Science.gov

Sample records for establishing nuclear pore-associated

  1. Protein Tpr is required for establishing nuclear pore-associated zones of heterochromatin exclusion.

    PubMed

    Krull, Sandra; Dörries, Julia; Boysen, Björn; Reidenbach, Sonja; Magnius, Lars; Norder, Helene; Thyberg, Johan; Cordes, Volker C

    2010-05-19

    Amassments of heterochromatin in somatic cells occur in close contact with the nuclear envelope (NE) but are gapped by channel- and cone-like zones that appear largely free of heterochromatin and associated with the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). To identify proteins involved in forming such heterochromatin exclusion zones (HEZs), we used a cell culture model in which chromatin condensation induced by poliovirus (PV) infection revealed HEZs resembling those in normal tissue cells. HEZ occurrence depended on the NPC-associated protein Tpr and its large coiled coil-forming domain. RNAi-mediated loss of Tpr allowed condensing chromatin to occur all along the NE's nuclear surface, resulting in HEZs no longer being established and NPCs covered by heterochromatin. These results assign a central function to Tpr as a determinant of perinuclear organization, with a direct role in forming a morphologically distinct nuclear sub-compartment and delimiting heterochromatin distribution.

  2. Protein Tpr is required for establishing nuclear pore-associated zones of heterochromatin exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Sandra; Dörries, Julia; Boysen, Björn; Reidenbach, Sonja; Magnius, Lars; Norder, Helene; Thyberg, Johan; Cordes, Volker C

    2010-01-01

    Amassments of heterochromatin in somatic cells occur in close contact with the nuclear envelope (NE) but are gapped by channel- and cone-like zones that appear largely free of heterochromatin and associated with the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). To identify proteins involved in forming such heterochromatin exclusion zones (HEZs), we used a cell culture model in which chromatin condensation induced by poliovirus (PV) infection revealed HEZs resembling those in normal tissue cells. HEZ occurrence depended on the NPC-associated protein Tpr and its large coiled coil-forming domain. RNAi-mediated loss of Tpr allowed condensing chromatin to occur all along the NE's nuclear surface, resulting in HEZs no longer being established and NPCs covered by heterochromatin. These results assign a central function to Tpr as a determinant of perinuclear organization, with a direct role in forming a morphologically distinct nuclear sub-compartment and delimiting heterochromatin distribution. PMID:20407419

  3. The Nuclear Pore-Associated TREX-2 Complex Employs Mediator to Regulate Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maren; Hellerschmied, Doris; Schubert, Tobias; Amlacher, Stefan; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Reja, Rohit; Pugh, B. Franklin; Clausen, Tim; Köhler, Alwin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) influence gene expression besides their established function in nuclear transport. The TREX-2 complex localizes to the NPC basket and affects gene-NPC interactions, transcription, and mRNA export. How TREX-2 regulates the gene expression machinery is unknown. Here, we show that TREX-2 interacts with the Mediator complex, an essential regulator of RNA Polymerase (Pol) II. Structural and biochemical studies identify a conserved region on TREX-2, which directly binds the Mediator Med31/Med7N submodule. TREX-2 regulates assembly of Mediator with the Cdk8 kinase and is required for recruitment and site-specific phosphorylation of Pol II. Transcriptome and phenotypic profiling confirm that TREX-2 and Med31 are functionally interdependent at specific genes. TREX-2 additionally uses its Mediator-interacting surface to regulate mRNA export suggesting a mechanism for coupling transcription initiation and early steps of mRNA processing. Our data provide mechanistic insight into how an NPC-associated adaptor complex accesses the core transcription machinery. PMID:26317468

  4. cDNA cloning and characterization of Npap60: a novel rat nuclear pore-associated protein with an unusual subcellular localization during male germ cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, F; Liu, C P; Korobova, O; Heyting, C; Offenberg, H H; Trump, G; Arnheim, N

    1997-03-15

    We have cloned and characterized a cDNA, Npap60, encoding a rat nuclear pore-associated protein. The 3-kb cDNA was obtained by antibody screening of a rat testis expression library. The predicted NPAP60 contains 381 amino acids with a composition of 25.6% charged residues and is highly hydrophilic. The Npap60 gene appears to be conserved in mouse, rat, and human. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-NPAP60 fusion protein antibody show that the NPAP60 protein colocalizes with nuclear pore complexes in RAT1A cells. The expression of Npap60 is about 10-20 times higher in rat testis than in somatic tissues. The subcellular localization of NPAP60 protein changes dramatically during male germ cell differentiation, from nuclear pore complex-like staining in spermatocytes to whole nucleus staining in spermatids and finally to a nuclear surface staining in mature spermatozoa. These changes are temporally and spatially related to nuclear reorganization during male germ cell differentiation.

  5. Pli1(PIAS1) SUMO ligase protected by the nuclear pore-associated SUMO protease Ulp1SENP1/2.

    PubMed

    Nie, Minghua; Boddy, Michael N

    2015-09-11

    Covalent modification of the proteome by SUMO is critical for genetic stability and cell growth. Equally crucial to these processes is the removal of SUMO from its targets by the Ulp1 (HuSENP1/2) family of SUMO proteases. Ulp1 activity is normally spatially restricted, because it is localized to the nuclear periphery via interactions with the nuclear pore. Delocalization of Ulp1 causes DNA damage and cell cycle defects, phenotypes thought to be caused by inappropriate desumoylation of nucleoplasmic targets that are normally spatially protected from Ulp1. Here, we define a novel consequence of Ulp1 deregulation, with a major impact on SUMO pathway function. In fission yeast lacking Nup132 (Sc/HuNUP133), Ulp1 is delocalized and can no longer antagonize sumoylation of the PIAS family SUMO E3 ligase, Pli1. Consequently, SUMO chain-modified Pli1 is targeted for proteasomal degradation by the concerted action of a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) and Cdc48-Ufd1-Npl4. Pli1 degradation causes the profound SUMO pathway defects and associated centromere dysfunction in cells lacking Nup132. Thus, perhaps counterintuitively, Ulp1-mediated desumoylation can promote SUMO modification by stabilizing a SUMO E3 ligase. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Establishment of a nuclear pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Porter, W C; Ice, R D; Hetzel, K R

    1975-10-01

    The University of Michigan Regional Nuclear Pharmacy is described. The scope of operation of the nuclear pharmacy includes radiopharmaceutical formulation and dispensing, quality control, inventory control, research and development of new radiopharmaceuticals, and consultation. Also discussed are program objectives, pharmacy location, organizational structure, budget and staff, economic considerations, facilities and equipment, and legal considerations.

  7. Light signaling controls nuclear architecture reorganization during seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Bourbousse, Clara; Mestiri, Imen; Zabulon, Gerald; Bourge, Mickaël; Formiggini, Fabio; Koini, Maria A; Brown, Spencer C; Fransz, Paul; Bowler, Chris; Barneche, Fredy

    2015-05-26

    The spatial organization of chromatin can be subject to extensive remodeling in plant somatic cells in response to developmental and environmental signals. However, the mechanisms controlling these dynamic changes and their functional impact on nuclear activity are poorly understood. Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. Whereas progressive nucleus expansion and heterochromatin rearrangements in cotyledon cells are achieved similarly under light and dark conditions during germination, the later steps that lead to mature nuclear phenotypes are intimately associated with the photomorphogenic transition in an organ-specific manner. The light signaling integrators DE-ETIOLATED 1 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 maintain heterochromatin in a decondensed state in etiolated cotyledons. In contrast, under light conditions cryptochrome-mediated photoperception releases nuclear expansion and heterochromatin compaction within conspicuous chromocenters. For all tested loci, chromatin condensation during photomorphogenesis does not detectably rely on DNA methylation-based processes. Notwithstanding, the efficiency of transcriptional gene silencing may be impacted during the transition, as based on the reactivation of transposable element-driven reporter genes. Finally, we report that global engagement of RNA polymerase II in transcription is highly increased under light conditions, suggesting that cotyledon photomorphogenesis involves a transition from globally quiescent to more active transcriptional states. Given these findings, we propose that light-triggered changes in nuclear architecture underlie interplays between heterochromatin reorganization and transcriptional reprogramming associated with the establishment of photosynthesis.

  8. Light signaling controls nuclear architecture reorganization during seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Bourbousse, Clara; Mestiri, Imen; Zabulon, Gerald; Bourge, Mickaël; Formiggini, Fabio; Koini, Maria A.; Brown, Spencer C.; Fransz, Paul; Bowler, Chris; Barneche, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of chromatin can be subject to extensive remodeling in plant somatic cells in response to developmental and environmental signals. However, the mechanisms controlling these dynamic changes and their functional impact on nuclear activity are poorly understood. Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. Whereas progressive nucleus expansion and heterochromatin rearrangements in cotyledon cells are achieved similarly under light and dark conditions during germination, the later steps that lead to mature nuclear phenotypes are intimately associated with the photomorphogenic transition in an organ-specific manner. The light signaling integrators DE-ETIOLATED 1 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 maintain heterochromatin in a decondensed state in etiolated cotyledons. In contrast, under light conditions cryptochrome-mediated photoperception releases nuclear expansion and heterochromatin compaction within conspicuous chromocenters. For all tested loci, chromatin condensation during photomorphogenesis does not detectably rely on DNA methylation-based processes. Notwithstanding, the efficiency of transcriptional gene silencing may be impacted during the transition, as based on the reactivation of transposable element-driven reporter genes. Finally, we report that global engagement of RNA polymerase II in transcription is highly increased under light conditions, suggesting that cotyledon photomorphogenesis involves a transition from globally quiescent to more active transcriptional states. Given these findings, we propose that light-triggered changes in nuclear architecture underlie interplays between heterochromatin reorganization and transcriptional reprogramming associated with the establishment of photosynthesis. PMID:25964332

  9. Nuclear Thermal Rocket - An Established Space Propulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Milton

    2004-02-01

    From the late 1950s to the early 1970s a major program successfully developed the capability to conduct space exploration using the advanced technology of nuclear rocket propulsion. The program had two primary elements: pioneering and advanced technology work-Rover-at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors provided the basic reactor design, fuel materials development, and reactor testing capability; and engine development-NERVA-by the industrial team of Aerojet and Westinghouse building on and extending the Los Alamos efforts to flight system development. This presentation describes the NERVA program, the engine system testing that demonstrated the space-practical operation capabilities of nuclear thermal rockets, and the mission studies that point the way to most effectively use the NTR capabilities. Together, the two programs established a technology base that includes proven NTR capabilities of (1) over twice the specific impulse of chemical propulsion systems, (2) thrust capabilities ranging from 44kN to 1112kN, and (3) practical thrust-to-weight ratios for future NASA space exploration missions, both manned payloads to Mars and unmanned payloads to the outer planets. The overall nuclear rocket program had a unique management structure that integrated the efforts of the two government agencies involved-NASA and the then-existing Atomic Energy Commission. The objective of this paper is to summarize and convey the technical and management lessons learned in this program as the nation considers the design of its future space exploration activities.

  10. 75 FR 50009 - Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing... & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group, Inc. (Lynchburg, VA Facility). This proceeding concerns an Order Imposing Civil Monetary Penalty served upon the Licensee, Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group,...

  11. 76 FR 3678 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant... established to preside over the following proceeding: FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1) This proceeding involves an application by FirstEnergy Nuclear...

  12. 78 FR 33449 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant...: FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company This proceeding involves a license amendment request from FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company for Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, which is located...

  13. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory - An Isolated Nuclear Research Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Norris E.; Meade, Roger Allen

    2016-09-23

    Early in his twenty-five year career as the Director of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury wrote at length about the atomic bomb and the many implications the bomb might have on the world. His themes were both technical and philosophical. In 1963, after nearly twenty years of leading the nation’s first nuclear weapons laboratory, Bradbury took the opportunity to broaden his writing. In a paper delivered to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s symposium on the “Criteria in the Selection of Sites for the Construction of Reactors and Nuclear Research Centers,” Bradbury took the opportunity to talk about the business of nuclear research and the human component of operating a scientific laboratory. This report is the transcript of his talk.

  14. Establishment of a national program for quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Coca Perez, Marco A; Torres Aroche, Leonel A; Bejerano, Gladys López; Mayor, Roberto Fraxedas; Corona, Consuelo Varela; López, Adlin

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the quality of instrumentation used in nuclear medicine is mandatory to guarantee the clinical efficacy of medical practice. A national program for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments was established in Cuba and was certified and approved by the regulatory authorities. The program, which establishes official regulations and audit services, sets up educational activities, distributes technical documentation, and maintains a national phantom bank, constitutes a valuable and useful tool to guarantee the quality of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

  15. 76 FR 17460 - South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... COMMISSION South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board..., 2.318, and 2.321, notice is hereby given that an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) is being...: Ronald M. Spritzer, Chair, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  16. 75 FR 53985 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... a Sustainable Coast, and Georgia Women's Action for New Directions for Clean Energy.\\1\\ \\1\\ On May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Pursuant to...

  17. Establishment of Korean Nuclear Ombudsman System Importing Compensation and Insurance Concept for Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun Seok Ko; Yong Min Kim; Young Wook Lee; Dong Hoon Shin; Young Ho Cho; Chang Sun Kang

    2006-07-01

    not established a firm phase as right relief body to be believed by public with lack of independence, authority and specialty. Therefore the establishment of organization that can be the role as special ombudsman organization about sensitive and special matter like nuclear matter is necessary. Definite establishment element of ombudsman system is to introduce of congress type ombudsman element, to be permanent standing system ombudsman, to limit jurisdiction extent and have strong authority, to be able to access easily, to be composed of legal and nuclear specialist. One of important requirements of resident is compensation. So, based on the resident compensation theory about aversion equipment, ombudsman system should be established introducing the insurance theory through risk management as functional background for appropriate compensation. (authors)

  18. Using cost/risk procedures to establish recovery criteria following a nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tawil, J J; Strenge, D L

    1987-02-01

    In the event of a major accidental release of radionuclides at a nuclear power plant, large populated areas could become seriously contaminated. Local officials would be responsible for establishing radiation recovery criteria that would permit the evacuated population to return safely to their jobs and homes. The range of acceptable criteria could imply variations in property losses in the billions of dollars. Given the likely public concern over the health consequences and the enormity of the potential property losses, a cost/risk analysis can provide important input to establishing the recovery criteria. This paper describes procedures for conducting a cost/risk analysis of a site radiologically contaminated by a nuclear power plant accident. The procedures are illustrated by analyzing a hypothetically contaminated site, using software developed for determining the property and health effects of major reactor accidents.

  19. Establishing and maintaining a facility representative program at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE standard, (Establishing and Maintaining a Facility Representative Program at DOE Nuclear Facilities), is to help ensure that DOE Facility Representatives are selected based on consistently high standards and from the best qualified candidates available, that they receive the training required for them to function effectively, and that their expected duties, responsibilities, and authorities are well understood and accurately documented. To this end, this guidance provides the following practical information: (1) An approach for use in determining the required facility coverage; (2) The duties, responsibilities and authorities expected of a Facility Representative; and (3) The training and qualification expected of a Facility Representative.

  20. Building up the nucleus: nuclear organization in the establishment of totipotency and pluripotency during mammalian development

    PubMed Central

    Borsos, Máté; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, epigenetic reprogramming, the acquisition and loss of totipotency, and the first cell fate decision all occur within a 3-d window after fertilization from the one-cell zygote to the formation of the blastocyst. These processes are poorly understood in molecular detail, yet this is an essential prerequisite to uncover principles of stem cells, chromatin biology, and thus regenerative medicine. A unique feature of preimplantation development is the drastic genome-wide changes occurring to nuclear architecture. From studying somatic and in vitro cultured embryonic stem cells (ESCs) it is becoming increasingly established that the three-dimensional (3D) positions of genomic loci relative to each other and to specific compartments of the nucleus can act on the regulation of gene expression, potentially driving cell fate. However, the functionality, mechanisms, and molecular characteristics of the changes in nuclear organization during preimplantation development are only now beginning to be unraveled. Here, we discuss the peculiarities of nuclear compartments and chromatin organization during mammalian preimplantation development in the context of the transition from totipotency to pluripotency. PMID:26980186

  1. Establishing a value chain for human factors in nuclear power plantcontrol room modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Thomas, Kenneth David; Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2015-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) have operated reliably and efficiently for decades. With the life extensions of plants now being planned for operation beyond their original operating licenses, there are opportunities to achieve even greater efficiencies, while maintaining high operational reliabilities, with strategic, risk- and economically-informed, upgrades to plant systems and infrastructure. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program supports the commercial nuclear industry’s modernization efforts through research and development (R&D) activities across many areas to help establish the technical and economic bases for modernization activities. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies pathway is one R&D focus area for the LWRS program, and has researchers at Idaho National Laboratory working with select utility partners to use human factors and instrumentation and controls R&D to help modernize the plant’s main control room. However, some in the nuclear industry have not been as enthusiastic about using human factors R&D to inform life extension decision making. Part of the reason for this may stem from uncertainty decision-makers have regarding how human factors fits into the value chain for nuclear power plant control room modernization. This paper reviews past work that has attempted to demonstrate the value of human factors, and then describes the value chain concept, how it applies to control room modernization, and then makes a case for how and why human factors is an essential link in the modernization value chain.

  2. Establishment of paternal genomic imprinting in mouse prospermatogonia analyzed by nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Satoshi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Oikawa, Mami; Lee, Jiyoung; Matoba, Shogo; Mizutani, Eiji; Ogonuki, Narumi; Inoue, Kimiko; Kohda, Takashi; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2014-11-01

    In mice, the establishment of paternal genomic imprinting in male germ cells starts at midgestation, as suggested by DNA methylation analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). However, this information is based on averages from mixed populations of germ cells, and the DNA methylation pattern might not always provide a full representation of imprinting status. To obtain more detailed information on the establishment of paternal imprinting, single prospermatogonia at Embryonic Days 15.5 (E15.5), E16.5, and E17.5 and at Day 0.5 after birth were cloned using nuclear transfer; previous reports suggested that cloned embryos reflected the donor's genomic imprinting status. Then, the resultant fetuses (E9.5) were analyzed for the DNA methylation pattern of three paternal DMRs (IG-DMR, H19 DMR, and Rasgrf1 DMR) and the expression pattern of imprinted genes therein. The overall data indicated that establishment of genomic imprinting in all paternally imprinted regions was completed by E17.5, following a short intermediate period at E16.5. Furthermore, comparison between the methylation status of DMRs and the expression profiles of imprinted genes suggested that methylation of the IG-DMR, but not the H19 DMR, solely governed the control of its imprinted gene cluster. The Rasgrf1 DMR seemed to be imprinted later than the other two genes. We also found that the methylation status of the Gtl2 DMR, the secondary DMR that acquires DNA methylation after fertilization, was likely to follow the methylation status of the upstream IG-DMR. Thus, the systematic analyses of prospermatogonium-derived embryos provided additional important information on the establishment of paternal imprinting.

  3. 77 FR 20853 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... over the following proceeding: Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station) A... Association and by Pilgrim Watch seeking leave to reopen the record and request a hearing. Petitioners filed a... application from Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. to renew the current operating license for Pilgrim Nuclear...

  4. The Elbmarsch leukemia cluster: are there conceptual limitations in controlling immission from nuclear establishments in Germany?

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Feuerhake, I; Dieckmann, H; Hoffmann, W; Lengfelder, E; Pflugbeil, S; Stevenson, A F

    2005-11-01

    The childhood leukemia cluster in the proximity of the German nuclear establishments of Geesthacht is unique in its spatial and temporal concentration. After a steep increase in cases in 1990, the cluster continues to show a significant increase up to the present. Early investigations of blood samples from a casual sample of local residents showed an increase in dicentric chromosomes in lymphocytes, indicating exposure exceeding dose limits. Analyses of the immission data revealed several unexpected deliveries of fission and activation products in the environment but provided no explanation of the source. Because of the observed overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes in cells, the idea of a contribution by densely ionizing emitters was compelling. The routine programs, however, do not include alpha emitters. These were measured in specific studies that proved contamination by transuranic nuclides. As shown in the present investigation, routine environmental surveillance programs support the occurrence of an accidental event near Geesthacht in September 1986. Until now, neither the cause nor the complete scenario of the activity release could be established. The ongoing discussion highlights limitations in the immission-control concept, which is predominantly based on gamma-radiation monitoring.

  5. Childhood Leukemia in the Vicinity of the Geesthacht Nuclear Establishments near Hamburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Terschueren, Claudia; Richardson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Background During 1990–1991 a childhood leukemia cluster was observed in the sparsely populated region surrounding two nuclear establishments southeast of Hamburg, Germany. Since then, several new cases have been reported. Recently a possible accidental release of radionuclides in 1986 was hypothesized. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the childhood leukemia incidence in this area since 1990. Methods All incident cases (< 15 years of age) were ascertained during 1990–2005 within a 5-km radius of the Krümmel nuclear power plant. We derived standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using county and national leukemia incidence rates as referents. We stratified analyses by calendar period and attained age, and by subdividing the study region into areas north versus south of the Elbe river. Results Fourteen cases were ascertained in the study area, whereas 4.0 were expected based on national referent rates [1990–2005: SIR = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9–5.9]. The excess was not confined to the early 1990s; for the more recent time period 1999–2005, the SIR is still elevated (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI, 0.9–6.2). SIRs of greatest magnitude were observed for children 0–4 years of age (SIR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.4–9.0) and for residents south of the Elbe (SIR = 7.5; 95% CI, 2.8–16.4). Conclusions The incidence in this region is significantly higher than the childhood leukemia incidence for Germany as a whole. To date, no unique hazards have been identified in this population. The fact that the elevated rates have persisted in this community for > 15 years warrants further investigation. PMID:17589605

  6. 77 FR 30029 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... over the following proceeding: Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station) A... Association and by Pilgrim Watch seeking leave to reopen the record and request a hearing. The petition... additional twenty years the current operating license for Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, which expires on...

  7. International guidance on the establishment of quality assurance programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B E; Herbst, C; Norenberg, J P; Woods, M J

    2006-01-01

    A new guidance document for the implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurement, produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is described. The proposed programme is based on the principles of ISO 17025 and will enable laboratories, particularly in developing countries, to provide consistent, safe and effective radioactivity measurement services to the nuclear medicine community.

  8. Nuclear Weapons: NNSA Needs to Establish a Cost and Schedule Baseline for Manufacturing a Critical Nuclear Weapon Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    MOX mixed-oxide NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration PF-4 Plutonium Facility-4 building RRW Reliable Replacement Warhead TA-50...disassembles legacy pits and removes and oxidizes the plutonium, which can be used as a feed metal for the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel polishing activities...Facility at the Savannah River Site. MOX fuel polishing This program purifies plutonium from the ARIES project to specifications that would allow direct

  9. 76 FR 6837 - Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings, LLC; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... over the following proceeding: Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings, LLC (Victoria County Station Site) This... pursuant to Subpart A of 10 CFR part 52 for the Victoria County Station Site, to be located in...

  10. A pilot application of risk-based methods to establish in-service inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, T.; Gore, B.; Simonen, F.; Doctor, S.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a method that uses risk-based approaches to establish in-service inspection plans for nuclear power plant components. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FEMA) techniques to identify and prioritize the most risk-important systems and components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot applications of this method. The specific systems addressed in this report are the reactor pressure vessel, the reactor coolant, the low-pressure injection, and the auxiliary feedwater. The results provide a risk-based ranking of components within these systems and relate the target risk to target failure probability values for individual components. These results will be used to guide the development of improved inspection plans for nuclear power plants. To develop inspection plans, the acceptable level of risk from structural failure for important systems and components will be apportioned as a small fraction (i.e., 5%) of the total PRA-estimated risk for core damage. This process will determine target (acceptable) risk and target failure probability values for individual components. Inspection requirements will be set at levels to assure that acceptable failure probabilistics are maintained.

  11. Establishing an effective dose equivalent monitoring program for a commercial nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Barbara Jane

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether monitoring personnel with multiple dosimeter badges to determine effective dose equivalent (EDE) is both acceptable to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and practical for the nuclear power industry. Until now, most nuclear power plants have used a single dosimeter or occasionally multiple dosimeters to monitor the "deep dose equivalent (DDE)" as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Units (ICRU). The measurement of EDE, to replace DDE, is now deemed by international and regulatory agencies to better approximate a worker's dose related to long-term risks of occupational radiation exposure. The definition of DDE, and the formulation of EDE for use as a new indicator of occupational exposure, are presented in this thesis. Radiation exposure measurements using multiple dosimeters on each worker for certain tasks were collected for this thesis on workers at a Dominion/Virginia Company nuclear power plant. These multiple dosimeter measurements have been examined to determine how such a new personnel monitoring system compares to the former one at the Dominion plant, in which only one dosimeter reading was used predominately to calculated deep dose equivalent. This is based on the assumption that most workers were exposed to uniform radiation fields and that the single dosimeter reading was representative of the highest average exposure for the worker's task. These multiple dosimetry measurements show that it is both feasible and advantageous to provide such dosimetry in situations where exposures may be non-uniform and significant enough to approach yearly exposure limits in a single day, such as in the tasks required during refueling outages.

  12. Establishment of Imaging Spectroscopy of Nuclear Gamma-Rays based on Geometrical Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimori, Toru; Mizumura, Yoshitaka; Takada, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shohei; Takemura, Taito; Kishimoto, Tetsuro; Komura, Shotaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Miuchi, Kentaro; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Nakamasu, Yuma; Nakamura, Kiseki; Parker, Joseph D.; Sawano, Tatsuya; Sonoda, Shinya; Tomono, Dai; Yoshikawa, Kei

    2017-02-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear gamma-rays, its imaging has been limited to pseudo imaging, such as Compton Camera (CC) and coded mask. Pseudo imaging does not keep physical information (intensity, or brightness in Optics) along a ray, and thus is capable of no more than qualitative imaging of bright objects. To attain quantitative imaging, cameras that realize geometrical optics is essential, which would be, for nuclear MeV gammas, only possible via complete reconstruction of the Compton process. Recently we have revealed that “Electron Tracking Compton Camera” (ETCC) provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF). The information of an incoming gamma is kept along a ray with the PSF and that is equivalent to geometrical optics. Here we present an imaging-spectroscopic measurement with the ETCC. Our results highlight the intrinsic difficulty with CCs in performing accurate imaging, and show that the ETCC surmounts this problem. The imaging capability also helps the ETCC suppress the noise level dramatically by ~3 orders of magnitude without a shielding structure. Furthermore, full reconstruction of Compton process with the ETCC provides spectra free of Compton edges. These results mark the first proper imaging of nuclear gammas based on the genuine geometrical optics.

  13. Establishment of Imaging Spectroscopy of Nuclear Gamma-Rays based on Geometrical Optics.

    PubMed

    Tanimori, Toru; Mizumura, Yoshitaka; Takada, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shohei; Takemura, Taito; Kishimoto, Tetsuro; Komura, Shotaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Miuchi, Kentaro; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Nakamasu, Yuma; Nakamura, Kiseki; Parker, Joseph D; Sawano, Tatsuya; Sonoda, Shinya; Tomono, Dai; Yoshikawa, Kei

    2017-02-03

    Since the discovery of nuclear gamma-rays, its imaging has been limited to pseudo imaging, such as Compton Camera (CC) and coded mask. Pseudo imaging does not keep physical information (intensity, or brightness in Optics) along a ray, and thus is capable of no more than qualitative imaging of bright objects. To attain quantitative imaging, cameras that realize geometrical optics is essential, which would be, for nuclear MeV gammas, only possible via complete reconstruction of the Compton process. Recently we have revealed that "Electron Tracking Compton Camera" (ETCC) provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF). The information of an incoming gamma is kept along a ray with the PSF and that is equivalent to geometrical optics. Here we present an imaging-spectroscopic measurement with the ETCC. Our results highlight the intrinsic difficulty with CCs in performing accurate imaging, and show that the ETCC surmounts this problem. The imaging capability also helps the ETCC suppress the noise level dramatically by ~3 orders of magnitude without a shielding structure. Furthermore, full reconstruction of Compton process with the ETCC provides spectra free of Compton edges. These results mark the first proper imaging of nuclear gammas based on the genuine geometrical optics.

  14. Establishment of Imaging Spectroscopy of Nuclear Gamma-Rays based on Geometrical Optics

    PubMed Central

    Tanimori, Toru; Mizumura, Yoshitaka; Takada, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shohei; Takemura, Taito; Kishimoto, Tetsuro; Komura, Shotaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Miuchi, Kentaro; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Nakamasu, Yuma; Nakamura, Kiseki; Parker, Joseph D.; Sawano, Tatsuya; Sonoda, Shinya; Tomono, Dai; Yoshikawa, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear gamma-rays, its imaging has been limited to pseudo imaging, such as Compton Camera (CC) and coded mask. Pseudo imaging does not keep physical information (intensity, or brightness in Optics) along a ray, and thus is capable of no more than qualitative imaging of bright objects. To attain quantitative imaging, cameras that realize geometrical optics is essential, which would be, for nuclear MeV gammas, only possible via complete reconstruction of the Compton process. Recently we have revealed that “Electron Tracking Compton Camera” (ETCC) provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF). The information of an incoming gamma is kept along a ray with the PSF and that is equivalent to geometrical optics. Here we present an imaging-spectroscopic measurement with the ETCC. Our results highlight the intrinsic difficulty with CCs in performing accurate imaging, and show that the ETCC surmounts this problem. The imaging capability also helps the ETCC suppress the noise level dramatically by ~3 orders of magnitude without a shielding structure. Furthermore, full reconstruction of Compton process with the ETCC provides spectra free of Compton edges. These results mark the first proper imaging of nuclear gammas based on the genuine geometrical optics. PMID:28155870

  15. Health consequences of Chernobyl: the New York Academy of Sciences publishes an antidote to the nuclear establishment's pseudo-science.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison Rosamund

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, the New York Academy of Sciences published the most complete and up-to-date collection of evidence, from independent, scientific sources all over the world, on the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 24 years, through a high-level, internationally coordinated cover-up of the world's most serious industrial accident, the nuclear lobby has deprived the world of a unique and critically important source of scientific information. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), mouthpiece of the nuclear establishment, has coordinated the cover-up through the dissemination and imposition of crude pseudo-science. Regrettably, the World Health Organization, a U.N. agency on which the world's people rely for guidance, is subordinate to the IAEA in matters of radiation and health, has participated in the cover-up, and stands accused of non-assistance to populations in danger. The new book on Chernobyl makes available huge amounts of evidence from independent studies undertaken in the affected countries, unique and valuable data that have been ignored by the international health establishment. This comprehensive account of the full dimensions of the catastrophe reveals the shameful inadequacy of current international assistance to the affected populations. It also demonstrates, once more, that future energy options cannot include nuclear power.

  16. Who Is Afraid of Volume 1181 of the New York Academy of Sciences? Under Threat, the Nuclear Establishment Plays Dirty.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison Rosamund

    2015-01-01

    Following decades of an internationally coordinated cover-up, critical information about the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, worldwide but particularly in Western and Eastern Europe, was made available through Volume 1181 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The book also contains unique, valuable data from the 3 most affected counties, and it suggests that consequences of the Chernobyl accident are far more serious than has been acknowledged. Many health problems are worsening, including those resulting from irreversible genetic damage. Given the threat that such information represents to the nuclear establishment, it was predictable that Volume 1181, of far higher scientific quality than the United Nations' flagship report The Chernobyl Forum, would meet with violent criticism. Since its publication in 2009, it has been misrepresented and discredited by the nuclear establishment and international health establishment - to the extent of making the absurd and false claim that the New York Academy of Sciences has in some way disowned its own publication. The New York Academy of Sciences defends publication of Volume 1181 on the grounds of its commitment to open discussion of scientific material and publication of material of scientific value. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  17. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I.

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  18. Ontogenetic establishment of order-specific nuclear organization in the mammalian thalamus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xianyu, Anjin; Han, Zhi; Tang, Xing; Li, Zhizhong; Zhong, Haining; Mao, Tianyi; Huang, Kun; Shi, Song-Hai

    2017-04-01

    The thalamus connects the cortex with other brain regions and supports sensory perception, movement, and cognitive function via numerous distinct nuclei. However, the mechanisms underlying the development and organization of diverse thalamic nuclei remain largely unknown. Here we report an intricate ontogenetic logic of mouse thalamic structures. Individual radial glial progenitors in the developing thalamus actively divide and produce a cohort of neuronal progeny that shows striking spatial configuration and nuclear occupation related to functionality. Whereas the anterior clonal cluster displays relatively more tangential dispersion and contributes predominantly to nuclei with cognitive functions, the medial ventral posterior clonal cluster forms prominent radial arrays and contributes mostly to nuclei with sensory- or motor-related activities. Moreover, the first-order and higher-order sensory and motor nuclei across different modalities are largely segregated clonally. Notably, sonic hedgehog signaling activity influences clonal spatial distribution. Our study reveals lineage relationship to be a critical regulator of nonlaminated thalamus development and organization.

  19. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  20. Establishing protective long term measures after severe nuclear accidents using multiple criteria.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, I A; Kollas, J G

    1997-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents and demonstrates its use. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is adopted where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. All feasible solutions are implicitly considered and evaluated in the chosen criteria. Technically inferior solutions are excluded. Only the non-dominated or efficient solutions forming the "efficient frontier" are retained and presented to the decision makers. Implementation of inefficient solutions is in this way avoided. A choice among the efficient solutions, although it implies value tradeoffs among the multiple criteria, avoids the direct and apriori assessment of preferences. An interactive computer package has been developed with which the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the corresponding alternative in the decision space. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident using as criteria the collective effective life-time dose received by the population and the cost associated with each possible decision.

  1. Establishing protective long term measures after severe nuclear accidents using multiple criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Kollas, J.G.

    1997-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents and demonstrates its use. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is adopted where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. All feasible solutions are implicitly considered and evaluated in the chosen criteria. Technically inferior solutions are excluded. Only the non-dominated or efficient solutions forming the {open_quotes}efficient frontier{close_quotes} are retained and presented to the decision makers. Implementation of inefficient solutions is in this way avoided. A choice among the efficient solutions, although it implies value tradeoffs among the multiple criteria, avoids the direct and apriori assessment of preferences. An interactive computer package has been developed with which the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the corresponding alternative in the decision space. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident using as criteria the collective effective life-time dose received by the population and the cost associated with each possible decision. 11 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Some considerations for establishing seismic design criteria for nuclear plant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.P.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is providing assistance to the U.S. NRC in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analysis of piping. As part of this effort, ETEC previously performed reviews of the ASME Code, Section III piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda. These revised criteria were based on evaluations by the ASME Special Task Group on Integrated Piping Criteria (STGIPC) and the Technical Core Group (TCG) of the Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) of the earlier joint Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping & Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) program. Previous ETEC evaluations reported at the 23rd WRSM of seismic margins associated with the revised criteria are reviewed. These evaluations had concluded, in part, that although margins for the timed PFDR tests appeared acceptable (>2), margins in detuned tests could be unacceptable (<1). This conclusion was based primarily on margin reduction factors (MRFs) developed by the ASME STGIPC and ARC/TCG from realistic analyses of PFDR test 36. This paper reports more recent results including: (1) an approach developed for establishing appropriate seismic margins based on PRA considerations, (2) independent assessments of frequency effects on margins, (3) the development of margins based on failure mode considerations, and (4) the implications of Code Section III rules for Section XI.

  3. Establishment of the purity values of carbohydrate certified reference materials using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance and mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Quan, Can

    2014-06-15

    This work described the assignment of purity values to six carbohydrate certified reference materials, including glucose, fructose, galactose, lactose, xylose and sucrose, according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The CRMs' purity values were assigned based on the weighted average of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance method and mass balance approach with high resolution liquid chromatography - evaporative light scattering detection. All the six CRMs with following value amount fractions: glucose (GBW10062) at a certified purity P ± U (k=2) of (0.99 ± 0.005)%; fructose (GBW10063) at (0.99 ± 0.005)%; galactose (GBW10064) at (0.99 ± 0.007)%; lactose (GBW10065) at (0.99 ± 0.008)%; xylose (GBW10066) at (0.99 ± 0.007)% and sucrose (GBW10067) at (0.99 ± 0.008)%, respectively were certified. The homogeneity of the CRMs was determined by an in-house validated liquid chromatographic method. Potential degradation during storage was also investigated and a shelf-life based on this value was established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [D.P.Zuikhin and his contribution to the establishment and development of the system of medical maintenance of nuclear submarines personnel].

    PubMed

    Petrov, O I; Sukhorukov, V S

    2014-12-01

    A highly qualified physician, an outstanding leader, a scientist Dmitry Zuikhin (1924-1988) was directly involved into establishment of a system of medical support for submariners in the sea and on shore, he proved the necessity of forces and means for the medical service fleet. He was a pioneer in this challenging and new field of naval medicine. His energy, perseverance and determination helped to establish in the early 1960 a system of medical support for nuclear submarines personnel, which was subsequently implemented in all associations and connections of nuclear submarines of the Northern and Pacific fleets.

  5. Establishment and characterization of fetal fibroblast cell lines for generating human lysozyme transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Zheng, Liming; Liu, Qingqing; Yang, Zhongcai; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to qualify goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell lines for genetic modification and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce human lysozyme (hLYZ) transgenic goats. Nine GFF cell lines were established from different fetuses, and the proliferative lifespan and chromosomal stability were analyzed. The results suggested that cell lines with a longer lifespan had stable chromosomes compared with those of cells lines with a shorter lifespan. According to the proliferative lifespan, we divided GFF cell lines into two groups: cell lines with a long lifespan (GFF1/2/7/8/9; group L) and cell lines with a short lifespan (GFF3/4/5/6; group S). Next, a hLYZ expression vector was introduced into these cell lines by electroporation. The efficiencies of colony formation, expansion in culture, and the quality of transgenic clonal cell lines were significant higher in group L than those in group S. The mean fusion rate and blastocyst rate in group L were higher than those in group S (80.3 ± 1.7 vs. 65.1 ± 4.2 % and 19.5 ± 0.6 vs. 15.1 ± 1.1 %, respectively, P < 0.05). After transferring cloned embryos into the oviducts of recipient goats, three live kids were born. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed integration of the transgene in cloned goats. In conclusion, the lifespan of GFF cell lines has a major effect on the efficiency to produce transgenic cloned goats. Therefore, the proliferative lifespan of primary cells may be used as a criterion to characterize the quality of cell lines for genetic modification and SCNT.

  6. Current status of nuclear cardiology in Japan: Ongoing efforts to improve clinical standards and to establish evidence.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear cardiology imaging tests are widely performed in Japan as clinical practice. The Japanese nuclear cardiology community has developed new diagnostic imaging tests using (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for detecting cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis. These tests have become popular worldwide. The Japanese Circulation Society and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Cardiology have published clinical imaging guidelines showing indications and standards for the new imaging tests. JSNC is currently striving to improve the standard of clinical practice and is promoting research activities.

  7. Contracting in the national interest: Establishing the legal framework for the interaction of science, government, and industry at a nuclear weapons laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, the nation's nuclear ordnance laboratory, is operated on a no-profit, no-fee basis by ATandT Technologies, Inc., as a prime contractor for the Department of Energy. This unique arrangement began in 1949 when President Harry Truman personally requested that ATandT assume management of the nuclear weapons laboratory as a service in the national interest. The story of how this unusual relationship came about makes for an interesting chapter in the annals of US legal and institutional history. This report describes the historical background, political negotiations, and prime contract provisos that established the legal framework for the Labs.

  8. Extensive nuclear lobulation in the cells of a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. The role of electron microscopy for establishment of a correct diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, M; Cohen, A; Gardyn, J; Bendayan, D

    1990-07-01

    Extensive nuclear convolution and lobulation was found in the peripheral blood cells of a patient with acute leukemia. While the morphology of the cells, such as observed with the light microscope, was compatible with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, the finding of Sezary-like cells with the electron microscope helped to establish the diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia. This report emphasizes the importance of the electron microscope for the correct diagnosis of leukemias.

  9. Defense Nuclear Enterprise: DOD Has Established Processes for Implementing and Tracking Recommendations to Improve Leadership, Morale, and Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    guidance (including the Secretary of Defense memo Nuclear Enterprise Review Corrective Action Implementation), and documents from the Office of Cost ...the recommendations. The tracking tool currently contains hundreds of unique milestones and metrics, and additional milestones and metrics are still...holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately. The Government Accountability Office, the audit

  10. Boveri’s long experiment: Sea urchin merogones and the establishment of the role of nuclear chromosomes in development

    PubMed Central

    Laubichler, Manfred D.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2008-01-01

    Theodor Boveri’s major intellectual contribution was his focus on the causality of nuclear chromosomal determinants for embryological development. His initial experimental attempt to demonstrate that the character of the developing embryo is determined by nuclear rather than cytoplasmic factors was launched in 1889. The experimental design was to fertilize enucleate sea urchin eggs with sperm of another species that produces a distinguishably different embryonic morphology. Boveri’s “hybrid merogone” experiment provided what he initially thought was empirical evidence for the nuclear control of development. However, for subtle reasons, the data were not interpretable and the experiment was repeated and contested. At the end of his life, Boveri was finally able to explain the technical difficulties that had beset the original experiment. However, by 1902 Boveri had carried out his famous polyspermy experiments, which provided decisive evidence for the role of nuclear chromosomal determinants in embryogenesis. Here we present the history of the hybrid merogone experiment as an important case of conceptual reasoning paired with (often difficult) experimental approaches. We then trace the further history of the merogone and normal species hybrid approaches that this experiment had set in train, and review their results from the standpoint of current insights. The history of Boveri’s hybrid merogone experiment suggests important lessons about the interplay between what we call “models”, the specific intellectual statements we conceive about how biology works, and the sometimes difficult task of generating experimental proof for these concepts. PMID:18163986

  11. Nucleoporins NPP-10, NPP-13 and NPP-20 are required for HCP-4 nuclear import to establish correct centromere assembly.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge; Stear, Jeffrey H; Saumweber, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Centromeres form a chromosomal platform for the assembly of the kinetochores, which are required for orderly chromosome segregation. Assembly of both centromeres and kinetochores proceeds by a step-by-step mechanism that is regulated in time and space. It has been suggested that the regulated nuclear import of centromeric proteins is involved in this process. We show that the knockdown of nucleoporins NPP-10, NPP-13 and NPP-20 in Caenorhabditiselegans affects early steps in centromere formation and sister centromere resolution, and results in severe chromosomal defects in the early embryo. These phenotypes mirror the knockdown phenotype of HCP-4 (an ortholog of mammalian CENP-C), a key factor for centromere formation and inner kinetochore assembly. HCP-4 is present in the cytoplasm during interphase. It is imported into nuclei and assembled in centromeres during prophase. Following the knockdown of NPP-10, NPP-13 and NPP-20, HCP-4 remains in the cytosol throughout prophase due to stalled import. In prometaphase and later mitotic stages after breakdown of the nuclear envelope, HCP-4 is not incorporated into centromeres. These results indicate that correct timing of the availability of HCP-4 by nuclear import is essential.

  12. Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant - An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, Daniel P.; Gronier, Serge; Heriot, Ian D.; Hogg, Charles; Novak, Vince; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant ? An Overview of the Current Efforts to Stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter and Establish an Environmentally Safe Site Abstract?The 1986 accident at the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the reactor building. The Chornobyl accident released an enormous quantity of radionuclides into the environment, significantly contaminating a large region around the plant. Within seven months of the accident, the damaged Unit 4 was encased in a massive concrete and steel enclosure known as the Shelter. Deterioration of the Shelter over time poses increasing risks. The Shelter is subject to structural damage or collapse due to wind, snow loading, or seismic activity. Collapse could lead to the release of radioactive fallout. Leakage of rainwater into the Shelter has caused the accumulation of a large quantity of highly radioactive liquid, corrosion of extremely contaminated nuclear fuel debris, and creation of hazardous radioactive dust. To address these concerns, the government of Ukraine, the G7 nations, and additional donor countries adopted the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) in 1997. The SIP's objectives are to reduce the risk and potential consequences of accidental collapse of the Shelter; improve nuclear, industrial and environmental safety; and develop a long-term strategy for conversion to an environmentally safe site. Implementation of the SIP has made significant progress that will lead to the construction of a new confinement facility by 2009. (Full paper available by contacting lead author, Dan Couch)

  13. How a tertiary medical nuclear medicine department at the Himalayan area in India can be established and function in an exemplary manner. Basic rules revisited.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Vandana Kumar; Saini, Sunil; Basu, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    We describe and discuss the various medical, social and financial aspects of setting up, and optimizing, working conditions of a tertiary Nuclear Medicine Department. This department was established in a North Indian state which comprises 93% of hilly area. During the first three years after establishment we have developed infrastructure, cooperation with other departments, improved radiation safety and cost effectiveness of our work and designed future perspectives. The facility was established in a cancer center of a tertiary care hospital where a medical college infrastructure was developed. National guidelines formulated by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) were followed. Our department served a population area of 10.08 million inhabitants. Over the first three years 2,400 patients underwent diagnostic scans and 106 patients underwent low dose radioiodine treatment for thyrotoxicosis. To optimize resources and at the same time, enhance their effectivity, we procured our (99)Mo/ (99m)Tc generator every other week and arranged our daily programme accordingly. Fractionation of cold kits allowed us to perform low cost in-vivo procedures on a daily basis and to save the department's running costs by 30%-50%. We run continuing education nuclear medicine programmes for referring physicians, medical students and paramedical workers which were included in routine practice which led to a consistent growth in patients referral. The need for a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and high dose treatment department for thyroid cancer was strongly felt. Our nuclear medicine department in a peripheral region of a developing country applied better logistics by procuring new generator every fortnight, fractionating the cold kits and by organizing complete teaching programmes.

  14. ESTABLISHING FINAL END STATE FOR A RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION REACTOR; COLLABORATION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS, REGULATORS AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950s, utilizing five production reactors. In the early 1990s all SRS production reactor operations were terminated. The first reactor closure end state declaration was recently institutionalized in a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Early Action Record of Decision. The decision for the final closure of the 318,000 square foot 105-P Reactor was determined to be in situ decommissioning (ISD). ISD is an acceptable and cost effective alternative to off-site disposal for the reactor building, which will allow for consolidation of remedial action wastes generated from other cleanup activities within the P Area. ISD is considered protective by the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), public and stakeholders as waste materials are stabilized/immobilized, and radioactivity is allowed to naturally decay, thus preventing future exposure to the environment. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the upfront planning in order to achieve this monumental final decision. Numerous public meetings and workshops were held in two different states (covering a 200 mile radius) with stakeholder and SRS Citizens Advisory Board participation. These meetings were conducted over an eight month period as the end state decision making progressed. Information provided to the public evolved from workshop to workshop as data became available and public input from the public meetings were gathered. ISD is being considered for the balance of the four SRS reactors and other hardened facilities such as the chemical processing canyons.

  15. ESTABLISHING FINAL END STATE FOR A RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION REACTOR; COLLABORATION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS, REGULATORS, AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT - 11052

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C.; Flora, M.; Belencan, H.

    2010-11-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950s, utilizing five production reactors. In the early 1990s all SRS production reactor operations were terminated. The first reactor closure end state declaration was recently institutionalized in a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Early Action Record of Decision. The decision for the final closure of the 318,000 square foot 105-P Reactor was determined to be in situ decommissioning (ISD). ISD is an acceptable and cost effective alternative to off-site disposal for the reactor building, which will allow for consolidation of remedial action wastes generated from other cleanup activities within the P Area. ISD is considered protective by the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), public and stakeholders as waste materials are stabilized/immobilized, and radioactivity is allowed to naturally decay, thus preventing future exposure to the environment. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the upfront planning in order to achieve this monumental final decision. Numerous public meetings and workshops were held in two different states (covering a 200 mile radius) with stakeholder and SRS Citizens Advisory Board participation. These meetings were conducted over an eight month period as the end state decision making progressed. Information provided to the public evolved from workshop to workshop as data became available and public input from the public meetings were gathered. ISD is being considered for the balance of the four SRS reactors and other hardened facilities such as the chemical Separation Facilities (canyons).

  16. Fractal theory modeling for interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data and establishing lithological cross section in basaltic environment (case study from Southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2017-05-01

    Fractal theory modeling technique is newly proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, for establishing the lithological cross section in basaltic environments. The logging data of Kodana well, localized in Southern Syria are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established cross section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The concentration- Number (C-N) fractal modeling technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells with much well logging data with a high number of variables are required to be interpreted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen by the lytic transactivator RTA: a novel mechanism for establishment of latency.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ke; Kuppers, Daniel A; Verma, Subhash C; Sharma, Nikhil; Murakami, Masanao; Robertson, Erle S

    2005-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent contributing to development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman desease. Following primary infection, latency is typically established. However, the mechanism by which KSHV establishes latency is not understood. We have reported that the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) can repress RTA (for replication and transcription activator) expression by down-regulating its promoter. In this study, we show that RTA is associated with the virion particle. We also show that RTA can activate the LANA promoter and induce LANA expression in transient reporter assays. Additionally, the transcription of RTA correlates with LANA expression in the early stages of de novo infection of KSHV, and induction of LANA transcription is responsive to induction of RTA with an inducible system. This induction in LANA transcription was dependent on recombination signal sequence binding protein Jkappa (RBP-Jkappa), as a RBP-Jkappa-deficient cell line was significantly delayed and inefficient in LANA transcription with expression of RTA. These studies suggest that RTA contributes to establishment of KSHV latency by activating LANA expression in the early stages of infection by utilizing the major effector of the Notch signaling pathway RBP-Jkappa. This describes a feedback mechanism by which LANA and RTA can regulate each other and is likely to be a key event in the establishment of KSHV latency.

  18. Induction of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen by the Lytic Transactivator RTA: a Novel Mechanism for Establishment of Latency

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ke; Kuppers, Daniel A.; Verma, Subhash C.; Sharma, Nikhil; Murakami, Masanao; Robertson, Erle S.

    2005-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent contributing to development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman desease. Following primary infection, latency is typically established. However, the mechanism by which KSHV establishes latency is not understood. We have reported that the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) can repress RTA (for replication and transcription activator) expression by down-regulating its promoter. In this study, we show that RTA is associated with the virion particle. We also show that RTA can activate the LANA promoter and induce LANA expression in transient reporter assays. Additionally, the transcription of RTA correlates with LANA expression in the early stages of de novo infection of KSHV, and induction of LANA transcription is responsive to induction of RTA with an inducible system. This induction in LANA transcription was dependent on recombination signal sequence binding protein Jκ (RBP-Jκ), as a RBP-Jκ-deficient cell line was significantly delayed and inefficient in LANA transcription with expression of RTA. These studies suggest that RTA contributes to establishment of KSHV latency by activating LANA expression in the early stages of infection by utilizing the major effector of the Notch signaling pathway RBP-Jκ. This describes a feedback mechanism by which LANA and RTA can regulate each other and is likely to be a key event in the establishment of KSHV latency. PMID:15919901

  19. Establishment of pregnancy after the transfer of nuclear transfer embryos produced from the fusion of argali (Ovis ammon) nuclei into domestic sheep (Ovis aries) enucleated oocytes.

    PubMed

    White, K L; Bunch, T D; Mitalipov, S; Reed, W A

    1999-01-01

    Cloning mammalian species from cell lines of adult animals has been demonstrated. Aside from its importance for cloning multiple copies of genetically valuable livestock, cloning now has the potential to salvage endangered or even extinct species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the bovine and domestic (Ovis aries) ovine oocyte cytoplasm on the nucleus of an established cell line from an endangered argali wild sheep (Ovis ammon) after nuclear transplantation. A fibroblast cell line was established from skin biopsies from an adult argali ram from the People's Republic of China. Early karyotype analysis of cells between 3-6 passages revealed a normal diploid chromosome number of 56. The argali karyotype consisted of 2 pairs of biarmed and 25 pairs of acrocentric autosomes, a large acrocentric and minute biarmed Y. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local abattoir, oocytes aspirated, and immediately placed in maturation medium consisting of M-199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 IU/mL penicillin, 100 microg/mL streptomycin, 0.5 microg/mL follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 5.0 microg/mL luetinizing hormone (LH) and 1.0 microg/mL estradiol. Ovine (O. aries) oocytes were collected at surgery 25 hours postonset of estrus from the oviducts of superovulated donor animals. All cultures were carried out at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and air. In vitro matured MII bovine oocytes were enucleated 16-20 hours after onset of maturation and ovine oocytes within 2-3 hours after collection. Enucleation was confirmed using Hoechst 33342 and UV light. The donor argali cells were synchronized in G0-G1 phase by culturing in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus 0.5% fetal bovine serum for 5-10 days. Fusion of nuclear donor cell to an enucleated oocyte (cytoplast) to produce nuclear transfer (NT) embryos was induced by 2 electric pulses of 1.4 kV/cm for 30 microsc. Fused NT embryos were activated after 24 hours of maturation

  20. Histone deacetylase 3 inhibition re-establishes synaptic tagging and capture in aging through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mahima; Shivarama Shetty, Mahesh; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired plasticity and memory. Altered epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the impairment of memory with advanced aging. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is an important negative regulator of memory. However, the role of HDAC3 in aged neural networks is not well established. Late long-term potentiation (late-LTP), a cellular correlate of memory and its associative mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture (STC) were studied in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices from 82–84 week old rats. Our findings demonstrate that aging is associated with deficits in the magnitude of LTP and impaired STC. Inhibition of HDAC3 augments the late-LTP and re-establishes STC. The augmentation of late-LTP and restoration of STC is mediated by the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. We provide evidence for the promotion of associative plasticity in aged neural networks by HDAC3 inhibition and hence propose HDAC3 and NFκB as the possible therapeutic targets for treating age -related cognitive decline. PMID:26577291

  1. Recombinant human albumin supports development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in mice: toward the establishment of a chemically defined cloning protocol.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, F; Gentile, L; Schöler, H R; Boiani, M

    2006-01-01

    Culturing embryos in different media is a useful approach to characterize their nature in regard to "memory" of the donor nucleus and its "reprogramming" after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, efforts to elucidate the mechanisms of reprogramming are seriously undermined when embryo culture conditions are not completely defined. Using recombinant human albumin (rHA) is a step toward establishing defined culture conditions for mouse cloning. Recombinant HA supports blastocyst formation of cumulus cell-derived clones at a rate comparable with two types of bovine serum albumin (BSA); following transfer of blastocysts to the genital tract, rates of development to midgestation (10.5 dpc) were indistinguishable. rHA also supports the derivation of germline competent embryonic stem (ES) cells from SCNT blastocysts at a substantial rate compared with BSA counterparts and with zygotic blastocysts. Unlike the developmental parameters, the gene expression patterns of clones cultured in rHA or BSA were not superimposed; identical patterns were observed for zygotic blastocysts in the two albumins. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (1) rHA can replace BSA, proving a defined protein source for SCNT in mice; (2) although using rHA is similar to BSA, it is not equal (rHA leaves a mark on gene expression of clones but not zygotes). Future studies that investigate reprogramming after SCNT will need to consider not only the implications of culture media for cloning but also the supplement choice.

  2. H. R. 4121: A Bill to establish an independent safety board to oversee Department of Energy nuclear facilities. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, March 9, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The bill H.R. 4121 if enacted would establish an independent safety board to oversee the Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This board would be a part of the executive branch and would be known as the Federal Facilities Nuclear Safety Board. The structure, functions, and powers of the Board as well as the responsibilities of the Secretary of Energy in full cooperation with the board, the format of board recommendations, the method of board reporting, and authorization for funding for the board are presented in detail. The bill was referred to the Committees on Energy and Commerce and Armed Services.

  3. The Nup358-RanGAP complex is required for efficient importin alpha/beta-dependent nuclear import.

    PubMed

    Hutten, Saskia; Flotho, Annette; Melchior, Frauke; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2008-05-01

    In vertebrate cells, the nucleoporin Nup358/RanBP2 is a major component of the filaments that emanate from the nuclear pore complex into the cytoplasm. Nup358 forms a complex with SUMOylated RanGAP1, the GTPase activating protein for Ran. RanGAP1 plays a pivotal role in the establishment of a RanGTP gradient across the nuclear envelope and, hence, in the majority of nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways. Here, we investigate the roles of the Nup358-RanGAP1 complex and of soluble RanGAP1 in nuclear protein transport, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Depletion of Nup358 by RNA interference led to a clear reduction of importin alpha/beta-dependent nuclear import of various reporter proteins. In vitro, transport could be partially restored by the addition of importin beta, RanBP1, and/or RanGAP1 to the transport reaction. In intact Nup358-depleted cells, overexpression of importin beta strongly stimulated nuclear import, demonstrating that the transport receptor is the most rate-limiting factor at reduced Nup358-concentrations. As an alternative approach, we used antibody-inhibition experiments. Antibodies against RanGAP1 inhibited the enzymatic activity of soluble and nuclear pore-associated RanGAP1, as well as nuclear import and export. Although export could be fully restored by soluble RanGAP, import was only partially rescued. Together, these data suggest a dual function of the Nup358-RanGAP1 complex as a coordinator of importin beta recycling and reformation of novel import complexes.

  4. From Unorthodox to Established: The Current Status of (18)F-Trifluoroborate- and (18)F-SiFA-Based Radiopharmaceuticals in PET Nuclear Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Gauthier, Vadim; Bailey, Justin J; Liu, Zhibo; Wängler, Björn; Wängler, Carmen; Jurkschat, Klaus; Perrin, David M; Schirrmacher, Ralf

    2016-02-17

    Unorthodox (18)F-labeling strategies not employing the formation of a carbon-(18)F bond are seldom found in radiochemistry. Historically, the formation of a boron- or silicon-(18)F bond has been introduced very early on into the repertoire of labeling chemistries, but is without translation into any clinical radiotracer besides inorganic B[(18)F]F4(-) for brain tumor diagnosis. For many decades these labeling methodologies were forgotten and have just recently been revived by a handful of researchers thinking outside the box. When breaking with established paradigms such as the inability to obtain labeled compounds of high specific activity via isotopic exchange or performing radiofluorination in aqueous media, the research community often reacts skeptically. In 2005 and 2006, two novel labeling methodologies were introduced into radiochemistry for positron emission tomography (PET) tracer development: RBF3(-) labeling reported by Perrin et al. and the SiFA methodology by Schirrmacher, Jurkschat, and Waengler et al. which is based on isotopic exchange (IE). Both labeling methodologies have been complemented by other noncanonical strategies to introduce (18)F into biomolecules of diagnostic importance, thus profoundly enriching the landscape of (18)F radiolabeling. B- and Si-based labeling strategies finally revealed that IE is a viable alternative to established and traditional radiochemistry with the advantage of simplifying both the labeling effort as well as the necessary purification of the radiotracer. Hence IE will be the focus of this contribution over other noncanonical labeling methods. Peptides for tumor imaging especially lend themselves favorably toward one-step labeling via IE, but small molecules have been described as well, taking advantage of these new approaches, and have been used successfully for brain imaging. This Review gives an account of both radiochemistries centered on boron and silicon, describing the very beginnings of their basic

  5. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  6. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  7. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  9. The Cellular DNA Helicase ChlR1 Regulates Chromatin and Nuclear Matrix Attachment of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 Protein and High-Copy-Number Viral Genome Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Leanne; McFarlane-Majeed, Laura; Campos-León, Karen; Roberts, Sally

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In papillomavirus infections, the viral genome is established as a double-stranded DNA episome. To segregate the episomes into daughter cells during mitosis, they are tethered to cellular chromatin by the viral E2 protein. We previously demonstrated that the E2 proteins of diverse papillomavirus types, including bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), associate with the cellular DNA helicase ChlR1. This virus-host interaction is important for the tethering of BPV E2 to mitotic chromatin and the stable maintenance of BPV episomes. The role of the association between E2 and ChlR1 in the HPV16 life cycle is unresolved. Here we show that an HPV16 E2 Y131A mutant (E2Y131A) had significantly reduced binding to ChlR1 but retained transcriptional activation and viral origin-dependent replication functions. Subcellular fractionation of keratinocytes expressing E2Y131A showed a marked change in the localization of the protein. Compared to that of wild-type E2 (E2WT), the chromatin-bound pool of E2Y131A was decreased, concomitant with an increase in nuclear matrix-associated protein. Cell cycle synchronization indicated that the shift in subcellular localization of E2Y131A occurred in mid-S phase. A similar alteration between the subcellular pools of the E2WT protein occurred upon ChlR1 silencing. Notably, in an HPV16 life cycle model in primary human keratinocytes, mutant E2Y131A genomes were established as episomes, but at a markedly lower copy number than that of wild-type HPV16 genomes, and they were not maintained upon cell passage. Our studies indicate that ChlR1 is an important regulator of the chromatin association of E2 and of the establishment and maintenance of HPV16 episomes. IMPORTANCE Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. During infection, the circular DNA genome of HPV persists within the nucleus, independently of the host cell chromatin. Persistence

  10. The Cellular DNA Helicase ChlR1 Regulates Chromatin and Nuclear Matrix Attachment of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 Protein and High-Copy-Number Viral Genome Establishment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Leanne; McFarlane-Majeed, Laura; Campos-León, Karen; Roberts, Sally; Parish, Joanna L

    2017-01-01

    In papillomavirus infections, the viral genome is established as a double-stranded DNA episome. To segregate the episomes into daughter cells during mitosis, they are tethered to cellular chromatin by the viral E2 protein. We previously demonstrated that the E2 proteins of diverse papillomavirus types, including bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), associate with the cellular DNA helicase ChlR1. This virus-host interaction is important for the tethering of BPV E2 to mitotic chromatin and the stable maintenance of BPV episomes. The role of the association between E2 and ChlR1 in the HPV16 life cycle is unresolved. Here we show that an HPV16 E2 Y131A mutant (E2(Y131A)) had significantly reduced binding to ChlR1 but retained transcriptional activation and viral origin-dependent replication functions. Subcellular fractionation of keratinocytes expressing E2(Y131A) showed a marked change in the localization of the protein. Compared to that of wild-type E2 (E2(WT)), the chromatin-bound pool of E2(Y131A) was decreased, concomitant with an increase in nuclear matrix-associated protein. Cell cycle synchronization indicated that the shift in subcellular localization of E2(Y131A) occurred in mid-S phase. A similar alteration between the subcellular pools of the E2(WT) protein occurred upon ChlR1 silencing. Notably, in an HPV16 life cycle model in primary human keratinocytes, mutant E2(Y131A) genomes were established as episomes, but at a markedly lower copy number than that of wild-type HPV16 genomes, and they were not maintained upon cell passage. Our studies indicate that ChlR1 is an important regulator of the chromatin association of E2 and of the establishment and maintenance of HPV16 episomes. Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. During infection, the circular DNA genome of HPV persists within the nucleus, independently of the host cell chromatin. Persistence of

  11. Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Streek, Penny Vande; Carretta, Robert; Weiland, Frederick L.

    1994-01-01

    The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following epitomes of progress in nuclear medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and clinical importance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of progress in medicine, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The epitomes included here were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Nuclear Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under the direction of Dr Lyons and the panel. PMID:7529452

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  13. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  14. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  15. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  16. Development of a Double Nuclear Gene-Targeting Method by Two-Step Transformation Based on a Newly Established Chloramphenicol-Selection System in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takayuki; Ohnuma, Mio; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae possesses a simple cellular architecture that consists of one mitochondrion, one chloroplast, one peroxisome, one Golgi apparatus, and several lysosomes. The nuclear genome content is also simple, with very little genetic redundancy (16.5 Mbp, 4,775 genes). In addition, molecular genetic tools such as gene targeting and inducible gene expression systems have been recently developed. These cytological features and genetic tractability have facilitated various omics analyses. However, only a single transformation selection marker URA has been made available and thus the application of genetic modification has been limited. Here, we report the development of a nuclear targeting method by using chloramphenicol and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. In addition, we found that at least 200-bp homologous arms are required and 500-bp arms are sufficient for a targeted single-copy insertion of the CAT selection marker into the nuclear genome. By means of a combination of the URA and CAT transformation systems, we succeeded in producing a C. merolae strain that expresses HA-cyclin 1 and FLAG-CDKA from the chromosomal CYC1 and CDKA loci, respectively. These methods of multiple nuclear targeting will facilitate genetic manipulation of C. merolae.

  17. Development of a Double Nuclear Gene-Targeting Method by Two-Step Transformation Based on a Newly Established Chloramphenicol-Selection System in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Takayuki; Ohnuma, Mio; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae possesses a simple cellular architecture that consists of one mitochondrion, one chloroplast, one peroxisome, one Golgi apparatus, and several lysosomes. The nuclear genome content is also simple, with very little genetic redundancy (16.5 Mbp, 4,775 genes). In addition, molecular genetic tools such as gene targeting and inducible gene expression systems have been recently developed. These cytological features and genetic tractability have facilitated various omics analyses. However, only a single transformation selection marker URA has been made available and thus the application of genetic modification has been limited. Here, we report the development of a nuclear targeting method by using chloramphenicol and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. In addition, we found that at least 200-bp homologous arms are required and 500-bp arms are sufficient for a targeted single-copy insertion of the CAT selection marker into the nuclear genome. By means of a combination of the URA and CAT transformation systems, we succeeded in producing a C. merolae strain that expresses HA-cyclin 1 and FLAG-CDKA from the chromosomal CYC1 and CDKA loci, respectively. These methods of multiple nuclear targeting will facilitate genetic manipulation of C. merolae. PMID:28352279

  18. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  19. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  20. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  1. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  2. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  3. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  4. NCIS - a Nuclear Criticality Information System (overview)

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1983-07-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is being established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to serve personnel responsible for safe storage, transport, and handling of fissile materials and those concerned with the evaluation and analysis of nuclear, critical experiments. Public concern for nuclear safety provides the incentive for improved access to nuclear safety information.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  6. Nuclear transport and transcription.

    PubMed

    Komeili, A; O'Shea, E K

    2000-06-01

    The compartmentalization of DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells establishes a connection between the nuclear transport machinery and the transcriptional apparatus. General transcription factors, as well as specific transcriptional activators and repressors, such as p53 and NF-AT, need to be imported into the nucleus following their translation. In addition, nuclear transport plays a crucial role in regulating the activity of many transcription factors.

  7. International Nuclear Safeguards at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, Matthew R.

    2015-02-01

    As global nuclear energy expands, assuring peaceful uses of nuclear technology becomes increasingly important. In addition to complying with international nuclear safeguards, a responsible nuclear energy program promotes a corresponding safeguards culture. Establishment of transparent peaceful uses of nuclear technologies starts with cooperative international engagements and safeguards systems. Developing states investing in nuclear energy must assure the international community of their longterm commitment to safeguards, safety, and security (3S) of nuclear materials and technologies. Cultivating a safeguards culture starts in the initial phases of infrastructure planning and must be integrated into the process of developing a responsible nuclear energy program. Sandia National Laboratories supports the implementation of safeguards culture through a variety of activities, including infrastructure development.

  8. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  9. Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order with ROTC 1, Revision No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-02-01

    Many Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Use Restrictions (URs) have been established at various corrective action sites (CASs) as part of FFACO corrective actions (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). Since the signing of the FFACO in 1996, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective action (RBCA) have evolved. This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). Based on this evaluation, the URs were sorted into the following categories: 1. Where sufficient information exists to determine that the current UR is consistent with the RCBA criteria 2. Where sufficient information exists to determine that the current UR may be removed or downgraded based on RCBA criteria. 3. Where sufficient information does not exist to evaluate the current UR against the RCBA criteria. After reviewing all the existing FFACO URs, the 49 URs addressed in this document have sufficient information to determine that these current URs may be removed or downgraded based on RCBA criteria. This document presents recommendations on modifications to existing URs that will be consistent with the RCBA criteria.

  10. The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-28

    global efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation” and, “the establishment of reliable sources of nuclear fuel for future civilian light water reactors ...nuclear reactor or on handling spent reactor fuel. (...continued) May 4, 2008; and, Chris...related to the UAE’s proposed nuclear program has already taken place. In August 2008, Virginia’s Thorium Power Ltd. signed two consulting and

  11. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  12. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  13. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  14. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  15. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  16. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  17. Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-02-01

    This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). Based on this evaluation, the URs were sorted into the following categories: 1. Where sufficient information exists to determine that the current UR is consistent with the RCBA criteria 2. Where sufficient information exists to determine that the current UR may be removed or downgraded based on RCBA criteria. 3. Where sufficient information does not exist to evaluate the current UR against the RCBA criteria. After reviewing all the existing FFACO URs, the 49 URs addressed in this document have sufficient information to determine that these current URs may be removed or downgraded based on RCBA criteria. This document presents recommendations on modifications to existing URs that will be consistent with the RCBA criteria.

  18. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  19. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  20. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  1. Northeast Asia Nuclear Dilemmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    deterrence.40 Rather, analysts suggest that China fears that Japanese proliferation would beget Taiwan to renew its long- aborted nuclear weapons... abortive effort to establish...Cabinet Being Reshuffled After Rape Gaffes.” Associated Press, January 8, 2012. http://news.yahoo.com/japan-cabinet-being-reshuffled- rape -gaffes

  2. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  3. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  5. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  6. Nuclear networking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  7. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  8. 10 CFR 7.4 - Establishment of advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of advisory committees. 7.4 Section 7.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.4 Establishment of advisory committees. (a) An NRC advisory committee may be established under this part only if its establishment— (1)...

  9. 10 CFR 7.4 - Establishment of advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of advisory committees. 7.4 Section 7.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.4 Establishment of advisory committees. (a) An NRC advisory committee may be established under this part only if its establishment— (1)...

  10. 10 CFR 7.4 - Establishment of advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of advisory committees. 7.4 Section 7.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.4 Establishment of advisory committees. (a) An NRC advisory committee may be established under this part only if its establishment— (1)...

  11. 10 CFR 7.4 - Establishment of advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of advisory committees. 7.4 Section 7.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.4 Establishment of advisory committees. (a) An NRC advisory committee may be established under this part only if its establishment— (1)...

  12. 10 CFR 7.4 - Establishment of advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of advisory committees. 7.4 Section 7.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.4 Establishment of advisory committees. (a) An NRC advisory committee may be established under this part only if its establishment— (1)...

  13. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  14. Nuclear Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Erich

    2010-07-27

    We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

  15. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  16. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  17. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  18. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  19. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  20. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  1. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  2. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  3. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  4. Nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) processes plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. This fact sheet responds to your September 6, 1991, request, that we describe the methods and facilities for DOE's plutonium processing. Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear weapons, does not exist in nature and has to be produced. However, DOE no longer produces plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Instead, DOE processes and recycles the plutonium from retired nuclear weapons and the plutonium that remains as scrap or residue from plutonium processing. This paper reports that DOE recovers plutonium through two basic processes-aqueous and pyrochemical-at four processing sites-Rocky Flats, Savannah River, Hanford, and Los Alamos. However, because of environmental and safety concerns and reductions in nuclear weapons, DOE has closed or may close most of the processing facilities. Only Los Alamos' processing facilities are currently operating.

  5. 75 FR 6069 - Idaho State University; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... State University requesting renewal of its Special Nuclear Materials License. The Board is comprised of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Idaho State University; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to...

  6. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  7. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  8. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  9. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  10. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  12. Nuclear Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  13. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  14. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  15. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  16. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  17. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  18. Acoustic techniques in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Sinha, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    Acoustic techniques can be employed to address many questions relevant to current nuclear technology needs. These include establishing and monitoring intrinsic tags and seals, locating holdup in areas where conventional radiation-based measurements have limited capability, process monitoring, monitoring containers for corrosion or changes in pressure, and facility design verification. These acoustics applications are in their infancy with respect to safeguards and nuclear material management, but proof-of-principle has been demonstrated in many of the areas listed.

  19. Establishing a University Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  20. Establishing a Continuous Repertoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcroft, Pamela; Holland, James G.

    Investigators in this study looked for conditions that can rapidly establish continuous stimulus control of continuous response variations, or "response mapping." Unlike previous research in stimulus control, where a single stimulus comes to control a single response, 36 5-year-old children received errorless discrimination training at…

  1. Establishing a University Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  2. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  3. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  4. The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-17

    global efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation” and, “the establishment of reliable sources of nuclear fuel for future civilian light water reactors ...planned nuclear reactor or on handling spent reactor fuel. (...continued) May 4, 2008...contracting between U.S. firms and the UAE related to the UAE’s proposed nuclear program has already taken place. In August 2008, Virginia’s Thorium Power

  5. The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    prevent nuclear proliferation” and, “the establishment of reliable sources of nuclear fuel for future civilian light water reactors deployed” in the UAE...decisions have been made regarding the source of nuclear fuel for the planned nuclear reactor or on handling spent reactor fuel...program has already taken place. In August 2008, Virginia’s Thorium Power Ltd. signed two consulting and advisory services contracts related to the

  6. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  7. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-15

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  9. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  10. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  11. Nuclear Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fossion, Ruben

    2010-09-10

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  12. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  13. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  14. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  15. Restructuring nuclear regulations.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear regulations are a subset of social regulations (laws to control activities that may negatively impact the environment, health, and safety) that concern control of ionizing radiation from radiation-producing equipment and from radioactive materials. The impressive safety record among nuclear technologies is due, in no small part, to the work of radiation safety professionals and to a protection system that has kept pace with the rapid technologic advancements in electric power generation, engineering, and medicine. The price of success, however, has led to a regulatory organization and philosophy characterized by complexity, confusion, public fear, and increasing economic costs. Over the past 20 years, regulatory costs in the nuclear sector have increased more than 250% in constant 1995 U.S. dollars. Costs of regulatory compliance can be reduced sharply, particularly when health and environmental benefits of risk reduction are questionable. Three key regulatory areas should be closely examined and modified to improve regulatory effectiveness and efficiency: a) radiation protection should be changed from a risk-based to dose-based system; b) the U.S. government should adopt the modern metric system (International System of Units), and radiation quantities and units should be simplified to facilitate international communication and public understanding; and c) a single, independent office is needed to coordinate nuclear regulations established by U.S. federal agencies and departments.

  16. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  17. What Happens to Deterrence as Nuclear Weapons Decrease Toward Zero?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, Sidney

    2011-04-01

    Steps reducing reliance on deployed nuclear weapons en route to zero will be discussed. They include broadly enhancing cooperation and transparency agreements beyond the provisions for verifying limits on deployed strategic nuclear warheads and delivery systems in the New START treaty. Two questions that will be addressed are: What conditions would have to be established in order to maintain strategic stability among nations as nuclear weapons recede in importance? What would nuclear deterrence be like in a world without nuclear weapons?

  18. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  19. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  20. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  1. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  2. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  3. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  5. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  7. Established antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Brodie, M J; Dichter, M A

    1997-06-01

    Despite the recent entry into the market-place of a range of new pharmacological treatments for epilepsy, most patients still receive the standard antiepileptic drugs. This review considers the clinical place and practical use of these agents. Detailed consideration is given to carbamazepine, phenytoin, sodium valproate, phenobarbital and ethosuximide, with lesser emphasis on primidone, clobazam and clonazepam. Individualization of therapy, polypharmacy, refractory epilepsy, therapeutic drug monitoring, pregnancy, withdrawing treatment, epilepsy prophylaxis and referral to an epilepsy centre are also discussed. The paper concludes with a statement of 12 basic rules in prescribing established antiepileptic drugs.

  8. Establishing a flatness standard.

    PubMed

    Elssner, K E; Vogel, A; Grzanna, J; Schulz, G

    1994-05-01

    A further-developed three-plate rotation method [Appl. Opt. 31, 3767 (1992)] for the absolute testing of flats is used as a measuring method for establishing flatness standards. A special phase-stepping Fizeau interferometer was built that permits flats of diameters up to 200 mm to be tested. First results show a mean error between 0.002 and 0.003 λ in the determination of the absolute flatness deviations (λ = 632.8 nm). These deviations are obtained at 500-600 points on each plate. A number of experimental conditions connected with the thermal and mechanical stability of the plates must be fulfilled.

  9. Establishing maintenance performance indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.

    1994-10-01

    Maintenance Performance Indicators (PI) specify where the maintenance department is and which direction it is going allowing for a quick and accurate assessment of the performance of the Maintenance Management Program (MMP). Establishing PI`s for the maintenance department will allow a measure of productivity and a means of feedback for methods improvement. Effective performance of the maintenance department directly effects plant profitability. Improvements in the quality and productivity of the maintenance work force will significantly reduce maintenance costs. The level of performance attained by the maintenance work force is usually guessed at. Guessing will not identify areas needing improvement or help to initiate a corrective action. Maintenance PI`s are required for maintenance departments whose goal is to control maintenance costs while increasing productivity. The application of basic statistical methods will allow a maintenance department to know where they are and which direction they are going. The data presented in this paper is a representation of indicators used in industry as well as developed indicators to establish a complete maintenance performance indicator program. The methodology used in developing this program can be used as a way to manage a cost effective maintenance management program.

  10. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

  11. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

  12. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  13. On establishing reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish a range of reference values for any characteristic one can use Gaussian or nonparametric techniques, whichever are most appropriate. One has the choice of calculating tolerance intervals or percentile intervals. A tolerance interval is said to contain, say 95% of the population with probability, say 0.90. A percentile interval simply simply calculates the values between which 95% of the observations fall. If the data can be said to have a Gaussian distribution, the same precision can be obtained with smaller sample sizes than using the nonparametric techniques. In some cases, data which are not Gaussian can be transformed into a Gaussian form and hence make use of the more efficient Gaussian techniques. In both cases, the data should be checked for outliers or rogue observations and these should be eliminated if the testing procedure fails to imply that they are an integral part of the data. PMID:688072

  14. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  15. Establishment of a regional centralized radioactive waste management center

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    The appropriate management of backend activities is essential to the success of the public acceptance for the nuclear energy. Without exception, each country nowadays dedicated significant amount of resources to similar projects. The author proposed the concept for establishing a regional centralized center aiming to resolve similar problems in the nuclear industry with the efficient utilization of human resources. This paper discusses the basic principles of such a concept and cited the Taiwan situation as a special case for preliminary study.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  17. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  19. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  20. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  1. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  2. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  3. Establishing lunar resource viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  4. Nuclear Material Management in Russia and New Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martyanov,A A; Pitel,V A; Babcock,R A; Heinberg,C L; Tynan,D M

    2001-06-25

    The Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) is the federal authority empowered with the management of state-owned nuclear materials, with the exception of military applications. The Russian Federal Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is a key component in establishing an effective nuclear materials management system in the Russian Federation. In December 2000, the Russian government issued the decree to enter into force the regulation on the accounting and control of nuclear materials and directed the State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear materials should begin October 2001. This regulation establishes the basic accounting documents and the requirement to report them to the FIS to launch the State Nuclear Material Registry of nuclear materials. The Nuclear Material Registry contains information on agencies and operating organizations that use nuclear material, along with the kinds, quantity and other characteristics of nuclear material. Minatom will use the Registry and the supporting database and functionality that reside in the FIS for carrying out the functions of nuclear materials management. At the same time, the FIS provides for reporting from material balance areas (MBA). With American support, 14 Russian enterprises are reporting material balance area level information to the FIS using full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). Russian Federation regulations for nuclear material control and accounting and nuclear materials management have been or are being developed, some of which may impact the FIS, whether for full-function reporting or its support in preparing the Nuclear Material Registry. This paper discusses the role and the place of the FIS in nuclear material management, describes the goals and challenges facing the FIS based on Russian Federation regulations, and provides a brief

  5. Synopsis of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Waweru, F N; Othieno, J O

    1989-10-01

    The application of radionuclides to medical diagnosis and treatment has a relatively short history. The phenomenon of radioactivity was originally discovered by Henri Bacquerel in 1896, whereas Pierre and Marie Curie isolated the naturally occurring element radium in 1899. The use of radium in the treatment of malignant disease was first introduced at the turn of this century, and was established by 1920. It was not until 1938, however, that the discovery of nuclear fission made possible the subsequent development of the nuclear reactor, and the large-scale production of artificial radioactive nuclides. It was immediately realised that the latter opened up great possibilities in the medical field. The radioactive isotope was chemically indistinguishable from the stable isotopes of the element, and minute quantities of it in the body could be detected externally by virtue of the radiation they emitted; it could be used as a "tracer" to follow the metabolism of a substance throughout the body. The following synopsis is a brief attempt to introduce the Kenyan medical personnel into the scope of nuclear energy in medicine.

  6. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  7. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  8. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  9. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission: more aggressive leadership needed

    SciTech Connect

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-15

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which established the Nuclear Regulatory Commission required GAO to evaluate the Commission's performance by January 18, 1980. This report responds to that requirement. GAO concluded that, although improvements have been made, the Commission's nuclear regulatory performance can be characterized best as slow, indecisive, cautious - in a word, complacent. This has largely resulted from a lack of aggressive leadership as evidenced by the Commissioners' failure to establish regulatory goals, control policymaking, and most importantly, clearly define their roles in nuclear regulation.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  12. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  13. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  14. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear manpower needs addressed in OECD report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Attendees of nuclear conferences are well aware of the increasing predominance of gray hair, and educational establishments in most countries are experiencing a decline in enrollments in nuclear-related courses. Clearly, there could be a problem of qualified manpower for the nuclear industry in the future. A report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) seeks to assess the supply-and-demand situation for qualified manpower - defined as people with professional occupations as engineers and scientists with at least a bachelor's degree or equivalent. 3 figs.

  16. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  17. Occupational Employment in Nuclear-Related Activities, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joe G.; Olsen, Kathryn

    Employment in nuclear- and nuclear energy-related activities in 1981 was examined and compared to that in previous years. Survey instruments were returned by 784 establishments. Total 1981 nuclear-related employment was estimated to be 249,500--a growth of 22,600 (10%) workers over the 1977 total. Government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO)…

  18. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  19. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  20. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  1. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  2. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  3. H. R. 4394: a bill to amend the Price-Anderson provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 to establish liability and indemnification for nuclear incidents arising out of federal storage, disposal, and related transportation of radioactive waste. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 12, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Federal Radioactive Waste Liability Act of 1986 (H.R. 4394) amends the Price-Anderson Act so that the federal government assumes responsibility for compensation of liability claims resulting from nuclear incidents involving federal radioactive wastes. The Act corrects the fact that the 1954 Atomic Energy Act did not provide for claims arising from the storage, disposal, or transport of federal radioactive wastes. The legislation provides for payments from the Nuclear Waste Fund of $5 billion for any one incident.

  4. Nuclear "waffles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  5. Nuclear pores and perinuclear expression sites of var and ribosomal DNA genes correspond to physically distinct regions in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Guizetti, Julien; Martins, Rafael Miyazawa; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Claes, Aurélie; Scherf, Artur

    2013-05-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum modifies the erythrocyte it infects by exporting variant proteins to the host cell surface. The var gene family that codes for a large, variant adhesive surface protein called P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) plays a particular role in this process, which is linked to pathogenesis and immune evasion. A single member of this gene family is highly transcribed while the other 59 members remain silenced. Importantly, var gene transcription occurs at a spatially restricted, but yet undefined, perinuclear site that is distinct from repressed var gene clusters. To advance our understanding of monoallelic expression, we investigated whether nuclear pores associate with the var gene expression site. To this end, we studied the nuclear pore organization during the asexual blood stage using a specific antibody directed against a subunit of the nuclear pore, P. falciparum Nup116 (PfNup116). Ring and schizont stage parasites showed highly polarized nuclear pore foci, whereas in trophozoite stage nuclear pores redistributed over the entire nuclear surface. Colocalization studies of var transcripts and anti-PfNup116 antibodies showed clear dissociation between nuclear pores and the var gene expression site in ring stage. Similar results were obtained for another differentially transcribed perinuclear gene family, the ribosomal DNA units. Furthermore, we show that in the poised state, the var gene locus is not physically linked to nuclear pores. Our results indicate that P. falciparum does form compartments of high transcriptional activity at the nuclear periphery which are, unlike the case in yeast, devoid of nuclear pores.

  6. Effective citizen advocacy of beneficial nuclear technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; McKibben, Ph.D.

    2007-07-01

    In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  9. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  11. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Nuclear Waste, Unit 1. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 1 of the four-part series Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to help students establish the relevance of the topic of nuclear waste to their everyday lives and activities. Particular attention is…

  12. Nuclear exoticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  13. Nuclear exoticism

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-15

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  14. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  15. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  16. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution for Improved Energy Security: The Use of Taggants in Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, M J; Robel, M; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-04-05

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), recently announced by DOE Secretary Bodman, poses significant new challenges with regard to securing, safeguarding, monitoring and tracking nuclear materials. In order to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, new technologies must be developed to reduce the risk that nuclear material can be diverted from its intended use. Regardless of the specific nature of the fuel cycle, nuclear forensics and attribution will play key roles to ensure the effectiveness of nonproliferation controls and to deter the likelihood of illicit activities. As the leader of the DHS nuclear and radiological pre-detonation attribution program, LLNL is uniquely positioned to play a national leadership role in this effort. Ensuring that individuals or organizations engaged in illicit trafficking are rapidly identified and apprehended following theft or diversion of nuclear material provides a strong deterrent against unlawful activities. Key to establishing this deterrent is developing the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the identity, source and prior use history of any interdicted nuclear material. Taggants offer one potentially effective means for positively identifying lost or stolen nuclear fuels. Taggants are materials that can be encoded with a unique signature and introduced into nuclear fuel during fuel fabrication. During a nuclear forensics investigation, the taggant signature can be recovered and the nuclear material identified through comparison with information stored in an appropriate database. Unlike serial numbers or barcodes, microtaggants can provide positive identification with only partial recovery, providing extreme resistance to any attempt to delete or alter them.

  17. Continuum Nuclear Structure via

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templon, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear spectra are generally well-understood for excitation energies below the particle-emission threshold. Above this threshold, excited states decay preferentially by emission of nucleons or nucleon clusters. These resonant excitations are short-lived, producing continuum spectra of overlapping states accompanied by non-resonant, probe -dependent background processes. The resonant excitations' properties are difficult to deduce from these spectra. Many important advances in nuclear physics require understanding of such excitations. (e,e^' X) coincidence experiments have established the utility of angular correlation measurements of particle (X) emitted by decaying resonances for continuum studies. However, electron-induced reactions excite only a subset of the total nuclear response. Hadronic probes are necessary for a complete study. This dissertation describes a (p,p^' X) coincidence experiment, the first at intermediate energies where microscopic theories apply. The reaction's utility was investigated and applied to ^{12 }C. The experiment was performed using a 156 MeV polarized proton beam. A magnetic spectrometer was used to detect scattered protons. An array of eight silicon-detector telescopes was constructed and used to measure the angular correlation of charged particles (X). Inclusive (p,p ^') and exclusive (p,p ^' X) data were acquired simultaneously. The momentum transfer range (0.6<= q<= 1.2 fm^{-1}) was covered in three spectrometer angle settings. The excitation energy range spanned the region from sharp states to quasifree processes. Analyzing powers and cross sections were measured for both inclusive and exclusive data. A simple reaction model was developed which suggested a Legendre-polynomial series should describe the sigma(theta_{X}) data. The model relates the polynomial coefficients to nuclear structure information. A result of this work is that this series was found to satisfactorily describe the data and provided new information about

  18. 10 CFR 1.55 - Establishment of official NRC flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of official NRC flag. 1.55 Section 1.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION NRC Seal and Flag... dark blue field with a gold fringe....

  19. 10 CFR 1.55 - Establishment of official NRC flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of official NRC flag. 1.55 Section 1.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION NRC Seal and Flag... dark blue field with a gold fringe. ...

  20. 10 CFR 1.55 - Establishment of official NRC flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of official NRC flag. 1.55 Section 1.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION NRC Seal and Flag... dark blue field with a gold fringe. ...

  1. 10 CFR 1.55 - Establishment of official NRC flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of official NRC flag. 1.55 Section 1.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION NRC Seal and Flag... dark blue field with a gold fringe. ...

  2. 10 CFR 1.55 - Establishment of official NRC flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of official NRC flag. 1.55 Section 1.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION NRC Seal and Flag... dark blue field with a gold fringe. ...

  3. Actin-related protein Arp6 influences H2A.Z-dependent and -independent gene expression and links ribosomal protein genes to nuclear pores.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takahito; Shimada, Kenji; Oma, Yukako; Kalck, Véronique; Akimura, Kazumi; Taddei, Angela; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kugou, Kazuto; Ohta, Kunihiro; Gasser, Susan M; Harata, Masahiko

    2010-04-15

    Actin-related proteins are ubiquitous components of chromatin remodelers and are conserved from yeast to man. We have examined the role of the budding yeast actin-related protein Arp6 in gene expression, both as a component of the SWR1 complex (SWR-C) and in its absence. We mapped Arp6 binding sites along four yeast chromosomes using chromatin immunoprecipitation from wild-type and swr1 deleted (swr1Delta) cells. We find that a majority of Arp6 binding sites coincide with binding sites of Swr1, the catalytic subunit of SWR-C, and with the histone H2A variant Htz1 (H2A.Z) deposited by SWR-C. However, Arp6 binding detected at centromeres, the promoters of ribosomal protein (RP) genes, and some telomeres is independent of Swr1 and Htz1 deposition. Given that RP genes and telomeres both show association with the nuclear periphery, we monitored the ability of Arp6 to mediate the localization of chromatin to nuclear pores. Arp6 binding is sufficient to shift a randomly positioned locus to nuclear periphery, even in a swr1Delta strain. Arp6 is also necessary for the pore association of its targeted RP promoters possibly through cell cycle-dependent factors. Loss of Arp6, but not Htz1, leads to an up-regulation of these RP genes. In contrast, the pore-association of GAL1 correlates with Htz1 deposition, and loss of Arp6 reduces both GAL1 activation and peripheral localization. We conclude that Arp6 functions both together with the nucleosome remodeler Swr1 and also without it, to mediate Htz1-dependent and Htz1-independent binding of chromatin domains to nuclear pores. This association is shown to have modulating effects on gene expression.

  4. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  5. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  6. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  7. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  9. Nuclear South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inseparable from the history of nuclear developments in both India and Pakistan. The timing of India’s tests was determined by the pronuclear stance of the...Rawalpindi, 2001), 17-18. 53 3Robert Boardman, The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear Exports and World Politics (New...disasters of nuclear arms race. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Boardman, Robert. The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear

  10. Hollow nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. The size of the inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. The existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  12. Nuclear Proliferation: A Global Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    thinking about nuclear weapons as a “ Wild Card ” in this case. Finally, just as North Korea is using nuclear weapons as a “bargaining chip,” we...definite disadvantage for non-nuclear nations not to have a nuclear” Wild Card ”. So some misguided Japanese politicians are attracted to the “ Wild Card ” advantage

  13. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  14. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Biopsies - Overview Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Alzheimer's Disease X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  15. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Five viewgraphs are presented that outline the objectives and elements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program, mission considerations, propulsion technologies, and the logic flow path for nuclear propulsion development.

  16. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  17. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being.

  18. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional ‘Standard I’, which has a paternalistic orientation, and ‘Standard II’, established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. PMID:27475751

  19. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  20. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  1. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  2. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  3. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5) nuclear infrastructure; (6) the

  4. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  5. Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

  6. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Acute Radiological Pathology ." Meditsina, p. 140, Moscow, 1968. 11. Tuzhilkova T.N., "Impact of X-rays on the Recovery Processes in the Musculoskeletal ...on the injury of sight organs from nuclear explosion effects during the 4 day and at night. Issues related to the pathologic anatomy of radiation...hygiene and toxicology. Divisions of pathological anatomy , laboratory, vivarium and pharmacy were also established. During the period of nuclear testing

  7. The Common Sense of Small Nuclear Arsenals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    reasons, France developed a small, independent nuclear arsenal after World War II. 4 It kept its force levels comparatively low, even during the Cold War...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Common Sense of Small Nuclear Arsenals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...survival motive” is law-like. All human conduct is shaped in some measure by what individuals believe to be general laws. In science , laws establish

  8. [Nuclear medicine today].

    PubMed

    Dujmović, F

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with those nuclear medicine investigations, which, in spite of development of other diagnostic methods and imaging procedures, remain important and in some cases, exclusive diagnostic tool in differential diagnostics of certain disorders and diseases. Examination of myocardial perfusion with radiotracers is the only non-invasive imaging method. Typically two sets of images are acquired. The first one reflecting myocardial perfusion at peak stress (exercise) and the second set reflecting perfusion at rest. Fixed defects in the scintigrams show infarcted myocardiac regions. Thallium-201 exercise-rest perfusion imaging has a strong prognostic value for coronary artery disease. Lung perfusion-ventilation scanning is an essentially non-invasive method of evaluating pulmonary embolism. Normal lung scan excludes clinically significant pulmonary embolism and patients with normal or very low probability perfusion scintigrams do not require therapy for pulmonary embolism. Radioisotopes play an important role in the diagnosis of malignant bone lesions. Bone scanning is commonly used to detect metastases from malignant tumours, because it is more sensitive than x-rays. In benign bone diseases, scintigraphy is used to evaluate sports injuries, avascular necrosis and infection of joint prostheses. Methods of nuclear medicine are useful for evaluating renal outflow obstructions, cortical and renovascular dysfunction. Normal finding of dynamic renography excludes an obstructive disease, whereas loss of radionuclide elimination after stimulation with furosemide is characteristic for it. In patients with suspected renovascular hypertension dynamic renography combined with captopril is a useful diagnostic test. In patients with fever of unknown origin imaging with labelled autologous leukocytes may be used to establish the location in gastrointestinal, neurological, psychiatric and other disorders. Radionuclide investigations are helpful in diagnostics of some

  9. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  10. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  11. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  12. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  13. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  14. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  15. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  16. Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    DOE PAGES

    Pozzi, Sara A.; Hamel, Michael C.; Polack, J. Kyle; ...

    2016-11-13

    The detection and characterization of special nuclear materials is a high priority area for applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. We are developing new instruments based on organic scintillators to detect and characterize the emissions from special nuclear materials. This paper describes some of the gaps and challenges in nuclear safeguards and proposed approaches.

  17. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  18. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  19. [NESPRINS--nuclear envelope proteins ensuring integrity].

    PubMed

    Pershina, E G; Morozova, K N; Kiseleva, E V

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin-repeat proteins), which are recently discovered family of nuclear envelope proteins. These proteins play an important role in maintaining the cellular architecture and establish the link between the nucleus and other sub-cellular compartments. Many tissue-specific diseases including lipodystrophies, hearing loss, cardiac and skeletal myopathies are associated with nesprins mutations. These proteins comprise of multiple tissue specific isoforms which contain spectrin repeats providing interaction of nesprins with other nuclear membrane proteins, cytoskeleton and intranuclear matrix. We summarize recent findings and suggestions about nesprins structural organization and function inside the cell. Human diseases caused by abnormal nesprins expression are also described.

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project dose management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1996-03-01

    This dose management plan facilitates meeting the dose management and ALARA requirements applicable to the design activities of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, and establishes consistency of information used by multiple subprojects in ALARA evaluations. The method for meeting the ALARA requirements applicable to facility designs involves two components. The first is each Spent Nuclear Fuel Project subproject incorporating ALARA principles, ALARA design optimizations, and ALARA design reviews throughout the design of facilities and equipment. The second component is the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project management providing overall dose management guidance to the subprojects and oversight of the subproject dose management efforts.

  1. New Insights into Mechanisms and Functions of Nuclear Size Regulation.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Lidija D; Jevtić, Predrag; Edens, Lisa J; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear size is generally maintained within a defined range in a given cell type. Changes in cell size that occur during cell growth, development, and differentiation are accompanied by dynamic nuclear size adjustments in order to establish appropriate nuclear-to-cytoplasmic volume relationships. It has long been recognized that aberrations in nuclear size are associated with certain disease states, most notably cancer. Nuclear size and morphology must impact nuclear and cellular functions. Understanding these functional implications requires an understanding of the mechanisms that control nuclear size. In this review, we first provide a general overview of the diverse cellular structures and activities that contribute to nuclear size control, including structural components of the nucleus, effects of DNA amount and chromatin compaction, signaling, and transport pathways that impinge on the nucleus, extranuclear structures, and cell cycle state. We then detail some of the key mechanistic findings about nuclear size regulation that have been gleaned from a variety of model organisms. Lastly, we review studies that have implicated nuclear size in the regulation of cell and nuclear function and speculate on the potential functional significance of nuclear size in chromatin organization, gene expression, nuclear mechanics, and disease. With many fundamental cell biological questions remaining to be answered, the field of nuclear size regulation is still wide open. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 64255 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Generation Company, LLC; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the... Generation Company, LLC (Byron Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, and Braidwood Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2) This proceeding involves an application by Exelon Generation Company, LLC to renew for twenty years...

  3. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  4. Nuclear pore rearrangements and nuclear trafficking in cardiomyocytes from rat and human failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Chahine, Mirna N.; Mioulane, Maxime; Sikkel, Markus B.; O'Gara, Peter; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Pierce, Grant N.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Földes, Gábor; Harding, Sian E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims During cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocytes (CMs) increase in the size and expression of cytoskeletal proteins while reactivating a foetal gene programme. The process is proposed to be dependent on increased nuclear export and, since nuclear pore trafficking has limited capacity, a linked decrease in import. Our objective was to investigate the role of nuclear import and export in control of hypertrophy in rat and human heart failure (HF). Methods and results In myocardial tissue and isolated CMs from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, nuclear size was increased; Nucleoporin p62, cytoplasmic RanBP1, and nuclear translocation of importins (α and β) were decreased while Exportin-1 was increased. CM from a rat HF model 16 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) reproduced these nuclear changes. Nuclear import, determined by the rate of uptake of nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-tagged fluorescent substrate, was also decreased and this change was observed from 4 weeks after MI, before HF has developed. Treatment of isolated rat CMs with phenylephrine (PE) for 48 h produced similar cell and nuclear size increases, nuclear import and export protein rearrangement, and NLS substrate uptake decrease through p38 MAPK and HDAC-dependent pathways. The change in NLS substrate uptake occurred within 15 min of PE exposure. Inhibition of nuclear export with leptomycin B reversed established nuclear changes in PE-treated rat CMs and decreased NLS substrate uptake and cell/nuclear size in human CMs. Conclusions Nuclear transport changes related to increased export and decreased import are an early event in hypertrophic development. Hypertrophy can be prevented, or even reversed, by targeting import/export, which may open new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:25341891

  5. [Comparative analysis of semiotic shifts, established by LCS of blood plasma from random samples of studied subjects from the zone of the Chernobyl accident, "Ural Radiation Trace", and collaborators from St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    PubMed

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Selezneva, T N; Akleev, A V; Pashkov, I A; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    Using the developed "semiotic" classifier of laser correlation spectra of blood plasma the authors have carried out the verification of organism states of patients from the zone of Chernobyl accident, "Ural radiation trace" and collaborators from Sanct-Petersbourg Institute of Nuclear Physics. An analysis of results obtained using accidental selections which differed as to the character of radiation injury evidences for high informativeness of "semiotic" classifier of laser correlation spectra of blood plasma.

  6. [International community efforts in prevention of nuclear terrorism].

    PubMed

    Ilijas, Boris

    2006-06-01

    Terrorism is now a global threat, spreading its shadows over regions which were previously regarded as the exclusive domain of the military superpowers. One of the prime threats is nuclear terrorism, using nuclear or radiological agents. To assess the threat, it is important to include all factors that make it possible. A nuclear terrorist attack can be conducted in three basic ways, by detonation of a nuclear weapon, by sabotage or diversion of a nuclear facility or by dispersion of radioactive material into the environment (radiological weapon). Each possibility is specific and with different consequences. Nuclear terrorism can be prevented by establishing a global system which requires from all countries to strictly follow international rules of trading, storing and using nuclear and radioactive materials and to produce an efficient national legislation. The United Nations have provided a basis for such legislation in the form of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

  7. Border safety: quality control at the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Brant M.; Lusk, C. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The unique biochemical identity of the nuclear envelope confers its capacity to establish a barrier that protects the nuclear compartment and directly contributes to nuclear function. Recent work uncovered quality control mechanisms employing the ESCRT machinery and a new arm of ERAD to counteract the unfolding, damage or misassembly of nuclear envelope proteins and ensure the integrity of the nuclear envelope membranes. Moreover, cells have the capacity to recognize and triage defective nuclear pore complexes in order to prevent their inheritance and preserve the longevity of progeny. These mechanisms serve to highlight the diverse strategies used by cells to maintain nuclear compartmentalization; we suggest they mitigate the progression and severity of diseases associated with nuclear envelope malfunction like the laminopathies. PMID:26437591

  8. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., ``Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear...

  9. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (<0.1%) of the novel γ beams. Together with a much higher intensity of these beams, this will pave the road towards a γ-beam based non-invasive tomography and microscopy, assisting the management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  10. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  11. Major Binding Sites for the Nuclear Import Receptor Are the Internal Nucleoporin Nup153 and the Adjacent Nuclear Filament Protein Tpr

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sundeep; Tugendreich, Stuart; Forbes, Douglass

    1998-01-01

    A major question in nuclear import concerns the identity of the nucleoporin(s) that interact with the nuclear localization sequences (NLS) receptor and its cargo as they traverse the nuclear pore. Ligand blotting and solution binding studies of isolated proteins have attempted to gain clues to the identities of these nucleoporins, but the studies have from necessity probed binding events far from an in vivo context. Here we have asked what binding events occur in the more physiological context of a Xenopus egg extract, which contains nuclear pore subcomplexes in an assembly competent state. We have then assessed our conclusions in the context of assembled nuclear pores themselves. We have used immunoprecipitation to identify physiologically relevant complexes of nucleoporins and importin subunits. In parallel, we have demonstrated that it is possible to obtain immunofluorescence localization of nucleoporins to subregions of the nuclear pore and its associated structures. By immunoprecipitation, we find the nucleoporin Nup153 and the pore-associated filament protein Tpr, previously shown to reside at distinct sites on the intranuclear side of assembled pores, are each in stable subcomplexes with importin α and β in Xenopus egg extracts. Importin subunits are not in stable complexes with nucleoporins Nup62, Nup93, Nup98, or Nup214/CAN, either in egg extracts or in extracts of assembled nuclear pores. In characterizing the Nup153 complex, we find that Nup153 can bind to a complete import complex containing importin α, β, and an NLS substrate, consistent with an involvement of this nucleoporin in a terminal step of nuclear import. Importin β binds directly to Nup153 and in vitro can do so at multiple sites in the Nup153 FXFG repeat region. Tpr, which has no FXFG repeats, binds to importin β and to importin α/β heterodimers, but only to those that do not carry an NLS substrate. That the complex of Tpr with importin β is fundamentally different from that of Nup

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Laura L.; Barela, Amanda Crystal; Schetnan, Richard Reed; Walkow, Walter M.

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  13. Creep of Structural Nuclear Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Will Windes; R.W. Lloyd

    2005-09-01

    A research program has been established to investigate fiber reinforced ceramic composites to be used as control rod components within a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. Two candidate systems have been identified, carbon fiber reinforced carbon (Cf/C) and silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites. One of the primary degradation mechanisms anticipated for these core components is high temperature thermal and irradiation enhanced creep. As a consequence, high temperature test equipment, testing methodologies, and test samples for very high temperature (up to 1600º C) tensile strength and long duration creep studies have been established. Actual testing of both tubular and flat, "dog-bone"-shaped tensile composite specimens will begin next year. Since there is no precedence for using ceramic composites within a nuclear reactor, ASTM standard test procedures are currently being established from these high temperature mechanical tests.

  14. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  15. Introductory Nuclear Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Samuel S. M.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive, unified treatment of present-day nuclear physics-the fresh edition of a classic text/reference. "A fine and thoroughly up-to-date textbook on nuclear physics . . . most welcome." -Physics Today (on the First Edition). What sets Introductory Nuclear Physics apart from other books on the subject is its presentation of nuclear physics as an integral part of modern physics. Placing the discipline within a broad historical and scientific context, it makes important connections to other fields such as elementary particle physics and astrophysics. Now fully revised and updated, this Second Edition explores the changing directions in nuclear physics, emphasizing new developments and current research-from superdeformation to quark-gluon plasma. Author Samuel S.M. Wong preserves those areas that established the First Edition as a standard text in university physics departments, focusing on what is exciting about the discipline and providing a concise, thorough, and accessible treatment of the fundamental aspects of nuclear properties. In this new edition, Professor Wong: * Includes a chapter on heavy-ion reactions-from high-spin states to quark-gluon plasma * Adds a new chapter on nuclear astrophysics * Relates observed nuclear properties to the underlying nuclear interaction and the symmetry principles governing subatomic particles * Regroups material and appendices to make the text easier to use * Lists Internet links to essential databases and research projects * Features end-of-chapter exercises using real-world data. Introductory Nuclear Physics, Second Edition is an ideal text for courses in nuclear physics at the senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level. It is also an important resource for scientists and engineers working with nuclei, for astrophysicists and particle physicists, and for anyone wishing to learn more about trends in the field.

  16. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  17. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNF is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNFmore » is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).« less

  20. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  1. Establishing the acceptability of Savannah River site waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Kitchen, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The United States' first facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), will soon begin integrated nonradioactive testing. An important objective of that testing is to demonstrate that the DWPF product will comply with specifications established by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW). In this report, the DWPF process and product are described, and the approach being taken to establish the acceptability of the DWPF product is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  3. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  4. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  5. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  6. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  7. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  8. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  9. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  10. Establishment and assessment of code scaling capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaehyok

    In this thesis, a method for using RELAP5/MOD3.3 (Patch03) code models is described to establish and assess the code scaling capability and to corroborate the scaling methodology that has been used in the design of the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility. It was sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) under the program "PUMA ESBWR Tests". PUMA-E facility was built for the USNRC to obtain data on the performance of the passive safety systems of the General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). Similarities between the prototype plant and the scaled-down test facility were investigated for a Gravity-Driven Cooling System (GDCS) Drain Line Break (GDLB). This thesis presents the results of the GDLB test, i.e., the GDLB test with one Isolation Condenser System (ICS) unit disabled. The test is a hypothetical multi-failure small break loss of coolant (SB LOCA) accident scenario in the ESBWR. The test results indicated that the blow-down phase, Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) actuation, and GDCS injection processes occurred as expected. The GDCS as an emergency core cooling system provided adequate supply of water to keep the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) coolant level well above the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) during the entire GDLB transient. The long-term cooling phase, which is governed by the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condensation, kept the reactor containment system that is composed of Drywell (DW) and Wetwell (WW) below the design pressure of 414 kPa (60 psia). In addition, the ICS continued participating in heat removal during the long-term cooling phase. A general Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation approach was discussed in detail relative to safety analyses of Light Water Reactor (LWR). The major components of the CSAU methodology that were highlighted particularly focused on the

  11. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  12. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    release; Distribution Unlimited | -—fb 40 Nuclear Developments JPRS-TND-88-016 CONTENTS 2 SEPTEMBER 1988 CHINA Nuclear Power Chief Seeks...Foreign Cooperation [Yuan Zhou; CHINA DAILY (BUSINESS WEEKLY) 1 Aug 88] 1 Nuclear Fusion Study Reaches Advanced Level [Xiao Longlian; Beijing...Government ’Welcomes’ Group [Beijing XINHUA 12 Aug 88] 4 No Decision on Disposal of Daya Nuclear Waste [Andy Ho; Hong Kong SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST

  13. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  14. Establishing operations and the mand.

    PubMed

    Michael, J

    1988-01-01

    In Verbal Behavior Skinner identifies a small number of elementary verbal relations, one of which is the mand. Because its introduction is at first in terms of unlearned motivative variables, and because the mand's relation to prior controlling events is quite complex, its general significance has probably been underestimated. An extensive treatment of establishing operations, including the warning and the blocked-response conditioned establishing operations is provided, followed by a description of the mand in terms of such operations. The importance of the mand for language training programs is suggested, as well as the reasons why it is typically neglected in such programs.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  16. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  17. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  18. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  19. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  20. Nuclear fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V.

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  1. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    TURKEY Joint Argentine Firm To Sell Nuclear Reactors [ANATOLIA] ....................................................... 34 Civil Defense Against Iraqi... Reactor and Nuclear Materials Control Law, the Radiation Hazard Prevention Law and the Law on THAILAND the Promotion of Development and Peaceful Applica...and carried without nuclear fuel in the reactor and only with generating unit 5 in particular are obviously passing the help of expensive equipment

  2. Nuclear systems 1

    SciTech Connect

    Todreas, N.E.; Kazami, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The book covers thermal hydraulic design fundamentals and analysis of the core of a nuclear reactor. Other components of the nuclear power plant, such as the pressurizer, the containment and the entire primary coolant system are addressed. The book reflects the importance of such considerations in thermal engineering of a modern nuclear power plant.

  3. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  4. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  5. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, P.

    2001-07-01

    Experimental studies of nuclear excitations have been an important subject from the earliest days when the institute was established. The construction of 4 MeV proton cyclotron was mainly aimed to achieve this goal. Early experiments in nuclear spectroscopy were done with radioactive nuclei with the help of beta and gamma ray spectrometers. Small NaI(Tl) detectors were used for gamma--gamma coincidence, angular correlation and life time measurements. The excited states nuclear magnetic moments were measured in perturbed gamma--gamma angular correlation experiments. A high transmission magnetic beta ray spectrometer was used to measure internal conversion coefficients and beta--gamma coincidence studies. A large number of significant contributions were made during 1950--59 using these facilities. Proton beam in the cyclotron was made available in the late 1950's and together with 14 MeV neutrons obtained from a C-W generator a large number of short-lived nuclei were investigated during 1960's and 1970's. The introduction of high resolution Ge gamma detectors and the improved electronics helped to extend the spectroscopic work which include on-line (p,p'g) and (p,n g) reaction studies. Nuclear spectroscopic studies entered a new phase in the 1980's with the availability of 40--80 MeV alpha beam from the variable energy cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. A number of experimental groups were formed in the institute to study nuclear level schemes with (a,xn g) reactions. Initially only two unsuppressed Ge detectors were used for coincidence studies. Later in 1989 five Ge detectors with a large six segmented NaI(Tl) multiplicity-sum detector system were successfully used to select various channels in (a ,xn g) reactions. From 1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pelletron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more

  6. 76 FR 4646 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Commission be established to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the... comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, including all alternatives...

  7. Interviewing a Silent (Radioactive) Witness through Nuclear Forensic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Varga, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear forensics is a relatively young discipline in science which aims at providing information on nuclear material of unknown origin. The determination of characteristic parameters through tailored analytical techniques enables establishing linkages to the material's processing history and hence provides hints on its place and date of production and on the intended use.

  8. Nuclear electric propulsion: An integral part of NASA's nuclear propulsion project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has initiated a technology program to establish the readiness of nuclear propulsion technology for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This program was initiated with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. Although the Synthesis Group On America's SEI has identified NEP only as an option for cargo missions, recent studies conducted by NASA-Lewis show that NEP offers the potential for early manned Mars missions as well. Lower power NEP is also of current interest for outer planetary robotic missions. Current plans are reviewed for the overall nuclear propulsion project, with emphasis on NEP and those elements of NTP program which have synergism with NEP.

  9. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  10. Whole-genome screening identifies proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ka-Wing; Li, Yujing; Wang, Wenqi; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Kunpeng; Qi, Robert Z; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, Junjie

    2013-10-14

    The nucleus is a unique organelle that contains essential genetic materials in chromosome territories. The interchromatin space is composed of nuclear subcompartments, which are defined by several distinctive nuclear bodies believed to be factories of DNA or RNA processing and sites of transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional regulation. In this paper, we performed a genome-wide microscopy-based screening for proteins that form nuclear foci and characterized their localizations using markers of known nuclear bodies. In total, we identified 325 proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies, including nucleoli (148), promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (38), nuclear speckles (27), paraspeckles (24), Cajal bodies (17), Sam68 nuclear bodies (5), Polycomb bodies (2), and uncharacterized nuclear bodies (64). Functional validation revealed several proteins potentially involved in the assembly of Cajal bodies and paraspeckles. Together, these data establish the first atlas of human proteins in different nuclear bodies and provide key information for research on nuclear bodies.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-02-25

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  13. Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition - NEET

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.A.

    2002-06-10

    Experiments seeking to demonstrate nuclear excitation induced by synchrotron radiation have been enabled by the development of intense synchrotron radiation. The phenomena has been demonstrated in {sup 197}Au, while realistic upper limits for {sup 189}Os have been established. A new experiment in {sup 189}Os is described. The experimental claim of NEET in isomeric {sup 178}Hf is not credible.

  14. Nuclear imaging and early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Laura; Cervino, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses about the most important roles of nuclear medicine related to the early detection of breast cancer. We summarily describe the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications and clinical impact for planar and tomographic breast scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission mammography (PEM).

  15. Nuclear power as a feminist issue

    SciTech Connect

    Nelkin, D.

    1981-01-01

    Women consistently show more opposition to nuclear power than men in public opinion polls, and they participate more in antinuclear organizations. Their concerns range from the health effects of radiation on women and on future generations to ideological and political matters. The diversity of their concern is reflected in the wide spectrum of women's organizations opposing nuclear power and how their positions are translated into political action. Women's publications and organizations which represent a national constituency have increased women's participation as informed educators and intervenors in hearings to raise health and safety questions, while the feminists groups use a shock approach in their moral crusade to establish a separate women's culture. The feminists have had an impact on the nuclear industry, which responded by promoting pro-nuclear women to public relations positions. (DCK)

  16. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants.

  17. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-01-31

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  18. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  19. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.

  20. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  1. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  2. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  3. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  4. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Finding time for job-embedded professional learning is one of the most frequently cited challenges with implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). With "Establishing Time for Professional Learning," practitioners and education leaders use tools to identify current allocations of time for professional learning, analyze how that…

  5. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  6. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  7. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Finding time for job-embedded professional learning is one of the most frequently cited challenges with implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). With "Establishing Time for Professional Learning," practitioners and education leaders use tools to identify current allocations of time for professional learning, analyze how that…

  8. Living with Nuclear Weapons - Avoiding Nuclear War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    00 LIVING ’V1I4. NUCL EAR WEAPONS -AVOIDING NUCLEAR W~AR C. Pr~ston Niblack ..une -8 P-75-7 The RAND ",rporation Papers are issued by The RAND...necessarily shared by RAND or its research sponsors. The RAND Corporation. 1700 Main Street, P ) Bix 213t8, Santa Monica, CA 90406- � LIVING WITH NUCLEAR...is p"etty impressive. Still, nuclear weapons exist . and that alone is very womsome to many people. including to all of us here, because as long as they

  9. Automated Quantitative Nuclear Cardiology Methods

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Manish; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of SPECT and PET has become a major part of nuclear cardiology practice. Current software tools can automatically segment the left ventricle, quantify function, establish myocardial perfusion maps and estimate global and local measures of stress/rest perfusion – all with minimal user input. State-of-the-art automated techniques have been shown to offer high diagnostic accuracy for detecting coronary artery disease, as well as predict prognostic outcomes. This chapter briefly reviews these techniques, highlights several challenges and discusses the latest developments. PMID:26590779

  10. Quantum chaos in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.

    2016-07-15

    A definition of classical and quantum chaos on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem is proposed. According to this definition, a chaotic quantum system that has N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) that are determined by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian for the system being considered. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos are established. In the classical limit, they go over to the Lyapunov exponent or the classical stability parameter. The use of quantum-chaos parameters in nuclear physics is demonstrated.

  11. Energy metabolism in nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Folmes, Clifford DL; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming with stemness factors enables resetting of somatic differentiated tissue back to the pluripotent ground state. Recent evidence implicates mitochondrial restructuring and bioenergetic plasticity as key components underlying execution of orchestrated dedifferentiation and derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Aerobic to anaerobic transition of somatic oxidative energy metabolism into a glycolytic metabotype promotes proficient reprogramming, establishing a novel regulator of acquired stemness. Metabolomic profiling has further identified specific metabolic remodeling traits defining lineage redifferentiation of pluripotent cells. Therefore, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism comprise a vital axis for biomarker discovery, intimately reflecting the molecular dynamics fundamental for the resetting and redirection of cell fate. PMID:22103608

  12. 10 CFR 7.9 - Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. 7.9 Section 7.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. (a) After the Commission...

  13. 10 CFR 7.9 - Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. 7.9 Section 7.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. (a) After the Commission...

  14. 10 CFR 7.5 - Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees; advisory committee charters. 7.5 Section 7.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.5 Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment...

  15. 10 CFR 7.5 - Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees; advisory committee charters. 7.5 Section 7.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.5 Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment...

  16. 10 CFR 7.5 - Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees; advisory committee charters. 7.5 Section 7.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.5 Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment...

  17. 10 CFR 7.9 - Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. 7.9 Section 7.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. (a) After the Commission...

  18. 10 CFR 7.9 - Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. 7.9 Section 7.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. (a) After the Commission...

  19. 10 CFR 7.5 - Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees; advisory committee charters. 7.5 Section 7.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.5 Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment...

  20. 10 CFR 7.9 - Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. 7.9 Section 7.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Public notice of advisory committee establishment, reestablishment, or renewal. (a) After the Commission...

  1. 10 CFR 7.5 - Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment of advisory committees; advisory committee charters. 7.5 Section 7.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.5 Consultation with Committee Management Secretariat on establishment...

  2. 76 FR 56242 - Energy Northwest; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Energy Northwest; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the... hereby given that an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) is being established to preside over the.... Rosenthal, Chair, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission,...

  3. 76 FR 69295 - Strata Energy, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by... is hereby given that an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) is being established to preside..., Chair, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC...

  4. 75 FR 67145 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to....321, notice is hereby given that an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) is being established to..., Chair, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC...

  5. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies.

  6. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... control of work hours and management of worker fatigue does not impede the ability to use available staff... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 26, Subpart I requires licensees to establish a policy for the management of fatigue..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)...

  7. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  8. Nuclear medicine in NET.

    PubMed

    Sorschag, Manfred; Malle, Phillip; Gallowitsch, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are, despite increasing incidence, still rare, usually slow growing neoplasms with resemblance to nerve cells and the endocrine capability of hormone production. In contrast to commonly used conventional imaging procedures, nuclear imaging is feasible to visualize the presence of molecular biomarkers, particularly the overexpression of somatostatin receptors (sstr) with high diagnostic accuracy which has led to the establishment of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) as essential component and gold standard of functional imaging in the workup of NET. Another major feature is the selection of patients with inoperable or metastasized tumors showing sufficient uptake for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). While somatostatin receptor PET and PET/CT using Ga-68-labeled SSR analogs represents the consistent further development of SRS, FDG-PET can only be used in tumors with high proliferative activity but not on a routine basis for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. (18)F-DOPA represents an alternative PET tracer worth mentioning currently under assessment for NET imaging.

  9. Paediatric nuclear medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo; Easty, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject. Nuclear medicine imaging is well-established in paediatric nephro-urology in the context of urinary tract infection, ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis and other congenital renal anomalies. Also, in paediatric oncology, I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine has a key role in the management of children with neuroblastic tumours. Bone scintigraphy is still highly valuable to localize the source of symptoms in children and adolescents with bone pain when other imaging techniques have failed. Thyroid scintigraphy in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism is the most accurate imaging technique to confirm the presence of ectopic functioning thyroid tissue. Radionuclide transit studies of the gastro-intestinal tract are potentially useful in suspected gastroparesis or small bowel or colonic dysmotility. However, until now a standardized protocol and a validated normal range have not been agreed, and more work is necessary. Research is ongoing on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its great advantage of great anatomical detail and no ionizing radiations, can replace nuclear medicine imaging in some clinical context. On the other hand, access to MRI is often difficult in many district general hospitals and general anaesthesia is frequently required, thus adding to the complexity of the examination. Patients with bone pain and no cause for it demonstrated on MRI can benefit from bone scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography and low-dose computed tomography. This technique can identify areas of mechanical stress at

  10. The nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  11. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. The plant nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge about the composition and function of the plant nuclear envelope. Compared with animals or yeast, our molecular understanding of the nuclear envelope in higher plants is in its infancy. However, fundamental differences in the structure and function of the plant and animal nuclear envelope have already been found. Here, we compare and contrast these differences with respect to nuclear pore complexes, targeting of Ran signaling to the nuclear envelope, inner nuclear envelope proteins, and the role and fate of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Further investigation of the emerging fundamental differences as well as the similarities between kingdoms might illuminate why there appears to be more than one blueprint for building a nucleus.

  13. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  14. Tracing nuclear elements released by Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, M.; Onda, Y.; Abe, Y.; Hada, M.; Pun, I.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring regions due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11th March 2011. The small experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima Prefecture, located approximately 35 km west from the Fukushima NPP. The tritium (3H) concentration and stable isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 have been determined on the water samples of precipitation, soil water at the depths of 10 to 30 cm, groundwater at the depths of 5 m to 50 m, spring water and stream water taken at the watersheds in the recharge and discharge zones from the view point of the groundwater flow system. The tritium concentration of the rain water fell just a few days after the earthquake showed a value of approximately 17 Tritium Unit (T.U.), whereas the average concentration of the tritium in the precipitation was less than 5 T.U. before the Fukushima accident. The spring water in the recharge zone showed a relatively high tritium concentration of approximately 12 T.U., whereas that of the discharge zone showed less than 5 T.U. Thus, the artificial tritium was apparently injected in the groundwater flow system due to the Fukushima NPP accident, whereas that has not reached at the discharge zone yet. The monitoring of the nuclear elements is now on going from the view points of the hydrological cycles and the drinking water security.

  15. Paleomagnetic lab established in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Roberts, Andrew P.; Wilson, Gary S.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    The world's southernmost paleomagnetic laboratory was established at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in early October as part of the Cape Roberts Project [Cape Roberts Project International Steering Committee, 1994]. The laboratory's location at McMurdo Station (166°40‧10″E, 77°50‧18″S) is close to Hut Point, where British explorer Robert Falcon Scott established a base in the early 1900s.The facility is housed in two rooms at the Albert P. Crary Science and Engineering Center. From the laboratory, there is a superb view of southern McMurdo Sound with Black Island, Minna Bluff, Mt. Discovery to the south (where Scott's expedition for the South Pole first traversed), and the Royal Society Range of the Transantarctic Mountains. The lab is equipped with two spinner magnetometers, a thermal demagnetizer, an alternating field demagnetizer, a susceptibility meter, and an impulse magnetizer.

  16. Establishing Pluripotency in Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Paranjpe, Sarita S.; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    The earliest steps of embryonic development involve important changes in chromatin and transcription factor networks, which are orchestrated to establish pluripotent cells that will form the embryo. DNA methylation, histone modifications, the pluripotency regulatory network of transcription factors, maternal factors and newly translated proteins all contribute to these transitions in dynamic ways. Moreover, these dynamics are linked to the onset of zygotic transcription. We will review recent progress in our understanding of chromatin state and regulation of gene expression in the context of embryonic development in vertebrates, in particular mouse, Xenopus and zebrafish. We include work on mouse embryonic stem cells and highlight work that illustrates how early embryonic dynamics establish gene regulatory networks and the state of pluripotency. PMID:25857441

  17. 75 FR 30078 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). By letter dated May 20, 2010, the Director denied the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee...

  18. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-04-25

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE.

  19. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  20. Establishing the isolated standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim "there is no new physics at the weak scale," namely that the Standard Model (SM) is "isolated." The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all "connected" BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts—both theoretical and experimental—are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  1. Nuclear forensics of special nuclear material at Los Alamos: three recent studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav; Gallimore, David L; Garduon, Katherine; Keller, Russell C; Kuhn, Kevin J; Lujan, Elmer J; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steven C; Moore, Steve S; Porterfield, Donivan R; Schwartz, Daniel S; Spencer, Khalil J; Townsend, Lisa E; Xu, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics of special nuclear materials is a highly specialized field because there are few analytical laboratories in the world that can safely handle nuclear materials, perform high accuracy and precision analysis using validated analytical methods. The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Signatures Program has implemented a graded 'conduct of operations' type approach for determining the unique nuclear, chemical, and physical signatures needed to identify the manufacturing process, intended use, and origin of interdicted nuclear material. In our approach an analysis flow path was developed for determining key signatures necessary for attributing unknown materials to a source. This analysis flow path included both destructive (i.e., alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, TIMS, particle size distribution, density and particle fractionation) and non-destructive (i.e., gamma-ray spectrometry, optical microscopy, SEM, XRD, and x-ray fluorescence) characterization techniques. Analytical techniques and results from three recent cases characterized by this analysis flow path along with an evaluation of the usefulness of this approach will be discussed in this paper.

  2. Empirical information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy from an extended nuclear mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2017-10-01

    We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4 (A) of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4 (ρ0) at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4 (A) via the double difference of the ;experimental; symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) = 20.0 ± 4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.

  3. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  4. Daddy, What's a Nuclear Reactor?

    SciTech Connect

    Reisenweaver, Dennis W.

    2008-01-15

    No matter what we think of the nuclear industry, it is part of mankind's heritage. The decommissioning process is slowly making facilities associated with this industry disappear and not enough is being done to preserve the information for future generations. This paper provides some food for thought and provides a possible way forward. Industrial archaeology is an ever expanding branch of archaeology that is dedicated to preserving, interpreting and documenting our industrial past and heritage. Normally it begins with analyzing an old building or ruins and trying to determine what was done, how it was done and what changes might have occurred during its operation. We have a unique opportunity to document all of these issues and provide them before the nuclear facility disappears. Entombment is an acceptable decommissioning strategy; however we would have to change our concept of entombment. It is proposed that a number of nuclear facilities be entombed or preserved for future generations to appreciate. This would include a number of different types of facilities such as different types of nuclear power and research reactors, a reprocessing plant, part of an enrichment plant and a fuel manufacturing plant. One of the main issues that would require resolution would be that of maintaining information of the location of the buried facility and the information about its operation and structure, and passing this information on to future generations. This can be done, but a system would have to be established prior to burial of the facility so that no information would be lost. In general, our current set of requirements and laws may need to be re-examined and modified to take into account these new situations. As an alternative, and to compliment the above proposal, it is recommended that a study and documentation of the nuclear industry be considered as part of twentieth century industrial archaeology. This study should not only include the power and fuel cycle

  5. PREFACE: XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-10-01

    In the present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the 'XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics', which was held from 4-7 January 2011 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 19 contributions that were presented as invited talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. From the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium has been organized every year without interruption, which makes the present Symposium the 34th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks and 17 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure (Draayer, Pittel, Van Isacker, Fraser, Lerma, Cejnar, Hirsch, Stránský and Rath) and nuclear reactions (Aguilera, Gómez-Camacho, Scheid, Navrátil and Yennello) to radioactive beams (Padilla-Rodal and Galindo-Uribarri), nuclear astrophysics (Aprahamian, Civitarese and Escher), hadronic physics (Bijker, Valcarce and Hess), fundamental symmetries (Liu, Barrón-Palos and Baessler) and LHC physics (Menchaca-Rocha and Paic). The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. Libertad Barr

  6. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country`s nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  7. Nuclear pore localization and nucleocytoplasmic transport of eIF-5A: evidence for direct interaction with the export receptor CRM1.

    PubMed

    Rosorius, O; Reichart, B; Krätzer, F; Heger, P; Dabauvalle, M C; Hauber, J

    1999-07-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is the only cellular protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine. The exact in vivo function of eIF-5A, however, is to date unknown. The finding that eIF-5A is an essential cofactor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev RNA transport factor suggested that eIF-5A is part of a specific nuclear export pathway. In this study we used indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy to demonstrate that eIF-5A accumulates at nuclear pore-associated intranuclear filaments in mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes. We are able to show that eIF-5A interacts with the general nuclear export receptor, CRM1. Furthermore, microinjection studies in somatic cells revealed that eIF-5A is transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and that this nuclear export is blocked by leptomycin B. Our data demonstrate that eIF-5A is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein.

  8. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  9. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise.

  10. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  11. US support for nuclear energy safety and cooperation in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Selin, I.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the energy and economic development of Pacific Rim countries. Concurrent with the construction of commercial nuclear power plants, there is a vital need to develop strong nuclear safety infrastructures in all countries choosing to use nuclear energy for electricity production. One of the most important elements in developing a viable nuclear program is a nuclear safety culture, rigorously applied to nuclear plant siting, design, construction, operation and management. International cooperation provides an important mechanism for raising the level of nuclear safety worldwide. The NRC has recently increased its international efforts in the nuclear safety area, with particular emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The NRC will continue, and is prepared to expand, its cooperation with counterpart organizations in Pacific Rim countries to help establish and nurture a safety culture that will respond to the dynamic process of nuclear energy development over the next few years.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  15. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  16. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  17. Nuclear Terms: a glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, David A.

    1981-05-31

    This booklet is a revision of Nuclear Terms: A Glossary, published in 1967 by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. New fields, such as laser fusion and laser isotope separation, are included and nuclear weapons terms are deleted. Thus, it is a glossary for nuclear fission and fusion science and for commercial applications. David A. Freiwald, Frank C. DiLuzio, and Leslie M. Redman prepared this revised glossary. Contributions were made by other members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory staff.

  18. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  19. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  20. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by June 30, 2008. The opening of the repository is now scheduled for 2017 . This report will be updated as events...repository licensing process, according to DOE, nuclear waste shipments to Yucca Mountain could begin by 2017 . NRC issued the first nuclear reactor Early Site...contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine , which concentrates in the thyroid. Although the Chernobyl Forum found only 15 deaths from those

  1. Establishing a SCADA system budget

    SciTech Connect

    Senftleber, A.

    1997-05-01

    Replacement of a SCADA system is an infrequent occurrence. In fact, most SCADA systems last ten to fifteen years. Even if the personnel that implemented the current system have made it through corporate downsizing, the whole nature of SCADA has changed. No longer is SCADA that isolated system in the corner. It now affects virtually every aspect of the company from operations, to field maintenance, government regulatory compliance, environmental protection, to customer/in-house data access and revenue accounting, to name just a few. In addition to this immense corporate operational impact, for most oil and gas companies, today`s SCADA systems also represent a significant capital investment. How then does one establish an appropriate budget to acquire a new SCADA system? This paper highlights the key elements of successful SCADA budgets, identifying both buy-out and in-house components. Vendor topics include estimating hardware, software (including applications), project services, and life cycle costs. Company-side estimates cover facility and communication modifications and the cost of labor and expenses to support the project from initiation (e.g., requirements gathering, specification writing, etc.) through commissioning (e.g., Site Acceptance Testing, cut-over, etc.), and all activities in-between (e.g., vendor support, training, Factory Acceptance Testing, etc.). Other issues discussed include the handling of project reserves, establishing cash flow, and estimating taxes.

  2. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  3. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  4. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  5. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  7. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  8. Moving Cell Boundaries Drive Nuclear Shaping during Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Lovett, David; Zhang, Qiao; Neelam, Srujana; Kuchibhotla, Ram Anirudh; Zhu, Ruijun; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Lele, Tanmay P.; Dickinson, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus has a smooth, regular appearance in normal cells, and its shape is greatly altered in human pathologies. Yet, how the cell establishes nuclear shape is not well understood. We imaged the dynamics of nuclear shaping in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Nuclei translated toward the substratum and began flattening during the early stages of cell spreading. Initially, nuclear height and width correlated with the degree of cell spreading, but over time, reached steady-state values even as the cell continued to spread. Actomyosin activity, actomyosin bundles, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, as well as the LINC complex, were all dispensable for nuclear flattening as long as the cell could spread. Inhibition of actin polymerization as well as myosin light chain kinase with the drug ML7 limited both the initial spreading of cells and flattening of nuclei, and for well-spread cells, inhibition of myosin-II ATPase with the drug blebbistatin decreased cell spreading with associated nuclear rounding. Together, these results show that cell spreading is necessary and sufficient to drive nuclear flattening under a wide range of conditions, including in the presence or absence of myosin activity. To explain this observation, we propose a computational model for nuclear and cell mechanics that shows how frictional transmission of stress from the moving cell boundaries to the nuclear surface shapes the nucleus during early cell spreading. Our results point to a surprisingly simple mechanical system in cells for establishing nuclear shapes. PMID:26287620

  9. Moving Cell Boundaries Drive Nuclear Shaping during Cell Spreading.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Lovett, David; Zhang, Qiao; Neelam, Srujana; Kuchibhotla, Ram Anirudh; Zhu, Ruijun; Gundersen, Gregg G; Lele, Tanmay P; Dickinson, Richard B

    2015-08-18

    The nucleus has a smooth, regular appearance in normal cells, and its shape is greatly altered in human pathologies. Yet, how the cell establishes nuclear shape is not well understood. We imaged the dynamics of nuclear shaping in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Nuclei translated toward the substratum and began flattening during the early stages of cell spreading. Initially, nuclear height and width correlated with the degree of cell spreading, but over time, reached steady-state values even as the cell continued to spread. Actomyosin activity, actomyosin bundles, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, as well as the LINC complex, were all dispensable for nuclear flattening as long as the cell could spread. Inhibition of actin polymerization as well as myosin light chain kinase with the drug ML7 limited both the initial spreading of cells and flattening of nuclei, and for well-spread cells, inhibition of myosin-II ATPase with the drug blebbistatin decreased cell spreading with associated nuclear rounding. Together, these results show that cell spreading is necessary and sufficient to drive nuclear flattening under a wide range of conditions, including in the presence or absence of myosin activity. To explain this observation, we propose a computational model for nuclear and cell mechanics that shows how frictional transmission of stress from the moving cell boundaries to the nuclear surface shapes the nucleus during early cell spreading. Our results point to a surprisingly simple mechanical system in cells for establishing nuclear shapes.

  10. Childhood leukaemia, nuclear sites, and population mixing

    PubMed Central

    Kinlen, L

    2011-01-01

    The excess of childhood leukaemia (CL) in Seascale, near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in rural NW England, suggested that an epidemic of an underlying infection, to which CL is a rare response, is promoted by marked population mixing (PM) in rural areas, in which the prevalence of susceptibles is higher than average. This hypothesis has been confirmed by 12 studies in non-radiation situations. Of the five established CL excesses near nuclear sites, four are associated with significant PM; in the fifth, the Krummel power station in Germany, the subject has not been thoroughly investigated. PMID:21063418

  11. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  12. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    SciTech Connect

    Uenlue, Kenan; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-07-01

    The availability of trained and qualified nuclear and radiation security experts worldwide has decreased as those with hands-on experience have retired while the demand for these experts and skills have increased. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has responded to the continued loss of technical and policy expertise amongst personnel and students in the security field by initiating the establishment of a Nuclear Security Education Initiative, in partnership with Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Texas A and M (TAMU), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This collaborative, multi-year initiative forms the basis of specific education programs designed to educate the next generation of personnel who plan on careers in the nonproliferation and security fields with both domestic and international focus. The three universities worked collaboratively to develop five core courses consistent with the GTRI mission, policies, and practices. These courses are the following: Global Nuclear Security Policies, Detectors and Source Technologies, Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Nuclear Security Laboratory, Threat Analysis and Assessment, and Design and Analysis of Security Systems for Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Nuclear Engineering Program is a leader in undergraduate and graduate-level nuclear engineering education in the USA. The PSU offers undergraduate and graduate programs in nuclear engineering. The PSU undergraduate program in nuclear engineering is the largest nuclear engineering programs in the USA. The PSU Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) facilities are being used for most of the nuclear security education program activities. Laboratory space and equipment was made available for this purpose. The RSEC facilities include the Penn State Breazeale Reactor

  13. Scenarios for exercising technical approaches to verified nuclear reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James

    2010-01-01

    Presidents Obama and Medvedev in April 2009 committed to a continuing process of step-by-step nuclear arms reductions beyond the new START treaty that was signed April 8, 2010 and to the eventual goal of a world free of nuclear weapons. In addition, the US Nuclear Posture review released April 6, 2010 commits the US to initiate a comprehensive national research and development program to support continued progress toward a world free of nuclear weapons, including expanded work on verification technologies and the development of transparency measures. It is impossible to predict the specific directions that US-RU nuclear arms reductions will take over the 5-10 years. Additional bilateral treaties could be reached requiring effective verification as indicated by statements made by the Obama administration. There could also be transparency agreements or other initiatives (unilateral, bilateral or multilateral) that require monitoring with a standard of verification lower than formal arms control, but still needing to establish confidence to domestic, bilateral and multilateral audiences that declared actions are implemented. The US Nuclear Posture Review and other statements give some indication of the kinds of actions and declarations that may need to be confirmed in a bilateral or multilateral setting. Several new elements of the nuclear arsenals could be directly limited. For example, it is likely that both strategic and nonstrategic nuclear warheads (deployed and in storage), warhead components, and aggregate stocks of such items could be accountable under a future treaty or transparency agreement. In addition, new initiatives or agreements may require the verified dismantlement of a certain number of nuclear warheads over a specified time period. Eventually procedures for confirming the elimination of nuclear warheads, components and fissile materials from military stocks will need to be established. This paper is intended to provide useful background information

  14. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-05-16

    -critical software and applies the highest level of rigor for those systems. DOE has further defined a risk approach to nuclear safety system software consistent with the analyses required for operation of nuclear facilities. This requires the grading of software in terms of safety class and safety significant structures, systems and components (SSCs). Safety-class SSCs are related to public safety where as safety-significant SSCs are identified for specific aspects of defense-in-depth and worker safety. Industry standards do not directly categorize nuclear safety software and DOE sites are not consistent in their approach to nuclear safety software quality assurance. DOE is establishing a more detailed graded approach for software associated with safety class and safety significant systems. This paper presents the process and results that DOE utilized to develop a detailed classification scheme for nuclear safety software.

  15. NASA establishes office of exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new Office of Exploration that will coordinate agency activities that would “expand the human presence beyond Earth,” particularly to the moon and Mars.Sally K. Ride is serving as the office's acting assistant administrator until mid August. Ride, the first U.S. woman in space, has been in charge of a NASA study to determine a possible new major space goal for the United States. Her study group recently identified four major areas for concentrated examination as possible initiatives for a new national space objective: intensive study of Earth systems for better understanding of how to protect Earth's environment,a stepped-up robotic program to explore the planets, moons, and other solar system bodies,the establishment of a scientific base and a permanent human presence on the moon, andintensive exploration of Mars by robot, followed by human exploration of the planet.

  16. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-28

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  17. Nuclear power risks: challenge to the credibility of science

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Federal Government and the nuclear industry have deliberately deceived the American public about the risks of nuclear power. Facts have been systematically withheld, distorted, and obscured, and calculations have been deliberately biased in order to present nuclear power in an unrealistically favorable light. Most persistent and flagrant have been: (a) attempts to normalize public perception of nuclear accident casualties with those of more familiar accidents; and (b) the cloaking of the objectively undocumentable faith of the atomic energy establishment that a nuclear accident is extremely unlikely in a smokescreen of invalid, pseudoquantitative statistical probabilities in order to convince the public that the chance of an accident is negligible. Prime examples of these abuses are found in the Rasmussen report on nuclear reactor safety and in its representation to the public.

  18. Establishment of photosynthesis is controlled by two distinct regulatory phases.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Carole; Jin, Xu; Barajas-López, Juan de Dios; Hewitt, Timothy Hewitt; Tanz, Sandra; Dobrenel, Thomas; Schröder, Wolfgang; Hanson, Johannes; Pesquet, Edouard; Grönlund, Andreas; Small, Ian D; Strand, Asa

    2017-06-16

    Chloroplasts develop from undifferentiated proplastids present in meristematic tissue. Chloroplast biogenesis is thus closely connected to leaf development, which restricts our ability to study the process of chloroplast biogenesis per se. As a consequence we know relatively little about the regulatory mechanisms behind the establishment of the photosynthetic reactions and how the activities of the two genomes involved are coordinated during chloroplast development. We developed a single-cell-based experimental system from Arabidopsis with high temporal resolution allowing for investigations of the transition from proplastids to functional chloroplasts. Using this unique cell line we could show that establishment of photosynthesis is dependent on a regulatory mechanism involving two distinct phases. The first phase is triggered by rapid light-induced changes in gene expression and the metabolome. The second phase is dependent on the activation of the chloroplast and generates massive changes in nuclear gene expression required for the transition to photosynthetically functional chloroplasts.. The second phase is also associated with a spatial transition of the chloroplasts from clusters around the nucleus to the final position at the cell cortex. Thus, establishment of photosynthesis is a two-phase process with a clear checkpoint associated with the second regulatory phase allowing coordination of the activities of the nuclear and plastid genomes. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    fuel for future civilian light water reactors deployed” in the UAE. The agreement also states that future cooperation may encompass training...planned nuclear reactor . (...continued) May 4, 2008; and, Chris Stanton and Ivan...already taken place. In August 2008, Virginia’s Thorium Power Ltd. signed two consulting and advisory services contracts related to the establishment

  20. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-04-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  1. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-01-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  2. Past and present of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not even close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete.

  3. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  4. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

  6. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  7. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  8. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  9. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  10. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  11. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  12. Nuclear Weapon A Necessity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    the weapon systems available. The nuclear changing strategies, from "massive retaliation, flexible response, counter force, counter value , mutual...technological advancement, communication, transportation and manpower resources. Last but not the least, the maintenance of national morale and motivation...crisis. This meant continuos control of nuclear weapons. The organizations designed to control such weapons have no doubt checks and balances and many 12

  13. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  14. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  16. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  17. Advanced nuclear propulsion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary analysis has been carried out for two potential advanced nuclear propulsion systems: a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine and an antiproton initiated ICF system. The results of these studies indicate that both concepts have a high potential to help enable manned planetary exploration but require substantial development.

  18. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  19. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  20. The nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Stephen A

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes, the conduits for information exchange between the nucleus and cytoplasm, appear broadly similar in eukaryotes from yeast to human. Precisely how nuclear pore complexes regulate macromolecular and ionic traffic remains unknown, but recent advances in the identification and characterization of components of the complex by proteomics and genomics have provided new insights. PMID:11574060

  1. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  2. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  3. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  4. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  5. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  6. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  7. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  8. Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-20

    nuclear weapon, or the materials to craft one. For many, this nuclear nightmare was tempered by disbelief that terrorist organizations would be...three European countries, Britain, France, and Germany, led to an agreement by Iran in November 2004 to “continue and extend its suspension of all

  9. Nuclear effects at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a nuclear beam facility at HERA would allow the study of fundamental features of quark and gluon interactions in QCD. I briefly review the physics underlying nuclear shadowing and anti-shadowing as well as other diffractive and jet fragmentation processes that can be studies in high energy electron-nucleus collisions.

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  11. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  12. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  13. Interaction of electromagnetic pulse with commercial nuclear-power-plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Strawe, D.F.; Sandberg, S.J.; Jones, V.K.; Rensner, G.D.; Shoup, R.W.; Hanson, R.J.; Williams, C.B.

    1983-02-01

    This study examines the interaction of the electromagnetic pulse from a high altitude nuclear burst with commercial nuclear power plant systems. The potential vulnerability of systems required for safe shutdown of a specific nuclear power plant are explored. EMP signal coupling, induced plant response and component damage thresholds are established using techniques developed over several decades under Defense Nuclear Agency sponsorship. A limited test program was conducted to verify the coupling analysis technique as applied to a nuclear power plant. The results are extended, insofar as possible, to other nuclear plants.

  14. Personnel supply and demand issues in the nuclear power industry. Final report of the Nuclear Manpower Study Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The anticipated personnel needs of the nuclear power industry have varied widely in recent years, in response to both increasing regulatory requirements and declining orders for new plants. Recent employment patterns in the nuclear energy field, with their fluctuations, resemble those of defense industries more than those traditionally associated with electric utilities. Reactions to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 by industry and regulators have increased the demand for trained and experienced personnel, causing salaries to rise. Industry, for example, has established several advisory organizations like the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). At the same time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed many new construction and operating requirements in an effort to take advantage of lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident and to respond to the perceived public interest in better regulation of nuclear power. Thus, at present, utilities, architect-engineer firms, reactor vendors, and organizations in the nuclear development community have heavy workloads.

  15. Latest nuclear emulsion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokujo, Hiroki; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Morishita, Misaki; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Otsuka, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a extremely high-resolution 3D tracking detector. Since the discovery of the pion by C.F. Powell et al. in 1946, experiments with nuclear emulsions have contributed to the development of particle physics. (e.g. the OPERA collaboration reported the discovery of νμ * ντ oscillations in appearance mode in 2015) The technology of nuclear emulsion still keeps making progress. Since 2010, we have introduced a system of nuclear emulsion gel production to our laboratory in Nagoya University, and have started self-development of the new gel, instead of from the photographic film companies. Moreover, a faster automated emulsion scanning system is developed. Its scanning speed reaches 4000 cm2/h, and the load for analyzing becomes more and more lighter. In this presentation, we report the status of nuclear emulsion technologies for cosmic ray experiments.

  16. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  17. Nuclear transfer in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  18. Nuclear transfer in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0–4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat. PMID:14678485

  19. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  20. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  1. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  2. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  3. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  4. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  5. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  6. Enhancing nuclear emergency response through international cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ugletveit, Finn; Aaltonen, Hannele

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear and radiological emergencies may easily become severe international emergencies requiring substantial resources in several or many states for an adequate response, which in some cases may require resources exceeding national capabilities. Through the development of a consistent, coherent and sustainable joint programme for improved and more efficient international responses to nuclear and radiological emergencies, it is believed that we could achieve a better and more cost-effective response capability for nuclear and radiological emergencies. This requires, however, that we be willing and able to establish mechanisms of assistance where information and resources are globally shared and that standardised/harmonised procedures be developed and implemented. If we are willing to make this investment, we believe that, in the long term, there will be a significant benefit for all of us.

  7. Nuclear power: key to man's extraterrestrial civilization

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The start of the Third Millennium will be highlighted by the establishment of man's extraterrestrial civilization with three technical cornerstones leading to the off-planet expansion of the human resource base. These are (1) the availability of compact energy sources for power and propulsion, (2) the creation of permanent manned habitats in space, and (3) the ability to process materials anywhere in the Solar System. In the 1990s and beyond, nuclear reactors could represent the prime source of both space power and propulsion. The manned and unmanned space missions of tomorrow will demand first kilowatt and then megawatt levels of power. Various nuclear power plant technologies will be discussed, with emphasis on derivatives from the nuclear rocket technology.

  8. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Roland Antonius; Herdrich, Georg

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a summary of past efforts in the development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems for space transportation. First, the generic principle of thermal propulsion is outlined: a propellant is directly heated by a power source prior to being expanded which creates a thrusting force on the rocket. This enables deriving a motivation for the use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) relying on nuclear power sources. Then, a summary of major families of NTP systems is established on the basis of a literature survey. These families are distinguished by the nature of their power source, the most important being systems with radioisotope, fission, and fusion cores. Concepts proposing to harness the annihilation of matter and anti-matter are only touched briefly due to their limited maturity. For each family, an overview of physical fundamentals, technical concepts, and - if available - tested engines' propulsion parameters is given.

  9. An Unlikely Connection: Geochemistry and Nuclear Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2000-12-01

    Although geochemistry belongs to the earth sciences, historically it has interacted importantly with the physical sciences, in particular with astrophysics and nuclear physics. These interactions, which in traditional historiography have received little notice from either historians of physics or historians of geology, are the subjects of the present paper, which focuses on the period between 1915 and 1950. During the 1920s, geochemists established empirical regularities in the abundance data of the elements in rocks and meteorites, and from these they suggested that an improved knowledge of the atomic nucleus could be obtained. More significantly, geochemists supplied astrophysicists, cosmologists and nuclear physicists with important data that could not be obtained otherwise. The link between geochemistry and basic, nuclear physics is a historical reality. The paper explores parts of this link.

  10. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  11. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  12. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  13. 76 FR 15001 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... Regulations (10 CFR) 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  14. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for Action... that the NRC take action with regard to Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2. The petitioner's...

  15. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). Mr. Saporito... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  16. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station. Mr. Mulligan requested... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  17. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2016-07-12

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  18. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  19. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  20. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  1. Student Reactions to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Nelson, Linden

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on the psychological impact of nuclear education curriculum on middle school students. Concluded that instruction about nuclear issues rarely increases students' fear or worry about nuclear war. (RT)

  2. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  4. Student Reactions to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Nelson, Linden

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on the psychological impact of nuclear education curriculum on middle school students. Concluded that instruction about nuclear issues rarely increases students' fear or worry about nuclear war. (RT)

  5. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  6. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  7. Decoding the nuclear genome using nuclear binding and fusion energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2015-04-01

    In several publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses from the tightly-known Q = 0 empirical electron mass and the neutron minus proton mass difference with commensurately high precision. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This presentation will systematically pull all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.

  8. Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting on High Energy Nuclear Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukahori, Tokio

    1992-03-01

    This report consists of the Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting on High Energy Nuclear Data. The meeting was held on October 3-4, 1991, at the Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute with the participation of forty-odd specialists, who were the evaluators, theorists, experimentalists, and users of high energy nuclear data including the members of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. The need of the nuclear data in the high energy region up to a few GeV was stressed in the meeting for many applications, such as spallation neutron sources for radioactive waste treatment, accelerator shielding design, medical isotope production, radiation therapy, the effects of space radiation on astronauts and their equipment, and the cosmic history of meteorites and other galactic substances. Although the neutron nuclear data below 20 MeV have been well evaluated for fission and fusion reactor applications, the nuclear data in the high energy region have never been prepared in Japan. With the view of producing an evaluated high energy nuclear data file, theoretical models and codes, available and necessary measurements, needs of nuclear data, and various applications were reviewed and discussed. The consensus, that the wide collaboration was necessary to produce the evaluated file and should be established, has been obtained.

  9. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  10. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  11. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  12. The new nuclear nations

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.

    1985-01-01

    Using 251 pages of text, 66 pages of references and 26 pages of appendixes, Spector delves into a world of new nuclear suppliers whose voracious hunger for profits may lead them to provide unwise assistance to countries that are unduly interested in nuclear weaponry. He assails a new dragon, a 'nuclear netherworld' that would illicitly supply such items for profit or political gain. Spector's book tells of covert dealings in nuclear technologies and materials. For him, the buyers have but one goal: '... to gain possession of the knowledge and materials necessary for development of nuclear weapons'. He warns of dangers from this illicit trade, of the loopholes in existing controls and the need to close them. His warnings come wrapped in stories of undercover transactions, many about Pakistan's efforts to get what it needs for its centrifuge enrichment plant. Recognizing the tightening of controls over nuclear trade since the 1970s, including those for dual-use items, Spector is nonetheless pessimistic that these efforts are sufficient to irradicate the nuclear netherworld or to deter newcomers from it.

  13. Sorting the nuclear proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Denis C.; Willadsen, Kai; Buske, Fabian A.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Bailey, Timothy L.; Dellaire, Graham; Bodén, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Quantitative experimental analyses of the nuclear interior reveal a morphologically structured yet dynamic mix of membraneless compartments. Major nuclear events depend on the functional integrity and timely assembly of these intra-nuclear compartments. Yet, unknown drivers of protein mobility ensure that they are in the right place at the time when they are needed. Results: This study investigates determinants of associations between eight intra-nuclear compartments and their proteins in heterogeneous genome-wide data. We develop a model based on a range of candidate determinants, capable of mapping the intra-nuclear organization of proteins. The model integrates protein interactions, protein domains, post-translational modification sites and protein sequence data. The predictions of our model are accurate with a mean AUC (over all compartments) of 0.71. We present a complete map of the association of 3567 mouse nuclear proteins with intra-nuclear compartments. Each decision is explained in terms of essential interactions and domains, and qualified with a false discovery assessment. Using this resource, we uncover the collective role of transcription factors in each of the compartments. We create diagrams illustrating the outcomes of a Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. Associated with an extensive range of transcription factors, the analysis suggests that PML bodies coordinate regulatory immune responses. Contact: m.boden@uq.edu.au Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21685104

  14. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  15. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S. )

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities. 33 refs.

  16. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  17. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  18. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  19. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  20. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  1. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  2. Safety management of nuclear waste in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Echavarri, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, Spain has been consolidating a nuclear program that in the last 3 years has provided between 35 and 40% of the electricity consumed in that country. This program includes nine operating reactor units, eight of them based on US technology and one from Germany, a total of 7,356 MW(electric). There is also a 480-MW(electric) French gas-cooled reactor whose operation recently ceased and which will be decommissioned in the coming years. Spanish industry has participated significantly in this program, and material produced locally has reached 85% of the total. Once the construction program has been completed and operation is proceeding normally, the capacity factor will be {approximately} 80%. It will be very important to complete the nuclear program with the establishment of conditions for safe management and disposal of the nuclear waste generated during the years in which these reactors are in operation and for subsequent decommissioning. To establish the guidelines for the disposal of nuclear waste, the Spanish government approved in october 1987, with a revision in January 1989, the General Plan of Radioactive Wastes proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Energy and prepared by the national company for radioactive waste management, ENRESA.

  3. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  4. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  5. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is the March 1996 listing of NRC issuances. Included are: (1) NRC orders granting Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company`s petition for review of the ASLB order LBP-95-17, (2) NRC orders relating to the potential disqualification of two commissioners in the matter of the decommissioning of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (3) ASLB orders pertaining to the Oncology Services Corporation, (4) ASLB orders pertaining to the Radiation Oncology Center, (5) ASLB orders pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and (6) Director`s decision pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station.

  7. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Questions Remain Open In Mol Nuclear Scandal [ Michel Balthasart; Brussels LE VIF/L’EXPRESS, 25-31 Mar 88] 35 FRANCE Nuclear Fuel Cycle Industry...at End of 1987 [M. Barron ; Paris REVUE GENERALE NUCLEAIRE, Jan-Feb 88] 36 TURKEY Argentina To Help Acquire ’Nuclear Technology’ [Atilla Atakan...51002447 Brussels LE VIF/L’EXPRESS in French 25-31 Mar 88 pp 24-26 [Article by Michel Balthasart] [Text] What does the boycott of the European

  8. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  9. Fictions of nuclear disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work is critical study of literary interpretations of the nuclear holocaust. The author examines more than 250 stories and novels dealing with the theme of nuclear power and its devastating potential implications. Addressing such topics as the scientist and Armageddon, the role of religion, future evolution and mutation, and the postnuclear society, the author assesses the response of Bradbury, Lessing, Malamud, Shute, Huxley, Vonnegut, Heinlein, and others to the threat of nuclear apocalypse, with in-depth analyses of Alter Miller's A canticle for Leibowitz and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker.

  10. The nuclear option

    SciTech Connect

    Herken, G.

    1992-03-01

    A development history and current status evaluation are presented for nuclear-thermal rocket propulsion systems applicable to interplanetary flight. While the most advanced current chemical rocket engines, such as the SSMEs of the Space Shuttle, produce specific impulses of the order of 450 secs, a nuclear-thermal rocket engine tested at Los Alamos in 1969 generated 845 secs; such specific impulse improvements could represent weeks or months of interplanetary travel time. Attention is given to the achievements of the historical Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, Helios, and Orion design programs, as well as to the current Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications, which is fusion-based.

  11. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  12. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 65

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J.K.

    2010-09-15

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reactions studies for all isobars with mass number A=65. Not much is known experimentally about {sup 65}V and {sup 65}Cr, although they are expected to decay by {beta}-emission. Spin/parity assignments for {sup 65}Mn, {sup 65}Fe, {sup 65}As, and {sup 65}Se are not firmly established.

  13. Recapitalizing Nuclear Weapons (Walker Paper, Number 8)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Information Warfare and later executive officer for the Direc- tor of Operations at Headquarters Air Mobility Command (AMC), Scott AFB, Illinois... Allison Mc- farlane posits that all WMD are not equal and urges caution in establishing US nuclear weapons policy against the generic term WMD.13...11 August 2004, 2–3. 13. Allison Mcfarlane, “All Weapons of Mass Destruction are not Equal,” MIT Center for International Studies, Audit of

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  15. Statistical Theory of Compound-Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-04-17

    The Hauser-Feshbach formula for the average compound-nucleus cross section formalizes Bohr's hypothesis of the independence of formation and decay of the compound nucleus. The statistical theory of compound-nuclear reactions aims at establishing the domain and limits of applicability of that formula and of Ericson's model for statistical cross section fluctuations using random-matrix theory as a starting point. I discuss the present status of that program, including the treatment of direct reactions.

  16. The future of nuclear weapons: Proliferation in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, N.

    1992-12-31

    The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987, followed by the dramatic changes in East-West relations since 1989 and the more recent Soviet-American strategic arms limitation agreement, have greatly eased public concerns about the danger of nuclear war. The context has also changed for the Nonaligned Movement, which had made nuclear disarmament and condemnation of the concept of nuclear deterrence the primary themes of its multilateral disarmament diplomacy. More important would be the interrelationship among the states possessing nuclear weapons (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan). In any case, there is little risk of a revival of nuclear competition. Both France and China have decided to sign the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); they are the only two nuclear-weapon states that have stayed outside the regime. Meanwhile, Brazil and Argentina have moved further down the nonproliferation road by engaging in confidence-building measures and moving closer to joining the Latin American nuclear-weapons-free zone established under the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967. South Africa has also agreed to embrace the NPT as well as a nuclear-weapons-free zone regime for the entire African continent, while North Korea has agreed to sign a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), thereby allowing in principle international inspection of its nuclear facilities. In the third world regions, the dangers of nuclear proliferation and competitive nuclear buildup are most pronounced in South Asia, a region where a variety of complicating problems exist: acute threat perceptions, historical emity, religious and sectarian animosity, ethnic antagonism, territorial disputes, ambitions for regional dominance, and domestic political instability. This chapter will focus primarily on South Asia, although references will also be made to other regions, where relevant. 17 refs.

  17. Generating Covariance Data with Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    A reliable assessment of the uncertainties in calculated integral reactor parameters depends directly on the uncertainties of the underlying nuclear data. Unfortunately, covariance nuclear data are scarce, not only because a significant experimental database for the isotope under consideration must be available, but also because the covariance evaluation process can be rather complex and time-consuming. We attack this problem with a systematical approach and developed, following the initial ideas of D. Smith (ANL), a method to produce a complete covariance matrix for evaluated data files on the basis of uncertainties of nuclear model parameters. This is accomplished by subjecting the nuclear model code TALYS to a Monte Carlo method for perturbing input parameters, an approach that is now possible with the available computer power. After establishing uncertainties for parameters of the optical model, level densities, gamma-ray strength functions, fission barriers etc., we produce random input files for the TALYS code. These deliver, provided enough calculations (samples) are performed, uncertainties + all off-diagonal elements for all open reaction channels. The uncertainties of the nuclear model parameter are tuned such that the calculated cross section uncertainties coincide, to a reasonable extent, with uncertainties obtained from covariance evaluations based on experimental data. If this method proves to be successful, and we will show here that we are not too far off, it will enable mass production of credible covariance data for isotopes for which no covariance data exists……and this constitutes a very significant part of the periodic table of elements.

  18. Physician knowledge of nuclear medicine radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Riley, Paul; Liu, Hongjie; Wilson, John D

    2013-01-01

    Because physician knowledge of patient exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) procedures previously has been recognized as poor, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine whether physician or physician trainee knowledge of patient exposure to radiation from nuclear medicine procedures is similarly insufficient. Online databases and printed literature were systematically searched to acquire peer-reviewed published research studies involving assessment of physician or physician trainee knowledge of patient radiation exposure levels incurred during nuclear medicine and CT procedures. An a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria for study selection was used as a review protocol aimed at extracting information pertaining to participants, collection methods, comparisons within studies, outcomes, and study design. Fourteen studies from 8 countries were accepted into the review and revealed similar insufficiencies in physician knowledge of nuclear medicine and CT patient radiation exposures. Radiation exposure estimates for both modalities similarly featured a strong tendency toward physician underestimation. Discussion Comparisons were made and ratios established between physican estimates of patient radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures and estimates of CT procedures. A theoretical median of correct physician exposure estimates was used to examine factors affecting lower and higher estimates. The tendency for ordering physicians to underestimate patient radiation exposures from nuclear medicine and CT procedures could lead to their overuse and contribute to increasing the public's exposure to ionizing radiation.

  19. RAON experimental facilities for nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Komatsubara, T.; Moon, J. Y.; Park, J. S.; Shin, T. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2014-05-02

    The Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) was established in December 2011 and has put quite an effort to carry out the design and construction of the accelerator complex facility named “RAON”. RAON is a rare isotope (RI) beam facility that aims to provide various RI beams of proton-and neutron-rich nuclei as well as variety of stable ion beams of wide ranges of energies up to a few hundreds MeV/nucleon for the researches in basic science and application. Proposed research programs for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics at RAON include studies of the properties of exotic nuclei, the equation of state of nuclear matter, the origin of the universe, process of nucleosynthesis, super heavy elements, etc. Various high performance magnetic spectrometers for nuclear science have been designed, which are KOBRA (KOrea Broad acceptance Recoil spectrometer and Apparatus), LAMPS (Large Acceptance Multi-Purpose Spectrometer), and ZDS (Zero Degree Spectrometer). The status of those spectrometers for nuclear science will be presented with a brief report on the RAON.

  20. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.