Environment Interactions Target Mitogen-activated Protein 3 Kinase 1 (MAP3K1) Signaling in Eyelid Morphogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Jingjing; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions determine the biological outcomes through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Mouse embryonic eyelid closure is a well defined model to study the genetic control of developmental programs. Using this model, we investigated how exposure to dioxin-like environmental pollutants modifies the genetic risk of developmental abnormalities. Our studies reveal that mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 1 (MAP3K1) signaling is a focal point of gene-environment cross-talk. Dioxin exposure, acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), blocked eyelid closure in genetic mutants in which MAP3K1 signaling was attenuated but did not disturb this developmental program in either wild type or mutant mice with attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor or WNT signaling. Exposure also markedly inhibited c-Jun phosphorylation in Map3k1+/− embryonic eyelid epithelium, suggesting that dioxin-induced AHR pathways can synergize with gene mutations to inhibit MAP3K1 signaling. Our studies uncover a novel mechanism through which the dioxin-AHR axis interacts with the MAP3K1 signaling pathways during fetal development and provide strong empirical evidence that specific gene alterations can increase the risk of developmental abnormalities driven by environmental pollutant exposure. PMID:26109068

  8. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in the Heart: Angels Versus Demons in a Heart-Breaking Tale

    PubMed Central

    ROSE, BETH A.; FORCE, THOMAS; WANG, YIBIN

    2013-01-01

    Among the myriad of intra-cellular signaling networks that govern the cardiac development and pathogenesis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are prominent players that have been the focus of extensive investigations in the past decades. The four best characterized MAPK subfamilies, ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and ERK5, are the targets of pharmacological and genetic manipulations to uncover their roles in cardiac development, function, and diseases. However, information reported in the literature from these efforts has not yet resulted in a clear view about the roles of specific MAPK pathways in heart. Rather, controversies from contradictive results have led to a perception that MAPKs are ambiguous characters in heart with both protective and detrimental effects. The primary object of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current progress, in an effort to highlight the areas where consensus is established verses the ones where controversy remains. MAPKs in cardiac development, cardiac hypertrophy, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and pathological remodeling are the main focuses of this review as these represent the most critical issues for evaluating MAPKs as viable targets of therapeutic development. The studies presented in this review will help to reveal the major challenges in the field and the limitations of current approaches and point to a critical need in future studies to gain better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of MAPK function and regulation in the heart. PMID:20959622

  9. Drugs designed to inhibit human p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation treat Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuang; Daniel, Benjamin J; Brumlik, Michael J; Burow, Matthew E; Zou, Weiping; Khan, Imtiaz A; Wadsworth, Scott; Siekierka, John; Curiel, Tyler J

    2007-12-01

    We recently showed that the pyridinylimidazoles SB203580 and SB202190, drugs designed to block human p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, also inhibited replication of the medically important intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii in cultured human fibroblasts through a direct effect on the parasite. We now show that additional pyridinylimidazole and imidazopyrimidine p38 MAPK inhibitors inhibit intracellular T. gondii replication in vitro and protect mice against fatal T. gondii infection. Mice surviving infection following treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitors were resistant to subsequent T. gondii challenge, demonstrating induction of protective immunity. Thus, drugs originally developed to block human p38 MAPK activation are useful for treating T. gondii infection without inducing significant immunosuppression. MAPK inhibitors combined with either of the approved anti-Toxoplasma drugs sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine resulted in improved survival among mice challenged with a fatal T. gondii inoculum. A MAPK inhibitor also treated mice infected with the Microsporidium parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi, suggesting that MAPK inhibitors represent a novel class of agents that may have a broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. Preliminary studies implicate a T. gondii MAPK homologue as the target of drug action, suggesting possibilities for more-selective agents.

  10. Advances in the development of cancer therapeutics directed against the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S

    2008-06-15

    Among mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway has received the most attention in the oncology drug discovery arena. By virtue of its central role in promoting proliferation, survival, and metastasis, this pathway directly affects both the formation and progression of human tumors. The identification of non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of the MAPK kinase MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) resulted in the first demonstration that the ERK pathway could be effectively shut down in a highly selective fashion. Subsequent discovery of the oncogenic nature of B-raf kinase led to the escalation of drug discovery efforts revolving around MEK and RAF. The emergence of multiple drug candidates targeting these downstream kinases provides us with the means for validating the importance of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling cascade in human tumors. This article highlights the lessons learned in the clinical evaluation of MAPK pathway inhibitors as anticancer agents and the complexities surrounding optimization of their therapeutic potential in light of the challenges posed by genetic heterogeneity within patient populations.

  11. Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect growth regulation of human mesothelioma cells: role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Trombino, Sonya; Cesario, Alfredo; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, PierLuigi; Motta, Giovanni; Falugi, Carla; Russo, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    This study presents data suggesting that both human mesothelioma (cell lines and human mesothelioma biopsies) and human normal mesothelial cells express receptors for acetylcholine and that stimulation of these receptors by nicotine prompted cell growth via activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Thus, these data demonstrate that: (a) human mesothelioma cells and human biopsies of mesothelioma as well as of normal pleural mesothelial cells express functionally alpha-7 nicotinic acethlycholine receptors, evaluated by alpha-bungarotoxin-FITC binding, receptor binding assay, Western blot, and reverse transcription-PCR; (b) choline acetyltransferase immunostaining is present in mesothelioma cells; (c) mesothelioma cell growth is modulated by the cholinergic system in which agonists (i.e., nicotine) has a proliferative effect, and antagonists (i.e., curare) has an inhibitory effect, evaluated by cell cloning, DNA synthesis and cell cycle; (d) nicotine induces Ca(+2) influx, evaluated by [(45)Ca(2+)] uptake, and consequently activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p90(RSK) phosphorylation), evaluated by Western blot; and (e) apoptosis mechanisms in mesothelioma cells are under the control of the cholinergic system (nicotine antiapoptotic via induction of nuclear factor-kappaB complexes and phosphorylation of Bad at Ser(112); curare proapoptotic via G(0)-G(1) arrest p21(waf-1) dependent but p53 independent). The involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in mesothelioma appears reasonable and open up new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 is involved in tamoxifen resistance in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Pan, Yixia; Zhou, Can; Sun, Ruifang; Bai, Jingjing; Liu, Peijun; Ren, Yu; He, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Tamoxifen resistance is a major clinical problem for ER-positive breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism is not completely elucidated. In the present study, we reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), a member of the family of MKPs, is involved in tamoxifen resistance. We found that MKP1 expression increased in tamoxifen resistant MCF7 cells. To explore the possible role of MKP1 in tamoxifen resistance, siRNA targeting MKP1 was transfected into tamoxifen resistant MCF7 cells. To our surprise, knockdown of MKP-1 promoted cell death induced by tamoxifen. On the other hand, the MKP1 overexpressed MCF7 cell clone was established and MKP1 overexpression effectively attenuated MCF7 cell death induced by tamoxifen. In addition, we revealed that MKP1 inhibited tamoxifen‑mediated JNK activation in tamoxifen resistant MCF7 and MCF7 cells, and by this mechanism MKP1 was able to inhibit tamoxifen-induced cell death. We also showed that combined appliaction of MKP1 inhibitor triptolide and tamoxifen can effectively increase tamoxifen sensitivity in tamoxifen resistant MCF7 cells. Collectively, our results indicated that MKP-1 can attenuate tamoxifen-induced cell death through inhibiting the JNK signal pathway, which represents a novel mechanism of tamoxifen resistance in MCF7 cells.

  13. Dual p38/JNK mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors prevent ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Verhein, Kirsten C; Salituro, Francesco G; Ledeboer, Mark W; Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B

    2013-01-01

    Ozone exposure causes airway hyperreactivity and increases hospitalizations resulting from pulmonary complications. Ozone reacts with the epithelial lining fluid and airway epithelium to produce reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products, which then activate cell signaling pathways, including the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Both p38 and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) are MAPK family members that are activated by cellular stress and inflammation. To test the contribution of both p38 and JNK MAPK to ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity, guinea pigs were pretreated with dual p38 and JNK MAPK inhibitors (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 minutes before exposure to 2 ppm ozone or filtered air for 4 hours. One day later airway reactivity was measured in anesthetized animals. Ozone caused airway hyperreactivity one day post-exposure, and blocking p38 and JNK MAPK completely prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity. Blocking p38 and JNK MAPK also suppressed parasympathetic nerve activity in air exposed animals, suggesting p38 and JNK MAPK contribute to acetylcholine release by airway parasympathetic nerves. Ozone inhibited neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors and blocking both p38 and JNK prevented M2 receptor dysfunction. Neutrophil influx into bronchoalveolar lavage was not affected by MAPK inhibitors. Thus p38 and JNK MAPK mediate ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity through multiple mechanisms including prevention of neuronal M2 receptor dysfunction.

  14. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 3 (MKP-3)–Deficient Mice Are Resistant to Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Jiao, Ping; Helou, Ynes; Li, Yujie; He, Qin; Walters, Matthew S.; Salomon, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 3 (MKP-3) is a negative regulator of extracellular signal–related kinase signaling. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that MKP-3 plays an important role in obesity-related hyperglycemia by promoting hepatic glucose output. This study shows that MKP-3 deficiency attenuates body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and protects mice from developing obesity-related hepatosteatosis. Triglyceride (TG) contents are dramatically decreased in the liver of MKP-3−/− mice fed an HFD compared with wild-type (WT) controls. The absence of MKP-3 also reduces adiposity, possibly by repressing adipocyte differentiation. In addition, MKP-3−/− mice display increased energy expenditure, enhanced peripheral glucose disposal, and improved systemic insulin sensitivity. We performed global phosphoproteomic studies to search for downstream mediators of MKP-3 action in liver lipid metabolism. Our results revealed that MKP-3 deficiency increases the phosphorylation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 on serine 393 by 3.3-fold and HDAC2 on serine 394 by 2.33-fold. Activities of HDAC1 and 2 are increased in the livers of MKP-3−/− mice fed an HFD. Reduction of HDAC1/2 activities is sufficient to restore TG content of MKP-3−/− primary hepatocytes to a level similar to that in WT cells. PMID:24722245

  15. Stress-responsive JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates aspirin-induced suppression of B16 melanoma cellular proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ordan, Orly; Rotem, Ronit; Jaspers, Ilona; Flescher, Eliezer

    2003-01-01

    Available anticancer drugs do not seem to modify the prognosis of metastatic melanoma. Salicylate and acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) were found to suppress growth in a number of transformed cells, that is, prostate and colon. Therefore, we studied the direct effects of aspirin on metastatic B16 melanoma cells. Aspirin at a plasma-attainable and nontoxic level suppressed the proliferation of B16 cells. Aspirin induced the activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases. Inhibition of JNK, but not p38, decreased the suppressive effect of aspirin upon the proliferation of B16 cells. The aspirin-induced reduction in B16 proliferation was cumulative over time. Aspirin and the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) induced B16 cell death synergistically. In addition to the murine B16 cell line, the proliferation of SK-28 human melanoma cells was also suppressed by aspirin. In conclusion, aspirin suppresses the proliferation of metastatic B16 cells in a JNK-dependent mechanism. PMID:12684272

  16. Apoptosis and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells induced by anthrax lethal factor inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Han-Mo; Vanbrocklin, Matt; McWilliams, Mary Jane; Leppla, Stephan H.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Vande Woude, George F.

    2002-03-01

    Lethal factor, the principal virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by proteolytically cleaving MAPK kinases. Edema factor, another component of anthrax toxin, is an adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP. Inhibition of MAPK signaling with either anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) or small molecule MAPK kinase inhibitors triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Normal melanocytes do not undergo apoptosis in response to MAPK inhibition but arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Importantly, in vivo treatment of human melanoma xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice with LeTx results in significant or complete tumor regression without apparent side effects, suggesting that inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for treating melanoma. Additionally, interrupting MAPK signaling with LeTx and elevating cAMP with anthrax edema toxin in both melanoma cells and melanocytes lead to dramatic melanin production, perhaps explaining the formation of blackened eschars in cutaneous anthrax.

  17. The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 is involved in insect defense against Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Alexander, Cynthia; Villaseñor, Roberto; Pacheco, Sabino; Porta, Helena; Pauchet, Yannick; Soberón, Mario; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Bravo, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The insecticidal Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that disrupt insect-midgut cells. In this work we analyzed the response of two different insect orders, the Lepidopteran Manduca sexta and Dipteran Aedes aegypti to highly specific Cry toxins, Cry1Ab and Cry11Aa, respectively. One pathway activated in different organisms in response to a variety of pore forming toxins is the mitogen activated protein kinase p38 pathway (MAPK p38) that activates a complex defense response. We analyzed the MAPK p38 activation by immunodetection of its phosphorylated isoform, and the induction of p38 by RT-PCR, real time-PCR quantitative assays and immunodection. We show that MAPK p38 is activated at postraductional level after Cry toxin intoxication in both insect orders. We detected the p38 induction at the transcriptional and traductional level, and observed a different response. In these three levels, we found that both insects respond to Cry toxin action but M sexta responses more strongly than A. aegypti. Gene silencing of MAPK p38 in vivo, resulted in both insect species becoming hypersensitive to Cry toxin action, suggesting that the MAPK p38 pathway is involved in insect defense against Bt Cry toxins. This finding may have biotechnological applications for enhancing the activity of some Bt Cry toxins against specific insect pests. PMID:20040372

  18. Mating and Pathogenic Development of the Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis Are Regulated by One Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Philip; Weinzierl, Gerhard; Brachmann, Andreas; Feldbrügge, Michael; Kahmann, Regine

    2003-01-01

    In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, pheromone-mediated cell fusion is a prerequisite for the generation of the infectious dikaryon. The pheromone signal elevates transcription of the pheromone genes and elicits formation of conjugation hyphae. Cyclic AMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling are involved in this process. The MAPK cascade is presumed to be composed of Ubc4 (MAPK kinase kinase), Fuz7 (MAPK kinase), and Ubc3/Kpp2 (MAPK). We isolated the kpp4 gene and found it to be allelic to ubc4. Epistasis analyses with constitutively active alleles of kpp4 and fuz7 substantiate that Kpp4, Fuz7, and Kpp2/Ubc3 are components of the same module. Moreover, we demonstrate that Fuz7 activates Kpp2 and shows interactions in vitro. Signaling via this cascade regulates expression of pheromone-responsive genes, presumably through acting on the transcription factor Prf1. Interestingly, the same cascade is needed for conjugation tube formation, and this process does not involve Prf1. In addition, fuz7 as well as kpp4 deletion strains are nonpathogenic, while kpp2 deletion mutants are only attenuated in pathogenesis. Here we show that strains expressing the unphosphorylatable allele kpp2T182A/Y184F are severely affected in tumor induction and display defects in early infection-related differentiation. PMID:14665454

  19. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shengjun; Xu, Huilian

    2016-01-01

    As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2) protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+) scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses. PMID:27054585

  20. Changes in PUB22 Ubiquitination Modes Triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 Dampen the Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Giulia; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Jiang, Xiyuan; Majovsky, Petra; Kowarschik, Kathrin; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Lee, Justin; Trujillo, Marco

    2017-03-09

    Crosstalk between post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and phosphorylation play key roles in controlling the duration and intensity of signalling events to ensure cellular homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of negative feedback loops remain poorly understood. Here we uncover a pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana by which a negative feedback loop involving the E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB22 that dampens the immune response is triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 (MPK3), best known for its function in the activation of signalling. PUB22's stability is controlled by MPK3-mediated phosphorylation of residues localized in and adjacent to the E2 docking domain. We show that phosphorylation is critical for stabilization by inhibiting PUB22 oligomerization and thus autoubiquitination. The activity switch allows PUB22 to dampen the immune response. This regulatory mechanism also suggests that autoubiquitination, which is inherent to most single unit E3s in vitro, can function as a self-regulatory mechanism in vivo.

  1. Aldosterone regulates cellular turnover and mitogen-activated protein kinase family expression in the neonatal rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Bae, In Sun; Jang, Gi Young; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that aldosterone is a potent mitogenic signal regulating genes involved in antiapoptosis, cell proliferation and growth. We investigated the role of endogenous aldosterone in renal development, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family expression. Newborn rats were treated with either spironolactone (200 mg/kg/d) in olive oil or only olive oil for 7 days. TUNEL assay and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stain were performed on kidney sections. Immunoblots, immunohistochemical (IHC) stain, and reverse transcriptase-PCR for MAPKs were performed. PCNA-positive proliferating cells decreased and apoptotic cells increased significantly with spironolactone (P < 0.05). In the spironolactone-treated group, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-2 expression increased, whereas extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)-2 and p38 expressions decreased in immunoblots (P < 0.05) and IHC stain. ERK-2 and p38 mRNA expressions increased in the spironolactone-treated group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that aldosterone blockade in the developing kidney decreases cellular proliferation, increases apoptosis, and modulates the expressions of JNK-2, ERK-2, and p38. Aldosterone possibly participates in renal development and MAPK family may serve as, in part, the signaling intermediate through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the developing kidney. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 724-733, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways mediate acute NGF sensitization of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiguo; Oxford, Gerry S

    2007-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces an acute sensitization of nociceptive DRG neurons, in part, through sensitization of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 via the high affinity trkA receptor. The mechanisms linking trkA and TRPV1 remain controversial with several candidate signaling pathways proposed. Utilizing adult rat and mouse DRG neurons and CHO cells co-expressing trkA and TRPV1, we have investigated the signaling events underlying acute TRPV1 sensitization by NGF combining biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, mutational and genetic knockout approaches. Pharmacological interference with p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), but not PLC abrogated sensitization of capsaicin responses. Co-expression of TRPV1 with wild-type or Y785F (PLC signal deficient) mutant human trkA reconstituted NGF sensitization. In contrast, TRPV1 co-expressed with MAPK signaling deficient Y490A or PI3K signaling deficient Y751F trkA mutants exhibited weaker sensitization. Biochemical analysis of p42/p44 and Akt phosphorylation confirmed the specificity of pharmacological agents and trkA mutants. Finally, NGF sensitization of capsaicin responses was greatly reduced in neurons from p85alpha (regulatory subunit of PI3K) null mice. These data strongly suggest that PI3K and MAPK pathways, but not the PLC pathway underlie the acute sensitization of TRPV1 by NGF.

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is a functional component of the autonomous circadian system in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Hayasaka, Naoto; Yamazaki, Shin; Node, Koichi

    2008-04-30

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian pacemaker driving behavioral and physiological rhythms in mammals. Circadian activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK; also known as ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)] is observed in vivo in the SCN under constant darkness, although the biological significance of this remains unclear. To elucidate this question, we first examined whether MAPK was autonomously activated in ex vivo SCN slices. Moreover, we investigated the effect of MAPK inhibition on circadian clock gene expression and neuronal firing rhythms using SCN-slice culture systems. We show herein that MAPK is autonomously activated in the SCN, and our data demonstrate that inhibition of the MAPK activity results in dampened rhythms and reduced basal levels in circadian clock gene expression at the SCN single-neuron level. Furthermore, MAPK inhibition attenuates autonomous circadian neuronal firing rhythms in the SCN. Thus, our data suggest that light-independent MAPK activity contributes to the robustness of the SCN autonomous circadian system.

  4. On the participation of hippocampal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in extinction and reacquisition of inhibitory avoidance memory.

    PubMed

    Rossato, J I; Bevilaqua, L R M; Lima, R H; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I; Cammarota, M

    2006-11-17

    Inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning relies on the formation of an association between stepping down from a platform present in a certain context (conditioned stimulus; CS) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; i.e. a footshock). A single CS-US pairing establishes a robust long-term memory expressed as an increase in step-down latency at testing. However, repeated retrieval of the avoidance response in the absence of the US induces extinction of IA memory. That is, recurring presentation of the CS alone results in a new learning indicating that the CS no longer predicts the US. Although the signaling pathways involved in the consolidation of IA and other fear-motivated memories have been profusely studied, little is known about the molecular requirements of fear memory extinction. Here we report that, as happens with its consolidation, extinction of IA long-term memory requires activity of the p38 subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, we found that inhibition of hippocampal p38MAPK blocked memory reacquisition after extinction without affecting either the increase in IA memory retention induced by a second training session or animal's locomotor/exploratory activity and anxiety state.

  5. Chitosan Controls Postharvest Decay on Cherry Tomato Fruit Possibly via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Hu, Yi; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-08-26

    The inhibitive effects of chitosan on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on cherry tomato fruit were evaluated. Decay incidence was tested on tomato stored at 22 °C. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, peroxidase (POD) activity, and several related gene expressions (including MPK3, MPK6, PR1a1, and PR5) were determined. Results showed that 0.2% of chitosan solution significantly inhibited the tomato gray mold 3 days after inoculation. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the fruit epidermal peel along with chitosan treatment, while MDA production was not increased. POD activity was remarkably enhanced by the application of chitosan. The relative expressions of MPK3, MPK6, and PR1a1 were significantly induced in 10 min after chitosan treatment, while PR5 was induced in 20 min. These findings suggested that the effects of chitosan on inhibiting gray mold in cherry tomato fruit were probably associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.

  6. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahidul; Gray, Jennifer S.; Pestka, James J. . E-mail: pestka@msu.edu

    2006-06-15

    The effects of the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated IL-8 expression were investigated in cloned human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DON (250 to 1000 ng/ml) induced both IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of IL-8 transcription, in the human U937 monocytic cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of IL-8 hnRNA, mRNA and protein correlated with p38 phosphorylation and was completely abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. DON at 500 ng/ml similarly induced p38-dependent IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in PBMC cultures from healthy volunteers. Significantly increased IL-6 and IL-1{beta} intracellular protein and mRNA expression was also observed in PBMC treated with DON (500 ng/ml) which were also partially p38-dependent. Flow cytometry of PBMC revealed that DON-induced p38 phosphorylation varied among individuals relative to both threshold toxin concentrations (25-100 ng/ml) and relative increases in percentages of phospho-p38{sup +} cells. DON-induced p38 activation occurred exclusively in the CD14{sup +} monocyte population. DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. However, two other ribotoxins, emetine and anisomycin, induced p38 phosphorylation in PBMC similarly to DON. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) p38 activation was required for induction of IL-8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and (2) DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response.

  7. Deletion of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 1 Modifies the Response to Mechanical Bone Marrow Ablation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jodi; Zhang, Qing; Bennett, Anton; Vignery, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of bone mass results from a delicate balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Understanding these processes is essential for the development of effective treatments for skeletal diseases. Mechanical bone marrow ablation provides a unique animal model to study bone repair and the roles of specific genes in this process. Ablation of marrow induces the formation of intramembranous bone in the medullary cavity, which is subsequently resorbed by osteoclasts. We used this model to ask whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP1) affects the bone formed in response to marrow ablation. MKP1 is a negative regulator of MAPK signaling, which is essential for a wide variety of cellular mechanisms, including those critical for osteoblast and osteoclast function. At 10 d after mechanical bone marrow ablation, the femurs of male mkp1+/+ and mkp1−/− mice were compared with those of unoperated baseline mice by using radiography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and microcomputed tomography. Both genotypes developed increased bone mass after marrow ablation, but the increase was more pronounced in mkp1−/− mice compared with mkp1+/+ mice. These results indicate that MKP1 affects the bone formed in response to marrow ablation and suggest encouraging possibilities for the use of inhibitors of MKP1 to modulate bone repair. PMID:19619411

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates DBP-maf-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Reddy, C Damodar; Swamy, Narasimha

    2003-09-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage-activating factor (DBP-maf) is derived from serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP) by selective deglycosylation during inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DBP-maf on RAW 264.7 macrophages and the underlying intracellular signal transduction pathways. DBP-maf increased proapoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. However, DBP, the precursor to DBP-maf did not induce apoptosis in these cells. Cell cycle analysis of DBP-maf-treated RAW 264.7 cells revealed growth arrest with accumulation of cells in sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. We also investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the DBP-maf-induced apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells. DBP-maf increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK1/2, while it decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, attenuated DBP-maf-induced apoptosis. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, did not show a significant inhibition of apoptosis induced by DBP-maf. Taken together, these results suggest that the p38 MAPK pathway plays a crucial role in DBP-maf-mediated apoptosis of macrophages. Our studies indicate that, during inflammation DBP-maf may function positively by causing death of the macrophages when activated macrophages are no longer needed at the site of inflammation. In summary, we report for the first time that DBP-maf induces apoptosis in macrophages via p38 and JNK1/2 pathway.

  9. Role of mitogen activated protein kinases in skin tumorigenicity of Patulin

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Neha; Ansari, Kausar M.; Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhari, Bhushan P.; Dwivedi, Premendra D.; Das, Mukul

    2011-12-15

    WHO has highlighted the need to evaluate dermal toxicity of mycotoxins including Patulin (PAT), detected in several fruits. In this study the skin carcinogenic potential of topically applied PAT was investigated. Single topical application of PAT (400 nmol) showed enhanced cell proliferation ({approx} 2 fold), along with increased generation of ROS and activation of ERK, p38 and JNK MAPKs, in mouse skin. PAT exposure also showed activation of downstream target proteins, c-fos, c-Jun and NF-{kappa}B transcription factors. Further, single topical application of PAT (400 nmol) followed by twice weekly application of TPA resulted in tumor formation after 14 weeks, indicating the tumor initiating activity of PAT. However no tumors were observed when PAT was used either as a complete carcinogen (80 nmol) or as a tumor promoter (20 nmol and 40 nmol) for 25 weeks. Histopathological findings of tumors found in PAT/TPA treated mice showed that these tumors were of squamous cell carcinoma type and similar to those found in the positive control group (DMBA/TPA) along with significant increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease in free sulfydryls, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities. The results suggest the possible role of free radicals in PAT mediated dermal tumorigenicity involving MAPKs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single topical application of Patulin showed enhanced cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patulin activate MAPKs, c-fos, c-Jun and NF-{kappa}B transcription factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patulin showed skin tumor initiating potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We could not detect skin tumor promoting potential of Patulin at the tested dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However prolonged exposure of Patulin at a higher dose may promote tumor.

  10. Surfactant protein D induces immune quiescence and apoptosis of mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Hrishikesh; Thakur, Gargi; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Patil, Anushree; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an integral molecule of the innate immunity secreted by epithelial cells lining the mucosal surfaces. The C-type lectin domain of SP-D performs pattern recognition functions while it binds to putative receptors on immune cells to modify cellular functions. Activation of immune cells and increased serum SP-D is observed in a range of patho-physiological conditions including infections. We speculated if SP-D can modulate systemic immune response via direct interaction with activated PBMCs. In this study, we examined interaction of a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) on PHA-activated PBMCs. We report a significant downregulation of activation receptors such as TLR2, TLR4, CD11c and CD69 upon rhSP-D treatment. rhSP-D inhibited production of Th1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17A) cytokines along with IL-6. Interestingly, levels of IL-2, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines remained unaltered. Analysis of co-stimulatory CD28 and co-inhibitory CTLA4 receptors along with their ligands CD80 and CD86 revealed a selective up-regulation of CTLA4 in the lymphocyte subset. rhSP-D induced apoptosis in the activated but not in non-activated lymphocytes. Blockade of CTLA4 inhibited rhSP-D mediated apoptosis of activated lymphocytes, confirming involvement of CTLA4. We conclude that SP-D restores immune homeostasis. It regulates expression of immunomodulatory receptors and cytokines, which is followed by induction of apoptosis in activated lymphocytes. These findings suggest a critical role of SP-D in immune surveillance against activated immune cells.

  11. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H. . E-mail: bingliu@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-09-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 {mu}M PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 {mu}M of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 {mu}M PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 {mu}M PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression.

  12. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1 Mediates Adaptation to G1 Checkpoint Arrest during Arsenite and Hyperosmotic Stress▿

    PubMed Central

    Migdal, Iwona; Ilina, Yulia; Tamás, Markus J.; Wysocki, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Cells slow down cell cycle progression in order to adapt to unfavorable stress conditions. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) responds to osmotic stress by triggering G1 and G2 checkpoint delays that are dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1. The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is also activated by arsenite, and the hog1Δ mutant is highly sensitive to arsenite, partly due to increased arsenite influx into hog1Δ cells. Yeast cell cycle regulation in response to arsenite and the role of Hog1 in this process have not yet been analyzed. Here, we found that long-term exposure to arsenite led to transient G1 and G2 delays in wild-type cells, whereas cells that lack the HOG1 gene or are defective in Hog1 kinase activity displayed persistent G1 cell cycle arrest. Elevated levels of intracellular arsenite and “cross talk” between the HOG and pheromone response pathways, observed in arsenite-treated hog1Δ cells, prolonged the G1 delay but did not cause a persistent G1 arrest. In contrast, deletion of the SIC1 gene encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor fully suppressed the observed block of G1 exit in hog1Δ cells. Moreover, the Sic1 protein was stabilized in arsenite-treated hog1Δ cells. Interestingly, Sic1-dependent persistent G1 arrest was also observed in hog1Δ cells during hyperosmotic stress. Taken together, our data point to an important role of the Hog1 kinase in adaptation to stress-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. PMID:18552285

  13. p38γ Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Suppresses Chondrocyte Production of MMP-13 in Response to Catabolic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Long, D.L.; Loeser, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective The signaling protein p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for inflammatory signaling in chondrocytes that regulates MMP production. We sought to determine the role of specific p38 isoforms in chondrocyte catabolic signaling in response to IL-1β and fibronectin fragments. Methods Human articular chondrocytes isolated from normal ankle cartilage from tissue donors or from osteoarthritic knee cartilage obtained during knee replacement were stimulated with IL-1β or fibronectin fragment (Fn-f), with or without pretreatment with p38 inhibitors (SB203580 or BIRB796) or growth factors (IGF-1 and OP-1). p38 isoform phosphorylation was measured by antibody array and immunoblotting. MMP-13 expression was measured by real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting. Chondrocytes were transfected with plasmids expressing constitutively active (CA) p38γ or with adenovirus expressing dominant negative (DN) p38γ. Results Stimulation of chondrocytes with either IL-1β or Fn-f led to enhanced phosphorylation of p38α and p38γ, with little phosphorylation of p38β or p38δ isoforms. p38α localized to the nucleus and p38γ to the cytosol. Inhibition of both p38α and p38γ with BIRB796 resulted in less inhibition of MMP-13 production in response to IL-1β or FN-f than did inhibition of only p38α with SB203580. Transfection with CAp38γ resulted in decreased MMP-13 production while transduction with DNp38γ resulted in increased MMP-13 production. IGF-1 and OP-1 pretreatment inhibited p38α phosphorylation but not p38γ phosphorylation. Conclusions p38γ is activated by catabolic stimulation of human articular chondrocytes, but interestingly suppresses MMP-13 production. Treatments that increase p38γ activation may be of therapeutic benefit in reducing chondrocyte production of MMP-13. PMID:20633667

  14. S-Adenosylmethionine Regulates Dual-Specificity Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase Expression in Mouse and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ramani, Komal; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Li, Tony W. H.; Ko, Kwangsuk; Yang, Heping; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Iglesias-Ara, Ainhoa; Feo, Francesco; Pascale, Maria Rosa; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2010-01-01

    Increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity correlates with a more malignant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) phenotype. There is a reciprocal regulation between p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]1/2) and the dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase MKP-1/DUSP1. ERK phosphorylates DUSP1, facilitating its proteasomal degradation, whereas DUSP1 inhibits ERK activity. Methionine adenosyltransferase 1a (Mat1a) knockout (KO) mice express hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) deficiency and increased ERK activity and develop HCC. The aim of this study was to examine whether DUSP1 expression is regulated by SAM and if so, elucidate the molecular mechanisms. Studies were conducted using Mat1a KO mice livers, cultured mouse and human hepatocytes, and 20S and 26S proteasomes. DUSP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were reduced markedly in livers of Mat1a KO mice and in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes with protein falling to lower levels than mRNA. SAM treatment protected against the fall in DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels in mouse and human hepatocytes. SAM increased DUSP1 transcription, p53 binding to DUSP1 promoter, and stability of its mRNA and protein. Proteasomal chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities were increased in Mat1a KO livers and cultured hepatocytes, which was blocked by SAM treatment. SAM inhibited chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities by 40% and 70%, respectively, in 20S proteasomes and caused rapid degradation of some of the 26S proteasomal subunits, which was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. SAM treatment in Mat1a KO mice for 7 days raised SAM, DUSP1, mRNA and protein levels and lowered proteosomal and ERK activities. Conclusion DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels are lower in Mat1a KO livers and fall rapidly in cultured hepatocytes. SAM treatment increases DUSP1 expression through multiple mechanisms, and this may suppress ERK activity and malignant degeneration. PMID:20196119

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and Hedgehog-GLI signaling in cancer: A crosstalk providing therapeutic opportunities?

    PubMed

    Rovida, Elisabetta; Stecca, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The Hedgehog-GLI (HH-GLI) signaling is of critical importance during embryonic development, where it regulates a number of cellular processes, including patterning, proliferation and differentiation. Its aberrant activation has been linked to several types of cancer. HH-GLI signaling is triggered by binding of ligands to the transmembrane receptor patched and is subsequently mediated by transcriptional effectors belonging to the GLI family, whose function is fine tuned by a series of molecular interactions and modifications. Several HH-GLI inhibitors have been developed and are in clinical trials. Similarly, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in a number of biological processes and play an important role in many diseases including cancer. Inhibiting molecules targeting MAPK signaling, especially those elicited by the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway, have been developed and are moving into clinical trials. ERK1/2 may be activated as a consequence of aberrant activation of upstream signaling molecules or during development of drug resistance following treatment with kinase inhibitors such as those for PI3K or BRAF. Evidence of a crosstalk between HH-GLI and other oncogenic signaling pathways has been reported in many tumor types, as shown by recent reviews. Here we will focus on the interaction between HH-GLI and the final MAPK effectors ERK1/2, p38 and JNK in cancer in view of its possible implications for cancer therapy. Several reports highlight the existence of a consistent crosstalk between HH signaling and MAPK, especially with the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway, and this fact should be taken into consideration for designing optimal treatment and prevent tumor relapse.

  16. Upregulation of early growth response factor-1 by bile acids requires mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Katryn; Kim, Nam Deuk; Moon, Jeon-OK; Copple, Bryan L.

    2010-02-15

    Cholestasis results when excretion of bile acids from the liver is interrupted. Liver injury occurs during cholestasis, and recent studies showed that inflammation is required for injury. Our previous studies demonstrated that early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) is required for development of inflammation in liver during cholestasis, and that bile acids upregulate Egr-1 in hepatocytes. What remains unclear is the mechanism by which bile acids upregulate Egr-1. Bile acids modulate gene expression in hepatocytes by activating the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Accordingly, the hypothesis was tested that bile acids upregulate Egr-1 in hepatocytes by FXR and/or MAPK-dependent mechanisms. Deoxycholic acid (DCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) stimulated upregulation of Egr-1 to the same extent in hepatocytes isolated from wild-type mice and FXR knockout mice. Similarly, upregulation of Egr-1 in the livers of bile duct-ligated (BDL) wild-type and FXR knockout mice was not different. Upregulation of Egr-1 in hepatocytes by DCA and CDCA was prevented by the MEK inhibitors U0126 and SL-327. Furthermore, pretreatment of mice with U0126 prevented upregulation of Egr-1 in the liver after BDL. Results from these studies demonstrate that activation of MAPK signaling is required for upregulation of Egr-1 by bile acids in hepatocytes and for upregulation of Egr-1 in the liver during cholestasis. These studies suggest that inhibition of MAPK signaling may be a novel therapy to prevent upregulation of Egr-1 in liver during cholestasis.

  17. Areca (betel) nut extract activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-kappaB in oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Lu, Suu-Yi; Lee, Szu-Ying; Lin, Chi-Yen; Chen, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Kuo-Wei

    2005-09-10

    Areca (betel) was recently proved a carcinogenic substance by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the signaling impact of areca in oral keratinocyte is still obscure. Mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamilies, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38, together with transcription factor NF-kappaB, are important signaling elements. We examined the activation of these signaling pathways in OECM-1 and SAS oral keratinocytes, treated with ripe areca nut extract (ANE). In both cells, a rapid increase in JNK1 activity at 0.5 hr was noted following treatment of ANE. ERK was profoundly activated during 0.5-2 hr in OECM-1 cells. Contrasting p38 activity was noted in these 2 cells. In both cells, ANE also activated NF-kappaB pathway in a biphasic manner, particularly for SAS cells. NF-kappaB was activated by approximately 2- to 4-fold at 0.5-1 hr and a plateau or slight decrease of activity existed between 1 and 6 hr. Later, another higher episode of NF-kappaB activity was raised. This was accompanied with the rapid degradation in cytosolic IkappaBalpha as well as an increase of nuclear NF-kappaB in both cells. ANE treatment did not activate epidermal growth factor receptor signaling system, but blockage of NF-kappaB activation rendered the suppression of ANE-modulated COX-2 upregulation in OECM-1. This study identified that ANE affected interactive signaling systems in oral keratonocytes that could be the pathogenetic basis for areca.

  18. Angiotensin III stimulates ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases and astrocyte growth in cultured rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michelle A; Tran, Hsieu; Nguyen, Chinh

    2011-10-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) III is a biologically active metabolite of Ang II with similar effects and receptor binding properties as Ang II. Most Ang III studies delineate physiological effects of the peptide but, the intracellular pathways leading to the actions are unknown and are a focus of these studies. We investigated in cultured brainstem and cerebellum rat astrocytes whether Ang III stimulates ERK1/2 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases and astrocyte growth. Ang III significantly stimulated ERK1/2 MAP kinases in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The maximal stimulation occurred with 100 nM Ang III (2.8±0.3 and 2.3±0.1-fold over basal, in brainstem and cerebellum astrocytes, respectively). This stimulation occurred as early as 1 min, and was sustained for at least 15 min. Moreover, inhibition of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway by 10 μM PD98059 attenuated Ang III-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Ang III induction of ERK1/2 occurred via stimulation of the Ang AT(1) receptor since pretreatment with 10 μM Losartan, a selective AT(1) receptor blocker, prevented Ang III-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The selective AT(2) Ang receptor blocker PD123319 was ineffective. Comparable to Ang II, Ang III also stimulated astrocyte growth in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that occurred via activation of the AT(1) receptor as well. These findings suggest that Ang III has similar effects as Ang II in astrocytes since it rapidly stimulates the phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases and induces astrocyte proliferation through activation of the AT(1) receptor. These studies are important in establishing signaling pathways for Ang III and provide validation of the central role of Ang III.

  19. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Chien-Liang; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Hu, Meng-Chun; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  20. Effects of pentylenetetrazole kindling on mitogen-activated protein kinases levels in neocortex and hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Ben, Juliana; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The epileptogenesis process involves cell signaling events associated with neuroplasticity. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) integrate signals originating from a variety of extracellular stimuli and may regulate cell differentiation, survival, cell death and synaptic plasticity. Here we compared the total and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38(MAPK)) levels in the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Swiss male mice quantified by western blotting analysis 48 h after the last injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), according to the kindling protocol (35 mg/kg, i.p., on alternated days, with a total of eight injections). The total levels of the investigated MAPKs and the phospho-p38(MAPK) in the neocortex and hippocampus were not affected by the PTZ injections. The MAPKs phosphorylation levels remain unaltered in PTZ-treated animals without convulsive seizures. The phospho-JNK2 phosphorylation, but not the phospho-JNK1, was increased in the hippocampus of PTZ-treated animals showing 1-3 days with convulsive seizures, whereas no significant changes were observed in those animals with more than 3 days with convulsive seizures. The phospho-ERK1/2 phosphorylation decreased in the neocortex and increased in the hippocampus of animals with 1-4 days with convulsive seizures and became unaltered in mice that showed convulsive seizures for more than 4 days. These findings indicate that resistance to PTZ kindling is associated with unaltered ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation levels in the neocortex and hippocampus. Moreover, when the PTZ kindling-induced epileptogenesis manifests behaviorally, the activation of the different MAPKs sub-families shows a variable and non-linear pattern in the neocortex and hippocampus.

  1. Nicotine stimulates adhesion molecular expression via calcium influx and mitogen-activated protein kinases in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Liming; Zhao, Yangxing; Yao, Chenjiang; Wang, Lianyun; Qiao, Zhongdong

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of nicotine on endothelium dysfunction and development of vascular diseases, we investigated the influence on adhesion molecular expression mediated by nicotine and the mechanism of this effect in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The result showed that nicotine could induce surface/soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and endothelial selectin (E-selectin) expression in a time-response decline manner and the peak appeared at 15 min. This action could be mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/ERK1/2) and MAPK/p38 because their activation could be distinctly blocked by MAPK inhibitors, PD098059 or SB203580. Mecamylamine (non-selective nicotinic receptor inhibitor), alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha7 nicotinic receptor inhibitor) could block Ca2+ accumulation, and then, prevented the phosphorylation on ERK1/2 and p38. They also inhibited the surface/soluble VCAM-1, E-selectin production of HUVECs modulated by nicotine. Therefore, we concluded that: (i) nicotine obviously up-regulates VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression at 15 min in HUVECs, (ii) nicotine activates HUVECs triggered by the ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation with an involvement of intracellular calcium mobilization chiefly mediated by alpha7 nicotinic receptor, (iii) intracellular Ca2+ activates a sequential pathway from alpha7 nicotinic receptor to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38. These elucidate that nicotine activates HUVECs through fast signal transduction pathway and arguments their capacity of adhesion molecular production. Further more nicotine may contribute its influence to the progression of vascular disease such as atherosclerotic lesion.

  2. OsMAPK6, a mitogen-activated protein kinase, influences rice grain size and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuying; Hua, Lei; Dong, Sujun; Chen, Hongqi; Zhu, Xudong; Jiang, Jun'e; Zhang, Fang; Li, Yunhai; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan

    2015-11-01

    Grain size is an important agronomic trait in determining grain yield. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the final grain size are not well understood. Here, we report the functional analysis of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant, dwarf and small grain1 (dsg1), which displays pleiotropic phenotypes, including small grains, dwarfism and erect leaves. Cytological observations revealed that the small grain and dwarfism of dsg1 were mainly caused by the inhibition of cell proliferation. Map-based cloning revealed that DSG1 encoded a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), OsMAPK6. OsMAPK6 was mainly located in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and was ubiquitously distributed in various organs, predominately in spikelets and spikelet hulls, consistent with its role in grain size and biomass production. As a functional kinase, OsMAPK6 interacts strongly with OsMKK4, indicating that OsMKK4 is likely to be the upstream MAPK kinase of OsMAPK6 in rice. In addition, hormone sensitivity tests indicated that the dsg1 mutant was less sensitive to brassinosteroids (BRs). The endogenous BR levels were reduced in dsg1, and the expression of several BR signaling pathway genes and feedback-inhibited genes was altered in the dsg1 mutant, with or without exogenous BRs, indicating that OsMAPK6 may contribute to influence BR homeostasis and signaling. Thus, OsMAPK6, a MAPK, plays a pivotal role in grain size in rice, via cell proliferation, and BR signaling and homeostasis.

  3. Brominated Flame Retardants, Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane, Activate Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Anita; Celada, Lindsay; Kibakaya, Esther Caroline; Simmons, Nadia; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    NK cells provide a vital surveillance against virally infected cells, tumor cells, and antibody-coated cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used primarily in expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for thermal insulation in the building and construction industry. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is used both as a reactive and an additive flame retardant in a variety of materials. HBCD and TBBPA contaminate the environment and are found in human blood samples. In previous studies, we have shown that other environmental contaminants, such as the dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), decrease NK lytic function by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the NK cells. HBCD and TBBPA also interfere with NK cell(s) lytic function. The current study evaluates whether HBCD and/or TBBPA have the capacity to activate MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). The effects of concentrations of HBCD and TBBPA that inhibited lytic function on the phosphorylation state and total levels of the MAPKs (p44/42, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation and total levels of the MAP2Ks (MEK1/2 and MKK3/6) were examined. Results indicate that exposure of human NK cells to 10-0.5 µM HBCD or TBBPA activate MAPKs and MAP2Ks. This HBCD and TBBPA-induced activation of MAPKs may leave them unavailable for activation by virally infected or tumor target cells and thus contributes to the observed decreases in lytic function seen in NK cells exposed to HBCD and TBBPA. PMID:25341744

  4. MicroRNAs function primarily in the pathogenesis of human anencephaly via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W D; Yu, X; Fu, X; Huang, S; Jin, S J; Ning, Q; Luo, X P

    2014-02-20

    Anencephaly is one of the most serious forms of neural tube defects (NTDs), a group of congenital central nervous system (CNS) malformations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes via the post-transcriptional regulation of target mRNAs. Although miRNAs play important roles in the development of mammalian CNS, their function in human NTDs remains unknown. Using a miRNA microarray, we identified a unique expression profile in fetal anencephalic brain tissues, characterized by 70 upregulated miRNAs (ratio ≥ 2) and 7 downregulated miRNAs (ratio ≤ 0.5) compared with healthy human samples. Ten miRNAs with altered expression were selected from the microarray findings for validation with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We found that in anencephalic tissues, miR-22, miR-23a, miR-34a, miR-103, miR-125a, miR-132, miR-134, miR-138, and miR-185 were significantly upregulated, while miR-149 was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, 459 potential target genes within the validated miRNAs were revealed using combined four target prediction algorithms in the human genome, and subsequently analyzed with the Molecule Annotation System 3.0. A total of 119 target genes were ultimately identified, including those involved in 22 singular annotations (i.e., transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle) and 55 functional pathways [i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and actin cytoskeleton regulation]. Six target genes (HNRPU, JAG1, FMR1, EGR3, RUNX1T1, and NDEL1) were chosen as candidate genes and associated with congenital birth abnormalities of the brain structure. Our results, therefore, suggest that miRNA maladjustment mainly contributes to the etiopathogenesis of anencephaly via the MAPK signaling pathway.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in microglia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Fang; Wong, Peter T-H; Moore, Philip K; Bian, Jin-Song

    2007-02-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effect of H(2)S on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in both primary cultured microglia and immortalized murine BV-2 microglial cells. We found that exogenous application of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (a H(2)S donor, 10-300 micro mol/L) attenuated LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulating endogenous H(2)S production decreased LPS-stimulated NO production, whereas lowering endogenous H(2)S level increased basal NO production. Western blot analysis showed that both exogenous and endogenous H(2)S significantly attenuated the stimulatory effect of LPS on inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, which is mimicked by SB 203580, a specific p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. Exogenously applied NaHS significantly attenuated LPS-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in BV-2 microglial cells. Moreover, both NaHS (300 micro mol/L) and SB 203580 (1 micro mol/L) significantly attenuated LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion, another inflammatory indicator. In addition, NaHS (10-300 micro mol/L) dose-dependently decreased LPS-stimulated NO production in primary cultured astrocytes, suggesting that the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of H(2)S is not specific to microglial cells alone. Taken together, H(2)S produced an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated microglia and astrocytes, which may be due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. These findings may have important implications in the treatment of neuroinflammation-related diseases.

  6. Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Sty1 in Regulation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinases in Response to Environmental Stress in Schizosaccharomyces pombe▿

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga, Juan José; Rivero, Damariz; Martín, Ruth; Herrero, Saturnino; Moreno, Sergio; de Haro, César

    2010-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Sty1 is essential for the regulation of transcriptional responses that promote cell survival in response to different types of environmental stimuli in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In fission yeast, three distinct eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinases, two mammalian HRI-related protein kinases (Hri1 and Hri2) and the Gcn2 ortholog, regulate protein synthesis in response to cellular stress conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that both Hri1 and Hri2 exhibited an autokinase activity, specifically phosphorylated eIF2α, and functionally replaced the endogenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn2. We further show that Gcn2, but not Hri1 or Hri2, is activated early after exposure to hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Cells lacking Gcn2 exhibit a later activation of Hri2. The activated MAPK Sty1 negatively regulates Gcn2 and Hri2 activities under oxidative stress but not in response to MMS. In contrast, Hri2 is the primary activated eIF2α kinase in response to heat shock. In this case, the activation of Sty1 appears to be transitory and does not contribute to the modulation of the eIF2α kinase stress pathway. In strains lacking Hri2, a type 2A protein phosphatase is activated soon after heat shock to reduce eIF2α phosphorylation. Finally, the MAPK Sty1, but not the eIF2α kinases, is essential for survival upon oxidative stress or heat shock, but not upon MMS treatment. These findings point to a regulatory coordination between the Sty1 MAPK and eIF2α kinase pathways for a particular range of stress responses. PMID:19880757

  7. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell migration by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Dong, Fengyun; Hou, Yinglong; Cai, Weidong; Zhou, Xia; Huang, Ai-Ling; Yang, Min; Allen, Thaddeus D; Liu, Ju

    2014-12-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, has been demonstrated to possess a strong antiangiogenic activity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Endothelial cell (EC) migration is an essential component of angiogenesis, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulation of migration induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DHA on EC migration and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were treated with DHA and VEGF-induced migration was analyzed. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by western blot analysis, and the migration assays were performed with a p38-specific inhibitor, SB203850. It was revealed that 20 μM DHA significantly reduced EC migration in the transwell migration assay, wound healing assay and electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing real-time analysis. However, DHA did not affect p38 MAPK phosphorylation or expression. In the absence or presence of SB203850, DHA induced a similar proportional reduction of EC migration in the three migration assays. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that DHA inhibits VEGF-induced EC migration via a p38 MAPK-independent pathway.

  8. Rho2 Palmitoylation Is Required for Plasma Membrane Localization and Proper Signaling to the Fission Yeast Cell Integrity Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Mir, Laura; Franco, Alejandro; Martín-García, Rebeca; Madrid, Marisa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Soto, Teresa; Gacto, Mariano; Pérez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The fission yeast small GTPase Rho2 regulates morphogenesis and is an upstream activator of the cell integrity pathway, whose key element, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Pmk1, becomes activated by multiple environmental stimuli and controls several cellular functions. Here we demonstrate that farnesylated Rho2 becomes palmitoylated in vivo at cysteine-196 within its carboxyl end and that this modification allows its specific targeting to the plasma membrane. Unlike that of other palmitoylated and prenylated GTPases, the Rho2 control of morphogenesis and Pmk1 activity is strictly dependent upon plasma membrane localization and is not found in other cellular membranes. Indeed, artificial plasma membrane targeting bypassed the Rho2 need for palmitoylation in order to signal. Detailed functional analysis of Rho2 chimeras fused to the carboxyl end from the essential GTPase Rho1 showed that GTPase palmitoylation is partially dependent on the prenylation context and confirmed that Rho2 signaling is independent of Rho GTP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) function. We further demonstrate that Rho2 is an in vivo substrate for DHHC family acyltransferase Erf2 palmitoyltransferase. Remarkably, Rho3, another Erf2 target, negatively regulates Pmk1 activity in a Rho2-independent fashion, thus revealing the existence of cross talk whereby both GTPases antagonistically modulate the activity of this MAPK cascade. PMID:24820419

  9. p42/p44 Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway: a novel target for the treatment of hormone-resistant prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Koul, Hari K; Maroni, Paul D; Meacham, Randall B; Crawford, David; Koul, Sweaty

    2004-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men. Conventional therapies produce a high rate of cure for patients with localized prostate cancer, but there is no cure once the disease has spread beyond the prostate. Androgen withdrawal remains the only treatment for these men with clinically advanced disease; however, most of these men, who initially respond to hormone ablation therapy, fail and the disease progresses. There is at present no effective treatment for hormone-independent prostate cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest a role of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAP kinase) signal transduction pathways in prostate cancer. At the molecular level, a variety of genetic alterations lead to an epigenetic mechanism by which a feedback autocrine loop between membrane receptors and associated ligands serves as an essential component of the growth, proliferation, and metastasis of prostate cancer at an advanced and androgen-independent stage. Peptide growth factors are known to exert their effects by a complex array of mechanisms primarily mediated by the p42/p44 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Thus, we hypothesized that MAP kinase signal transduction pathways could serve as new and novel targets in prostate cancer therapy. In this article we provide an overview of the role played by MAP kinase signal transduction in the prostate.

  10. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  11. Opioid-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in rat enteric neurons following chronic morphine treatment.

    PubMed

    Duraffourd, Celine; Kumala, Erica; Anselmi, Laura; Brecha, Nicholas C; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Opioids, acting at μ opioid receptors, are commonly used for pain management. Chronic opioid treatment induces cellular adaptations, which trigger long-term side effects, including constipation mediated by enteric neurons. We tested the hypothesis that chronic opioid treatment induces alterations of μ opioid receptor signaling in enteric neurons, which are likely to serve as mechanisms underlying opioid-induced constipation. In cultured rat enteric neurons, either untreated (naïve) or exposed to morphine for 4 days (chronic), we compared the effect of morphine and DAMGO (D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5 enkephalin) on μ opioid receptor internalization and downstream signaling by examining the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (MAPK/ERK) pathway, cAMP accumulation and transcription factor cAMP Response Element-Binding protein (CREB) expression. μ opioid receptor internalization and MAPK/ERK phosphorylation were induced by DAMGO, but not morphine in naïve neurons, and by both opioids in chronic neurons. MAPK/ERK activation was prevented by the receptor antagonist naloxone, by blocking receptor trafficking with hypertonic sucrose, dynamin inhibitor, or neuronal transfection with mutated dynamin, and by MAPK inhibitor. Morphine and DAMGO inhibited cAMP in naïve and chronic enteric neurons, and induced desensitization of cAMP signaling. Chronic morphine treatment suppressed desensitization of cAMP and MAPK signaling, increased CREB phosphorylation through a MAPK/ERK pathway and induced delays of gastrointestinal transit, which was prevented by MAPK/ERK blockade. This study showed that opioids induce endocytosis- and dynamin-dependent MAPK/ERK activation in enteric neurons and that chronic morphine treatment triggers changes at the receptor level and downstream signaling resulting in MAPK/ERK-dependent CREB activation. Blockade of this signaling pathway prevents the development of gastrointestinal motility

  12. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase determines the susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for agents that suppress inflammation and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) has been associated with this disorder, and several inhibitors of this cascade are in clinical trials for its treatment, but their efficacy and utility are unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between p38 MAPK activation and susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, and whether its inhibition ameliorated the lung inflammation and injury in murine models of cigarette smoke exposure. Methods In acute and chronic CS exposure, the activation and expression of p38 MAPK in the lungs, as well as lung inflammation and injury (proteinase production, apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage), were compared between two mouse strains: C57BL/6 (emphysema-susceptible) and NZW (emphysema-resistant). The selective p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (45 mg/kg) was administrated intra-peritoneally to C57BL/6 mice, to examine whether it ameliorated cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and injury. Results Acute CS-induced lung inflammation (neutrophil infiltration, mRNA expressions of TNF-α and MIP-2), proteinase expression (MMP-12 mRNA), apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage were significantly lower in NZW than C57BL/6 mice. p38 MAPK was significantly activated and up-regulated by both acute and chronic CS exposure in C57BL/6 but not NZW mice. mRNA expression of p38 MAPK was also upregulated in C57BL/6 by chronic CS exposure and tended to be constitutively suppressed in NZW mice. SB203580 significantly attenuated lung inflammation (neutrophil infiltration, mRNA expressions of TNF-α and MIP-2, protein levels of KC, MIP-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6), proteinase expression (MMP-12 mRNA), oxidative DNA damage, and apoptosis caused by acute CS exposure. Conclusions Cigarette smoke activated p38 MAPK only in mice that were susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Its selective inhibition ameliorated

  13. Cadmium-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human osteoblasts: role of caspases and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways.

    PubMed

    Brama, M; Politi, L; Santini, P; Migliaccio, S; Scandurra, R

    2012-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant which induces severe toxic alterations, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis, likely by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms. Indeed, cadmium has been described to act as an endocrine disruptor and its toxicity is exerted both in vivo and in vitro through induction of apoptosis and/or necrosis by not fully clarified intracellular mechanism(s) of action. Aim of the present study was to further investigate the molecular mechanism by which cadmium might alter homeostasis of estrogen target cells, such as osteoblast homeostasis, inducing cell apoptosis and/or necrosis. Human osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19) in culture were used as an in vitro model to characterize the intracellular mechanisms induced by this heavy metal. Cells were incubated in the presence/ absence of 10-50 μM cadmium chloride at different times and DNA fragmentation and activation of procaspases- 8 and -3 were induced upon CdCl(2) treatment triggering apoptotic and necrotic pathways. Addition of caspase-8 and -3 inhibitors (Z-IETD-FMK and Z-DQMD-FMK) partially blocked these effects. No activation of procaspase-9 was observed. To determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in these events, we investigated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation which were activated by 10 μM CdCl(2). Chemical inhibitors of JNK, p38, and ERK1/2, SP600125, SB202190, and PD98059, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of the kinases and blunted apoptosis. In contrast, caspase inhibitors did not reduce the cadmium-induced MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting an independent activation of these pathways. In conclusion, at least 2 pathways appear activated by cadmium in osteoblasts: a direct induction of caspase-8 followed by activation of caspase-3 and an indirect induction by phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPK triggering activation of caspase-8 and -3.

  14. AIK1, A Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, Modulates Abscisic Acid Responses through the MKK5-MPK6 Kinase Cascade1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun; Yang, Fengbo; Zhang, Guozeng; Song, Shufei; Li, Yuan; Ren, Dongtao; Miao, Yuchen

    2017-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an evolutionarily conserved signal transduction module involved in transducing extracellular signals to the nucleus for appropriate cellular adjustment. This cascade essentially consists of three components: a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK, connected to each other by the event of phosphorylation. Here, we report the characterization of a MAPKKK, ABA-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN KINASE1 (AIK1), which regulates abscisic acid (ABA) responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). T-DNA insertion mutants of AIK1 showed insensitivity to ABA in terms of both root growth and stomatal response. AIK1 functions in ABA responses via regulation of root cell division and elongation, as well as stomatal responses. The activity of AIK1 is induced by ABA in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), and the Arabidopsis protein phosphatase type 2C, ABI1, a negative regulator of ABA signaling, restricts AIK1 activity by dephosphorylation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis showed that MPK3, MPK6, and AIK1 interact with MKK5. The single mutant seedlings of mpk6 and mkk5 have similar phenotypes to aik1, but mkk4 does not. AIK1 was localized in the cytoplasm and shown to activate MKK5 by protein phosphorylation, which was an ABA-activated process. Constitutively active MKK5 in aik1 mutant seedlings complements the ABA-insensitive root growth phenotype of aik1. The activity of MPK6 was increased by ABA in wild-type seedlings, but its activation by ABA was impaired in aik1 and aik1 mkk5 mutants. These findings clearly suggest that the AIK1-MKK5-MPK6 cascade functions in the ABA regulation of primary root growth and stomatal response. PMID:27913741

  15. Agonist-Biased Signaling via Proteinase Activated Receptor-2: Differential Activation of Calcium and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rithwik; Mihara, Koichiro; Mathur, Maneesh; Rochdi, Moulay Driss; Bouvier, Michel; DeFea, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of different trypsin-revealed tethered ligand (TL) sequences of rat proteinase-activated receptor 2 (rPAR2) and the corresponding soluble TL-derived agonist peptides to trigger agonist-biased signaling. To do so, we mutated the proteolytically revealed TL sequence of rPAR2 and examined the impact on stimulating intracellular calcium transients and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The TL receptor mutants, rPAR2-Leu37Ser38, rPAR2-Ala37–38, and rPAR2-Ala39–42 were compared with the trypsin-revealed wild-type rPAR2 TL sequence, S37LIGRL42—. Upon trypsin activation, all constructs stimulated MAP kinase signaling, but only the wt-rPAR2 and rPAR2-Ala39–42 triggered calcium signaling. Furthermore, the TL-derived synthetic peptide SLAAAA-NH2 failed to cause PAR2-mediated calcium signaling but did activate MAP kinase, whereas SLIGRL-NH2 triggered both calcium and MAP kinase signaling by all receptors. The peptides AAIGRL-NH2 and LSIGRL-NH2 triggered neither calcium nor MAP kinase signals. Neither rPAR2-Ala37–38 nor rPAR2-Leu37Ser38 constructs recruited β-arrestins-1 or -2 in response to trypsin stimulation, whereas both β-arrestins were recruited to these mutants by SLIGRL-NH2. The lack of trypsin-triggered β-arrestin interactions correlated with impaired trypsin-activated TL-mutant receptor internalization. Trypsin-stimulated MAP kinase activation by the TL-mutated receptors was not blocked by inhibitors of Gαi (pertussis toxin), Gαq [N-cyclohexyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methylindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide (GP2A)], Src kinase [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1)], or the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor [4-(3′-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline (AG1478)], but was inhibited by the Rho-kinase inhibitor (R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide, 2HCl (Y27362). The data indicate that the proteolytically revealed TL sequence(s) and the mode

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for integrin-stimulated AKT and Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed Central

    King, W G; Mattaliano, M D; Chan, T O; Tsichlis, P N; Brugge, J S

    1997-01-01

    Cell attachment to fibronectin stimulates the integrin-dependent interaction of p85-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase with integrin-dependent focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. However, it is not known if this PI 3-kinase-FAK interaction increases the synthesis of the 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides (3-PPIs) or what role, if any, is played by activated PI 3-kinase in integrin signaling. We demonstrate here the integrin-dependent accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products, PI 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, as well as activation of AKT kinase, a serine/threonine kinase that can be stimulated by binding of PI(3,4)P2. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased the integrin-induced accumulation of the 3-PPIs and activation of AKT kinase, without having significant effects on the levels of PI(4,5)P2 or tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. These inhibitors also reduced cell adhesion/spreading onto fibronectin but had no effect on attachment to polylysine. Interestingly, integrin-mediated Erk-2, Mek-1, and Raf-1 activation, but not Ras-GTP loading, was inhibited at least 80% by wortmannin and LY294002. In support of the pharmacologic results, fibronectin activation of Erk-2 and AKT kinases was completely inhibited by overexpression of a dominant interfering p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. We conclude that integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin results in the accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as the PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of the kinases Raf-1, Mek-1, Erk-2, and AKT and that PI 3-kinase may function upstream of Raf-1 but downstream of Ras in integrin activation of Erk-2 MAP and AKT kinases. PMID:9234699

  17. Brucella abortus induces TNF-α-dependent astroglial MMP-9 secretion through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) invasion by bacteria of the genus Brucella results in an inflammatory disorder called neurobrucellosis. We have recently demonstrated that B. abortus infects microglia and astrocytes, eliciting the production of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines which contribute to CNS damage. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been implicated in inflammatory tissue destruction in a range of pathological situations in the CNS. Increased MMP secretion is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in a variety of CNS diseases characterized by tissue-destructive pathology. Methods In this study, the molecular mechanisms that regulate MMP secretion from Brucella-infected astrocytes in vitro were investigated. MMP-9 was evaluated in culture supernatants by ELISA, zymography and gelatinolytic activity. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways was evaluated by Western blot and using specific inhibitors. The role of TNF-α was evaluated by ELISA and by assays with neutralizing antibodies. Results B. abortus infection induced the secretion of MMP-9 from murine astrocytes in a dose-dependent fashion. The phenomenon was independent of bacterial viability and was recapitulated by L-Omp19, a B. abortus lipoprotein model, but not its LPS. B. abortus and L-Omp19 readily activated p38 and Erk1/2 MAPK, thus enlisting these pathways among the kinase pathways that the bacteria may address as they invade astrocytes. Inhibition of p38 or Erk1/2 significantly diminished MMP-9 secretion, and totally abrogated production of this MMP when both MAPK pathways were inhibited simultaneously. A concomitant abrogation of B. abortus- and L-Omp19-induced TNF-α production was observed when p38 and Erk1/2 pathways were inhibited, indicating that TNF-α could be implicated in MMP-9 secretion. MMP-9 secretion induced by B. abortus or L-Omp19 was completely abrogated when experiments were conducted in the presence of a TNF-α neutralizing

  18. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebellar granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Chunyang; Besas, Jonathan

    2010-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on a molar basis. Previously, we reported that PBDE mixtures and congeners, perturbed calcium homeostasis which is critical for the development and function of the nervous system. In the present study, we tested whether environmentally relevant PBDE/PCB mixtures and congeners affected mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are down-stream events of calcium signaling in cerebellar granule neuronal cultures. In this study, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2, a widely studied MAPK cascade and known to be involved in learning and memory, levels were quantitated using western blot technique with phospho-specific antibodies. Glutamate (a positive control) increased pERK1/2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner reaching maximum activation at 5-30 min of exposure and at doses >= 10 muM. Both Aroclor 1254 (a commercial penta PCB mixture) and DE-71 (a commercial penta PBDE mixture) elevated phospho-ERK1/2, producing maximum stimulation at 30 min and at concentrations >= 3 mug/ml; Aroclor 1254 was more efficacious than DE-71. DE-79 (an octabrominated diphenyl ether mixture) also elevated phospho-ERK1/2, but to a lesser extent than that of DE-71. PBDE congeners 47, 77, 99, and 153 also increased phospo-ERK1/2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The data indicated that PBDE congeners are more potent than the commercial mixtures. PCB 47 also increased phospho-ERK1/2 like its structural analog PBDE 47, but to a lesser extent, suggesting that these chemicals affect similar pathways. Cytotoxicity, measured as %LDH release, data showed that higher concentrations (> 30 muM) and longer exposures (> 30 min) are

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 in angiotensin II-induced inflammation and hypertension: regulation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Talin; Li, Melissa Wei; Lemarié, Catherine A; Simeone, Stefania M C; Pagano, Patrick J; Gaestel, Matthias; Paradis, Pierre; Wassmann, Sven; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2011-02-01

    Vascular oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, and mitogen-activated protein kinases participate in these processes. We questioned whether mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a downstream target of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, is involved in angiotensin II-induced vascular responses. In vivo experiments were performed in wild-type and Mk2 knockout mice infused intravenously with angiotensin II. Angiotensin II induced a 30 mm Hg increase in mean blood pressure in wild-type that was delayed in Mk2 knockout mice. Angiotensin II increased superoxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in blood vessels of wild-type but not in Mk2 knockout mice. Mk2 knockdown by small interfering RNA in mouse mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells caused a 42% reduction in MK2 protein and blunted the angiotensin II-induced 40% increase of MK2 expression. Mk2 knockdown blunted angiotensin II-induced doubling of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, 2.4-fold increase of nuclear p65, and 1.4-fold increase in Ets-1. Mk2 knockdown abrogated the angiotensin II-induced 4.7-fold and 1.3-fold increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein. Angiotensin II enhanced reactive oxygen species levels (by 29%) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity (by 48%), both abolished by Mk2 knockdown. Reduction of MK2 blocked angiotensin II-induced p47phox translocation to the membrane, associated with a 53% enhanced catalase expression. Angiotensin II-induced increase of MK2 was prevented by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor Nox2ds-tat. Mk2 small interfering RNA prevented the angiotensin II-induced 30% increase of proliferation. In conclusion, MK2 plays a critical role in angiotensin II signaling, leading to hypertension, oxidative stress via activation of p47phox and inhibition of antioxidants, and vascular inflammation

  20. Evidence of a new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in yeast: regulating adaptation to citric acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Clare L; Botting, Catherine H; Antrobus, Robin; Coote, Peter J

    2004-04-01

    Screening the Saccharomyces cerevisiae disruptome, profiling transcripts, and determining changes in protein expression have identified an important new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the regulation of adaptation to citric acid stress. Deletion of HOG1, SSK1, PBS2, PTC2, PTP2, and PTP3 resulted in sensitivity to citric acid. Furthermore, citric acid resulted in the dual phosphorylation, and thus activation, of Hog1p. Despite minor activation of glycerol biosynthesis, the inhibitory effect of citric acid was not due to an osmotic shock. HOG1 negatively regulated the expression of a number of proteins in response to citric acid stress, including Bmh1p. Evidence suggests that BMH1 is induced by citric acid to counteract the effect of amino acid starvation. In addition, deletion of BMH2 rendered cells sensitive to citric acid. Deletion of the transcription factor MSN4, which is known to be regulated by Bmh1p and Hog1p, had a similar effect. HOG1 was also required for citric acid-induced up-regulation of Ssa1p and Eno2p. To counteract the cation chelating activity of citric acid, the plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel, CCH1, and a functional vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase were found to be essential for optimal adaptation. Also, the transcriptional regulator CYC8, which mediates glucose derepression, was required for adaptation to citric acid to allow cells to metabolize excess citrate via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Supporting this, Mdh1p and Idh1p, both TCA cycle enzymes, were up-regulated in response to citric acid.

  1. Beta Interferon Production Is Regulated by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophages via both MSK1/2- and Tristetraprolin-Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Victoria A.; Rosner, Dalya; Ananieva, Olga; Ross, Ewan A.; Elcombe, Suzanne E.; Naqvi, Shaista; van den Bosch, Mirjam M. W.; Monk, Claire E.; Ruiz-Zorrilla Diez, Tamara; Clark, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autocrine or paracrine signaling by beta interferon (IFN-β) is essential for many of the responses of macrophages to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This feedback loop contributes to pathological responses to infectious agents and is therefore tightly regulated. We demonstrate here that macrophage expression of IFN-β is negatively regulated by mitogen- and stress-activated kinases 1 and 2 (MSK1/2). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of IFN-β was elevated in both MSK1/2 knockout mice and macrophages. Although MSK1 and -2 promote the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, it did not strongly contribute to the ability of MSKs to regulate IFN-β expression. Instead, MSK1 and -2 inhibit IFN-β expression via the induction of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), which dephosphorylates and inactivates the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). Prolonged LPS-induced activation of p38 and JNK, phosphorylation of downstream transcription factors, and overexpression of IFN-β mRNA and protein were similar in MSK1/2 and DUSP1 knockout macrophages. Two distinct mechanisms were implicated in the overexpression of IFN-β: first, JNK-mediated activation of c-jun, which binds to the IFN-β promoter, and second, p38-mediated inactivation of the mRNA-destabilizing factor tristetraprolin, which we show is able to target the IFN-β mRNA. PMID:27795299

  2. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Guo, Wenjin; Lu, Junxing; Yu, Hao; Qu, Cunmin; Tang, Zhanglin; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the MAPK gene family has hitherto not been performed in Brassica rapa. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the B. rapa genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY) of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 BraMAPK genes retrieved from the Brassica Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from B. rapa and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D). Gene number expansion was observed for BraMAPK genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the Brassica progenitor. Except for five members of the BraMAPK10 subfamily, the identified BraMAPKs were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five BraMAPKs were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in B. rapa. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in B. rapa.

  3. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Qu, Cunmin; Tang, Zhanglin; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the MAPK gene family has hitherto not been performed in Brassica rapa. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the B. rapa genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY) of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 BraMAPK genes retrieved from the Brassica Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from B. rapa and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D). Gene number expansion was observed for BraMAPK genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the Brassica progenitor. Except for five members of the BraMAPK10 subfamily, the identified BraMAPKs were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five BraMAPKs were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in B. rapa. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in B. rapa. PMID:26173020

  4. Actions of Rho family small G proteins and p21-activated protein kinases on mitogen-activated protein kinase family members.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, J A; Xu, S; Hutchison, M R; Marcus, S; Cobb, M H

    1996-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by distinct extracellular stimuli. The currently known members include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), and p38 MAP kinases. We find that overexpression of the Ste20-related enzymes p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and PAK2 in 293 cells is sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK and to a lesser extent p38 MAP kinase but not ERK2. Rat MAP/ERK kinase kinase 1 can stimulate the activity of each of these MAP kinases. Although neither activated Rac nor the PAKs stimulate ERK2 activity, overexpression of either dominant negative Rac2 or the N-terminal regulatory domain of PAK1 inhibits Ras-mediated activation of ERK2, suggesting a permissive role for Rac in the control of the ERK pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rac2, Cdc42hs, and RhoA synergize with an activated form of Raf to increase ERK2 activity. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized connection between Rho family small G proteins and the ERK pathway. PMID:8668187

  5. [Study of possible involvement of MEK mitogen-activated protein kinase and TGF-β receptor in planarian regeneration processes using pharmacological inhibition analysis].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A M; Ermakova, O N; Ermolaeva, S A

    2014-01-01

    Possible involvement of MEK mitogen-activated protein kinase and TGF-β receptor in the processes of regeneration and morphogenesis in freshwater planarian flatworms Schmidtea mediterranea was studied using a pharmacological inhibitor analysis. It was found that pharmacological inhibitors of these kinases significantly inhibit the regeneration of the head end of the animals and that this effect is realized due to inhibition of proliferative activity of neoblasts, planarian stem cells. It is shown that that the inhibition of the studied protein kinases in regenerating planarians markedly disturbs stem cell differentiation and morphogenesis.

  6. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Wenjun; Wang, Nancong; Yang, Guogen; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. In this study, a Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK gene, ChMK1, from C. higginsianum was analyzed. The results showed that the Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK ChMK1 plays a significant role in cell wall integrity. Targeted deletion of ChMK1 resulted in a hypersensitivity to cell wall inhibitors, reduced conidiation and albinistic colonies. Further, the deletion mutant was also unable to form melanized appressorium, a specialized infection structure that is necessary for successful infection. Therefore, the deletion mutant loses pathogenicity on A. thaliana leaves, demonstrating that ChMK1 plays an essential role in the early infection step. In addition, the ChMK1 deletion mutant showed an attenuated growth rate that is different from that of its homolog in Colletotrichum lagenarium, indicating the diverse roles that Fus3/Kss1-related MAPKs plays in phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the expression level of three melanin synthesis associated genes were clearly decreased in the albinistic ChMK1 mutant compared to that of the wild type strain, suggesting that ChMK1 is also required for colony melanization in C. higginsianum. PMID:27536296

  7. BRO1, a novel gene that interacts with components of the Pkc1p-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Nickas, M E; Yaffe, M P

    1996-01-01

    Yeast cells with mutations in BRO1 display phenotypes similar to those caused by deletion of BCK1, a gene encoding a MEK kinase that functions in a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediating maintenance of cell integrity. bro1 cells exhibit a temperature-sensitive growth defect that is suppressed by the addition of osmotic stabilizers or Ca2+ to the growth medium or by additional copies of the BCK1 gene. At permissive temperatures, bro1 mutants are sensitive to caffeine and respond abnormally to nutrient limitation. A null mutation in BRO1 is synthetically lethal with null mutations in BCK1, MPK1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase that functions downstream of Bck1p, or PKC1, a gene encoding a protein kinase C homolog that activates Bck1p. Analysis of the isolated BRO1 gene revealed that it encodes a novel, 97-kDa polypeptide which contains a putative SH3 domain-binding motif and is homologous to a protein of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:8649366

  8. The heat shock factor A4A confers salt tolerance and is regulated by oxidative stress and the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Salamó, Imma; Papdi, Csaba; Rigó, Gábor; Zsigmond, Laura; Vilela, Belmiro; Lumbreras, Victoria; Nagy, István; Horváth, Balázs; Domoki, Mónika; Darula, Zsuzsa; Medzihradszky, Katalin; Bögre, László; Koncz, Csaba; Szabados, László

    2014-05-01

    Heat shock factors (HSFs) are principal regulators of plant responses to several abiotic stresses. Here, we show that estradiol-dependent induction of HSFA4A confers enhanced tolerance to salt and oxidative agents, whereas inactivation of HSFA4A results in hypersensitivity to salt stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Estradiol induction of HSFA4A in transgenic plants decreases, while the knockout hsfa4a mutation elevates hydrogen peroxide accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Overexpression of HSFA4A alters the transcription of a large set of genes regulated by oxidative stress. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, HSFA4A shows homomeric interaction, which is reduced by alanine replacement of three conserved cysteine residues. HSFA4A interacts with mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 in yeast and plant cells. MPK3 and MPK6 phosphorylate HSFA4A in vitro on three distinct sites, serine-309 being the major phosphorylation site. Activation of the MPK3 and MPK6 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway led to the transcriptional activation of the HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN17.6A gene. In agreement that mutation of serine-309 to alanine strongly diminished phosphorylation of HSFA4A, it also strongly reduced the transcriptional activation of HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN17.6A. These data suggest that HSFA4A is a substrate of the MPK3/MPK6 signaling and that it regulates stress responses in Arabidopsis.

  9. Modulation of Brahma expression by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway is associated with changes in melanoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Aanchal; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Trivedi, Archit R; Aras, Shweta; Qi, Huiling; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2014-12-01

    Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1(BRG1) are catalytic subunits of SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. BRM is epigenetically silenced in a wide-range of tumors. Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene occur frequently in melanoma and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. We tested the hypothesis that BRM expression is modulated by oncogenic BRAF and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Expression of oncogenic BRAF in melanocytes and melanoma cells that are wild-type for BRAF decreased BRM expression and increased BRG1 expression. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) or selective inhibition of BRAF in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF increased BRM expression and decreased BRG1 expression. Increased BRM expression was associated with increased histone acetylation on the BRM promoter. Over-expression of BRM in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF promoted changes in cell cycle progression and apoptosis consistent with a tumor suppressive role. Upon inhibition of BRAF(V600E) with PLX4032, BRM promoted survival. PLX4032 induced changes in BRM function were correlated with increased acetylation of the BRM protein. This study provides insights into the epigenetic consequences of inhibiting oncogenic BRAF in melanoma through modulation of SWI/SNF subunit expression and function.

  10. Bacterial AvrRpt2-Like Cysteine Proteases Block Activation of the Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, MPK4 and MPK111[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Jiang, Xiyuan; Elmore, James Mitch; Mackey, David; Shan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    To establish infection, pathogens deliver effectors into host cells to target immune signaling components, including elements of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades. The virulence function of AvrRpt2, one of the first identified Pseudomonas syringae effectors, involves cleavage of the plant defense regulator, RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4), and interference with plant auxin signaling. We show now that AvrRpt2 specifically suppresses the flagellin-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MPK4 and MPK11 but not MPK3 or MPK6. This inhibition requires the proteolytic activity of AvrRpt2, is associated with reduced expression of some plant defense genes, and correlates with enhanced pathogen infection in AvrRpt2-expressing transgenic plants. Diverse AvrRpt2-like homologs can be found in some phytopathogens, plant-associated and soil bacteria. Employing these putative bacterial AvrRpt2 homologs and inactive AvrRpt2 variants, we can uncouple the inhibition of MPK4/MPK11 activation from the cleavage of RIN4 and related members from the so-called nitrate-induced family as well as from auxin signaling. Thus, this selective suppression of specific mitogen-activated protein kinases is independent of the previously known AvrRpt2 targets and potentially represents a novel virulence function of AvrRpt2. PMID:27208280

  11. Free cholesterol accumulation in macrophage membranes activates Toll-like receptors and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces cathepsin K.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Ishibashi, Minako; Seimon, Tracie; Lee, Mingsum; Sharma, Sudarshana M; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Samokhin, Andriy O; Wang, Yibin; Sayers, Scott; Aikawa, Masanori; Jerome, W Gray; Ostrowski, Michael C; Bromme, Dieter; Libby, Peter; Tabas, Ira A; Welch, Carrie L; Tall, Alan R

    2009-02-27

    The molecular events linking lipid accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques to complications such as aneurysm formation and plaque disruption are poorly understood. BALB/c-Apoe(-/-) mice bearing a null mutation in the Npc1 gene display prominent medial erosion and atherothrombosis, whereas their macrophages accumulate free cholesterol in late endosomes and show increased cathepsin K (Ctsk) expression. We now show increased cathepsin K immunostaining and increased cysteinyl proteinase activity using near infrared fluorescence imaging over proximal aortas of Apoe(-/-), Npc1(-/-) mice. In mechanistic studies, cholesterol loading of macrophage plasma membranes (cyclodextrin-cholesterol) or endosomal system (AcLDL+U18666A or Npc1 null mutation) activated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, leading to sustained phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of p38 targets, including Ctsk, S100a8, Mmp8, and Mmp14. Studies in macrophages from knockout mice showed major roles for TLR4, following plasma membrane cholesterol loading, and for TLR3, after late endosomal loading. TLR signaling via p38 led to phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor Microphthalmia transcription factor, acting at E-box elements in the Ctsk promoter. These studies suggest that free cholesterol enrichment of either plasma or endosomal membranes in macrophages leads to activation of signaling via various TLRs, prolonged p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and induction of Mmps, Ctsk, and S100a8, potentially contributing to plaque complications.

  12. Hypericin, the active component of St. John's wort, inhibits glutamate release in the rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Wang, Su-Jane

    2010-05-25

    Changes in central glutamate neurotransmission are involved in the pathophysiology of depression and in the mechanism of antidepressants. In this study, the effect of hypericin, a major active constituent of St. John's wort that is widely used in the treatment of depression, on the release of glutamate from nerve terminals purified from rat cerebral cortex was examined. Result showed that hypericin inhibited the release of glutamate evoked by 4-aminopyridine in a concentration-dependent manner. Further experiments revealed that hypericin-mediated inhibition of glutamate release (i) results from a reduction of vesicular exocytosis, not from an inhibition of Ca2+-independent efflux via glutamate transporter; (ii) is not due to an alternation of nerve terminal excitability; (iii) is associated with a decrease in presynaptic N- and P/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity; and (iv) appears to involve the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These results are the first to suggest that, in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals, hypericin suppresses voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and in so doing inhibits evoked glutamate release. This finding may provide important information regarding the beneficial effects of St. John's wort in the brain.

  13. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B in 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-induced hepatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Chul; Lee, Sang-Min; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, In-Sik; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the potential hepatotoxicity of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and its hepatotoxic mechanisms in rats was investigated. The test chemical was administered orally to male rats at 0, 27.5, 55, and 110 mg/kg body weight. 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol administration caused acute hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum aminotransferases, total cholesterol, and total bilirubin levels and a decrease in serum glucose concentration in a dose-dependent manner with corresponding histopathological changes in the hepatic tissues. The significant increase in malondialdehyde content and the significant decrease in glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities indicated that 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-induced hepatic damage was mediated through oxidative stress, which caused a dose-dependent increase of hepatocellular apoptotic changes in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3. The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases caused by 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol possibly involved in hepatocellular apoptotic changes in rat liver. Furthermore, 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol induced an inflammatory response through activation of nuclear factor-kappa B signaling that coincided with the induction of pro-inflammatory mediators or cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that hepatotoxicity may be related to oxidative stress-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B-mediated inflammatory response. PMID:27051440

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 inhibition and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in camptothecin-induced human colon cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minyoung; Young Kim, Sun; Kim, JongGuk; Kim, Hak-Su; Kim, Sang-Man; Kim, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Camptothecins are commonly used chemotherapeutics; in some models, they enhance signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through effects on upstream kinases. To evaluate the impact of camptothecin (CPT) on MAPKs in human colon cancer, we studied HCT116 and CaCo2 colon cancer cells. We found that HCT116 cells highly express mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1), which selectively inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas MKP1 levels were undetectable in CaCo2 cells. CPT did not affect ERK activity in CaCo2 cells, but did induce a striking increase in ERK activity in HCT116 cells in association with a corresponding decrease in MKP1. The reduction in MKP1 expression occurred at a posttranscriptional level and was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, whereas that CPT-induced downregulation of MKP1 was not due to proteasome-mediated degradation. Treatment of HCT116 cells with CPT induced a sustained activation of nuclear ERK, which was required for CPT-induced apoptosis. P38 and JNK activity were unaffected by CPT, suggesting that the effects of CPT are mediated specifically by ERK. These results suggest that targeting dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases in colon cancer cells may be a viable strategy for optimizing camptothecin-based therapeutic protocols. PMID:24005240

  15. Protein interactome analysis of 12 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase in rice using a yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raksha; Lee, Jae-Eun; Dangol, Sarmina; Choi, Jihyun; Yoo, Ran Hee; Moon, Jae Sun; Shim, Jae-Kyung; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jwa, Nam-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is composed at least of MAP3K (for MAPK kinase kinase), MAP2K, and MAPK family modules. These components together play a central role in mediating extracellular signals to the cell and vice versa by interacting with their partner proteins. However, the MAP3K-interacting proteins remain poorly investigated in plants. Here, we utilized a yeast two-hybrid system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation in the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) to map MAP3K-interacting proteins. We identified 12 novel nonredundant interacting protein pairs (IPPs) representing 11 nonredundant interactors using 12 rice MAP3Ks (available as full-length cDNA in the rice KOME (http://cdna01.dna.affrc.go.jp/cDNA/) at the time of experimental design and execution) as bait and a rice seedling cDNA library as prey. Of the 12 MAP3Ks, only six had interacting protein partners. The established MAP3K interactome consisted of two kinases, three proteases, two forkhead-associated domain-containing proteins, two expressed proteins, one E3 ligase, one regulatory protein, and one retrotransposon protein. Notably, no MAP3K showed physical interaction with either MAP2K or MAPK. Seven IPPs (58.3%) were confirmed in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Subcellular localization of 14 interactors, together involved in nine IPPs (75%) further provide prerequisite for biological significance of the IPPs. Furthermore, GO of identified interactors predicted their involvement in diverse physiological responses, which were supported by a literature survey. These findings increase our knowledge of the MAP3K-interacting proteins, help in proposing a model of MAPK modules, provide a valuable resource for developing a complete map of the rice MAPK interactome, and allow discussion for translating the interactome knowledge to rice crop improvement against environmental factors.

  16. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do

    2012-03-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  17. p21(Cip-1/SDI-1/WAF-1) expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Negishi, Yoichi; Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Kawashima, Kohtaro

    2004-08-06

    The embryonal carcinoma-derived cell line, ATDC5, differentiates into chondrocytes in response to insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I stimulation. In this study, we investigated the roles of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Insulin-induced accumulation of glycosaminoglycan and expression of chondrogenic differentiation markers, type II collagen, type X collagen, and aggrecan mRNA were inhibited by the MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor (SB203580). Conversely, the JNK inhibitor (SP600125) enhanced the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan and expression of chondrogenic differentiation markers. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK but not that of p38 MAP kinase. We have previously clarified that the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip-1/SDI-1/WAF-1), is essential for chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. To assess the relationship between the induction of p21 and MAP kinase activity, we investigated the effect of these inhibitors on insulin-induced p21 expression in ATDC5 cells. Insulin-induced accumulation of p21 mRNA and protein was inhibited by the addition of U0126 and SB203580. In contrast, SP600125 enhanced it. Inhibitory effects of U0126 or stimulatory effects of SP600125 on insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation were observed when these inhibitors exist in the early phase of differentiation, suggesting that MEK/ERK and JNK act on early phase differentiation. SB202580, however, is necessary not only for early phase but also for late phase differentiation, indicating that p38 MAP kinase stimulates differentiation by acting during the entire period of cultivation. These results for the first time demonstrate that up-regulation of p21 expression by ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase is required for chondrogenesis, and that JNK acts as a suppressor of chondrogenesis by down-regulating p21 expression.

  18. Pokeweed antiviral protein increases HIV-1 particle infectivity by activating the cellular mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Sheila; Kutky, Meherzad; Hudak, Katalin A

    2012-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a plant-derived N-glycosidase that exhibits antiviral activity against several viruses. The enzyme removes purine bases from the messenger RNAs of the retroviruses Human immunodeficiency virus-1 and Human T-cell leukemia virus-1. This depurination reduces viral protein synthesis by stalling elongating ribosomes at nucleotides with a missing base. Here, we transiently expressed PAP in cells with a proviral clone of HIV-1 to examine the effect of the protein on virus production and quality. PAP reduced virus production by approximately 450-fold, as measured by p24 ELISA of media containing virions, which correlated with a substantial decline in virus protein synthesis in cells. However, particles released from PAP-expressing cells were approximately 7-fold more infectious, as determined by single-cycle infection of 1G5 cells and productive infection of MT2 cells. This increase in infectivity was not likely due to changes in the processing of HIV-1 polyproteins, RNA packaging efficiency or maturation of virus. Rather, expression of PAP activated the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway to a limited extent, resulting in increased phosphorylation of viral p17 matrix protein. The increase in infectivity of HIV-1 particles produced from PAP-expressing cells was compensated by the reduction in virus number; that is, virus production decreased upon de novo infection of cells over time. However, our findings emphasize the importance of investigating the influence of heterologous protein expression upon host cells when assessing their potential for antiviral applications.

  19. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Protein Kinase C Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Slt2 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-dependent Phosphorylation of Eisosome Core Components*

    PubMed Central

    Mascaraque, Victoria; Hernáez, María Luisa; Jiménez-Sánchez, María; Hansen, Rasmus; Gil, Concha; Martín, Humberto; Cid, Víctor J.; Molina, María

    2013-01-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thoroughly studied as a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It consists of a classic MAPK module comprising the Bck1 MAPK kinase kinase, two redundant MAPK kinases (Mkk1 and Mkk2), and the Slt2 MAPK. This module is activated under a variety of stimuli related to cell wall homeostasis by Pkc1, the only member of the protein kinase C family in budding yeast. Quantitative phosphoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture is a powerful tool for globally studying protein phosphorylation. Here we report an analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome upon overexpression of a PKC1 hyperactive allele that specifically activates CWI MAPK signaling in the absence of external stimuli. We found 82 phosphopeptides originating from 43 proteins that showed enhanced phosphorylation in these conditions. The MAPK S/T-P target motif was significantly overrepresented in these phosphopeptides. Hyperphosphorylated proteins provide putative novel targets of the Pkc1–cell wall integrity pathway involved in diverse functions such as the control of gene expression, protein synthesis, cytoskeleton maintenance, DNA repair, and metabolism. Remarkably, five components of the plasma-membrane-associated protein complex known as eisosomes were found among the up-regulated proteins. We show here that Pkc1-induced phosphorylation of the eisosome core components Pil1 and Lsp1 was not exerted directly by Pkc1, but involved signaling through the Slt2 MAPK module. PMID:23221999

  20. Involvement of the mannose receptor and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway of the microdomain of the integral membrane protein after enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ma, Yanlei; Moyer, Mary Pat; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Chenzhang; Qin, Huanlong

    2012-04-01

    The microdomain of the integral membrane protein (MIMP) has been shown to adhere to mucin and to antagonize the adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to epithelial cells; however, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we further identified the receptor of MIMP on NCM460 cells and investigated the mechanism (the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway) following the interaction of MIMP and its corresponding receptor, mannose receptor. We first identified the target receptor of MIMP on the surfaces of NCM460 cells using immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry technology. We also verified the mannose receptor and examined the degradation and activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results indicated that MIMP adhered to NCM460 cells by binding to the mannose receptor and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK stimulated after EPEC infection via inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 5 pathway. These findings indicated that MIMPs relieve the injury of NCM460 cells after enteropathogenic E. coli infection through the mannose receptor and inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, both of which may therefore be potential therapeutic targets for intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Salvianolic Acid B Protects Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts Against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Photoaging Through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Activator Protein-1 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengwang; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eunson; Zhang, Mengyang; Jin, Fengxie; Zhang, Baochun; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decreased collagen synthesis, leading to skin photoaging. Salvianolic acid B (SAB), a polyphenol, was extracted and purified from salvia miltiorrhiza. We assessed effects of SAB on UVB-induced photoaging and investigated its molecular mechanism of action in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts. Our results show that SAB significantly inhibited the UVB-induced expression of metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) while promoting the production of type I procollagen and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Moreover, treatment with SAB in the range of 1-100 μg/mL significantly inhibited UVB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation, which resulted in decreasing UVB-induced phosphorylation of c-Fos and c-Jun. These results indicate that SAB downregulates UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. Our results suggest a potential use for SAB in skin photoprotection.

  2. Manassantin A isolated from Saururus chinensis inhibits 5-lipoxygenase-dependent leukotriene C4 generation by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jeong; Lu, Yue; Kwon, Okyun; Hwangbo, Kyoung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Chang, Young-Chae; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, manassantin A (Man A), an herbal medicine isolated from Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis), markedly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-dependent leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) generation in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in a concentration-dependent manner. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of LTC(4) generation by Man A, we assessed the effects of Man A on phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Inhibition of LTC(4) generation by Man A was accompanied by a decrease in cPLA(2) phosphorylation, which occurred via the MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) as well as p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. Taken together, the present study suggests the Man A represents a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of airway allergic-inflammatory diseases.

  3. Gonadotropin regulation of testosterone production by primary cultured theca and granulosa cells of Atlantic croaker: II. Involvement of a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Abby D; Thomas, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Previous investigations in Atlantic croaker ovaries and primary co-cultured theca and granulosa cells have identified multiple signal transduction pathways involved in the control of gonadotropin-induced steroidogenesis, including adenylyl cyclase- and calcium-dependent signaling pathways. In the present study, evidence was obtained for an involvement of a third signal transduction pathway, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) signaling cascade, in the regulation of gonadal steroidogenesis in this lower vertebrate teleost model. Gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone synthesis was markedly attenuated by two antagonists of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1/2 (MEK1/2, also known as Map2k1/Map2k2). Moreover, treatment with gonadotropin-induced MEK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, also known as Mapk3/Mapk1) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in co-cultured croaker theca and granulosa cells. Active MEK1/2 was required for a complete steroidogenic response to activators of the adenylyl cyclase pathway, including forskolin and dbcAMP, suggesting that the target(s) of MAP kinase signaling are distal to cAMP generation and activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Interestingly, dbcAMP caused a similar increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation as was observed with gonadotropin treatment, although an inhibitor of PKA did not attenuate this response. Finally, there was no evidence of cross-talk between calcium-dependent signaling pathways and this MAP kinase cascade. While drugs that block calcium-dependent signal transduction, including inhibitors of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, calmodulin, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, significantly reduced gonadotropin-induced testosterone accumulation, these drugs had no apparent effect on hCG-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

  4. Involvement of YODA and mitogen activated protein kinase 6 in Arabidopsis post-embryogenic root development through auxin up-regulation and cell division plane orientation

    PubMed Central

    Smékalová, Veronika; Luptovčiak, Ivan; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Doskočilová, Anna; Takáč, Tomáš; Vadovič, Pavol; Novák, Ondřej; Pechan, Tibor; Ziemann, Anja; Košútová, Petra; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Summary The role of YODA MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASE KINASE 4 (MAPKKK4) upstream of MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (MPK6) was studied during post-embryonic root development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss- and gain-of-function mutants of YODA (yda1 and ΔNyda1) were characterized in terms of root patterning, endogenous auxin content and global proteomes.We surveyed morphological and cellular phenotypes of yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants suggesting possible involvement of auxin. Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were up-regulated in both mutants. Proteomic analysis revealed up-regulation of auxin biosynthetic enzymes tryptophan synthase and nitrilases in these mutants. The expression, abundance and phosphorylation of MPK3, MPK6 and MICROTUBULE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 65–1 (MAP65-1) were characterized by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses and interactions between MAP65-1, microtubules and MPK6 were resolved by quantitative co-localization studies and co-immunoprecipitations.yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants showed disoriented cell divisions in primary and lateral roots, abortive cytokinesis, and differential subcellular localization of MPK6 and MAP65-1. They also showed deregulated expression of TANGLED1 (TAN1), PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN 1 (POK1), and GAMMA TUBULIN COMPLEX PROTEIN 4 (GCP4).The findings that MPK6 localized to preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplasts while the mpk6-4 mutant transformed with MPK6AEF (alanine (A)–glutamic acid (E)–phenylanine (F)) showed a root phenotype similar to that of yda1 demonstrated that MPK6 is an important player downstream of YODA. These data indicate that YODA and MPK6 are involved in post-embryonic root development through an auxin-dependent mechanism regulating cell division and mitotic microtubule (PPB and phragmoplast) organization. PMID:24923680

  5. Knockdown of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes using antisense morpholinos.

    PubMed

    Pietri, J E; Cheung, K W; Luckhart, S

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-borne infectious diseases are responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths annually across the globe, with malaria responsible for >50% of these deaths. Recent efforts to enhance malaria control have focused on developing genetically modified Anopheles mosquitoes that are resistant to malaria parasite infection by manipulating proteins that are essential to the immune response. Although this approach has shown promise, the lack of efficient genetic tools in the mosquito makes it difficult to investigate innate immunity using reverse genetics. Current gene knockdown strategies based on small interfering RNA are typically labourious, inefficient, and require extensive training. In the present study, we describe the use of morpholino antisense oligomers to knockdown MEK-ERK signalling in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi through a simple feeding protocol. Anti-MEK morpholino provided in a saline meal was readily ingested by female mosquitoes with minimal toxicity and resulted in knockdown of total MEK protein levels 3-4 days after morpholino feeding. Further, anti-MEK morpholino feeding attenuated inducible phosphorylation of the downstream kinase ERK and, as predicted by previous work, reduced parasite burden in mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of morpholino use for target protein knockdown via feeding in an insect vector. Our results suggest this method is not only efficient for studies of individual proteins, but also for studies of phenotypic control by complex cell signalling networks. As such, our protocol is an effective alternative to current methods for gene knockdown in arthropods.

  6. The Arabidopsis transcription factor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1 is a direct substrate of MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 and regulates immunity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sining; Yang, Fan; Li, Lin; Chen, Huamin; Chen, She; Zhang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors to activate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as other cytoplasmic kinases, integrate upstream immune signals and, in turn, dissect PTI signaling via different substrates to regulate defense responses. However, only a few direct substrates of these signaling kinases have been identified. Here, we show that PAMP perception enhances phosphorylation of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1), a transcription factor involved in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway, through pathogen-induced MAPKs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). BES1 interacts with MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 (MPK6) and is phosphorylated by MPK6. bes1 loss-of-function mutants display compromised resistance to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. BES1 S286A/S137A double mutation (BES1(SSAA)) impairs PAMP-induced phosphorylation and fails to restore bacterial resistance in bes1 mutant, indicating a positive role of BES1 phosphorylation in plant immunity. BES1 is phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase3 (GSK3)-like kinase BR-insensitive2 (BIN2), a negative regulator of BR signaling. BR perception inhibits BIN2 activity, allowing dephosphorylation of BES1 to regulate plant development. However, BES1(SSAA) does not affect BR-mediated plant growth, suggesting differential residue requirements for the modulation of BES1 phosphorylation in PTI and BR signaling. Our study identifies BES1 as a unique direct substrate of MPK6 in PTI signaling. This finding reveals MAPK-mediated BES1 phosphorylation as another BES1 modulation mechanism in plant cell signaling, in addition to GSK3-like kinase-mediated BES1 phosphorylation and F box protein-mediated BES1 degradation.

  7. Fullerene (C60) nanoparticles exert photocytotoxicity through modulation of reactive oxygen species and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the MCF-7 cancer cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Fei-long; Wang, Zhiyuan; Pan, Li-li; Shen, Ying-ying; Zhang, Zhen-zhong

    2013-12-01

    The photocytotoxicity of water-dispersed 100-300 nm fullerene amino acid derivatives nanoparticles was studied. The nanoparticle solution of fullerene derivatives, l-phenylalanine (C60-phe) and glycine (C60-gly), suppressed the in vitro growth of MCF-7 cells lines, induced cancer cells apoptosis, and caused a perturbation of the cell cycle. These nanoparticle solutions increased intracellular reactive oxygen species after irradiation. C60-phe or C60-gly upregulated the expression of phosphorylated (p)p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). N-Acetyl- l-cysteine significantly depressed the composite-induced activation of p38MAPK, and the kinase inhibitor SB203580 significantly prevented C60 derivative-induced cell apoptosis. This study revealed that p38MAPK is activated by C60 nanoparticles through triggering reactive oxygen species generation, leading to cancer cell injuries.

  8. The role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in serum-induced leukemia inhibitory factor secretion by bone marrow stromal cells from pediatric myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Simone V; Roela, Rosimeire A; Junqueira, Mara Souza; Arantes, Camila; Brentani, M Mitzi

    2010-04-01

    Stromal cells from pediatric myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with MDS (MDS-AML) present high expression of leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF). We demonstrated using mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors that in stromal cells from pediatric MDS and MDS-AML, p38MAPK was critical in serum-induced secretion of LIF. The serum induction of phosphorylated p38MAPK form was observed only in stromal cells from healthy children, whereas in MDS and MDS-AML basal levels were maintained suggesting constitutive p38MAPK activation. Our study suggested the possible importance in pediatric MDS of p38MAPK signaling pathway which may be a future therapeutic target.

  9. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity in response to different immune stimuli in haemocytes of the common periwinkle Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Gorbushin, Alexander M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-09-01

    The modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in haemocytes of the common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in response to immune challenges by lipopolysaccharide from Echerichia coli (LPS), mannan from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and secretory-excretory products (SEP) of trematodes Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) or after the treatment with phorbol ester (PMA) has been studied by Western blotting using affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Exposure of the cells in suspension to PMA, LPS and mannan triggered an activation of p38 and ERK2. The JNK-mediated cascade was modulated differently by the elicitors examined. PMA treatment caused a transient activation of the JNK54 isoform, LPS exposure resulted in a decrease in activity of JNK46, and mannan had no effect on JNK phosphorylation status. Incubation of periwinkle haemocytes in culture medium containing trematode SEP did not affect the activity of any MAPK.

  10. Commitment to the CD4 lineage mediated by extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase and lck signaling.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L L; Hedrick, S M

    1999-12-15

    The development of T cells results in a concordance between the specificity of the TCR for MHC class I and class II molecules and the expression of CD8 and CD4 coreceptors. Based on analogy to simple metazoan models of organ development and lineage commitment, we sought to determine whether extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway signaling acts as an inductive signal for the CD4 lineage. Here, we show that, by altering the intracellular signaling involving the Erk/MAP kinase pathway, T cells with specificity for MHC class I can be diverted to express CD4, and, conversely, T cells with specificity for MHC class II can be diverted to express CD8. Furthermore, we find that activation of the src-family tyrosine kinase, p56lck is an upstream mediator of lineage commitment. These results suggest a simple mechanism for lineage commitment in T cell development.

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activity is involved in effector functions triggered by the CD94/NKG2-C NK receptor specific for HLA-E.

    PubMed

    Carretero, M; Llano, M; Navarro, F; Bellón, T; López-Botet, M

    2000-10-01

    The CD94/NKG2C heterodimer constitutes an activating receptor involved in NK cell-mediated recognition of the class lb molecule HLA-E. It transduces the triggering signal through an ITAM-bearing molecule, DAP12/KARAP, coupled non-covalently to the receptor. Here we show that specific engagement of the receptor complex expressed on the surface of an NK clone induced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). By the use of the MEK inhibitor PD098059 we demonstrate that the MAPK pathway participates in the CD94-dependent TNF-alpha production and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we transferred the activating function by transfection of the heterologous RBL cell line with CD94/NKG2-C/DAP12. In this system, cross-linking of the receptor induced calcium mobilization, serotonin release and phosphorylation of MAPK.

  12. A Bayesian Network-Based Approach to Selection of Intervention Points in the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Plant Defense Response Pathway.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Priya S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Datta, Aniruddha

    2017-04-01

    An important problem in computational biology is the identification of potential points of intervention that can lead to modified network behavior in a genetic regulatory network. We consider the problem of deducing the effect of individual genes on the behavior of the network in a statistical framework. In this article, we make use of biological information from the literature to develop a Bayesian network and introduce a method to estimate parameters of this network using data that are relevant to the biological phenomena under study. Then, we give a novel approach to select significant nodes in the network using a decision-theoretic approach. The proposed method is applied to the analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the plant defense response to pathogens. Results from applying the method to experimental data show that the proposed approach is effective in selecting genes that play crucial roles in the biological phenomenon being studied.

  13. Chlamydiaphage φCPG1 Capsid Protein Vp1 Inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis Growth via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanli; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Quan; Sun, Changgui; Zhang, Xinmei; Liu, Yuanjun; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-04-14

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Although the pathogen is well established, the pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Given the current challenges of antibiotic resistance and blocked processes of vaccine development, the use of a specific chlamydiaphage may be a new treatment solution. φCPG1 is a lytic phage specific for Chlamydia caviae, and shows over 90% nucleotide sequence identity with other chlamydiaphages. Vp1 is the major capsid protein of φCPG1. Purified Vp1 was previously confirmed to inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis growth. We here report the first attempt at exploring the relationship between Vp1-treated C. trachomatis and the protein and gene levels of the mitogen-activated/extracellular regulated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after Vp1 treatment. After 48 h of incubation, the p-ERK level of the Vp1-treated group decreased compared with that of the Chlamydia infection group. Accordingly, ERK1 and ERK2 mRNA expression levels of the Vp1-treated group also decreased compared with the Chlamydia infection group. IL-8 and IL-1 levels were also decreased after Vp1 treatment compared with the untreated group. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition effect of the chlamydiaphage φCPG1 capsid protein Vp1 on C. trachomatis is associated with the MAPK pathway, and inhibits production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1. The bacteriophages may provide insight into a new signaling transduction mechanism to influence their hosts, in addition to bacteriolysis.

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors sensitize reduced glucocorticoid response mediated by TNF{alpha} in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT)

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Kenji . E-mail: knjond@ps.toyaku.ac.jp; Nagashima, Masahiro; Kawakubo, Yo; Inoue, Shota; Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro

    2006-12-08

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential drugs administered topically or systematically for the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as pemphigus. However, a certain proportion of patients does not respond well to GCs. Although studies on the relationship between cytokines and GC insensitivity in local tissues have attracted attention recently, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) for GC insensitivity in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) {alpha} reduces GC-induced transactivation of endogenous genes as well as a reporter plasmid which contains GC responsive element (GRE) in human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The GC insensitivity by TNF{alpha} was not accompanied by changes in mRNA expressions of GR isoforms ({alpha} or {beta}). However, we observed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) significantly sensitized the GC-induced transactivation of anti-inflammatory genes (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 gene in the presence of TNF{alpha}. Additionally, we observed that TNF{alpha} reduced prednisolone (PSL)-dependent nuclear translocation of GR, which was restored by pre-treatment of MEK-1 inhibitors. This is the first study demonstrating a role of the MEK-1/ERK cascade in TNF{alpha}-mediated GC insensitivity. Our data suggest that overexpression of TNF{alpha} leads to topical GC insensitivity by reducing GR nuclear translocation in keratinocytes, and our findings also suggest that inhibiting the MEK-1/ERK cascade may offer a therapeutic potential for increasing GC efficacy in epidermis where sufficient inflammatory suppression is required.

  15. Differential regulation of the mitogen-activated protein and stress-activated protein kinase cascades by adrenergic agonists in quiescent and regenerating adult rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, M S; Auer, K L; Jarvis, W D; Ishac, E J; Gao, B; Kunos, G; Dent, P

    1997-01-01

    To study the mechanisms by which catecholamines regulate hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy (PHX), hepatocytes were isolated from adult male rats 24 h after sham operation or two-thirds PHX and treated with catecholamines and other agonists. In freshly isolated sham cells, p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity was stimulated by the alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PHE). Activation of p42 MAP kinase by growth factors was blunted by pretreatment of sham hepatocytes with glucagon but not by that with the beta2-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO). In PHX cells, the ability of PHE to activate p42 MAP kinase was dramatically reduced, whereas ISO became competent to inhibit p42 MAP kinase activation. PHE treatment of sham but not PHX and ISO treatment of PHX but not sham hepatocytes also activated the stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases p46/54 SAP kinase and p38 SAP kinase. These data demonstrate that an alpha1- to beta2-adrenergic receptor switch occurs upon PHX and results in an increase in SAP kinase versus MAP kinase signaling by catecholamines. In primary cultures of hepatocytes, ISO treatment of PHX but not sham cells inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation. In contrast, PHE treatment of sham but not PHX cells stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation, which was reduced by approximately 25 and approximately 95% with specific inhibitors of p42 MAP kinase and p38 SAP kinase function, respectively. Inhibition of the p38 SAP kinase also dramatically reduced basal [3H]thymidine incorporation. These data suggest that p38 SAP kinase plays a permissive role in liver regeneration. Alterations in the abilities of catecholamines to modulate the activities of protein kinase A and the MAP and SAP kinase pathways may represent one physiological mechanism by which these agonists can regulate hepatocyte proliferation after PHX. PMID:9199291

  16. Megakaryocytic Maturation in Response to Shear Flow Is Mediated by the Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) Transcription Factor via Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Luff, Stephanie A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2016-04-08

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are exposed to shear flow as they migrate from the bone marrow hematopoietic compartment into circulation to release pro/preplatelets into circulating blood. Shear forces promote DNA synthesis, polyploidization, and maturation in MKs, and platelet biogenesis. To investigate mechanisms underlying these MK responses to shear, we carried out transcriptional analysis on immature and mature stem cell-derived MKs exposed to physiological shear. In immature (day (d)9) MKs, shear exposure up-regulated genes related to growth and MK maturation, whereas in mature (d12) MKs, it up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis and intracellular transport. Following shear-flow exposure, six activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcripts (ATF4,JUNB,JUN,FOSB,FOS, andJUND) were up-regulated at d9 and two AP-1 proteins (JunD and c-Fos) were up-regulated both at d9 and d12. We show that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is linked to both the shear stress response and AP-1 up-regulation. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation increased significantly following shear stimulation, whereas JNK inhibition reduced shear-induced JunD expression. Although p38 phosphorylation did not increase following shear flow, its inhibition reduced shear-induced JunD and c-Fos expression. JNK inhibition reduced fibrinogen binding and P-selectin expression of d12 platelet-like particles (PLPs), whereas p38 inhibition reduced fibrinogen binding of d12 PLPs. AP-1 expression correlated with increased MK DNA synthesis and polyploidization, which might explain the observed impact of shear on MKs. To summarize, we show that MK exposure to shear forces results in JNK activation, AP-1 up-regulation, and downstream transcriptional changes that promote maturation of immature MKs and platelet biogenesis in mature MKs.

  17. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex attenuates pain-related negative emotion in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Zang, Kai-Kai; Han, Mei; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2014-08-01

    The emotional components of pain are far less studied than the sensory components. Previous studies have indicated that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is implicated in the affective response to noxious stimuli. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the spinal cord has been documented to play an important role in diverse kinds of pathological pain states. We used formalin-induced conditioned place aversion (F-CPA) in rats, an animal model believed to reflect the emotional response to pain, to investigate the involvement of p38 MAPK in the rACC after the induction of affective pain. Intraplantar formalin injection produced a significant activation of p38 MAPK, as well as mitogen-activated kinase kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6, its upstream activators, in the bilateral rACC. p38 MAPK was elevated in both NeuN-positive neurons and Iba1-positive microglia in the rACC, but not GFAP-positive cells. Blocking p38 MAPK activation in the bilateral rACC using its specific inhibitor SB203580 or SB239063 dose-dependently suppressed the formation of F-CPA. Inhibiting p38 MAPK activation did not affect formalin-induced two-phase spontaneous nociceptive response and low intensity electric foot-shock induced CPA. The present study demonstrated that p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the rACC contributes to pain-related negative emotion. Thus, a new pharmacological strategy targeted at the p38 MAPK cascade may be useful in treating pain-related emotional disorders.

  18. Impact of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway on the subproteome of detergent-resistant microdomains of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Christian V; Lichtenfels, Rudolf; Wulfaenger, Jens; Müller, Anja; Dressler, Sven P; Seliger, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts play a key role in the regulation of fundamentally important cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The composition of such detergent-resistant microdomains (DRMs) is altered under pathologic conditions, including cancer. Although DRMs have been analyzed in colorectal carcinoma little information exists about their composition upon treatment with targeted drugs. Hence, a quantitative proteomic profiling approach was performed to define alterations within the DRM fraction of colorectal carcinoma cells upon treatment with the drug U0126, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Comparative expression profilings resulted in the identification of 300 proteins, which could partially be linked to key oncogenic signaling pathways and tumor-related cellular features, such as cell proliferation, adhesion, motility, invasion, and apoptosis resistance. Most of these proteins were downregulated upon inhibitor treatment. In addition, quantitative proteomic profilings of cholesterol-depleted versus intact lipid rafts were performed to define, which U0126-regulated target structures represent bona fide raft proteins. Selected differentially abundant raft proteins were validated at the mRNA and/or protein level using U0126- or Trametinib-treated cells. The presented data provide insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with the response to the treatment with MEK inhibitors and might also lead to novel candidates for therapeutic interventions.

  19. Bax translocates to mitochondria of heart cells during simulated ischaemia: involvement of AMP-activated and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Capano, Michela; Crompton, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The cytosolic protein Bax plays a key role in apoptosis by migrating to mitochondria and releasing proapoptotic proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The present study investigates the movement of Bax in isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischaemia (minus glucose, plus cyanide), using green fluorescent protein-tagged Bax as a means of imaging Bax movements. Simulated ischaemia induced Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, commencing within 20 min of simulated ischaemia and progressing for several hours. Under the same conditions, there was an increase in the active, phosphorylated forms of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). The AMPK activators AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside) and metformin also stimulated Bax translocation. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 attenuated the phosphorylation of the downstream substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases 2 and 3, but not that of the upstream MAPK kinase 3, nor of AMPK. Under all conditions (ischaemia, AICAR and metformin), SB203580 blocked Bax translocation completely. It is concluded that Bax translocation to mitochondria is an early step in ischaemia and that it occurs in response to activation of p38 MAPK downstream of AMPK. PMID:16321138

  20. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates ovine endometrial prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis: role of G(i) proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Burns, P D; Mendes, J O; Yemm, R S; Clay, C M; Nelson, S E; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    2001-10-01

    Oxytocin stimulates a rapid increase in ovine endometrial prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis. The overall objective of these experiments was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin induces endometrial PGF2alpha synthesis. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine whether G(i) proteins mediate oxytocin-induced PGF2alpha synthesis. Uteri were collected from four ovary-intact ewes on Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i) proteins, had no effect on the ability of oxytocin to induce PGF2alpha synthesis (P > 0.10). The objective of experiment 2 was to determine whether any of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), or p38 MAPK, mediate oxytocin-induced PGF(2alpha) synthesis. Eleven ovary-intact ewes were given an injection of oxytocin (10 IU; i.v.; n = 5) or physiological saline (i.v.; n = 6) on Day 15 postestrus. Uteri were collected 15 min after injection and caruncular endometrium was dissected. Endometrial homogenates were prepared and subjected to Western blotting. Membranes were probed for both total and phosphorylated forms of all three classes of MAPK. All classes of MAPK were detected in ovine endometrium, but oxytocin treatment had no effect on the expression of these proteins (P > 0.10). ERK1/2 was the only phosphorylated MAPK detected and its concentrations were higher in oxytocin-treated ewes (P < 0.01). The objective of experiment 3 was to further investigate the role of ERK1/2 during oxytocin-induced PGF2alpha synthesis. Uteri were collected from four ovary-intact ewes on Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activity, blocked the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PGF(2alpha synthesis in a dose

  1. Cross-talk between protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinases signalling in the adaptive changes observed during morphine withdrawal in the heart.

    PubMed

    Almela, P; Atucha, N M; Milanés, M V; Laorden, M L

    2009-09-01

    Our previous studies have shown that morphine withdrawal induced an increase in the expression of protein kinase (PK) A and mitogen-activated extracellular kinase (MAPK) pathways in the heart during morphine withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction between PKA and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways mediating the cardiac adaptive changes observed after naloxone administration to morphine-dependent rats. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day subcutaneous implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by an injection of naloxone (2 mg/kg). ERK1/2 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation was determined by quantitative blot immunolabeling using phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal activates ERK1/2 and phosphorylates TH at Ser31 in the right and left ventricle, with an increase in the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. When N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004), a PKA inhibitor, was infused, concomitantly with morphine, it diminished the expression of ERK1/2. In contrast, the infusion of calphostin C (a PKC inhibitor) did not modify the morphine withdrawal-induced activation of ERK1/2. The ability of morphine withdrawal to activate ERK that phosphorylates TH at Ser31 was reduced by HA-1004. The present findings demonstrate that the enhancement of ERK1/2 expression and the phosphorylation state of TH at Ser31 during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and suggest cross-talk between PKA and ERK1/2 transduction pathway mediating morphine withdrawal-induced activation (phosphorylation) of TH.

  2. Mutation of a Shc binding site tyrosine residue in ErbB3/HER3 blocks heregulin-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Vijapurkar, U; Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-08-14

    The ErbB2 and ErbB3 proteins together constitute a functional coreceptor for heregulin (neuregulin). Heregulin stimulates the phosphorylation of both coreceptor constituents and initiates a variety of other signaling events, which include phosphorylation of the Shc protein. The role of Shc in heregulin-stimulated signal transduction through the ErbB2.ErbB3 coreceptor was investigated here. Heregulin was found to promote ErbB3/Shc association in NIH-3T3 cells expressing endogenous ErbB2 and recombinant ErbB3. A mutant ErbB3 protein was generated in which Tyr-1325 in a consensus Shc phosphotyrosine-binding domain recognition site was mutated to Phe (ErbB3-Y/F). This mutation abolished the association of Shc with ErbB3 and blocked the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by heregulin. Whereas heregulin induced mitogenesis in NIH-3T3 cells transfected with wild-type ErbB3 cDNA, this mitogenic response was markedly attenuated in NIH-3T3 cells transfected with the ErbB3-Y/F cDNA. These results showed a specific interaction of Shc with the ErbB3 receptor protein and demonstrated the importance of this interaction in the activation of mitogenic responses by the ErbB2. ErbB3 heregulin coreceptor complex.

  3. Ras2 signals via the Cdc42/Ste20/mitogen-activated protein kinase module to induce filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Mösch, H U; Roberts, R L; Fink, G R

    1996-01-01

    RAS2val19, a dominant activated form of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras2, stimulates both filamentous growth and expression of a transcriptional reporter FG(TyA)::lacZ but does not induce the mating pathway reporter FUS1::lacZ. This induction depends upon elements of the conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is required for both filamentous growth and mating, two distinct morphogenetic events. Full induction requires Ste20 (homolog of mammalian p65PAK protein kinases), Ste11 [an MEK kinase (MEKK) or MAPK kinase (MEK) kinase], Ste7 (MEK or MAPK kinase), and the transcription factor Ste12. Moreover, the Rho family protein Cdc42, a conserved morphogenetic G protein, is also a potent regulator of filamentous growth and FG(TyA)::lacZ expression in S. cerevisiae. Stimulation of both filamentous growth and FG(TyA)::lacZ by Cdc42 depends upon Ste20. In addition, dominant negative CDC42Ala118 blocks RAS2val19 activation, placing Cdc42 downstream of Ras2. Our results suggest that filamentous growth in budding yeast is regulated by an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls cell morphology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643578

  4. Reactive oxygen species and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activate Bax to induce mitochondrial cytochrome c release and apoptosis in response to malonate.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lazaro, M; Galindo, M F; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, R M; Fernandez-Gómez, F J; Concannon, C G; Segura, M F; Comella, J X; Prehn, J H M; Jordan, J

    2007-03-01

    Malonate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex II, is a widely used toxin to study neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and ischemic stroke. We have shown previously that malonate increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, leading to oxidative stress, cytochrome c release, and apoptotic cell death. Expression of a green fluorescent protein-Bax fusion protein in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells demonstrated a Bax redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria after 12 to 24 h of malonate treatment that coincided with mitochondrial potential collapse and chromatin condensation. Inhibition of Bax translocation using furosemide, as well as Bax gene deletion, afforded significant protection against malonate-induced apoptosis. Further experiments revealed that malonate induced a prominent increase in the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and that treatment with the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SKF86002 potently blocked malonate-induced Bax translocation and apoptosis. Treatment with vitamin E diminished ROS production, reduced the activation status of p38 MAP kinase, inhibited Bax translocation, and protected against malonate-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that malonate-induced ROS production and subsequent p38 MAP kinase activation mediates the activation of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein to induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and neuronal apoptosis.

  5. Early weaning increases intestinal permeability, alters expression of cytokine and tight junction proteins, and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hu, C H; Xiao, K; Luan, Z S; Song, J

    2013-03-01

    Although weaning stress has been reported to impair intestinal barrier function, the mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the intestinal morphology and permeability and mRNA expressions of tight junction proteins and cytokines in the intestine of piglets during the 2 wk after weaning were assessed. The phosphorylated (activated) ratios of p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) were determined to investigate whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are involved in the early weaning process. A shorter villus and deeper crypt were observed on d 3 and 7 postweaning. Although damaged intestinal morphology recovered to preweaning values on d 14 postweaning, the intestinal mucosal barrier, which was reflected by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa) in the Ussing chamber and tight junction protein expression, was not recovered. Compared with the preweaning stage (d 0), jejunal TER and mRNA expressions of occludin and claudin-1 on d 3, 7, and 14 postweaning and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA on d 3 and 7 postweaning were reduced, and paracellular flux of dextran on d 3, 7, and 14 postweaning was increased. An increase (P < 0.05) of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA on d 3 and d 7 postweaning and an increase (P < 0.05) of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA on d 3 postweaning were observed compared with d 0. No significant increase of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA after weaning was observed. The phosphorylated (activated) ratios of JNK and p38 on d 3 and 7 postweaning and the phosphorylated ratio of ERK1/2 on d 3 postweaning were increased (P < 0.05) compared with d 0. The results indicated that early weaning induced sustained impairment in the intestinal barrier, decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, and upregulated the expression of proinflammatory

  6. A role for protein phosphatase 2A in regulating p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna H Y; Tam, Alex H M; Lee, Davy C W; Lau, Allan S Y

    2013-04-02

    Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac) infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  7. Fisetin Ameliorated Photodamage by Suppressing the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Matrix Metalloproteinase Pathway and Nuclear Factor-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chan, Shih-Yun; Chu, Yin; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2015-05-13

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is one of the most important extrinsic factors contributing to skin photodamage. After UV irradiation, a series of signal transductions in the skin will be activated, leading to inflammatory response and photoaged skin. In this study, fisetin, a flavonol that exists in fruits and vegetables, was investigated for its photoprotective effects. The results revealed that 5-25 μM fisetin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 expression induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in human skin fibroblasts. In addition, fisetin suppressed UVB-induced collagen degradation. With regard to its effect on upper-stream signal transduction, we found that fisetin reduced the expression of ultraviolet (UV)-induced ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathway. Furthermore, fisetin reduced inhibitor κB (IκB) degradation and increased the amount of p65, which is a major subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), in cytoplasm. It also suppressed NF-κB translocated to the nucleus and inhibited cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) Ser-133 phosphorylation level in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/CREB (PI3K/AKT/CREB) pathway. Finally, fisetin inhibited UV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) generation. The mentioned effects and mechanisms suggest that fisetin can be used in the development of photoprotective agents.

  8. The Nicotiana benthamiana mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and WRKY transcription factor participate in Nep1(Mo)-triggered plant responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Li, Deqing; Wang, Meifang; Liu, Jiewen; Teng, Wenjun; Cheng, Baoping; Huang, Qian; Wang, Min; Song, Wenwen; Dong, Suomeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2012-12-01

    Many bacterial, fungal, and oomycete species secrete necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLP) that trigger programmed cell death (PCD) and innate immune responses in dicotyledonous plants. However, how NLP induce such immune responses is not understood. Here, we show that silencing of the MAPKKKα-MEK2-WIPK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade through virus-induced gene silencing compromises hydrogen peroxide accumulation and PCD induced by Nep1(Mo) from Magnaporthe oryzae. WIPK interacts with NbWRKY2, a transcription factor in Nicotiana benthamiana, in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an effector pathway that mediates Nep1(Mo)-induced cell death. Unexpectedly, salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK)- and NbWRKY2-silenced plants showed impaired Nep1(Mo)-induced stomatal closure, decreased Nep1(Mo)-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production in guard cells, and a reduction in Nep1(Mo)-induced resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae. Expression studies by real-time polymerase chain reaction suggested that the MEK2-WIPK-NbWRKY2 pathway regulated Nep1(Mo)triggered NO accumulation could be partly dependent on nitrate reductase, which was implicated in NO synthesis. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the MAPK cascade is involved in Nep1(Mo)-triggered plant responses and MAPK signaling associated with PCD exhibits shared and distinct components with that for stomatal closure.

  9. Role of receptor desensitization, phosphatase induction and intracellular cyclic AMP in the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in UTP-stimulated EAhy 926 endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, A; McLees, A; Malarkey, K; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms that bring about the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activation in response to UTP in EAhy 926 endothelial cells. UTP-stimulated MAP kinase activity was transient, returning to basal values by 60 min. At this time MAP kinase activation was desensitized; re-application of UTP did not further activate MAP kinase, full re-activation of MAP kinase being only apparent after a 1-2 h wash period. However, activation of MAP kinase by UTP could be sustained beyond 60 min by preincubation of the cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. UTP also stimulated expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 and this was abolished after pretreatment with cycloheximide. Pretreatment of cells with forskolin abolished the initial activation of MAP kinase kinase or c-Raf-1 by UTP, but only affected MAP kinase activity during prolonged stimulation. The effect of forskolin on prolonged MAP kinase activation was also prevented by cycloheximide. These results suggest that the termination of MAP kinase activity in response to UTP involves a number of interacting mechanisms including receptor desensitization and the induction of a phosphatase. However, several pieces of evidence do not support a major role for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 in termination of the MAP kinase signal. Raising intracellular cyclic AMP may also be involved but only after an initial protein-synthesis step and by a mechanism that does not involve the inactivation of c-Raf-1 or MAP kinase kinase. PMID:8615830

  10. Signaling of chloroquine-induced stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Hog1 and Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Shivani; Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2014-09-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) has been under clinical use for several decades, and yet little is known about CQ sensing and signaling mechanisms or about their impact on various biological pathways. We employed the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the pathways targeted by CQ. Our screening with yeast mutants revealed that it targets histone proteins and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we also describe the novel role of mitogen-activated protein kinases Hog1 and Slt2, which aid in survival in the presence of CQ. Cells deficient in Hog1 or Slt2 are found to be CQ hypersensitive, and both proteins were phosphorylated in response to CQ exposure. CQ-activated Hog1p is translocated to the nucleus and facilitates the expression of GPD1 (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which is required for the synthesis of glycerol (one of the major osmolytes). Moreover, cells treated with CQ exhibited an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the effects were rescued by addition of reduced glutathione to the medium. The deletion of SOD1, the superoxide dismutase in yeast, resulted in hypersensitivity to CQ. We have also observed P38 as well as P42/44 phosphorylation in HEK293T human cells upon exposure to CQ, indicating that the kinds of responses generated in yeast and human cells are similar. In summary, our findings define the multiple biological pathways targeted by CQ that might be useful for understanding the toxicity modulated by this pharmacologically important molecule.

  11. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the early and peak phases of autoimmune neuritis in rat sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Moon, Changjong; Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Heechul; Lee, Yongduk; Koh, Chang Sung; Matsumoto, Yoh; Shin, Taekyun

    2005-04-08

    To examine the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in autoimmune disorders of the peripheral nerve system, we analyzed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK protein in the sciatic nerves of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Western blot analysis showed that phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK protein was significantly increased in the sciatic nerves of rats in the early and peak phases of EAN, and declined gradually thereafter. Immunohistochemistry showed that p-p38 MAPK levels were increased in the infiltrating inflammatory cells, including T cells and macrophages, as well as in blood vessels and some Schwann cells in EAN-affected sciatic nerves, as compared to the sciatic nerves of controls. Some inflammatory cells and a few Schwann cells were also positive for TUNEL reaction at the peak and recovery phases of EAN. In conclusion, we postulate that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK is involved in the elimination of infiltrating inflammatory cells during the course of EAN and may possibly modulate recovery in autoimmune disorders of the peripheral nervous system.

  12. Whey protein concentrate enhances intestinal integrity and influences transforming growth factor-β1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Lefei; Cao, Shuting; Song, Zehe; Hu, Caihong; Han, Xinyan

    2016-03-28

    attenuates the LPS-induced intestinal injury by improving mucosal barrier function, alleviating intestinal inflammation and influencing TGF-β1 canonical Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways.

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 mediates nuclear translocation of ORE3 to promote ORE9 gene expression in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yushan; Liu, Jian; Chai, Jinyu; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a potent promoter of plant senescence. ORESARA3 (ORE3)/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), a protein similar to the members of the disease-related Nramp metal transporter family, is involved in cross-talk among several senescence processes related to abscisic acid, ethylene, MeJA, age and darkness. Nevertheless, the mechanism involved in the regulation of ORE3/EIN2 in exogenous MeJA-induced leaf senescence remains unclear. The C-terminal end of ORE3/EIN2 (CEND) was cleaved from ORE3/EIN2 located in the endoplasmic reticulum and then transferred to the nucleus during MeJA-induced senescence. Further analyses showed that mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) promoted CEND cleavage and nuclear translocation. Nuclear CEND accumulated ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), a transcription factor that accelerates MeJA-induced leaf senescence wherein ORESARA9 (ORE9) expression was suppressed in ein3, ore3, and mpk6 mutant plants. ChIP experiments revealed that EIN3 bound directly to the ORE9 promoter and this binding was enhanced in MeJA-induced leaf senescence. This study revealed the effect of the signalling pathway involving MPK6-ORE3-EIN3-ORE9 on regulating leaf senescence and provided insights into the mechanism of MeJA in promoting leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  14. ZmMKK4, a novel group C mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in maize (Zea mays), confers salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Zhang, Maoying; Xing, Xin; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yang; Li, Dapeng; Li, Dequan

    2011-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signalling modules that transduce extracellular signalling to a range of cellular responses. Plant MAPK cascades have been implicated in development and stress response. In this study, we isolated a novel group C MAPKK gene, ZmMKK4, from maize. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the ZmMKK4 transcript expression was up-regulated by cold, high salt and exogenous H(2)O(2,) but down-regulated by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expression of ZmMKK4 in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to cold and salt stresses by increased germination rate, lateral root numbers, plant survival rate, chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugar contents, and antioxidant enzyme [peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT)] activities compared with control plants. Furthermore, ZmMKK4 enhanced a 37 kDa kinase activity after cold and salt stresses. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of stress-responsive transcription factors and functional genes were higher in ZmMKK4-over-expressing plants than in control plants. In addition, ZmMKK4 protein is localized in the nucleus. Taken together, these results indicate that ZmMKK4 is a positive regulator of salt and cold tolerance in plants.

  15. Effects of doxepin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, and AKT1 genes expression in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Eidelkhani, Nastaran; Radahmadi, Maryam; Kazemi, Mohammad; Rafiee, Laleh; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that doxepin in addition to enhancement of noradrenaline and serotonin levels may have neuroprotective effects. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of doxepin on gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), and serine-threonine protein kinase AKT1 in rat hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Male rats were divided randomly into three groups: Control, doxepin 1 mg/kg, and doxepin 5 mg/kg. Rats received an i.p injection of doxepin for 21 days. Then the hippocampi were dissected for the measurement of the expression of BDNF, TNF-α, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes. Results: Our results showed no significant effects of doxepin on gene expression of BDNF, TNF-α, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes in the hippocampus. Conclusions: These results did not show significant effects of doxepin on the genes that affect the neuronal survival in intact animals. However, more studies need to be done, especially in models associated with neuronal damage. PMID:26601091

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5)-mediated signalling cascade regulates expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene in Arabidopsis under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yu; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in plant adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses but the upstream signalling process that modulates their expression is not clear. Expression of two iron SODs, FSD2 and FSD3, was significantly increased in Arabidopsis in response to NaCl treatment but blocked in transgenic MKK5-RNAi plant, mkk5. Using an assay system for transient expression in protoplasts, it was found that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) was also activated in response to salt stress. Overexpression of MKK5 in wild-type plants enhanced their tolerance to salt treatments, while mkk5 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress in germination on salt-containing media. Moreover, another kinase, MPK6, was also involved in the MKK5-mediated iron superoxide dismutase (FSD) signalling pathway in salt stress. The kinase activity of MPK6 was totally turned off in mkk5, whereas the activity of MPK3 was only partially blocked. MKK5 interacted with the MEKK1 protein that was also involved in the salt-induced FSD signalling pathway. These data suggest that salt-induced FSD2 and FSD3 expressions are influenced by MEKK1 via MKK5-MPK6-coupled signalling. This MAP kinase cascade (MEKK1, MKK5, and MPK6) mediates the salt-induced expression of iron superoxide dismutases.

  17. Phosphorylation by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Promotes Estrogen Receptor α Turnover and Functional Activity via the SCFSkp2 Proteasomal Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shweta; Xiao, Zhen; Meng, Zhaojing

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the actions of estrogens in target cells and is a master regulator of the gene expression and proliferative programs of breast cancer cells. The presence of ERα in breast cancer cells is crucial for the effectiveness of endocrine therapies, and its loss is a hallmark of endocrine-insensitive breast tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the cellular levels of ERα are not fully understood. Our findings reveal a unique cellular pathway involving the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation of ERα at Ser-294 that specifies its turnover by the SCFSkp2 proteasome complex. Consistently, we observed an inverse relationship between ERα and Skp2 or active p38MAPK in breast cancer cell lines and human tumors. ERα regulation by Skp2 was cell cycle stage dependent and critical for promoting the mitogenic effects of estradiol via ERα. Interestingly, by the knockdown of Skp2 or the inhibition of p38MAPK, we restored functional ERα protein levels and the control of gene expression and proliferation by estrogen and antiestrogen in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. Our findings highlight a novel pathway with therapeutic potential for restoring ERα and the responsiveness to endocrine therapy in some endocrine-insensitive ERα-negative breast cancers. PMID:22431515

  18. In vitro and in vivo synergy of MCP compounds with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway- and microtubule-targeting inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Skobeleva, Natalia; Menon, Sanjay; Weber, Lutz; Golemis, Erica A; Khazak, Vladimir

    2007-03-01

    An important clinical task is to coherently integrate the use of protein-targeted drugs into preexisting therapeutic regimens, with the goal of improving treatment efficacy. Constitutive activation of Ras-dependent signaling is important in many tumors, and agents that inhibit this pathway might be useful in numerous therapeutic combinations. The MCP compounds were identified as inhibitors of Ras-Raf interactions and previously shown to inhibit multiple Ras-dependent transformation phenotypes when used as monoagents in cell culture analyses. In this study, we investigate the ability of the MCP110 compound to synergistically enhance the activity of other therapeutic agents. In both a defined K-Ras-transformed fibroblast model and in human tumor cell lines with mutationally activated Ras, MCP110 selectively synergizes with other agents targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and with multiple agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, and vincristine) targeting the microtubule network. The synergistic activity of MCP110 and paclitaxel was further established by experiments showing that in Kaposi's sarcoma oncogenically transformed cell lines, cellular models for tumors treated with taxanes in the clinic and in which Raf-dependent signaling plays an important role, MCP110 synergizes with paclitaxel and limit growth. Finally, in vivo testing indicate that MCP110 is bioavailable, inhibits the growth of LXFA 629 lung and SW620 colon carcinoma cells in xenograft models, and again strongly synergizes with paclitaxel. Together, these findings indicate that MCP compounds have potential to be effective in combination with other anticancer agents.

  19. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester up-regulates antioxidant levels in hepatic stellate cell line T6 via an Nrf2-mediated mitogen activated protein kinases pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning; Shi, Juan-Juan; Wu, Feng-Ping; Li, Mei; Zhang, Xin; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhai, Song; Jia, Xiao-Li; Dang, Shuang-Suo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the antioxidant effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) cells cultured in vitro and the potential mechanisms. METHODS HSC-T6 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of CAPE for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Cell proliferation was investigated using the MTT assay, and cell ultrastructural alterations were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was employed to investigate the effects of CAPE on apoptosis and the levels of reactive oxygen species in HSC-T6 cells cultured in vitro. An enzyme immunoassay instrument was used to evaluate antioxidant enzyme expression. The effect on α-smooth muscle actin was shown using immunofluorescence. Gene and protein levels of Nrf2, related factors, and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), in HSC-T6 cells were detected using RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS CAPE inhibited the proliferation and activation of HSC-T6 cells cultured in vitro. CAPE increased the antioxidant levels and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in cells decreased in response to CAPE. Interestingly, CAPE-induced oxidative stress in the cells was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with MAPKs inhibitors. CONCLUSION CAPE inhibits cell proliferation and up-regulates the antioxidant levels in HSC-T6 cells partly through the Nrf2-MAPKs signaling pathway. PMID:28275300

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4-like carrying an MEY motif instead of a TXY motif is involved in ozone tolerance and regulation of stomatal closure in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Yuki; Yoda, Hiroshi; Osaki, Kohei; Amano, Yuta; Aono, Mitsuko; Seo, Shigemi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/MPKs) are important factors in the regulation of signal transduction in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previously, we characterized a MAPK from tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum MPK4 (NtMPK4). Here, we found a highly homologous gene, NtMPK4-like (NtMPK4L), in tobacco as well as other species in Solanaceae and Gramineae. Deduced amino acid sequences of their translation products carried MEY motifs instead of conserved TXY motifs of the MAPK family. We isolated the full length NtMPK4L gene and examined the physiological functions of NtMPK4L. We revealed that NtMPK4L was activated by wounding, like NtMPK4. However, a constitutively active salicylic acid-induced protein kinase kinase (SIPKKEE), which phosphorylates NtMPK4, did not phosphorylate NtMPK4L. Moreover, a tyrosine residue in the MEY motif was not involved in NtMPK4L activation. We also found that NtMPK4L-silenced plants showed rapid transpiration caused by remarkably open stomata. In addition, NtMPK4L-silenced plants completely lost the ability to close stomata upon ozone treatment and were highly sensitive to ozone, suggesting that this atypical MAPK plays a role in ozone tolerance through stomatal regulation. PMID:27126796

  1. A novel regulatory mechanism of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter revealed by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB202190.

    PubMed

    Montero, Mayte; Lobaton, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Alvarez, Javier

    2002-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake modulates the cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) acting as a transient Ca2+ buffer. In addition, mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]M) regulates the rate of respiration and may trigger opening of the permeability transition pore and start apoptosis. However, no mechanism for the physiological regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake has been described. We show here that SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, strongly stimulates ruthenium red-sensitive mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, both in intact and in permeabilized HeLa cells. The [Ca2+]M peak induced by agonists was increased about fourfold in the presence of the inhibitor, with a concomitant reduction in the [Ca2+]c peak. The stimulation occurred fast and was rapidly reversible. In addition, experiments in permeabilized cells perfused with controlled [Ca2+] showed that SB202190 stimulated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by more than 10-fold, but only in the physiological [Ca2+]c range (1-4 mM). Other structurally related p38 MAP kinase inhibitors (SB203580, PD169316, or SB220025) produced little or no effect. Our data suggest that in HeLa cells, a protein kinase sensitive to SB202190 tonically inhibits the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. This novel regulatory mechanism may be of paramount importance to modulate mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake under different physiopathological conditions.

  2. A maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, ZmMKK1, positively regulated the salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Liu, Yang; Pan, Jiaowen; Li, Dequan

    2014-07-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction modules in animals, plants and yeast. MAPK cascades are complicated networks and play vital roles in signal transduction pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a maize MAPKK gene, ZmMKK1, was characterized. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 transcripts were induced by diverse stresses and ABA signal molecule in maize root. Further study showed that the ZmMKK1-overexpressing Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. However, seed germination, post-germination growth and stomatal aperture analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 overexpression was sensitive to ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that the overexpression of ZmMKK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of ROS scavenging enzyme- and ABA-related genes, such as POD, CAT, RAB18 and RD29A under salt and drought conditions. In addition, heterologous overexpression of ZmMKK1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) improved the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. These results suggested that ZmMKK1 might act as an ABA- and ROS-dependent protein kinase in positive modulation of salt and drought tolerance. Most importantly, ZmMKK1 interacted with ZmMEKK1 as evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assay, redeeming a deficiency of MAPK interaction partners in maize.

  3. Teaching an old dog new tricks: Suppressing activation of specific mitogen-activated kinases as a potential virulence function of the bacterial AvrRpt2 effector protein

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT AvrRpt2 is one of the first Pseudomonas syringae effector proteins demonstrated to be delivered into host cells. It suppresses plant immunity by modulating auxin signaling and cleavage of the membrane-localized defense regulator RIN4. We recently uncovered a novel potential virulence function of AvrRpt2, where it specifically blocked activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK4 and MPK11, but not of MPK3 and MPK6. Putative AvrRpt2 homologs from different phytopathogens and plant-associated bacteria showed distinct activities with respect to MPK4/11 activation suppression and RIN4 cleavage. Apart from differences in sequence similarity, 3 of the analyzed homologs were apparently “truncated.” To examine the role of the AvrRpt2 N-terminus, we modeled the structures of these AvrRpt2 homologs and performed deletion and domain swap experiments. Our results strengthen the finding that RIN4 cleavage is irrelevant for the ability to suppress defense-related MPK4/11 activation and indicate that full protease activity or cleavage specificity is affected by the N-terminus. PMID:27830985

  4. Melatonin alleviates myosin light chain kinase expression and activity via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway during atherosclerosis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAOWEN; WAN, YUFENG; XU, YUANHONG; ZHOU, QING; WANG, YUAN; ZHU, HUAQING

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous indole compound with numerous biological activities that has been associated with atherosclerosis (AS). In the present study, rabbits were used as an AS model in order to investigate whether MLT affects endothelial cell permeability, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity and MLCK expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Expression and activity of MLCK were measured using western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and γ-32P-adenosine triphosphate incorporation. Endothelial permeability was detected using rhodamine phalloidin fluorescence staining. The phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in endothelial cells were also analyzed using western blot analysis. Atheromatous plaques were formed in rabbits with a high cholesterol diet; however, following treatment with MLT, the number and areas of atheromatous plaques were significantly reduced. In addition, MLT treatment reversed the increase of MLCK activity and expression that occurred in rabbits with high cholesterol intake. Furthermore, levels of phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 decreased following MLT treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that AS may be associated with increased MLCK expression and activity, which was reduced following treatment with MLT. The mechanism of action of MLT was thought to proceed via modulating MAPK pathway signal transduction; however, further studies are required in order to fully elucidate the exact regulatory mechanisms involved. PMID:25339116

  5. Reduction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling by isoflurane inhibits proliferation and apoptosis evasion in human papillomavirus-infected laryngeal papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongbo; Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Human laryngeal papilloma (LP) is a human papillomavirus-induced hyperplastic tumor of the respiratory tract, which is characterized by rapid growth and apoptosis resistance. Isoflurane (ISO) inhibits proliferation and elicits apoptosis in cancer cells. The results of the present study found that the mRNA and protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) were higher in LP tissues than in normal laryngeal samples, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was increased in LP cells, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and radioimmunoassay analyses. Notably, the increase in COX2 and PGE2 levels was significantly abrogated in the ISO-treated LP cells. The inhibitory effects of ISO on COX2 expression and activity depended on the inactivation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in LP cells. By inhibiting the COX2 activity of LP cells, ISO treatment markedly suppressed cell viability and proliferation, as determined using Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine incorporation assays. Furthermore, ISO treatment promoted cell apoptosis, as demonstrated by flow cytometry, nucleosomal fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assays. Collectively, the present results suggest that COX2 is critical in the progression of LP, and ISO is a potential agent for LP therapy by impeding p38 MAPK/COX2 signaling. PMID:27882174

  6. The immunosuppressive effect of Buchang-tang through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor activation in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Young; Shin, Tae-Yong; An, Nyeon-Hyoung; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2005-10-31

    Buchang-tang (BCT) has been known to suppress inflammatory and autoimmune responses. Accordingly, BCT has been clinically used in Korea as an immunomodulatory oriental medicine. Here, we report on the mechanism of action of BCT in activated MOLT-4 cells by determining the affected signaling pathways. BCT inhibits extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)l/2 and p38 activation but does not interfere with phosphorylation of other mitogen-activated protein kinases, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases 1/2 in MOLT-4 cells. The nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFATc) was blocked by BCT. Also, degradation of inhibitor kappaB-alpha and transactivation by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB)/Rel A were impaired. Furthermore, interlukin (IL)-2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly diminished by BCT treatment. Our data indicate that BCT inhibits ERK1/2, p38 activation, nuclear translocation of NFATc, and NF-kappaB, resulting in diminished secretion of IL-2.

  7. Excessive L-cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Sun, Kaiji; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    High intake of dietary cysteine is extremely toxic to animals and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that excessive L-cysteine induces cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. Jejunal enterocytes were cultured in the presence of 0-10 mmol/L L-cysteine. Cell viability, morphologic alterations, mRNA levels for genes involved in ER stress, protein abundances for glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) were determined. The results showed that L-cysteine (5-10 mmol/L) reduced cell viability (P < 0.05) and led to vacuole-like cell death in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. These adverse effects of L-cysteine were not affected by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The protein abundances for CHOP, phosphorylated (p)-eIF2α, p-JNK1/2, p-p38 MAPK, and the spliced form of XBP-1 mRNA were enhanced (P < 0.05), whereas those for p-ERK1/2 were reduced (P < 0.05). Collectively, excessive L-cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death via the activation of ER stress and MAPK signaling in small intestinal epithelial cells. These signaling pathways may be potential targets for developing effective strategies to prevent the toxicity of dietary cysteine.

  8. Regulation of p53, nuclear factor {kappa}B and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Neetu; Bhui, Kulpreet; Roy, Preeti; Srivastava, Smita; George, Jasmine; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and immature fruits of pineapples (Ananas cosmosus), which has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-metastatic properties. In the present study, antitumorigenic activity of bromelain was recorded in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted 2-stage mouse skin model. Results showed that bromelain application delayed the onset of tumorigenesis and reduced the cumulative number of tumors, tumor volume and the average number of tumors/mouse. To establish a cause and effect relationship, we targeted the proteins involved in the cell death pathway. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in mouse skin. Since persistent induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), we also investigated the effect of bromelain on Cox-2 and NF-{kappa}B expression. Results showed that bromelain application significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-{kappa}B by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Taken together, we conclude that bromelain induces apoptosis-related proteins along with inhibition of NF-{kappa}B-driven Cox-2 expression by blocking the MAPK and Akt/protein kinase B signaling in DMBA-TPA-induced mouse skin tumors, which may account for its anti-tumorigenic effects.

  9. Regulation of p53, nuclear factor kappaB and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Neetu; Bhui, Kulpreet; Roy, Preeti; Srivastava, Smita; George, Jasmine; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and immature fruits of pineapples (Ananas cosmosus), which has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-metastatic properties. In the present study, antitumorigenic activity of bromelain was recorded in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted 2-stage mouse skin model. Results showed that bromelain application delayed the onset of tumorigenesis and reduced the cumulative number of tumors, tumor volume and the average number of tumors/mouse. To establish a cause and effect relationship, we targeted the proteins involved in the cell death pathway. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in mouse skin. Since persistent induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), we also investigated the effect of bromelain on Cox-2 and NF-kappaB expression. Results showed that bromelain application significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-kappaB by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaBalpha. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Taken together, we conclude that bromelain induces apoptosis-related proteins along with inhibition of NF-kappaB-driven Cox-2 expression by blocking the MAPK and Akt/protein kinase B signaling in DMBA-TPA-induced mouse skin tumors, which may account for its anti-tumorigenic effects.

  10. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHAN; HUANG, LIMING; MENG, LIWEI; SUN, HE; ZHANG, WEI; XU, YINGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  11. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development.

  12. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system. PMID:28096884

  13. A Stress-Activated, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–ATF/CREB Pathway Regulates Posttranscriptional, Sequence-Dependent Decay of Target RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Wagnon, Jacy L.; Protacio, Reine M.; Glazko, Galina V.; Beggs, Marjorie; Raj, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Broadly conserved, mitogen-activated/stress-activated protein kinases (MAPK/SAPK) of the p38 family regulate multiple cellular processes. They transduce signals via dimeric, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the ATF/CREB family (such as Atf2, Fos, and Jun) to regulate the transcription of target genes. We report additional mechanisms for gene regulation by such pathways exerted through RNA stability controls. The Spc1 (Sty1/Phh1) kinase-regulated Atf1-Pcr1 (Mts1-Mts2) heterodimer of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe controls the stress-induced, posttranscriptional stability and decay of sets of target RNAs. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing data revealed that decay is associated nonrandomly with transcripts that contain an M26 sequence motif. Moreover, the ablation of an M26 sequence motif in a target mRNA is sufficient to block its stress-induced loss. Conversely, engineered M26 motifs can render a stable mRNA into one that is targeted for decay. This stress-activated RNA decay (SARD) provides a mechanism for reducing the expression of target genes without shutting off transcription itself. Thus, a single p38-ATF/CREB signal transduction pathway can coordinately induce (promote transcription and RNA stability) and repress (promote RNA decay) transcript levels for distinct sets of genes, as is required for developmental decisions in response to stress and other stimuli. PMID:23732911

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is involved in seed formation and modulation of primary and lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-García, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) cascades are signal transduction modules highly conserved in all eukaryotes regulating various aspects of plant biology, including stress responses and developmental programmes. In this study, we characterized the role of MAPK 6 (MPK6) in Arabidopsis embryo development and in post-embryonic root system architecture. We found that the mpk6 mutation caused altered embryo development giving rise to three seed phenotypes that, post-germination, correlated with alterations in root architecture. In the smaller seed class, mutant seedlings failed to develop the primary root, possibly as a result of an earlier defect in the division of the hypophysis cell during embryo development, but they had the capacity to develop adventitious roots to complete their life cycle. In the larger class, the MPK6 loss of function did not cause any evident alteration in seed morphology, but the embryo and the mature seed were bigger than the wild type. Seedlings developed from these bigger seeds were characterized by a primary root longer than that of the wild type, accompanied by significantly increased lateral root initiation and more and longer root hairs. Apparently, the increment in primary root growth resulted from an enhanced cell production and cell elongation. Our data demonstrated that MPK6 plays an important role during embryo development and acts as a repressor of primary and lateral root development. PMID:24218326

  15. Effects of transforming growth factor-[beta] and budesonide on mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and apoptosis in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Cuda, Giovanni; Vatrella, Alessandro; Fratto, Donatella; Grembiale, Rosa D; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Maselli, Rosario; Costanzo, Francesco S; Marsico, Serafino A

    2003-07-01

    Airway epithelial cells play a central role in the inflammatory, apoptotic, and remodeling processes associated with asthma. Within this context, a key function is exerted by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), whose biological effects are mediated at least in part by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The aim of our study was to investigate, in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), the effects of TGF-beta (10 ng/ml) on both MAPK activation and apoptosis, in the presence or absence of a pretreatment with budesonide (10-8 M). MAPK activation was detected by Western blotting, using anti-phospho-MAPK monoclonal antibodies, which specifically recognize the phosphorylated, active forms of these enzymes. Apoptosis was assayed by caspase-3 activation and fluorescence microscopy, using annexin-V (An-V) and propidium iodide (PI) as markers of cell death. Our results show that TGF-beta induced a marked ( reverse similar 9-fold) increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and also dramatically enhanced cell death, which was completely prevented by specific MAPK inhibitors. Both MAPK activation and apoptosis were effectively inhibited by budesonide (BUD), thereby suggesting that the powerful antiapoptotic action of inhaled glucocorticoids may be very important for their protective role against epithelial injury, which represents a key pathogenic event in asthma.

  16. Herbivore perception decreases photosynthetic carbon-assimilation and reduces stomatal conductance by engaging 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 and cytokinin perception.

    PubMed

    Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Meldau, Stefan; Zavala, Jorge A; Baldwin, Ian T

    2016-12-07

    Herbivory-induced changes in photosynthesis have been documented in many plant species, however the complexity of photosynthetic regulation and analysis has thwarted progress in understanding the mechanism involved, particularly those elicited by herbivore-specific elicitors. Here we analyzed the early photosynthetic gas-exchange responses in Nicotiana attenuata plants after wounding and elicitation with Manduca sexta oral-secretions, and the pathways regulating these responses. Elicitation with M. sexta oral-secretions rapidly decreased photosynthetic carbon-assimilation (AC ) in treated and systemic (untreated, vascularly connected) leaves, which were associated with changes in stomatal conductance, rather than with changes in Rubisco activity and RuBP-turnover. Phytohormone profiling and gas-exchange-analysis of oral-secretion-elicited transgenic plants altered in phytohormone regulation, biosynthesis and perception, combined with micrografting techniques, revealed that the local photosynthetic-responses were mediated by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), while the systemic responses involved interactions among jasmonates, cytokinins and abscisic acid signaling mediated by mitogen activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4). The analysis also revealed a role for cytokinins interacting with MPK4 in CO2 -mediated stomatal regulation. Hence oral-secretions, while eliciting jasmonic acid-mediated defense responses, also elicits OPDA-mediated changes in stomatal conductance and AC , an observation illustrating the complexity and economy of the signaling that regulates defense and carbon assimilation pathways in response to herbivore attack.

  17. The Rice Transcription Factor WRKY53 Suppresses Herbivore-Induced Defenses by Acting as a Negative Feedback Modulator of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Tongfang; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Lu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which herbivore-attacked plants activate their defenses are well studied. By contrast, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that allow them to control their defensive investment and avoid a defensive overshoot. We characterized a rice (Oryza sativa) WRKY gene, OsWRKY53, whose expression is rapidly induced upon wounding and induced in a delayed fashion upon attack by the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis. The transcript levels of OsWRKY53 are independent of endogenous jasmonic acid but positively regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases OsMPK3/OsMPK6. OsWRKY53 physically interacts with OsMPK3/OsMPK6 and suppresses their activity in vitro. By consequence, it modulates the expression of defensive, MPK-regulated WRKYs and thereby reduces jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine, and ethylene induction. This phytohormonal reconfiguration is associated with a reduction in trypsin protease inhibitor activity and improved SSB performance. OsWRKY53 is also shown to be a negative regulator of plant growth. Taken together, these results show that OsWRKY53 functions as a negative feedback modulator of MPK3/MPK6 and thereby acts as an early suppressor of induced defenses. OsWRKY53 therefore enables rice plants to control the magnitude of their defensive investment during early signaling. PMID:26453434

  18. Genome-Wide Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family across Fungal Lineage Shows Presence of Novel and Diverse Activation Loop Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Ponpandian, Lakshmi Narayanan; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is characterized by the presence of the T-E-Y, T-D-Y, and T-G-Y motifs in its activation loop region and plays a significant role in regulating diverse cellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. Availability of large-scale genome data in the fungal kingdom encouraged us to identify and analyse the fungal MAPK gene family consisting of 173 fungal species. The analysis of the MAPK gene family resulted in the discovery of several novel activation loop motifs (T-T-Y, T-I-Y, T-N-Y, T-H-Y, T-S-Y, K-G-Y, T-Q-Y, S-E-Y and S-D-Y) in fungal MAPKs. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that fungal MAPKs are non-polymorphic, had evolved from their common ancestors around 1500 million years ago, and are distantly related to plant MAPKs. We are the first to report the presence of nine novel activation loop motifs in fungal MAPKs. The specificity of the activation loop motif plays a significant role in controlling different growth and stress related pathways in fungi. Hence, the presences of these nine novel activation loop motifs in fungi are of special interest. PMID:26918378

  19. Hypertonicity regulates the function of human neutrophils by modulating chemoattractant receptor signaling and activating mitogen-activated protein kinase p38.

    PubMed Central

    Junger, W G; Hoyt, D B; Davis, R E; Herdon-Remelius, C; Namiki, S; Junger, H; Loomis, W; Altman, A

    1998-01-01

    Excessive neutrophil activation causes posttraumatic complications, which may be reduced with hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation. We tested if this is because of modulated neutrophil function by HS. Clinically relevant hypertonicity (10-25 mM) suppressed degranulation and superoxide formation in response to fMLP and blocked the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2 and p38, but did not affect Ca2+ mobilization. HS did not suppress oxidative burst in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This indicates that HS suppresses neutrophil function by intercepting signal pathways upstream of or apart from PKC. HS activated p38 by itself and enhanced degranulation in response to PKC activation. This enhancement was reduced by inhibition of p38 with SB203580, suggesting that p38 up-regulation participates in HS-induced enhancements of degranulation. HS had similar effects on the degranulation of cells that were previously stimulated with fMLP, but had no effect on its own, suggesting that HS enhancement of degranulation requires another signal. We conclude that depending on other stimuli, HS can suppress neutrophil activation by intercepting multiple receptor signals or augment degranulation by enhancing p38 signaling. In patients HS resuscitation may reduce posttraumatic complications by preventing neutrophil activation via chemotactic factors released during reperfusion. PMID:9637711

  20. Integrated signaling network involving calcium, nitric oxide, and active oxygen species but not mitogen-activated protein kinases in BcPG1-elicited grapevine defenses.

    PubMed

    Vandelle, Elodie; Poinssot, Benoît; Wendehenne, David; Bentéjac, Marc; Alain, Pugin

    2006-04-01

    We have already reported the identification of the endopolygalacturonase 1 (BcPG1) from Botrytis cinerea as a potent elicitor of defense responses in grapevine, independently of its enzymatic activity. The aim of the present study is the analysis of the signaling pathways triggered by BcPG1 in grapevine cells. Our data indicate that BcPG1 induces a Ca2+ entry from the apoplasm, which triggers a phosphorylation-dependent nitric oxide (NO) production via an enzyme probably related to a NO synthase. Then NO is involved in (i) cytosolic calcium homeostasis, by activating Ca2+ release from internal stores and regulating Ca2+ fluxes across the plasma membrane, (ii) plasma membrane potential variation, (iii) the activation of active oxygen species (AOS) production, and (iv) defense gene expression, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase, which encode enzymes responsible for phytoalexin biosynthesis. Interestingly enough, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is independent of this regulation pathway that closely connects Ca2+, NO, and AOS.

  1. p62(dok), a negative regulator of Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, opposes leukemogenesis by p210(bcr-abl).

    PubMed

    Di Cristofano, A; Niki, M; Zhao, M; Karnell, F G; Clarkson, B; Pear, W S; Van Aelst, L; Pandolfi, P P

    2001-08-06

    p62(dok) has been identified as a substrate of many oncogenic tyrosine kinases such as the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) chimeric p210(bcr-abl) oncoprotein. It is also phosphorylated upon activation of many receptors and cytoplamic tyrosine kinases. However, the biological functions of p62(dok) in normal cell signaling as well as in p210(bcr-abl) leukemogenesis are as yet not fully understood. Here we show, in hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells derived from p62(dok)-(/)- mice, that the loss of p62(dok) results in increased cell proliferation upon growth factor treatment. Moreover, Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is markedly sustained in p62(dok)-(/)- cells after the removal of growth factor. However, p62(dok) inactivation does not affect DNA damage and growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, p62(dok) inactivation causes a significant shortening in the latency of the fatal myeloproliferative disease induced by retroviral-mediated transduction of p210(bcr-abl) in bone marrow cells. These data indicate that p62(dok) acts as a negative regulator of growth factor-induced cell proliferation, at least in part through downregulating Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, and that p62(dok) can oppose leukemogenesis by p210(bcr-abl).

  2. Atorvastatin promotes human monocyte differentiation toward alternative M2 macrophages through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ou; Zhang, Jinying

    2015-05-01

    M1 and M2 macrophages are detectable in human atherosclerotic lesions, and M2 macrophages are present at locations distant from the lipid core in more stable zones of the plaque and appear to exert anti-inflammatory properties on M1 macrophages. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Although both statins and PPARγ ligands have been reported to protect against the progression of atherosclerosis, no data are currently available regarding the implication of statins in the alternative differentiation of human monocytes. In the present study, we hypothesized that atorvastatin may exert novel effects to prime human monocytes toward an anti-inflammatory alternative M2 phenotype. To this aim, we first found that abundant M2 markers were expressed in human circulating monocytes after atorvastatin treatment. Moreover, atorvastatin was able to induce PPARγ expression and activation in human monocytes in vivo and in vitro, resulting in priming primary human monocytes differentiation into M2 macrophages with a more pronounced paracrine anti-inflammatory activity in M1 macrophages. Additional data with molecular approaches revealed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation was involved in atorvastatin-mediated PPARγ activation and enhanced alternative M2 macrophage phenotype. Collectively, our data demonstrated that atorvastatin promotes human monocyte differentiation toward alternative M2 macrophages via p38 MAPK-dependent PPARγ activation.

  3. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade MKK7-MPK6 Plays Important Roles in Plant Development and Regulates Shoot Branching by Phosphorylating PIN1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Cai, Yueyue; Zhang, Yuanya; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Jiayang; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidences exhibit that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling pathways are connected with many aspects of plant development. The complexity of MAPK cascades raises challenges not only to identify the MAPK module in planta but also to define the specific role of an individual module. So far, our knowledge of MAPK signaling has been largely restricted to a small subset of MAPK cascades. Our previous study has characterized an Arabidopsis bushy and dwarf1 (bud1) mutant, in which the MAP Kinase Kinase 7 (MKK7) was constitutively activated, resulting in multiple phenotypic alterations. In this study, we found that MPK3 and MPK6 are the substrates for phosphorylation by MKK7 in planta. Genetic analysis showed that MKK7-MPK6 cascade is specifically responsible for the regulation of shoot branching, hypocotyl gravitropism, filament elongation, and lateral root formation, while MKK7-MPK3 cascade is mainly involved in leaf morphology. We further demonstrated that the MKK7-MPK6 cascade controls shoot branching by phosphorylating Ser 337 on PIN1, which affects the basal localization of PIN1 in xylem parenchyma cells and polar auxin transport in the primary stem. Our results not only specify the functions of the MKK7-MPK6 cascade but also reveal a novel mechanism for PIN1 phosphorylation, establishing a molecular link between the MAPK cascade and auxin-regulated plant development. PMID:27618482

  4. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases affects KC/CXCL1-induced intraluminal crawling, transendothelial migration, and chemotaxis of neutrophils in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Najia; Hossain, Mokarram; Liu, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling is critical in the pathophysiology of a variety of inflammatory processes. Leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation is a multistep process governed by specific signalling cascades. After adhesion in the lumen, many leukocytes crawl to optimal sites at endothelial junctions and transmigrate to extravascular tissue in a Mac-1-dependent manner. The signalling mechanisms that regulate postadhesion steps of intraluminal crawling, transmigration, and chemotaxis in tissue remain incompletely understood. The present study explored the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on various parameters of neutrophil recruitment triggered by chemokine KC (CXCL1) gradient. Neutrophil-endothelial interactions in microvasculature of murine cremaster muscle were determined using intravital microscopy and time-lapsed video analysis. SB203580 (100 nM) did not change leukocyte rolling but significantly attenuated neutrophil adhesion, emigration, and transmigration and impaired the initiation of neutrophil crawling and transmigration. In response to KC chemotactic gradient, SB203580 significantly reduced the velocity of migration and chemotaxis index of neutrophils in tissue. The upregulation of Mac-1 expression in neutrophils stimulated by KC was significantly blunted by SB203580 in vitro. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK significantly impairs multiple steps of neutrophil recruitment in vivo.

  5. The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, VdHog1, regulates osmotic stress response, microsclerotia formation and virulence in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Longyan; Xiong, Dianguang; Klosterman, Steven J; Xiao, Shuxiao; Tian, Chengming

    2016-03-01

    The fungus Verticillium dahliae has gained worldwide notoriety as a destructive plant pathogen, causing vascular wilt diseases on diverse plant species. V. dahliae produces melanized resting bodies, known as microsclerotia, which can survive for 15 years in the soil, and are thus critically important in its disease cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin microsclerotia formation, survival, and germination remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that deletion of VdHog1 (ΔVdHog1), encoding a homolog of a high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response mitogen-activated protein kinase, displayed decreased numbers of melanized microsclerotia in culture, heightened sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and increased resistance to the fungicide fludioxonil. Through RNA-Seq analysis, we identified 221 genes differentially expressed in the ΔVdHog1 strain. Interestingly, the expression levels of genes involved in melanin biosynthesis, as well as the hydrophobin gene VDH1, involved in the early stage of microsclerotia formation, were significantly decreased in the ΔVdHog1 strains relative to the wild-type expression levels. The ΔVdHog1 strains exhibited decreased virulence relative to the wild type strain on smoke tree seedlings. These results indicate that VdHog1 regulates hyperosmotic stress responses in V. dahliae, and establishes the Hog1-mediated pathway as a target to further probe the up- and downstream processes that regulate asexual development in this fungus.

  6. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase VdPbs2 of Verticillium dahliae Regulates Microsclerotia Formation, Stress Response, and Plant Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Longyan; Wang, Yonglin; Yu, Jun; Xiong, Dianguang; Zhao, Hengjun; Tian, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae, a ubiquitous phytopathogenic fungus, forms resting structures, known as microsclerotia that play crucial roles in Verticillium wilt diseases. VdHog1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), controls microsclerotia formation, virulence, and stress response in V. dahliae. In this study, we present detailed evidence that the conserved upstream component of VdHog1, VdPbs2, is a key regulator of microsclerotia formation, oxidative stress and fungicide response and plant virulence in V. dahliae. We identified VdPbs2, homologous to the yeast MAPK kinase Pbs2. Similar to the VdHog1 deletion mutant, VdPbs2 deletion strains exhibited delayed melanin synthesis and reduced formation of microsclerotia. When exposed to stresses, VdPbs2 mutants were more sensitive than the wild type to osmotic agents and peroxide, but more resistant to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis and some fungicides. Finally, VdPbs2 deletion mutants exhibited reduced virulence on smoke tree and tobacco seedlings. When taken together, we implicate that VdPbs2 and VdHog1 function in a cascade that regulates microsclerotia formation and virulence, but not all VdHog1 dependent functions are VdPbs2 regulated. This study thus provides novel insights into the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate microsclerotia formation and pathogenesis in this fungus. PMID:27729908

  7. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by tumor-promoting organic peroxides and protection by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Upham, Brad L; Guzvić, Miodrag; Scott, Jacob; Carbone, Joseph M; Blaha, Ludek; Coe, Chad; Li, Lan Lan; Rummel, Alisa M; Trosko, James E

    2007-01-01

    Dicumyl peroxide (di-CuOOH) and benzoyl peroxide (BzOOH) act as tumor promoters in SENCAR mice, whereas di-tert-butylhydroperoxide does not. Tumor promotion requires the removal of growth suppression by inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and the induction of mitogenic intracellular pathways. We showed that di-CuOOH and BzOOH both reversibly inhibited GJIC and transiently activated mitogen-activated protein kinase, specifically, the extracellular receptor kinase at noncytotoxic conditions in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells, whereas the non-tumor-promoting di-tert-butylhydroperoxide did not inhibit GJIC or activate extracellular receptor kinase. di-CuOOH but not BzOOH inhibited GJIC through a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent mechanism. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was needed to prevent a cytotoxic, glutathione-depleting effect of BzOOH, whereas di-CuOOH was noncytotoxic and did not alter glutathione levels at all doses and times tested. Pretreatment of WB-F344 cells with resveratrol, a polyphenolic antioxidant present in red wine, prevented at physiological doses the inhibition of GJIC by di-CuOOH but not from BzOOH and was effective in significantly preventing extracellular receptor kinase activation by both peroxides. NAC did not prevent any of the peroxide effects on either GJIC or extracellular receptor kinase, suggesting a specific antioxidant effect of resveratrol.

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK mediate Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxin ApxI-induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling

    2011-08-05

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (Apx) are major virulence factors that play important roles in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia in swine. A previous study has demonstrated that native ApxI at low concentrations induces apoptosis in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via a caspase-3-dependent pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ApxI-induced apoptosis remain largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that ApxI treatment in PAMs rapidly induced phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Application of a selective p38 or JNK inhibitor significantly reduced ApxI-induced apoptosis, indicating the involvement of p38 and JNK pathways in this event. Furthermore, activation of both caspase-8 and -9 were observed in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity significantly protected PAMs from ApxI-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bid activation was also noted in ApxI-treated PAMs, and inhibition of caspase-8 suppressed the activation of Bid and caspase-9, suggesting that ApxI was able to activate the caspases-8-Bid-caspase-9 pathway. Notably, inhibition of p38 or JNK pathway greatly attenuated the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9. This study is the first to demonstrate that ApxI-induced apoptosis of PAMs involves the activation of p38 and JNK, and engages the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  9. Key signalling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in experimental models of breast cancer progression and in mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jacqueline; Bergin, Orla; Bianchi, Alessandro; McNally, Sara; Martin, Finian

    2009-01-01

    Seven classes of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signalling cascades exist, four of which are implicated in breast disease and function in mammary epithelial cells. These are the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway, the ERK5 pathway, the p38 pathway and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. In some forms of human breast cancer and in many experimental models of breast cancer progression, signalling through the ERK1/2 pathway, in particular, has been implicated as being important. We review the influence of ERK1/2 activity on the organised three-dimensional association of mammary epithelial cells, and in models of breast cancer cell invasion. We assess the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor family signalling through ERK1/2 in models of breast cancer progression and the influence of ERK1/2 on its substrate, the oestrogen receptor, in this context. In parallel, we consider the importance of these MAPK-centred signalling cascades during the cycle of mammary gland development. Although less extensively studied, we highlight the instances of signalling through the p38, JNK and ERK5 pathways involved in breast cancer progression and mammary gland development.

  10. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF{kappa}B in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weidong | Alexis, Neil E. |; Chen Xian |; Bromberg, Philip A. |; Peden, David B. ||

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF{kappa}B were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NF{kappa}B activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NF{kappa}B activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NF{kappa}B.

  11. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Goon-Tae; Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Choi, Eun-Hye; Song, Yoo-Jeong; Song, Jae-Hwi; Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system.

  12. The immunosuppressive effect of Gamisanghyulyunbueum through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor activation in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Young; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Na, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Hong-Joon; Moon, Goo; Shin, Tae-Yong; Yang, Deok-Chun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2005-07-01

    Gamisanghyulyunbueum (GSHYBE) has been used clinically to treat skin related disease in South Korea. We investigated GSHYBE-mediated changes in downstream T cell signal transduction. To determine the mechanism of inhibition, we have studied many of the major pathways in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated T cell. We show that among the mitogen-activated protein kinase family activation of phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2, p44/42) and p38, but not c-jun NH2-terminal kinase is inhibited. In activated MOLT-4 cells, the nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc) was blocked by GSHYBE (1 mg/ml). Also, degradation of inhibitor kappaB-alpha and transactivation by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/Rel A were impaired by GSHYBE (1 mg/ml). Furthermore, interlukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and Interferen (IFN)-gamma secretion by PHA activated MOLT-4 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were significantly diminishes following GSHYBE treatment (1 mg/ml). Also, oral administration of GSHYBE inhibited IL-2 secretion in skin allergic reaction. In conclusion, our data indicate that GSHYBE treatment of T cells inhibits ERK1/2 and p38 activation and nuclear translocation of NFATc, NF-kappaB, resulting in diminished secretion of IL-2.

  13. Oncogenic K-Ras and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Prevent FAS-Mediated Apoptosis in Fibroblasts through Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin

    2000-01-01

    By an expression cloning method using Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells, we tried to obtain inhibitory genes against Fas-mediated apoptosis and identified proto-oncogene c-K-ras. Transient expression of K-Ras mutants revealed that oncogenic mutant K-Ras (RasV12) strongly inhibited, whereas dominant-inhibitory mutant K-Ras (RasN17) enhanced, Fas-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting Fas-triggered activation of caspases without affecting an expression level of Fas. Among the target molecules of Ras, including Raf (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase [MAPKKK]), phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RalGDS), only the constitutively active form of Raf (Raf-CAAX) could inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the constitutively active form of MAPKK (SDSE-MAPKK) suppressed Fas-mediated apoptosis, and MKP-1, a phosphatase specific for classical MAPK, canceled the protective activity of oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasV12), Raf-CAAX, and SDSE-MAPKK. Furthermore, physiological activation of Ras by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) protected Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis. bFGF protection was also dependent on the activation of the MAPK pathway through Ras. All the results indicate that the activation of MAPK through Ras inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in Balb3T3 cells, which may play a role in oncogenesis. PMID:10662780

  14. Expression of peptide fragments from proADM and involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in pulmonary remodeling induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guo, Aili; Wang, Lijuan; Kong, Qingyu; Wang, Rong; Han, Li; Zhao, Cuifen

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive pulmonary arterial remodeling and right ventricular failure. Despite recent advances in pathophysiological mechanism exploration and new therapeutic approaches, PAH remains a challenging condition. In this study, we investigated the roles of the peptide fragments from proadrenomedullin (proADM) such as adrenomedullin (ADM), adrenotensin (ADT), and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) during pulmonary remodeling caused by high pulmonary blood flow, and probed the possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways. Sixteen rat models of PAH were artificially established by surgically connecting the left common carotid artery to the external jugular vein. We subcutaneously injected an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor, PD98059, in eight rats, treated another eight rats with an equal volume of saline. Eight rats without connections served as the control group. We observed that mRNA expression levels of ADM, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), and ERK1/2 were significantly elevated in the shunted rats; furthermore, ERK1/2 levels were significantly inhibited by PD98059. Protein levels of ADM, PAMP, p-SAPK, and p-ERK1/2 were significantly higher ADT was lower, and p-p38 remained unchanged in the rat models compared with the controls. However, the protein expression of both ADM and p-ERK1/2 was significantly inhibited by PD98059. Our results suggest that levels of ADM, ADT, and PAMP respond to pulmonary remodeling, and that activation of the SAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways is involved in pulmonary hypertension and artery remodeling caused by high pulmonary blood flow.

  15. Adrenergic regulation and diurnal rhythm of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chik, C L; Mackova, M; Price, D; Ho, A K

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we investigated adrenergic and photoneural regulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland. Norepinephrine (NE), the endogenous neurotransmitter, dose-dependently increased the levels of phosphorylated MAPK kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6) and p38MAPK in rat pinealocytes. Time-course studies showed a gradual increase in MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation that peaked between 1 and 2 h and persisted for 4 h post NE stimulation. In cells treated with NE for 2 and 4 h, the inclusion of prazosin or propranolol reduced NE-induced MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation, indicating involvement of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors for the sustained response. Whereas treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or ionomycin mimicked the NE-induced MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation, neither dibutyryl cGMP nor 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had an effect. The NE-induced increase in MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation was blocked by KT5720 (a protein kinase A inhibitor) and KN93 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), but not by KT5823 (a protein kinase G inhibitor) or calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). In animals housed under a lighting regimen with 12 h of light, MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation increased in the rat pineal gland at zeitgeber time 18. The nocturnal increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the animal to constant light and reduced by treatment with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker. Together, our results indicate that activation of p38MAPK is under photoneural control in the rat pineal gland and that protein kinase A and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling pathways are involved in NE regulation of p38MAPK.

  16. In Silico Elucidation and Inhibition Studies of Selected Phytoligands Against Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases of Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chhedi Lal; Akhtar, Salman; Kumar, Nilesh; Ali, Jasarat; Pathak, Neelam; Bajpai, Preeti

    2016-03-01

    Parasitic MAPKs exhibiting significant divergence with humans and playing an imperative role in parasitic metabolic activities have been exploited from several years as important targets for development of novel therapeutics. In addition, the emergence of the drug-resistant variants of parasitic diseases in the recent years has aroused a great need for the development of potent inhibitors against them. In the present study, we selected the metabolically active MAPKs LmxMPK4, PfMAP2 and TbMAPK5 of the three parasitic protozoans Leishmania mexicana, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei, respectively. The homology modeling technique was used to develop the 3D structures of these proteins, and the same was validated by PROCHECK, ERRAT, ProQ and ProSA web servers to check the reliability. Ten phytoligands were employed for molecular docking studies with these proteins to search for potent phytoligand as a broad spectrum inhibitor. In this regard, two phytoligands (aspidocarpine for LmxMPK4 and TbMAPK5 and cubebin for PfMAP2) were found to be more effective inhibitors, in terms of robust binding energy, strong inhibition constant and better interactions between protein-ligand complexes. Furthermore, predicted ADME and toxicity properties suggested that these identified phytoligands exhibited comparable results to control drugs potentiating them as persuasive therapeutic agents for Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium sp.

  17. Protein–peptide complex crystallization: a case study on the ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Gógl, Gergő; Törő, Imre; Reményi, Attila

    2013-03-01

    A rational surface-engineering approach led to the crystal structure determination of ERK2–docking peptide complexes. Linear motifs normally bind with only medium binding affinity (K{sub d} of ∼0.1–10 µM) to shallow protein-interaction surfaces on their binding partners. The crystallization of proteins in complex with linear motif-containing peptides is often challenging because the energy gained upon crystal packing between symmetry mates in the crystal may be on a par with the binding energy of the protein–peptide complex. Furthermore, for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) the protein–peptide docking surface is comprised of a small hydrophobic surface patch that is often engaged in the crystal packing of apo ERK2 crystals. Here, a rational surface-engineering approach is presented that involves mutating protein surface residues that are distant from the peptide-binding ERK2 docking groove to alanines. These ERK2 surface mutations decrease the chance of ‘unwanted’ crystal packing of ERK2 and the approach led to the structure determination of ERK2 in complex with new docking peptides. These findings highlight the importance of negative selection in crystal engineering for weakly binding protein–peptide complexes.

  18. Astragalus polysaccharide upregulates hepcidin and reduces iron overload in mice via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Ren, Feng; Qian, Xin-Hua; Qian, Xin-Lai

    2016-03-25

    Thalassemia is a genetic disease characterized by iron overload which is a major detrimental factor contributing to mortality and organ damage. The hepcidin secreted by liver plays an essential role in orchestrating iron metabolism. Lowering iron load in thalassemia patients by means of increasing hepcidin might be a therapeutic strategy. In this study, we first found that astragalus polysaccharide (APS) significantly increased hepcidin expression in HepG2 and L-02 cell lines originating from hepatocytes and mice liver, respectively. Following treatment with APS, the iron concentrations in serum, liver, spleen, and heart were significantly reduced in comparison to saline treated control mice. In further experiments, upregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and enhanced p38 MAPK phosphorylation were detected in APS treated cells and mice, and as documented in previous studies, IL-6 and P38 MAPK phosphorylation are involved in the regulation of hepcidin expression. We also found that the effects of APS on upregulating hepcidin and IL-6 expressions could be antagonized by pretreatment with SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling. These findings suggest that activation of p38 MAPK and release of IL-6 might mediate induction of hepcidin by APS. It is concluded that APS might have therapeutic implications in patients with iron overload, especially for thalassemia patients.

  19. The FvMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase gene regulates conidiation, pathogenesis, and fumonisin production in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Choi, Yoon-E; Zou, Xuexiao; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important fungal pathogens to cause destructive diseases of maize worldwide. Fumonisins produced by the fungus are harmful to human and animal health. To date, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides is limited. Because MAP kinase pathways have been implicated in regulating diverse processes important for plant infection in phytopathogenic fungi, in this study we identified and functionally characterized the FvMK1 gene in F. verticillioides. FvMK1 is orthologous to FMK1 in F. oxysporum and GPMK1 in F. graminearum. The Fvmk1 deletion mutant was reduced in vegetative growth and production of microconidia. However, it was normal in sexual reproduction and increased in the production of macroconidia. In infection assays with developing corn kernels, the Fvmk1 mutant was non-pathogenic and failed to colonize through wounding sites. It also failed to cause stalk rot symptoms beyond the inoculation sites on corn stalks, indicating that FvMK1 is essential for plant infection. Furthermore, the Fvmk1 mutant was significantly reduced in fumonisin production and expression levels of FUM1 and FUM8, two genes involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. The defects of the Fvmk1 mutant were fully complemented by re-introducing the wild type FvMK1 allele. These results demonstrate that FvMK1 plays critical roles in the regulation of vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, fumonisin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity.

  20. Interaction of Omega, Sigma, and Theta Glutathione Transferases with p38b Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase from the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wongtrakul, J.; Janphen, K.; Saisawang, C.; Ketterman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a diverse family of phase II detoxification enzymes found in almost all organisms. Besides playing a major role in the detoxification of xenobiotic and toxic compounds, GSTs are also involved in the regulation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction by interaction with proteins in the pathway. An in vitro study was performed for Theta, Omega, Sigma GSTs and their interaction with MAP kinase p38b protein from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The study included the effects of all five Omega class GSTs (DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, DmGSTO2b, DmGSTO3, DmGSTO4), all five Theta class GSTs (DmGSTT1, DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3a, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTT4), and one Sigma class glutathione transferase on the activity of Drosophila p38b, including the reciprocal effect of this kinase protein on glutathione transferase activity. It was found that DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTO1, and DmGSTO3 activated p38b significantly. Substrate specificities of GSTs were also altered after co-incubation with p38b. Although p38b activated DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, and DmGSTT2, it inhibited DmGSTT3b and DmGSTO3 activity toward xenobiotic and physiological substrates tested. These results suggest a novel link between Omega and Theta GSTs with the p38b MAP kinase pathway. PMID:25373207

  1. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by celecoxib oppositely regulates survivin and gamma-H2AX in human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, P.-W.; Chang, C.-C.; Liu, H.-F.; Tsai, C.-M.; Chiu, Ted H.; Chao, J.-I . E-mail: chaoji@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2007-07-01

    Cancer cells express survivin that facilitates tumorigenesis. Celecoxib has been shown to reduce human colorectal cancers. However, the role and regulation of survivin by celecoxib in colorectal carcinoma cells remain unclear. Treatment with 40-80 {mu}M celecoxib for 24 h induced cytotoxicity and proliferation inhibition via a concentration-dependent manner in RKO colorectal carcinoma cells. Celecoxib blocked the survivin protein expression and increased the phosphorylation of H2AX at serine-193 ({gamma}-H2AX). The survivin gene knockdown by transfection with a survivin siRNA revealed that the loss of survivin correlated with the expression of {gamma}-H2AX. Meanwhile, celecoxib increased caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Celecoxib activated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The phosphorylated proteins of p38 MAP kinase and {gamma}-H2AX were observed in the apoptotic cells. SB203580, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, protected the survivin protein expression and decreased the levels of {gamma}-H2AX and apoptosis in the celecoxib-exposed cells. The blockade of survivin expression increased the celecoxib-induced cytotoxicity; conversely, overexpression of survivin by transfection with a survivin-expressing vector raised the cancer cell proliferation and resisted the celecoxib-induced cell death. Our results provide for the first time that p38 MAP kinase participates in the down-regulation of survivin and subsequently induces the activation of {gamma}-H2AX for mediating apoptosis following treatment with celecoxib in human colorectal cancer cells.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution, and Co-expression Network Analysis of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinases in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kewei; Liu, Fuyan; Zou, Jinwei; Xing, Guangwei; Deng, Pingchuan; Song, Weining; Tong, Wei; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are the conserved and universal signal transduction modules in all eukaryotes, which play the vital roles in plant growth, development, and in response to multiple stresses. In this study, we used bioinformatics methods to identify 86 MAPKKK protein encoded by 73 MAPKKK genes in Brachypodium. Phylogenetic analysis of MAPKKK family from Arabidopsis, rice, and Brachypodium has classified them into three subfamilies, of which 28 belonged to MEKK, 52 to Raf, and 6 to ZIK subfamily, respectively. Conserved protein motif, exon-intron organization, and splicing intron phase in kinase domains supported the evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis. And gene duplication analysis suggested the chromosomal segment duplication happened before the divergence of the rice and Brachypodium, while all of three tandem duplicated gene pairs happened after their divergence. We further demonstrated that the MAPKKKs have evolved under strong purifying selection, implying the conservation of them. The splicing transcripts expression analysis showed that the splicesome translating longest protein tended to be adopted. Furthermore, the expression analysis of BdMAPKKKs in different organs and development stages as well as heat, virus and drought stresses revealed that the MAPKKK genes were involved in various signaling pathways. And the circadian analysis suggested there were 41 MAPKKK genes in Brachypodium showing cycled expression in at least one condition, of which seven MAPKKK genes expressed in all conditions and the promoter analysis indicated these genes possessed many cis-acting regulatory elements involved in circadian and light response. Finally, the co-expression network of MAPK, MAPKK, and MAPKKK in Brachypodium was constructed using 144 microarray and RNA-seq datasets, and ten potential MAPK cascades pathway were predicted. To conclude, our study provided the important information for evolutionary and

  3. Inhibition of Brain Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Reduces Central Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Inflammation and Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Heart Failure Rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the brain have been implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension. This study determined whether ER stress occurs in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in heart failure (HF) and how MAPK signaling interacts with ER stress and other inflammatory mediators. HF rats had significantly higher levels of the ER stress biomarkers (glucose-regulated protein 78, activating transcription factor 6, activating transcription factor 4, X-box binding protein 1, P58(IPK), and C/EBP homologous protein) in subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus, which were attenuated by a 4-week intracerebroventricular infusion of inhibitors selective for p44/42 MAPK (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB203580), or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125). HF rats also had higher mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor-κB p65, and a lower mRNA level of IκB-α, in subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus, compared with SHAM rats, and these indicators of increased inflammation were attenuated in the HF rats treated with the MAPK inhibitors. Plasma norepinephrine level was higher in HF rats than in SHAM rats but was reduced in the HF rats treated with PD98059 and SB203580. A 4-week intracerebroventricular infusion of PD98059 also improved some hemodynamic and anatomic indicators of left ventricular function in HF rats. These data demonstrate that ER stress increases in the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of rats with ischemia-induced HF and that inhibition of brain MAPK signaling reduces brain ER stress and inflammation and decreases sympathetic excitation in HF. An interaction between MAPK signaling and ER stress in cardiovascular regions of the brain may contribute to the development of HF.

  4. Involvement of PPS3 Phosphorylated by Elicitor-Responsive Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in the Regulation of Plant Cell Death1

    PubMed Central

    Katou, Shinpei; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Rowland, Owen; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Mori, Hitoshi; Doke, Noriyuki

    2005-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play pivotal roles in plant innate immunity. Overexpression of StMEK1DD, a constitutively active MAPK kinase that activates salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), provokes hypersensitive response-like cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here we purified a 51-kD MAPK, which was activated in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers treated with hyphal wall elicitor of a plant pathogen, and isolated the cDNA designated StMPK1. The deduced amino acid sequence of the StMPK1 showed strong similarity to stress-responsive MAPKs, such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SIPK and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtMPK6. To investigate the downstream signaling of StMPK1, we identified several proteins phosphorylated by StMPK1 (PPSs) using an in vitro expression cloning method. To dissect the biological function of PPSs in the plant defense, we employed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in N. benthamiana. VIGS of NbPPS3 significantly delayed cell death induced by the transient expression of StMEK1DD and treatment with hyphal wall elicitor. Furthermore, the mobility shift of NbPPS3 on SDS-polyacrylamide gel was induced by transient expression of StMEK1DD. The mobility shift of NbPPS3 induced by StMEK1DD was not compromised by VIGS of WIPK or SIPK alone, but drastically reduced by the silencing of both WIPK and SIPK. This work strongly supports the idea that PPS3 is a physiological substrate of StMPK1 and is involved in cell death activated by a MAPK cascade. PMID:16306147

  5. Destabilization of Raf-1 by geldanamycin leads to disruption of the Raf-1-MEK-mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T W; Blagosklonny, M V; Romanova, L; Mushinski, J F; Monia, B P; Johnston, J F; Nguyen, P; Trepel, J; Neckers, L M

    1996-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 functions downstream of Rats in a signal transduction cascade which transmits mitogenic stimuli from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Raf-1 integrates signals coming from extracellular factors and, in turn, activates its substrate, MEK kinase. MEK activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which phosphorylates other kinases as well as transcription factors. Raf-1 exists in a complex with HSP90 and other proteins. The benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin (GA) binds to HSP90 and disrupts the Raf-1-HSP90 multimolecular complex, leading to destabilization of Raf-1. In this study, we examined whether Raf-1 destabilization is sufficient to block the Raf-1-MEK-MAPK signalling pathway and whether GA specifically inactivates the Raf-1 component of this pathway. Using the model system of NIH 3T3 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), we show that GA does not affect the ability of protein kinase C alpha to be activated by phorbol esters, but it does block activation of MEK and MAPK. Further, GA does not decrease the activity of constitutively active MEK in transiently transfected cells. Finally, disruption of the Raf-1-MEK-MAPK signalling pathway by GA prevents both the PMA-induced proliferative response and PMA-induced activation of a MAPK-sensitive nuclear transcription factor. Thus, we demonstrate that interaction between HSP90 and Raf-1 is a sine qua non for Raf stability and function as a signal transducer and that the effects observed cannot be attributed to a general impairment of protein kinase function. PMID:8816498

  6. Novel Antiplatelet Activity of Minocycline Involves Inhibition of MLK3-p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Axis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joseph W.; Singh, Meera V.; Singh, Vir B.; Jones, Letitia D.; Davidson, Gregory A.; Ture, Sara; Morrell, Craig N.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and wound healing by facilitating thrombus formation at sites of injury. Platelets also mediate inflammation and contain several pro-inflammatory molecules including cytokines and chemokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment and activation. Not surprisingly, platelet dysfunction is known to contribute to several inflammatory disorders. Antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonists, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibitors, and anticoagulants such as warfarin, dampen platelet activity at the risk of unwarranted bleeding. Thus, the development of drugs that reduce platelet-mediated inflammation without interfering with thrombus formation is of importance to combat platelet-associated disorders. We have shown here for the first time that the tetracycline antibiotic, minocycline, administered to HIV-infected individuals reduces plasma levels of soluble CD40L and platelet factor 4 levels, host molecules predominately released by platelets. Minocycline reduced the activation of isolated platelets in the presence of the potent platelet activator, thrombin, as measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. Platelet degranulation was reduced upon exposure to minocycline as shown by mepacrine retention and flow cytometry. However, minocycline had no effect on spreading, aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa activation, or in vivo thrombus formation. Lastly, immunoblot analysis suggests that the antiplatelet activity of minocycline is likely mediated by inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3)-p38 MAPK signaling axis and loss of p38 activity. Our findings provide a better understanding of platelet biology and a novel repurposing of an established antibiotic, minocycline, to specifically reduce platelet granule release without affecting thrombosis, which may yield insights in generating novel, specific antiplatelet therapies. PMID:27270236

  7. Slack sodium-activated potassium channel membrane expression requires p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Fleites, John; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2016-04-01

    p38 MAPK has long been understood as an inducible kinase under conditions of cellular stress, but there is now increasing evidence to support its role in the regulation of neuronal function. Several phosphorylation targets have been identified, an appreciable number of which are ion channels, implicating the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in neuronal excitability. The KNa channel Slack is an important protein to be studied as it is highly and ubiquitously expressed in DRG neurons and is important in the maintenance of their firing accommodation. We sought to examine if the Slack channel could be a substrate of p38 MAPK activity. First, we found that the Slack C-terminus contains two putative p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites that are highly conserved across species. Second, we show via electrophysiology experiments that KNa currents and further, Slack currents, are subject to tonic modulation by p38 MAPK. Third, biochemical approaches revealed that Slack channel regulation by p38 MAPK occurs through direct phosphorylation at the two putative sites of interaction, and mutating both sites prevented surface expression of Slack channels. Based on these results, we conclude that p38 MAPK is an obligate regulator of Slack channel function via the trafficking of channels into the membrane. The present study identifies Slack KNa channels as p38 MAPK substrates.

  8. Functional characterization of the three mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) present in the Cryphonectria parasitica genome reveals the necessity of Cpkk1 and Cpkk2, but not Cpkk3, for pathogenesis on chestnut (Castanea spp.).

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marino; Rossi, Marika; Ciuffo, Marina; Turina, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    The biological function(s) of the cpkk1, cpkk2 and cpkk3 genes, encoding the three mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) of Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, were examined through knockout strains. Cpkk1, the Mkk1 orthologue, acts in a phosphorylation cascade essential for cell integrity; Cpkk2 is the Ste7 orthologue involved in the pheromone response pathway; Cpkk3 is the Pbs2 orthologue, the MAP2K activated during the high-osmolarity response. Our analysis confirmed the role of each MAP2K in its respective signalling cascade with some peculiarities: abnormal hyphae with a reduced number of septa and thinner cell walls were observed in Δcpkk1 mutants, and a strong growth defect on solid media was evident in Δcpkk2 mutants, when compared with the controls. Virulence on chestnut was affected in both the Δcpkk1 and Δcpkk2 strains, which were also unable to complete the developmental steps essential for mating. No alterations were reported in Δcpkk3, except under hyperosmotic conditions and in the presence of fludioxonil. Δcpkk2 mutants, however, showed higher sensitivity during growth in medium containing the antibiotic G418 (Geneticin).

  9. ICAM-1-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; Drabik, K; Van Wagoner, N J; Lee, S; Choi, C; Dong, Y; Benveniste, E N

    2000-10-15

    ICAM-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily involved in cell adhesion. ICAM-1 is aberrantly expressed by astrocytes in CNS pathologies such as multiple sclerosis, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, and Alzheimer's disease, suggesting a possible role for ICAM-1 in these disorders. ICAM-1 has been shown to be important for leukocyte diapedesis through brain microvessels and subsequent binding to astrocytes. However, other functional roles for ICAM-1 expression on astrocytes have not been well elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the intracellular signals generated upon ICAM-1 engagement on astrocytes. ICAM-1 ligation by a mAb to rat ICAM-1 induced mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. Examination of cytokine protein production revealed that ICAM-1 ligation results in IL-6 secretion by astrocytes, whereas IL-1beta and IL-1alpha protein is expressed intracellularly in astrocytes. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ICAM-1-mediated cytokine expression in astrocytes was tested, as the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was previously shown to be activated upon ICAM-1 engagement. Our results indicate that ERK1/ERK2, as well as p38 MAPK, are activated upon ligation of ICAM-1. Studies using pharmacological inhibitors demonstrate that both p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 are involved in ICAM-1-induced IL-6 expression, whereas only ERK1/2 is important for IL-1alpha and IL-1beta expression. Our data support the role of ICAM-1 on astrocytes as an inflammatory mediator in the CNS and also uncover a novel signal transduction pathway through p38 MAPK upon ICAM-1 ligation.

  10. Rac2 GTPase activation by angiotensin II is modulated by Ca2+/calcineurin and mitogen-activated protein kinases in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    El Bekay, Rajaa; Alba, Gonzalo; Reyes, M Edith; Chacón, Pedro; Vega, Antonio; Martín-Nieto, José; Jiménez, Juan; Ramos, Eladio; Oliván, Josefina; Pintado, Elízabeth; Sobrino, Francisco

    2007-11-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) highly stimulates superoxide anion production by neutrophils. The G-protein Rac2 modulates the activity of NADPH oxidase in response to various stimuli. Here, we describe that Ang II induced both Rac2 translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and Rac2 GTP-binding activity. Furthermore, Clostridium difficile toxin A, an inhibitor of the Rho-GTPases family Rho, Rac and Cdc42, prevented Ang II-elicited O2-/ROS production, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, and Rac2 activation. Rac2 GTPase inhibition by C. difficile toxin A was accompanied by a robust reduction of the cytosolic Ca(2)(+) elevation induced by Ang II in human neutrophils. Furthermore, SB203580 and PD098059 act as inhibitors of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 respectively, wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and cyclosporin A, a calcineurin inhibitor, hindered both translocation of Rac2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and enhancement of Rac2 GTP-binding elicited by Ang II. These results provide evidence that the activation of Rac2 by Ang II is exerted through multiple signalling pathways, involving Ca(2)(+)/calcineurin and protein kinases, the elucidation of which should be insightful in the design of new therapies aimed at reversing the inflammation of vessel walls found in a number of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Luteolin is a bioflavonoid that attenuates adipocyte-derived inflammatory responses via suppression of nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nepali, Sarmila; Son, Ji-Seon; Poudel, Barun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Dae-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inflammation of adipocytes has been a therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders which cause insulin resistance and hence lead to type II diabetes. Luteolin is a bioflavonoid with many beneficial properties such as antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-cancer. Objectives: To elucidate the potential anti-inflammatory response and the underlying mechanism of luteolin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Materials and Methods: We stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the mixture of tumor necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide, and interferon-γ (TLI) in the presence or absence of luteolin. We performed Griess’ method for nitric oxide (NO) production and measure mRNA and protein expressions by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Results: Luteolin opposed the stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and NO production by simultaneous treatment of adipocytes with TLI. Furthermore, it reduced the pro-inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, resistin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Furthermore, luteolin improved the insulin sensitivity by enhancing the expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS1/2) and glucose transporter-4 via phosphatidylinositol-3K signaling pathway. This inhibition was associated with suppression of Iκ-B-α degradation and subsequent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation to the nucleus. In addition, luteolin blocked the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal Kinases and also p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Conclusions: These results illustrate that luteolin attenuates inflammatory responses in the adipocytes through suppression of NF-κB and MAPKs activation, and also improves insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting that luteolin may represent a therapeutic agent to prevent obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26246742

  12. Identification of Novel Coxiella burnetii Icm/Dot Effectors and Genetic Analysis of Their Involvement in Modulating a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lifshitz, Ziv; Burstein, David; Schwartz, Kierstyn; Shuman, Howard A.; Pupko, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a human intracellular pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host cells. To identify novel C. burnetii effectors, we applied a machine-learning approach to predict C. burnetii effectors, and examination of 20 such proteins resulted in the identification of 13 novel effectors. To determine whether these effectors, as well as several previously identified effectors, modulate conserved eukaryotic pathways, they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects on yeast growth were examined under regular growth conditions and in the presence of caffeine, a known modulator of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. In the presence of caffeine, expression of the effectors CBU0885 and CBU1676 caused an enhanced inhibition of yeast growth, and the growth inhibition of CBU0388 was suppressed. Furthermore, analysis of synthetic lethality effects and examination of the activity of the CWI MAP kinase transcription factor Rlm1 indicated that CBU0388 enhances the activation of this MAP kinase pathway in yeast, while CBU0885 and CBU1676 abolish this activation. Additionally, coexpression of CBU1676 and CBU0388 resulted in mutual suppression of their inhibition of yeast growth. These results strongly indicate that these three effectors modulate the CWI MAP kinase pathway in yeast. Moreover, both CBU1676 and CBU0885 were found to contain a conserved haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) domain, which was found to be required for their activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that MAP kinase pathways are most likely targeted by C. burnetii Icm/Dot effectors. PMID:24958706

  13. Signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase and Rac/Rho does not duplicate the effects of activated Ras on skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ramocki, M B; Johnson, S E; White, M A; Ashendel, C L; Konieczny, S F; Taparowsky, E J

    1997-01-01

    The ability of basic helix-loop-helix muscle regulatory factors (MRFs), such as MyoD, to convert nonmuscle cells to a myogenic lineage is regulated by numerous growth factor and oncoprotein signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown that H-Ras 12V inhibits differentiation to a skeletal muscle lineage by disrupting MRF function via a mechanism that is independent of the dimerization, DNA binding, and inherent transcriptional activation properties of the proteins. To investigate the intracellular signaling pathway(s) that mediates the inhibition of MRF-induced myogenesis by oncogenic Ras, we tested two transformation-defective H-Ras 12V effector domain variants for their ability to alter terminal differentiation. H-Ras 12V,35S retains the ability to activate the Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, whereas H-Ras 12V,40C is unable to interact directly with Raf-1 yet still influences other signaling intermediates, including Rac and Rho. Expression of each H-Ras 12V variant in C3H10T1/2 cells abrogates MyoD-induced activation of the complete myogenic program, suggesting that MAP kinase-dependent and -independent Ras signaling pathways individually block myogenesis in this model system. However, additional studies with constitutively activated Rac1 and RhoA proteins revealed no negative effects on MyoD-induced myogenesis. Similarly, treatment of Ras-inhibited myoblasts with the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 revealed that elevated MAP kinase activity is not a significant contributor to the H-Ras 12V effect. These data suggest that an additional Ras pathway, distinct from the well-characterized MAP kinase and Rac/Rho pathways known to be important for the transforming function of activated Ras, is primarily responsible for the inhibition of myogenesis by H-Ras 12V. PMID:9199290

  14. Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, protein kinase C translocation, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity by bradykinin in rat ventricular myocytes: dissociation from the hypertrophic response.

    PubMed Central

    Clerk, A; Gillespie-Brown, J; Fuller, S J; Sugden, P H

    1996-01-01

    In ventricular myocytes cultured from neonatal rat hearts, bradykinin (BK), kallidin or BK(1-8) [(Des-Arg9)BK] stimulated PtdinsP2 hydrolysis by 3-4-fold. EC50 values were 6 nM (BK), 2 nM (kallidin), and 14 microM [BK(1-8)]. BK or kallidin stimulated the rapid (less than 30 s) translocation of more than 80% of the novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms nPKC-delta and nPKC-epsilon from the soluble to the particulate fraction. EC50 values for nPKC-delta translocation by BK or kallidin were 10 and 2 nM respectively. EC50 values for nPKC-epsilon translocation by BK or kallidin were 2 and 0.6 nM respectively. EC50 values for the translocation of nPKC-delta and nPKC-epsilon by BK(1-8) were more than 5 microM. The classical PKC, cPKC-alpha, and the atypical PKC, nPKC-zeta, did not translocate. BK caused activation and phosphorylation of p42-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (maximal at 3-5 min, 30-35% of p42-MAPK phosphorylated). p44-MAPK was similarly activated. EC50 values for p42/p44-MAPK activation by BK were less than 1 nM whereas values for BK(1-8) were more than 10 microM. The order of potency [BK approximately equal to kallidin >> BK (1-8)] for the stimulation of PtdInsP2 hydrolysis, nPKC-delta and nPKC-epsilon translocation, and p42/p44-MAPK activities suggests involvement of the B2 BK receptor subtype. In addition, stimulation of all three processes by BK was inhibited by the B2BK receptor-selective antagonist HOE140 but not by the B1-selective antagonist Leu8BK(1-8). Exposure of cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for 24 h inhibited subsequent activation of p42/p44-MAPK by BK suggesting participation of nPKC (and possibly cPKC) isoforms in the activation process. Thus, like hypertrophic agents such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) and phenylephrine (PE), BK activates PtdInsP2 hydrolysis, translocates nPKC-delta, and nPKC-epsilon, and activates p42/p44-MAPK. However, in comparison with ET-1 and PE, BK was only weakly hypertrophic as assessed by cell morphology

  15. Hyperbaric Oxygen Pretreatment Improves Cognition and Reduces Hippocampal Damage Via p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baisong; Pan, Yongying; Wang, Zixin; Xu, Haiping

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment on cognitive decline and neuronal damage in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) rat model. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into three groups: normal saline (NS), AD, and HBO+AD. In the AD group, amyloid β peptide (Aβ)1-40 was injected into the hippocampal CA1 region of the brain. NS rats received NS injection. In the HBO+AD group, rats received 5 days of daily HBO therapy following Aβ1-40 injection. Learning and memory capabilities were examined using the Morris water maze task. Neuronal damage and astrocyte activation were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Dendritic spine density was determined by Golgi-Cox staining. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-10 production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neuron apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Protein expression was examined by western blotting. Results Learning and memory dysfunction was ameliorated in the HBO+AD group, as shown by significantly lower swimming distances and escape latency, compared to the AD group. Lower rates of neuronal damage, astrocyte activation, dendritic spine loss, and hippocampal neuron apoptosis were seen in the HBO+AD than in the AD group. A lower rate of hippocampal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was observed in the HBO+AD than in the AD group. Conclusion HBO pretreatment improves cognition and reduces hippocampal damage via p38 MAPK in AD rats. PMID:27873505

  16. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Mediates Lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Induction of Shiga Toxin 2 Sensitivity in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Matthew K.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Lindner, Matthew H.; Obrig, Tom G.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), one of the causative agents of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, is toxic to endothelial cells, including primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). This sensitivity of cells to Stx2 can be increased with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The goal of the present study was to identify the intracellular signaling pathway(s) by which LPS and TNF-α sensitize HUVEC to the cytotoxic effects of Stx2. To identify these pathways, specific pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs were tested with cell viability endpoints. A time course and dose response experiment for HUVEC exposure to LPS and TNF-α showed that a relatively short exposure to either agonist was sufficient to sensitize the cells to Stx2 and that both agonists stimulated intracellular signaling pathways within a short time. Cell viability assays indicated that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 and the general protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited both the LPS and TNF-α sensitization of HUVEC to Stx2, while all other inhibitors tested did not inhibit this sensitization. Additionally, SB202190 reduced the cellular globotriaosylceramide content under LPS- and TNF-α-induced conditions. In conclusion, our results show that LPS and TNF-α induction of Stx2 sensitivity in HUVEC is mediated through a pathway that includes p38 MAPK. These results indicate that inhibition of p38 MAPK in endothelial cells may protect a host from the deleterious effects of Stx2. PMID:18086809

  17. 8-Cl-cAMP antagonizes mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cell growth stimulation induced by epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Budillon, A; Gennaro, E Di; Caraglia, M; Barbarulo, D; Abbruzzese, A; Tagliaferri, P

    1999-01-01

    The growth factor-activated mitogenic pathways are often disregulated in tumour cells and, therefore, they can provide specific molecular targets for novel anti-tumour approaches. 8-Chloro-cAMP (8-Cl-cAMP), a synthetic cAMP analogue, is a novel anti-tumour agent that has recently undergone clinical evaluation. We investigated the effects of 8-CI-cAMP on the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGF receptor (EGF-R) signalling in human epidermoid cancer KB cells, which are responsive to the mitogenic stimulus of EGF. We found that the growth-promoting activity of EGF was completely abolished when EGF treatment was performed in combination with 8-CI-cAMP. The inhibition of the EGF-induced proliferation by 8-CI-cAMP was paralleled by the blockade of the EGF-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), ERK-1 and ERK-2. Conversely, we found an increase of EGF-R expression and EGF-R tyrosine phosphorylation when KB cells were growth inhibited by 8-Cl-cAMP. Moreover, the activity of Raf-1 and MEK-1 protein kinases, the activators upstream MAPK in the phosphorylation cascade induced by EGF, was not modified in 8-Cl-cAMP-treated cells. We concluded that the impairment of KB cell response to EGF, induced by 8-Cl-cAMP, resides in the specific inhibition of MAPK/ERKs activity while the function of the upstream elements in the EGF-R signalling is preserved. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10584873

  18. Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 signaling pathway clear prion-infected cells from PrPSc.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Elin K; Luhr, Katarina M; Ibáñez, Carlos; Kristensson, Krister

    2005-09-14

    Prions represent a unique class of infectious agents in which the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is converted to an abnormal isoform (PrPSc), which accumulates in the brain and constitutes the major, if not the only, component of the infectious particle. Factors that still remain to be identified may facilitate the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. In the present study, we first demonstrated that a growth factor of the neurotrophin family, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), stimulates the formation of PrPSc in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neuronal cell line (GT1-1 cells) infected with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) strain of scrapie as determined by Western blot analysis. We then observed that the prion-infected cells can be cleared from PrPSc by treatment with three inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenylmercapto)butadiene and 2-(2-amino-3-methyoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, as well as alpha-[amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl) benzeneacetonitrile, which passes the blood-brain barrier], a component of one of the intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF. The MEK1/2 inhibitors were also efficient in clearing PrPSc from prion-infected GT1-1 cells stimulated to accumulate high levels of PrPSc by enhanced serum concentrations in the medium or by the use of a serum-free neuron-specific neurobasal medium. PrPSc did not reappear in the cultures within 5 weeks after completion of treatment. We conclude that inhibitors of the MEK1/2 pathway can efficiently and probably irreversibly clear PrP(Sc) from prion-infected cells. The MEK pathway may therefore be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in prion diseases.

  19. BRAF mutations and phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the development of flat and depressed-type colorectal neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Konishi, K; Takimoto, M; Kaneko, K; Makino, R; Hirayama, Y; Nozawa, H; Kurahashi, T; Kumekawa, Y; Yamamoto, T; Ito, H; Yoshikawa, N; Kusano, M; Nakayama, K; Rembacken, B J; Ota, H; Imawari, M

    2006-01-30

    Although some molecular differences between flat-depressed neoplasias (FDNs) and protruding neoplasias (PNs) have been reported, it is uncertain if the BRAF mutations or the status of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) are different between theses two groups. We evaluated the incidence of BRAF and KRAS mutations, high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H), and the immunohistochemical status of p-MAPK in the nonserrated neoplasias (46 FDNs and 57 PNs). BRAF mutations were detected in four FDNs (9%) and none of PNs (P=0.0369 by Fisher's exact test). KRAS mutations were observed in none of FDNs and in 14 PNs (25%; P=0.0002 by Fisher's exact test). MSI-H was detected in seven out of 44 FDNs (16%) and in one out of 52 of PNs (2%) (P=0.022 by Fisher's exact test). Type B and C immunostaining for p-MAPK was observed in 34 out of 46 FDNs (72%), compared with 24 out of 55 PNs (44%; P=0.0022 by chi(2) test). There was no significant difference in the type B and C immunostaining of p-MAPK between FDNs with and without BRAF mutations. BRAF and KRAS mutations are mutually exclusive in the morphological characteristics of colorectal nonserrated neoplasia. Abnormal accumulation of p-MAPK protein is more likely to be implicated in the tumorigenesis of FDNs than of PNs. However, this abnormality in FDNs might occur via the genetic alteration other than BRAF or KRAS mutation.

  20. Ethanol Impairs Intestinal Barrier Function in Humans through Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Signaling: A Combined In Vivo and In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Elamin, Elhaseen; Masclee, Ad; Troost, Freddy; Pieters, Harm-Jan; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Aleksa, Katarina; Dekker, Jan; Jonkers, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethanol-induced gut barrier disruption is associated with several gastrointestinal and liver disorders. Aim Since human data on effects of moderate ethanol consumption on intestinal barrier integrity and involved mechanisms are limited, the objectives of this study were to investigate effects of a single moderate ethanol dose on small and large intestinal permeability and to explore the role of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a primary signaling mechanism. Methods Intestinal permeability was assessed in 12 healthy volunteers after intraduodenal administration of either placebo or 20 g ethanol in a randomised cross-over trial. Localization of the tight junction (TJ) and gene expression, phosphorylation of the MAPK isoforms p38, ERK and JNK as indicative of activation were analyzed in duodenal biopsies. The role of MAPK was further examined in vitro using Caco-2 monolayers. Results Ethanol increased small and large intestinal permeability, paralleled by redistribution of ZO-1 and occludin, down-regulation of ZO-1 and up-regulation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA expression, and increased MAPK isoforms phosphorylation. In Caco-2 monolayers, ethanol increased permeability, induced redistribution of the junctional proteins and F-actin, and MAPK and MLCK activation, as indicated by phosphorylation of MAPK isoforms and myosin light chain (MLC), respectively, which could be reversed by pretreatment with either MAPK inhibitors or the anti-oxidant L-cysteine. Conclusions Administration of moderate ethanol dosage can increase both small and colon permeability. Furthermore, the data indicate a pivotal role for MAPK and its crosstalk with MLCK in ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928733 PMID:25226407

  1. Salvinorin A Pretreatment Preserves Cerebrovascular Autoregulation After Brain Hypoxic/Ischemic Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Su, Diansan; Riley, John; Armstead, William M.; Liu, Renyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia during infant congenital heart surgery is not uncommon, and may induce devastating neurologic disabilities persistent over the lifespan. Hypoxia/ischemia-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction is thought to be an important contributor to neurological damage. No pharmacological agents have been found to prevent this. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, is thought to contribute to ischemic preconditioning. We investigated whether pretreatment with salvinorin A, the only natural non-opioid kappa receptor agonist, could preserve autoregulation of the pial artery via MAPK. Methods The response of the pial artery to hypotension and hypercapnia was monitored in piglets equipped with a closed cranial window before and after hypoxia and ischemia in the presence or absence of U0126, an inhibitor for the protein kinase upstream of ERK, sp600125, an inhibitor of c-JNK or sb203580, an inhibitor of p38. Salvinorin A (10 μg/kg IV) was administered 30 minutes before hypoxia/ischemia in salvinorin-treated animals. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected before and 30 minutes after salvinorin A administration for the measurement of MAPK. Data (n=5) were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Pial artery dilation to hypercapnia and hypotension was blunted after hypoxia/ischemia, but preserved well by pretreatment with salvinorin A. U0126, but not sp600125 or sb203580, abolished the preservative effects of salvinorin A on cerebral vascular autoregulation to hypotension and hypercapnia. The ratio of pERK/ERK in cerebrospinal fluid increased significantly in salvinorin-treated animals, which was inhibited by U0126. Conclusions Salvinorin A pretreatment preserves autoregulation of the pial artery to hypotension and hypercapnia after hypoxia/ischemia via ERK in a piglet model. PMID:22075021

  2. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent intracellular signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Frasch, S C; Nick, J A; Fadok, V A; Bratton, D L; Worthen, G S; Henson, P M

    1998-04-03

    Human neutrophils undergo apoptosis spontaneously when cultured in vitro; however, the signal transduction pathways involved remain largely unknown. In some cell types, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) have been implicated in the pathways leading to stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, we begin to define two pathways leading to apoptosis in the neutrophil induced either by stress stimuli (UV, hyperosmolarity, sphingosine) or by anti-Fas antibody or overnight culture in vitro (spontaneous apoptosis). Apoptosis induced by stress stimuli activated p38 MAPK, and apoptosis was inhibited by the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, 6-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2.3-dihydro-5-(4-puridinyl)imidazo(2, 1-beta)thiazole dihydrochloride. Furthermore, differentiation of HL-60 cells toward the neutrophil phenotype resulted in a loss in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation with concomitant acquisition of formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine-stimulatable and stress-inducible p38 MAPK activity as well as apoptosis blockade by the p38 MAPK inhibitor. In contrast, anti-Fas-induced or spontaneous apoptosis occurred independent of p38 MAPK activation and was not blocked by the inhibitor. Both pathways appear to utilize member(s) of the caspase family, since pretreatment with either Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone or Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone inhibited apoptosis induced by each of the stimuli. We propose the presence of at least two pathways leading to apoptosis in human neutrophils, a stress-activated pathway that is dependent on p38 MAPK activation and an anti-FAS/spontaneous pathway that is p38 MAPK-independent.

  3. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by naturally occurring splice variants of TrkC, the receptor for neurotrophin-3.

    PubMed

    Gunn-Moore, F J; Williams, A G; Tavaré, J M

    1997-02-15

    TrkC is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) with high affinity. A number of naturally occurring splice variants of TrkC exist, including one (TrkC kil4) with a 14 amino acid insertion between subdomains VII and VIII of the tyrosine kinase domain. This kinase insert blocks the ability of NT-3 to stimulate neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and proliferation in fibroblasts. The inserts also block the ability of TrkC to form a high-affinity complex with Shc and phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma) and the activation of PtdIns 3-kinase, and attenuates the sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In the current study we set out to determine whether the attenuation of the activation of MAPK by the insert was the result of the inability of TrkC to activate the Shc-Ras pathway, PtdIns 3-kinase activation, PLC gamma activation, or a combination thereof. Experiments with the use of cell-permeant inhibitors argue against a major role for PLC gamma and PtdIns 3-kinase in the activation of MAPK by TrkC. The introduction of the 14 amino acid kinase insert appeared to slow the kinetics of NT-3-stimulated Shc phosphorylation and Shc-Grb2 association and reduce their magnitude; an effect which was associated with a delayed, and only transient, activation of MAPK. Taken together, our data suggest that the apparent defect in MAPK activation caused by the kinase insert may result predominantly from an inhibition of high-affinity Shc binding, although a role for PLC gamma and PtdIns 3-kinase cannot be completely excluded.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is a salicylic acid-independent regulator of growth but not of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gawroński, Piotr; Witoń, Damian; Vashutina, Kateryna; Bederska, Magdalena; Betliński, Błażej; Rusaczonek, Anna; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate signal transduction from different cellular compartments and from the extracellular environment to the nucleus in all eukaryotes. One of the best-characterized MAPKs in Arabidopsis thaliana is MPK4, which was shown to be a negative regulator of systemic-acquired resistance. The mpk4 mutant accumulates salicylic acid (SA), possesses constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, and has an extremely dwarf phenotype. We show that suppression of SA and phylloquinone synthesis in chloroplasts by knocking down the ICS1 gene (by crossing it with the ics1 mutant) in the mpk4 mutant background did not revert mpk4-impaired growth. However, it did cause changes in the photosynthetic apparatus and severely impaired the quantum yield of photosystem II. Transmission microscopy analysis revealed that the chloroplasts' structure was strongly altered in the mpk4 and mpk4/ics1 double mutant. Analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes expression showed that suppression of SA and phylloquinone synthesis in the chloroplasts of the mpk4 mutant caused imbalances in ROS homeostasis which were more pronounced in mpk4/ics1 than in mpk4. Taken together, the presented results strongly suggest that MPK4 is an ROS/hormonal rheostat hub that negatively, in an SA-dependent manner, regulates immune defenses, but at the same time positively regulates photosynthesis, ROS metabolism, and growth. Therefore, we concluded that MPK4 is a complex regulator of chloroplastic retrograde signaling for photosynthesis, growth, and immune defenses in Arabidopsis.

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 controls root growth in Arabidopsis by modulating Ca2+ -based Na+ flux in root cell under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuan; Wang, Chi-wen; Wang, Wen-le; Jiang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) in Na(+) toxicity and inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis under NaCl stress. In this study, we found that root elongation in seedlings of the loss-of-function mutants mpk6-2 and mpk6-3 was less sensitive to NaCl or Na-glutamate, but not to KCl or mannitol, as compared with that of wild-type (WT) seedlings. The less sensitive characteristic was eliminated by adding the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA or the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor LaCl3, but not the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. This suggested that the tolerance of mpk6 to Na(+) toxicity was Ca(2+)-dependent. We measured plasma membrane (PM) Na(+)-conducted currents (NCCs) in root cells. Increased concentrations of NaCl increased the inward NCCs while decreased the outward NCCs in WT root cells, attended by a positive shift in membrane potential. In mpk6 root cells, NaCl significantly increased outward but not inward NCCs, accompanied by a negative shift in membrane potential. That is, mpk6 decreased NaCl-induced the Na(+) accumulation by modifying PM Na(+) flux in root cells. Observations of aequorin luminescence revealed a NaCl-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) in mpk6 root cells, resulting from PM Ca(2+) influx. An increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) was required to alleviate the NaCl-increased Na(+) content and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in mpk6 roots. Together, these results show that mpk6 accumulated less Na(+) in response to NaCl because of the increased cytosolic Ca(2+) level in root cells; thus, its root elongation was less inhibited than that of WT by NaCl.

  6. Focal adhesion kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases are involved in chondrocyte activation by the 29-kDa amino-terminal fibronectin fragment.

    PubMed

    Gemba, Takefumi; Valbracht, Jean; Alsalameh, Saifeddin; Lotz, Martin

    2002-01-11

    The 29-kDa amino-terminal fibronectin fragment (FN-f) has a potent chondrolytic effect and is thought to be involved in cartilage degradation in arthritis. However, little is known about signal transduction pathways that are activated by FN-f. Here we demonstrated that FN-f induced nitric oxide (NO) production from human articular chondrocytes. Expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and NO production were observed at 6 and 48 h after FN-f treatment, respectively. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA up-regulation was stimulated by FN-f in human chondrocytes. To address the possibility that FN-f-induced NO release is mediated by IL-1beta production, the effect of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was determined. IL-1ra partially inhibited FN-f-induced NO release although it almost completely inhibited IL-1beta-induced NO release. Tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was induced transiently by FN-f treatment. Blocking antibodies to alpha(5) or beta(1) integrin and Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides did not inhibit FN-f-induced NO production. PP2, a Src family kinase inhibitor, or cytochalasin D, which selectively disrupts the network of actin filaments, inhibited both FAK phosphorylation and NO production induced by FN-f, but the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin had no effect. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) showed activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK. High concentrations of SB203580, which inhibit both JNK and p38 MAPK, and PD98059 a selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 that blocks ERK activation, inhibited FN-f induced NO production. These data suggest that focal adhesion kinase and MAPK mediate FN-f induced activation of human articular chondrocytes.

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-1 Is a Key Regulator of Hypoxia-Induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Vessel Density in Lung

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Kristin M.; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Burns, Nana; Zawada, W. Michael; Das, Mita

    2011-01-01

    Although mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a key deactivator of MAP kinases, known effectors of lung vessel formation, whether it plays a role in the expression of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hypoxic lung is unknown. We therefore hypothesized that MKP-1 is a crucial modulator of hypoxia-stimulated vessel development by regulating lung VEGF levels. Wild-type MKP-1+/+, heterozygous MKP-1+/−, and deficient MKP-1−/− mice were exposed to sea level (SL), Denver altitude (DA) (1609 m [5280 feet]), and severe high altitude (HYP) (∼5182 m [∼17,000 feet]) for 6 weeks. Hypoxia enhanced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, a substrate of MKP-1, as well as α smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in vessels, respiratory epithelium, and interstitium of phosphatase-deficient lung. αSMA-positive vessel (<50 μm outside diameter) densities were markedly reduced, whereas vessel wall thickness was increased in hypoxic MKP-1−/− lung. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of all three genotypes were isolated to pinpoint the mechanism involved in hypoxia-induced vascular abnormalities of MKP-1−/− lung. Sustained phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was observed in MKP-1-null MEFs in response to hypoxia exposure. Although hypoxia up-regulated VEGF levels in MKP-1+/+ MEFs eightfold, only a 70% increase in VEGF expression was observed in MKP-1-deficient cells. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that MKP-1 might be the key regulator of vascular densities through the regulation of VEGF levels in hypoxic lung. PMID:21224048

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and epidermal growth factor activate neuronal m-calpain via mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zadran, Sohila; Jourdi, Hussam; Rostamiani, Karoline; Qin, Qingyu; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2010-01-20

    Calpain is a calcium-dependent protease that plays a significant role in synaptic plasticity, cell motility, and neurodegeneration. Two major calpain isoforms are present in brain, with mu-calpain (calpain1) requiring micromolar calcium concentrations for activation and m-calpain (calpain2) needing millimolar concentrations. Recent studies in fibroblasts indicate that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can activate m-calpain independently of calcium via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation. In neurons, MAPK is activated by both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and EGF. We therefore examined whether these growth factors could activate m-calpain by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation using cultured primary neurons and HEK-TrkB cells, both of which express BDNF and EGF receptors. Calpain activation was monitored by quantitative analysis of spectrin degradation and by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay, which assessed the truncation of a calpain-specific peptide flanked by the FRET fluorophore pair DABCYL and EDANS. In both cell types, BDNF and EGF rapidly elicited calpain activation, which was completely blocked by MAPK and calpain inhibitors. BDNF stimulated m-calpain but not mu-calpain serine phosphorylation, an effect also blocked by MAPK inhibitors. Remarkably, BDNF- and EGF-induced calpain activation was preferentially localized in dendrites and dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons and was associated with actin polymerization, which was prevented by calpain inhibition. Our results indicate that, in cultured neurons, both BDNF and EGF activate m-calpain by MAPK-mediated phosphorylation. These results strongly support a role for calpain in synaptic plasticity and may explain why m-calpain, although widely expressed in CNS, requires nonphysiological calcium levels for activation.

  9. Early interference with p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Xue, Bao-Jian; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Wei, Shun-Guang; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2013-04-01

    Blood-borne angiotensin II (ANG II) can upregulate p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and ANG II type-1 receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a critical cardiovascular and autonomic center. We tested the hypothesis that brain p44/42 MAPK signaling contributes to the development of ANG II-induced hypertension. The ANG II infusion (120 ng/kg per min, subcutaneously) induced increases in phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK and ANG II type-1 receptors in the PVN after 1 week, before the onset of hypertension, that were sustained as hypertension developed during a 2- or 3-week infusion protocol. Bilateral PVN microinjections of small interfering RNAs for p44/42 MAPK, at the onset of the ANG II infusion or 1 week later, prevented the early increase in p44/42 MAPK activity. The early treatment normalized ANG II type-1 receptor expression in the PVN and attenuated the hypertensive response to the 2-week infusion of ANG II. The later small interfering RNA microinjections had a transient effect on ANG II type-1 receptor expression in PVN and no effect on the hypertensive response to the 3-week infusion of ANG II. The early treatment also normalized the pressure response to ganglionic blockade. The ANG II infusion induced increases in mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines that were not affected by either small interfering RNA treatment. These results suggest that the full expression of ANG II-induced hypertension depends on p44/42 MAPK-mediated effects. A potential role for p44/42 MAPK in modulating the ANG II-induced central inflammatory response might also be considered. MAPK signaling in PVN may be a novel target for early intervention in the progression of ANG II-dependent hypertension.

  10. Inhibition of brain mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling reduces central endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation and sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure rats

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Weiss, Robert M.; Felder, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the brain have been implicated in the pathophysiological mechanisms in hypertension. The present study determined whether ER stress occurs in subfornical organ (SFO) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in heart failure (HF), and how MAPK signaling interacts with ER stress and other inflammatory mediators. HF rats had significantly higher levels of the ER stress biomarkers (GRP78, ATF6, ATF4, XBP-1, P58IPK and CHOP) in SFO and PVN, which were attenuated by a 4-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of inhibitors selective for p44/42 MAPK (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB203580) or JNK (SP600125). HF rats also had higher mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 and NF-κB p65 and lower mRNA level of IκB-α in SFO and PVN, compared with SHAM rats, and these indicators of increased inflammation were attenuated in the HF rats treated with the MAPK inhibitors. Plasma norepinephrine level was higher in HF than SHAM rats, but was reduced in the HF rats treated with PD98059 and SB203580. A 4-week ICV infusion of PD98059 also improved some hemodynamic and anatomic indicators of left ventricular function in HF rats. These data demonstrate that ER stress increases in the SFO and PVN of rats with ischemia-induced HF, and that inhibition of brain MAPK signaling reduces brain ER stress and inflammation and decreases sympathetic excitation in HF. An interaction between MAPK signaling and ER stress in cardiovascular regions of the brain may contribute to the development of HF. PMID:26573710

  11. Proteolytic Inhibition of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Induced Activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ERK and JNK in Cultured Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mynott, Tracey L.; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S. Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11748167

  12. Extreme Outlier Analysis Identifies Occult Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Mutations in Patients With Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Rachel N.; Sylvester, Brooke E.; Won, Helen; McDermott, Gregory; DeLair, Deborah; Ramirez, Ricardo; Yao, Zhan; Shen, Ronglai; Dao, Fanny; Bogomolniy, Faina; Makker, Vicky; Sala, Evis; Soumerai, Tara E.; Hyman, David M.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Viale, Agnes; Gershenson, David M.; Farley, John; Levine, Douglas A.; Rosen, Neal; Berger, Michael F.; Spriggs, David R.; Aghajanian, Carol A.; Solit, David B.; Iyer, Gopa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose No effective systemic therapy exists for patients with metastatic low-grade serous (LGS) ovarian cancers. BRAF and KRAS mutations are common in serous borderline (SB) and LGS ovarian cancers, and MEK inhibition has been shown to induce tumor regression in a minority of patients; however, no correlation has been observed between mutation status and clinical response. With the goal of identifying biomarkers of sensitivity to MEK inhibitor treatment, we performed an outlier analysis of a patient who experienced a complete, durable, and ongoing (> 5 years) response to selumetinib, a non-ATP competitive MEK inhibitor. Patients and Methods Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze this patient's tumor as well as an additional 28 SB/LGS tumors. Functional characterization of an identified novel alteration of interest was performed. Results Analysis of the extraordinary responder's tumor identified a 15-nucleotide deletion in the negative regulatory helix of the MAP2K1 gene encoding for MEK1. Functional characterization demonstrated that this mutant induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activation, promoted anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in mice, and retained sensitivity to selumetinib. Analysis of additional LGS/SB tumors identified mutations predicted to induce extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activation in 82% (23 of 28), including two patients with BRAF fusions, one of whom achieved an ongoing complete response to MEK inhibitor–based combination therapy. Conclusion Alterations affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway are present in the majority of patients with LGS ovarian cancer. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed deletions and fusions that are not detected by older sequencing approaches. These findings, coupled with the observation that a subset of patients with recurrent LGS ovarian cancer experienced dramatic and durable responses to MEK inhibitor therapy, support additional

  13. Effect of Hyperketonemia (Acetoacetate) on Nuclear Factor-κB and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation Mediated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Upregulation in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rains, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hyperketonemia is a pathological condition observed in patients with type 1 diabetes and ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD), which results in increased blood levels of acetoacetate (AA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Frequent episodes of hyperketonemia are associated with a higher incidence of vascular disease. We examined the hypothesis that hyperketonemia activates the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with AA (0–8 mM) or BHB (0–10 mM) for 0–24 hr. Western blotting was used to determine NF-κB activation in whole-cell lysates. ICAM-1 expression was measured using flow cytometry. Results: Results show a 2.4-fold increase in NF-κB activation in cells treated with 8 mM AA compared to the control. BHB had little or no effect on NF-κB activation. Pretreatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor [N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC)] reduced NF-κB to near-control levels. The expression of AA-induced ICAM-1 was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated with either NAC or p38 MAPK inhibitor. Conclusions: These results suggest that NF-κB and p38 MAPK mediate upregulation of ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells exposed to elevated levels of AA, which may contribute to the development of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:25489974

  14. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer.

  15. UVB-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances resistance of normal human keratinocytes to apoptosis by stabilizing cytoplasmic p53.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Nadine; Valerie, Kristoffer; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Huot, Jacques

    2002-07-01

    Human keratinocytes respond to UV rays by developing a fast adaptive response that contributes to maintaining their functions and survival. We investigated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in transducing the UV signals in normal human keratinocytes. We found that UVA, UVB or UVC induced a marked and persistent activation of p38, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase were less or not activated respectively. Inhibition of p38 activity by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 or with SB203580 impaired cell viability and led to an increase in UVB-induced apoptosis. This sensitization to apoptosis was independent of caspase activities. Inhibition of p38 did not sensitize transformed HaCaT keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis. In normal keratinocytes, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p53 increased UVB-induced cell death, pointing to a role for p53. In these cells, UVB triggered a p38-dependent phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-15. This phosphorylation was associated with an SB203580-sensitive accumulation of p53, even in the presence of a serine phosphatase inhibitor. Accumulated p53 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, independently of CRM1 nuclear export. In HaCaT cells, p53 was localized exclusively in the nucleus and its distribution and level were not affected by UVB or p38 inhibition. However, UVB induced an SB203580-insensitive phosphorylation on Ser-15 of mutated p53. Overall, our results suggest that, in normal human keratinocytes, protection against UVB depends on p38-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of p53 and is tightly associated with the cytoplasmic sequestration of wild-type p53. We conclude that the p38/p53 pathway plays a key role in the adaptive response of normal human keratinocytes against UV stress.

  16. Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide stimulates release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Choi, Eun-Young; Kim, Eun Gyung; Shin, Su-Hwa; Lee, Ju-Youn; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In-Soon

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lipopolysaccharide from Prevotella intermedia, a major cause of inflammatory periodontal disease, on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA in differentiated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The potential involvement of the three main mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the induction of TNF-alpha production was also investigated. Lipopolysaccharide from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was prepared by the standard hot phenol-water method. THP-1 cells were incubated in the medium supplemented with phorbol myristate acetate to induce differentiation into macrophage-like cells. It was found that P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide can induce TNF-alpha mRNA expression and stimulate the release of TNF-alpha in differentiated THP-1 cells without additional stimuli. Treatment of the cells with P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide resulted in a simultaneous activation of three MAPKs [extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38]. Pretreatment of the cells with MAPK inhibitors effectively suppressed P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production without affecting the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA. These data thus provided good evidence that the MAPK signaling pathways are required for the regulation of P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha synthesis at the level of translation more than at the transcriptional level.

  17. From pure compounds to complex exposure: Effects of dietary cadmium and lignans on estrogen, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Hurmerinta, Teija; Nurmi, Tarja; Berglund, Marika; Rüegg, Joelle; Poutanen, Matti; Halldin, Krister; Mäkelä, Sari; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina

    2016-06-24

    Exposure to environmental endocrine active compounds correlates with altered susceptibility to disease in human populations. Chemical risk assessment is single compound based, although exposure often takes place as heterogeneous mixtures of man-made and natural substances within complex matrices like diet. Here we studied whether the effects of cadmium and enterolactone on endocrine endpoints in dietary exposure can be predicted based on pure compound effects. Ovariectomized estrogen reporter ERE-luciferase (ERE-luc) mice were maintained on diets that intrinsically contain increasing concentrations of cadmium and enterolactone precursors for three and 21 days. The activation of the ERE-luc, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2, and classical estrogen responses were measured. Interactions between the diets and endogenous hormone were evaluated by challenging the animals with 17β-estradiol. Compared to animals on basal purified diet, mice consuming experimental diets were exposed to significantly higher levels of cadmium and enterolactone, yet the exposure remained comparable to typical human dietary intake. Surprisingly, we could not detect effects on endpoints regulated by pure enterolactone, such as ERE-luc activation. However, cadmium accumulation in the liver was accompanied with activation of EGFR and MAPK-ERK1/2 in line with our earlier CdCl2 studies. Further, attenuation of 17β-estradiol-induced ERE-luc response in liver by experimental diets was observed. Our findings indicate that the exposure context can have substantial effects on the activity of endocrine active compounds in vivo. Thus, whenever possible, a context that mimics human exposure should be tested along with pure compounds.

  18. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Nasar; Li, Dayong; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yafen; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV) while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26222830

  19. Expression analysis of genes encoding mitogen-activated protein kinases in maize provides a key link between abiotic stress signaling and plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Chen, Hao; Wang, Juan; Sun, Hong Wei; Yang, Shu Ke; Sang, Ya Lin; Lu, Xing Bo; Xu, Xiao Hui

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in stress responses and development in plants. Maize (Zea mays), an important cereal crop, is a model plant species for molecular studies. In the last decade, several MAPKs have been identified in maize; however, their functions have not been studied extensively. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of maize MAPK genes could provide valuable information for understanding their functions. In this study, 20 non-redundant maize MAPK genes (ZmMPKs) were identified via a genome-wide survey. Phylogenetic analysis of MAPKs from maize, rice (Oryza sativa), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) classified them into four major classes. ZmMPKs in the same class had similar domains, motifs, and genomic structures. Gene duplication investigations suggested that segmental duplications made a large contribution to the expansion of ZmMPKs. A number of cis-acting elements related to plant development and response to stress and hormones were identified in the promoter regions of ZmMPKs. Furthermore, transcript profile analysis in eight tissues and organs at various developmental stages demonstrated that most ZmMPKs were preferentially expressed in reproductive tissues and organs. The transcript abundance of most ZmMPKs changed significantly under salt, drought, cold, or abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, implying that they might participate in abiotic stress and ABA signaling. These expression analyses indicated that ZmMPKs might serve as linkers between abiotic stress signaling and plant reproduction. Our data will deepen our understanding of the complexity of the maize MAPK gene family and provide new clues to investigate their functions.

  20. Ceramide Mediates Ox-LDL-Induced Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification via p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weikang; Yu, Huimin; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yanling; Ye, Meihong; Lu, Lihe

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and has been demonstrated as an actively regulated process resembling bone formation. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) has been identified as a regulatory factor involved in calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Additionally, over-expression of recombinant human neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) has been shown to stimulate VSMC apoptosis, which plays an important role in the progression of vascular calcification. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ceramide regulates Ox-LDL-induced calcification of VSMCs via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Ox-LDL increased the activity of N-SMase and the level of ceramide in cultured VSMCs. Calcification and the osteogenic transcription factor, Msx2 mRNA expression were reduced by N-SMase inhibitor, GW4869 in the presence of Ox-LDL. Usage of GW4869 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in VSMCs, an effect which was reversed by C2-ceramide. Additionally, C2-ceramide treatment accelerated VSMC calcification, with a concomitant increase in ALP activity. Furthermore, C2-ceramide treatment enhanced Ox-LDL-induced VSMC calcification. Addition of caspase inhibitor, ZVAD-fmk attenuated Ox-LDL-induced calcification. Both Ox-LDL and C2-ceramide treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 attenuated Ox-LDL-induced calcification of VSMCs. These data suggest that Ox-LDL activates N-SMase-ceramide signaling pathway, and stimulates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, leading to apoptosis in VSMCs, which initiates VSMC calcification. PMID:24358176

  1. Confluence of Vascular Endothelial Cells Induces Cell Cycle Exit by Inhibiting p42/p44 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Viñals, Francesc; Pouysségur, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Like other cellular models, endothelial cells in cultures stop growing when they reach confluence, even in the presence of growth factors. In this work, we have studied the effect of cellular contact on the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by growth factors in mouse vascular endothelial cells. p42/p44 MAPK activation by fetal calf serum or fibroblast growth factor was restrained in confluent cells in comparison with the activity found in sparse cells. Consequently, the induction of c-fos, MAPK phosphatases 1 and 2 (MKP1/2), and cyclin D1 was also restrained in confluent cells. In contrast, the activation of Ras and MEK-1, two upstream activators of the p42/p44 MAPK cascade, was not impaired when cells attained confluence. Sodium orthovanadate, but not okadaic acid, restored p42/p44 MAPK activity in confluent cells. Moreover, lysates from confluent 1G11 cells more effectively inactivated a dually phosphorylated active p42 MAPK than lysates from sparse cells. These results, together with the fact that vanadate-sensitive phosphatase activity was higher in confluent cells, suggest that phosphatases play a role in the down-regulation of p42/p44 MAPK activity. Enforced long-term activation of p42/p44 MAPK by expression of the chimera ΔRaf-1:ER, which activates the p42/p44 MAPK cascade at the level of Raf, enhanced the expression of MKP1/2 and cyclin D1 and, more importantly, restored the reentry of confluent cells into the cell cycle. Therefore, inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK activation by cell-cell contact is a critical step initiating cell cycle exit in vascular endothelial cells. PMID:10082542

  2. Proteolytic inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK in cultured human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Mynott, Tracey L; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells.

  3. Manassantin B isolated from Saururus chinensis inhibits cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin D2 generation by blocking Fyn-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen activated protein kinase pathways in bone marrow derived-mast cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of manassantin B (Man B) isolated from Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation in mouse bone marrow derived-mast cells (BMMCs). Man B inhibited the generation of PGD2 dose-dependently by inhibiting COX-2 expression in immunoglobulin E (IgE)/Ag-stimulated BMMCs. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of COX-2 expression by Man B, the effects of Man B on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), a transcription factor essential and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) for COX-2 induction, were examined. Man B attenuated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and its DNA-binding activity by inhibiting inhibitors of kappa Bα (IκBα) degradation and concomitantly suppressing IκB kinase (IKK) phosphorylation. In addition, Man B suppressed phosphorylation of MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. It was also found that Man B suppressed Fyn kinase activation and consequent downstream signaling processes, including those involving Syk, Gab2, and Akt. Taken together, the present results suggest that Man B suppresses COX-2 dependent PGD2 generation by primarily inhibiting Fyn kinase in FcεRI-mediated mast cells.

  4. The SrkA Kinase Is Part of the SakA Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Interactome and Regulates Stress Responses and Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Arroyo, Rafael; Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Bayram, Özgür; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and many other eukaryotes use specialized mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) of the Hog1/p38 family to transduce environmental stress signals. In Aspergillus nidulans, the MAPK SakA and the transcription factor AtfA are components of a central multiple stress-signaling pathway that also regulates development. Here we characterize SrkA, a putative MAPK-activated protein kinase, as a novel component of this pathway. ΔsrkA and ΔsakA mutants share a derepressed sexual development phenotype. However, ΔsrkA mutants are not sensitive to oxidative stress, and in fact, srkA inactivation partially suppresses the sensitivity of ΔsakA mutant conidia to H2O2, tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), and menadione. In the absence of stress, SrkA shows physical interaction with nonphosphorylated SakA in the cytosol. We show that H2O2 induces a drastic change in mitochondrial morphology consistent with a fission process and the relocalization of SrkA to nuclei and mitochondria, depending on the presence of SakA. SakA-SrkA nuclear interaction is also observed during normal asexual development in dormant spores. Using SakA and SrkA S-tag pulldown and purification studies coupled to mass spectrometry, we found that SakA interacts with SrkA, the stress MAPK MpkC, the PPT1-type phosphatase AN6892, and other proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, mRNA stability and protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, and other stress-related responses. We propose that oxidative stress induces DNA damage and mitochondrial fission and that SakA and SrkA mediate cell cycle arrest and regulate mitochondrial function during stress. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which SakA and SrkA regulate the remodelling of cell physiology during oxidative stress and development. PMID:25820520

  5. TSG-6 secreted by mesenchymal stem cells suppresses immune reactions influenced by BMP-2 through p38 and MEK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Um, Soyoun; Kim, Hui Young; Lee, Joo-Hee; Song, In-Seok; Seo, Byoung Moo

    2017-02-28

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has a critical function in bone and cartilage development and in repairing damaged organs and tissue. However, clinical use of BMP-2 at doses of 0.5-1 mg/ml for orthopedics has been associated with severe postoperative swelling requiring emergency surgical intervention. We determined whether a high concentration of BMP-2 induces inflammatory responses in macrophages and the suppression of osteogenesis in hMSCs. We obtained human periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells from the maxilla, i.e., human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), from the periodontal ligament of extracted third molar teeth and from the bone marrow of the maxilla, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation was measured by alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red S staining. Proteins were assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Changes of gene expression were measured by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. A high BMP-2 concentration inhibited the early stages of osteogenesis in hMSCs. Co-culturing THP-1 cells (human monocytic cells) with hMSCs reduced the late stages of osteogenesis compared with those seen in hMSCs alone. In addition, high-dose BMP-2 induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells and the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine tumor-necrosis-factor-α-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) in hMSCs. Consistent with the anti-inflammatory effects of hMSCs when co-cultured with THP-1 cells, interleukin-1β expression was downregulated by TSG-6 treatment of THP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that a high BMP-2 concentration triggers inflammation that causes inflammatory cytokine release from THP-1 cells, leading to the suppression of osteogenesis, whereas TSG-6 secreted by hMSCs suppresses inflammatory reactions through p38 and ERK in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

  6. Ineffective Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1p in Response to High Osmotic Stress in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Zavala, Nancy; Rodríguez-González, Miriam; Navarro-Olmos, Rocío; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Kawasaki, Laura; Torres-Quiroz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    When treated with a hyperosmotic stimulus, Kluyveromyces lactis cells respond by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) K. lactis Hog1 (KlHog1) protein via two conserved branches, SLN1 and SHO1. Mutants affected in only one branch can cope with external hyperosmolarity by activating KlHog1p by phosphorylation, except for single ΔKlste11 and ΔKlste50 mutants, which showed high sensitivity to osmotic stress, even though the other branch (SLN1) was intact. Inactivation of both branches by deletion of KlSHO1 and KlSSK2 also produced sensitivity to high salt. Interestingly, we have observed that in ΔKlste11 and ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutants, which exhibit sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and contrary to what would be expected, KlHog1p becomes phosphorylated. Additionally, in mutants lacking both MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) present in K. lactis (KlSte11p and KlSsk2p), the hyperosmotic stress induced the phosphorylation and nuclear internalization of KlHog1p, but it failed to induce the transcriptional expression of KlSTL1 and the cell was unable to grow in high-osmolarity medium. KlHog1p phosphorylation via the canonical HOG pathway or in mutants where the SHO1 and SLN1 branches have been inactivated requires not only the presence of KlPbs2p but also its kinase activity. This indicates that when the SHO1 and SLN1 branches are inactivated, high-osmotic-stress conditions activate an independent input that yields active KlPbs2p, which, in turn, renders KlHog1p phosphorylation ineffective. Finally, we found that KlSte11p can alleviate the sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress displayed by a ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutant when it is anchored to the plasma membrane by adding the KlSho1p transmembrane segments, indicating that this chimeric protein can substitute for KlSho1p and KlSsk2p. PMID:26150414

  7. Roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3'-kinase in ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor-mediated heregulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Vijapurkar, Ulka; Kim, Myong-Soo; Koland, John G

    2003-04-01

    ErbB2/HER2 and ErbB3/HER3, two members of the ErbB/HER family, together constitute a heregulin coreceptor complex that elicits a potent mitogenic and transforming signal. Among known intracellular effectors of the ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin coreceptor are mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase. Activation of the distinct MAPK and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways by the ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor in response to heregulin and their relative contributions to the mitogenic and transformation potentials of the activated coreceptor were investigated here. To this end, cDNAs encoding the wild-type ErbB3 protein (ErbB3-WT) and ErbB3 proteins with amino acid substitutions in either the Shc-binding site (ErbB3-Y1325F), the six putative PI 3-kinase-binding sites (ErbB3-6F), or both (ErbB3-7F) were generated and expressed in NIH-3T3 cells to form functional ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin coreceptors. While the coreceptor incorporating ErbB3-WT activated both the MAPK and the PI 3-kinase signaling pathways, those incorporating ErbB3-Y1325F or ErbB3-6F activated either PI 3-kinase or MAPK, respectively. The ErbB2/ErbB3-7F coreceptor activated neither. Elimination of either signaling pathway lowered basal and eliminated heregulin-dependent expression of cyclin D1, which was in each case accompanied by an attenuated mitogenic response. Selective elimination of the PI 3-kinase pathway severely impaired the ability of heregulin to transform cells expressing the coreceptor, whereas attenuation of the MAPK pathway had a lesser effect. Thus, while both pathways contributed in a roughly additive manner to the mitogenic response elicited by the activated ErbB2/ErbB3 coreceptor, the PI 3-kinase pathway predominated in the induction of cellular transformation.

  8. Lipoarabinomannan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes protein tyrosine dephosphorylation and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase in human mononuclear phagocytes. Role of the Src homology 2 containing tyrosine phosphatase 1.

    PubMed

    Knutson, K L; Hmama, Z; Herrera-Velit, P; Rochford, R; Reiner, N E

    1998-01-02

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a putative virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that inhibits monocyte functions, and this may involve antagonism of cell signaling pathways. The effects of LAM on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cells of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 were examined. LAM promoted tyrosine dephosphorylation of multiple cell proteins and attenuated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. To examine whether these effects of LAM could be related to activation of a phosphatase, fractions from LAM-treated cells were analyzed for dephosphorylation of para-nitrophenol phosphate. The data show that LAM induced increased phosphatase activity associated with the membrane fraction. The Src homology 2 containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is important for signal termination and was examined as a potential target of LAM. Exposure of cells to LAM brought about (i) an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-1, and (ii) translocation of the phosphatase to the membrane. Phosphatase assay of SHP-1 immunoprecipitated from LAM-treated cells, using phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase as substrate, indicated that LAM promoted increased activity of SHP-1 in vivo. LAM also activated SHP-1 directly in vitro. Exposure of cells to LAM also attenuated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-12, and major histocompatibility class II molecules. These results suggest that one mechanism by which LAM deactivates monocytes involves activation of SHP-1.

  9. Oxytocin- and vasopressin-induced growth of human small-cell lung cancer is mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Péqueux, C; Keegan, B P; Hagelstein, M-T; Geenen, V; Legros, J-J; North, W G

    2004-12-01

    Malignant growth of small-cell lung carcinoma is promoted by various neuroendocrine autocrine/paracrine loops. Therefore, to interfere with this mitogenic process, it is crucial to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It is known that the oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) genes, normally transcriptionally restricted in their expression, are activated in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), concomitantly with expression of their receptors (OTR, V1aR, V1bR/V3R and V2R). The aim of the present study was to characterize, in concentrations close to physiological and pharmacological conditions, intracellular signalling events triggered by OT and VP binding to their specific receptors in SCLC cells and to identify factors mediating OT- and VP-induced mitogenic effects on SCLC. Known agonists for OTR ([Thr4,Gly7]OT) and V1aR (F180), in addition to OT and VP, were able to elicit increases in cytosolic Ca2+ levels and this effect could be blocked using an OTR antagonist (OVTA) or a V1aR antagonist (SR49059) respectively. There was no activation of the cAMP pathway detected after VP, dDAVP (a V2R agonist), or OT treatment. Stimulation of SCLC cells with OT and VP led to an increase of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation, maximal at 5 min, and the subsequent phosphorylation of its downstream target p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK). Pre-incubation with OVTA and SR49059, and with inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 and a Ca2+ chelator significantly reduced OT- and VP-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylations. OVTA, SR49059 as well as MEK1/2 and PKC inhibitors also downregulated OT- and VP-induced p90RSK phosphorylation. In [3H]thymidine-uptake experiments, we subsequently observed that PLC, Ca2+, PKC and ERK1/2 are absolutely required for the OT- and VP-stimulated SCLC cellular growth process. In conclusion, the results presented here indicate that OT- and VP-induced mitogenic effects on

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinases inhibit the ROMK (Kir 1.1)-like small conductance K channels in the cortical collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Babilonia, Elisa; Li, Dimin; Wang, Zhijian; Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Jin, Yan; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2006-10-01

    It was demonstrated previously that low dietary potassium (K) intake stimulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) expression via a superoxide-dependent signaling. This study explored the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mediating the effect of superoxide anions on PTK expression and ROMK (Kir 1.1) channel activity. Western blot analysis demonstrated that low K intake significantly increased the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK (P38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but had no effect on phosphorylation of c-JUN N-terminus kinase in renal cortex and outer medulla. The stimulatory effect of low K intake on P38 and ERK was abolished by treatment of rats with tempol. The possibility that increases in superoxide and related products that are induced by low K intake were responsible for stimulating phosphorylation of P38 and ERK also was supported by the finding that application of H(2)O(2) increased the phosphorylation of ERK and P38 in the cultured mouse collecting duct cells. Simultaneous blocking of ERK and P38 completely abolished the effect of H(2)O(2) on c-Src expression in mouse collecting duct cells. For determination of the role of P38 and ERK in the regulation of ROMK-like small-conductance K (SK) channels, the patch-clamp technique was used to study the effect of inhibiting P38 and ERK on SK channels in the cortical collecting duct from rats that were on a control K diet (1.1%) and on a K-deficient diet for 1 d. Inhibition of ERK, c-JUN N-terminus kinase, or P38 alone had no effect on SK channels. In contrast, simultaneous inhibition of P38 and ERK significantly increased channel activity. The effect of inhibiting MAPK on SK channels was not affected in the presence of herbimycin A, a PTK inhibitor, and was larger in rats that were on a K-deficient diet than in rats that were on a normal-K diet. However, the stimulatory effect of inhibiting ERK and P38 on SK was absent in the cortical collecting duct that was treated with

  11. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Inhibit the ROMK (Kir 1.1)-Like Small Conductance K Channels in the Cortical Collecting Duct

    PubMed Central

    Babilonia, Elisa; Li, Dimin; Wang, Zhijian; Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Jin, Yan; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that low dietary potassium (K) intake stimulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) expression via a superoxide-dependent signaling. This study explored the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mediating the effect of superoxide anions on PTK expression and ROMK (Kir 1.1) channel activity. Western blot analysis demonstrated that low K intake significantly increased the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK (P38) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) but had no effect on phosphorylation of c-JUN N-terminus kinase in renal cortex and outer medulla. The stimulatory effect of low K intake on P38 and ERK was abolished by treatment of rats with tempol. The possibility that increases in superoxide and related products that are induced by low K intake were responsible for stimulating phosphorylation of P38 and ERK also was supported by the finding that application of H2O2 increased the phosphorylation of ERK and P38 in the cultured mouse collecting duct cells. Simultaneous blocking of ERK and P38 completely abolished the effect of H2O2 on c-Src expression in mouse collecting duct cells. For determination of the role of P38 and ERK in the regulation of ROMK-like small-conductance K (SK) channels, the patch-clamp technique was used to study the effect of inhibiting P38 and ERK on SK channels in the cortical collecting duct from rats that were on a control K diet (1.1%) and on a K-deficient diet for 1 d. Inhibition of ERK, c-JUN N-terminus kinase, or P38 alone had no effect on SK channels. In contrast, simultaneous inhibition of P38 and ERK significantly increased channel activity. The effect of inhibiting MAPK on SK channels was not affected in the presence of herbimycin A, a PTK inhibitor, and was larger in rats that were on a K-deficient diet than in rats that were on a normal-K diet. However, the stimulatory effect of inhibiting ERK and P38 on SK was absent in the cortical collecting duct that was treated with

  12. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl upregulates cyclooxygenase-2 in HL-60 cells via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bezdecny, Steven A.; Karmaus, Peer; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E. . E-mail: ganey@msu.edu

    2007-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent environmental contaminants that affect a number of cellular systems, including neutrophils. Among the effects caused by the noncoplanar PCB 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2244-TCB) in granulocytic HL-60 cells are increases in superoxide anion production, activation of phospholipase A{sub 2} with subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA) and upregulation of the inflammatory gene cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The objective of this study was to determine the signal transduction pathways involved in the upregulation of COX-2 by 2244-TCB. Treatment of HL-60 cells with 2244-TCB led to increased expression of COX-2 mRNA. This increase was prevented by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D in cells pretreated with 2244-TCB for 10 min. The increase in COX-2 mRNA was associated with release of {sup 3}H-AA, phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, increased levels of nuclear NF-{kappa}B and increased superoxide anion production. Bromoenol lactone, an inhibitor of the calcium-independent phospholipase A{sub 2}, reduced {sup 3}H-AA release but had no effect on COX-2 mRNA, protein or activity. Pretreatment with SB-202190 or SB-203580, inhibitors of the p38 MAP kinase pathway, prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated induction of COX-2 and phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases. These inhibitors did not alter {sup 3}H-AA release. Treatment with PD 98059 or U 0126, inhibitors of the MAP/ERK (MEK) pathway, prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated activation of ERK but had no effect on COX-2 induction or p38 phosphorylation. 2244-TCB treatment did not affect c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. 2244-TCB exposure increased the amount of nuclear NF-{kappa}B. This increase was prevented by pretreatment with p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, but not by pretreatment with MEK inhibitors. Pretreatment with inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B prevented the 2244-TCB

  13. Neuroprotective effects of inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, P2X receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade: a quantitative analysis in organotypical hippocampal slice cultures subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Rundén-Pran, E; Tansø, R; Haug, F M; Ottersen, O P; Ring, A

    2005-01-01

    Cell death was assessed by quantitative analysis of propidium iodide uptake in rat hippocampal slice cultures transiently exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of brain ischemia. The hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3, and fascia dentata were analyzed at different stages from 0 to 48 h after the insult. Cell death appeared at 3 h and increased steeply toward 12 h. Only a slight additional increase in propidium iodide uptake was seen at later intervals. The mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 were activated immediately after oxygen and glucose deprivation both in CA1 and in CA3/fascia dentata. Inhibition of the specific mitogen-activated protein kinase activator mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase by PD98059 or U0126 offered partial protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced cell damage. The non-selective P2X receptor antagonist suramin gave neuroprotection of the same magnitude as the N-methyl-D-aspartate channel blocker MK-801 (approximately 70%). Neuroprotection was also observed with the P2 receptor blocker PPADS. Immunogold data indicated that hippocampal slice cultures (like intact hippocampi) express several isoforms of P2X receptors at the synaptic level, consistent with the idea that the effects of suramin and PPADS are mediated by P2X receptors. Virtually complete neuroprotection was obtained by combined blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, P2X receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. Both P2X receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate influx of calcium. Our results suggest that inhibition of P2X receptors has a neuroprotective potential similar to that of inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. In contrast, our comparative analysis shows that only partial protection can be achieved by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, one of the

  14. Regulation of cAMP-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, Period1, and MKP-1 gene expression by mitogen-activated protein kinases in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chansard, Mathieu; Iwahana, Eiko; Liang, Jian; Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2005-10-03

    In rodent pineal glands, sympathetic innervation, which leads to norepinephrine release, is a key process in the circadian regulation of physiology and certain gene expressions. It has been shown that gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the melatonin synthesis arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aa-Nat), circadian clock gene Period1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphtase-1 (MKP-1), is controlled mainly by a norepinephrine-beta-adrenergic receptor-cAMP signaling cascade in the rat pineal gland. To further dissect the signaling cascades that regulate those gene expressions, we examined whether MAPKs are involved in cAMP-induced gene expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that one of the three MAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was expressed in the pineal, and was phosphorylated by cAMP analogue stimulation with a peak 20 min after start of the stimulation, in vitro. A specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 (Anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), but not its negative control (N1-Methyl-1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), significantly reduced cAMP-stimulated Aa-Nat, Period1, and MKP-1 mRNA levels. Although another MAPK, p38(MAPK), has also been shown to be activated by cAMP stimulation, a p38(MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580 (4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole, HCl), showed no effect on cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 mRNA levels; whereas SB203580, but not its negative analogue SB202474 (4-Ethyl-2(p-methoxyphenyl)-5-(4'-pyridyl)-IH-imidazole, DiHCl), significantly reduced cAMP-induced MKP-1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our data suggest that cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 are likely to be mediated by activation of JNK, whereas MKP-1 may be mediated by both p38(MAPK) and JNK activations.

  15. WNK4 inhibits Ca2+-activated big-conductance potassium channels (BK) via mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Peng; Zhang, Chengbiao; Lin, Dao-Hong; Sun, Peng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    We used the perforated whole-cell recording technique to examine the effect of With-No-Lysine Kinase 4 (WNK4) on the Ca2+ activated big-conductance K channels (BK) in HEK293T cells transfected with BK–α subunit (BK-α). Expression of WNK4 inhibited BK channels and decreased the outward K currents. Coexpression of SGK1 abolished the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on BK channels and restored the outward K currents. Expression of WNK4S1169D//1196D, in which both SGK1-phosphorylation sites (serine 1169 and 1196) were mutated to aspartate, had no effect on BK channels. Moreover, coexpression of SGK1 had no additional effect on K currents in the cells transfected with BKα + WNK4 S1169D//1196D, suggesting that SGK1 reversed WNK4-induced inhibition of BK channels by stimulating WNK4 phosphorylation. Expression of WNK4 but not WNK4 S1169D//1196D increased the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); an effect was abolished by coexpression of SGK1. The role of ERK and p38 MAPK in mediating the effect of WNK4 on BK channels was further suggested by the finding that inhibition of ERK and P38 MAPK completely abolished the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on BK channels. In contrast, inhibition of MAPK failed to abolish the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on ROMK channels in both HEK cells and Xenopus oocytes. Expression of dominant negative dynaminK44A (DynK44A) or treatment of the cells with dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, not only increased K currents but also largely abolished the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on BK channels. However, inhibition of MAPK still increased the outward K currents in the cells transfected with BKα+WNK4 and treated with dynasore. Similar results were obtained in experiments performed in the native tissue in which inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK increased BK channel activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) treated with dynasore. We concluded that WNK4 inhibited BK channels by stimulating ERK and p38 MAPK and that activation of MAPK

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) in the surgical wound is necessary for the resolution of postoperative pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopelja-Gardner, Sladjana; Saha, Madhurima; Alvarado-Vazquez, Perla Abigail; Liponis, Brenna S; Martinez, Elena; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) and its substrates (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] and p38) play an important role in pathophysiological mechanisms of acute postoperative and chronic neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. This study aimed to understand the role of MKP-3 and its target MAPKs at the site of surgical incision in nociceptive behavior. Wild-type (WT) and MKP-3 knockout (KO) mice underwent unilateral plantar hind paw incision. Mechanical allodynia was assessed by using von Frey filaments. Peripheral ERK-1/2 and p38 phosphorylation were measured by Western blot. Cell infiltration was determined using hematoxylin and eosin histological staining. Peripheral phosphorylated ERK-1/2 (p-ERK-1/2) inhibition was performed in MKP-3 KO mice. In WT mice, mechanical hypersensitivity was observed on postoperative day 1 (0.69±0.17 g baseline vs 0.13±0.08 g day 1), which resolved normally by postoperative day 12 (0.46±0.08 g, N=6). In MKP-3 KO mice, this hypersensitivity persisted at least 12 days after surgery (0.19±0.06 g; N=6). KO mice displayed higher numbers of infiltrating cells (51.4±6 cells/0.1 mm2) than WT mice (8.7±1.2 cells/0.1 mm2) on postoperative day 1 (vs 5–6 cells/0.1 mm2 at baseline) that returned to baseline 12 days after surgery (10–12 cells/0.1 mm2). In WT mice, peripheral p-p38 and p-ERK-1/2 expression increased (5- and 3-fold, respectively) on postoperative days 1 and 5, and returned to basal levels 7–12 days after surgery (N=3 per group). Peripheral p-p38 levels in MKP-3 KO mice followed a similar expression pattern as WT mice. Peripheral p-ERK-1/2 levels in MKP-3 KO mice remained elevated 12 days after surgery (2.5-fold, N=3 per group). Administration of PD98059 (MEK inhibitor, N=8, vehicle N=9) reduced p-ERK-1/2 expression in the incised tissue and blocked hypersensitivity in MKP-3 KO mice (N=6). The findings of this study suggest that MKP-3 is pivotal for normal resolution of acute

  17. Involvement of caspase-3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weiguo; Zeng, Jiping; Zhuo, Ming; Xu, Weijing; Sun, Lanying; Wang, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan

    2002-03-15

    Our previous study showed that cobalt chloride (CoCl2) could induce PC12 cell apoptosis and that the CoCl2-treated PC12 cells may serve as a simple in vitro model for the study of the mechanism of hypoxia-linked neuronal disorders. The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of CoCl2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Caspases are known to be involved in the apoptosis induced by various stimuli in many cell types. To investigate the involvement of caspases in CoCl2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, we generated PC12 cells that stably express the viral caspases inhibitor gene p35 and analyzed the effect of p35 on the process of apoptosis induced by CoCl2. We also examined the effect of cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of caspases. The results showed that the baculovirus p35 gene and the general caspases inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly block apoptosis induced by CoCl2, confirming that caspase is involved in CoCl2-induced apoptosis. Further investigation showed that in this process the caspase-3-like activity is increased, as indicated by the cells' ability to cleave the fluorogenic peptide substrate Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-AMC and to degrade the DNA-repairing enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), an endogenous caspase-3 substrate. At the same time, caspase-3-specific inhibitors, namely, the peptide Ac-DEVD-CHO, Ac-DEVD-FMK, partially inhibit CoCl2-induced apoptosis. These findings suggested that caspase-3 or caspase-3-like proteases are involved in the apoptosis induced by CoCl2 in PC12 cells. Additionally, we have observed that another apoptotic marker, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is significantly activated in this process in a time-dependent manner and that a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, partially inhibits this cell death. The addition of SB203580 also partially suppresses caspase-3-like activity. All these results confirm that the CoCl2-treated PC12 cell is a useful in vitro model with which to study hypoxia-linked neuronal

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition and angiotensin II converting inhibition in mice with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Muchir, Antoine; Wu, Wei; Sera, Fusako; Homma, Shunichi; Worman, Howard J.

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Both ACE and MEK1/2 inhibition are beneficial on cardiac function in Lmna cardiomyopathy. • MEK1/2 inhibitor has beneficial effects beyond ACE inhibition for Lmna cardiomyopathy. • These results provide further preclinical rationale for a clinical trial of a MEK1/2 inhibitor. - Abstract: Background: Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding A-type nuclear lamins can cause dilated cardiomyopathy with or without skeletal muscular dystrophy. Previous studies have shown abnormally increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in hearts of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice, a small animal model. Inhibition of this abnormal signaling activity with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor has beneficial effects on heart function and survival in these mice. However, such treatment has not been examined relative to any standard of care intervention for dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. We therefore examined the effects of an angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on left ventricular function in Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice and assessed if adding a MEK1/2 inhibitor would provide added benefit. Methods: Male Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice were treated with the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib or both. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular diameters and fractional shortening was calculated. Results: Treatment of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice with either benazepril or selumetinib started at 8 weeks of age, before the onset of detectable left ventricular dysfunction, lead to statistically significantly increased fractional shortening compared to placebo at 16 weeks of age. There was a trend towards a great value for fractional shortening in the selumetinib-treated mice. When treatment was started at 16 weeks of age, after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction, the addition of selumetinib treatment to benazepril lead to a statistically significant increase in left

  19. Nitric oxide-proton stimulation of trigeminal ganglion neurons increases mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatase expression in neurons and satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S E; Patil, V V; Durham, P L

    2008-12-02

    Elevated nitric oxide (NO) and proton levels in synovial fluid are implicated in joint pathology. However, signaling pathways stimulated by these molecules that mediate inflammation and pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have not been investigated. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of NO-proton stimulation of rat trigeminal neurons on the in vivo expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatases (MKPs) in trigeminal ganglion neurons and satellite glial cells. Low levels of the active MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 were localized in the cytosol of neurons and satellite glial cells in unstimulated animals. However, increased levels of active ERK and p38, but not JNK, were detected in the cytosol and nucleus of V3 neurons and satellite glial cells 15 min and 2 h following bilateral TMJ injections of an NO donor diluted in pH 5.5 medium. While ERK levels returned to near basal levels 24 h after stimulation, p38 levels remained significantly elevated. In contrast to MKP-2 and MKP-3 levels that were barely detectable in neurons or satellite glial cells, MKP-1 staining was readily observed in satellite glial cells in ganglia from unstimulated animals. However, neuronal and satellite glial cell staining for MKP-1, MKP-2, and MKP-3 was significantly increased in response to NO-protons. Increased active ERK and p38 levels as well as elevated MKP levels were also detected in neurons and satellite glial cells located in V2 and V1 regions of the ganglion. Our data provide evidence that NO-proton stimulation of V3 neurons results in temporal and spatial changes in expression of active ERK and p38 and MKPs in all regions of the ganglion. We propose that in trigeminal ganglia these cellular events, which are involved in peripheral sensitization as well as control of inflammatory and nociceptive responses, may play a role in TMJ pathology.

  20. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent and -Independent Signaling of mRNA Stability of AU-Rich Element-Containing Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Frevel, Mathias A. E.; Bakheet, Tala; Silva, Aristobolo M.; Hissong, John G.; Khabar, Khalid S. A.; Williams, Bryan R. G.

    2003-01-01

    Adenylate/uridylate-rich element (ARE)-mediated mRNA turnover is an important regulatory component of gene expression for innate and specific immunity, in the hematopoietic system, in cellular growth regulation, and for many other cellular processes. This diversity is reflected in the distribution of AREs in the human genome, which we have established as a database of more than 900 ARE-containing genes that may utilize AREs as a means of controlling cellular mRNA levels. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathway has been implicated in regulating the stability of nine ARE-containing transcripts. Here we explored the entire spectrum of ARE-containing genes for p38-dependent regulation of ARE-mediated mRNA turnover with a custom cDNA array containing probes for 950 ARE mRNAs. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as a reproducible cellular model system that allowed us to precisely control the conditions of mRNA induction and decay in the absence and presence of the p38 inhibitor SB203580. This approach allowed us to establish an LPS-induced ARE mRNA expression profile in human monocytes and determine the half-lives of 470 AU-rich mRNAs. Most importantly, we identified 42 AU-rich genes, previously unrecognized, that show p38-dependent mRNA stabilization. In addition to a number of cytokines, several interesting novel AU-rich transcripts likely to play a role in macrophage activation by LPS exhibited p38-dependent transcript stabilization, including macrophage-specific colony-stimulating factor 1, carbonic anhydrase 2, Bcl2, Bcl2-like 2, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2. Finally, the identification of the p38-dependent upstream activator MAP kinase kinase 6 as a member of this group identifies a positive feedback loop regulating macrophage signaling via p38 MAP kinase-dependent transcript stabilization. PMID:12509443

  1. Effects of resistance exercise intensity on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling has been shown to be increased after heavy resistance exercise and suggested to play a role in the hypertrophic adaptations that are known to occur with training. However, the role that ERK1/2 may play in response to lower intensities of resistance exercise is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance exercise intensity on ERK1/2 activity in human skeletal muscle. Twelve recreationally active men completed separate bouts of single-legged resistance exercise with 8-10 repetitions (reps) at 80-85% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (85%) and 18-20 reps at 60-65% 1RM (65%) in a randomized crossover fashion. For both resistance exercise sessions, vastus lateralis biopsies and blood draws were taken immediately before exercise (PRE) and at 30 minutes (30MPST), 2 hours (2HRPST), and 6 hours (6HRPST) post exercise, with an additional blood draw occurring immediately after exercise (POST). The phosphorylated levels of pIGF-1R, pMEK1, pERK1/2, and activated Elk-1 were assessed by phosphoELISA, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses used a 2 × 4 (muscle responses) and 2 × 5 (serum responses) multivariate analysis of variance on delta values from baseline (p < 0.05). Both exercise intensities significantly increased the activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, ERK1/2, and Elk-1, with peak activity occurring at 2HRPST (p < 0.001). However, 65% resulted in a preferential increase in IGF-1R and Elk-1 activation when compared with 85% (p < 0.05). No differences were observed for serum IGF-1 levels regardless of intensity and time. These findings demonstrate that resistance exercise upregulates ERK1/2 signaling in a manner that does not appear to be preferentially dependent on exercise intensity.

  2. Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box-containing protein (ASB) 15 alters differentiation of mouse C2C12 myoblasts and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt.

    PubMed

    McDaneld, T G; Spurlock, D M

    2008-11-01

    Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box-containing protein (ASB) 15 is a novel ASB gene family member predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. We have previously reported that overexpression of ASB15 delays differentiation and alters protein turnover in mouse C(2)C(12) myoblasts. However, the extent of ASB15 regulation of differentiation and molecular pathways underlying this activity are unknown. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt; Akt is also known as protein kinase B) signaling pathways have a role in skeletal muscle growth. Activation (phosphorylation) of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway promotes proliferation, whereas activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway promotes myoblast differentiation. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that ASB15 controls myoblast differentiation through its regulation of these kinases. Stably transfected myoblasts overexpressing ASB15 (ASB15+) demonstrated decreased differentiation, whereas attenuation of ASB15 expression (ASB15-) increased differentiation. However, ASB15+ cells had less abundance of the phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (active) form, despite decreased differentiation relative to control myoblasts (ASB15Con). The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, U0126, effectively decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and stimulated differentiation in ASB15- and ASB15Con cells. However, inhibition of the Erk1/2 pathway was unable to overcome the inhibitory effect of overexpressing ASB15 on differentiation (ASB15+), suggesting that the Erk1/2 pathway is likely not the predominant mediator of ASB15 activity on differentiation. Expression of ASB15 also altered phosphorylation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, as ASB15+ and ASB15- cells had decreased and increased Akt phosphorylation, respectively. These data were consistent with observed differences in differentiation. Administration of IGF-I, a PI3K

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Activation of the TPL-2/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Is Regulated by IκB Kinase-Induced Proteolysis of NF-κB1 p105†

    PubMed Central

    Beinke, S.; Robinson, M. J.; Hugunin, M.; Ley, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    The MEK kinase TPL-2 (also known as Cot) is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in macrophages and consequent upregulation of genes involved in innate immune responses. In resting cells, TPL-2 forms a stoichiometric complex with NF-κB1 p105, which negatively regulates its MEK kinase activity. Here, it is shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary macrophages causes the release of both long and short forms of TPL-2 from p105 and that TPL-2 MEK kinase activity is restricted to this p105-free pool. Activation of TPL-2, MEK, and ERK by LPS is also demonstrated to require proteasome-mediated proteolysis. p105 is known to be proteolysed by the proteasome following stimulus-induced phosphorylation of two serines in its PEST region by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Expression of a p105 point mutant, which is not susceptible to signal-induced proteolysis, in RAW264.7 macrophages impairs LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and its subsequent activation of MEK. Furthermore, expression of wild-type but not mutant p105 reconstitutes LPS stimulation of MEK and ERK phosphorylation in primary NF-κB1-deficient macrophages. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of IKK inhibits LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and TPL-2 activation. These data show that IKK-induced p105 proteolysis is essential for LPS activation of TPL-2, thus revealing a novel function of IKK in the regulation of the ERK MAP kinase cascade. PMID:15485931

  4. The Heat Shock Factor A4A Confers Salt Tolerance and Is Regulated by Oxidative Stress and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases MPK3 and MPK61[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Salamó, Imma; Papdi, Csaba; Rigó, Gábor; Zsigmond, Laura; Vilela, Belmiro; Lumbreras, Victoria; Nagy, István; Horváth, Balázs; Domoki, Mónika; Darula, Zsuzsa; Medzihradszky, Katalin; Bögre, László; Koncz, Csaba; Szabados, László

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock factors (HSFs) are principal regulators of plant responses to several abiotic stresses. Here, we show that estradiol-dependent induction of HSFA4A confers enhanced tolerance to salt and oxidative agents, whereas inactivation of HSFA4A results in hypersensitivity to salt stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Estradiol induction of HSFA4A in transgenic plants decreases, while the knockout hsfa4a mutation elevates hydrogen peroxide accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Overexpression of HSFA4A alters the transcription of a large set of genes regulated by oxidative stress. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, HSFA4A shows homomeric interaction, which is reduced by alanine replacement of three conserved cysteine residues. HSFA4A interacts with mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 in yeast and plant cells. MPK3 and MPK6 phosphorylate HSFA4A in vitro on three distinct sites, serine-309 being the major phosphorylation site. Activation of the MPK3 and MPK6 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway led to the transcriptional activation of the HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN17.6A gene. In agreement that mutation of serine-309 to alanine strongly diminished phosphorylation of HSFA4A, it also strongly reduced the transcriptional activation of HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN17.6A. These data suggest that HSFA4A is a substrate of the MPK3/MPK6 signaling and that it regulates stress responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:24676858

  5. The Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli stimulate interleukin-8 secretion, activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, and promote polymorphonuclear transepithelial migration in T84 polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bétis, Fréderic; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Guignot, Julie; Bernet-Camard, Marie-Françoise; Rossi, Bernard; Servin, Alain; Hofman, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains cause symptomatic urinary tract and intestinal infections. The proinflammatory effects of Afa/Dr DAEC strains in vitro have been not investigated to date. In the present study, we used confluent polarized monolayers of intestinal cell line T84 to evaluate the consequences of epithelial infection by Afa/Dr DAEC strains in terms of proinflammatory response. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) migration across the epithelial barrier was induced after incubation of the T84 monolayers with the wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strain C1845 harboring the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and strain IH11128 harboring the Dr hemagglutinin, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101 was transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid, producing Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin. PMNL migrations were correlated with a basolateral secretion of interleukin-8 by T84 cells and were abolished after incubation of epithelial cells with an anti-decay accelerating factor (DAF) antibody that recognized the short consensus repeat 3 domain of DAF (monoclonal antibody 1H4). Moreover, Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several T84 proteins and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein, P38, and Jun-C kinases). These data demonstrated for the first time that, in vitro, Afa/Dr DAEC strains exert a proinflammatory signal in intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. Diacylglycerol generated by exogenous phospholipase C activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway independent of Ras- and phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C: dependence on protein kinase C-zeta.

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, M; Muriana, F J; van Der Hoeven, P C; de Widt, J; Schaap, D; Moolenaar, W H; van Blitterswijk, W J

    1997-01-01

    The role of diacylglycerol (DG) formation from phosphatidylcholine in mitogenic signal transduction is poorly understood. We have generated this lipid at the plasma membrane by treating Rat-1 fibroblasts with bacterial phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This treatment leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, unlike platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), PC-PLC fails to activate Ras and to induce DNA synthesis, and activates MAPK only transiently (<45 min). Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) -alpha, -delta and -epsilon isotypes has little or no effect on MAPK activation by either PC-PLC or growth factors. However, Ro 31-8220, a highly selective inhibitor of all PKC isotypes, including atypical PKC-zeta but not Raf-1, blocks MAPK activation by PDGF and PC-PLC, but not that by EGF, suggesting that atypical PKC mediates the PDGF and PC-PLC signal. In line with this, PKC-zeta is activated by PC-PLC and PDGF, but not by EGF, as shown by a kinase assay in vitro, using biotinylated epsilon-peptide as a substrate. Furthermore, dominant-negative PKC-zeta inhibits, while (wild-type) PKC-zeta overexpression enhances MAPK activation by PDGF and PC-PLC. The results suggest that DG generated by PC-PLC can activate the MAPK pathway independent of Ras and phorbol-ester-sensitive PKC but, instead, via PKC-zeta. PMID:9169602

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD.

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene family from banana suggest involvement of specific members in different stages of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Asif, Mehar Hasan; Lakhwani, Deepika; Pathak, Sumya; Bhambhani, Sweta; Bag, Sumit K; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of the tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and play an important role in plant growth and development. Although members of the MAPK gene family have been identified in model plants, little information is available regarding this gene family in fruit crops. In this study, we carried out a computational analysis using the Musa Genome database to identify members of the MAPK gene family in banana, an economically important crop and the most popular fruit worldwide. Our analysis identified 25 members of the MAP kinase (MAPK or MPK) gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of MPKs in Arabidopsis, Oryza, and Populus have classified these MPKs into four subgroups. The presence of conserved domains in the deduced amino acid sequences, phylogeny, and genomic organization strongly support their identity as members of the MPK gene family. Expression analysis during ethylene-induced banana fruit ripening suggests the involvement of several MPKs in the ethylene signal transduction pathway that are necessary for banana fruit ripening. Analysis of the cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions and the involvement of the identified MPKs in various cellular processes, as analyzed using Pathway Studio, suggest a role for the banana MPK gene family in diverse functions related to growth, development, and the stress response. This report is the first concerning the identification of members of a gene family and the elucidation of their role in various processes using the Musa Genome database.

  9. A superoxide-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 degradation and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation pathway for luteolin-induced lung cancer cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lang; Xu, Xiuling; Wang, Qiong; Xu, Shanling; Ju, Wei; Wang, Xia; Chen, Wenshu; He, Weiyang; Tang, Hong; Lin, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Although luteolin is identified as a potential cancer therapeutic and preventive agent because of its potent cancer cell-killing activity, the molecular mechanisms by which its cancer cell cytotoxicity is achieved have not been well elucidated. In this report, luteolin-induced cellular signaling was systematically investigated, and a novel pathway for luteolin's lung cancer killing was identified. The results show that induction of superoxide is an early and crucial step for luteolin-induced apoptotic and nonapoptotic death in lung cancer cells. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was potently activated after superoxide accumulation. Suppression of superoxide completely blocked luteolin-induced JNK activation, which was well correlated to alleviation of luteolin's cytotoxicity. Although luteolin slightly stimulated the JNK-activating kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7, the latter was not dependent on superoxide. We further found that luteolin triggers a superoxide-dependent rapid degradation of the JNK-inactivating phosphatase mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). Introduction of a degradation-resistant MKP-1 mutant effectively attenuated luteolin-induced JNK activation and cytotoxicity, suggesting that inhibition of the JNK suppressor MKP-1 plays a major role in luteolin-induced lung cancer cell death. Taken together, our results unveil a novel pathway consisting of superoxide, MKP-1, and JNK for luteolin's cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells, and manipulation of this pathway could be a useful approach for applying luteolin for lung cancer prevention and therapy.

  10. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  11. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated β-amyloid protein internalization in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Chang, Ke-Wei; Chen, Xin-Lin; Qian, Yi-Hua; Yang, Wei-Na; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) alone plays a pivotal role in the progression of AD. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway and proteins that control Aβ internalization may provide new insight for regulating Aβ levels. In the present study, the regulation of Aβ internalization by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was analyzed in vivo. The data derived from this investigation revealed that Aβ1-42 were internalized by neurons and astrocytes in mouse brain, and were largely deposited in mitochondria and lysosomes, with some also being found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex was formed during Aβ1-42 internalization, and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated by Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were co- localized in the cells of parietal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the level of LRP1-mRNA and LRP1 protein involved in Aβ1-42 internalization in mouse brain. The results of this investigation demonstrated that Aβ1-42 induced an LRP1-dependent pathway that related to the activation of p38 MAPK resulting in internalization of Aβ1-42. These results provide evidence supporting a key role for the p38 MAPK signaling pathway which is involved in the regulation of Aβ1-42 internalization in the parietal cortex and hippocampus of mouse through LRP1 in vivo.

  12. c-Kit-kinase induces a cascade of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in normal human melanocytes in response to mast cell growth factor and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase but is down-regulated in melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Funasaka, Y; Boulton, T; Cobb, M; Yarden, Y; Fan, B; Lyman, S D; Williams, D E; Anderson, D M; Zakut, R; Mishima, Y

    1992-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Kit, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important regulator of cell growth whose constitutively active oncogenic counterpart, v-kit, induces sarcomas in cats. Mutations in murine c-kit that reduce the receptor tyrosine kinase activity cause deficiencies in the migration and proliferation of melanoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. We therefore investigated whether c-Kit regulates normal human melanocyte proliferation and plays a role in melanomas. We show that normal human melanocytes respond to mast cell growth factor (MGF), the Kit-ligand that stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in c-Kit and induces sequential phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in several other proteins. One of the phosphorylated intermediates in the signal transduction pathway was identified as an early response kinase (mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase). Dephosphorylation of a prominent 180-kDa protein suggests that MGF also activates a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. In contrast, MGF did not induce proliferation, the cascade of protein phosphorylations, or MAP kinase activation in the majority of cells cultured from primary nodular and metastatic melanomas that grow independently of exogenous factors. In the five out of eight human melanoma lines expressing c-kit mRNAs, c-Kit was not constitutively activated. Therefore, although c-Kit-kinase is a potent growth regulator of normal human melanocytes, its activity is not positively associated with malignant transformation. Images PMID:1372524

  13. Scaffold Protein Ahk1, Which Associates with Hkr1, Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2, Inhibits Cross Talk Signaling from the Hkr1 Osmosensor to the Kss1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Akiko; Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, osmostress activates the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which regulates diverse osmoadaptive responses. Hkr1 is a large, highly glycosylated, single-path transmembrane protein that is a putative osmosensor in one of the Hog1 upstream pathways termed the HKR1 subbranch. The extracellular region of Hkr1 contains both a positive and a negative regulatory domain. However, the function of the cytoplasmic domain of Hkr1 (Hkr1-cyto) is unknown. Here, using a mass spectrometric method, we identified a protein, termed Ahk1 (Associated with Hkr1), that binds to Hkr1-cyto. Deletion of the AHK1 gene (in the absence of other Hog1 upstream branches) only partially inhibited osmostress-induced Hog1 activation. In contrast, Hog1 could not be activated by constitutively active mutants of the Hog1 pathway signaling molecules Opy2 or Ste50 in ahk1Δ cells, whereas robust Hog1 activation occurred in AHK1+ cells. In addition to Hkr1-cyto binding, Ahk1 also bound to other signaling molecules in the HKR1 subbranch, including Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2. Although osmotic stimulation of Hkr1 does not activate the Kss1 MAPK, deletion of AHK1 allowed Hkr1 to activate Kss1 by cross talk. Thus, Ahk1 is a scaffold protein in the HKR1 subbranch and prevents incorrect signal flow from Hkr1 to Kss1. PMID:26787842

  14. Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and tristetraprolin (TTP) comprehensively regulate injury-induced immediate early gene (IEG) response in in vitro liver organ culture.

    PubMed

    Tran, Doan Duy Hai; Koch, Alexandra; Saran, Shashank; Armbrecht, Marcel; Ewald, Florian; Koch, Martina; Wahlicht, Tom; Wirth, Dagmar; Braun, Armin; Nashan, Björn; Gaestel, Matthias; Tamura, Teruko

    2016-05-01

    Differentiated hepatocytes are long-lived and normally do not undergo cell division, however they have the unique capacity to autonomously decide their replication fate after liver injury. In this context, the key players of liver regeneration immediately after injury have not been adequately studied. Using an in vitro liver culture system, we show that after liver injury, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were activated within 15 min and continued to be phosphorylated for more than 2h. Both p38MAPK and Erk1/2 were activated at the edge of the cut as well as on the liver surface where the mesothelial cell sheet expresses several cytokines. Notably, in human liver Erk1/2 was also activated under the mesothelial cell sheet shortly after liver resections. Furthermore, in in vitro liver slice culture immediate early genes (IEGs) were upregulated within 1-2 h and the S phase marker proliferation-cell-nuclear-antigen (PCNA) appeared 24 h after injury. Although Erk1/2 was activated after injury, in MK2 depleted liver a set of IEGs, such as Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc and proliferation marker gene Ki67 were not induced. In addition, in immortalized hepatocyte cells, THLE-2, the same subset of genes was upregulated upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. The protein level of tristetraprolin (TTP), a substrate for MK2 that plays a role in mRNA degradation, was increased in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. In this context, the depletion of TTP gene rescued Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc upregulation in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. These data imply that MK2 pathway is positively involved in Erk1/2 induced IEG response after liver injury. These data also suggest that in vitro liver culture may be a useful tool for measuring the proliferation potential of hepatocytes in individual liver.

  15. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 2, a Novel E2-Interacting Protein, Promotes the Growth of Classical Swine Fever Virus via Attenuation of the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinghan; Chen, Shucheng; Liao, Yajin; Zhang, Enyu; Feng, Shuo; Yu, Shaoxiong; Li, Lian-Feng; He, Wen-Rui; Li, Yongfeng; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Xiao; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MEK1/2/ERK1/2) cascade is involved in the replication of several members of the Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C virus and dengue virus. The effects of the cascade on the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), a fatal pestivirus of pigs, remain unknown. In this study, MEK2 was identified as a novel binding partner of the E2 protein of CSFV using yeast two-hybrid screening. The E2-MEK2 interaction was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pulldown, coimmunoprecipitation, and laser confocal microscopy assays. The C termini of E2 (amino acids [aa] 890 to 1053) and MEK2 (aa 266 to 400) were mapped to be crucial for the interaction. Overexpression of MEK2 significantly promoted the replication of CSFV, whereas knockdown of MEK2 by lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNAs dramatically inhibited CSFV replication. In addition, CSFV infection induced a biphasic activation of ERK1/2, the downstream signaling molecules of MEK2. Furthermore, the replication of CSFV was markedly inhibited in PK-15 cells treated with U0126, a specific inhibitor for MEK1/2/ERK1/2, whereas MEK2 did not affect CSFV replication after blocking the interferon-induced Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway by ruxolitinib, a JAK-STAT-specific inhibitor. Taken together, our results indicate that MEK2 positively regulates the replication of CSFV through inhibiting the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2) is a kinase that operates immediately upstream of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and links to Raf and ERK via phosphorylation. Currently, little is known about the role of MEK2 in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), a devastating porcine pestivirus. Here, we investigated the roles of MEK2 and the MEK2/ERK1/2 cascade in the growth of CSFV for the first time. We show

  16. Combined glutamine and arginine decrease proinflammatory cytokine production by biopsies from Crohn's patients in association with changes in nuclear factor-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Lecleire, Stéphane; Hassan, Aktham; Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Antonietti, Michel; Savoye, Guillaume; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Lerebours, Eric; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2008-12-01

    Glutamine (Gln) and arginine (Arg) are conditionally essential amino acids with immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of Gln and Arg alone or in combination on cytokine release by cultured colonic biopsies from patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). Ten consecutive patients [mean (range) age 26 (18-39) y] with active colonic CD (mean CD activity index: 383.7 +/- 129.8) were prospectively included in the study. Eight colonic biopsies were obtained via a colonoscopy and incubated during 18 h with low (physiological) or high (pharmacological) doses of Arg (0.1 or 2 mmol/L designated as Arg(low) or Arg(high), respectively) and Gln (0.6 or 10 mmol/L designated as Gln(low) or Gln(high), respectively). The concentrations of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), IL-1beta, interferon-gamma) were assessed by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated by Griess assay. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB p65 subunit, inhibitor of NFkappaB-alpha, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were assessed by immunoblotting. Arg(high)/Gln(high) decreased the production of TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, and IL-6 (each P < 0.01). Arg(low)/Gln(high) decreased IL-6 and IL-8 production (both P < 0.01), whereas Arg(high)/Gln(low) did not affect cytokine and NO production. Arg(low)/Gln(high) and Arg(high)/Gln(high) decreased NF-kappaB p65 subunit expression, whereas p38 MAPK was decreased only by Arg(high)/Gln(high). Combined pharmacological doses of Arg and Gln decreased TNFalpha and the main proinflammatory cytokines release in active colonic CD biopsies via NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK pathways. These results could be the basis of prospective studies evaluating the effects of enteral supply of combined Arg and Gln during active CD.

  17. Roles of tyrosine kinase-, 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathways in ethanol-induced contractions of rat aortic smooth muscle: possible relation to alcohol-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-wei; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2002-08-01

    Insights into the relations between and among ethanol-induced contractions in rat aorta, tyrosine kinases (including src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI-3Ks), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) were investigated in the present study. Ethanol-induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat aortic rings were attenuated greatly by pretreatment of the arteries with low concentrations of an antagonist of protein tyrosine kinases (genistein), an src homology domain 2 (SH2) inhibitor peptide, a highly specific antagonist of p38 MAPK (SB-203580), a potent, selective antagonist of two specific MAPK kinases-MEK1/MEK2 (U0126)-and a selective antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PD-98059), as well as by treatment with wortmannin or LY-294002 (both are selective antagonists of PI-3Ks). Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC(50)) levels obtained for these seven antagonists were consistent with reported inhibition constant (Ki) values for these tyrosine kinase, MAPK, and MAPKK antagonists. Ethanol-induced transient and sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in primary single smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were markedly attenuated in the presence of genistein, an SH2 domain inhibitor peptide, SB-203580, U0126, PD-98059, wortmannin, and LY-294002. A variety of specific antagonists of known endogenously formed vasoconstrictors did not inhibit or attenuate either the ethanol-induced contractions or the elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). Results of the present study support the suggestion that activation of tyrosine kinases (including the src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), PI-3Ks, and MAPK seems to play an important role in ethanol-induced contractions and the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. These signaling pathways thus may be important in hypertension in human beings associated with chronic alcohol

  18. Short communication: Camel milk ameliorates inflammatory responses and oxidative stress and downregulates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Wei; Kong, Gui-Qing; Ma, Ming-Ming; Li, Yan; Huang, Xiao; Wang, Li-Peng; Peng, Zhen-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex syndrome disorder with high mortality rate. Camel milk (CM) contains antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties and protects against numerous diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the function of CM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS in rats. Camel milk reduced the lung wet:dry weight ratio and significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in neutrophil infiltration, interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, thickness of the alveolar wall, and lung injury scores of lung tissues. It also had antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects on LPS-induced ARDS. After LPS stimulation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, and IL-1β) in serum and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) in lung tissue were notably attenuated by CM. Camel milk also downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Given these results, CM is a potential complementary food for ARDS treatment.

  19. A Conserved Non-Canonical Docking Mechanism Regulates the Binding of Dual Specificity Phosphatases to Cell Integrity Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in Budding and Fission Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sacristán-Reviriego, Almudena; Madrid, Marisa; Cansado, José; Martín, Humberto; Molina, María

    2014-01-01

    Dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) are essential for the negative regulation of MAPK pathways. Similar to other MAPK-interacting proteins, most MKPs bind MAPKs through specific docking domains known as D-motifs. However, we found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MKP Msg5 binds the MAPK Slt2 within the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through a distinct motif (IYT). Here, we demonstrate that the IYT motif mediates binding of the Msg5 paralogue Sdp1 to Slt2 as well as of the MKP Pmp1 to its CWI MAPK counterpart Pmk1 in the evolutionarily distant yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. As a consequence, removal of the IYT site in Msg5, Sdp1 and Pmp1 reduces MAPK trapping caused by the overexpression of catalytically inactive versions of these phosphatases. Accordingly, an intact IYT site is necessary for inactive Sdp1 to prevent nuclear accumulation of Slt2. We also show that both Ile and Tyr but not Thr are essential for the functionality of the IYT motif. These results provide mechanistic insight into MKP-MAPK interplay and stress the relevance of this conserved non-canonical docking site in the regulation of the CWI pathway in fungi. PMID:24465549

  20. Early Secreted Antigenic Target of 6 kDa of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Stimulates Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production by Macrophages and Its Regulation by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Jung, B-G; Yi, N; Samten, B

    2016-07-01

    Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6), the major virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, affects host immunity and the formation of granulomas likely through inflammatory cytokines. To understand its role in this regard further, we investigated the effect of ESAT-6 on macrophages by determining the production of macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, a major chemokine associated with tuberculosis pathogenesis, by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and its regulation by protein kinases and cytokines. The results revealed that ESAT-6, but not Ag85A and culture filtrate protein 10 kDa (CFP10), induced MCP-1 production by BMDMs dose and time dependently. Inhibition of p38 but not other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and PI3K further enhanced ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 production by BMDMs. Inhibition of p38 MAPK enhanced ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 mRNA accumulation without affecting mRNA stability. ESAT-6 also induced TNF-α from BMDMs and MCP-1 from mouse lung epithelial cells, and these were suppressed by p38 MAPK inhibition, implying cytokine- and cell-specific effect of p38 MAPK inhibition on ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 by macrophages. Pretreatment of BMDMs with IL-4, but not other cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1α) further elevated ESAT-6-stimulated MCP-1 production although IL-4 did not induce MCP-1 without ESAT-6. Both p38 MAPK inhibitor and IL-4 did not show additive effect on ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 protein level despite such effect on MCP-1 mRNA level was evident. In conclusion, these results indicate a specific role for both p38 MAPK and IL-4 in ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 production by macrophages and suggest a pathway with significance in tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  1. Vitamin E protected cultured cortical neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Numakawa, Yumiko; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yagasaki, Yuki; Kumamaru, Emi; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Takahisa; Niki, Etsuo

    2006-05-01

    The role of vitamin E in the CNS has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that pre-treatment with vitamin E analogs including alphaT (alpha-tocopherol), alphaT3 (alpha -tocotrienol), gammaT, and gammaT3 for 24 h prevented the cultured cortical neurons from cell death in oxidative stress stimulated by H2O2, while Trolox, a cell-permeable analog of alphaT, did not. The preventive effect of alphaT was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Furthermore, we found that alphaT exposure induced the activation of both the MAP kinase (MAPK) and PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathways and that the alphaT-dependent survival effect was blocked by the inhibitors, U0126 (an MAPK pathway inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K pathway inhibitor). Interestingly, the up-regulation of Bcl-2 (survival promoting molecule) was induced by alphaT application. The up-regulation of Bcl-2 did not occur in the presence of U0126 or LY294002, suggesting that alphaT-up-regulated Bcl-2 is mediated by these kinase pathways. These observations suggest that vitamin E analogs play an essential role in neuronal maintenance and survival in the CNS.

  2. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) attenuates leptin-induced cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of p115Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor-RhoA/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Moey, Melissa; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Zeidan, Asad; Karmazyn, Morris

    2011-12-01

    Leptin is a 16-kDa peptide primarily derived from white adipocytes and is typically elevated in plasma of obese individuals. Although leptin plays a critical role in appetite regulation, leptin receptors have been identified in numerous tissues including the heart and have been shown to directly mediate cardiac hypertrophy through RhoA/ROCK (Ras homolog gene family, member A/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase)-dependent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation; however, the basis for RhoA stimulation is unknown. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) catalyze the exchange of GDP for GTP resulting in Rho activation and may be the potential upstream factors mediating leptin-induced RhoA activation and therefore a potential target for inhibition. We investigated the effects of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), reported to reduce cardiac hypertrophy, on RhoA/ROCK and MAPK activation in ventricular cardiomyocytes exposed to leptin (50 ng/ml) and the possible role of p115RhoGEF and p63RhoGEF in these responses. Leptin produced a robust hypertrophic response that was associated with RhoA/ROCK activation resulting in a significant increase in cofilin-2 phosphorylation and actin polymerization, the latter evidenced by a reduction in the G/F actin ratio. These effects were prevented by ginseng (10 μg/ml). The stimulation of RhoA/ROCK by leptin was associated with significantly increased p115RhoGEF gene and protein expression and exchange activity, all of which were completely prevented by ginseng. The ability of ginseng to prevent leptin-induced activation of RhoA/ROCK was further associated with diminished p38 MAPK activation and nuclear translocation. These results demonstrate a potent inhibitory effect of ginseng against leptin-induced cardiac hypertrophy, an effect associated with prevention of p115RhoGEF-RhoA/ROCK-dependent p38 MAPK activation.

  3. Roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the regulation of protein kinase C-alpha activation in interferon-gamma-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Pierre-Olivier; Diallo, Tamsir O; Matte, Christine; Descoteaux, Albert

    2009-09-01

    Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family are activated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and modulate IFN-gamma-induced cellular responses by regulating the activity of transcription factors. We previously reported that PKC-alpha enhances the ability of IFN regulatory factor-1 to transactivate the class II transactivator (CIITA) promoter IV in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages. In addition, we showed that IFN-gamma induces the nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha but the mechanisms for this remain to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to identify signalling pathways involved in IFN-gamma-induced activation of PKC-alpha and to characterize their potential roles in modulating IFN-gamma-induced responses in macrophages. IFN-gamma-mediated nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha was a Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2)-independent process, which required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, PKC-alpha phosphorylation was independent of PI3K and p38 MAPK, indicating that IFN-gamma-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha are mediated by distinct mechanisms. In addition, inhibition of PI3K, but not of p38 MAPK, strongly impaired IFN-gamma-induced CIITA and MHC II gene expression. Finally, PKC-alpha associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and was required for the phosphorylation of STAT1 on serine 727 in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, our data indicate that PI3K and p38 MAPK modulate IFN-gamma-stimulated PKC-alpha nuclear translocation independently of JAK2 activity and that both PI3K and PKC-alpha are required for type IV CIITA and MHC II gene expression in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages.

  4. Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Alleviates Stress-Exacerbated Atopy-Like Skin Dermatitis through the Modulation of Protein Kinase A and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Bongjun; Lee, Bombi; Yoon, Ye Seul; Lim, Pooreum; Hong, Riwon; Yeom, Mijung; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Hijoon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Jang, Young Pyo; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and stress create a vicious cycle: stress exacerbates atopic symptoms, and atopic disease elicits stress and anxiety. Targeting multiple pathways including stress and allergic inflammation is, therefore, important for treating AD. In this study, we investigated the remedial value of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (PTW) for treating immobilization (IMO) stress-exacerbated atopy-like skin dermatitis and its underlying mechanism. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was applied to dorsal skin for sensitization and subsequently both ears for eliciting T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity in mice, which underwent 2 h-IMO stress and PTW administration for the latter 6 and 9 days in the ear exposure period of TMA, respectively. To elicit in vitro degranulation of human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1), 10 µM substance P (SP) and 200 nM corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) were sequentially added with 48 h-interval. PTW extract (500 µg/mL) was added 30 min before CRF treatment. IMO stress exacerbated TMA-induced scratching behavior by 252%, and increased their blood corticosterone levels by two-fold. Treatment with 250 mg/kg PTW significantly restored IMO stress-exacerbated scratching behavior and other indicators such as skin inflammation and water content, lymph node weights, and serum histamine and immunoglobulin E (lgE) levels. Furthermore, it also reversed TMA-stimulated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 mRNAs in ear tissues. PTW significantly inhibited SP/CRF-stimulated degranulation of HMC-1 cells, subsequent tryptase secretion, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. PTW also selectively inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in SP/CRF-treated HMC-1 cells. PTW significantly inhibited HMC-1 cell degranulation and alleviated IMO stress-exacerbated atopic dermatitis symptoms by modulating the PKA/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:28106783

  5. Inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and apolipoprotein B100 secretion by the citrus flavonoid naringenin and by insulin involves activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Allister, Emma M; Borradaile, Nica M; Edwards, Jane Y; Huff, Murray W

    2005-06-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is necessary for hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo)B100-containing lipoproteins. The citrus flavonoid naringenin, like insulin, decreased MTP expression in HepG2 cells, resulting in inhibition of apoB100 secretion; however, the mechanism for naringenin is independent of insulin receptor substrate-1/2. Recently, it was reported that insulin decreased MTP expression in HepG2 cells via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (MAPK(erk)) pathway. We hypothesized that naringenin acts via a similar mechanism. Inhibition of MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/2 in HepG2 cells significantly attenuated the naringenin- and insulin-induced reduction in MTP expression. Both naringenin and insulin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was completely inhibited by MEK1/2 inhibition and enhanced by inhibition of MAPK(p38), a negative regulator of MAPK(erk) activity. Inhibition of MEK1/2 significantly attenuated both the naringenin- and insulin-induced decrease in apoB100 secretion demonstrating a direct link between MAPK(erk) activation and apoB100 secretion. Furthermore, both compounds increased MAPK(p38) activation, and therefore inhibition of MAPK(p38) amplified thenaringenin- and insulin-induced decrease in apoB100 secretion. We conclude that MAPK(erk) signaling in hepatocytes is critical for inhibition of apoB100 secretion by naringenin and insulin. Therefore, naringenin may prove useful for activating insulin-signaling pathways important for regulation of hepatocyte lipid homeostasis.

  6. Antioxidant activity in lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and its inhibitory effect on activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiow Y; Feng, Rentian; Bowman, Linda; Penhallegon, Ross; Ding, Min; Lu, Y

    2005-04-20

    Lingonberry has been shown to contain high antioxidant activity. Fruits from different cultivars of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) were evaluated for fruit quality, antioxidant activity, and anthocyanin and phenolic contents. The fruit soluble solids, titratable acids, antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin and phenolic contents varied with cultivars. Lingonberries contain potent free radical scavenging activities for DPPH*, ROO*, *OH, and O2*- radicals. Pretreatment of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells with lingonberry extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition on the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) induced by either 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet-B (UVB). Lingonberry extract blocked UVB-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling members ERK1, ERK2, p38, and MEK1/2 but not JNK. Lingonberry extract also prevented TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1, ERK2, and MEK1/2. Results of soft agar assays indicated that lingonberry extract suppressed TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lingonberry extract also induced the apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-independent manner. These results suggest that ERK1, ERK2, and MEK1/2 may be the primary targets of lingonberry that result in suppression of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and neoplastic transformation in JB6 P(+) cells and causes cancer cell death by an apoptotic mechanism in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

  7. MDMA causes a redistribution of serotonin transporter from the cell surface to the intracellular compartment by a mechanism independent of phospho-p38-mitogen activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Kivell, B; Day, D; Bosch, P; Schenk, S; Miller, J

    2010-06-16

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes long-term serotonin depletion and reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) function in humans and in animal models. Using quantitative Western blotting and real-time PCR, we have shown that total SERT protein in the striatum and nucleus accumbens and mRNA levels in the dorsal raphe nucleus were not significantly changed following MDMA exposure in rats (4 x 2 h i.p. injections, 10 mg/kg each). In mouse neuroblastoma (N(2)A) cells transiently expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged human SERT (GFP-hSERT), we have shown redistribution of SERT from the cell surface to intracellular vesicles on exposure to MDMA using cell surface biotinylation, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and live-cell confocal microscopy. To investigate the mechanism responsible for SERT redistribution, we used specific antibodies to phospho-p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a known signalling pathway involved in SERT membrane expression. We found that p38 MAPK activation was not involved in the MDMA-induced redistribution of SERT from the cell-surface to the cell interior. A loss of SERT from the cell surface on acute exposure to MDMA may contribute to the decreased SERT function seen in rats exposed to MDMA.

  8. p38β Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Modulates Its Own Basal Activity by Autophosphorylation of the Activating Residue Thr180 and the Inhibitory Residues Thr241 and Ser261

    PubMed Central

    Beenstock, Jonah; Melamed, Dganit; Mooshayef, Navit; Mordechay, Dafna; Garfinkel, Benjamin P.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Admon, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Many enzymes are self-regulated and can either inhibit or enhance their own catalytic activity. Enzymes that do both are extremely rare. Many protein kinases autoactivate by autophosphorylating specific sites at their activation loop and are inactivated by phosphatases. Although mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are usually activated by dual phosphorylation catalyzed by MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), the MAPK p38β is exceptional and is capable of self-activation by cis autophosphorylation of its activation loop residue T180. We discovered that p38β also autophosphorylates in trans two previously unknown sites residing within a MAPK-specific structural element known as the MAPK insert: T241 and S261. Whereas phosphorylation of T180 evokes catalytic activity, phosphorylation of S261 reduces the activity of T180-phosphorylated p38β, and phosphorylation of T241 reduces its autophosphorylation in trans. Both phosphorylations do not affect the activity of dually phosphorylated p38β. T241 of p38β is found phosphorylated in vivo in bone and muscle tissues. In myogenic cell lines, phosphorylation of p38β residue T241 is correlated with differentiation to myotubes. T241 and S261 are also autophosphorylated in intrinsically active variants of p38α, but in this protein, they probably play a different role. We conclude that p38β is an unusual enzyme that automodulates its basal, MAPKK-independent activity by several autophosphorylation events, which enhance and suppress its catalytic activity. PMID:26976637

  9. Hemoglobin receptor protein from Porphyromonas gingivalis induces interleukin-8 production in human gingival epithelial cells through stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yuki; Nakayama, Masaaki; Naito, Mariko; Yamachika, Eiki; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Nakayama, Koji; Iida, Seiji; Ohara, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of polymicrobial origin affecting the tissues supporting the tooth. The oral anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is implicated as an important pathogen for chronic periodontitis, triggers a series of host inflammatory responses that promote the destruction of periodontal tissues. Among the virulence factors of P. gingivalis, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR) is a major protein found in culture supernatants. In this study, we investigated the roles of HbR in the production of inflammatory mediators. We found that HbR induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) were activated in HbR-stimulated Ca9-22 cells. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580) and Erk1/2 (PD98059) blocked HbR-induced IL-8 production. Additionally, HbR stimulated the translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) or cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibited HbR-induced IL-8 production. Moreover, pretreatment with SB203580 and PD98059 reduced HbR-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-2, respectively. Combined pretreatment with an inhibitor of NF-κB (BAY11-7082) and SB203580 was more efficient in inhibiting the ability of HbR to induce IL-8 production than pretreatment with either BAY11-7082 or SB203580 alone. Thus, in Ca9-22 cells, the direct activation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 by HbR caused the activation of the transcription factors ATF-2, CREB, and NF-κB, thus resulting in the induction of IL-8 production.

  10. Filamin-A binds to the carboxyl-terminal tail of the calcium-sensing receptor, an interaction that participates in CaR-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Hjälm, G; MacLeod, R J; Kifor, O; Chattopadhyay, N; Brown, E M

    2001-09-14

    The G protein-coupled, extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) regulates parathyroid hormone secretion and parathyroid cellular proliferation as well as the functions of diverse other cell types. The CaR resides in caveolae-plasma membrane microdomains containing receptors and associated signaling molecules that are thought to serve as cellular "message centers." An additional mechanism for coordinating cellular signaling is the presence of scaffold proteins that bind and organize components of signal transduction cascades. With the use of the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified filamin-A (an actin-cross-linking, putative scaffold protein that binds mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) components activated by the CaR) as an intracellular binding partner of the CaR's carboxyl (COOH)-terminal tail. A direct interaction of the two proteins was confirmed by an in vitro binding assay. Moreover, confocal microscopy combined with two color immunofluorescence showed co-localization of the CaR and filamin-A within parathyroid cells as well as HEK-293 cells stably transfected with the CaR. Deletion mapping localized the sites of interaction between the two proteins to a stretch of 60 amino acid residues within the distal portion of the CaR's COOH-terminal tail and domains 14 and 15 in filamin-A, respectively. Finally, introducing the portion of filamin-A interacting with the CaR into CaR-transfected HEK-293 cells using protein transduction with a His-tagged, Tat-filamin-A fusion protein nearly abolished CaR-mediated activation of ERK1/2 MAPK but had no effect on ERK1/2 activity stimulated by ADP. Therefore, the binding of the CaR's COOH-terminal tail to filamin-A may contribute to its localization in caveolae, link it to the actin-based cytoskeleton, and participate in CaR-mediated activation of MAPK.

  11. 8-Amino-adenosine induces loss of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and Akt kinase: role in induction of apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Ma, Chunguang; Gandhi, Varsha; Platanias, Leonidas C; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2005-04-01

    Multiple myeloma is a slowly proliferating B-cell malignancy that accumulates apoptosis-resistant and replication-quiescent cell populations, posing a challenge for current chemotherapeutics that target rapidly replicating cells. Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease in need of new therapeutic approaches. The purine nucleoside analogue, 8-amino-adenosine (8-NH2-Ado), exhibits potent activity in preclinical studies, inducing apoptosis in several multiple myeloma cell lines. This cytotoxic effect requires phosphorylation of 8-NH2-Ado to its triphosphate form, 8-amino-ATP, and results in a concomitant loss of endogenous ATP levels. Here, we show the novel effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of key cellular signaling molecules. Multiple myeloma cells treated with 8-NH2-Ado exhibit a dramatic loss of phosphorylation of several important signaling proteins, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt kinase. Cells depleted of ATP independent of 8-NH2-Ado do not exhibit the same decrease in phosphorylation of vital cellular proteins. Therefore, the significant shifts in endogenous ATP pools caused by 8-NH2-Ado treatment cannot account for the changes in phosphorylation levels. Instead, 8-NH2-Ado may influence the activity of select regulatory protein kinases and/or phosphatases, with preliminary data suggesting that protein phophatase 2A activity is affected by 8-NH2-Ado. The distinctive effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of cellular proteins is a novel phenomenon for a nucleoside analogue drug and is unique to 8-NH2-Ado among this class of drugs. The kinetics of 8-NH2-Ado-mediated changes in phosphorylation levels of critical prosurvival and apoptosis-regulating proteins suggests that the modulation of these proteins by dephosphorylation at early time points may be an important mechanistic step in 8-NH2-Ado-induced apoptosis.

  12. Fc gamma receptor cross-linking activates p42, p38, and JNK/SAPK mitogen-activated protein kinases in murine macrophages: role for p42MAPK in Fc gamma receptor-stimulated TNF-alpha synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Winston, B W; Chan, E D; Riches, D W; Gerwins, P; Johnson, G L; Henson, P M

    1997-04-01

    Fc gamma R cross-linking on murine macrophages resulted in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p42MAPK, p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). The temporal pattern of activation was distinct for each kinase. p42MAPK activation peaked at 5 min after receptor cross-linking, while peak p38 activity occurred 5 to 10 min later. Maximal JNK/SAPK activation occurred 20 min after Fc gamma R cross-linking. The selective MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD 098059 inhibited activation of p42MAPK induced by Fc gamma R cross-linking, but not p38 or JNK/SAPK activation. PD 098059 also inhibited the synthesis of TNF-alpha induced by Fc gamma R cross-linking (IC50 approximately 0.1 microM). Together, these results suggest that 1) the activation of MAPKs may play a role in Fc gammaR signal transduction, and 2) the activation of p42MAPK is necessary for Fc gamma R cross-linking-induced TNF-alpha synthesis.

  13. “Three Methods and Three Points” regulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xin; Yu, Tian-yuan; Steven, Wong; Jia, Wen-duan; Ma, Chi; Tao, Yan-hong; Yang, Chao; Lv, Tao-tao; Wu, Shuai; Lu, Meng-qian; Liu, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37), Yanglingquan (GB34), and Weizhong (BL40). Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood. This study established rat models of sciatic nerve injury using the crushing method. Rats received Chinese tuina in accordance with the principle of “Three Methods and Three Points,” once daily for 20 days. Tuina intervention reduced paw withdrawal latency and improved wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as promoting morphological recovery of sciatic nerve fibers, Schwann cells, and axons. The protein expression levels of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β also decreased. These findings indicate that “Three Methods and Three Points” promoted morphological recovery and improved behavior of rats with peripheral nerve injury. PMID:28197201

  14. Protective effect of ellagic acid on concanavalin A-induced hepatitis via toll-like receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hong; Won, Jong Hoon; Choi, Jong Min; Cha, Hye Hyeon; Jang, Yeo Jin; Park, Seohyeon; Kim, Han Gyeol; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2014-10-15

    Ellagic acid (EA) is present in certain fruits and nuts, including raspberries, pomegranates, and walnuts, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to examine the protective effect of EA on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice were orally administered EA at different doses before the intravenous delivery of Con A; the different experimental groups were as follows: (i) vehicle control, (ii) Con A alone without EA, (iii) EA at 50 mg/kg, (iv) EA at 100 mg/kg, and (v) EA at 200 mg/kg. We found that EA pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of plasma aminotransferase and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. Also, EA significantly decreased the expression levels of the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 mRNA and protein in liver tissues. Further, EA decreased the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. EA-treated groups showed suppressions of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and IκB-α degradation levels in liver tissues. In addition, EA pretreatment decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). These results suggest that EA protects against T-cell-mediated hepatitis through TLR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/NF-κB signaling pathways.

  15. A mitogen-activated protein kinase NtMPK4 activated by SIPKK is required for jasmonic acid signaling and involved in ozone tolerance via stomatal movement in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Kenji; Ogawa, Daisuke; Katou, Shinpei; Kamada, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Saji, Hikaru; Soyano, Takashi; Sasabe, Michiko; Machida, Yasunori; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Seo, Shigemi

    2005-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this study, we isolated a new MAPK, NtMPK4, which is a tobacco homolog of Arabidopsis MPK4 (AtMPK4). NtMPK4 was activated by wounding along with two other wound-responsive tobacco MAPKs, WIPK and SIPK. We found that NtMPK4 was activated by salicylic acid-induced protein kinase kinase (SIPKK), which has been isolated as an SIPK-interacting MAPK kinase. In NtMPK4 activity-suppressed tobacco, wound-induced expression of jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes was inhibited. NtMPK4-silenced plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ozone. Inversely, transgenic tobacco plants, in which SIPKK or the constitutively active type SIPKK(EE) was overexpressed, exhibited greater responsiveness to wounding with enhanced resistance to ozone. We further found that NtMPK4 was expressed preferentially in epidermis, and the enhanced sensitivity to ozone in NtMPK4-silenced plants was caused by an abnormal regulation of stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that NtMPK4 is involved in JA signaling and in stomatal movement.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction and DNA repair network are involved in aluminum-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Brahma B.; Achary, V. Mohan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we studied the role of signal transduction in aluminum (Al3+)-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L. The root cells in planta were treated with Al3+ (800 μM) for 3 h without or with 2 h pre-treatment of inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein phosphatase. Also, root cells in planta were conditioned with Al3+ (10 μM) for 2 h and then subjected to genotoxic challenge of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS; 5 mM) for 3 h without or with the pre-treatment of the aforementioned inhibitors as well as the inhibitors of translation, transcription, DNA replication and repair. At the end of treatments, roots cells were assayed for cell death and/or DNA damage. The results revealed that Al3+ (800 μM)-induced significant DNA damage and cell death. On the other hand, conditioning with low dose of Al3+ induced adaptive response conferring protection of root cells from genotoxic stress caused by EMS-challenge. Pre-treatment of roots cells with the chosen inhibitors prior to Al3+-conditioning prevented or reduced the adaptive response to EMS genotoxicity. The results of this study suggested the involvement of MAPK and DNA repair network underlying Al-induced DNA damage and adaptive response to genotoxic stress in root cells of A. cepa. PMID:24926302

  17. Rapid Turnover of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 3 by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Defines a Novel Paradigm of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulation during Cellular Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Philippe; Rodier, Geneviève; Pelletier, Stéphane; Pellerin, Johanne; Meloche, Sylvain

    2003-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are stable enzymes that are mainly regulated by phosphorylation and subcellular targeting. Here we report that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3), unlike other MAP kinases, is an unstable protein that is constitutively degraded in proliferating cells with a half-life of 30 min. The proteolysis of ERK3 is executed by the proteasome and requires ubiquitination of the protein. Contrary to other protein kinases, the catalytic activity of ERK3 is not responsible for its short half-life. Instead, analysis of ERK1/ERK3 chimeras revealed the presence of two destabilization regions (NDR1 and -2) in the N-terminal lobe of the ERK3 kinase domain that are both necessary and sufficient to target ERK3 and heterologous proteins for proteasomal degradation. To assess the physiological relevance of the rapid turnover of ERK3, we monitored the expression of the kinase in different cellular models of differentiation. We observed that ERK3 markedly accumulates during differentiation of PC12 and C2C12 cells into the neuronal and muscle lineage, respectively. The accumulation of ERK3 during myogenic differentiation is associated with the time-dependent stabilization of the protein. Terminal skeletal muscle differentiation is accompanied by cell cycle withdrawal. Interestingly, we found that expression of stabilized forms of ERK3 causes G1 arrest in NIH 3T3 cells. We propose that ERK3 biological activity is regulated by its cellular abundance through the control of protein stability. PMID:12808096

  18. Interferon-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta modulate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Winston, B W; Chan, E D; Riches, D W; Henson, P M

    1997-09-08

    Engagement of receptors for the Fc region of IgG (Fc gamma R) can activate a variety of biological responses in macrophages, and these responses can be modulated either positively or negatively by co-stimulation with a variety of agents including cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We have previously demonstrated that Fc gamma R crosslinking activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p42MAPK, p38, and JNK. Herein, we examined the modulatory effect of IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on Fc gamma R-induced MAPK activation in murine macrophages. Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK and JNK was augmented nearly two-fold by pretreatment with IFN-gamma. Conversely, TGF-beta pretreatment suppressed Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK, JNK, and p38. These modulatory effects of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta on MAPK activation correlated with changes in Fc gamma R-stimulated TNF-alpha production by these two cytokines.

  19. Graphene quantum dots induce apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammatory response via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB mediated signaling pathways in activated THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yiru; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-02

    The biomedical application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) is a new emerging area. However, their safety data are still in scarcity to date. Particularly, the effect of GQDs on the immune system remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the interaction of GQDs with macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that GQDs slightly affected the cell viability and membrane integrity of macrophages, whereas GQDs significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptotic and autophagic cell death with an increase in the expression level of Bax, Bad, caspase 3, caspase 9, beclin 1, and LC3-I/II and a decrease in that of Bcl-2. Furthermore, low concentrations of GQDs significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, whereas high concentrations of GQDs elicited opposite effects on the cytokines production. SB202190, a selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), abolished the cytokine-inducing effect of GQDs in macrophages. Moreover, GQDs significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65, and promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Taken together, these results show that GQDs induce ROS generation, apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammatory response via p38MAPK and NF-κB mediated signaling pathways in THP-1 activated macrophages.

  20. The level of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in airway epithelial cells determines the onset of innate immune responses to planktonic and biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Trevor; LaFayette, Shantelle; Roussel, Lucie; Bérubé, Julie; Desrosiers, Martin; Nguyen, Dao; Rousseau, Simon

    2013-05-15

    Biofilm microcolonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronically infect the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and fuel ongoing destructive inflammation, yet the impact of the switch from planktonic to biofilm growth on host responses is poorly understood. We report that in airway epithelial cells a threshold of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was required to trigger neutrophil recruitment, which is influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Planktonic P. aeruginosa diffusible material (PsaDM) induced stronger p38α MAPK activation as compared to biofilm PsaDM. Biofilm PsaDM activated p38α MAPK in a Toll-like receptor-independent fashion via the lasI/lasR quorum-sensing system, but this activation was insufficient to recruit neutrophils. However, in airway epithelial cells from patients with cystic fibrosis with hypersensitivity to injurious stimuli, biofilm PsaDM activated p38α MAPK strongly enough to recruit neutrophils, which can contribute to lung injury.

  1. Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase- and NF-κB-Dependent Pathway, Leading to Modulation of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Rho, Da Jeong; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Woo, Hyun Ae; Lee, Yun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (BFT), a virulence factor of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), interacts with intestinal epithelial cells and can provoke signals that induce mucosal inflammation. Although expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is associated with regulation of inflammatory responses, little is known about HO-1 induction in ETBF infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of BFT on HO-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells with BFT resulted in upregulated expression of HO-1. BFT activated transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2 in intestinal epithelial cells. Upregulation of HO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells was dependent on activated IκB kinase (IKK)–NF-κB signals. However, suppression of Nrf2 or AP-1 signals in intestinal epithelial cells did not result in significant attenuation of BFT-induced HO-1 expression. HO-1 induction via IKK–NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells was regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Furthermore, suppression of HO-1 activity led to increased apoptosis in BFT-stimulated epithelial cells. These results suggest that a signaling pathway involving p38 MAPK–IKK–NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells is required for HO-1 induction during exposure to BFT. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression may regulate the apoptotic process in responses to BFT stimulation. PMID:27324483

  2. Antinociceptive effects of analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP), a neurotoxin from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch, on formalin-induced inflammatory pain through a mitogen-activated protein kinases-dependent mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qinghong; Ruan, Jiaping; Cai, Xueting; Lu, Wuguang; Ye, Juan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Cao, Junli; Cao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-nociceptive effect and the underlying mechanism of the analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP), a neurotoxin from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. AGAP in doses of 0.2, 1 and 5 µg was injected intraplantarly (i.pl.) before formalin injection 10 min at the same site. The suppression by intraplantar injection of AGAP on formalin-induced spontaneous nociceptive behaviors was investigated. The results show that AGAP could dose-dependently inhibit formalin-induced two-phase spontaneous flinching response. To investigate the mechanism of action of treatment with AGAP in inflammatory pain, the expressions of peripheral and spinal phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (phospho-MAPKs) including p-p38, p-ERK and p-JNK were examined. We found that formalin increased the expressions of peripheral and spinal MAPKs, which were prevented by pre-intraplantar injection of AGAP in inflammation pain model in mice. AGAP could also decrease the expression of spinal Fos induced by formalin. Furthermore, combinations the lower doses of the inhibitors of MAPKs (U0126, SP600125, or SB203580 0.1 µg) with the lower dose of AGAP (0.2 µg), the results suggested that AGAP could potentiate the effects of the inhibitors of MAPKs on the inflammatory pain. The present results indicate that pre-intraplantar injection of AGAP prevents the inflammatory pain induced by formalin through a MAPKs-mediated mechanism in mice.

  3. Enhanced IL-1{beta}-induced IL-8 production in cystic fibrosis lung epithelial cells is dependent of both mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-{kappa}B signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Muselet-Charlier, Celine; Roque, Telma; Boncoeur, Emilie; Chadelat, Katarina; Clement, Annick; Jacquot, Jacky; Tabary, Olivier . E-mail: olivier.tabary@st-antoine.inserm.fr

    2007-06-01

    Transcription nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is hyperactivated in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung epithelial cells, and participates in exaggerated IL-8 production in the CF lung. We recently found that rapid activation of NF-{kappa}B occurred in a CF lung epithelial IB3-1 cell line (CF cells) upon IL-1{beta} stimulation, which was not observed in its CFTR-corrected lung epithelial S9 cell line (corrected cells). To test whether other signaling pathways such as that of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) could be involved in IL-1{beta}-induced IL-8 production of CF cells, we investigated ERK1/2, JNK, and p38MAP signaling compared to NF-{kappa}B. Within 30 min, exposure to IL-1{beta} caused high activation of NF-{kappa}B, ERK1/2, p38MAP but not JNK in CF cells compared to corrected cells. Treatment of IL-1{beta}-stimulated CF cells with a series of chemical inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B, ERK1/2, and p38MAP, when used separately, reduced slightly IL-8 production. However, when used together, these inhibitors caused a blockade in IL-1{beta}-induced IL-8 production in CF cells. Understanding of the cross-talk between NF-{kappa}B and MAPKs signaling in CF lung epithelial cells may help in developing new therapeutics to reduce lung inflammation in patients with CF.

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Orally Active 4-(Phenylamino)-pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine p38[alpha] Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, Jr., John; Dyckman, Alaric J.; Lin, Shuqun; Wrobleski, Stephen T.; Wu, Hong; Gillooly, Kathleen M.; Kanner, Steven B.; Lonial, Herinder; Loo, Derek; McIntyre, Kim W.; Pitt, Sidney; Shen, Ding Ren; Shuster, David J.; Yang, XiaoXia; Zhang, Rosemary; Behnia, Kamelia; Zhang, Hongjian; Marathe, Punit H.; Doweyko, Arthur M.; Tokarski, John S.; Sack, John S.; Pokross, Matthew; Kiefer, Susan E.; Newitt, John A.; Barrish, Joel C.; Dodd, John; Schieven, Gary L.; Leftheris, Katerina

    2008-06-30

    A novel structural class of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors consisting of substituted 4-(phenylamino)-pyrrolo[2,1- f][1,2,4]triazines has been discovered. An initial subdeck screen revealed that the oxindole-pyrrolo[2,1- f][1,2,4]triazine lead 2a displayed potent enzyme inhibition (IC 50 60 nM) and was active in a cell-based TNFalpha biosynthesis inhibition assay (IC 50 210 nM). Replacement of the C4 oxindole with 2-methyl-5- N-methoxybenzamide aniline 9 gave a compound with superior p38 kinase inhibition (IC 50 10 nM) and moderately improved functional inhibition in THP-1 cells. Further replacement of the C6 ester of the pyrrolo[2,1- f][1,2,4]triazine with amides afforded compounds with increased potency, excellent oral bioavailability, and robust efficacy in a murine model of acute inflammation (murine LPS-TNFalpha). In rodent disease models of chronic inflammation, multiple compounds demonstrated significant inhibition of disease progression leading to the advancement of 2 compounds 11b and 11j into further preclinical and toxicological studies.

  5. Expression and activation of platelet-derived growth factor β receptor, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Gennaro; Uberti, Barbara Degli; Galiero, Giorgio; Martano, Manuela; Pirro, Antonella; Russo, Marco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Canine mammary tumours are frequent neoplasms mostly affecting intact female dogs, for which no 100% efficient therapy is available. Platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) with a potential role in human breast cancer and a series of canine tumours. In this study we demonstrated, for the first time, expression of PDGFβR and its downstream transduction molecules, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as their activated forms in canine mammary tumours by both biochemical analysis and immunohistochemistry. PDGFβR was expressed and hyperphosphorylated in the majority of tumour samples and tumour derived cell lines. Additionally, both MEK and ERK were expressed and activated in cell lines as well as biopsies. TKR inhibitors (TKRi) are currently under investigation as possible therapy in human breast and several canine tumours, thus our in vivo and in vitro findings pave the way for future studies aimed at establishing a potential therapeutic employment of TKRi for the treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  6. Novel human neutrophil agonistic properties of arsenic trioxide: involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and/or c-jun NH2-terminal MAPK but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Girard, Denis

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and for inducing apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in promyelocytes and cancer cells. We recently reported that ATO induces neutrophil apoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not ATO recruits MAPKs in neutrophils, as well as to further investigate its agonistic properties. We found that ATO activates p38 and that, unlike H2O2, this response was not inhibited by exogenous catalase. Also, we demonstrated that ATO-induced p38 activation occurs before H2O2 generation and without a calcium burst. We next established that ATO recruits c-jun NH2-terminal (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk-1/2). Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that the proapoptotic activity of ATO occurs by a MAPK-independent mechanism. In contrast, the ability of ATO to enhance adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, release, and activity of gelatinase and degranulation of secretory, specific, and gelatinase, but not azurophilic granules, is dependent upon activation of p38 and/or JNK. This is the first study establishing that ATO possesses important agonistic properties in human neutrophils. Given the central role of neutrophils in various inflammatory disorders, we propose that ATO might have broader therapeutic implications in clinics, especially for regulating inflammation.

  7. Differential Regulation of N-Myc and c-Myc Synthesis, Degradation, and Transcriptional Activity by the Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kapeli, Katannya; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Myc transcription factors are important regulators of proliferation and can promote oncogenesis when deregulated. Deregulated Myc expression in cancers can result from MYC gene amplification and translocation but also from alterations in mitogenic signaling pathways that affect Myc levels through both transcriptional and post-transcription mechanisms. For example, mutations in Ras family GTPase proteins that cause their constitutive activation can increase cellular levels of c-Myc by interfering with its rapid proteasomal degradation. Although enhanced protein stability is generally thought to be applicable to other Myc family members, here we show that c-Myc and its paralog N-Myc respond to oncogenic H-Ras (H-RasG12V) in very different ways. H-RasG12V promotes accumulation of both c-Myc and N-Myc, but although c-Myc accumulation is achieved by enhanced protein stability, N-Myc accumulation is associated with an accelerated rate of translation that overcomes a surprising H-RasG12V-mediated destabilization of N-Myc. We show that H-RasG12V-mediated degradation of N-Myc functions independently of key phosphorylation sites in the highly conserved Myc homology box I region that controls c-Myc protein stability by oncogenic Ras. Finally, we found that N-Myc and c-Myc transcriptional activity is associated with their proteasomal degradation but that N-Myc may be uniquely dependent on Ras-stimulated proteolysis for target gene expression. Taken together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into how oncogenic Ras augments N-Myc levels in cells and suggest that enhanced N-Myc translation and degradation-coupled transactivation may contribute to oncogenesis. PMID:21908617

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid prevents apoptosis of Caco-2 colon cancer cells via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of Bad.

    PubMed

    Rusovici, Raluca; Ghaleb, Amr; Shim, Hyunsuk; Yang, Vincent W; Yun, C Chris

    2007-08-01

    Lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) exert growth factor-like effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors. The presence of different LPA receptors often determines the specific signaling mechanisms and the physiological consequences of LPA in different environments. Among the four members of the LPA receptor family, LPA(2) has been shown to be overexpressed in colon cancer suggesting that the signaling by LPA(2) may potentiate growth and survival of tumor cells. In this study, we examined the effect of LPA on survival of colon cancer cells using Caco-2 cells as a cell model system. LPA rescued Caco-2 cells from apoptosis elicited by the chemotherapeutic drug, etoposide. This protection was accompanied by abrogation of etoposide-induced stimulation of caspase activity via a mechanism dependent on Erk and PI3K. In contrast, perturbation of cellular signaling mediated by the LPA(2) receptor by knockdown of a scaffold protein NHERF2 abrogated the protective effect of LPA. Etoposide decreased the expression of Bcl-2, which was reversed by LPA. Etoposide decreased the phosphorylation level of the proapoptotic protein Bad in an Erk-dependent manner, without changing Bad expression. We further show that LPA treatment resulted in delayed activation of Erk. These results indicate that LPA protects Caco-2 cells from apoptotic insult by a mechanism involving Erk, Bad, and Bcl-2.

  9. Multiple activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by purified independent CCN2 modules in vascular endothelial cells and chondrocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Kubota, S; Kawaki, H; Kondo, S; Yosimichi, G; Minato, M; Nishida, T; Hanagata, H; Miyauchi, A; Takigawa, M

    2006-12-01

    CCN2 consists of 4 distinct modules that are conserved among various CCN family protein members. From the N-terminus, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP), von Willebrand factor type C repeat (VWC), thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSP1) and C-terminal cysteine-knot (CT) modules are all aligned tandem therein. The multiple functionality of CCN2 is thought to be enabled by the differential use of these modules when interacting with other molecules. In this study, we independently prepared all 4 purified module proteins of human CCN2, utilizing a secretory production system with Brevibacillus choshinensis and thus evaluated the cell biological effects of such single modules. In human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), VWC, TSP and CT modules, as well as a full-length CCN2, were capable of efficiently activating the ERK signal transduction cascade, whereas IGFBP was not. In contrast, the IGFBP module was found to prominently activate JNK in human chondrocytic HCS-2/8 cells, while the others showed similar effects at lower levels. In addition, ERK1/2 was modestly, but significantly activated by IGFBP and VWC in those cells. No single module, but a mixture of the 4 modules provoked a significant activation of p38 MAPK in HCS-2/8 cells, which was activated by the full-length CCN2. Therefore, the signals emitted by CCN2 can be highly differential, depending upon the cell types, which are thus enabled by the tetramodular structure. Furthermore, the cell biological effects of each module on these cells were also evaluated to clarify the relationship among the modules, the signaling pathways and biological outcomes. Our present results not only demonstrate that single CCN2 modules were potent activators of the intracellular signaling cascade to yield a biological response per se, while also providing new insight into the module-wise structural and functional relationship of a prototypic CCN family member, CCN2.

  10. Novel indole-based tambjamine-analogues induce apoptotic lung cancer cell death through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Manresa, Pilar; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Hernando, Elsa; Villanueva, Alberto; Martínez-García, David; Rodilla, Ananda M; Ramos, Ricard; Fardilha, Margarida; Moya, Juan; Quesada, Roberto; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Perez-Tomas, Ricardo

    2017-04-10

    Lung cancer has become the leading killer cancer worldwide, due to late diagnosis and lack of efficient anticancer drugs. We have recently described novel natural-derived tambjamine analogues that are potent anion transporters capable of disrupting cellular ion balance, inducing acidification of the cytosol and hyperpolarization of cellular plasma membranes. Although these tambjamine analogues were able to compromise cell survival, their molecular mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Herein we characterize the molecular cell responses induced by highly active indole-based tambjamine analogues treatment in lung cancer cells. Expression changes produced after compounds treatment comprised genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle, growth factors and its receptors, protein kinases and topoisomerases, among others. Dysregulation of BCL2 and BIRC5/survivin genes suggested the apoptotic pathway as the induced molecular cell death mechanism. In fact, activation of several pro-apoptotic markers (caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP) and reversion of the cytotoxic effect upon treatment with an apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) were observed. Moreover, members of the Bcl-2 protein family suffered changes after tambjamine analogues treatment, with a concomitant protein decrease towards the pro-survival members. Besides this, it was observed cellular accumulation of ROS upon compound treatment and an activation of the stress-kinase p38 MAPK route that, when inhibited, reverted the cytotoxic effect of the tambjamine analogues. Finally, a significant therapeutic effect of these compounds was observed in subcutaneous and orthotopic lung cancer mice models. Taken together, these results shed light on the mechanism of action of novel cytotoxic anionophores and demonstrate the therapeutic effects against lung cancer.

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-regulated interactions between Osterix and Runx2 are critical for the transcriptional osteogenic program.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Natalia; Ureña, Carlos; Rodríguez-Carballo, Edgardo; Rosa, José Luis; Ventura, Francesc

    2014-09-26

    The transcription factors Runx2 and Osx (Osterix) are required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Runx2 expression occurs at early stages of osteochondroprogenitor determination, followed by Osx induction during osteoblast maturation. We demonstrate that coexpression of Osx and Runx2 leads to cooperative induction of expression of the osteogenic genes Col1a1, Fmod, and Ibsp. Functional interaction of Osx and Runx2 in the regulation of these promoters is mediated by enhancer regions with adjacent Sp1 and Runx2 DNA-binding sites. These enhancers allow formation of a cooperative transcriptional complex, mediated by the binding of Osx and Runx2 to their specific DNA promoter sequences and by the protein-protein interactions between them. We also identified the domains involved in the interaction between Osx and Runx2. These regions contain the amino acids in Osx and Runx2 known to be phosphorylated by p38 and ERK MAPKs. Inhibition of p38 and ERK kinase activities or mutation of their known phosphorylation sites in Osx or Runx2 strongly disrupts their physical interaction and cooperative transcriptional effects. Altogether, our results provide a molecular description of a mechanism for Osx and Runx2 transcriptional cooperation that is subject to further regulation by MAPK-activating signals during osteogenesis.

  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are involved in Prevotella intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Su-Min; Zhang, Ming; He, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2009-08-28

    Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal connective tissues and alveolar bone. Proinflammatory mediators induced by periodontal pathogens play vital roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. In this study, we examined whether Prevotella intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs). The mRNA expression and protein production were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) respectively. P. intermedia treatment dose- and time-dependently increased IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF, but not IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression and protein secretion. Preincubation of hPDLs with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors PD98059, SP600125, SB203580 and LY294002 resulted in significant reduction in P. intermedia-induced IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF expression. Blocking the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by indomethacin also abolished the stimulatory effects of P. intermedia on cytokines expression. Our results indicate that P. intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines through MAPKs and PI3K signaling pathways, and PGE(2) is involved in the P. intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines upregulation.

  13. Concerted transcriptional activation of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene by insulin and luteinizing hormone in cultured porcine granulosa-luteal cells: possible convergence of protein kinase a, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sekar, N; Veldhuis, J D

    2001-07-01

    -repressive region in this gene. Non-LH receptor-dependent agonists of protein kinase A (PKA), 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM), and forskolin (10 microM) with or without insulin/IGF-I costimulation likewise augmented LDL receptor promoter expression with similar strong dependency on the -255 to -139 bp 5'-upstream region. To assess more specific PKA-dependent mediation of LH's contribution to combined hormonal drive, the LDL receptor (-1076 to +11 bp) reporter plasmid was cotransfected with a full-sequence rabbit muscle protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) minigene driven constitutively by a Rous sarcoma virus promoter. Expression of the latter PKA antagonist blocked transcriptional stimulation by LH alone as well as that by LH combined with insulin (or IGF-I) by 70-85% without reducing basal transcriptional activity. Transfection of a mutant inactive (Arg to Gly) Rous sarcoma virus/PKI gene confirmed the specificity of the PKI effect. To investigate the convergent role of the insulin/IGF-I effector pathway mediating bihormonal stimulation of LDL receptor promoter expression, transfected granulosa-luteal cells were pretreated for 30 min with two specific inhibitors of phophatidylinositol 3-kinase, wortmannin (100 nM) and LY 294002 (10 microM), or of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, PD 98059 (50 microM), U0126 (10 microM), or the latter's inactive derivative, U0124 (10 microM). Both classes of antagonists impeded the ability of insulin or IGF-I to enhance LH-stimulated LDL receptor promoter expression by 60-80%. In conclusion, the present analyses indicate that LH and insulin (or IGF-I) can up-regulate LDL receptor transcriptional activity supraadditively in porcine granulosa-luteal cells 1) via one or more agonistic cis-acting DNA regions located between -255 and -139 bp 5'- upstream of the transcriptional start site, 2) without abrogating sterol-sensitive repressive of this promoter, and 3) by way of intracellular mechanisms that include the PKA, phophatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mitogen-activated

  14. Mucroporin-M1 Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Activating the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway and Down-regulating HNF4α in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenhuan; Hong, Wei; Zeng, Zhengyang; Wu, Yingliang; Hu, Kanghong; Tian, Xiaohui; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a noncytopathic human hepadnavirus that causes acute, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As the clinical utility of current therapies is limited, new anti-HBV agents and sources for such agents are still highly sought after. Here, we report that Mucroporin-M1, a scorpion venom-derived peptide, reduces the amount of extracellular HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA productions of HepG2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibits HBV capsid DNA, HBV intracellular RNA replication intermediates and the HBV Core protein in the cytoplasm of HepG2.2.15 cells. Using a mouse model of HBV infection, we found that HBV replication was significantly inhibited by intravenous injection of the Mucroporin-M1 peptide. This inhibitory activity was due to a reduction in HBV promoter activity caused by a decrease in the binding of HNF4α to the precore/core promoter region. Furthermore, we confirmed that Mucroporin-M1 could selectively activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and lead to the down-regulation of HNF4α expression, which explains the decreased binding of HNF4α to the HBV promoter. Moreover, when the protein phosphorylation activity of the MAPK pathway was inhibited, both HNF4α expression and HBV replication recovered. Finally, we proved that treatment with the Mucroporin-M1 peptide increased phosphorylation of the MAPK proteins in HBV-harboring mice. These results implicate Mucroporin-M1 peptide can activate the MAPK pathway and then reduce the expression of HNF4α, resulting in the inhibition of HBV replication in vitro and in vivo. Our work also opens new doors to discovering novel anti-HBV agents or sources. PMID:22791717

  15. Aurintricarboxylic acid protects against cell death caused by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages by decreasing inducible nitric-oxide synthase induction via IkappaB kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tsi, Chin-Ju; Chao, Yee; Chen, Ching-Wen; Lin, Wan Wan

    2002-07-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms involved in cell protection by aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), an endonuclease inhibitor, high nitric oxide (NO)-induced macrophage apoptosis was studied. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, a high level of NO production accompanied by cell apoptosis was apparent with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Direct NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) also dramatically induced cell death, with an EC(50) of 1 mM. Coincubation of ATA (1-500 microM) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells resulted in a striking reduction of NO production and cell apoptosis, whereas only a partial cell protection was achieved in response to SNP. This suggests that abrogation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent NO production might contribute to ATA protection of LPS-treated cells. Immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that ATA down-regulated iNOS protein through transcriptional inhibition of iNOS gene expression but was unrelated to iNOS protein stability. ATA not only inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation through impairment of the targeting and degradation of IkappaBs but also reduced LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. These actions of ATA were not caused by the influence on LPS binding to macrophage membrane. Kinase assays indicated that ATA inhibited IkappaB kinase (IKK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a direct interaction between ATA and these signaling molecules. Taken together, these results provide novel action targets of ATA and indicate that ATA protection of macrophages from LPS-mediated cell death is primarily the result of its inhibition of NO production, which closely relates to the inactivation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and inhibition of IKK, ERK and p38 MAPK.

  16. Oestrogen requires the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor for stimulation of prolactin synthesis via mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Arroba, A I; Frago, L M; Argente, J; Chowen, J A

    2005-02-01

    Sex steroids and growth factors interact at the intracellular level in a variety of tissues to control numerous physiological functions. Oestrogen is known to stimulate prolactin synthesis and secretion, but the effect of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is less clear. We used GH3 cells, a somatolactotroph cell line, to study the interaction of 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) and IGF-I on prolactin protein levels and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Cell cultures were treated with E(2) (10 nM) and/or IGF-I (10 ng/ml) for 8 h. The real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and enzyme-immunoassay were used to determine changes in prolactin mRNA and protein levels. At this time-point, there were no significant changes in cell number, prolactin mRNA expression, or the amount of secreted prolactin. However, E(2) increased intracellular prolactin concentrations. IGF-I alone had no effect, but blocked the stimulatory effect of E(2). MAPK (ERK1/2) activation, as determined by Western blot analysis, increased with both E(2) and IGF-I, but not with the combination of these factors. The MAPK inhibitor PD98059 blocked the ability of E(2) to increase intracellular prolactin concentrations. Similarly, the IGF-I receptor antagonist, JB1, blocked the effect of E(2) on prolactin synthesis and MAPK activation, as did the oestrogen receptor antagonist ICI182 780. These results suggest that, to stimulate prolactin synthesis, E(2) activates the MAPK cascade and that this requires the presence of both oestrogen and IGF-I receptors.

  17. Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-interacting Kinase (MNK) Preferentially Affects Translation of mRNAs Containing Both a 5'-Terminal Cap and Hairpin.

    PubMed

    Korneeva, Nadejda L; Song, Anren; Gram, Hermann; Edens, Mary Ann; Rhoads, Robert E

    2016-02-12

    The MAPK-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) are activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or p38 in response to cellular stress and extracellular stimuli that include growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Modulation of MNK activity affects translation of mRNAs involved in the cell cycle, cancer progression, and cell survival. However, the mechanism by which MNK selectively affects translation of these mRNAs is not understood. MNK binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and phosphorylates the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Using a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes programmed with mRNAs containing different 5'-ends, we show that an MNK inhibitor, CGP57380, affects translation of only those mRNAs that contain both a cap and a hairpin in the 5'-UTR. Similarly, a C-terminal fragment of human eIF4G-1, eIF4G(1357-1600), which prevents binding of MNK to intact eIF4G, reduces eIF4E phosphorylation and inhibits translation of only capped and hairpin-containing mRNAs. Analysis of proteins bound to m(7)GTP-Sepharose reveals that both CGP and eIF4G(1357-1600) decrease binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. These data suggest that MNK stimulates translation only of mRNAs containing both a cap and 5'-terminal RNA duplex via eIF4E phosphorylation, thereby enhancing the coupled cap-binding and RNA-unwinding activities of eIF4F.

  18. Anisomycin uses multiple mechanisms to stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinases and gene expression and to inhibit neuronal differentiation in PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Törocsik, B; Szeberényi, J

    2000-02-01

    Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), as well as stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 kinase, and induces neuronal differentiation. While the pivotal role of ERKs in NGF-induced morphological differentiation is well established, the contribution of JNK- and p38-pathways is less clear. The role of the JNK- and p38-pathway in PC12 cells was analysed by using anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor that activates JNKs and p38. Non-toxic concentrations of anisomycin were found to stimulate these enzyme activities as well as the expression of the early response genes c-jun, c-fos and zif268, and to inhibit NGF-induced neurite formation. These effects of anisomycin appear to be mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn act through both TrkA/Ras-dependent and -independent signalling pathways. In addition, cross-talk between the p38- and ERK-pathways appears to play a role in the action of anisomycin.

  19. Characterization of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Expression in Nucleus Accumbens and Hippocampus of Rats Subjected to Food Selection in the Cafeteria Diet Protocol.

    PubMed

    Sarro-Ramírez, Andrea; Sánchez, Daniel; Tejeda-Padrón, Alma; Buenfil-Canto, Linda Vianey; Valladares-García, Jorge; Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide health problem that requires different experimental perspectives to understand the onset of this disease, including the neurobiological basis of food selection. From a molecular perspective, obesity has been related with activity of several endogenous molecules, including the mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAP-K). The aim of this study was to characterize MAP-K expression in hedonic and learning and memory brain-associated areas such as nucleus accumbens (AcbC) and hippocampus (HIPP) after food selection. We show that animals fed with cafeteria diet during 14 days displayed an increase in p38 MAP-K activity in AcbC if chose cheese. Conversely, a diminution was observed in animals that preferred chocolate in AcbC. Also, a decrease of p38 MAP-K phosphorylation was found in HIPP in rats that selected either cheese or chocolate. Our data demonstrate a putative role of MAP-K expression in food selection. These findings advance our understanding of neuromolecular basis engaged in obesity.

  20. 17 beta-estradiol induces spermatogonial proliferation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activity in the lizard (Podarcis s. sicula).

    PubMed

    Chieffi, Paolo; Colucci D'Amato, Luca; Guarino, Fabio; Salvatore, Gaetano; Angelini, Francesco

    2002-02-01

    There are always more evidences indicating that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) is necessary for normal male fertility. We have used a nonmammalian vertebrate model (the lizard Podarcis s. sicula) to investigate the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activity in the testis during the annual sexual cycle and to study whether E(2) exerts a role in the spermatogenesis through ERK1/2 activity. Immunocytochemistry analysis shows that ERK1/2 proteins are present in the nucleus of the spermatogonia (SPG), and in primary (I) spermatocytes (SPC). The annual E(2) profile shows a progressive increase during the active spermatogenesis (from April to June) and a peak in the month of August (spermatogonial mitosis). In parallel, ERK1/2 (molecular weight 44 and 42 kDa, respectively) are highly phosphorylated during the period of active spermatogenesis and in post-refractory period (August) compared with the winter stasis (from November to March). Present results demonstrate that E(2) treatment induces spermatogonial proliferation, possibly via the activation of ERK1/2, and this effect is counteracted by the antiestrogen ICI 182-780.

  1. VEGF induces proliferation, migration, and TGF-{beta}1 expression in mouse glomerular endothelial cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhaodong; Bork, Jens Peter; Krueger, Bettina; Patsenker, Eleonora; Schulze-Krebs, Anja; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Schuppan, Detlef; E-mail: dschuppa@bidmc.harvard.edu

    2005-09-09

    The role of glomerular endothelial cells in kidney fibrosis remains incompletely understood. While endothelia are indispensable for repair of acute damage, they can produce extracellular matrix proteins and profibrogenic cytokines that promote fibrogenesis. We used a murine cell line with all features of glomerular endothelial cells (glEND.2), which dissected the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on cell migration, proliferation, and profibrogenic cytokine production. VEGF dose-dependently induced glEND.2 cell migration and proliferation, accompanied by up-regulation of VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mRNA expression. VEGF induced a profibrogenic gene expression profile, including up-regulation of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA, enhanced TGF-{beta}1 secretion, and bioactivity. VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and TGF-{beta}1 induction were mediated by the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase pathway, while proliferation was dependent on the Erk1/2 MAP kinase pathway. This suggests that differential modulation of glomerular angiogenesis by selective inhibition of the two identified VEGF-induced signaling pathways could be a therapeutic approach to treat kidney fibrosis.

  2. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MB in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis. PMID:25503387

  3. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wan-Ling; Su, Chin-Cheng; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2015-08-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer.

  4. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    CHUANG, WAN-LING; SU, CHIN-CHENG; LIN, PING-YI; LIN, CHI-CHEN; CHEN, YAO-LI

    2015-01-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer. PMID:25847489

  5. Cross-interactions of two p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors and two cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists with the CCK1 receptor and p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Morel, Caroline; Ibarz, Géraldine; Oiry, Catherine; Carnazzi, Eric; Bergé, Gilbert; Gagne, Didier; Galleyrand, Jean-Claude; Martinez, Jean

    2005-06-03

    Although SB202190 and SB203580 are described as specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, several reports have indicated that other enzymes are also sensitive to SB203580. Using a pharmacological approach, we report for the first time that compounds SB202190 and SB203580 were able to directly and selectively interact with a G-protein-coupled receptor, namely the cholecystokinin receptor subtype CCK1, but not with the CCK2 receptor. We demonstrated that these compounds were non-competitive antagonists of the CCK1 receptor at concentrations typically used to inhibit protein kinases. By chimeric construction of the CCK2 receptor, we determined the involvement of two CCK1 receptor intracellular loops in the binding of SB202190 and SB203580. We also showed that two CCK antagonists, L364,718 and L365,260, were able to regulate p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. Using a reporter gene strategy and immunoblotting experiments, we demonstrated that both CCK antagonists inhibited selectively the enzymatic activity of p38 MAP kinase. Kinase assays suggested that this inhibition resulted from a direct interaction with both CCK antagonists. Molecular modeling simulations suggested that this interaction occurs in the ATP binding pocket of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that SB202190 and SB203580 bind to the CCK1 receptor and, as such, these compounds should be used with caution in models that express this receptor. We also found that L364,718 and L365,260, two CCK receptor antagonists, directly interacted with p38 MAP kinase and inhibited its activity. These findings suggest that the CCK1 receptor shares structural analogies with the p38 MAP kinase ATP binding site. They open the way to potential design of either a new family of MAP kinase inhibitors from CCK1 receptor ligand structures or new CCK1 receptor ligands based on p38 MAP kinase inhibitor structures.

  6. Persistent Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases p42 and p44 and ets-2 Phosphorylation in Response to Colony-Stimulating Factor 1/c-fms Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fowles, Lindsay F.; Martin, Michele L.; Nelsen, Lori; Stacey, Katryn J.; Redd, Douglas; Clark, Ying Mei; Nagamine, Yoshikune; McMahon, Martin; Hume, David A.; Ostrowski, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    An antibody that specifically recognized phosphothreonine 72 in ets-2 was used to determine the phosphorylation status of endogenous ets-2 in response to colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)/c-fms signaling. Phosphorylation of ets-2 was detected in primary macrophages, cells that normally express c-fms, and in fibroblasts engineered to express human c-fms. In the former cells, ets-2 was a CSF-1 immediate-early response gene, and phosphorylated ets-2 was detected after 2 to 4 h, coincident with expression of ets-2 protein. In fibroblasts, ets-2 was constitutively expressed and rapidly became phosphorylated in response to CSF-1. In both cell systems, ets-2 phosphorylation was persistent, with maximal phosphorylation detected 8 to 24 h after CSF-1 stimulation, and was correlated with activation of the CSF-1 target urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene. Kinase assays that used recombinant ets-2 protein as a substrate demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p42 and p44 were constitutively activated in both cell types in response to CSF-1. Immune depletion experiments and the use of the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 indicate that these two MAP kinases are the major ets-2 kinases activated in response to CSF-1/c-fms signaling. In the macrophage cell line RAW264, conditional expression of raf kinase induced ets-2 expression and phosphorylation, as well as uPA mRNA expression. Transient assays mapped ets/AP-1 response elements as critical for basal and CSF-1-stimulated uPA reporter gene activity. These results indicate that persistent activation of the raf/MAP kinase pathway by CSF-1 is necessary for both ets-2 expression and posttranslational activation in macrophages. PMID:9710599

  7. Activation of the Classical Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Is Part of the Shiga Toxin-Induced Ribotoxic Stress Response and May Contribute to Shiga Toxin-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Schimmel, Jennifer J.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Leong, John M.; Thorpe, Cheleste M.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) can result in severe disease, including hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shiga toxins (Stx) are the key EHEC virulence determinant contributing to severe disease. Despite inhibiting protein synthesis, Shiga toxins paradoxically induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines from various cell types in vitro, including intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). This effect is mediated in large part by the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). The Shiga toxin-induced RSR is known to involve the activation of the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK. In some cell types, Stx also can induce the classical mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) or ERK1/2, but the mechanism(s) by which this activation occurs is unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which Stx activates ERK1/2s in IECs and the contribution of ERK1/2 activation to interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression. We demonstrate that Stx1 activates ERK1/2 in a biphasic manner: the first phase occurs in response to StxB1 subunit, while the second phase requires StxA1 subunit activity. We show that the A subunit-dependent ERK1/2 activation is mediated through ZAK-dependent signaling, and inhibition of ERK1/2 activation via the MEK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and PD98059 results in decreased Stx1-mediated IL-8 mRNA. Finally, we demonstrate that ERK1/2 are activated in vivo in the colon of Stx2-intoxicated infant rabbits, a model in which Stx2 induces a primarily neutrophilic inflammatory response. Together, our data support a role for ERK1/2 activation in the development of Stx-mediated intestinal inflammation. PMID:26483408

  8. Heparin-binding epidermal-growth-factor-like growth factor gene expression is induced by scrape-wounding epithelial cell monolayers: involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, P D; Hadfield, K M; Pascall, J C; Brown, K D

    2001-01-01

    Peptide growth factors can promote the cell migration and proliferation that is needed to repair epithelia after mechanical or chemical injury. We report here that scrape-wounding rat intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cell monolayers caused a rapid increase in levels of heparin-binding epidermal-growth-factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) mRNA, with a maximal response at approx. 1 h. Hybridization in situ showed that transcript induction occurred primarily in cells at or near wound borders. The increase in HB-EGF mRNA was preceded by activation of the p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the wounded cell cultures. Moreover, the induction of HB-EGF mRNA was blocked by PD098059 and U0126, inhibitors that prevent the activation of p42/p44 MAPKs and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5). Both p42 MAPK activation and HB-EGF mRNA induction were inhibited by genistein, indicating a requirement for an upstream tyrosine kinase activity. In contrast, neither response was affected by inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity, down-regulation of protein kinase C, or disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin B. We conclude that scrape-wounding epithelial cell monolayers induces HB-EGF mRNA expression by a mechanism that most probably requires p42/p44 MAPK activation, although we cannot exclude a role for ERK5. Our results suggest a physiological role for locally synthesized HB-EGF in promoting epithelial repair after injury. PMID:11171084

  9. Down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling is involved in rapamycin suppression of TLR2-induced inflammatory response in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruili; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Shijiang; Qi, Hengtian; Wang, Mingyong; Duan, Juhong; Ma, Shujun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Li, Guancheng; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys) 4 (Pam3CSK4) interacted with TLR2 induces inflammatory responses through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway. Rapamycin can suppress TLR-induced inflammatory responses; however, the detailed molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, the mechanism by which rapamycin suppresses TLR2-induced inflammatory responses was investigated. It was found that Pam3CSK4-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in THP-1 cells pre-treated with various concentrations of rapamycin. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B (PI3K/AKT) signaling did not suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating that the immunosuppression mediated by rapamycin in THP1 cells is independent of the PI3K/AKT pathway. RT-PCR showed that Erk and NF-κB signal pathways are related to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of Erk or NF-κB signaling significantly down-regulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, western blot showed that pre-treatment of THP-1 cells with rapamycin down-regulates MAPKs and NF-κB signaling induced by Pam3CSK4 stimulation, suggesting that rapamycin suppresses Pam3CSK4-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via inhibition of TLR2 signaling. It was concluded that rapamycin suppresses TLR2-induced inflammatory responses by down-regulation of Erk and NF-κB signaling.

  10. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) during testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in nuclear factor-kappaB knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Antonuccio, Pietro; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Fiumara, Tiziana; Squadrito, Francesco; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Arena, Salvatore; Marini, Herbert; Romeo, Carmelo; Altavilla, Domenica

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-jun-N terminal kinase (JNK) play an important role in testicular ischemia. We investigated the patterns of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 activation in NF-kappaB knockout (KO) mice subjected to testicular torsion. KO and normal littermate wild-type (WT) animals underwent at 1 h testicular ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion (TI/R). Sham testicular ischemia-reperfusion mice served as controls. ERK 1/2, JNK and p38 expression by western blot analysis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression (RT-PCR and western blot analysis) and a complete histological examination were carried out. TI/R caused a greater increase in phosphorylated form of ERK 1/2 in KO mice than in WT animals in either the ischemic testis and the contralateral one. By contrary, active form of JNK and p38 were completely abrogated in both testes of KO mice, while WT animals showed a significant activation of those kinases in both testes. TNF-alpha expression was markedly reduced in KO mice when compared to WT mice either at the mRNA and the protein level. Finally TI/R-induced histological damage was markedly reduced in KO mice. Our data indicate that NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the development of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury and suggest that, in the absence of the transcriptional factor, the up-stream signal JNK and p38 may be abrogated while ERK 1/2 activity is enhanced.

  11. A Novel p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Elk-1 Transcription Factor-dependent Molecular Mechanism Underlying Abnormal Endothelial Cell Proliferation in Plexogenic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Monal; Predescu, Dan; Tandon, Rajive; Bardita, Cristina; Pogoriler, Jennifer; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Wang, Minhua; Comhair, Suzy; Ryan-Hemnes, Anna; Chen, Jiwang; Machado, Roberto; Husain, Aliya; Erzurum, Serpil; Predescu, Sanda

    2013-01-01

    Plexiform lesions (PLs), the hallmark of plexogenic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), contain phenotypically altered, proliferative endothelial cells (ECs). The molecular mechanism that contributes to EC proliferation and formation of PLs is poorly understood. We now show that a decrease in intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s) expression due to granzyme B (GrB) cleavage during inflammation associated with PAH and the high p38/Erk1/2MAPK activity ratio caused by the GrB/ITSN cleavage products lead to EC proliferation and selection of a proliferative/plexiform EC phenotype. We used human pulmonary artery ECs of PAH subjects (ECPAH), paraffin-embedded and frozen human lung tissue, and animal models of PAH in conjunction with microscopy imaging, biochemical, and molecular biology approaches to demonstrate that GrB cleaves ITSN-1s, a prosurvival protein of lung ECs, and generates two biologically active fragments, an N-terminal fragment (GrB-EHITSN) with EC proliferative potential and a C-terminal product with dominant negative effects on Ras/Erk1/2. The proliferative potential of GrB-EHITSN is mediated via sustained phosphorylation of p38MAPK and Elk-1 transcription factor and abolished by chemical inhibition of p38MAPK. Moreover, lung tissue of PAH animal models and human specimens and ECPAH express lower levels of ITSN-1s compared with controls and the GrB-EHITSN cleavage product. Moreover, GrB immunoreactivity is associated with PLs in PAH lungs. The concurrent expression of the two cleavage products results in a high p38/Erk1/2MAPK activity ratio, which is critical for EC proliferation. Our findings identify a novel GrB-EHITSN-dependent pathogenic p38MAPK/Elk-1 signaling pathway involved in the poorly understood process of PL formation in severe PAH. PMID:23893408

  12. Polyphyllin G induce apoptosis and autophagy in human nasopharyngeal cancer cells by modulation of AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Chieh; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Jen-Tsun; Lo, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Ching; Chien, Su-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2016-10-25

    Polyphyllin G (also call polyphyllin VII), extract from rhizomes of Paris yunnanensis Franch, has been demonstrated to have strong anticancer activities in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines. Previous studies found that Polyphyllin G induced apoptotic cell death in human hepatoblastoma cancer and lung cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of autophagy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. In this study, Polyphyllin G can potently induced apoptosis dependent on the activations of caspase-8, -3, and -9 and the changes of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax protein expression in different human NPC cell lines (HONE-1 and NPC-039). The amount of both LC3-II and Beclin-1 was intriguingly increased suggest that autophagy was induced in Polyphyllin G-treated NPC cells. To further clarify whether Polyphyllin G-induced apoptosis and autophagy depended on AKT/ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways, cells were combined treated with AKT inhibitor (LY294002), ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126), p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), or JNK inhibitor (SP600125). These results demonstrated that Polyphyllin G induced apoptosis in NPC cells through activation of ERK, while AKT, p38 MAPK and JNK were responsible for Polyphyllin G-induced autophagy. Finally, an administration of Polyphyllin G effectively suppressed the tumor growth in the NPC carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. In conclusion, our results reveal that Polyphyllin G inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis and autophagy in NPC cancer cells, suggesting that Polyphyllin G is an attractive candidate for tumor therapies. Polyphyllin G may promise candidate for development of antitumor drugs targeting nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  13. Flavonoid baicalein modulates H2O2-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases activation and cell death in SK-N-MC cells.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Maryam; Meshkini, Azadeh; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2012-05-01

    It is believed that ROS-induced oxidative stress triggers numerous signaling pathways which are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. To find the effective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases, the deep delve into molecular mechanisms underlie these diseases is necessary. In the current study, we investigated the effects of flavonoid baicalein on H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress and cell death in SK-N-MC cells. Our results revealed that the treatment of SK-N-MC cells with H(2)O(2) led to a decrease in cell viability through phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) pathways followed by increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio and initiation of caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. In addition, our results showed that the exposure of SK-N-MC cells to H(2)O(2) ended up in reduction of glutathione (GSH) levels of SK-N-MC cells via JNK/ERK-mediated down-regulation of γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) expression. Our results demonstrated that flavonoid baicalein protected against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death by inhibition of JNK/ERK pathways activation and other key molecules in apoptotic pathways, including blockage of Bax and caspase-9 activation, induction of Bcl-2 expression and prevention of cell death. Baicalein supported intracellular defense mechanisms through maintaining GSH levels in SK-N-MC cells by the removal of inhibition effects of JNK/ERK pathways from γ-GCS expression. In addition, baicalein attenuated lipid and protein peroxidation and intracellular reactive oxygen species in SK-N-MC cells. In accordance with these observations, baicalein can be a promising candidate in antioxidant therapy and designing of natural-based drug for ROS-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Polyphyllin G induce apoptosis and autophagy in human nasopharyngeal cancer cells by modulation of AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Jen-Tsun; Lo, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Ching; Chien, Su-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Polyphyllin G (also call polyphyllin VII), extract from rhizomes of Paris yunnanensis Franch, has been demonstrated to have strong anticancer activities in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines. Previous studies found that Polyphyllin G induced apoptotic cell death in human hepatoblastoma cancer and lung cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of autophagy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. In this study, Polyphyllin G can potently induced apoptosis dependent on the activations of caspase-8, -3, and -9 and the changes of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax protein expression in different human NPC cell lines (HONE-1 and NPC-039). The amount of both LC3-II and Beclin-1 was intriguingly increased suggest that autophagy was induced in Polyphyllin G-treated NPC cells. To further clarify whether Polyphyllin G-induced apoptosis and autophagy depended on AKT/ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways, cells were combined treated with AKT inhibitor (LY294002), ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126), p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), or JNK inhibitor (SP600125). These results demonstrated that Polyphyllin G induced apoptosis in NPC cells through activation of ERK, while AKT, p38 MAPK and JNK were responsible for Polyphyllin G-induced autophagy. Finally, an administration of Polyphyllin G effectively suppressed the tumor growth in the NPC carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. In conclusion, our results reveal that Polyphyllin G inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis and autophagy in NPC cancer cells, suggesting that Polyphyllin G is an attractive candidate for tumor therapies. Polyphyllin G may promise candidate for development of antitumor drugs targeting nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:27602962

  15. Oxidative stress induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cystic fibrosis lung epithelial cells: Potential mechanism for excessive IL-8 expression.

    PubMed

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Criq, Vinciane Saint; Bonvin, Elise; Roque, Telma; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Gruenert, Dieter C; Clement, Annick; Jacquot, Jacky; Tabary, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal disease caused by defective function of the cftr gene product, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that leads to oxidative damage and excessive inflammatory response in lungs of CF patients. We here report the effects of oxidative stress (hyperoxia, 95% O(2)) on the expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-8 and CXCR1/2 receptors in two human CF lung epithelial cell lines (IB3-1, with the heterozygous F508del/W1282X mutation and CFBE41o- with the homozygous F508del/F508del mutation) and two control non-CF lung epithelial cell lines (S9 cell line derived from IB3-1 after correction with wtCFTR and the normal bronchial cell line 16HBE14o-). Under oxidative stress, the expression of IL-8 and CXCR1/2 receptors was increased in CF, corrected and normal lung cell lines. The effects of oxidative stress were also investigated by measuring the transcription nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activities. Under oxidative stress, no increase of NF-kappaB activation was observed in CF lung cells in contrast to that observed in normal and corrected CF lung cells. The signalling of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases was further studied. We demonstrated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and AP-1 activity was markedly enhanced in CF but not non-CF lung cells under oxidative stress. Consistently, inhibition of ERK1/2 in oxidative stress-exposed CF lung cells strongly decreased both the IL-8 production and CXCR1/2 expression. Therefore, targeting of ERK1/2 MAP kinase may be critical to reduce oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in lungs of CF patients.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinases regulate expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and neurite outgrowth via non-classical retinoic acid receptor signaling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, Tatsuya; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown that retinoic acid receptor (RAR) stimulation by an agonist Am80 recruits nitric oxide-dependent signaling via increased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in rat midbrain slice cultures. Using neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, here we investigated the mechanisms of RAR-induced nNOS expression, together with relationship between nNOS expression and neurite outgrowth. Am80 promoted neurite outgrowth, which was attenuated by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K; LY294002), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; SP600125) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK; SB203580). A selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-nitroindazole also suppressed Am80-induced neurite outgrowth. Am80-induced increase in nNOS protein expression was attenuated by LY294002, SP600125 and SB203580, whereas increase in nNOS mRNA expression was attenuated only by LY294002. Am80-induced activation of JNK and p38 MAPK was blocked by LY294002, suggesting that these kinases acted downstream of PI3K. We also confirmed that DAX1, a nuclear receptor reported to regulate nNOS expression, was up-regulated in response to Am80. siRNA-mediated knockdown of DAX1 abrogated Am80-induced nNOS expression and neurite outgrowth. These results reveal for the first time that nNOS expression is crucial for RAR-mediated neurite outgrowth, and that non-genomic signaling such as JNK and p38 MAPK is involved in RAR-mediated nNOS expression.

  17. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A diarylheptanoid from lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum) inhibits proinflammatory mediators via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase, p44/42, and transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Prem N; Liu, Zhihua; Rafi, Mohamed M

    2003-06-01

    The diarylheptanoid 7-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one (HMP) is a naturally occurring phytochemical found in lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum). In the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of this compound on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with HMP (6.25-25 microM) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production. This compound also inhibited the release of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from human PB-MCs in vitro. In addition, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that HMP decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, HMP treatment also reduced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) DNA binding induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for inhibition of proinflammatory mediators by HMP (25 microM), we have studied the effect of HMP on LPS-induced p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We observed that the phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was markedly inhibited by HMP, whereas activation of p38 MAPK was not affected. These results suggested that HMP from lesser galangal suppressed the LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha and expression of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by inhibiting NF-kappa B activation and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK.

  19. Characterization of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) genes reveals involvement of ERK and JNK, not p38 in defense against bacterial infection in Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis.